WorldWideScience

Sample records for water harvesting structures

  1. Structural Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Li Min; Chen, Xiangyu; Han, Chang Bao; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Liang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Ocean waves are one of the most abundant energy sources on earth, but harvesting such energy is rather challenging due to various limitations of current technologies. Recently, networks formed by triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) have been proposed as a promising technology for harvesting water wave energy. In this work, a basic unit for the TENG network was studied and optimized, which has a box structure composed of walls made of TENG composed of a wavy-structured Cu-Kapton-Cu film and two FEP thin films, with a metal ball enclosed inside. By combination of the theoretical calculations and experimental studies, the output performances of the TENG unit were investigated for various structural parameters, such as the size, mass, or number of the metal balls. From the viewpoint of theory, the output characteristics of TENG during its collision with the ball were numerically calculated by the finite element method and interpolation method, and there exists an optimum ball size or mass to reach maximized output power and electric energy. Moreover, the theoretical results were well verified by the experimental tests. The present work could provide guidance for structural optimization of wavy-structured TENGs for effectively harvesting water wave energy toward the dream of large-scale blue energy.

  2. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag

  3. Water harvest via dewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-07-10

    Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia.

  4. Moisture harvesting and water transport through specialized micro-structures on the integument of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanns, Philipp; Effertz, Christian; Hischen, Florian; Staudt, Konrad; Böhme, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Several lizard species that live in arid areas have developed special abilities to collect water with their bodies' surfaces and to ingest the so collected moisture. This is called rain- or moisture-harvesting. The water can originate from air humidity, fog, dew, rain or even from humid soil. The integument (i.e., the skin plus skin derivatives such as scales) has developed features so that the water spreads and is soaked into a capillary system in between the reptiles' scales. Within this capillary system the water is transported to the mouth where it is ingested. We have investigated three different lizard species which have developed the ability for moisture harvesting independently, viz. the Australian thorny devil (Moloch horridus), the Arabian toadhead agama (Phrynocephalus arabicus) and the Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum). All three lizards have a honeycomb like micro ornamentation on the outer surface of the scales and a complex capillary system in between the scales. By investigation of individual scales and by producing and characterising polymer replicas of the reptiles' integuments, we found that the honeycomb like structures render the surface superhydrophilic, most likely by holding a water film physically stable. Furthermore, the condensation of air humidity is improved on this surface by about 100% in comparison to unstructured surfaces. This allows the animals to collect moisture with their entire body surface. The collected water is transported into the capillary system. For Phrynosoma cornutum we found the interesting effect that, in contrast to the other two investigated species, the water flow in the capillary system is not uniform but directed to the mouth. Taken together we found that the micro ornamentation yields a superhydrophilic surface, and the semi-tubular capillaries allow for an efficient passive - and for Phrynosoma directed - transport of water.

  5. Moisture harvesting and water transport through specialized micro-structures on the integument of lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Comanns

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Several lizard species that live in arid areas have developed special abilities to collect water with their bodies' surfaces and to ingest the so collected moisture. This is called rain- or moisture-harvesting. The water can originate from air humidity, fog, dew, rain or even from humid soil. The integument (i.e., the skin plus skin derivatives such as scales has developed features so that the water spreads and is soaked into a capillary system in between the reptiles' scales. Within this capillary system the water is transported to the mouth where it is ingested. We have investigated three different lizard species which have developed the ability for moisture harvesting independently, viz. the Australian thorny devil (Moloch horridus, the Arabian toadhead agama (Phrynocephalus arabicus and the Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum. All three lizards have a honeycomb like micro ornamentation on the outer surface of the scales and a complex capillary system in between the scales. By investigation of individual scales and by producing and characterising polymer replicas of the reptiles' integuments, we found that the honeycomb like structures render the surface superhydrophilic, most likely by holding a water film physically stable. Furthermore, the condensation of air humidity is improved on this surface by about 100% in comparison to unstructured surfaces. This allows the animals to collect moisture with their entire body surface. The collected water is transported into the capillary system. For Phrynosoma cornutum we found the interesting effect that, in contrast to the other two investigated species, the water flow in the capillary system is not uniform but directed to the mouth. Taken together we found that the micro ornamentation yields a superhydrophilic surface, and the semi-tubular capillaries allow for an efficient passive – and for Phrynosoma directed – transport of water.

  6. Moisture harvesting and water transport through specialized micro-structures on the integument of lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanns, Philipp; Effertz, Christian; Hischen, Florian; Staudt, Konrad; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Summary Several lizard species that live in arid areas have developed special abilities to collect water with their bodies' surfaces and to ingest the so collected moisture. This is called rain- or moisture-harvesting. The water can originate from air humidity, fog, dew, rain or even from humid soil. The integument (i.e., the skin plus skin derivatives such as scales) has developed features so that the water spreads and is soaked into a capillary system in between the reptiles' scales. Within this capillary system the water is transported to the mouth where it is ingested. We have investigated three different lizard species which have developed the ability for moisture harvesting independently, viz. the Australian thorny devil (Moloch horridus), the Arabian toadhead agama (Phrynocephalus arabicus) and the Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum). All three lizards have a honeycomb like micro ornamentation on the outer surface of the scales and a complex capillary system in between the scales. By investigation of individual scales and by producing and characterising polymer replicas of the reptiles' integuments, we found that the honeycomb like structures render the surface superhydrophilic, most likely by holding a water film physically stable. Furthermore, the condensation of air humidity is improved on this surface by about 100% in comparison to unstructured surfaces. This allows the animals to collect moisture with their entire body surface. The collected water is transported into the capillary system. For Phrynosoma cornutum we found the interesting effect that, in contrast to the other two investigated species, the water flow in the capillary system is not uniform but directed to the mouth. Taken together we found that the micro ornamentation yields a superhydrophilic surface, and the semi-tubular capillaries allow for an efficient passive – and for Phrynosoma directed – transport of water. PMID:21977432

  7. Artificial neural networks aided conceptual stage design of water harvesting structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Chandwani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents artificial neural networks (ANNs based methodology for ascertaining the structural parameters of water harvesting structures (WHS at the conceptual stage of design. The ANN is trained using exemplar patterns generated using an in-house MSExcel based design program, to draw a functional relationship between the five inputs design parameters namely, peak flood discharge, safe bearing capacity of strata, length of structure, height of structure and silt factor and four outputs namely, top width, bottom width, foundation depth and flood lift representing the structural parameters of WHS. The results of the study show that, the structural parameters of the WHS predicted using ANN model are in close agreement with the actual field parameters. The versatility of ANN to map complex or complex unknown relationships has been proven in the study. A parametric sensitivity study is also performed to assess the most significant design parameter. The study holistically presents a neural network based decision support tool that can be used to accurately estimate the major design parameters of the WHS at the conceptual stage of design in quick time, aiding the engineer-in-charge to conveniently forecast the budget requirements and minimize the labor involved during the subsequent phases of analysis and design.

  8. Energy harvesting water vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2018-01-04

    An efficient energy harvesting (EEH) water vehicle is disclosed. The base of the EEH water vehicle is fabricated with rolling cylindrical drums that can rotate freely in the same direction of the water medium. The drums reduce the drag at the vehicle-water interface. This reduction in drag corresponds to an increase in speed and/or greater fuel efficiency. The mechanical energy of the rolling cylindrical drums is also transformed into electrical energy using an electricity producing device, such as a dynamo or an alternator. Thus, the efficiency of the vehicle is enhanced in two parallel modes: from the reduction in drag at the vehicle-water interface, and from capturing power from the rotational motion of the drums.

  9. Geo - hydrological investigations and impact of water harvesting structures on groundwater potential in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, K V; Krishnaiah, S; Khokalay, Murthy Rao V

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the data pertaining to the rainfall, its departure from normal, moving mean rainfall, depth of water levels in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, groundwater availability, groundwater utilization and impact of storage of water in large water bodies are analyzed graphically. The results indicate that the groundwater is over exploited in many places in Anantapur District (India). The groundwater levels found fluctuating, when compared the observations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Hence, it is concluded that the construction of water harvesting structures at suitable locations will have a definite impact on the groundwater potential in Anantapur District.

  10. NUTRIENT BALANCE IN WATER HARVESTING SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Dryland farming on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain, which has an annual rainfall of less than 150 mm/year, has been based traditionally on water harvesting techniques (known locally as “gavias”. Periods of high productivity alternate with those of very low yield. The systems are sustainable in that they reduce erosive processes, contribute to soil and soil-water conservation and are largely responsible for maintaining the soil’s farming potential. In this paper we present the chemical fertility status and nutrient balance of soils in five “gavia” systems. The results are compared with those obtained in adjacent soils where this water harvesting technique is not used. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, lentils and chick-peas. Since neither organic nor inorganic fertilisers are used, nutrients are derived mainly from sediments carried by runoff water. Nutrients are lost mainly through crop harvesting and harvest residues. The soils where water harvesting is used have lower salt and sodium in the exchange complex, are higher in carbon, nitrogen, copper and zinc and have similar phosphorous and potassium content. It is concluded that the systems improve the soil’s natural fertility and also that natural renovation of nutrients occurs thanks to the surface deposits of sediments, which mix with the arable layer. The system helps ensure adequate fertility levels, habitual in arid regions, thus allowing dryland farming to be carried out.

  11. Experimental Study Of Fog Water Harvesting By Stainless Steel Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to get hold of fresh water for various purposes. In areas where a substantial amount of fog can be obtained it is feasible to set up a stainless steel as well as black double layer plastic mesh structure for fog water harvesting. The mesh structure is directly exposed to the weather and the fog containing air is pushed through the active mesh surface by the wind. Afterward fog droplets are deposited on the active mesh area which combines to form superior droplets and run down into a gutter to storage by gravity. Fog water harvesting rates show a discrepancy from site to site. The scope of this experimental work is to review fog collection at SCOE Pune campus and to examine factors of success. This study is to synthesize the understanding of fog water harvesting in the institutional era and to analyze its benefits and boundaries for future development. The rate of fog water harvesting depends on the science of fog physics chemistry and its starring role in the hydrological cycle. This technology runs on zero energy and zeroes pollution level with cost of the benefit. The collected or treated clear water mainly could be used for different purposes as per requirement. For further development this technology public as well as government participation is needed.

  12. System for harvesting water wave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Su, Yanjie; Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-19

    A generator for harvesting energy from water in motion includes a sheet of a hydrophobic material, having a first side and an opposite second side, that is triboelectrically more negative than water. A first electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material. A second electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material and is spaced apart from the first electrode sheet. Movement of the water across the first side induces an electrical potential imbalance between the first electrode sheet and the second electrode sheet.

  13. Assessment of the performance of water harvesting systems in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Water harvesting is widely practiced and has the potential to improve water availability for domestic and agricultural use in semi-arid regions. New funds are becoming available to stimulate the implementation of water harvesting projects, for meeting the Sustainable Development Goals and to help communities to adapt to climate change. For this, it is important to understand which factors determine the success of water harvesting techniques under different conditions. For this, we review the literature, including information on the crop yield impacts of water harvesting projects in semi-arid Africa and Asia. Results show that large water harvesting structures (> 500 m3) are less expensive than small structures, when taking into account investment costs, storage capacity and lifetimes. We also find that water harvesting improves crop yields significantly, and that the relative impact of water harvesting on crop yields is largest in low rainfall years. We also see that the governance, technical knowledge and initial investment are more demanding for the larger structures than for smaller structures, which may affect their spontaneous adoption and long term sustainability when managed by local communities. To support the selection of appropriate techniques, we present a decision framework based on case specific characteristics. This framework can also be used when reporting and evaluating the performance of water harvesting techniques, which is up to now quite limited in peer reviewed literature. Based on Bouma, J., Hegde, S.E., Lasage, R., (2016). Assessing the returns to water harvesting: A meta-analysis. Agricultural Water Management 163, 100-109. Lasage, R., Verburg P.H., (2015). Evaluation of small scale water harvesting techniques for semi-arid environments. Journal of Arid Environments 118, 48-57.

  14. Three-dimensional hierarchical structures for fog harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, H G; Eccles, E A; Schofield, W C E; Badyal, J P S

    2011-04-05

    Conventional fog-harvesting mechanisms are effectively pseudo-2D surface phenomena in terms of water droplet-plant interactions. In the case of the Cotula fallax plant, a unique hierarchical 3D arrangement formed by its leaves and the fine hairs covering them has been found to underpin the collection and retention of water droplets on the foliage for extended periods of time. The mechanisms of water capture and release as a function of the surface 3D structure and chemistry have been identified. Of particular note is that water is retained throughout the entirety of the plant and held within the foliage itself (rather than in localized regions). Individual plant hairs form matlike structures capable of supporting water droplets; these hairs wrap around water droplets in a 3D fashion to secure them via a fine nanoscale groove structure that prevents them from easily falling to the ground.

  15. Economic analysis of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall shortage and variability constrain crop production of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and climate change may even aggravate this problem. An attractive method to mitigate this is water harvesting. This thesis examines the economic aspects of water harvesting by exploring optimal water

  16. Silicone-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Water Wave Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tian Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Zhu, Jian Xiong; Liang, Xi; Xu, Liang; Shao, Jia Jia; Zhang, Chun Lei; Wang, Jie; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-01-31

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been proven to be efficient for harvesting water wave energy, which is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. In this work, a TENG with a silicone rubber/carbon black composite electrode was designed for converting the water wave energy into electricity. The silicone-based electrode with a soft texture provides a better contact with the dielectric film. Furthermore, a spring structure is introduced to transform low-frequency water wave motions into high-frequency vibrations. They together improve the output performance and efficiency of TENG. The output performances of TENGs are further enhanced by optimizing the triboelectric material pair and tribo-surface area. A spring-assisted TENG device with the segmented silicone rubber-based electrode structure was sealed into a waterproof box, which delivers a maximum power density of 2.40 W m -3 , as triggered by the water waves. The present work provides a new strategy for fabricating high-performance TENG devices by coupling flexible electrodes and spring structure for harvesting water wave energy.

  17. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2017-04-11

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester\\'s overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  18. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Jiang, Tao; Youssef, Khalid; Liu, Lian; Hedaya, Mohammad; Yazid, Taher Abu; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester's overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  19. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Jiang, Tao; Youssef, Khalid; Liu, Lian; Hedaya, Mohammad; Yazid, Taher Abu; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-05-05

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester's overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  20. A broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Beeby, S P

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure. Both analytical model and experimental results showed that the coupled bistable structure requires lower excitation force to trigger bistable operation than conventional bistable structures. A compact electromagnetic vibration energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure was implemented and tested. It was excited under white noise vibrations. Experimental results showed that the coupled bistable energy harvester can achieve bistable operation with lower excitation amplitude and generate more output power than both conventional bistable and linear energy harvesters under white noise excitation

  1. Coupled Triboelectric Nanogenerator Networks for Efficient Water Wave Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Jiang, Tao; Lin, Pei; Shao, Jia Jia; He, Chuan; Zhong, Wei; Chen, Xiang Yu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-02-27

    Water wave energy is a promising clean energy source, which is abundant but hard to scavenge economically. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) networks provide an effective approach toward massive harvesting of water wave energy in oceans. In this work, a coupling design in TENG networks for such purposes is reported. The charge output of the rationally linked units is over 10 times of that without linkage. TENG networks of three different connecting methods are fabricated and show better performance for the ones with flexible connections. The network is based on an optimized ball-shell structured TENG unit with high responsivity to small agitations. The dynamic behavior of single and multiple TENG units is also investigated comprehensively to fully understand their performance in water. The study shows that a rational design on the linkage among the units could be an effective strategy for TENG clusters to operate collaboratively for reaching a higher performance.

  2. Desert water harvesting to benefit wildlife: a simple, cheap, and durable sub-surface water harvester for remote locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William E

    2004-12-01

    A sub-surface desert water harvester was constructed in the sagebrush steppe habitat of south-central Idaho, U.S.A. The desert water harvester utilizes a buried micro-catchment and three buried storage tanks to augment water for wildlife during the dry season. In this region, mean annual precipitation (MAP) ranges between about 150-250 mm (6"-10"), 70% of which falls during the cold season, November to May. Mid-summer through early autumn, June through October, is the dry portion of the year. During this period, the sub-surface water harvester provides supplemental water for wildlife for 30-90 days, depending upon the precipitation that year. The desert water harvester is constructed with commonly available, "over the counter" materials. The micro-catchment is made of a square-shaped, 20 mL. "PERMALON" polyethylene pond liner (approximately 22.9 m x 22.9 m = 523 m2) buried at a depth of about 60 cm. A PVC pipe connects the harvester with two storage tanks and a drinking trough. The total capacity of the water harvester is about 4777 L (1262 U.S. gallons) which includes three underground storage tanks, a trough and pipes. The drinking trough is refined with an access ramp for birds and small animals. The technology is simple, cheap, and durable and can be adapted to other uses, e.g. drip irrigation, short-term water for small livestock, poultry farming etc. The desert water harvester can be used to concentrate and collect water from precipitation and run-off in semi-arid and arid regions. Water harvested in such a relatively small area will not impact the ground water table but it should help to grow small areas of crops or vegetables to aid villagers in self-sufficiency.

  3. Water harvesting options in the drylands at different spatial scales

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Akhtar; Oweis, Theib; Rashid, Mohammad; El-Naggar, Sobhi; Aal, Atef Abdul

    2007-01-01

    The effect of spatial-scale variations on water harvesting has been evaluated at micro-catchment, hillside/farm, and watershed (=catchment) scales in three relatively dry environments in Syria, Pakistan and Egypt. Micro-catchment water harvesting captures localized runoff only through independent micro-catchment systems and is not influenced by hill slope runoff and stream flows. In Syria, it was found that only a fraction of total runoff from a catchment is collected, with no significant eff...

  4. Desert Beetle-Inspired Superwettable Patterned Surfaces for Water Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenwei; Yun, Frank F; Wang, Yanqin; Yao, Li; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    With the impacts of climate change and impending crisis of clean drinking water, designing functional materials for water harvesting from fog with large water capacity has received much attention in recent years. Nature has evolved different strategies for surviving dry, arid, and xeric conditions. Nature is a school for human beings. In this contribution, inspired by the Stenocara beetle, superhydrophilic/superhydrophobic patterned surfaces are fabricated on the silica poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated superhydrophobic surfaces using a pulsed laser deposition approach with masks. The resultant samples with patterned wettability demonstrate water-harvesting efficiency in comparison with the silica PDMS-coated superhydrophobic surface and the Pt nanoparticles-coated superhydrophilic surface. The maximum water-harvesting efficiency can reach about 5.3 g cm -2 h -1 . Both the size and the percentage of the Pt-coated superhydrophilic square regions on the patterned surface affect the condensation and coalescence of the water droplet, as well as the final water-harvesting efficiency. The present water-harvesting strategy should provide an avenue to alleviate the water crisis facing mankind in certain arid regions of the world. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Dibin; Beeby, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates a broadband electromagnetic energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure. Both analytical model and experimental results showed that the coupled bistable structure requires lower excitation force to trigger bistable operation than conventional bistable structures. A compact electromagnetic vibration energy harvester with a coupled bistable structure was implemented and tested. It was excited under white noise vibrations. Experimental results showed that the coupl...

  6. Tree production in desert regions using effluent and water harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin M. Karpiscak; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2000-01-01

    Treated municipal effluent combined with water harvesting can be used for land restoration and enhancing the growth of important riparian tree species. Paired studies in Arizona are assessing the potential of growing trees using mixtures of effluent and potable water. Trees are grown in the field and in containers. Initial results from the field show high survival for...

  7. water quality determination of rainwater harvesting birkas in harshin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-14

    Mar 14, 2012 ... samples, 78.7 % exceed the standard COD value for surface water. Birkas with coliform ... Keywords: Harvesting, Birka, Physical, Chemical, Microbiology. Around 1.1 .... disinfection of water with lower pH value of less than 8 ...

  8. Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana–Nothofagus stands in central Chile. Rafael M Navarro-Cerrillo, Fernando Olave, Francisco Moreno, Sergio de Miguel, Margarita Clemente ...

  9. Ballistic Kelvin's water dropper for energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; de Boer, Hans L.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a microfluidic self-excited energy conversion system inspired by Kelvin’s water dropper but driven by inertia instead of gravity. Two micro water jets are produced by forcing water through two micropores, breaking up into microdroplets which are inductively charged by

  10. Physiochemical characteristic of Harvested Rain water from Bodo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    mg/L and 0.03-4.08 mg/L for pH, conductivity, chloride, salinity, nitrate, sulphate, sodium, magnesium ... properties and metal content of the harvested water from the roofing sheets were considerably different from ..... be as a result of corrosion.

  11. Harvesting Water from Air: Using Anhydrous Salt with Sunlight

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2018-04-02

    Atmospheric water is abundant alternative water resource, equivalent to 6 times of water in all rivers on Earth. This work screens 14 common anhydrous and hydrated salt couples in terms of their physical and chemical stability, water vapor harvesting and release capacity under relevant application scenarios. Among the salts screened, copper chloride (CuCl2), copper sulfate (CuSO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) distinguish themselves and are further made into bi-layer water collection devices, with the top layer being photothermal layer while the bottom layer being salt-loaded fibrous membrane. The water collection devices are capable of capturing water vapor out of the air with low relative humidity (down to 15 %) and releasing water under regular and even weakened sunlight (i.e. 0.7 kW/m2). The work shines light on the potential use of anhydrous salt towards producing drinking water in water scarce regions.

  12. Harvesting Energy from Vibrations of the Underlying Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Vssilaras, S; Papadias, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    to the long-term structural health of a building or bridge, but at the same time they can be exploited as a power source to power the wireless sensors that are monitoring this structural health. This paper presents a new energy harvesting method based on a vibration driven electromagnetic harvester. By using......The use of wireless sensors for structural health monitoring offers several advantages such as small size, easy installation and minimal intervention on existing structures. However the most significant concern about such wireless sensors is the lifetime of the system, which depends heavily...... on the type of power supply. No matter how energy efficient the operation of a battery operated sensor is, the energy of the battery will be exhausted at some point. In order to achieve a virtually unlimited lifetime, the sensor node should be able to recharge its battery in an easy way. Energy harvesting...

  13. Developing index maps of water-harvest potential in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The food security problem in Africa is tied to the small farmer, whose subsistence farming relies heavily on rain-fed agriculture. A dry spell lasting two to three weeks can cause a significant yield reduction. A small-scale irrigation scheme from small-capacity ponds can alleviate this problem. This solution would require a water harvest mechanism at a farm level. In this study, we looked at the feasibility of implementing such a water harvest mechanism in drought prone parts of Africa. A water balance study was conducted at different watershed levels. Runoff (watershed yield) was estimated using the SCS curve number technique and satellite derived rainfall estimates (RFE). Watersheds were delineated from the Africa-wide HYDRO-1K digital elevation model (DEM) data set in a GIS environment. Annual runoff volumes that can potentially be stored in a pond during storm events were estimated as the product of the watershed area and runoff excess estimated from the SCS Curve Number method. Estimates were made for seepage and net evaporation losses. A series of water harvest index maps were developed based on a combination of factors that took into account the availability of runoff, evaporation losses, population density, and the required watershed size needed to fill a small storage reservoir that can be used to alleviate water stress during a crop growing season. This study presents Africa-wide water-harvest index maps that could be used for conducting feasibility studies at a regional scale in assessing the relative differences in runoff potential between regions for the possibility of using ponds as a water management tool. ?? 2004 American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  14. Energy Harvesting from Fluid Flow in Water Pipelines for Smart Metering Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D; Willmann, A; Göpfert, R; Becker, P; Folkmer, B; Manoli, Y

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a rotational, radial-flux energy harvester incorporating a three-phase generation principle is presented for converting energy from water flow in domestic water pipelines. The energy harvester together with a power management circuit and energy storage is used to power a smart metering system installed underground making it independent from external power supplies or depleting batteries. The design of the radial-flux energy harvester is adapted to the housing of a conventional mechanical water flow meter enabling the use of standard components such as housing and impeller. The energy harvester is able to generate up to 720 mW when using a flow rate of 20 l/min (fully opened water tab). A minimum flow rate of 3 l/min is required to get the harvester started. In this case a power output of 2 mW is achievable. By further design optimization of the mechanical structure including the impeller and magnetic circuit the threshold flow rate can be further reduced

  15. Energy Harvesting from Fluid Flow in Water Pipelines for Smart Metering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Göpfert, R.; Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper a rotational, radial-flux energy harvester incorporating a three-phase generation principle is presented for converting energy from water flow in domestic water pipelines. The energy harvester together with a power management circuit and energy storage is used to power a smart metering system installed underground making it independent from external power supplies or depleting batteries. The design of the radial-flux energy harvester is adapted to the housing of a conventional mechanical water flow meter enabling the use of standard components such as housing and impeller. The energy harvester is able to generate up to 720 mW when using a flow rate of 20 l/min (fully opened water tab). A minimum flow rate of 3 l/min is required to get the harvester started. In this case a power output of 2 mW is achievable. By further design optimization of the mechanical structure including the impeller and magnetic circuit the threshold flow rate can be further reduced.

  16. The Effect of Water Harvesting Techniques on Runoff, Sedimentation, and Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H.; Mohammad, Ayed G.

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  17. The effect of water harvesting techniques on runoff, sedimentation, and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H; Mohammad, Ayed G

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  18. Effects of seedbed preparation, irrigation, and water harvesting of seedling emergence at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Lyon, G.E.

    1994-02-01

    Approximately 800 hectares on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and vicinity are contaminated with plutonium. As part of a cleanup effort, both the indigenous vegetation and the top 5--10 cm of soil may be removed, and the soil may or may not be replaced. Technologies must be developed to stabilize and revegetate these lands. A study was developed to determine adaptable plant species, methods to prepare seedbeds for direct seeding and water harvesting, and proper irrigation rates. Plots were cleared of indigenous vegetation, and then prepared with various seedbed/water harvesting treatments including, pitting, land imprinting, and mulching. Other plots were treated with large water harvesting structures. Three irrigation treatments were superimposed over the seedbed/water harvesting treatments. Seedling emergence data was collected, and the treatment combinations compared. Supporting meteorological and soil data were collected with an automatic data-logger. Specific data included precipitation, and air temperature. In a year of above-average precipitation, irrigation did not generally aid germination and emergence of seeded species, and only slightly increased densities of species from the native seedbank. With the exception of increased shrub seedling densities in desert strips, there were no strong seedbed preparation/water harvesting treatment effects. In years of above-average rainfall, mulching and water harvesting treatments, irrigation may not be necessary to insure adequate germination and emergence of adapted perennial grasses, forbs, and shrubs in the Mojave/Great Basin Transition Desert. Future collection of survival data will determine whether a maintenance irrigation program is necessary to ensure establishmnent of native plants

  19. The Potential of in situ Rain Water Harvesting for Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: In situ Rain water harvesting, Malaria, Anopheles arabiensis, Tigray, Ethiopia. 1. INTRODUCTION .... heating the water in the vials to be preserved in 70% alcohol after draining the excess water. The immature ..... (eds.). Integrated water and land management research and capacity building priorities for Ethiopia.

  20. Energy Harvesting for Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.; Farrar, C. R.; Todd, M. D.; Hodgkiss, T.; Rosing, T.

    2007-02-26

    This report has been developed based on information exchanges at a 2.5-day workshop on energy harvesting for embedded structural health monitoring (SHM) sensing systems that was held June 28-30, 2005, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The workshop was hosted by the LANL/UCSD Engineering Institute (EI). This Institute is an education- and research-focused collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Jacobs School of Engineering. A Statistical Pattern Recognition paradigm for SHM is first presented and the concept of energy harvesting for embedded sensing systems is addressed with respect to the data acquisition portion of this paradigm. Next, various existing and emerging sensing modalities used for SHM and their respective power requirements are summarized, followed by a discussion of SHM sensor network paradigms, power requirements for these networks and power optimization strategies. Various approaches to energy harvesting and energy storage are discussed and limitations associated with the current technology are addressed. This discussion also addresses current energy harvesting applications and system integration issues. The report concludes by defining some future research directions and possible technology demonstrations that are aimed at transitioning the concept of energy harvesting for embedded SHM sensing systems from laboratory research to field-deployed engineering prototypes.

  1. Broadband energy harvesting using acoustic black hole structural tailoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Liuxian; Semperlotti, Fabio; Conlon, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of an acoustic black hole (ABH) as a main design framework for performing dynamic structural tailoring of mechanical systems for vibration energy harvesting applications. The ABH is an integral feature embedded in the host structure that allows for a smooth reduction of the phase velocity, theoretically approaching zero, while minimizing the reflected energy. This mechanism results in structural areas with high energy density that can be effectively exploited to develop enhanced vibration-based energy harvesting. Fully coupled electro-mechanical models of an ABH tapered structure with surface mounted piezo-transducers are developed to numerically simulate the response of the system to both steady state and transient excitations. The design performances are numerically evaluated using structural intensity data as well as the instantaneous voltage/power and energy output produced by the piezo-transducer network. Results show that the dynamically tailored structural design enables a drastic increase in the harvested energy as compared to traditional structures, both under steady state and transient excitation conditions. (papers)

  2. Assessment of water quality from water harvesting using small farm reservoir for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, W. S.; Komariah; Samsuri, I. Y.; Senge, M.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to assess the quality of rainfall-runoff water harvesting using small farm reservoir (SFR) for irrigation. Water quality assessment criteria based on RI Government Regulation number 82 the year 2001 on Water Quality Management and Pollution Control, and FAO Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines 1985. The experiment was conducted in the dry land of Wonosari Village, Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency. SFR size was 10 m x 3 m x 2 m. Water quality measurements are done every week, ten times. Water samples were taken at 6 points, namely: distance of 2.5 m, 5 m, and 7.5 m from the inlet, at depth 25 cm and 175 cm from surface water. In each sampling point replicated three times. Water quality parameters include dissolved oxygen (DO), Turbidity (TSS), water pH, Nitrate (NO3), and Phosphate. The results show that water harvesting that collected in SFR meets both standards quality used, so the water is feasible for agricultural irrigation. The average value of harvested water was DO 2.6 mg/l, TSS 62.7 mg/l, pH 6.6, P 5.3 mg/l and NO3 0.16 mg/l. Rainfall-runoff water harvesting using SFR prospectus for increasing save water availability for irrigation.

  3. Stormwater harvesting: Improving water security in South Africa's urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Fisher-Jeffes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The drought experienced in South Africa in 2016 one of the worst in decades has left many urbanised parts of the country with limited access to water, and food production has been affected. If a future water crisis is to be averted, the country needs to conserve current water supplies, reduce its reliance on conventional surface water schemes, and seek alternative sources of water supply. Within urban areas, municipalities must find ways to adapt to, and mitigate the threats from, water insecurity resulting from, inter alia, droughts, climate change and increasing water demand driven by population growth and rising standards of living. Stormwater harvesting (SWH is one possible alternative water resource that could supplement traditional urban water supplies, as well as simultaneously offer a range of social and environmental benefits. We set out three position statements relating to how SWH can: improve water security and increase resilience to climate change in urban areas; prevent frequent flooding; and provide additional benefits to society. We also identify priority research areas for the future in order to target and support the appropriate uptake of SWH in South Africa, including testing the viability of SWH through the use of real-time control and managed aquifer recharge.

  4. Energy Harvesting for Aerospace Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M R; Eaton, M J; Pullin, R; Featherston, C A; Holford, K M

    2012-01-01

    Recent research into damage detection methodologies, embedded sensors, wireless data transmission and energy harvesting in aerospace environments has meant that autonomous structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are becoming a real possibility. The most promising system would utilise wireless sensor nodes that are able to make decisions on damage and communicate this wirelessly to a central base station. Although such a system shows great potential and both passive and active monitoring techniques exist for detecting damage in structures, powering such wireless sensors nodes poses a problem. Two such energy sources that could be harvested in abundance on an aircraft are vibration and thermal gradients. Piezoelectric transducers mounted to the surface of a structure can be utilised to generate power from a dynamic strain whilst thermoelectric generators (TEG) can be used to generate power from thermal gradients. This paper reports on the viability of these two energy sources for powering a wireless SHM system from vibrations ranging from 20 to 400Hz and thermal gradients up to 50°C. Investigations showed that using a single vibrational energy harvester raw power levels of up to 1mW could be generated. Further numerical modelling demonstrated that by optimising the position and orientation of the vibrational harvester greater levels of power could be achieved. However using commercial TEGs average power levels over a flight period between 5 to 30mW could be generated. Both of these energy harvesting techniques show a great potential in powering current wireless SHM systems where depending on the complexity the power requirements range from 1 to 180mW.

  5. Water harvesting for improved water productivity in dry environments of the Mediterranean region case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazar, A.; Kuzucu, M.; Çelik, I.

    2014-01-01

    cover and compaction), which were studied in a pistachio plantation by monitoring soil water balance in the root zone. The overall efficiency of the water harvesting system was determined as the ratio of the amount of water stored and used by the crop to the amount of rainfall received in the catchment...

  6. Informing water harvesting technology contract design using choice experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarfasa, Solomon; Brouwer, Roy; Sheremet, Oleg; Bouma, Jetske

    2017-10-01

    Introducing water harvesting technology is expected to be more effective and last longer if farm households are involved in their design. The main objective of this study is to inform policymakers in Ethiopia about the most important terms and conditions to incentivize farmers to enter into a contractual agreement to invest in water harvesting on their land. In order to test the influence of the way the specific contractual terms and conditions are communicated to farm households, many of whom are illiterate, a split sample approach is applied with and without visual aids for technical, institutional, and economic contract characteristics. Both samples generate significantly different results, highlighting the importance of how information is conveyed to farm households. This pattern is confirmed when examining the self-reported importance attached to the various contract characteristics. Equality Constrained Latent Class models show that contract characteristics for which visual aids were developed are considered more attentively, emphasizing the importance of adequate communication tools in a developing country context where literacy rates are limited to increase water technology innovation uptake and reduce farm household vulnerability to droughts.

  7. Fog-Harvesting Properties of Dryopteris marginata: Role of Interscalar Microchannels in Water-Channeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Sharma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several flora and fauna species found in arid areas have adapted themselves to collect water by developing unique structures and to intake the collected moisture. Apart from the capture of the moisture and fog on the surface, water transport and collection both play an important part in fog-harvesting systems as it prevents the loss of captured water through evaporation and makes the surface available for the capture of water again. Here, we report the remarkable fog collection and water-channeling properties of Dryopteris marginata. The surface of D. marginata has developed an integrated system of multiscale channels so that the water spreads quickly and is transported via these channels very efficiently. These integrated multiscale channels have also been replicated using a facile soft lithography technique to prepare biomimetic surfaces and it has been proved that it is the surface architecture that plays a role in the water transport rather than the material’s properties (waxes present on the surface of the leaves. Based on our studies, we infer that the microlevel hierarchy of the structures make the surface hydrophilic and the multiscale channels allow the efficient passage and transport of water. The understanding of the efficient and well-directed water transport and collection in D. marginata is expected to provide valuable insights to design efficient surfaces for fog-harvesting applications.

  8. Optimal design of permeable fiber network structures for fog harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoo-Chul; Chhatre, Shreerang S; Srinivasan, Siddarth; Cohen, Robert E; McKinley, Gareth H

    2013-10-29

    Fog represents a large untapped source of potable water, especially in arid climates. Numerous plants and animals use textural and chemical features on their surfaces to harvest this precious resource. In this work, we investigate the influence of the surface wettability characteristics, length scale, and weave density on the fog-harvesting capability of woven meshes. We develop a combined hydrodynamic and surface wettability model to predict the overall fog-collection efficiency of the meshes and cast the findings in the form of a design chart. Two limiting surface wettability constraints govern the re-entrainment of collected droplets and clogging of mesh openings. Appropriate tuning of the wetting characteristics of the surfaces, reducing the wire radii, and optimizing the wire spacing all lead to more efficient fog collection. We use a family of coated meshes with a directed stream of fog droplets to simulate a natural foggy environment and demonstrate a five-fold enhancement in the fog-collecting efficiency of a conventional polyolefin mesh. The design rules developed in this work can be applied to select a mesh surface with optimal topography and wetting characteristics to harvest enhanced water fluxes over a wide range of natural convected fog environments.

  9. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical.

  10. The Potential of in situ Rain Water Harvesting for Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of in situ rain water harvesting (RWH) in water resources conservation is well recognized in semiarid areas, such as the highlands of northern Ethiopia. However, in fringe areas of malaria endemicity, the potential impact of such schemes on vector populations and malaria transmission is not well documented.

  11. Establishment of sustainable water supply system in small islands through rainwater harvesting (RWH): case study of Guja-do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mooyoung; Ki, Jaehong

    2010-01-01

    Many islands in Korea have problems related to water source security and supply. In particular, the water supply condition is worse in small islands which are remote from the mainland. A couple of alternatives are developed and suggested to supply water to islands including water hauling, groundwater extraction, and desalination. However, these alternatives require much energy, cost, and concern in installation and operation. Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable option that supplies water with low energy and cost. However, lack of practical or comprehensive studies on rainwater harvesting systems in these regions hinders the promotion of the system. Therefore, this research examines defects of current RWH systems on an existing island, Guja-do, and provides technical suggestions in quantitative and qualitative aspects. A simple system design modification and expansion of system capacity using empty space such as a wharf structure can satisfy both the qualitative and the quantitative water demand of the island. Since rainwater harvesting is estimated to be a feasible water supply option under the Korean climate, which is an unfavorable condition for rainwater harvesting, implies a high potential applicability of rainwater harvesting technology to other regions over the world suffering from water shortage.

  12. Harvesting Method Affects Water Dynamics and Yield of Sweet Orange with Huanglongbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said A. Hamido

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in grove management practices may change crop water dynamics. The objective of this study was to estimate sap flow, stem water potential (Ψstem, and citrus yield as affected by harvesting methods in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis trees affected by Huanglongbing. The study was initiated in March 2015 for two years on five-year-old commercial sweet orange trees at a commercial grove located at Felda, Florida (26.61° N, 81.48° W on Felda fine sand soil (Loamy, siliceous, superactive, hyperthermic Arenic Endoaqualfs. All measurements were replicated before and after harvest in four experiments (A, B, C and D under hand and mechanical harvesting treatments. Sap flow measurements were taken on four trees per treatment with two sensors per tree. Sap flow measured by the heat balance method at hourly intervals during March and April of 2015 and 2016 significantly declined after harvesting by 25% and 35% after hand and mechanical harvesting, respectively. Ψstem measured after harvest was significantly higher than measurements before harvest. The average value of Ψstem measured increased by 10% and 6% after hand and mechanical harvesting, respectively. Mechanical harvesting exhibited lower fruit yields that averaged between 83%, 63%, 49% and 36% of hand-harvested trees under A, B, C and D experiments, respectively. It is concluded that the hand harvesting method is less stressful and less impactful on tree water uptake and fruit yield compared with mechanical harvesting.

  13. Environmental and socioeconomic benefits and limitations of water harvesting techniques in semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Asunción Romero-Díaz, María; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Under climate change, sustainable management of soil and water resources is increasingly important, especially in rainfed agroecosystems of semiarid environments. Water harvesting refers to a range of techniques for the collection and management of flood or rainwater for domestic and agricultural use and for water retention in natural ecosystems. Water harvesting represents a good example of sustainable management of water resources that contribute to water and food security. However, there are often environmental and socioeconomic constraints for implementation of water harvesting techniques, so each condition asks for a specific solution. Here we aim to highlight the environmental and socioeconomic benefits, requirements and limitations of different water harvesting techniques and to characterize their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We reviewed 62 water harvesting techniques for semiarid regions extracted from the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. We discuss aspects related to: i) human and environmental characteristics, ii) cost-benefit ratio during implementation and maintenance phases, iii) socioeconomic and environmental impacts at local and regional scales, and, iv) impacts on ecosystem services. Our review reveals that water harvesting represents very diverse methods of collecting and managing floodwaters and surface runoff. We grouped techniques as 'floodwater harvesting', 'macro-catchment water harvesting', 'micro-catchment water harvesting', and 'rooftop and courtyard' water harvesting. Almost half of all technologies originates from traditional knowledge. The implementation of water harvesting is generally positive on the short-term, to very positive on the long-term, while its maintenance is very positive at short and long-term. However, perception depends on the type of water harvesting and local conditions. Most relevant socioeconomic benefits from

  14. Economic Evaluation and Overall Assessment of Water Harvesting Ponds based on Scorecard System: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, P. P.; Kumar, Santosh; Kiku, Karmchand

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out an economic analysis of three (03) water harvesting ponds situated in the district of Lakhimpur (Assam), India. Economic analysis was carried out using three important economic criteria, namely Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Worth (NPW) and the Internal Rate of Returns (IRR). Ponds of the study area were compared with adopting score card system. All the water harvesting ponds were found economically viable as the BCR was more than unity at 12% discount rate. Net present worth was the highest for the water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Department of Fisheries, Govt. of Assam, Narayanpur and the least for water harvesting pond of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti. The IRR was found to be the highest (60%) for water harvesting ponds of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (48%) and water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm (19.2%).Water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Narayanpur scored the highest score (84 marks) followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (80 marks) and St. Xavier's school, Harmoti (61 marks).

  15. Charging System Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Water Wave Energy Harvesting and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yanyan; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Limin; Chen, Xiangyu; Gao, Zhenliang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-24

    Ocean waves are one of the most promising renewable energy sources for large-scope applications due to the abundant water resources on the earth. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology could provide a new strategy for water wave energy harvesting. In this work, we investigated the charging characteristics of utilizing a wavy-structured TENG to charge a capacitor under direct water wave impact and under enclosed ball collision, by combination of theoretical calculations and experimental studies. The analytical equations of the charging characteristics were theoretically derived for the two cases, and they were calculated for various load capacitances, cycle numbers, and structural parameters such as compression deformation depth and ball size or mass. Under the direct water wave impact, the stored energy and maximum energy storage efficiency were found to be controlled by deformation depth, while the stored energy and maximum efficiency can be optimized by the ball size under the enclosed ball collision. Finally, the theoretical results were well verified by the experimental tests. The present work could provide strategies for improving the charging performance of TENGs toward effective water wave energy harvesting and storage.

  16. Highly Adaptive Solid-Liquid Interfacing Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Diverse Water Wave Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Jiao; Kuang, Shuang Yang; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    2018-05-22

    Harvesting water wave energy presents a significantly practical route to energy supply for self-powered wireless sensing networks. Here we report a networked integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (NI-TENG) as a highly adaptive means of harvesting energy from interfacing interactions with various types of water waves. Having an arrayed networking structure, the NI-TENG can accommodate diverse water wave motions and generate stable electric output regardless of how random the water wave is. Nanoscaled surface morphology consisting of dense nanowire arrays is the key for obtaining high electric output. A NI-TENG having an area of 100 × 70 mm 2 can produce a stable short-circuit current of 13.5 μA and corresponding electric power of 1.03 mW at a water wave height of 12 cm. This merit promises practical applications of the NI-TENG in real circumstances, where water waves are highly variable and unpredictable. After energy storage, the generated electric energy can drive wireless sensing by autonomously transmitting data at a period less than 1 min. This work proposes a viable solution for powering individual standalone nodes in a wireless sensor network. Potential applications include but are not limited to long-term environment monitoring, marine surveillance, and off-shore navigation.

  17. From screen to structure with a harvestable microfluidic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanoff, Vivian; Jakoncic, Jean; Oren, Deena A.; Nagarajan, V.; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian; Adams-Cioaba, Melanie A.; Bergfors, Terese; Sommer, Morten O. A.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic crystallization using the Crystal Former improves the identification of initial crystallization conditions relative to screening via vapour diffusion. Advances in automation have facilitated the widespread adoption of high-throughput vapour-diffusion methods for initial crystallization screening. However, for many proteins, screening thousands of crystallization conditions fails to yield crystals of sufficient quality for structural characterization. Here, the rates of crystal identification for thaumatin, catalase and myoglobin using microfluidic Crystal Former devices and sitting-drop vapour-diffusion plates are compared. It is shown that the Crystal Former results in a greater number of identified initial crystallization conditions compared with vapour diffusion. Furthermore, crystals of thaumatin and lysozyme obtained in the Crystal Former were used directly for structure determination both in situ and upon harvesting and cryocooling. On the basis of these results, a crystallization strategy is proposed that uses multiple methods with distinct kinetic trajectories through the protein phase diagram to increase the output of crystallization pipelines

  18. Characterization of rainfall in the central South African Highveld for application in water harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerizghy, M.G.; Rensburg, van L.D.; Stigter, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    In-field rainwater harvesting (IRWH), a runoff farming system, is a beneficial water management technique for crop production in arid and semi-arid areas. In-field rainwater harvesting is influenced by rainfall characteristics, and hence this study aimed to identify and characterize rainfall events,

  19. Least Limiting Water Range and Load Bearing Capacity of Soil under Types of Tractor-Trailers for Mechanical Harvesting of Green Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Higino Frederico Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The expansion of the sugarcane industry in Brazil has intensified the mechanization of agriculture and caused effects on the soil physical quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the limiting water range and soil bearing capacity of a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico (Rhodic Hapludox under the influence of different tractor-trailers used in mechanical sugarcane harvesting. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of green sugarcane harvesting with: harvester without trailer (T1; harvester with two trailers with a capacity of 10 Mg each (T2; harvester with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (T3 and harvester and truck with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (10 Mg per compartment (T4. The least limiting water range and soil bearing capacity were evaluated. The transport equipment to remove the harvested sugarcane from the field (trailer at harvest decreased the least limiting water range, reducing the structural soil quality. The truck trailer caused the greatest impact on the soil physical properties studied. The soil load bearing capacity was unaffected by the treatments, since the pressure of the harvester (T1 exceeded the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil.

  20. Using an inverse modelling approach to evaluate the water retention in a simple water harvesting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Verbist

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid zones, runoff harvesting techniques are often applied to increase the water retention and infiltration on steep slopes. Additionally, they act as an erosion control measure to reduce land degradation hazards. Nevertheless, few efforts were observed to quantify the water harvesting processes of these techniques and to evaluate their efficiency. In this study, a combination of detailed field measurements and modelling with the HYDRUS-2D software package was used to visualize the effect of an infiltration trench on the soil water content of a bare slope in northern Chile. Rainfall simulations were combined with high spatial and temporal resolution water content monitoring in order to construct a useful dataset for inverse modelling purposes. Initial estimates of model parameters were provided by detailed infiltration and soil water retention measurements. Four different measurement techniques were used to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat independently. The tension infiltrometer measurements proved a good estimator of the Ksat value and a proxy for those measured under simulated rainfall, whereas the pressure and constant head well infiltrometer measurements showed larger variability. Six different parameter optimization functions were tested as a combination of soil-water content, water retention and cumulative infiltration data. Infiltration data alone proved insufficient to obtain high model accuracy, due to large scatter on the data set, and water content data were needed to obtain optimized effective parameter sets with small confidence intervals. Correlation between the observed soil water content and the simulated values was as high as R2=0.93 for ten selected observation points used in the model calibration phase, with overall correlation for the 22 observation points equal to 0.85. The model results indicate that the infiltration trench has a

  1. Evaluation of Surface Water Harvesting Potential in Aq Emam Watershed System in the Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. nazaryan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Given its low and sparse precipitation both in spatial and temporal scales, Iran is nestled in an arid and semiarid part of the world. On the other hand, because of population growth, urbanization and the development of agriculture and industry sector is frequently encountered with increasing water demand. The increasing trend of water demand will widen the gap between water supply and demand in the future. This, in turn, necessitates urgent attention to the fundamentals of economic planning and allocation of water resources. Considering the limited resources and the declining water table and salinization of groundwater, especially in semi-arid areas forces us to exploit surface waters. When we evaluate the various methods of collecting rainwater, surface water that is the outcome of rainfall-runoff responses in a basin, is found to be a potential source of water and it can be useful to meet some of our water demand if managed properly. Water shortages in arid areas are critical, serious and persistent. Thus, water harvesting is an effective and economic goal. The most important step in the implementation of rain water harvesting systems is proper site selection that could cause significant savings in time and cost. In this study the potential of surface waters in the Aq Emam catchment in the east Golestan province was evaluated. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for locating areas with water harvesting potential. Materials and Methods: For spatial evaluation of potential runoff, first, the amount of runoff is calculated using curve number and runoff potential maps were prepared with three classes: namely, the potential for low, medium and high levels. Finally, to identify suitable areas for rain water harvesting, rainfall maps, soil texture, slope and land use were weighted and multiplied based on their importance in order to determine the appropriate areas to collect runoff Results and Discussion : The results

  2. Pine Harvest Impact on Soil Structure of a Dystric Cambisol (Humic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traffic of heavy machinery at harvest and log extraction causes structural degradation of the soil, but studies on the effects of forest harvesting on soils with high organic matter content and exchangeable Al are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mechanized forest harvesting operations on a Dystric Cambisol (Humic with high organic matter (more 50 g kg1 content and exchangeable Al (more 6,0 cmolc kg-1, reforested with Pinus taeda L. The evaluated harvesting system were the whole-tree, in which the feller-buncher cuts and lays the trees down in bundles; the skidder drags the tree bundles up near a road; and the harvester delimbs and cuts the trees into short logs, stacking them on the roadside to be loaded onto trucks. The areas were evaluated for soil conditions at pre-harvest, prior to harvest, and at post-harvest, consisting of areas of low disturbance, high disturbance, forest residues and log yards. The effects of compaction after forest harvesting are observed by the decrease in total porosity (especially biopores and macropores, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, and stability of aggregates. After forest harvesting, soil compaction was observed in all evaluated situations, but with different depths depending on operation type and the intensity of traffic carried in each area.

  3. Evaluation of the on-site impact of water harvesting in southern Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouessar, M.; Graaff, de J.

    2005-01-01

    Water harvesting techniques (WHT) play an important role in water resources conservation in (semi-) arid environments. However, the impacts of WHT are not clearly understood. This paper presents a method to measure increased water availability to olive (Olea europeae) trees grown on the terraced

  4. Harvesting Water from Air: Using Anhydrous Salt with Sunlight

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan; Shi, Yusuf; Shi, Le; Alsaedi, Mossab.; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric water is abundant alternative water resource, equivalent to 6 times of water in all rivers on Earth. This work screens 14 common anhydrous and hydrated salt couples in terms of their physical and chemical stability, water vapor

  5. Harvesting Renewable Resources of Population with Size Structure and Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Jun Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to explore the optimal exploitation way for a biological resources model incorporating individual’s size difference and spatial effects. The existence of a unique nonnegative solution to the state system is shown by means of Banach’s fixed point theorem, and the continuous dependence of the population density with the harvesting effort is given. The optimal harvesting strategy is established via normal cone and adjoint system technique. Some conditions are found to assure that there is only one optimal policy.

  6. Design, Analysis, and Evaluation of a Compact Electromagnetic Energy Harvester from Water Flow for Remote Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an electromagnetic energy harvester, which can generate small-scale electricity from non-directional water flow in oceans or rivers for remote sensors. The energy harvester integrates a Tesla disk turbine, a miniature axial-flux permanent magnet generator, and a ring cover with symmetrical grooves which are utilized to rectify flow direction. A compact structure is achieved by mounting the permanent magnets of the generator directly on the end surfaces of the turbine rotor. Theoretical analysis is implemented to illustrate the energy conversion process between flow kinetic form and electrical form. Additionally, a mathematical model is developed to investigate the magnetic field distribution produced by the cubical permanent magnets as well as parametric effect. Plastic prototypes with a diameter of 65 mm and a height of 46 mm are fabricated by using a 3D printing technique. The effect of the groove angle is experimentally investigated and compared under a no-load condition. The prototype with the optimal groove angle can operate at flow velocity down to 0.61 m/s and can induce peak-to-peak electromotive force of 2.64–11.92 V at flow velocity of 0.61–1.87 m/s. It can be observed from the results that the analytical and the measured curves are in good accordance. Loaded experiments show that the output electrical power is 23.1 mW at flow velocity of 1.87 m/s when the load resistance is approximately equal to the coil resistance. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed energy harvester are presented through comparison with existing similar devices.

  7. Atmospheric Water Harvesting: Role of Surface Wettability and Edge Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Yong; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric water is emerging as an important potable water source. The present work experimentally and theoretically investigates water condensation and collection on flat surfaces with contrasting contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (CAH

  8. Highly transparent triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water-related energy reinforced by antireflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Gu, Yousong; Zhang, Kui; Liang, Mengyuan; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-03-01

    Water-related energy is an inexhaustible and renewable energy resource in our environment, which has huge amount of energy and is not largely dictated by daytime and sunlight. The transparent characteristic plays a key role in practical applications for some devices designed for harvesting water-related energy. In this paper, a highly transparent triboelectric nanogenerator (T-TENG) was designed to harvest the electrostatic energy from flowing water. The instantaneous output power density of the T-TENG is 11.56 mW/m2. Moreover, with the PTFE film acting as an antireflection coating, the maximum transmittance of the fabricated T-TENG is 87.4%, which is larger than that of individual glass substrate. The T-TENG can be integrated with silicon-based solar cell, building glass and car glass, which demonstrates its potential applications for harvesting waste water energy in our living environment and on smart home system and smart car system.

  9. Fog Harvesting with Harps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiwei; Anderson, Mark J; Tulkoff, Joshua B; Kennedy, Brook S; Boreyko, Jonathan B

    2018-04-11

    Fog harvesting is a useful technique for obtaining fresh water in arid climates. The wire meshes currently utilized for fog harvesting suffer from dual constraints: coarse meshes cannot efficiently capture microscopic fog droplets, whereas fine meshes suffer from clogging issues. Here, we design and fabricate fog harvesters comprising an array of vertical wires, which we call "fog harps". Under controlled laboratory conditions, the fog-harvesting rates for fog harps with three different wire diameters were compared to conventional meshes of equivalent dimensions. As expected for the mesh structures, the mid-sized wires exhibited the largest fog collection rate, with a drop-off in performance for the fine or coarse meshes. In contrast, the fog-harvesting rate continually increased with decreasing wire diameter for the fog harps due to efficient droplet shedding that prevented clogging. This resulted in a 3-fold enhancement in the fog-harvesting rate for the harp design compared to an equivalent mesh.

  10. A Novel Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Using the Macro Fiber Composite Cantilever with a Bicylinder in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujun Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel piezoelectric energy harvester equipped with two piezoelectric beams and two cylinders was proposed in this work. The energy harvester can convert the kinetic energy of water into electrical energy by means of vortex-induced vibration (VIV and wake-induced vibration (WIV. The effects of load resistance, water velocity and cylinder diameter on the performance of the harvester were investigated. It was found that the vibration of the upstream cylinder was VIV which enhanced the energy harvesting capacity of the upstream piezoelectric beam. As for the downstream cylinder, both VIV and the WIV could be obtained. The VIV was found with small L/D, e.g., 2.125, 2.28, 2.5, and 2.8. Additionally, the WIV was stimulated with the increase of L/D (such as 3.25, 4, and 5.5. Due to the WIV, the downstream beam presented better performance in energy harvesting with the increase of water velocity. Furthermore, it revealed that more electrical energy could be obtained by appropriately matching the resistance and the diameter of the cylinder. With optimal resistance (170 kΩ and diameter of the cylinder (30 mm, the maximum output power of 21.86 μW (sum of both piezoelectric beams was obtained at a water velocity of 0.31 m/s.

  11. Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Pinhero, Patrick J [Columbia, MO

    2011-12-06

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  12. MEMS fabricated energy harvesting device with 2D resonant structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Wang, Fei; Triches, Marco

    This paper reports on a MEMS energy harvester able to generate power from two perpendicular ambient vibration directions. CYTOP polymer is used both as the electret material for electrostatic transduction and as a bonding interface for low-temperature wafer bonding. With final chip size of ~1 cm2......, an output power of 32.5 nW is reached with an external load of 17 MΩ, under a harmonic source motion with acceleration RMS amplitude 0.03 g (0.3 m/s2) and frequency 179 Hz.......This paper reports on a MEMS energy harvester able to generate power from two perpendicular ambient vibration directions. CYTOP polymer is used both as the electret material for electrostatic transduction and as a bonding interface for low-temperature wafer bonding. With final chip size of ~1 cm2...

  13. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, N; Thompson, L L

    2016-01-01

    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation. (paper)

  14. Pressure-driven ballistic Kelvin's water dropper for energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Sprenkels, A.J.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a microfluidic-based self-excited energy conversion system inspired by Kelvin's water dropper but driven by inertia instead of gravity. Two micro water jets are produced by forcing water through two micropores by overpressure. The jets break up into microdroplets which

  15. Suitability of Water Harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: A First Step towards a Mesoscale Hydrological Modeling Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihun T. Dile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme rainfall variability has been one of the major factors to famine and environmental degradation in Ethiopia. The potential for water harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin was assessed using two GIS-based Multicriteria Evaluation methods: (1 a Boolean approach to locate suitable areas for in situ and ex situ systems and (2 a weighted overlay analysis to classify suitable areas into different water harvesting suitability levels. The sensitivity of the results was analyzed to the influence given to different constraining factors. A large part of the basin was suitable for water harvesting: the Boolean analysis showed that 36% of the basin was suitable for in situ and ex situ systems, while the weighted overlay analysis showed that 6–24% of the basin was highly suitable. Rainfall has the highest influence on suitability for water harvesting. Implementing water harvesting in nonagricultural land use types may further increase the benefit. Assessing water harvesting suitability at the larger catchment scale lays the foundation for modeling of water harvesting at mesoscale, which enables analysis of the potential and implications of upscaling of water harvesting practices for building resilience against climatic shocks. A complete water harvesting suitability study requires socioeconomic analysis and stakeholder consultation.

  16. Theoretical investigations of energy harvesting efficiency from structural vibrations using piezoelectric and electromagnetic oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, Ryan L

    2012-07-01

    Conversion of ambient vibrational energy into electric power has been the impetus of much modern research. The traditional analysis has focused on absolute electrical power output from the harvesting devices and efficiency defined as the convertibility of an infinite resource of vibration excitation into power. This perspective has limited extensibility when applying resonant harvesters to host resonant structures when the inertial influence of the harvester is more significant. Instead, this work pursues a fundamental understanding of the coupled dynamics of a main mass-spring-damper system to which an electromagnetic or piezoelectric mass-spring-damper is attached. The governing equations are derived, a metric of efficiency is presented, and analysis is undertaken. It is found that electromagnetic energy harvesting efficiency and maximum power output is limited by the strength of the coupling such that no split system resonances are induced for a given mass ratio. For piezoelectric harvesters, only the coupling strength and certain design requirements dictate maximum power and efficiency achievable. Since the harvesting circuitry must "follow" the split resonances as the piezoelectric harvesters become more massive, the optimum design of piezoelectric harvesters appears to be more involved than for electromagnetic devices.

  17. Atmospheric Water Harvesting: Role of Surface Wettability and Edge Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Yong

    2017-06-23

    Atmospheric water is emerging as an important potable water source. The present work experimentally and theoretically investigates water condensation and collection on flat surfaces with contrasting contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) to elucidate their roles on water mass collection efficiency. The experimental results indicate that a hydrophilic surface promotes nucleation and individual droplets growth, and a surface with a low CAH tends to let a smaller droplet to slide down, but the overall water mass collection efficiency is independent of both surface contact angle and CAH. The experimental results agree well with our theoretical calculations. During water condensation, a balance has to be struck between single droplet growth and droplet density on a surface so as to maintain a constant water droplet surface coverage ratio, which renders the role of both surface wettability and hysteresis insignificant to the ultimate water mass collection. Moreover, water droplets on the edges of a surface grow much faster than those on the non-edge areas and thus dominate the contribution to the water mass collection by the entire surface, directly pointing out the very important role of edge effect on water condensation and collection.

  18. Improving the water use efficiency of olive trees growing in water harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Pedro; Leake, Salomon; Carmi, Gennady; Agam, Nurit

    2017-04-01

    content between two consecutive measurements and transpiration for this interval estimated from sap flow measurements. In both years the evaporation from micro-catchments was significantly larger than that of trenches. The fractional loss due to evaporation from the total applied water for the second year for example, was 53% and 22% for micro-catchments and trenches, respectively. This indicates that a trench geometry reduces the amount of water lost to direct evaporation from the soil, and is thus more efficient in utilizing harvested runoff water.

  19. Effect of water stress on total biomass, tuber yield, harvest index and water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...

  20. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard......, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community...

  1. The effect of seismic energy scavenging on host structure and harvesting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallart, Mickaël; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Linjuan; Richard, Claude; Guyomar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters have been studied extensively in recent years. Numerous techniques have been investigated to achieve optimal power output. However, the extraction of electrical energy from mechanical vibration leads to a reduction of the vibration magnitude of the harvester because of the electromechanical coupling effect, and so a model considering constant vibration magnitude input is no longer valid. Thus, an energy harvesting model excited with a constant force or acceleration magnitude has been adopted to take into account the damping effect induced by the energy harvesting process. This paper extends this model to the effect of energy harvesting on the fixed host structure (mechanical to mechanical coupling). Theoretical developments are presented as a dynamic problem of an electromechanically coupled two-degree-of-freedom (TDOF) spring–mass–damper system. Then, experimental measurements and computations based on finite element modeling (FEM) are carried out to validate theoretical predictions. It is shown that the extracted power obtained from the TDOF model would reach a maximal value by tuning the mass ratio between the host structure and the harvester and optimizing the electric load. The mechanical to mechanical coupling effect due to the harvester leads to a trade-off between the mechanical energy of the host structure and the harvested energy. When the harvester mass to host structure mass ratio is around 10 −3 , the maximal power is obtained and the host structure then has a sudden displacement reduction due to the strong mechanical to mechanical coupling. Experimental measurements have been performed for a mass ratio of around 0.02, with which the harvester effect is not negligible on the host structure behavior as the host structure displacement shows a decrease of more than 3 dB. In addition, the harvested power calculated with the TDOF model is about two times less than with a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF

  2. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  3. Does water harvesting induce fertilizer use among smallholders? Evidence from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2013-01-01

    Rainfall shortage is a major production risk for smallholder farmers. Due to rainfall shortage, smallholders limit the use of modern inputs such as fertilizer and improved seeds. This study investigates if water harvesting technologies (WHTs) induce fertilizer use and whether there is joint adoption

  4. Life cycle assessment of a commercial rainwater harvesting system compared with a municipal water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building upon previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies, we conducted an LCA of a commercial rainwater harvesting (RWH) system and compared it to a municipal water supply (MWS) system adapted to Washington, D.C. Eleven life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indi...

  5. Empty pockets, empty ponds? Disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia where the average disadiption rate in the sample areas is as high as 42%. Given that Ethiopia is a drought-prone country with 95% of its crop production being rain-fed, such a high disadoption rate for irrigation

  6. Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

  7. Micro water harvesting for climate change mitigation: Trade-offs between health and poverty reduction in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitsum, H.; Mekonen, Y.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.; Mulugeta, A.; Girmay, G.; Zenebe, A.

    2006-01-01

    Water harvesting is an important tool for mitigating the adverse effects of climate change. This report investigates the trade-offs between health and poverty reduction by considering the impacts of water harvesting on health in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. In particular, we assess the

  8. Effects of mechanical harvest plus chipping and prescribed fire on Sierran runoff water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupe, T M; Miller, W W; Johnson, D W; Sedinger, J S; Carroll, E M; Walker, R F; Murphy, J D; Stein, C M

    2009-01-01

    Fire suppression in Sierran ecosystems creates a substantial wildfire hazard and may exacerbate nutrient inputs into Lake Tahoe by allowing the buildup of O horizon material, which serves as a source for high N and P concentrations in runoff water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of biomass reduction using cut-to-length mechanical harvest followed by chipping and controlled burning on surface runoff volume and water quality. Based on previous findings regarding N and P leaching flux and soil solution concentrations, we hypothesized that controlled burning and/or mechanical harvest with residue chipping does not increase inorganic N, P, and S concentrations in overland flow. Runoff, snowmelt, and rainfall were collected, volume measurements were taken, and samples were analyzed for NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, PO(4)-P, and SO(4). Runoff volume, season, and year were identified as important parameters influencing overland flow nutrient concentrations and loads. Higher nutrient concentrations were commonly associated with summer rather than winter runoff, but the opposite was true for nutrient loads due to the higher runoff volumes. Treatment (unharvested, harvested, unburned, burned) effect was a strong predictor for discharge loads of NO(3)-N and SO(4) but was a weak predictor for PO(4)-P. Discharge loads of NO(3)-N and SO(4) were greater for the unburned harvested and the burned unharvested treatments than for the unburned, unharvested control sites or the burned and harvested combined treatment. Although mechanical harvest and/or controlled burning had a small initial impact on increased nutrient loading, the effects were minimal compared with background levels. Hence, these management practices may have the potential to improve forest health without the danger of large-magnitude nutrient mobilization and degradation of runoff water quality found with wildfire.

  9. Water and coffee: a systems approach to improving coffee harvesting work in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Barbara A; Bao, Stephen S; Russell, Steven; Stewart, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reduce the physical load on coffee-harvesting workers while maintaining productivity. Coffee is second to oil in commodity trading. Water is becoming scarce worldwide. The global virtual water footprint for one cup of coffee is 140 liters. Shade-grown coffee is one approach to reducing the water footprint. A participatory ergonomics approach was used during two Nicaraguan shade-grown coffee harvesting seasons to reduce the physical load on harvesters with the use of a newly designed bag instead of a basket strapped around the waist. Productivity in the mountainous, shade-grown coffee farms was maintained while physical load on the worker was improved somewhat.Among basket users, 84.2% reported pain in at least one body area compared with 78.9% of bag users (ns). Nonetheless, 74% of participants liked the bag "much better" than the basket. Workers identified ways the bag could be improved further with the use of local materials.These suggestions included (a) reducing the horizontal distance of the bag to reduce reach and (b) having waterproof material on the bag between the worker and the bag to reduce moisture and damage to the berries.There was no difference in productivity between using the bag and using the small basket. Workers are extending this participatory approach to how to get the harvested coffee cherries down the mountain other than carrying 40-kg bags on their backs. The ultimate goal is to make the coffee-harvesting bag design available to harvesters around the world.

  10. Socio-Economic Impacts of Rain Water Harvesting Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technologies in Rwanda: A case study of Nyaruguru ... ownership and maintenance of established RWH technologies. ... production towards food security. .... The overall average family size for the households ..... respondents are aware of these techniques but few implement them- only 1 .... Water productivity in Rain-.

  11. Concentrations of formaldehyde in rain waters harvested at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formaldehyde has been recognized as one of the most important pollutants and a carcinogen that is present in the air, water, foods, soils, fabrics, cosmetics, cigarette smoke and treated wood. Related health effects and hazards are linked to formaldehyde, depending on mode of exposure which includes: weakness, ...

  12. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  13. Dual resonant structure for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a design with dual resonant structure which can harvest energy from random vibration sources at low frequency range. The dual resonant structure consists of two spring-mass subsystems with different frequency responses, which exhibit strong coupling and broad bandwidth when the two masses collide with each other. Experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure can generate higher power output than the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources.

  14. Potential of Rainwater Harvesting and Greywater Reuse for Water Consumption Reduction and Wastewater Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López Zavala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Northeastern Mexico is a semiarid region with water scarcity and a strong pressure on water sources caused by the rapid increase of population and industrialization. In this region, rainwater harvesting alone is not enough to meet water supply demands due to the irregular distribution of rainfall in time and space. Thus, in this study the reliability of integrating rainwater harvesting with greywater reuse to reduce water consumption and minimize wastewater generation in the Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey Campus, was assessed. Potable water consumption and greywater generation in main facilities of the campus were determined. Rainwater that can be potentially harvested in roofs and parking areas of the campus was estimated based on a statistical analysis of the rainfall. Based on these data, potential water savings and wastewater minimization were determined. Characterization of rainwater and greywater was carried out to determine the treatment necessities for each water source. Additionally, the capacity of water storage tanks was estimated. For the selected treatment systems, an economic assessment was conducted to determine the viability of the alternatives proposed. Results showed that water consumption can be reduced by 48% and wastewater generation can be minimized by 59%. Implementation of rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse systems in the Monterrey Campus will generate important economic benefits to the institution. Amortization of the investments will be achieved in only six years, where the net present value (NPV will be on the order of US $50,483.2, the internal rate of return (IRR of 4.6% and the benefits–investment ratio (B/I of 1.7. From the seventh year, the project will present an IRR greater than the minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR. In a decade, the IRR will be 14.4%, more than twice the MARR, the NPV of US $290,412.1 and the B/I of 3.1, denoting economic feasibility. Based on these results, it is clear that

  15. Fundamental measure theory for the electric double layer : implications for blue-energy harvesting and water desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Andreas; Janssen, Mathijs; Samin, Sela; van Roij, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive mixing (CAPMIX) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are promising candidates for harvesting clean, renewable energy and for the energy efficient production of potable water, respectively. Both CAPMIX and CDI involve water-immersed porous carbon (supercapacitors) electrodes at voltages of

  16. Structural Bionic Design for Digging Shovel of Cassava Harvester Considering Soil Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the working performance of cassava harvester, structural bionic design for its digging shovel was conducted. Taking the oriental mole cricket's paws as bionic prototype, a new structural bionic design method for digging shovel was established, which considers the morphology-configuration-function coupling bionic. A comprehensive performance comparison method was proposed, which is used to select the bionic design schemes. The proposed bionic design method was used to improve digging shovel structure of a digging-pulling style cassava harvester, and nine bionic-type digging shovels were obtained with considering the impact of soil mechanics. After conducting mechanical properties comparative analysis for bionic-type digging shovels, the bionic design rules were summed up, and the optimal design scheme of digging shovel was obtained through combining the proposed comprehensive performance comparison method with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Studies have shown that bionic design method not only can improve the overall mechanical properties of digging shovel, but also can help to improve the harvesting effect of cassava harvester, which provides a new idea for crops harvesting machinery's structural optimization design.

  17. Collision-Free Structure Using Thin-Film Magnet For Electrostatic Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, S; Yamaguchi, K; Fujita, T; Kanda, K; Maenaka, K

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes collision-free structure using NdFeB thin-film magnet for vibration energy harvesters. By using stripe shaped NdFeB magnet array on the Si MEMS structure, we finally obtained 3 mN of magnetic repulsive force on 8 × 8 mm 2 specimen with 40 μm air-gap. (paper)

  18. Visual soil structure effects of tillage and corn stover harvest in Iowa, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive harvest of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for ethanol production has raised concerns regarding negative consequences on soil structure and physical quality. Visual soil structure assessment methods have the potential to help address these concerns through simple, straightforward on-farm evaluat...

  19. Collision-Free Structure Using Thin-Film Magnet For Electrostatic Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, S.; Yamaguchi, K.; Fujita, T.; Kanda, K.; Maenaka, K.

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes collision-free structure using NdFeB thin-film magnet for vibration energy harvesters. By using stripe shaped NdFeB magnet array on the Si MEMS structure, we finally obtained 3 mN of magnetic repulsive force on 8 × 8 mm2 specimen with 40 μm air-gap.

  20. Networks of triboelectric nanogenerators for harvesting water wave energy: a potential approach toward blue energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Li, Zhaoling; Fan, Xing; Zi, Yunlong; Jing, Qingshen; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Pradel, Ken C; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    With 70% of the earth's surface covered with water, wave energy is abundant and has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electric energy. However, owing to lack of effective technology, water wave energy harvesting is almost unexplored as an energy source. Here, we report a network design made of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) for large-scale harvesting of kinetic water energy. Relying on surface charging effect between the conventional polymers and very thin layer of metal as electrodes for each TENG, the TENG networks (TENG-NW) that naturally float on the water surface convert the slow, random, and high-force oscillatory wave energy into electricity. On the basis of the measured output of a single TENG, the TENG-NW is expected to give an average power output of 1.15 MW from 1 km(2) surface area. Given the compelling features, such as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, environmentally friendly, easily implemented, and capable of floating on the water surface, the TENG-NW renders an innovative and effective approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting from the ocean.

  1. Rainwater harvesting to alleviate water scarcity in dry conditions: A case study in Faria Catchment, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Shadeed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions, the availability of adequate water of appropriate quality has become a limiting factor for development. This paper aims to evaluate the potential for rainwater harvesting in the arid to semi-arid Faria Catchment, in the West Bank, Palestine. Under current conditions, the supply-demand gap is increasing due to the increasing water demands of a growing population with hydrologically limited and uncertain supplies. By 2015, the gap is estimated to reach 4.5 × 106 m3. This study used the process-oriented and physically-based TRAIN-ZIN model to evaluate two different rainwater harvesting techniques during two rainfall events. The analysis shows that there is a theoretical potential for harvesting an additional 4 × 106 m3 of surface water over the entire catchment. Thus, it is essential to manage the potential available surface water supplies in the catchment to save water for dry periods when the supply-demand gap is comparatively high. Then a valuable contribution to bridging the supply-demand gap can be made.

  2. Exploring Fog Water Harvesting Potential and Quality in the Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhidasan, P.; Abualhamayel, H. I.

    2012-05-01

    During the last decade, the exploitation of the existing water resources in the Asir region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has considerably increased due to both the decrease in annual precipitation and the added population pressures from the growing tourist industry. To face the conventional water shortage, attention has been mainly focused on desalination of water. To save the region from severe water shortage, additional new water sources that are low-cost and renewable must be identified. There exists an alternative source of water such as fog water harvesting. Fog forms in the Asir Region more frequently between December and February compared to the other months of the year. This paper presents the study of the climatic conditions in the Asir region of the Kingdom to identify the most suitable location for fog water collection as well as design and testing of two large fog collectors (LFCs) of size 40 m2 along with standard fog collectors (SFCs) of 1 m2 in that region. During the period from 27 December 2009 to 9 March 2010, a total of 3,128.4 and 2,562.4 L of fog water were collected by the LFC at two sites in the Al-Sooda area of the Asir region, near Abha. Experimental results indicate that fog water collection can be combined with rain water harvesting systems to increase water yield during the rainy season. The quality of the collected fog water was analyzed and compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards and found to be potable. An economic analysis was carried out for the proposed method of obtaining fresh water from the fog. The study suggests a clear tendency that in terms of both quality and magnitude of yield, fog is a viable source of water and can be successfully used to supplement water supplies in the Asir region of the Kingdom.

  3. Compact hybrid cell based on a convoluted nanowire structure for harvesting solar and mechanical energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A fully integrated, solid-state, compact hybrid cell (CHC) that comprises ''convoluted'' ZnO nanowire structures for concurrent harvesting of both solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The compact hybrid cell is based on a conjunction design of an organic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and piezoelectric nanogenerator in one compact structure. The CHC shows a significant increase in output power, clearly demonstrating its potential for simultaneously harvesting multiple types of energy for powering small electronic devices for independent, sustainable, and mobile operation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. SCS-CN and GIS-based approach for identifying potential water harvesting sites in the Kali Watershed, Mahi River Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, D.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Kusuma, K. N.

    2009-08-01

    The Kali sub-watershed is situated in the semi-arid region of Gujarat, India and forms a part of the Mahi River Watershed. This watershed receives an average annual rainfall of 900mm mainly between July and September. Due to high runoff potential, evapo-transpiration and poor infiltration, drought like situation prevails in this area from December to June almost every year. In this paper, augmentation of water resource is proposed by construction of runoff harvesting structures like check dam, percolation pond, farm pond, well and subsurface dyke. The site suitability for different water harvesting structures is determined by considering spatially varying parameters like runoff potential, slope, fracture pattern and micro-watershed area. GIS is utilised as a tool to store, analyse and integrate spatial and attribute information pertaining to runoff, slope, drainage and fracture. The runoff derived by SCS-CN method is a function of runoff potential which can be expressed in terms of runoff coefficient (ratio between the runoff and rainfall) which can be classified into three classes, viz., high (>40%), moderate (20-40%) and low (<20%). In addition to IMSD, FAO specifications for water harvesting/recharging structures, parameters such as effective storage, rock mass permeability are herein considered to augment effective storage. Using the overlay and decision tree concepts in GIS, potential water harvesting sites are identified. The derived sites are field investigated for suitability and implementation. In all, the accuracy of the site selection at implementation level varies from 80-100%.

  5. Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.

  6. Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pengwei, E-mail: lipengwei@tyut.edu.cn; Wang, Yanfen; Luo, Cuixian; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Wendong [MicroNano System Research Center of College of Information Engineering and Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of the Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Liu, Ying [MicroNano System Research Center of College of Information Engineering and Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of the Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Baicheng Ordnance Test Center of China, Baicheng 137000, Jilin (China); Liu, Wei [Baicheng Ordnance Test Center of China, Baicheng 137000, Jilin (China)

    2015-04-15

    As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams) show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.

  7. Water relations in calla lily flower stems harvested at different opening stages(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Silva Sales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cut flowers are a well established product and require conservation techniques that help keep postharvest quality for marketing. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate different opening stages of calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica cut stems and their influence on posthaverst. Calla lily stems were harvested in the morning, according to the following opening stages: closed spathe, semi-closed spathe (1/3 open, semi-open spathe (2/3 open and fully open spathe. Once selected and standardized, stems were placed in a controlled room at 21 ± 2 °C and relative humidity of 75 ± 5%, for eight days. The evaluations were conducted daily, observing water pH, commercial quality analysis, width and length of the spathe, fresh weight of stem, water absorption and transpiration. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments (opening stages, five replicates and two stems by plot. The model used was split plot in time, with harvest stages as plots, and evaluation days as subplots. Calla lily harvested at closed spathe and semi-closed spathe (1/3 open, showed spathe opening, although it did not achieve fully spathe expansion, had higher water uptake and hydration of flower stems, and increased water retention capacity by floral tissues until saturation, followed by a period of weight reduction caused by transpiration rates greater than absorption.

  8. Water table response to harvesting and simulated emerald ash borer mortality in black ash wetlands in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Christian F. Lenhart; Kenneth N. Brooks; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2014-01-01

    Black ash wetlands are seriously threatened because of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB). Wetland hydrology is likely to be modified following ash mortality, but the magnitude of hydrological impact following loss via EAB and alternative mitigation harvests is not clear. Our objective was to assess the water table response to simulated EAB and harvesting to...

  9. Reconciling water harvesting and soil erosion control by thoughtful implementation of SWC measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, N.; Vanacker, V.; van Wesemael, B.

    2012-04-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) structures are largely present in Southeast Spain. Traditionally, SWC structures such as step terraces and earthen check dams were implemented in agricultural fields. They are usually found in semi-arid traditional rainfed agricultural systems that heavily rely on SWC structures to supplement the sparse rainfall. The on-site SWC measures favor water infiltration and reduce water runoff and soil erosion. In the river system (off site), large concrete/gabion check dams have been constructed since the 70's. The analysis of orthophotographs and field survey observations indicate a severe decay of on-site SWC structures in the agricultural area. This has been observed for the Cárcavo catchment (Murcia). The density of step terraces and check dams decreased by 25% between 1956 and 2005. Changes in the agricultural area can be summarized as: (i) rapid expansion of rainfed crops in marginal areas and (ii) mechanization of agriculture associated with frequent tillage operations. It became evident that the high density of SWC structures has now become a nuisance in rainfed orchards that are maintained by regular shallow tillage. We constrained the effects of SWC structures on hydrological connectivity by assessing their functioning during a heavy storm (return period 8.2 yrs in 2006). The percentage of cropland draining directly on the river system without interference of a check dam has increased from 9% in 1956 to 31% in 2005 and 40 % after the storm in November 2006. While there is a strong decrease of traditional SWC structures, several hundred large check dams have been constructed during the last decades in ephemeral streams (Almeria). 36 of them have been investigated in selected Sierras. The volume of sediment retained was found low (mean: 1.4 t ha-1 yr-1). 67% of the variability has been explained by topographical, land use and agricultural activities. After a field survey in 2009, a large majority of check dams located in non

  10. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusbrock, I; Nanninga, T A; Lieberg, K; Agudelo-Vera, C M; Keesman, K J; Zeeman, G; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the urban harvest approach (UHA). The UHA aims to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and its application for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g. nutrients, water-energy-nexus).

  11. Optimal Harvesting in a Periodic Food Chain Model with Size Structures in Predators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng-Qin, E-mail: zhafq@263.net [Yuncheng University, Department of Applied Mathematics (China); Liu, Rong [Lvliang University, Department of Mathematics (China); Chen, Yuming, E-mail: ychen@wlu.ca [Yuncheng University, Department of Applied Mathematics (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate a periodic food chain model with harvesting, where the predators have size structures and are described by first-order partial differential equations. First, we establish the existence of a unique non-negative solution by using the Banach fixed point theorem. Then, we provide optimality conditions by means of normal cone and adjoint system. Finally, we derive the existence of an optimal strategy by means of Ekeland’s variational principle. Here the objective functional represents the net economic benefit yielded from harvesting.

  12. Spatial distribution and optimal harvesting of an age-structured population in a fluctuating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Steinar; Lee, Aline Magdalena; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2018-02-01

    We analyze a spatial age-structured model with density regulation, age specific dispersal, stochasticity in vital rates and proportional harvesting. We include two age classes, juveniles and adults, where juveniles are subject to logistic density dependence. There are environmental stochastic effects with arbitrary spatial scales on all birth and death rates, and individuals of both age classes are subject to density independent dispersal with given rates and specified distributions of dispersal distances. We show how to simulate the joint density fields of the age classes and derive results for the spatial scales of all spatial autocovariance functions for densities. A general result is that the squared scale has an additive term equal to the squared scale of the environmental noise, corresponding to the Moran effect, as well as additive terms proportional to the dispersal rate and variance of dispersal distance for the age classes and approximately inversely proportional to the strength of density regulation. We show that the optimal harvesting strategy in the deterministic case is to harvest only juveniles when their relative value (e.g. financial) is large, and otherwise only adults. With increasing environmental stochasticity there is an interval of increasing length of values of juveniles relative to adults where both age classes should be harvested. Harvesting generally tends to increase all spatial scales of the autocovariances of densities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Review on energy harvesting for structural health monitoring in aeronautical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Minh Quyen; Capsal, Jean-Fabien; Lallart, Mickaël; Hebrard, Yoann; Van Der Ham, Andre; Reffe, Nicolas; Geynet, Lionel; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in energy harvesting technologies for structural health monitoring (SHM) in aeronautical applications. Aeronautical industries show a great deal of interest in obtaining technologies that can be used to monitor the health of machinery and structures. In particular, the need for self-sufficient monitoring of structures has been ever-increasing in recent years. Autonomous SHM systems typically include embedded sensors, and elements for data acquisition, wireless communication, and energy harvesting. Among all of these components, this paper focuses on energy harvesting technologies. Actually, low-power sensors and wireless communication components are used in newer SHM systems, and a number of researchers have recently investigated such techniques to extract energy from the local environment to power these stand-alone systems. The first part of the paper is dedicated to the different energy sources available in aeronautical applications, i.e., for airplanes and helicopters. The second part gives a presentation of the various devices developed for converting ambient energy into electric power. The last part is dedicated to a comparison of the different technologies and the future development of energy harvesting for aeronautical applications.

  14. Structure of the higher plant light harvesting complex I: In vivo characterization and structural interdependence of the Lhca proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimmek, F.; Ganeteg, U.; Ihalainen, J.A.; van Roon, H.; Jensen, P.E.; Scheller, H.V.; Dekker, J.P.; Jansson, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the structure of the higher plant light harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHCI) by analyzing PSI-LHCI particles isolated from a set of Arabidopsis plant lines, each lacking a specific Lhca (Lhca1-4) polypeptide. Functional antenna size measurements support the recent finding

  15. Mode shape combination in a two-dimensional vibration energy harvester through mass loading structural modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan; Kumar, Prashant [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Abdelmoula, Hichem [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Adler, Jan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research (IDS), Leibniz Universität, Hannover 30167 (Germany); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Mode shapes in the design of mechanical energy harvesters, as a means of performance increase, have been largely overlooked. Currently, the vast majority of energy harvester designs employ some variation of a single-degree-of-freedom cantilever, and the mode shapes of such beams are well known. This is especially true for the first bending mode, which is almost exclusively the chosen vibration mode for energy harvesting. Two-dimensional beam shapes (those which curve, meander, spiral, etc., in a plane) have recently gained research interest, as they offer freedom to modify the vibration characteristics of the harvester beam for achieving higher power density. In this study, the second bending mode shape of the “Elephant” two-dimensional beam shape is examined, and its interaction with the first bending mode is evaluated. A combinatory mode shape created by using mass loading structural modification to lower the second bending modal frequency was found to interact with the first bending mode. This is possible since the first two bending modes do not share common areas of displacement. The combined mode shape is shown to produce the most power of any of the considered mode shapes.

  16. Diversifying the composition and structure of managed late-successional forests with harvest gaps: What is the optimal gap size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel C. Kern; Anthony W. D’Amato; Terry F. Strong

    2013-01-01

    Managing forests for resilience is crucial in the face of uncertain future environmental conditions. Because harvest gap size alters the species diversity and vertical and horizontal structural heterogeneity, there may be an optimum range of gap sizes for conferring resilience to environmental uncertainty. We examined the impacts of different harvest gap sizes on...

  17. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...

  18. Energy Harvesting Characteristics from Water Flow by Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Device Using Cr/Nb Doped Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Bimorph Cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Bum; Kim, Chang Il; Jeong, Young Hun; Cho, Jeong-Ho; Paik, Jong-Hoo; Nahm, Sahn; Lim, Jong Bong; Seong, Tae-Hyeon

    2013-10-01

    A water flow energy harvester, which can convert water flow energy to electric energy, was fabricated for its application to rivers. This harvester can generate power from the bending and releasing motion of piezoelectric bimorph cantilevers. A Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3 + 0.2 wt % Cr2O3 + 1.0 wt % Nb2O5 (PZT-CN) thick film and a 250-µm-thick stainless steel were used as a bimorph cantilever. The electrical impedance matching was achieved across a resistive load of 1 kΩ. Four bimorph cantilevers can generate power from 5 to 105 rpm. The output powers were steadily increased by increasing the rpm. The maximum output power was 68 mW by 105 rpm. It was found that the water flow energy harvester can generate 58 mW by a flow velocity of (2 m/s) from the stream with the four bimorph cantilevers.

  19. Climate and Long-Term Structures: The Wine-Harvesting Variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Based on the history of wine harvests, it is possible to develop a more general history of climate, particularly in Europe. This history-the alternating cycle of warm and cool seasons-can also be related to the economic, and thus political, history of our countries, from the 14. century to the global warming of the 20. century. The role of the meteorologist in understanding these structures is therefore crucial

  20. A nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water wave energy and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Tao, Juan; Zhu, Jing; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    The ocean wave energy is one of the most promising renewable and clean energy sources for human life, which is the so-called "Blue energy." In this work, a nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator was designed for harvesting wave energy. The nanowires on the surface of FEP largely raise the contacting area with water and also make the polymer film hydrophobic. The output can reach 10 μ A and 200 V. When combined with a capacitor, an infrared emitter, and a receiver, a self-powered wireless infrared system is fabricated, which can be used in the fields of communication and detecting.

  1. A nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water wave energy and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ocean wave energy is one of the most promising renewable and clean energy sources for human life, which is the so-called “Blue energy.” In this work, a nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator was designed for harvesting wave energy. The nanowires on the surface of FEP largely raise the contacting area with water and also make the polymer film hydrophobic. The output can reach 10 μ A and 200 V. When combined with a capacitor, an infrared emitter, and a receiver, a self-powered wireless infrared system is fabricated, which can be used in the fields of communication and detecting.

  2. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure for wideband random vibration sources at low frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s 2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.

  3. Water Saving and Cost Analysis of Large-Scale Implementation of Domestic Rain Water Harvesting in Minor Mediterranean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Campisano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel methodology to evaluate the benefits of large-scale installation of domestic Rain Water Harvesting (RWH systems in multi-story buildings. The methodology was specifically developed for application to small settlements of the minor Mediterranean islands characterized by sharp fluctuations in precipitation and water demands between winter and summer periods. The methodology is based on the combined use of regressive models for water saving evaluation and of geospatial analysis tools for semi-automatic collection of spatial information at the building/household level. An application to the old town of Lipari (Aeolian islands showed potential for high yearly water savings (between 30% and 50%, with return on investment in less than 15 years for about 50% of the installed RWH systems.

  4. Water structure around trehalose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnotta, S.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); CNISM-CNR, Unita di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: pagnotta@fis.uniroma3.it; Ricci, M.A.; Bruni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); McLain, S. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratories, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Magazu, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina, C. da Papardo 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2008-04-18

    A diluted solution of trehalose in water has been investigated by means of neutron diffraction with isotopic H/D substitution of the water hydrogens. Data have been analyzed in terms of site-site radial distribution functions, via the EPSR simulation code. This is the first time that the capabilities of this data refinement method are tested against neutron diffraction data of a complex carbohydrate molecule. A small perturbation of water hydration shell and short hydrogen bonds between trehalose oxygens and water hydrogens has been evidenced.

  5. Uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand on the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arthur Santos; Ghisi, Enedir

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a sensitivity analysis of design variables and an uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand to evaluate the performance of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings. Eight cities in Brazil with different rainfall patterns were analysed. A numeric experiment was performed by means of computer simulation of rainwater harvesting. A sensitivity analysis was performed using variance-based indices for identifying the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems when assessing the potential for potable water savings and underground tank capacity sizing. The uncertainty analysis was performed for different scenarios of potable water demand with stochastic variations in a normal distribution with different coefficients of variation throughout the simulated period. The results have shown that different design variables, such as potable water demand, number of occupants, rainwater demand, and roof area are important for obtaining the ideal underground tank capacity and estimating the potential for potable water savings. The stochastic variations on the potable water demand caused amplitudes of up to 4.8% on the potential for potable water savings and 9.4% on the ideal underground tank capacity. Average amplitudes were quite low for all cities. However, some combinations of parameters resulted in large amplitude of uncertainty and difference from uniform distribution for tank capacities and potential for potable water savings. Stochastic potable water demand generated low uncertainties in the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems; therefore, uniform distribution could be used in computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate relationships to fecal bacterial densities in Maryland shellfish harvest waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leight, A K; Hood, R; Wood, R; Brohawn, K

    2016-02-01

    Coastal states of the United States (US) routinely monitor shellfish harvest waters for types of bacteria that indicate the potential presence of fecal pollution. The densities of these indicator bacteria in natural waters may be related to climate in several ways, including through runoff from precipitation and survival related to water temperatures. The relationship between interannual precipitation and air temperature patterns and the densities of fecal indicator bacteria in shellfish harvest waters in Maryland's portion of the Chesapeake Bay was quantified using 34 years of data (1979-2013). Annual and seasonal precipitation totals had a strong positive relationship with average fecal coliform levels (R(2) = 0.69) and the proportion of samples with bacterial densities above the FDA regulatory criteria (R(2) = 0.77). Fecal coliform levels were also significantly and negatively related to average annual air temperature (R(2) = -0.43) and the average air temperature of the warmest month (R(2) = -0.57), while average seasonal air temperature was only significantly related to fecal coliform levels in the summer. River and regional fecal coliform levels displayed a wide range of relationships with precipitation and air temperature patterns, with stronger relationships in rural areas and mainstem Bay stations. Fecal coliform levels tended to be higher in years when the bulk of precipitation occurred throughout the summer and/or fall (August to September). Fecal coliform levels often peaked in late fall and winter, with precipitation peaking in summer and early fall. Continental-scale sea level pressure (SLP) analysis revealed an association between atmospheric patterns that influence both extratropical and tropical storm tracks and very high fecal coliform years, while regional precipitation was found to be significantly correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific North American Pattern. These findings indicate that management of

  7. Upright nanopyramid structured cover glass with light harvesting and self-cleaning effects for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amalathas, Amalraj Peter; Alkaisi, Maan M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of upright nanopyramid (UNP) structured cover glass with light harvesting and self-cleaning functions on the device performance of monocrystalline Si solar cells. The UNP structures were fabricated on the surface of the glass substrate by simple, high throughput and low cost UV nanoimprint lithography, using a Si master mold with inverted nanopyramid (INP) structures. The diffuse transmittance and haze ratio values were significantly increased for UNP patterned glass, especially in the wavelength range 300–600 nm compared to the bare glass; this implies that antireflection and strong light scattering are due to the UNP structures. By replacing a bare cover glass with UNP patterned glass, the power conversion efficiency of the monocrystalline Si solar cell was substantially enhanced by about 10.97%; this is mainly due to the increased short-circuit current density J SC of 32.39 mA cm −2 compared to the reference cell with bare cover glass (i.e. J SC   =  31.60 mA cm −2 ). In addition, unlike the bare cover glass (i.e. θ CA ∼ 36°), the fluorinated UNP structured cover glass exhibited a hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle ( θ CA ) of ∼132° and excellent self-cleaning of dust particles by rolling down water droplets. (paper)

  8. Spatial Runoff Estimation and Mapping of Potential Water Harvesting Sites: A GIS and Remote Sensing Perspective, Northwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Melesse, A.M.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources scarcity is becoming a limiting factor for development and sustenance in most parts of Ethiopia. The Debre Mewi watershed, in northwest Ethiopia, is one of such areas where the need for supplemental water supply through rainwater harvesting is essential. Suitable water

  9. Effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling in the Caspar Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy A. Dahlgren

    1998-01-01

    The effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling were examined for a redwood/Douglas-fir ecosystem in the North Fork, Caspar Creek experimental watershed in northern California. Stream-water samples were collected from treated (e.g., clearcut) and reference (e.g., noncut) watersheds, and from various locations downstream from the treated...

  10. Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-marc; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Boroto, Jean R.

    Halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, is one of the targets of the 7th Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In South Africa, with its mix of developed and developing regions, 9.7 million (20%) of the people do not have access to adequate water supply and 16 million (33%) lack proper sanitation services. Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH), which provides water directly to households enables a number of small-scale productive activities, has the potential to supply water even in rural and peri-urban areas that conventional technologies cannot supply. As part of the effort to achieve the MDGs, the South African government has committed itself to provide financial assistance to poor households for the capital cost of rainwater storage tanks and related works in the rural areas. Despite this financial assistance, the legal status of DRWH remains unclear and DRWH is in fact illegal by strict application of the water legislations. Beyond the cost of installation, maintenance and proper use of the DRWH system to ensure its sustainability, there is risk of waterborne diseases. This paper explores challenges to sustainable implementation of DRWH and proposes some interventions which the South African government could implement to overcome them.

  11. Water and peat chemistry comparisons of natural and peat-harvested peatlands across Canada and their relevance to peatland restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmulder, H.L.; Rochefort, L.; Vitt, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Water and peat chemistry comparisons of four post-harvested and neighbouring, undisturbed peatlands across Canada show that harvesting alters chemical conditions. Commercial harvesting removes the surface peat and exposes layers farther down the peat deposit. The newly exposed peat layers that were formed in earlier developmental stages of the peatland can be more minerotrophic and/or more variable in chemical composition than undisturbed bog peat. All the harvested sites were originally bogs. Only one site, which had minimal peat removed, presently has chemical conditions somewhat similar to the original surface, with low elemental levels typical of bogs. Two sites are now chemically similar to poor fens and one site is similar to a moderate-rich fen. Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphate and chloride in three of the harvested sites are higher than normal values found in natural, unharvested bogs, and result from the exposure of fen peat. Higher levels of ammonium-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen in the peat and water of all the harvested sites are present, with higher ammonium associated with wetter sites and higher nitrate levels associated with drier sites

  12. The structure of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, B.

    1969-01-01

    We have tried to expose a bibliography so complete as possible on structure of liquid water. One synthesis of the different models of water structure is presently impossible, so, we have exposed the main properties of water. We have pointed out the new hypotheses on the electronic structure of water molecule and on the theory of hydrogen bond. After that, we have put together the studies of structure by spectroscopy and given the main deductions of some workers on this subject. We have also exposed the characteristics of processes: relaxation and dielectric constant, influence of temperature on structure. At last, we have considered briefly the partition and thermodynamic functions established from the various models proposed. (author) [fr

  13. Direct harvesting of Helium-3 (3He) from heavy water nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentoumi, G.; Didsbury, R.; Jonkmans, G.; Rodrigo, L.; Sur, B.

    2013-01-01

    The thermal neutron activation of deuterium inside a heavy-water-moderated or -cooled nuclear reactor produces a build-up of tritium in the heavy water. The in situ decay of tritium can, for certain reactor types and operating conditions, produce potentially useable amounts of 3 He, which can be directly extracted via the heavy-water cover gas without first separating, collecting and storing tritium outside the reactor. It is estimated that the amount of 3 He available for recovery from the moderator cover gas of a 700 MWe class Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) ranges from 0.1 to 0.7 m 3 (STP) per annum, varying with the tritium activity buildup in the moderator. The harvesting of 3 He would generate approximately 12.7 m 3 (STP) of 3 He, worth more than $30M at current market rates, over a typical 25-year operating cycle of the PHWR. This paper discusses the production of 3 He in the moderator of a PHWR and its extraction from the 4 He moderator cover gas system using conventional methods. (author)

  14. A design and experimental verification methodology for an energy harvester skin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a design and experimental verification methodology for energy harvesting (EH) skin, which opens up a practical and compact piezoelectric energy harvesting concept. In the past, EH research has primarily focused on the design improvement of a cantilever-type EH device. However, such EH devices require additional space for proof mass and fixture and sometimes result in significant energy loss as the clamping condition becomes loose. Unlike the cantilever-type device, the proposed design is simply implemented by laminating a thin piezoelectric patch onto a vibrating structure. The design methodology proposed, which determines a highly efficient piezoelectric material distribution, is composed of two tasks: (i) topology optimization and (ii) shape optimization of the EH material. An outdoor condensing unit is chosen as a case study among many engineered systems with harmonic vibrating configuration. The proposed design methodology determined an optimal PZT material configuration on the outdoor unit skin structure. The designed EH skin was carefully prototyped to demonstrate that it can generate power up to 3.7 mW, which is sustainable for operating wireless sensor units for structural health monitoring and/or building automation.

  15. A design and experimental verification methodology for an energy harvester skin structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design and experimental verification methodology for energy harvesting (EH) skin, which opens up a practical and compact piezoelectric energy harvesting concept. In the past, EH research has primarily focused on the design improvement of a cantilever-type EH device. However, such EH devices require additional space for proof mass and fixture and sometimes result in significant energy loss as the clamping condition becomes loose. Unlike the cantilever-type device, the proposed design is simply implemented by laminating a thin piezoelectric patch onto a vibrating structure. The design methodology proposed, which determines a highly efficient piezoelectric material distribution, is composed of two tasks: (i) topology optimization and (ii) shape optimization of the EH material. An outdoor condensing unit is chosen as a case study among many engineered systems with harmonic vibrating configuration. The proposed design methodology determined an optimal PZT material configuration on the outdoor unit skin structure. The designed EH skin was carefully prototyped to demonstrate that it can generate power up to 3.7 mW, which is sustainable for operating wireless sensor units for structural health monitoring and/or building automation. (technical note)

  16. Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Node Enabled by a Duck-Shaped Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2016-12-08

    This paper presents a fully enclosed duck-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for effectively scavenging energy from random and low-frequency water waves. The design of the TENG incorporates the freestanding rolling mode and the pitch motion of a duck-shaped structure generated by incident waves. By investigating the material and structural features, a unit of the TENG device is successfully designed. Furthermore, a hybrid system is constructed using three units of the TENG device. The hybrid system achieves an instantaneous peak current of 65.5 µA with an instantaneous output power density of up to 1.366 W m−2. Following the design, a fluid–solid interaction analysis is carried out on one duck-shaped TENG to understand the dynamic behavior, mechanical efficiency, and stability of the device under various water wave conditions. In addition, the hybrid system is experimentally tested to enable a commercial wireless temperature sensor node. In summary, the unique duck-shaped TENG shows a simple, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, light-weight, and highly stable system. The newly designed TENG is promising for building a network of generators to harvest existing blue energy in oceans, lakes, and rivers.

  17. Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Node Enabled by a Duck-Shaped Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Saadatnia, Zia; Hassan, Islam; Zi, Yunlong; Xi, Yi; He, Xu; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a fully enclosed duck-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for effectively scavenging energy from random and low-frequency water waves. The design of the TENG incorporates the freestanding rolling mode and the pitch motion of a duck-shaped structure generated by incident waves. By investigating the material and structural features, a unit of the TENG device is successfully designed. Furthermore, a hybrid system is constructed using three units of the TENG device. The hybrid system achieves an instantaneous peak current of 65.5 µA with an instantaneous output power density of up to 1.366 W m−2. Following the design, a fluid–solid interaction analysis is carried out on one duck-shaped TENG to understand the dynamic behavior, mechanical efficiency, and stability of the device under various water wave conditions. In addition, the hybrid system is experimentally tested to enable a commercial wireless temperature sensor node. In summary, the unique duck-shaped TENG shows a simple, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, light-weight, and highly stable system. The newly designed TENG is promising for building a network of generators to harvest existing blue energy in oceans, lakes, and rivers.

  18. Response of grape cultivars to nitrogen and phosphorus grown with water harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.M.; Stroehlein, J.L.; Pessarakli, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two fertilizer studies were conducted on mature vineyards established with a water harvesting system on a White House sandy 10 am (fine, mixed, thermic, Ustollic Haplargid) soil at the University of Arizona Oracle Agricultural Center. In one study, two grape (Vitis viinifera L.) cultivars, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Sauvignon blanc', were treated with different levels of 15 N and P fertilizer and tested for tissue NO 3 -N and total-P content. In the second study, eleven grape varieties were treated with three levels of N. Tissue samples were analysed for total P and NO 3 -N content, and the ratio of petiole-P to leaf blade-P was determined. When sufficient quantities of both nutrients were provided, N and P interacted positively resulting in increased grape yields. The petiole-P to leaf blade-P ratio correctly monitored the P status of the vines. (author). 20 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Rainwater harvesting to enhance water productivity of rainfed agriculture in the semi-arid Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahinda, Jean-marc Mwenge; Rockström, Johan; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Dimes, John

    Zimbabwe’s poor are predominantly located in the semi-arid regions and rely on rainfed agriculture for their subsistence. Decline in productivity, scarcity of arable land, irrigation expansion limitations, erratic rainfall and frequent dry spells, among others cause food scarcity. The challenge faced by small-scale farmers is to enhance water productivity of rainfed agriculture by mitigating intra-seasonal dry spells (ISDS) through the adoption of new technologies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH). The paper analyses the agro-hydrological functions of RWH and assesses its impacts (at field scale) on the crop yield gap as well as the Transpirational Water Productivity ( WPT). The survey in six districts of the semi-arid Zimbabwe suggests that three parameters (water source, primary use and storage capacity) can help differentiate storage-type-RWH systems from “conventional dams”. The Agricultural Production Simulator Model (APSIM) was used to simulate seven different treatments (Control, RWH, Manure, Manure + RWH, Inorganic Nitrogen and Inorganic Nitrogen + RWH) for 30 years on alfisol deep sand, assuming no fertiliser carry over effect from season to season. The combined use of inorganic fertiliser and RWH is the only treatment that closes the yield gap. Supplemental irrigation alone not only reduces the risks of complete crop failure (from 20% down to 7% on average) for all the treatments but also enhances WPT (from 1.75 kg m -3 up to 2.3 kg m -3 on average) by mitigating ISDS.

  20. Effect of water stress and harvesting stages on quantitative and qualitative yields of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of drought stress and harvesting stages on quantitative and qualitative yields of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. this experiment was conducted on split plot based on a randomized completely block design with 3 replications in Torbat-e Heydariyeh University, Iran, during growing season of 2010-2011. Treatments were drought stress (in three levels no stress: control and irrigation in 60 and 30 percentage of FC as main plots and harvesting times (in 3 levels consist of: before flowering, flowering and after flowering as sub plots. Results showed that drought stress and harvesting stages had significant affected on leaf number, height, number of stem, wet and dry weight of plant, SPAD, proline content, carbohydrate content, essential oil yield and percentage and components of essential oil of coriander. Increasing water stress decreased yield and its components while enhanced proline and carbohydrate contents. Maximum of essential oil and its main components (linalool, alpha pentene, gamma terpinene, geranial acetate and camphor were in low stress that had significant difference with other stress treatments. Delaying in harvest enhanced yield and its components and essential oil percentage. Proline content had no significant difference between flowering and after flowering stages. Therefore, we can suggest low stress of water and harvest at after flowering stage to get maximum of yield.

  1. Water stress at the end of the pomegranate fruit ripening permits earlier harvesting and improve fruit quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Calín-Sánchez,; Griñán, I.; Rodríguez, P.; Cruz, Zulma N; Girón, I.F.; Corell, M.; Martínez-Font, R.; Moriana, A.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Torrecillas, A.; Hernández, F.

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a drought tolerant crop, which thrives in the face of scarce water resources, this fact underlines the importance of determining the optimum harvest time to improve the quality of pomegranate fruits. This research was focused on the crop responses to drought

  2. Farm Size and the Share of Irrigated Land in total Landholding: the case of Water-Harvesting Irrigation in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2011-01-01

    Rain-fall shortage constrains production in small-holder agriculture in developing countries and with ongoing climate change these shortages may increase. Rain-water harvesting are interesting technologies that decrease this risk. Therefore, one would expect an increasing use of these technologies

  3. Evaluation of water harvesting and managed aquifer recharge potential in Upper Fara'basin in Palestine : Comparing MYWAS and water productivity approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiehatten, B.M.H.; Assaf, K; Barhumic, Hala; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Ghaneme, Marwan; Jayyousi, Anan; Marei, Amer; Mostert, E.; Shadeed, Sameer; Schoups, G.H.W.; Smidt, Ebel; Zayed, O

    2017-01-01

    The Upper Wadi Fara' basin, located at the West Bank, Palestine, has an average annual rainfall of 500 mm, which occurs only during winter. Agriculture uses stored soil water and complimentary irrigation from groundwater. Water harvesting (WH) and managed aquifer recharge (MAR) therefore is

  4. Reliability study of Piezoelectric Structures Dedicated to Energy Harvesting by the Way of Blocking Force Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaroufi, S; Parrain, F; Lefeuvre, E; Boutaud, B; Molin, R Dal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to study the reliability of piezoelectric structures and more precisely energy harvesting micro-devices dedicated to autonomous active medical implants (new generation pacemakers). The structure under test is designed as a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever with a seismic mass at its tip. Good understanding of material aging and mechanical failure is critical for this kind of system. To study the reliability and durability of the piezoelectric part we propose to establish a new accelerated methodology and an associated test bench where the environment and stimuli can be precisely controlled over a wide period of time. This will allow the identification of potential failure modes and the study of their impacts by the way of direct mechanical investigation based on stiffness and blocking force measurements performed periodically. (paper)

  5. Reliability study of Piezoelectric Structures Dedicated to Energy Harvesting by the Way of Blocking Force Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaroufi, S.; Parrain, F.; Lefeuvre, E.; Boutaud, B.; Dal Molin, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to study the reliability of piezoelectric structures and more precisely energy harvesting micro-devices dedicated to autonomous active medical implants (new generation pacemakers). The structure under test is designed as a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever with a seismic mass at its tip. Good understanding of material aging and mechanical failure is critical for this kind of system. To study the reliability and durability of the piezoelectric part we propose to establish a new accelerated methodology and an associated test bench where the environment and stimuli can be precisely controlled over a wide period of time. This will allow the identification of potential failure modes and the study of their impacts by the way of direct mechanical investigation based on stiffness and blocking force measurements performed periodically.

  6. Bi-resonant structure with piezoelectric PVDF films for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Shanshan; Crovetto, Andrea; Peng, Zhuoteng

    2016-01-01

    and experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with the bi-resonant structure can generate higher power output than that of the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources at low frequency, and hence significantly improves the vibration-to- electricity......This paper reports on a bi-resonant structure of piezoelectric PVDF films energy harvester (PPEH), which consists of two cantilevers with resonant frequencies of 15 Hz and 22 Hz. With increased acceleration, the vibration amplitudes of the two cantilever-mass structures are increased and collision...

  7. Potential for Potable Water Savings in Buildings by Using Stormwater Harvested from Porous Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Niehuns Antunes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the scarcity of water resources due to population growth and increased demand for potable water. Thus, the rational use of water has become necessary for the conservation of such resources. The objective of this study is to estimate the potential for potable water savings in buildings of different sectors—residential, public and commercial—in the city of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, by using stormwater harvested from porous pavements. Models were constructed to assess infiltration and rainwater quality; samples of stormwater from a local road were collected to evaluate its quality; and computer simulation was performed to assess the potential for potable water savings and rainwater tank sizing. Draining asphalt concrete slabs with two types of modifiers were used, i.e., tire rubber and SBS polymer—styrene-butadiene-styrene. The Netuno computer programme was used to simulate the potential for potable water savings considering the use of rainwater for non-potable uses such as flushing toilets and urinals, cleaning external areas, and garden watering. Average stormwater infiltration was 85.4%. It was observed that stormwater is not completely pure. From the models, the pH was 5.4 and the concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen were 0.41, 0.14, 0.002, and 9.0 mg/L, respectively. The results for the stormwater runoff of a paved road were 0.23, 0.11, 0.12, 0.08, 1.41, 2.11, 0.02, and 9.0 mg/L for the parameters aluminium, ammonia, copper, chromium, iron, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen, respectively; and the pH was 6.7. In the city of Florianópolis, which has a surface area of paved roads of approximately 11,044,216 m², the potential for potable water savings ranged from 1.2% to 19.4% in the residential sector, 2.1% to 75.7% in the public sector and 6.5% to 70.0% in the commercial sector.

  8. ChemEngine: harvesting 3D chemical structures of supplementary data from PDF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Digital access to chemical journals resulted in a vast array of molecular information that is now available in the supplementary material files in PDF format. However, extracting this molecular information, generally from a PDF document format is a daunting task. Here we present an approach to harvest 3D molecular data from the supporting information of scientific research articles that are normally available from publisher's resources. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting truly computable molecules from PDF file formats in a fast and efficient manner, we have developed a Java based application, namely ChemEngine. This program recognizes textual patterns from the supplementary data and generates standard molecular structure data (bond matrix, atomic coordinates) that can be subjected to a multitude of computational processes automatically. The methodology has been demonstrated via several case studies on different formats of coordinates data stored in supplementary information files, wherein ChemEngine selectively harvested the atomic coordinates and interpreted them as molecules with high accuracy. The reusability of extracted molecular coordinate data was demonstrated by computing Single Point Energies that were in close agreement with the original computed data provided with the articles. It is envisaged that the methodology will enable large scale conversion of molecular information from supplementary files available in the PDF format into a collection of ready- to- compute molecular data to create an automated workflow for advanced computational processes. Software along with source codes and instructions available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/chemengine/files/?source=navbar.Graphical abstract.

  9. Crystal structure of spinach major light-harvesting complex at 2.72Å resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Yan, Hanchi; Wang, Kebin; Kuang, Tingyun; Zhang, Jiping; Gui, Lulu; An, Xiaomin; Chang, Wenrui

    2004-03-01

    The major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) serves as the principal solar energy collector in the photosynthesis of green plants and presumably also functions in photoprotection under high-light conditions. Here we report the first X-ray structure of LHC-II in icosahedral proteoliposome assembly at atomic detail. One asymmetric unit of a large R32 unit cell contains ten LHC-II monomers. The 14 chlorophylls (Chl) in each monomer can be unambiguously distinguished as eight Chla and six Chlb molecules. Assignment of the orientation of the transition dipole moment of each chlorophyll has been achieved. All Chlb are located around the interface between adjacent monomers, and together with Chla they are the basis for efficient light harvesting. Four carotenoid-binding sites per monomer have been observed. The xanthophyll-cycle carotenoid at the monomer-monomer interface may be involved in the non-radiative dissipation of excessive energy, one of the photoprotective strategies that have evolved in plants.

  10. How joint characteristics between a piezoelectric beam and the main structure affect the performance of an energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, K.; Rafiei, M. M.; Aghazadeh, P.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the influence of the joint region between a piezoelectric energy harvesting beam and the vibratory main structure is studied. The investigations are conducted in two separate sections, namely numerical and experimental studies. In numerical studies, the effects of nonlinear parameters on generated power are investigated while the joint characteristics the between vibrating base and a piezoelectric energy harvester are taken into consideration. A unimorph beam with a tip mass and a nonlinear piezoelectric layer that undergoes a large-amplitude deflection is considered as an energy harvester. By applying the Euler-Lagrange equation and Gauss’s law the mechanical and electrical equations of motion are obtained, respectively. The excitation frequency is assumed to be close to the first natural frequency. Thus, a unimodal response is considered to be like that of a system with a single degree of freedom (SDOF). The joint between the vibrating main structure and the cantilevered beam is then added to the SDOF model. The joint characteristics are simulated with a light mass, mj , linear spring stiffness, kj , and equivalent viscous damper, cj . In two scenarios, i.e. with a rigid joint and with a flexible one, a numerical approach is followed to investigate the effects of each nonlinear parameter of the harvester (stiffness, damping and piezoelectric coefficient) on the harvested power. In experimental studies, the influence of a bolted joining technique and a flexible adhesive bonding method on the harvested power is investigated. The results achieved experimentally confirm those obtained numerically, i.e. a stiffer joint leads to a greater power produced by the harvester. In other words, neglecting the joint characteristics will cause the performance (maximum output power and the range of excitation frequency) of the harvester to be overestimated in numerical simulations.

  11. Oscillating water column structural model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.

  12. Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting to fulfill potable water demand using quantitative water management in low-lying delta regions of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Hossain, F.

    2016-12-01

    Low-lying deltas of Asian region are usually densely populated and located in developing countries situated at the downstream end of major rivers. Extensive dam construction by the upstream countries has now caused water scarcity in large portions of low-lying deltas. Most inhabitants depend on shallow tube well for safe drinking water that tend to suffer from water quality issues (e.g. Arsenic contamination). In addition, people also get infected from water borne diseases like Cholera and Typhoid due to lack of safe drinking water. Developing a centralized piped network based water supply system is often not a feasible option in rural regions. Due to social acceptability, environment friendliness, lower capital and maintenance cost, rainwater harvesting can be the most sustainable option to supply safe drinking water in rural areas. In this study, first we estimate the monthly rainfall variability using long precipitation climatology from satellite precipitation data. The upper and lower bounds of monthly harvestable rainwater were estimated for each satellite precipitation grid. Taking this lower bound of monthly harvestable rainwater as input, we use quantitative water management concept to determine the percent of the time of the year potable water demand can be fulfilled. Analysis indicates that a 6 m³ reservoir tank can fulfill the potable water demand of a 6 person family throughout a year in almost all parts of this region.

  13. The impacts of conifer harvesting on runoff water quality: a regional survey for Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Major, minor and trace element chemistry of runoff at stormflow and baseflow from 67 catchments (2 to 5 ha in area has been determined to investigate the effects of clear felling and replanting of conifers on stream water quality across Wales. Samples, collected by local forestry workers (Forest Enterprise staff on a campaign basis on up to eight occasions, were for 16 mature first rotation standing forest: the remainder represented areas completely clear felled from less than one to up to forty years previously. As the waters drain acidic and acid sensitive soils, acidic runoff is often encountered. However, higher pH values with associated positive alkalinities and base cation enrichments are observed due to the influence of weathering reactions within the bedrock. There is little systematic variation in water quality between baseflow and stormflow for each site indicating a complex and erratic contribution of waters from the soil and underlying parent material. 80% or more of the data points show hardly any changes with felling time, but there are a few outlier points with much higher concentrations that provide important information on the processes operative. The clearest outlier felling response is for nitrate at five of the more recently felled sites on brown earth, gley and podzolic soil types. ANC, the prime indicator of stream acidity, shows a diverse response from both high to low outlier values (>+400 to -300 μEq/l. In parallel to nitrate, aluminium, potassium and barium concentrations are higher in waters sampled up to 4 years post felling, but the time series response is even less clear than that for nitrate. Cadmium, zinc and lead and lanthanides/actinides show large variations from site to site due to localized vein ore-mineralization in the underlying bedrock. The survey provides a strong indication that forest harvesting can have marked local effects on some chemical components of runoff for the first four years after felling

  14. The impacts of conifer harvesting on runoff water quality: a regional survey for Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Reynolds, B.; Wilkinson, J.; Hill, T.; Neal, M.; Hill, S.; Harrow, M.

    Major, minor and trace element chemistry of runoff at stormflow and baseflow from 67 catchments (2 to 5 ha in area) has been determined to investigate the effects of clear felling and replanting of conifers on stream water quality across Wales. Samples, collected by local forestry workers (Forest Enterprise staff) on a campaign basis on up to eight occasions, were for 16 mature first rotation standing forest: the remainder represented areas completely clear felled from less than one to up to forty years previously. As the waters drain acidic and acid sensitive soils, acidic runoff is often encountered. However, higher pH values with associated positive alkalinities and base cation enrichments are observed due to the influence of weathering reactions within the bedrock. There is little systematic variation in water quality between baseflow and stormflow for each site indicating a complex and erratic contribution of waters from the soil and underlying parent material. 80% or more of the data points show hardly any changes with felling time, but there are a few outlier points with much higher concentrations that provide important information on the processes operative. The clearest outlier felling response is for nitrate at five of the more recently felled sites on brown earth, gley and podzolic soil types. ANC, the prime indicator of stream acidity, shows a diverse response from both high to low outlier values (>+400 to -300 μEq/l). In parallel to nitrate, aluminium, potassium and barium concentrations are higher in waters sampled up to 4 years post felling, but the time series response is even less clear than that for nitrate. Cadmium, zinc and lead and lanthanides/actinides show large variations from site to site due to localized vein ore-mineralization in the underlying bedrock. The survey provides a strong indication that forest harvesting can have marked local effects on some chemical components of runoff for the first four years after felling but that this is

  15. Investigation of detergent effects on the solution structure of spinach Light Harvesting Complex II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Mateus B; Smolensky, Dmitriy; Heller, William T; O' Neill, Hugh, E-mail: hellerwt@ornl.gov, E-mail: oneillhm@ornl.gov [Center for Structural Molecular Biology, Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The properties of spinach light harvesting complex II (LHC II), stabilized in the detergents Triton X-100 (TX100) and n-Octyl-{beta}-D-Glucoside (BOG), were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The LHC II-BOG scattering curve overlaid well with the theoretical scattering curve generated from the crystal structure of LHC II indicating that the protein preparation was in its native functional state. On the other hand, the simulated LHC II curve deviated significantly from the LHC II-TX100 experimental data. Analysis by circular dichroism spectroscopy supported the SANS analysis and showed that LHC II-TX100 is inactivated. This investigation has implications for extracting and stabilizing photosynthetic membrane proteins for the development of biohybrid photoconversion devices.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by Piloderma croceum was poor. In a

  17. Structural Stability of Light-harvesting Protein LH2 Adsorbed on Mesoporous Silica Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Yuuta; Itoh, Tetsuji; Matsuura, Shun-ichi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the reversible thermal deformation of the membrane protein light-harvesting complex LH2 adsorbed on mesoporous silica (MPS) supports. The LH2 complex from Thermochromatium tepidum cells was conjugated to MPS supports with a series of pore diameter (2.4 to 10.6 nm), and absorption spectra of the resulting LH2/MPS conjugates were observed over a temperature range of 273 - 313 K in order to examine the structure of the LH2 adsorbed on the MPS support. The experimental results confirmed that a slight ellipsoidal deformation of LH2 was induced by adsorption on the MPS supports. On the other hand, the structural stability of LH2 was not perturbed by the adsorption. Since the pore diameter of MPS support did not influence the structural stability of LH2, it could be considered that the spatial confinement of LH2 in size-matches pore did not improve the structural stability of LH2.

  18. Genetic and biochemical analysis reveals linked QTLs determining natural variation for fruit post-harvest water loss in pepper (Capsicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovsky-Sarid, Sigal; Borovsky, Yelena; Faigenboim, Adi; Parsons, Eugene P; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A; Paran, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTLs controlling post-harvest fruit water loss in pepper may be utilized to accelerate breeding for improved shelf life and inhibit over-ripening before harvest. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop world-wide. However, marketing is limited by the relatively short shelf life of the fruit due to water loss and decay that occur during prolonged storage. Towards breeding pepper with reduced fruit post-harvest water loss (PWL), we studied the genetic, physiological and biochemical basis for natural variation of PWL. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fruit PWL in multiple generations of an interspecific cross of pepper, which resulted in the identification of two linked QTLs on chromosome 10 that control the trait. We further developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) for characterization of the QTL effects. Transcriptome analysis of the NILs allowed the identification of candidate genes associated with fruit PWL-associated traits such as cuticle biosynthesis, cell wall metabolism and fruit ripening. Significant differences in PWL between the NILs in the immature fruit stage, differentially expressed cuticle-associated genes and differences in the content of specific chemical constituents of the fruit cuticle, indicated a likely influence of cuticle composition on the trait. Reduced PWL in the NILs was associated with delayed over-ripening before harvest, low total soluble solids before storage, and reduced fruit softening after storage. Our study enabled a better understanding of the genetic and biological processes controlling natural variation in fruit PWL in pepper. Furthermore, the genetic materials and molecular markers developed in this study may be utilized to breed peppers with improved shelf life and inhibited over-ripening before harvest.

  19. Tomographic particle image velocimetry of a water-jet for low volume harvesting of fat tissue for regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobek Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurements of a water-jet for water-assisted liposuction (WAL are carried out to investigate the distribution of velocity and therefore momentum and acting force on the human sub-cutaneous fat tissue. These results shall validate CFD simulations and force sensor measurements of the water-jet and support the development of a new WAL device that is able to harvest low volumes of fat tissue for regenerative medicine even gentler than regular WAL devices.

  20. Graphene Ink Laminate Structures on Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) for Pyroelectric Thermal Energy Harvesting and Waste Heat Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabek, Daniel; Seunarine, Kris; Spacie, Chris; Bowen, Chris

    2017-03-15

    Thermal energy can be effectively converted into electricity using pyroelectrics, which act as small scale power generator and energy harvesters providing nanowatts to milliwatts of electrical power. In this paper, a novel pyroelectric harvester based on free-standing poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) was manufactured that exploits the high thermal radiation absorbance of a screen printed graphene ink electrode structure to facilitate the conversion of the available thermal radiation energy into electrical energy. The use of interconnected graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) as an electrode enable high thermal radiation absorbance and high electrical conductivity along with the ease of deposition using a screen print technique. For the asymmetric structure, the pyroelectric open-circuit voltage and closed-circuit current were measured, and the harvested electrical energy was stored in an external capacitor. For the graphene ink/PVDF/aluminum system the closed circuit pyroelectric current improves by 7.5 times, the open circuit voltage by 3.4 times, and the harvested energy by 25 times compared to a standard aluminum/PVDF/aluminum system electrode design, with a peak energy density of 1.13 μJ/cm 3 . For the pyroelectric device employed in this work, a complete manufacturing process and device characterization of these structures are reported along with the thermal conductivity of the graphene ink. The material combination presented here provides a new approach for delivering smart materials and structures, wireless technologies, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

  1. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by

  2. Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops: Implications on the Quality of Water Harvested from Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihom A.P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops: Implications on the Quality of Water Harvested from Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria has been undertaken. The study took samples of harvested rainwater from the rooftops of buildings in four different locations in Uyo Metropolis. The samples were taken for analysis at the Ministry of Science and Technology Laboratory-Uyo. The parameters of the harvested rainwater investigated covered physical and chemical properties, heavy metals, total organic carbon (TOC and total coliform count (TCC. Gravimetric, titrimetric and instrumental methods of analysis were used in determining the various parameters investigated. The result was analysed by comparing it with WHO and Ministry of Environment standard specifications for drinking water. The result was equally compared with the composition of the dark-black stains on the rooftops to establish whether the stains on the rooftops were from the rainwater. Findings were astounding; the rainwater was acidic in all the four stations and could not meet up with WHO standard for drinking water. Lead values of 0.75 mg/l and 0.22 mg/l in stations 2 and 3 respectively exceeded WHO standard specification of 0.01mg/l for drinking water. The iron content in the water from stations 2, 3, and 4 all exceeded WHO standard specification for drinking water of 0.30mg/l. All the four stations had cadmium content in the rainwater, which was more than WHO specification for drinking water of 0.003mg/l. The water showed bacteria contamination with total coliform count of 118MPN/100ml in station 4. Some of the parameters in the rainwater also reported in the composition of the dark-black stains on the rooftops an indication that the rain contributed to the dark-black stains on the rooftops in Uyo metropolis. The study concluded that harvested rainwater from the rooftops of buildings in Uyo metropolis is polluted and is not suitable for drinking, bathing and even for use in fish farming. The

  3. Efficient RF energy harvesting by using a fractal structured rectenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sechang; Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2014-04-01

    A rectenna system delivers, collects, and converts RF energy into direct current to power the electronic devices or recharge batteries. It consists of an antenna for receiving RF power, an input filter for processing energy and impedance matching, a rectifier, an output filter, and a load resistor. However, the conventional rectenna systems have drawback in terms of power generation, as the single resonant frequency of an antenna can generate only low power compared to multiple resonant frequencies. A multi band rectenna system is an optimal solution to generate more power. This paper proposes the design of a novel rectenna system, which involves developing a multi band rectenna with a fractal structured antenna to facilitate an increase in energy harvesting from various sources like Wi-Fi, TV signals, mobile networks and other ambient sources, eliminating the limitation of a single band technique. The usage of fractal antennas effects certain prominent advantages in terms of size and multiple resonances. Even though, a fractal antenna incorporates multiple resonances, controlling the resonant frequencies is an important aspect to generate power from the various desired RF sources. Hence, this paper also describes the design parameters of the fractal antenna and the methods to control the multi band frequency.

  4. Harvesting traffic-induced vibrations for structural health monitoring of bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galchev, T V; McCullagh, J; Peterson, R L; Najafi, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and testing of a renewable energy source for powering wireless sensors used to monitor the structural health of bridges. Traditional power cables or battery replacement are excessively expensive or infeasible in this type of application. An inertial power generator has been developed that can harvest traffic-induced bridge vibrations. Vibrations on bridges have very low acceleration (0.1–0.5 m s −2 ), low frequency (2–30 Hz), and they are non-periodic. A novel parametric frequency-increased generator (PFIG) is developed to address these challenges. The fabricated device can generate a peak power of 57 µW and an average power of 2.3 µW from an input acceleration of 0.54 m s −2 at only 2 Hz. The generator is capable of operating over an unprecedentedly large acceleration (0.54–9.8 m s −2 ) and frequency range (up to 30 Hz) without any modifications or tuning. Its performance was tested along the length of a suspension bridge and it generated 0.5–0.75 µW of average power without manipulation during installation or tuning at each bridge location. A preliminary power conversion system has also been developed

  5. Increased container-breeding mosquito risk owing to drought-induced changes in water harvesting and storage in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Brendan J; Kay, Brian H; Darbro, Jonathan M; Hurst, Tim P

    2013-12-01

    Extended drought conditions in south-east Queensland during the early 2000s have resulted in a culture of water harvesting and legislated water restrictions. Aedes notoscriptus is a container-breeding mosquito vector of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses. From 2008-2009, the larval habitats and seasonal abundance of domestic container-breeding mosquitoes were recorded from three suburbs of Brisbane. A knowledge, attitudes and practice questionnaire was administered to householders. A low-cost, desktop methodology was used to predict the proportion of shaded premises compared with front-of-property estimates. We highlight changes in the frequency of container categories for A. notoscriptus as a response to human behavioural changes to drought. Garden accoutrements, discarded household items and water storage containers accounted for 66.2% (525/793) of positive containers and 77.5% (73 441/94 731) of all immature mosquitoes. Of all household premises surveyed, 52.6% (550/1046) contained rainwater tanks and 29.4% (308/1046) harvested water in other containers, contrasting with a previous 1995 survey where neither category was observed. Both Premise Condition Index and shade directly correlated with positive premises. Human response to drought has resulted in new habitats for domestic container-breeding mosquitoes. This recent trend of prolific water storage is similar to earlier years (1904-1943) in Brisbane when Aedes aegypti was present and dengue epidemics occurred.

  6. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T.; Lu, Shiyou; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  7. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  8. Micro-cable structured textile for simultaneously harvesting solar and mechanical energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jun

    2016-09-12

    Developing lightweight, flexible, foldable and sustainable power sources with simple transport and storage remains a challenge and an urgent need for the advancement of next-generation wearable electronics. Here, we report a micro-cable power textile for simultaneously harvesting energy from ambient sunshine and mechanical movement. Solar cells fabricated from lightweight polymer fibres into micro cables are then woven via a shuttle-flying process with fibre-based triboelectric nanogenerators to create a smart fabric. A single layer of such fabric is 320 μm thick and can be integrated into various cloths, curtains, tents and so on. This hybrid power textile, fabricated with a size of 4 cm by 5 cm, was demonstrated to charge a 2 mF commercial capacitor up to 2 V in 1 min under ambient sunlight in the presence of mechanical excitation, such as human motion and wind blowing. The textile could continuously power an electronic watch, directly charge a cell phone and drive water splitting reactions. In light of concerns about global warming and energy crises, searching for renewable energy resources that are not detrimental to the environment is one of the most urgent challenges to the sustainable development of human civilization1,2,3. Generating electricity from natural forces provides a superior solution to alleviate expanding energy needs on a sustainable basis4,5,6,7,8,9. With the rapid advancement of modern technologies, developing lightweight, flexible, sustainable and stable power sources remains both highly desirable and a challenge10,11,12,13,14,15,16. Solar irradiance and mechanical motion are clean and renewable energy sources17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24. Fabric-based materials are most common for humans and fibre-based textiles can effectively accommodate the complex deformations induced by body motion25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32. A smart textile that generates electrical power from absorbed solar irradiance and mechanical motion could be an important

  9. Potential effects of timber harvest and water management on streamflow dynamics and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Troendle; W. K. Olsen

    1994-01-01

    The sustainability of aquatic and riparian ecological systems is strongly tied to the dynamics of the streamflow regime. Timber harvest can influence the flow regime by increasing total flow, altering peak discharge rate, and changing the duration of flows of differing frequency of occurrence. These changes in the energy and sediment transporting capability of the...

  10. Structure of the higher plant light harvesting complex I: in vivo characterization and structural interdependence of the Lhca proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimmek, Frank; Ganeteg, Ulrika; Ihalainen, Janne A; van Roon, Henny; Jensen, Poul E; Scheller, Henrik V; Dekker, Jan P; Jansson, Stefan

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated the structure of the higher plant light harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHCI) by analyzing PSI-LHCI particles isolated from a set of Arabidopsis plant lines, each lacking a specific Lhca (Lhca1-4) polypeptide. Functional antenna size measurements support the recent finding that there are four Lhca proteins per PSI in the crystal structure [Ben-Shem, A., Frolow, F., and Nelson, N. (2003) Nature 426, 630-635]. According to HPLC analyses the number of pigment molecules bound within the LHCI is higher than expected from reconstitution studies or analyses of isolated native LHCI. Comparison of the spectra of the particles from the different lines reveals chlorophyll absorption bands peaking at 696, 688, 665, and 655 nm that are not present in isolated PSI or LHCI. These bands presumably originate from "gap" or "linker" pigments that are cooperatively coordinated by the Lhca and/or PSI proteins, which we have tentatively localized in the PSI-LHCI complex.

  11. Surveillance of Enteric Viruses and Microbial Indicators in the Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Harvest Waters along Louisiana Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Naim; Maite, Morgan; Liu, Da; Cormier, Jiemin; Landry, Matthew; Shackleford, John; Lampila, Lucina E; Achberger, Eric C; Janes, Marlene E

    2015-05-01

    Noroviruses are the most common causative agent of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and are responsible for major foodborne illnesses in the United States. Filter-feeding molluscan shellfish exposed to sewage-contaminated waters bioaccumulate viruses, and if consumed raw, transmit the viruses to humans and cause illness. We investigated the occurrence of norovirus GI and GII and microbial indicators of fecal contamination in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and water from commercial harvesting areas along the Louisiana Gulf Coast (January to November of 2013). Microbial indicators (aerobic plate count, enterococci, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, male-specific coliphages, and somatic coliphages) were detected at the densities lower than public health concerns. Only one oyster sample was positive for norovirus GII at 3.5 ± 0.2 log10 genomic equivalent copies/g digestive tissues. A stool specimen obtained from an infected individual associated with a norovirus outbreak and the suspected oysters (Cameron Parish, La., area 30, January 2013) were also analyzed. The norovirus strain in the stool belonged to GII.4 Sydney; however, the oysters were negative and could not be linked. In general, no temporal trend was observed in the microbial indicators. Low correlation among bacterial indicators was observed in oysters. Strongest correlations among microbial indicators were observed between enterococci and fecal coliforms (r = 0.63) and between enterococci and E. coli (r = 0.64) in water (P oysters (r oysters and harvest water (r ≤ 0.36, P > 0.05). Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring of pathogenic viruses in commercial oyster harvesting areas to reduce the risks of viral gastroenteritis incidences. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Efficient solar light harvesting CdS/Co{sub 9}S{sub 8} hollow cubes for Z-scheme photocatalytic water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Bocheng; Zhu, Qiaohong; Du, Mengmeng; Fan, Linggang; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong [Key Lab. for Advanced Materials and Inst. of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2017-03-01

    Hollow structures with an efficient light harvesting and tunable interior component offer great advantages for constructing a Z-scheme system. Controlled design of hollow cobalt sulfide (Co{sub 9}S{sub 8}) cubes embedded with cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) is described, using hollow Co(OH){sub 2} as the template and a one-pot hydrothermal strategy. The hollow CdS/Co{sub 9}S{sub 8} cubes utilize multiple reflections of light in the cubic structure to achieve enhanced photocatalytic activity. Importantly, the photoexcited charge carriers can be effectively separated by the construction of a redox-mediator-free Z-scheme system. The hydrogen evolution rate over hollow CdS/Co{sub 9}S{sub 8} is 134 and 9.1 times higher than that of pure hollow Co{sub 9}S{sub 8} and CdS QDs under simulated solar light irradiation, respectively. Moreover, this is the first report describing construction of a hollow Co{sub 9}S{sub 8} based Z-scheme system for photocatalytic water splitting, which gives full play to the advantages of light-harvesting and charges separation. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Assessment of rainwater harvesting potential using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Durgasrilakshmi; Ramamohan Reddy, K.; Vikas, Kola; Srinivas, N.; Vikas, G.

    2018-03-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is one of the best practices to overcome the scarcity of water. Rainwater harvesting involves collection and storage of rainwater locally through different technologies, for future use. It is also useful for livestock, groundwater recharge and for irrigation practices. Potential of rainwater harvesting refers to the capacity of an individual catchment that harnesses the water falling on the catchment during a particular year considering all rainy days. The present study deals with the identification of the study area boundary and marking it as a Polygon in Google Earth Pro Later, Rooftops of various house entities and roads were digitized using the Polygon command in Google Earth Pro. GIS technique is employed for locating boundaries of the study area and for calculating the areas of various types of rooftops and roads. With the application of GIS, it is possible to assess the total potential of water that can be harvested. The present study will enable us to identify the suitable type of water harvesting structure along with the number of structures required. It is extremely an ideal and effective solution to overcome the water crisis through water conservation in the study area.

  14. An accurate model for numerical prediction of piezoelectric energy harvesting from fluid structure interaction problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Y; Emdad, H; Farid, M

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) from ambient energy sources, particularly vibrations, has attracted considerable interest throughout the last decade. Since fluid flow has a high energy density, it is one of the best candidates for PEH. Indeed, a piezoelectric energy harvesting process from the fluid flow takes the form of natural three-way coupling of the turbulent fluid flow, the electromechanical effect of the piezoelectric material and the electrical circuit. There are some experimental and numerical studies about piezoelectric energy harvesting from fluid flow in literatures. Nevertheless, accurate modeling for predicting characteristics of this three-way coupling has not yet been developed. In the present study, accurate modeling for this triple coupling is developed and validated by experimental results. A new code based on this modeling in an openFOAM platform is developed. (paper)

  15. Fundamental measure theory for the electric double layer: implications for blue-energy harvesting and water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Härtel, Andreas; Janssen, Mathijs; Samin, Sela; Roij, René van

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive mixing (CAPMIX) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are promising candidates for harvesting clean, renewable energy and for the energy efficient production of potable water, respectively. Both CAPMIX and CDI involve water-immersed porous carbon (supercapacitors) electrodes at voltages of the order of hundreds of millivolts, such that counter-ionic packing is important for the electric double layer (EDL) which forms near the surfaces of these porous materials. Thus, we propose a density functional theory (DFT) to model the EDL, where the White-Bear mark II fundamental measure theory functional is combined with a mean-field Coulombic and a mean spherical approximation-type correction to describe the interplay between dense packing and electrostatics, in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss the concentration-dependent potential rise due to changes in the chemical potential in capacitors in the context of an over-ideal theoretical description and its impact on energy harvesting and water desalination. Compared to less elaborate mean-field models our DFT calculations reveal a higher work output for blue-energy cycles and a higher energy demand for desalination cycles. (paper)

  16. Rainwater Harvesting-based Safe Water Access in Diarrhea-endemic Coastal Communities of Bangladesh under Threats of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Redwan, A. M.; Ali, M. A.; Alam, M.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The highly populated coastal floodplains of the Bengal Delta have a long history of water-related natural calamities such as droughts, floods, and cyclones. Population centers along the floodplain corridors of the GBM (Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna) river system remain vulnerable to such natural hazards and waterborne epidemic outbreaks due to increasing intensity and changing frequency of extreme events over many areas in the delta region. Such changes in hydrologic extremes and resulting environmental conditions would likely lengthen the transmission seasons of prevalent waterborne diseases and alter their geographic range as well as seasonality. In addition, the combination of changing upstream precipitation and temperature, and coastal sea-level rise are exposing a vast area in Southwestern Bangladesh to increased diarrheal disease outbreaks due to higher salinity and water scarcity in the dry season as well as coastal flooding and water resources contamination in the wet season. It is thus essential to establish sustainable safe water access practices in these regions for the rural communities of low-income people. The impact of climate change in the recent past on the people of coastal rural areas of Bangladesh has been severe, and the water sector is one of its biggest victims. Previously, pond and groundwater sources were considered dependable, but salinity intrusion in both water resources have left the vulnerable people with only a few scarce ponds and forced them to depend more on rainwater than before. The poorest group is suffering the most for this crisis even though paying more of the percentage of their income especially in the dry season (December-March). As rainwater is their most preferred and dependable option during this part of the year, outbreaks of waterborne diseases can be minimized by installing rainwater harvesting systems with effective disinfection system at both household and community levels. In this study, we explore the technical

  17. Photothermally Activated Pyroelectric Polymer Films for Harvesting of Solar Heat with a Hybrid Energy Cell Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Teahoon; Na, Jongbeom; Kim, Byeonggwan; Kim, Younghoon; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2015-12-22

    Photothermal effects in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)s (PEDOTs) were explored for pyroelectric conversion. A poled ferroelectric film was coated on both sides with PEDOT via solution casting polymerization of EDOT, to give highly conductive and effective photothermal thin films of PEDOT. The PEDOT films not only provided heat source upon light exposure but worked as electrodes for the output energy from the pyroelectric layer in an energy harvester hybridized with a thermoelectric layer. Compared to a bare thermoelectric system under NIR irradiation, the photothermal-pyro-thermoelectric device showed more than 6 times higher thermoelectric output with the additional pyroelectric output. The photothermally driven pyroelectric harvesting film provided a very fast electric output with a high voltage output (Vout) of 15 V. The pyroelectric effect was significant due to the transparent and high photothermal PEDOT film, which could also work as an electrode. A hybrid energy harvester was assembled to enhance photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of a solar cell with a thermoelectric device operated by the photothermally generated heat. The PCE was increased more than 20% under sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G) utilizing the transmitted light through the photovoltaic cell as a heat source that was converted into pyroelectric and thermoelectric output simultaneously from the high photothermal PEDOT electrodes. Overall, this work provides a dynamic and static hybrid energy cell to harvest solar energy in full spectral range and thermal energy, to allow solar powered switching of an electrochromic display.

  18. Pigment structure in the FCP-like light-harvesting complex from Chromera velia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Llansola-Portoles, M.J.; Uragami, C.; Pacsal, A.; Bína, David; Litvín, Radek; Robert, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1857, č. 11 (2016), s. 1759-1765 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Photosynthesis * Chlorophylls * Carotenoids * Light harvesting complex Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.932, year: 2016

  19. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the region is subject to a high incidence of fog which might provide water for water-poor communities. This paper investigates the fog water potential of the area. Since fog water ...

  20. Solar energy harvesting by magnetic-semiconductor nanoheterostructure in water treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Vahid; Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Ahmadpour, Ali

    2018-03-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic pollutants in the wastewater using dispersed semiconductor nanophotocatalysts has a number of advantages such as high activity, cost effectiveness, and utilization of free solar energy. However, it is difficult to recover and recycle nanophotocatalysts since the fine dispersed nanoparticles are easily suspended in waters. Furthermore, a large amount of photocatalysts will lead to color contamination. Thus, it is necessary to prepare photocatalysts with easy separation for the reusable application. To take advantage of high photocatalysis activity and reusability, magnetic photocatalysts with separation function were utilized. In this review, the photocatalytic principle, structure, and application of the magnetic-semiconductor nanoheterostructure photocatalysts under solar light are evaluated. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. The effect of seasonal harvesting on a single-species discrete population model with stage structure and birth pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shujing; Chen Lansun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an exploited single-species discrete model with stage structure for the dynamics in a fish population for which births occur in a single pulse once per time period. Using the stroboscopic map, we obtain an exact cycle of the system, and obtain the threshold conditions for its stability. Bifurcation diagrams are constructed with the birth rate as the bifurcation parameter, and these are observed to display complex dynamic behaviors, including chaotic bands with period windows, pitch-fork and tangent bifurcation. This suggests that birth pulse provides a natural period or cyclicity that makes the dynamical behavior more complex. Moreover, we show that the timing of harvesting has a strong impact on the persistence of the fish population, on the volume of mature fish stock and on the maximum annual-sustainable yield. An interesting result is obtained that, after the birth pulse, the earlier culling the mature fish, the larger harvest can tolerate

  2. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...... of 315, 436, 414 and 503 g/kg DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake, divided equally across two daily meals offered at 0800 and 1530 h. Chewing activity was estimated...... from recorded jaw movements (JM) oscillations continuously logged for 96 h and summarized per 24 h as mean effective rumination time and eating time. Eating behavior was further observed during four 20-min test meals. Weight proportion of large feces particles (>1.0 mm) and geometric mean fecal...

  3. Biofilters for stormwater harvesting: understanding the treatment performance of key metals that pose a risk for water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenjun; Hatt, Belinda E; McCarthy, David T; Fletcher, Tim D; Deletic, Ana

    2012-05-01

    A large-scale stormwater biofilter column study was conducted to evaluate the impact of design configurations and operating conditions on metal removal for stormwater harvesting and protection of aquatic ecosystems. The following factors were tested over 8 months of operation: vegetation selection (plant species), filter media type, filter media depth, inflow volume (loading rate), and inflow pollutant concentrations. Operational time was also integrated to evaluate treatment performance over time. Vegetation and filter type were found to be significant factors for treatment of metals. A larger filter media depth resulted in increased outflow concentrations of iron, aluminum, chromium, zinc, and lead, likely due to leaching and mobilization of metals within the media. Treatment of all metals except aluminum and iron was generally satisfactory with respect to drinking water quality standards, while all metals met standards for irrigation. However, it was shown that biofilters could be optimized for removal of iron to meet the required drinking water standards. Biofilters were generally shown to be resilient to variations in operating conditions and demonstrated satisfactory removal of metals for stormwater-harvesting purposes. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Effect of mating stage on water balance, cuticular hydrocarbons and metabolism in the desert harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert A; Gibbs, Allen G

    2004-10-01

    Water-loss rates increase after mating in queens of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex barbatus (Formicidae: Myrmicinae), then increase again after the mated queens excavate an incipient nest. We determined the mechanistic basis for these increased water-loss rates by examining cuticular permeability, respiratory water loss, metabolic rates, and cuticular hydrocarbons for queens at three stages in the mating sequence: unmated alate queens, newly mated dealate queens, and mated queens excavated from their incipient nest. Both total water loss and cuticular transpiration increased significantly following mating, with cuticular transpiration accounting for 97% of the increased water loss. In contrast, metabolic rate and respiratory water loss were unaffected by mating stage. The total quantity of cuticular hydrocarbons did not vary by mating stage. However, relative amounts of four of the most abundant cuticular hydrocarbons did vary by mating stage, as did quantities of n-alkanes and methylalkanes. The general pattern was that percent composition of n-alkanes decreased through the mating sequence, while percent composition of methylalkanes increased over the same sequence. We discuss three mechanisms that might cause these post-mating increases in cuticular permeability. Our data support the hypothesis that part of this increase results from soil particles abrading the cuticle during the process of nest excavation.

  5. Analysis Method of Combine Harvesters Technical Level by Functional and Structural Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Zhalnin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern methods of evaluation of the grain harvesters technical level revealed a discrepancy in various criteria: comparative parameters, dimensionless series, the names of firms, the power of the motor, the width of the capture of the harvester, the capacity at the location of the manufacturer plant, advertising brands. (Purpose of research This led to a variety in the name of harvester models, which significantly complicates the assessment of their technical level, complicates the choice of agricultural necessary to him fashion, does not give the perception of the continuity of the change of generations of combines, makes it impossible to analyze trends in their development, does not disclose the technological essence of a model, but - most importantly - combines can not be compared with each other. The figures in the name of the harvester model are not related functionally to the main parameters and performance capabilities. (Materials and methods The close correlation in the form of a linear equation between their design parameters and the capacity of combines was revealed. Verification of this equation in the process of operation of the combine showed that it statistically stable and the estimates are always within the confidence interval with an error of 5-8 percent. It was found that four parameters of the variety of factors, that affect the performance of the harvester per hour net time, having most close correlation with it are: the motor power and the square of the separation concave, straw walkers and sieves for cleaning. (Results and discussion On the basis of the revealed correlation dependence we proposed a new method of assessment of the technical level of combines, which is based on the throughput (kg/s of the wetted material and the size series, indicating the nominal productivity of the combine in centners of grain harvested in 1 hour of basic time. The methodological background and mathematical apparatus

  6. Floating microbial fuel cells as energy harvesters for signal transmission from natural water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Colombo, Alessandra; Grattieri, Matteo; Trasatti, Stefano P.; Liberale, Alessandro; Tremolada, Paolo; Pino, Claudio; Cristiani, Pierangela

    2017-02-01

    A new type of floating microbial fuel cell (fMFC) was developed for power supply of remote environmental sensors and data transmission. Ten operating fMFCs generated a cell potential in the range 100-800 mV depending on the external resistance applied. Power production peaked around 3-3.5 mW (power density of 22-28 mW m-2 cathode) after about 20-30 days of start-up period. The average of daily electrical energy harvested ranged between 10 and 35 mWh/d. Long-term performances were ensured in the presence of dense rice plants (Oryza Sativa). A power management system, based on a step-up DC/DC converter and a low-power data transmission system via SIGFOX™ technology, have been set up for the fMFCs. The tested fMFCs systems allowed to: i) harvest produced energy, ii) supply electronic devices (intermittent LED-light and a buzzer); iii) transmit remote data at low speed (three message of 12 bites each, in 6 s). Several 'floating garden' MFCs were set in the context of demonstrative events at EXPO2015 world exposition held in Milan between May-October 2015. Some of the 'floating garden' MFCs were operating for more than one year.

  7. Effect of cuticular abrasion and recovery on water loss rates in queens of the desert harvester ant Messor pergandei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert A; Kaiser, Alexander; Quinlan, Michael; Sharp, William

    2011-10-15

    Factors that affect water loss rates (WLRs) are poorly known for organisms in natural habitats. Seed-harvester ant queens provide an ideal system for examining such factors because WLRs for mated queens excavated from their incipient nests are twofold to threefold higher than those of alate queens. Indirect data suggest that this increase results from soil particles abrading the cuticle during nest excavation. This study provides direct support for the cuticle abrasion hypothesis by measuring total mass-specific WLRs, cuticular abrasion, cuticular transpiration, respiratory water loss and metabolic rate for queens of the ant Messor pergandei at three stages: unmated alate queens, newly mated dealate queens (undug foundresses) and mated queens excavated from their incipient nest (dug foundresses); in addition we examined these processes in artificially abraded alate queens. Alate queens had low WLRs and low levels of cuticle abrasion, whereas dug foundresses had high WLRs and high levels of cuticle abrasion. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration were lowest for alate queens, intermediate for undug foundresses and highest for dug foundresses. Respiratory water loss contributed ~10% of the total WLR and was lower for alate queens and undug foundresses than for dug foundresses. Metabolic rate did not vary across stages. Total WLR and cuticular transpiration of artificially abraded alate queens increased, whereas respiratory water loss and metabolic rate were unaffected. Overall, increased cuticular transpiration accounted for essentially all the increased total water loss in undug and dug foundresses and artificially abraded queens. Artificially abraded queens and dug foundresses showed partial recovery after 14 days.

  8. A good road lies easy on the land: Water harvesting from low-standard rural roads

    OpenAIRE

    Zeedyk, B.

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record This book addresses the construction and maintenance of unpaved rural roads including strategies, techniques and practices for dealing with problems frequently encountered by landowners, land managers and maintenance personnel. Running water is the primary force affecting road condition and generating the need for maintenance. Economical maintenance means dealing effectively with water, but not just surface runoff. Standing water, seeping water, rain, snow, ice, frost ...

  9. Changes in vegetative communities and water table dynamics following timber harvesting in small headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Choi; J.C. Dewey; J. A. Hatten; A.W. Ezell; Z. Fan

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the relationship between vegetation communities and water table in the uppermost portions (ephemeral–intermittent streams) of headwater systems, seasonal plot-based field characterizations of vegetation were used in conjunction with monthly water table measurements. Vegetation, soils, and water table data were examined to determine...

  10. Concept study of a novel energy harvesting-enabled tuned mass-damper-inerter (EH-TMDI) device for vibration control of harmonically-excited structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, Jonathan; Giaralis, Agathoklis

    2016-01-01

    A novel dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) configuration is introduced for simultaneous vibration suppression and energy harvesting from oscillations typically exhibited by large-scale low-frequency engineering structures and structural components. The proposed configuration, termed energy harvesting-enabled tuned mass-damper-inerter (EH-TMDI) comprises a mass grounded via an in-series electromagnetic motor (energy harvester)-inerter layout, and attached to the primary structure through linear spring and damper in parallel connection. The governing equations of motion are derived and solved in the frequency domain, for the case of harmonically-excited primary structures, here modelled as damped single-degree- of-freedom (SDOF) systems. Comprehensive parametric analyses proved that by varying the mass amplification property of the grounded inerter, and by adjusting the stiffness and the damping coefficients using simple optimum tuning formulae, enhanced vibration suppression (in terms of primary structure peak displacement) and energy harvesting (in terms of relative velocity at the terminals of the energy harvester) may be achieved concurrently and at nearresonance frequencies, for a fixed attached mass. Hence, the proposed EH-TMDI allows for relaxing the trade-off between vibration control and energy harvesting purposes, and renders a dual-objective optimisation a practically-feasible, reliable task. (paper)

  11. Harvesting policy for a delayed stage-structured Holling II predator-prey model with impulsive stocking prey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Jianjun; Meng Xinzhu; Chen Lansun

    2009-01-01

    A predator-prey model with a stage structure for the predator, which improves the assumption that each individual predator has the same ability to capture prey, is proposed by Wang et al. [Wang W, Mulone G, Salemi F, Salone V. Permanence and stability of a stage-structured predator-prey model. J Math Anal Appl 2001;262:499-528]. It is assumed that immature individuals and mature individuals of the predator are divided by a fixed age and that immature predators do not have the ability to attack prey. We do economic management behavior for Wang model [Wang et al., 2001] by continuous harvesting on predator and impulsive stocking on prey. Then, a delayed stage-structured Holling type II predator-prey model with impulsive stocking prey and continuous harvesting predator is established. It is also assumed that the predating products of the predator is only to increase its bearing ability. We obtain the sufficient conditions of the global attractivity of predator-extinction boundary periodic solution and the permanence of the system. Our results show that the behavior of impulsive stocking prey plays an important role for the permanence of the system, and provide tactical basis for the biological resource management. Further, the numerical analysis is also inserted to illuminate the dynamics of the system.

  12. Carbon-Electrode-Tailored All-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells To Harvest Solar and Water-Vapor Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialong; Hu, Tianyu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-05-14

    Moisture is the worst enemy for state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the flowing water vapor within nanoporous carbonaceous materials can create potentials. Therefore, it is a challenge to integrate water vapor and solar energies into a single PSC device. We demonstrate herein all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) solar cells tailored with carbon electrodes to simultaneously harvest solar and water-vapor energy. Upon interfacial modification and plasma treatment, the bifunctional PSCs yield a maximum power conversion efficiency up to 9.43 % under one sun irradiation according to photoelectric conversion principle and a power output of 0.158 μW with voltage of 0.35 V and current of 0.45 μA in 80 % relative humidity through the flowing potentials at the carbon/water interface. The initial efficiency is only reduced by 2 % on exposing the inorganic PSC with 80 % humidity over 40 days. The successful realization of physical proof-of-concept multi-energy integrated solar cells provides new opportunities of maximizing overall power output. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The impact of domestic rainwater harvesting systems in storm water runoff mitigation at the urban block scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, A; Gnecco, I; La Barbera, P

    2017-04-15

    In the framework of storm water management, Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH) systems are recently recognized as source control solutions according to LID principles. In order to assess the impact of these systems in storm water runoff control, a simple methodological approach is proposed. The hydrologic-hydraulic modelling is undertaken using EPA SWMM; the DRWH is implemented in the model by using a storage unit linked to the building water supply system and to the drainage network. The proposed methodology has been implemented for a residential urban block located in Genoa (Italy). Continuous simulations are performed by using the high-resolution rainfall data series for the ''do nothing'' and DRWH scenarios. The latter includes the installation of a DRWH system for each building of the urban block. Referring to the test site, the peak and volume reduction rate evaluated for the 2125 rainfall events are respectively equal to 33 and 26 percent, on average (with maximum values of 65 percent for peak and 51 percent for volume). In general, the adopted methodology indicates that the hydrologic performance of the storm water drainage network equipped with DRWH systems is noticeable even for the design storm event (T = 10 years) and the rainfall depth seems to affect the hydrologic performance at least when the total depth exceeds 20 mm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solving structure in the CP29 light harvesting complex with polarization-phased 2D electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2011-01-01

    The CP29 light harvesting complex from green plants is a pigment-protein complex believed to collect, conduct, and quench electronic excitation energy in photosynthesis. We have spectroscopically determined the relative angle between electronic transition dipole moments of its chlorophyll excitation energy transfer pairs in their local protein environments without relying on simulations or an X-ray crystal structure. To do so, we measure a basis set of polarized 2D electronic spectra and isolate their absorptive components on account of the tensor relation between the light polarization sequences used to obtain them. This broadly applicable advance further enhances the acuity of polarized 2D electronic spectroscopy and provides a general means to initiate or feed back on the structural modeling of electronically-coupled chromophores in condensed phase systems, tightening the inferred relations between the spatial and electronic landscapes of ultrafast energy flow. We also discuss the pigment composition of CP29 in the context of light harvesting, energy channeling, and photoprotection within photosystem II. PMID:21321222

  15. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, I.; Nanninga, T.A.; Lieberg, K.; Agudelo, C.; Keesman, K.J.; Zeeman, G.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource

  16. Identification of suitable sites for rainwater harvesting structures in arid and semi-arid regions: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Adham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvested rainwater is an alternative source of water in arid and semi-arid regions (ASARs around the world. Many researchers have developed and applied various methodologies and criteria to identify suitable sites and techniques for rainwater harvesting (RWH. Determining the best method or guidelines for site selection, however, is difficult. The main objective of this study was to define a general method for selecting suitable RWH sites in ASARs by assembling an inventory of the main methods and criteria developed during the last three decades. We categorised and compared four main methodologies of site selection from 48 studies published in scientific journals, reports of international organisations, or sources of information obtained from practitioners. We then identified three main sets of criteria for selecting RWH locations and the main characteristics of the most common RWH techniques used in ASARs. The methods were diverse, ranging from those based only on biophysical criteria to more integrated approaches including socio-economic criteria, especially after 2000. The most important criteria for the selection of suitable sites for RWH were slope, land use/cover, soil type, rainfall, distance to settlements/streams, and cost. The success rate of RWH projects tended to increase when these criteria were considered, but an objective evaluation of these selection methods is still lacking. Most studies now select RHW sites using geographic information systems in combination with hydrological models and multi-criteria analysis.

  17. Water harvesting for young trees using Peltier plates powered by photovoltaic solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel; Moreda Cantero, Guillermo P.; Raga Arroyo, Manuela Pilar; Marín González, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Young trees transplanted from nursery into open field require a minimum amount of soil moisture to successfully root in their new location, especially in dry-climate areas. One possibility is to obtain the required water from air moisture. This can be achieved by reducing the temperature of a surface below the air dew point temperature, inducing water vapor condensation on the surface. The temperature of a surface can be reduced by applying the thermoelectric effect, with Peltier modules powe...

  18. Urban stormwater harvesting and reuse: a probe into the chemical, toxicology and microbiological contaminants in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Meng Nan; Sidhu, Jatinder; Aryal, Rupak; Tang, Janet; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Escher, Beate; Toze, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Stormwater is one of the last major untapped urban water resources that can be exploited as an alternative water source in Australia. The information in the current Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling relating to stormwater harvesting and reuse only emphasises on a limited number of stormwater quality parameters. In order to supply stormwater as a source for higher value end-uses, a more comprehensive assessment on the potential public health risks has to be undertaken. Owing to the stochastic variations in rainfall, catchment hydrology and also the types of non-point pollution sources that can provide contaminants relating to different anthropogenic activities and catchment land uses, the characterisation of public health risks in stormwater is complex, tedious and not always possible through the conventional detection and analytical methods. In this study, a holistic approach was undertaken to assess the potential public health risks in urban stormwater samples from a medium-density residential catchment. A combined chemical-toxicological assessment was used to characterise the potential health risks arising from chemical contaminants, while a combination of standard culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods was used for detection and quantification of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens in urban stormwater. Results showed that the concentration of chemical contaminants and associated toxicity were relatively low when benchmarked against other alternative water sources such as recycled wastewater. However, the concentrations of heavy metals particularly cadmium and lead have exceeded the Australian guideline values, indicating potential public health risks. Also, high numbers of FIB were detected in urban stormwater samples obtained from wet weather events. In addition, qPCR detection of human-related pathogens suggested there are frequent sewage ingressions into the urban stormwater runoff during wet weather events

  19. Use of the Universal Soil-Loss Equation to determine water erosion with the semi-circular bund water-harvesting technique in the Syrian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Al Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted through the rain season 2009 -2010, in Mehasseh Research Center at (Al Qaryatein, The area is characterized by a hot and dry climate in summer and cold in winter with an annual average rainfall of 114 mm. Three slopes (8%, 6%, 4% were used in semicircular bunds water -harvesting techniques with bunds parallel to the contours lines at flow distance of 18, 12 and 6 m. The bunds were planted with Atriplex Halimus seedlings. Graded metal rulers were planted inside the bunds to determine soil loss and sedimentation associated with the surface runoff, and metallic tanks were placed at the end of the flow paths to determine agricultural soil loss from water runoff. A rain intensity gauge was placed near the experiment site to determine the rainfall intensity that produced runoff. The treatments were done in three replications. The amount of soil erosion (in tons per hectare per year increased with increasing of the slope, the highest recorded value was 38.66 at slope of 8% and the lowest 0.05 at 4% slope. The amount of soil erosion also increased with increasing of water run distance, which was 38.66 T.ha-1.yr-1 at 18 m and 0.05 T.ha-1.yr-1 at 6 m . Bunds with different diameter of water harvesting reduced soil erosion by about 65% at slope of 8%, 55% at 6%, and 46% at 4%. The input parameters of Universal soil-loss equation were found to be suitable for determining soil erosion in this arid and semi-arid region. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10499 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 1-11

  20. Design and testing of large fog collectors for water harvesting in Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualhamayel, H. I.; Gandhidasan, P.

    2010-07-01

    The region of Asir is located in the southwestern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 41 - 45 E and latitudes 17 - 21 N. Known for its natural beauty and cool climate delight the visitors and the region has become a destination for tourists. One of the main problems in the Asir region is the high demand for water during tourism seasons especially in view of the rapidly growing tourism sector. Flourishing tourism in the region is challenged by the scarcity of water resources and there is urgent need to identify alternative sources of potable water. It is found that fog water collection is a viable resource and Asir region is the most suitable location for fog water harvesting. An operational fog water collection project was initiated in 2007 to provide fresh water supply. Al-Sooda, situated at an altitude of about 3,000 m, was identified as the most suitable experimental site and two large fog collectors measuring 20 m by 2 m each were erected in 2009. The distance between the two sites is about 2 km. This paper gives the methods used to select the experimental site and the design of the large fog collection system. The fog collectors are flat rectangular nets supported by a post at both ends and arranged perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing wind. The collection surface, comprising two layers of black polypropylene mesh net, is fastened laterally to the posts with a set of fastening bars. The aluminum trough located below the mesh net catches the water that runs down the net and carries it to a pipe connected to the storage tank. Because the fog collectors are long and require space for guy wires for the posts, the basic site consideration is that at least 25 m of horizontal land available for the erection. Meteorological instruments and the portable weather station are used to measure the climatic data which are recorded three times a day, namely at 7:00, 14:00 and 19:00 h. On average, yields of about 5 to 6 L/m2 per day are collected

  1. Development and Simulation of Decentralised Water and Energy Supply Concepts – Case Study of Rainwater Harvesting at the Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Czarny

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides a sufficient energy supply, concepts for accommodations require an intelligent water management. Using the example of quarters that do not have water and energy access, a dynamic simulation model is presented in which a rainwater harvesting concept is implemented and simulated over one year using MATLAB-Simulink. The aim is to minimize respectively suspend the use of fossil energy sources and to guarantee the provision of decentralized clean drinking water. Since traditional water bodies, e.g. groundwater, are increasingly polluted and depleted, utilisation of alternative sources is prudent. Especially in rural areas, where access to drinking water is scarce, rainwater is suitable for providing potable water. Besides its beneficial chemical water properties, it is easily accessed in a decentralized manner, which makes it a preferred choice in areas with sufficient precipitation. However, access to rainwater is limited by its occurrence and contamination, calling for proper storage, utilisation, and treatment strategies. For this purpose, a rainwater harvesting system, including different water and energy management systems, was modelled and implemented using the site of the Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity in Cambodia as an example. For the simulation, a precipitation generator was implemented using real historical rain event data. An appropriate rainwater treatment process was chosen, consisting of a microfiltration and a subsequent ultrafiltration unit removing bacteriological loads entirely. Both were modelled and implemented dynamically. Using the site of the Angkor Centre of Conservation of Biodiversity, a complete rainwater harvesting plant was implemented including harvest, storage, and utilization of rainwater. Further, a renewable energy management strategy is developed, using photovoltaic modules and batteries. It was shown that the cumulative runoff meets the water demand of the Angkor Centre for Conservation of

  2. Water cooling of RF structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battersby, G.; Zach, M.

    1994-06-01

    We present computer codes for heat transfer in water cooled rf cavities. RF parameters obtained by SUPERFISH or analytically are operated on by a set of codes using PLOTDATA, a command-driven program developed and distributed by TRIUMF [1]. Emphasis is on practical solutions with designer's interactive input during the computations. Results presented in summary printouts and graphs include the temperature, flow, and pressure data. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. The ring structure and organization of light harvesting 2 complexes in a reconstituted lipid bilayer, resolved by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamouli, Amalia; Kafi, Sidig; Klein, Dionne C G; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H; Frenken, Joost W M; Cogdell, Richard J; Aartsma, Thijs J

    2003-04-01

    The main function of the transmembrane light-harvesting complexes in photosynthetic organisms is the absorption of a light quantum and its subsequent rapid transfer to a reaction center where a charge separation occurs. A combination of freeze-thaw and dialysis methods were used to reconstitute the detergent-solubilized Light Harvesting 2 complex (LH2) of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050 into preformed egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes, without the need for extra chemical agents. The LH2-containing liposomes opened up to a flat bilayer, which were imaged with tapping and contact mode atomic force microscopy under ambient and physiological conditions, respectively. The LH2 complexes were packed in quasicrystalline domains. The endoplasmic and periplasmic sides of the LH2 complexes could be distinguished by the difference in height of the protrusions from the lipid bilayer. The results indicate that the complexes entered in intact liposomes. In addition, it was observed that the most hydrophilic side, the periplasmic, enters first in the membrane. In contact mode the molecular structure of the periplasmic side of the transmembrane pigment-protein complex was observed. Using Föster's theory for describing the distance dependent energy transfer, we estimate the dipole strength for energy transfer between two neighboring LH2s, based on the architecture of the imaged unit cell.

  4. Multilayer out-of-plane overlap electrostatic energy harvesting structure actuated by blood pressure for powering intra-cardiac implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deterre, M.; Risquez, S.; Bouthaud, B.; Dal Molin, R.; Woytasik, M.; Lefeuvre, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present an innovative multilayer out-of-plane electrostatic energy harvesting device conceived in view of scavenging energy from regular blood pressure in the heart. This concept involves the use of a deformable packaging for the implant in order to transmit the blood pressure to the electrostatic transducer. As shown in previous work, this is possible by using thin metal micro-bellows structure, providing long term hermeticity and high flexibility. The design of the electrostatic device has overcome several challenges such as the very low frequency of the mechanical excitation (1 to 2 Hz) and the small available room in the medical implant. Analytical and numerical models have been used to maximize the capacitance variation, and hence to optimize the energy conversion. We have theoretically shown that a 25-layer transducer with 6-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness could harvest at least 20 mJ per heart beat in the left ventricle under a maximum voltage of 75 V. These results show that the proposed concept is promising and could power the next generation of leadless pacemakers.

  5. Ozonated water in the post-harvest treatment of coffee fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. B. Brandão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ozone is used in many countries for the treatment of effluents, becoming a viable alternative in sanitation of coffee wastewater. However, the strong ozone oxidation, responsible for its germicidal effect, can also compromise grain and beverage quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of Arabica coffee in different periods of treatment with ozonated water and its effect after drying. Coffee fruits were subjected to ozonation at regular intervals of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min, with continuous stirring promoted by a recirculating water system at constant rate of 1 ppm of solubilized ozone. The design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replicates. After obtaining the data, the analysis of variance was performed and means were compared by Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05. The results showed a partial reduction of fungi after washing with ozonated water, but the same effect was not observed after drying. For coffee quality analysis, the longest times of exposure to the solubilized gas in the water produced some negative results in electrical conductivity and total and reducing sugars. However, the sensory quality of the beverage was maintained.

  6. Heated water and UV-C radiation to post harvest control of Cryptosporiopsis perennans on apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnicki, Vinicius Adao; Amarante, Cassandro Vidal Talamini do; Castro, Luis Antonio Suita de; Rizzatti, Mara Regina; Souza, Joao Antonio Vargas de

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the colonization of Cryptosporiopsis perennans in the epidermis of apples and the efficiency of heated water and UV-C radiation application to control this pathogen. In apples inoculated with C. perennans, the colonization of lenticels and adjacent areas by the pathogen was observed by electronic scanning microscopy. The sensitivity of C. perennans conidia was evaluated in aqueous suspension, at temperatures of 28, 45, 50 and 55 deg C for 15 and 30 s, and at UV.C radiation doses of 0.018, 0.037, 0.075, 0.150, 0.375, 0.750, 1.500 and 3.000 kJ m.2. The effects of UV.C radiation doses at 0.375, 0.750 and 1.500 kJ m.2 and heated water at 50 deg C, sprayed during 15 and 30 s were evaluated for controlling C. perennans in apples inoculated with the pathogen. The fungus produced abundant mycelium and conidia in lenticels and adjacent areas on the epidermis of the apples. The heated water at 50 deg C during 15 s and a 0.750 kJ m.2 UV.C radiation dose reduced conidia survival in more than 99%. Heated water sprayed at 50 deg C during 15 s and a UV.C radiation dose of 0.375 kJ m.2 control C. perennans in apples. (author)

  7. Water harvesting and soil moisture retention: A study guide for farmer field schools

    OpenAIRE

    Duveskog, D.

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record Since a majority of individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa depend on rainfed agriculture, it is necessary to provide tools that will better equip these individuals to increase their yields and improve their farming techniques. This study guide is intended to assist farmers in learning and experimenting on improved soil and water management. The target groups for the study guide are Farmer Field Schools, village farmers groups and local agricultural extension staff. Avail...

  8. Water harvesting from municipal wastewater via osmotic gradient: An evaluation of process performance

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Li, Zhenyu; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Wei, Chunhai; Amy, Gary L.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2013-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) presents a unique opportunity for integrated wastewater treatment and seawater desalination. This study assesses the efficiency of a submerged FO system to reduce the volume of wastewater that needs to be treated while recovering high quality water that can be further treated for sustainable fresh water production. A semi-batch operation was employed with two membrane orientations in terms of active and support layers. A change of membrane orientation could improve the flux and slightly reduce the salt leakage from the draw solution to the feed solution. The formation of fouling on the membrane resulted in a decrease of the initial flux and average flux with both membrane orientations. The fouling layer on the membrane surface was determined to be caused by biopolymer-like substances. Osmotic backwash removed almost all organic foulants from the membrane surface, but did not improve the flux. There was a moderate to high retention of nutrients (N and P), varying from 56% to 99%, and almost a complete retention for trace metals regardless of membrane orientation. However the membrane showed a limited ability to retain low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutral compounds. This study identified a possible role of the FO process to integrate wastewater treatment and seawater desalination for a sustainable solution of the water-energy nexus for coastal cities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

  9. Water harvesting from municipal wastewater via osmotic gradient: An evaluation of process performance

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) presents a unique opportunity for integrated wastewater treatment and seawater desalination. This study assesses the efficiency of a submerged FO system to reduce the volume of wastewater that needs to be treated while recovering high quality water that can be further treated for sustainable fresh water production. A semi-batch operation was employed with two membrane orientations in terms of active and support layers. A change of membrane orientation could improve the flux and slightly reduce the salt leakage from the draw solution to the feed solution. The formation of fouling on the membrane resulted in a decrease of the initial flux and average flux with both membrane orientations. The fouling layer on the membrane surface was determined to be caused by biopolymer-like substances. Osmotic backwash removed almost all organic foulants from the membrane surface, but did not improve the flux. There was a moderate to high retention of nutrients (N and P), varying from 56% to 99%, and almost a complete retention for trace metals regardless of membrane orientation. However the membrane showed a limited ability to retain low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutral compounds. This study identified a possible role of the FO process to integrate wastewater treatment and seawater desalination for a sustainable solution of the water-energy nexus for coastal cities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

  10. Initiating rain water harvest technology for climate change induced drought resilient agriculture: scopes and challenges in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Muhammad Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is primarily an agrarian economy. Agriculture is the single largest producing sector of the economy since it comprises about 18.6% of the country's GDP and employs around 45% of the total labor force. The performance of this sector has an overwhelming impact on major macroeconomic indicators like employment generation, poverty alleviation, human resource development and food security. The agriculture sector is extremely vulnerable to disaster and climate induced risks. Climate change is anticipated to aggravate the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in Bangladesh. Drought is one of the major setbacks for the agriculture and its development. Therefore, disaster and climatic risk, especially drought management in agriculture is a major challenge for Bangladesh in achieving sustainable agricultural development. There are some regions in Bangladesh where every steps of agriculture from field preparation to ripening of crops dependents on rainfall. Consequently, drought affects annually 2.5 million ha in kharif (wet season and 1.2 million ha in dry season. Water is a natural resource with spatial scarcity and availability. Additionally, Cross-country anthropogenic activities caused a severe negative impact on water resources and eco-systems of Bangladesh in the recent years. The rivers and cannels dry up during the dry season and make the people completely dependent on groundwater (Abdullah, 2015. Accordingly the contribution of groundwater as a source of irrigation has increased and surface water has declined. It is now inevitable to look for alternate water source for agriculture. Water harvest technologies (WHTs can play an important role in this regard. WHTs can provide an additional source of water for crop production at the most critical stages of the growing season, thereby increasing yields and food security. The study is consists of drought scenario analysis, GIS based drought mapping and systematic literature

  11. COMMERCIAL FISH HARVEST IN INLAND WATER BODIES OF GERMANY (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector. Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha. Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc. dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans

  12. Phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.: effects of frond harvesting regimes and arsenic levels in refill water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Seenivasan; Stamps, Robert H; Ma, Lena Q; Saha, Uttam K; Hernandez, Damaris; Cai, Yong; Zillioux, Edward J

    2011-01-30

    A large-scale hydroponic system to phytoremediate arsenic-contaminated groundwater using Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) was successfully tested in a field. In this 30-wk study, three frond-harvesting regimes (all, mature, and senescing fronds) and two water-refilling schemes to compensate for evapotranspiration (high-As water of 140-180 μg/L and low-As water of arsenic-contaminated groundwater and 32 ferns. During Cycle 1 and with initial As of 140 μg/L, As in tanks refilled with low-As water was reduced to phytoremediation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Hydro engineering Feasibility Study of Surface Runoff Water Harvesting in Al-Ajeej Basin, North West Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair M. Al-Taiee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydro engineering  characteristics of Al-Ajeej basin which was located within south Sinjar plain north west Iraq was analyzed to predict the possibility of surface runoff harvesting during rainfall season in the upstream sites in this basin using watershed modeling system (WMS. The hydrological feasibility of constructing small dam on Al-Ajeej valley with some preliminary design calculations were presented. The best optimum dam site was selected to be located (3.95 km downstream the confluence of Al-Badee branch with Al-Ajeej valley (35° 46¢ 6² Latitude and Longitude 41° 36¢ 11² having a catchment's area of (3043km2. The proposed dam  height was (12.5 meter with a dam length of (1277m, while the normal storage volume of the reservoir is (38.8 million m3. Construction a dams in such sites characterized by water shortage during all  around the year will give an aid in the sustainable development of such area by increasing  the cultivation lands, the agricultural products and also modify the income of the villagers living  in this area leading to prevent them leaving their lands to other places

  14. A water-powered Energy Harvesting system with Bluetooth Low Energy interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroener, M.; Allinger, K.; Berger, M.; Grether, E.; Wieland, F.; Heller, S.; Woias, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design, and testing of a water turbine generator system for typical flow rates in domestic applications, with an integrated power management and a Bluetooth low energy (BLE) based RF data transmission interface. It is based on a commercially available low cost hydro generator. The generator is built into a housing with optimized reduced fluidic resistance to enable operation with flow rates as low as 6 l/min. The power management combines rectification, buffering, defined start-up, and circuit protection. An MSP430FR5949 microcontroller is used for data acquisition and processing. The data are transmitted via RF, using a Bluegiga BLE112 module in advertisement mode, to a PC where the measured flow rate is stored and displayed. The transmission rate of the wireless sensor node (WSN) is set to 1 Hz if enough power is available, which is the case for flow rates above 5.5 l/min. The electronics power demand is calculated to be 340 μW in average, while the generator is capable of delivering more than 200 mW for flow rates above 15 l/min. (paper)

  15. Highly efficient green light harvesting from Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles: Structural and optical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sarla, E-mail: mail2sarlasharma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India); Vyas, Rishi [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Sharma, Neha [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India); Singh, Vidyadhar [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Okinawa 9040495 (Japan); Singh, Arvind [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Kataria, Vanjula; Gupta, Bipin Kumar [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi 110012 (India); Vijay, Y.K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India)

    2013-03-05

    Graphical abstract: Demonstration of highly efficient green light emission harvesting from Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via facile wet chemical route with an average particle size ∼15 nm. The resulted nanoparticles exhibit intense green emission peaking at 530 nm upon 325 nm excitation. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of visible emission depends upon the doping concentration of Mg. The PL intensity was found maximum up to 4% doping of Mg and beyond it exhibits a decrees in emission. The obtained highly luminescent green emission of ZnO nanoparticle would be an ultimate choice for next generation optoelectronics device materials. Highlights: ► Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O nanoparticles were prepared by mechanochemical processing. ► High blue emission intensity was observed contrary to previous reports. ► Blue emission is suggested to be originating from the high density of defects. ► Defect density in as-milled condition is very high resulting in high emission. ► Mg promoted non-radiative recombination and lowered intensities. -- Abstract: Highly efficient green light emission was observed from Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via facile wet chemical route with an average particle size ∼15 nm. The XRD analysis confirmed the growth of wurtzite phase of ZnO nanoparticles. Moreover, the optical properties of these nanoparticles were investigated by different spectroscopic techniques. The resulted nanoparticles exhibit intense green emission peaking at 530 nm (2.34 eV) upon 325 nm (3.81 eV) excitation. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of visible emission depends upon the doping concentration of Mg. The PL intensity was found maximum up to 4% doping of Mg, and beyond it exhibits a decrees in emission. Furthermore, by varying the band gap from 3.50 to 3.61 eV, the PL spectra showed a near band edge (NBE) emission at wavelength around 370 nm (3.35 eV) and a broad deep level emission in the visible region. The obtained highly

  16. TLP Structural Health Monitoring Based on Vibration Signal of Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Jahangiri

    Full Text Available Abstract Structural Health Monitoring (SHM of Tension Leg Platform (TLP is very crucial for preventing catastrophic and sudden collapse of the structures. One of the methods of monitoring these structures is implementing SHM sensors. Supplying energy for these sensors for a long period is a challenging problem. So, one of the new methods of supplying energy for SHM, is usage of mechanical energy. In this method, the piezoelectric material is employed to convert the mechanical energy which is resulted from vibration of structure, to electrical energy. The advantage of this method is based on not implementing the battery charging system. Therefore, in this paper, after modeling TLP structure, energy supplying of these sensors with piezoelectric converters is studied. Furthermore, fault diagnosis of these structures in the presence of different uncertainties is proposed by the features of voltage signal, produced from piezoelectric patches and fuzzy classification method. Results show that this method can diagnose faults of the structure with an acceptable success rate.

  17. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air and aqueous solution. Operating parameters were optimized to improve imaging of structural details for a mature biofilm in liquid. By using a soft cantilever (0.03 N/m) and slow scan rate (0.5 Hz), biofilm and individual bacterial cell’s structural topography were resolved and continuously imaged in liquid without loss of spatial resolution or sample damage. The developed methodology will allow future in situ investigations to temporally monitor mixed culture drinking water biofilm structural changes during disinfection treatments. Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air and aqueous solution. Operating parameters were optimized to improve imaging of structural details for a mature biofilm in liquid. By using a soft cantilever (0.03 N/m) and slow scan rate (0.5 Hz), biofilm and individual bacterial cell’s structural topography were resolved and continuously imaged in liquid without loss of spatial resolution or sample damage. The developed methodo

  18. Analysis the temporal and spatial impact of water harvesting on Aforestation processes, at the Northen Negev region, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaman, E.; Egozi, R.; Goldshlager, N.

    2012-04-01

    Water availability in arid regions is a major limiting factor, which affect plant development. Therefore, knowledge about preliminary and ongoing spatial & temporal conditions (e.g. land surface properties, hydrological regime and vegetation dynamics) can improve greatly afforestation practice. The Ambassadors forest is one of the Jewish National Fund (JNF) new afforestation projects (initiated on 2005), which rely on water harvesting irrigation systems, located at the northern Negev region, Israel. Temporal and spatial processes are studied utilizing ground, air-borne and space-borne techniques for assessment of surface processes, that take place due to significant land-use change. Since 2005 the area shows significant variation of surface energy balance components which impact the spatial and temporal forest generation. Both human and climate affect these parameters, hence their influence is essential for future study of the region. Parameters of surface Albedo & Temperature and Vegetation dynamics are gathered by space-borne sensors (e.g. MODIS, Landsat & ALI) and verified at field scale in conjunction with ground-truth measurements of climate and soil properties. In addition, the project study various scenarios that might result from diverse climate trajectories that impact soil formation factors and therefore forest development. Preliminary results show that surface physical & ecoligical properties had changed significantly since the aforestation project began, comparing previous years. Sharp increase of surface albedo detected since 2005 that raised from 0.25 to 0.32, while vegetation density, estimated from NDVI, had dropped from annaul average of 0.21 down to 0.13 during 10-year time period. These changes are related to human interferance. The current paper presents the first phase of the long-term study of the Remote Sensing analysis and the current surface monitoring phase.

  19. Refreshing Music: Fog Harvesting with Harps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiwei; Anderson, Mark; Kennedy, Brook; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Fog harvesting is a useful technique for obtaining fresh water in arid climates. The wire meshes currently utilized for fog harvesting suffer from dual constraints: coarse meshes cannot efficiently capture fog, while fine meshes suffer from clogging issues. Here, we design a new type of fog harvester comprised of an array of vertical wires, which we call ``fog harps.'' To investigate the water collection efficiency, three fog harps were designed with different diameters (254 μm, 508 μm and 1.30 mm) but the same pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2. For comparison, three different size meshes were purchased with equivalent dimensions. As expected for the mesh structures, the mid-sized wires performed the best, with a drop-off in performance for the fine or coarse meshes. In contrast, the fog harvesting rate continually increased with decreasing wire diameter for the fog harps, due to its low hysteresis that prevented droplet clogging. This resulted in a 3-fold enhancement in the fog harvesting rate for the harp form factor compared to the mesh. The lack of a performance ceiling for the harps suggest that even greater enhancements could be achieved by scaling down to yet smaller sizes.

  20. Perspective on the structure of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.; Pettersson, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Liquid water can be described in a fluctuating inhomogeneous picture with two local structural motifs that are spatially separated. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds giving higher density (yellow), which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the entropy, but with enthalpically favored tetrahedrally bonded water patches appearing as fluctuations (blue), i.e. a competition between entropy and enthalpy. Upon cooling water the amount of molecules participating in tetrahedral structures and the size of the tetrahedral patches increase. Highlights: ► Two components maximizing either enthalpy (tetrahedral, low-density) or entropy (non-specific H-bonding, higher density). ► Interconvert discontinuously and ratio depends on temperature. ► Density fluctuations on 1 nm length scale. ► Increasing size in supercooled region. ► Connection to Widom line and 2nd critical point. - Abstract: We present a picture that combines discussions regarding the thermodynamic anomalies in ambient and supercooled water with recent interpretations of X-ray spectroscopy and scattering data of water in the ambient regime. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds, which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the entropy, but with enthalpically favored tetrahedrally bonded water patches appearing as fluctuations, i.e. a competition between entropy and enthalpy. Upon cooling water the amount of molecules participating in tetrahedral structures and the size of the tetrahedral patches increase. The two local structures are connected to the liquid–liquid critical point hypothesis in supercooled water corresponding to high density liquid and low density liquid. We will discuss the interpretation of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray emission

  1. Rainwater harvesting - An investigation into the potential for rainwater harvesting in Bradford

    OpenAIRE

    Doncaster, S.; Blanksby, J.; Shepherd, W.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of rainwater harvesting and rainwater harvesting tools, which are then used in case study examples for domestic, office block and warehouse rain water harvesting scenarios. Rainwater harvesting is placed in an historical context as a source of water supply and in a modern context as being complementary to centralised water distribution networks with benefits for wider water management including flood risk treatment as well as providing environmental and eco...

  2. Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

    2011-12-01

    The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to

  3. Application of two regression-based methods to estimate the effects of partial harvest on forest structure using Landsat data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.P. Healey; Z. Yang; W.B. Cohen; D.J. Pierce

    2006-01-01

    Although partial harvests are common in many forest types globally, there has been little assessment of the potential to map the intensity of these harvests using Landsat data. We modeled basal area removal and percentage cover change in a study area in central Washington (northwestern USA) using biennial Landsat imagery and reference data from historical aerial photos...

  4. Application of two regression-based methods to estimate the effects harvest on forest structure using Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Zhiqiang Yang; Warren B. Cohen; D. John Pierce

    2006-01-01

    Although partial harvests are common in many forest types globally, there has been little assessment of the potential to map the intensity of these harvests using Landsat data. We modeled basal area removal and percent cover change in a study area in central Washington (northwestern USA) using biennial Landsat imagery and reference data from historical aerial photos...

  5. Light-harvesting features revealed by the structure of plant Photosystem I

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Shem, A; Nelson, N; 10.1023/B:PRES.0000036881.23512.42

    2004-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is driven by two multi-subunit membrane protein complexes, Photosystem I and Photosystem II. In plants and green algae, both complexes are composed of two moieties: a reaction center (RC), where light-induced charge translocation occurs, and a peripheral antenna that absorbs light and funnels its energy to the reaction center. The peripheral antenna of PS I (LHC I) is composed of four gene products (Lhca 1-4) that are unique among the chlorophyll a/b binding proteins in their pronounced long-wavelength absorbance and in their assembly into dimers. The recently determined structure of plant Photosystem I provides the first relatively high- resolution structural model of a super-complex containing a reaction center and its peripheral antenna. We describe some of the structural features responsible for the unique properties of LHC I and discuss the advantages of the particular LHC I dimerization mode over monomeric or trimeric forms. In addition, we delineate some of the interactions betw...

  6. Assessing efficiency and economic viability of rainwater harvesting systems for meeting non-potable water demands in four climatic zones of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Jing, X.

    2017-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting is now increasingly used to manage urban flood and alleviate water scarcity crisis. In this study, a computational tool based on water balance equation is developed to assess stormwater capture and water saving efficiency and economic viability of rainwater harvesting systems (RHS) in eight cities across four climatic zones of China. It requires daily rainfall, contributing area, runoff losses, first flush volume, storage capacity, daily water demand and economic parameters as inputs. Three non-potable water demand scenarios (i.e., toilet flushing, lawn irrigation, and combination of them) are considered. The water demand for lawn irrigation is estimated using the Cropwat 8.0 and Climwat 2.0. Results indicate that higher water saving efficiency and water supply time reliability can be achieved for RHS with larger storage capacities, for lower water demand scenarios and located in more humid regions, while higher stormwater capture efficiency is associated with larger storage capacity, higher water demand scenarios and less rainfall. For instance, a 40 m3 RHS in Shanghai (humid climate) for lawn irrigation can capture 17% of stormwater, while its water saving efficiency and time reliability can reach 96 % and 98%, respectively. The water saving efficiency and time reliability of a 20 m3 RHS in Xining (semi-arid climate) for toilet flushing are 19% and 16%, respectively, but it can capture 63% of stormwater. With the current values of economic parameters, economic viability of RHS can be achieved in humid and semi-humid regions for reasonably designed RHS; however, it is not financially viable to install RHS in arid regions as the benefit-cost ratio is much smaller than 1.0.

  7. Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate administrative structures in harnessing water resources for sustainable growth in Nigeria. Lekan Oyebande. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42(1) 2006: 21-30. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Effect of sugarcane burning or green harvest methods on the Brazilian Cerrado soil bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Santos, Adriana L; Piccolo, Marisa C; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Coutinho, Heitor L C; Peixoto, Raquel S; Tiedje, James M; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is one of the most important biodiversity reservoirs in the world. The sugarcane cultivation is expanding in this biome and necessitates the study of how it may impact the soil properties of the Cerrado. There is a lack of information especially about the impacts of different sugarcane management on the native bacterial communities of Cerrado soil. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate and compare the soil bacterial community structure of the Cerrado vegetation with two sugarcane systems. We evaluated samples under native vegetation and the impact of the two most commonly used management strategies for sugarcane cultivation (burnt cane and green cane) on this diversity using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of the rrs gene (16S rRNA). Nineteen different phyla were identified, with Acidobacteria (≈35%), Proteobacteria (≈24%) and Actinobacteria (≈21%) being the most abundant. Many of the sequences were represented by few operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 3% of dissimilarity), which were found in all treatments. In contrast, there were very strong patterns of local selection, with many OTUs occurring only in one sample. Our results reveal a complex bacterial diversity, with a large fraction of microorganisms not yet described, reinforcing the importance of this biome. As possible sign of threat, the qPCR detected a reduction of the bacterial population in agricultural soils compared with native Cerrado soil communities. We conclude that sugarcane cultivation promoted significant structural changes in the soil bacterial community, with Firmicutes phylum and Acidobacteria classes being the groups most affected.

  9. Cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Srinivasulu Raju; M Umapathy; G Uma

    2015-01-01

    Energy harvesting employing piezoelectric materials in mechanical structures such as cantilever beams, plates, diaphragms, etc, has been an emerging area of research in recent years. The research in this area is also focused on structural tailoring to improve the harvested power from the energy harvesters. Towards this aim, this paper presents a method for improving the harvested power from a cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester by introducing multiple rectangular cavities. A generalized model for a piezoelectric energy harvester with multiple rectangular cavities at a single section and two sections is developed. A method is suggested to optimize the thickness of the cavities and the number of cavities required to generate a higher output voltage for a given cantilever beam structure. The performance of the optimized energy harvesters is evaluated analytically and through experimentation. The simulation and experimental results show that the performance of the energy harvester can be increased with multiple cavities compared to the harvester with a single cavity. (paper)

  10. Evaluation of the impact of water harvesting techniques on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Bidha groundwater in Kairouan at the Central part of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechergui, M. Mohamed; Henda Saoudi, Mme

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of water harvesting constructed hydraulic structures (big and small dams, terraces, seuils for recharge…) on the evolution of piezometric head of Ain El Beidha groundwater table. The measurements of depth of water table, taken at the end of rain season and at the end of irrigation season, in many piezometers and monitoring wells, for a long period of observation before and after implementation of all the hydraulic structures, were used with the cumulative rain to the highest water table to diagnostic the effect of natural recharge and constructed hydraulic structures. According to the analysis of curves illustrating the evolution of piezometric head and rainfall over time, it was shown that despite the fact that the same amount of rain fall on the total area in the limits of Ain El Beidha groundwater table, the piezometers respond differently. This is because there are many sources of recharge and many factors affecting the recharge. First of all, the aquifer is divided in four compartments (the calcareous formation of Djebel El Houyareb, the plio-quaternary formation, the Miocene formation: Baglia and Saouaf). All those respond differently to the recharge by their capacity of infiltration and their hydrodynamic characteristics. The recharge of the groundwater table was increased by the implementation of small soil and water conservation structures, artificial lakes, El Haouareb Dam, run off in the natural Oued bads and seuils for recharge installed in the bads of oueds. The different piezometric drown maps were used to determine the flow direction and hydraulic gradient in order to identify the recharge areas, while tracking maps for three equal piezometric heads 210 m 300 m and 370 m established over different years made it possible to assess the impact of hydraulic structures, namely the effect of SWC and Ben Zitoun Lake. To illustrate the impact of El Houareb dam on the groundwater, the piezometric maps and local values

  11. Protein structural deformation induced lifetime shortening of photosynthetic bacteria light-harvesting complex LH2 excited state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-Hai; Zhang, Lei; Weng, Yu-Xiang; Du, Lu-Chao; Ye, Man-Ping; Yang, Guo-Zhen; Fujii, Ritsuko; Rondonuwu, Ferdy S; Koyama, Yasushi; Wu, Yi-Shi; Zhang, J P

    2005-06-01

    Photosynthetic bacterial light-harvesting antenna complex LH2 was immobilized on the surface of TiO(2) nanoparticles in the colloidal solution. The LH2/TiO(2) assembly was investigated by the time-resolved spectroscopic methods. The excited-state lifetimes for carotenoid-containing and carotenoidless LH2 have been measured, showing a decrease in the excited-state lifetime of B850 when LH2 was immobilized on TiO(2). The possibility that the decrease of the LH2 excited-state lifetime being caused by an interfacial electron transfer reaction between B850 and the TiO(2) nanoparticle was precluded experimentally. We proposed that the observed change in the photophysical properties of LH2 when assembled onto TiO(2) nanoparticles is arising from the interfacial-interaction-induced structural deformation of the LH2 complex deviating from an ellipse of less eccentric to a more eccentric ellipse, and the observed phenomenon can be accounted by an elliptical exciton model. Experiment by using photoinactive SiO(2) nanoparticle in place of TiO(2) and core complex LH1 instead of LH2 provide further evidence to the proposed mechanism.

  12. Structure Optimization of a Grain Impact Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Application for Monitoring Separation Losses on Tangential-Axial Combine Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenwei; Li, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhan; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-01

    Grain separation losses is a key parameter to weigh the performance of combine harvesters, and also a dominant factor for automatically adjusting their major working parameters. The traditional separation losses monitoring method mainly rely on manual efforts, which require a high labor intensity. With recent advancements in sensor technology, electronics and computational processing power, this paper presents an indirect method for monitoring grain separation losses in tangential-axial combine harvesters in real-time. Firstly, we developed a mathematical monitoring model based on detailed comparative data analysis of different feeding quantities. Then, we developed a grain impact piezoelectric sensor utilizing a YT-5 piezoelectric ceramic as the sensing element, and a signal process circuit designed according to differences in voltage amplitude and rise time of collision signals. To improve the sensor performance, theoretical analysis was performed from a structural vibration point of view, and the optimal sensor structural has been selected. Grain collide experiments have shown that the sensor performance was greatly improved. Finally, we installed the sensor on a tangential-longitudinal axial combine harvester, and grain separation losses monitoring experiments were carried out in North China, which results have shown that the monitoring method was feasible, and the biggest measurement relative error was 4.63% when harvesting rice. PMID:25594592

  13. Structure optimization of a grain impact piezoelectric sensor and its application for monitoring separation losses on tangential-axial combine harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenwei; Li, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhan; Xu, Lizhang

    2015-01-14

    Grain separation losses is a key parameter to weigh the performance of combine harvesters, and also a dominant factor for automatically adjusting their major working parameters. The traditional separation losses monitoring method mainly rely on manual efforts, which require a high labor intensity. With recent advancements in sensor technology, electronics and computational processing power, this paper presents an indirect method for monitoring grain separation losses in tangential-axial combine harvesters in real-time. Firstly, we developed a mathematical monitoring model based on detailed comparative data analysis of different feeding quantities. Then, we developed a grain impact piezoelectric sensor utilizing a YT-5 piezoelectric ceramic as the sensing element, and a signal process circuit designed according to differences in voltage amplitude and rise time of collision signals. To improve the sensor performance, theoretical analysis was performed from a structural vibration point of view, and the optimal sensor structural has been selected. Grain collide experiments have shown that the sensor performance was greatly improved. Finally, we installed the sensor on a tangential-longitudinal axial combine harvester, and grain separation losses monitoring experiments were carried out in North China, which results have shown that the monitoring method was feasible, and the biggest measurement relative error was 4.63% when harvesting rice.

  14. Structural and productive characteristics of Marandu and Xaraés grasses fertilized at different times after harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Cristina Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of applying N and K2O at different times after harvest on the structure and production characteristics of Marandu and Xaraés cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha. Two greenhouse 4 × 2 factorial experiments using a randomized block design with eight treatments and four replicates were carried out. In experiment 1, the plants in pots were fertilized weekly with 50 mg/dm³ of N and K2O until a week before a uniformity cut, for a total of four applications. After cutting, plants were fertilized with 50 mg/dm³ of N and K2O at 0, 3, 6, and 9 days. Cultivars were evaluated after 44 days of regrowth. In experiment 2, a single 50 mg/dm³ dose of N and K2O was applied a week before the uniformity cut, and 100 mg/dm³ of N and K2O were applied at 0, 4, 8, and 12 days after cutting; cultivars were evaluated after 39 days of regrowth. In experiment 1, the leaf/stem ratio and dry matter yield were influenced by the time at which fertilizers were applied. In the second experiment, the total number of leaves, expanded leaves, dead leaves, and the leaf lamina accumulated length and dry matter production were influenced by the time at which fertilizers were applied. Marandugrass had more leaves and tillers than cv. Xaraés, which, in turn, had greater height, dry matter yield and regrowth vigor. Applying nitrogen and potassium fertilizer immediately after cutting improves the structural characteristics, while the dry matter yield is maximized by applying fertilizers immediately after cutting by using lower doses of N, or at 4.5 days after cutting by using higher doses of N.

  15. Cell water balance of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) during its post-harvest lifetime studied by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, H C; Van As, H

    1999-04-19

    A combination of quantitative water density and T2 MRI and changes therein observed after infiltration with 'invisible' Gd-DTPA solution was used to study cell water balances, cell water potentials and cell integrity. This method was applied to reveal the evolution and mechanism of redistribution of water in harvested mushrooms. Even when mushrooms did not lose water during the storage period, a redistribution of water was observed from stipe to cap and gills. When the storage condition resulted in a net loss of water, the stipe lost more water than the cap. The water density in the gill increased, probably due to development of spores. Deterioration effects (i.e. leakage of cells, decrease in osmotic water potential) were found in the outer stipe. They were not found in the cap, even at prolonged storage at 293 K and R.H.=70%. The changes in osmotic potential were partly accounted for by changes in the mannitol concentration. Changes in membrane permeability were also indicated. Cells in the cap had a constant low membrane (water) permeability. They developed a decreasing osmotic potential (more negative), whereas the osmotic potential in the outer stipe increased, together with the permeability of cells.

  16. Analysis of fluid structural instability in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccirillo, N.

    1997-02-01

    Recent flow testing of stainless steel hardware in a high pressure/high temperature water environment produced an apparent fluid-structural instability. The source of instability was investigated by studying textbook theory and by performing NASTRAN finite element analyses. The modal analyses identified the mode that was being excited, but the flutter instability analysis showed that the design is stable if minimal structural damping is present. Therefore, it was suspected that the test hardware was the root cause of the instability. Further testing confirmed this suspicion

  17. Comparison of tree size structure and growth for partially harvested and even-aged hemlock-spruce stands in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Troy Heithecker; Eric K. Zenner

    2010-01-01

    The effects of partial cutting on tree size structure and stand growth were evaluated in 52 plots in 13 stands in southeast Alaska that were partially harvested 53 to 96 years ago and compared with 50-year-old even-aged stands that developed after clearcutting. The net basal-area growth was greater in the partially cut plots than in the uncut plots, and basal-area...

  18. [Crystallographic evaluation of structural changes in water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farashchuk, N F; Rakhmanin, Yu A; Savostikova, O N; Telenkova, O G

    2014-01-01

    The study of the structural state of tap water that has been stored for two days in the packaging materials of various type and in different conditions, was performed with the use of crystallographic method for the investigation of liquids based on a special approach for dehydration of the drop, which is a fixed thin "slice" of the examines liquid. Most organized crystallographic pattern was shown to observe in a drop of water after treatment Bioptron lamp (content of liquid-crystal associates (LCA)--6.90 ± 0.23), and stored in a silver vessel (content LCA--6.28 ± 0.17), and the least organized, almost amorphous precipitate is formed in a drop of water stored in plastic containers (content LCA--2.92 ± 0.15%). Basing on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the crystallographic method can be used for the identification of qualitative changes occurring in liquid water under the influence of various physical factors, for the identification of the rationality of the use of hereafter sophisticated quantitative techniques.

  19. Impacts of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems, and Rainwater Harvesting on Water Demand, Carbon Dioxide, and NOx Emissions for Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jean-Ann; Sung, Sangwoo; Jeong, Hyunju; Broesicke, Osvaldo A; French, Steven P; Li, Duo; Crittenden, John C

    2018-01-02

    The purpose of this study is to explore the potential water, CO 2 and NO x emission, and cost savings that the deployment of decentralized water and energy technologies within two urban growth scenarios can achieve. We assess the effectiveness of urban growth, technological, and political strategies to reduce these burdens in the 13-county Atlanta metropolitan region. The urban growth between 2005 and 2030 was modeled for a business as usual (BAU) scenario and a more compact growth (MCG) scenario. We considered combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems using microturbines for our decentralized energy technology and rooftop rainwater harvesting and low flow fixtures for the decentralized water technologies. Decentralized water and energy technologies had more of an impact in reducing the CO 2 and NO x emissions and water withdrawal and consumption than an MCG growth scenario (which does not consider energy for transit). Decentralized energy can reduce the CO 2 and NO x emissions by 8% and 63%, respectively. Decentralized energy and water technologies can reduce the water withdrawal and consumption in the MCG scenario by 49% and 50% respectively. Installing CCHP systems on both the existing and new building stocks with a net metering policy could reduce the CO 2 , NO x , and water consumption by 50%, 90%, and 75% respectively.

  20. A hybrid strain and thermal energy harvester based on an infra-red sensitive Er3+ modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) ferroelectret structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Xie, Mengying; Bowen, Christopher Rhys; Davies, Philip R; Morgan, David J; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a novel infra-red (IR) sensitive Er 3+ modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) (Er-PVDF) film is developed for converting both mechanical and thermal energies into useful electrical power. The addition of Er 3+ to PVDF is shown to improve piezoelectric properties due to the formation of a self-polarized ferroelectric β-phase and the creation of an electret-like porous structure. In addition, we demonstrate that Er 3+ acts to enhance heat transfer into the Er-PVDF film due to its excellent infrared absorbance, which, leads to rapid and large temperature fluctuations and improved pyroelectric energy transformation. We demonstrate the potential of this novel material for mechanical energy harvesting by creating a durable ferroelectret energy harvester/nanogenerator (FTNG). The high thermal stability of the β-phase enables the FTNG to harvest large temperature fluctuations (ΔT ~ 24 K). Moreover, the superior mechanosensitivity, S M  ~ 3.4 VPa -1 of the FTNG enables the design of a wearable self-powered health-care monitoring system by human-machine integration. The combination of rare-earth ion, Er 3+ with the ferroelectricity of PVDF provides a new and robust approach for delivering smart materials and structures for self-powered wireless technologies, sensors and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

  1. A Stage-Structured Prey-Predator Fishery Model In The Presence Of Toxicity With Taxation As A Control Parameter of Harvesting Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kaur Bhatia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have considered stage-structured fishery model in the presence of toxicity, which is diminishing due to the current excessive use of fishing efforts resulting in devastating consequences. The purpose of this study is to propose a bio-economic mathematical model by introducing taxes to the profit per unit biomass of the harvested fish of each species with the intention of controlling fishing efforts in the presence of toxicity. We obtained both boundary and interior equilibrium points along with the conditions ensuring their validity. Local stability for the interior equilibrium point has been found by the trace-determinant criterion and global stability has been analyzed through a suitable Lyapunov function. We have also obtained the optimal harvesting policy with the help of Pontryagin's maximum principle. Lastly, numerical simulation with the help of MATLAB have been done and thus, the results of the formulated model have been established.

  2. Microalgae harvesting techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulab; Patidar, S K

    2018-07-01

    Microalgae with wide range of commercial applications have attracted a lot of attention of the researchers in the last few decades. However, microalgae utilization is not economically sustainable due to high cost of harvesting. A wide range of solid - liquid separation techniques are available for microalgae harvesting. The techniques include coagulation and flocculation, flotation, centrifugation and filtration or a combination of various techniques. Despite the importance of harvesting to the economics and energy balance, there is no universal harvesting technique for microalgae. Therefore, this review focuses on assessing technical, economical and application potential of various harvesting techniques so as to allow selection of an appropriate technology for cost effectively harvesting of microalgae from their culture medium. Various harvesting and concentrating techniques of microalgae were reviewed to suggest order of suitability of the techniques for four main microalgae applications i.e biofuel, human and animal food, high valued products, and water quality restoration. For deciding the order of suitability, a comparative analysis of various harvesting techniques based on the six common criterions (i.e biomass quality, cost, biomass quantity, processing time, species specific and toxicity) has been done. Based on the order of various techniques vis-a-vis various criteria and preferred order of criteria for various applications, order of suitability of harvesting techniques for various applications has been decided. Among various harvesting techniques, coagulation and flocculation, centrifugation and filtration were found to be most suitable for considered applications. These techniques may be used alone or in combination for increasing the harvesting efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure of steam water mixture spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Yuki; Mizutani, Hiroya; Sanada, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    The flow structure of steam and water mixture spray is studied both numerically and experimentally. The velocity and pressure profiles of the single phase flow are calculated using numerical methods. Using calculated flow fields, the droplet behavior is predicted by the one-way interaction model. This numerical analysis clarifies that the droplets are still accelerated after they are sprayed from the nozzle. In the experiments, the spray of the mixture is observed by using ultra high-speed video camera, and the velocity field is measured by using PIV technique. Along with this PIV velocity field measurement, the velocities and diameters of droplets are measured by phase Doppler anemometry. Furthermore, mixing process of steam and water, and atomization process of liquid film are observed through the transparent nozzle. The high-speed photography observation reveals that the flow inside the nozzle forms the annular flow and the most of the liquid film is atomized at the nozzle outlet. Finally, the optimum method of processing mixture of steam and water is proposed. (author)

  4. In(1-x)Ga(x)N@ZnO: a rationally designed and quantum dot integrated material for water splitting and solar harvesting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaambal, Sivaraman; Mapa, Maitri; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S

    2014-09-07

    The highly desirable combination of the visible light absorption properties of In1-xGaxN Quantum dots (QD) along with the multifunctionality of ZnO into a single integrated material was prepared for solar harvesting. This is the first report on InGaN QD integrated with ZnO (InGaN@ZnO), synthesized by a highly reproducible, simple combustion method in 15 min. Structural, microstructural and electronic integration of the nitride and oxide components of InGaN@ZnO was demonstrated by appropriate characterization methods. Self-assembly of InGaN QD is induced in growing nascent zinc oxo nanoclusters taking advantage of the common wurtzite structure and nitrogen incorporation at the expense of oxygen vacancies. Direct integration brings about a single phase structure exhibiting extensive visible light absorption and high photostability. InGaN@ZnO suggests synergistic operation of light harvesting and charge conducting components for solar H2 generation without using any co-catalyst or sacrificial agent, and a promising photocurrent generation at 0 V under visible light illumination. The present study suggests a direct integration of QD with the host matrix and is a potential method to realize the advantages of QDs.

  5. A Facile Method for Synthesizing TiO2 Sea-Urchin-Like Structures and Their Applications in Solar Energy Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wen-Hui; Xu Hong-Xing; Wang Wen-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method to prepare TiO 2 sea-urchin-like structures, which involves the initial formation of tubular nanostructures and subsequent self-assembly of the nanotubes into micrometer-scale sea-urchin-like structures. We also investigate the important role of alkali aqueous conditions in the preparation of TiO 2 sea-urchin-like structures. This facile and cost-effective approach provides a new route for the preparation of self-assembled TiO 2 structures. In addition, the performance of the as-synthesized TiO 2 sea-urchin-like structures as the active layer of an efficient solar energy harvester is also studied and discussed. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruichao Xu

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 {mu}m silicon layer and 10-30 {mu}m screen printed PZT layer, anchored on a silicon frame at one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes will cover both side of the PZT layer, so the harvested energy can be collected electrically. The second archetype has a bimorph cantilever beam, which consists of two 15-35 {mu}m PZT layers, anchored on a silicon frame at the one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes are deposited below, between and above the two PZT layers. The root mean square (RMS) power output measured on this type of harvesters is as high as 37.1{mu}W at 1 g. The third archetype is similar to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All of which have being fully or partially solved in this project. The final energy harvesters are designed to be used in an energy harvester powered wireless sensing system. (Author)

  7. STUDY ON THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF PERIPHERAL LIGHT HARVESTING COMPLEXES (LH2 IN PURPLE NON-SULPHUR PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatas H.P. Brotosudarmo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis provides an example of a natural process that has been optimized during evolution to harness solar energy efficiently and safely, and finally to use it to produce a carbon-based fuel. Initially, solar energy is captured by the light harvesting pigment-protein complexes. In purple bacteria these antenna complexes are constructed on a rather simple modular basis. Light absorbed by these antenna complexes is funnelled downhill to reaction centres, where light drives a trans-membrane redox reaction. The light harvesting proteins not only provide the scaffolding that correctly positions the bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoid pigments for optimal energy transfer but also creates an environment that can modulate the wavelength at which different bacteriochlorophyll molecules absorb light thereby creating the energy funnel. How these proteins can modulate the absorption spectra of the bacteriochlorophylls will be discussed in this review.

  8. Chemical characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in relation to heavy metal concentrations in soil water from boreal peatlands after clear-cut harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiikkilä, O.; Nieminen, T.; Starr, M.; Ukonmaanaho, L.

    2012-04-01

    Boreal peatlands form an important terrestrial carbon reserve and are a major source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to surface waters, particularly when disturbed through forestry practices such as draining or timber harvesting. Heavy metals show a strong affinity to organic matter and so, along with DOM, heavy metals can be mobilized and transported from the soil to surface waters and sediments where they may become toxic to aquatic organisms and pass up the food chain. The complexation of heavy metals with DOM can be expected to be related and determined by the chemical characteristics of DOM and oxidation/reducing conditions in the peat. We extracted interstitial water from peat samples and determined the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and Al, Cu, Zn and Fe in various fractions of DOM isolated by adsorption properties (XAD-8 fractionation) and molecular-weight (ultrafiltration). The peat samples were taken from 0-30 and 30-50 cm depth in drained peatland catchments two years after whole-tree or stem-only clear-cut harvesting (Scots pine or Norway spruce) had been carried out. The samples from the upper layer had been subject to alternating saturation/aeration conditions while the deeper layer had been continuously under the water table. The fractionation of DOC and DON according to both adsorption properties and molecular-weight fractions clearly differed between the upper and lower peat layers. While the hydrophobic acid fraction contained proportionally more DOC and DON than the hydrophilic acid fraction in the upper peat layer the results were vice versa in the lower peat layer. High-molecular-weight compounds (> 100 kDa) were proportionally more abundant in the upper and low-molecular-weight compounds (< 1 kDa) in the lower peat layer. These differences are assumed to reflect differences in the aerobic/ anaerobic conditions and degree of decomposition between the two layers. The concentrations of Zn, Al

  9. Unraveling Key Metabolomic Alterations in Wheat Embryos Derived from Freshly Harvested and Water-Imbibed Seeds of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Dormancy Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayudh Das

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Untimely rains in wheat fields during harvest season can cause pre-harvest sprouting (PHS, which deteriorates the yield and quality of wheat crop. Metabolic homeostasis of the embryo plays a role in seed dormancy, determining the status of the maturing grains either as dormant (PHS-tolerant or non-dormant (PHS-susceptible. Very little is known for direct measurements of global metabolites in embryonic tissues of dormant and non-dormant wheat seeds. In this study, physiologically matured and freshly harvested wheat seeds of PHS-tolerant (cv. Sukang, dormant and PHS-susceptible (cv. Baegjoong, non-dormant cultivars were water-imbibed, and the isolated embryos were subjected to high-throughput, global non-targeted metabolomic profiling. A careful comparison of identified metabolites between Sukang and Baegjoong embryos at 0 and 48 h after imbibition revealed that several key metabolic pathways [such as: lipids, fatty acids, oxalate, hormones, the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs, and amino acids] and phytochemicals were differentially regulated between dormant and non-dormant varieties. Most of the membrane lipids were highly reduced in Baegjoong compared to Sukang, which indicates that the cell membrane instability in response to imbibition could also be a key factor in non-dormant wheat varieties for their untimely germination. This study revealed that several key marker metabolites (e.g., RFOs: glucose, fructose, maltose, and verbascose, were highly expressed in Baegjoong after imbibition. Furthermore, the data showed that the key secondary metabolites and phytochemicals (vitexin, chrysoeriol, ferulate, salidroside and gentisic acid, with known antioxidant properties, were comparatively low at basal levels in PHS-susceptible, non-dormant cultivar, Baegjoong. In conclusion, the results of this investigation revealed that after imbibition the metabolic homeostasis of dormant wheat is significantly less affected compared to non

  10. Branched ZnO wire structures for water collection inspired by cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Xin; Xiang, Mingming; Lu, Zhihui; Luo, Cheng

    2014-06-11

    In this work, motivated by an approach used in a cactus to collect fog, we have developed an artificial water-collection structure. This structure includes a large ZnO wire and an array of small ZnO wires that are branched on the large wire. All these wires have conical shapes, whose diameters gradually increase from the tip to the root of a wire. Accordingly, a water drop that is condensed on the tip of each wire is driven to the root by a capillary force induced by this diameter gradient. The lengths of stem and branched wires in the synthesized structures are in the orders of 1 mm and 100 μm, respectively. These dimensions are, respectively, comparable to and larger than their counterparts in the case of a cactus. Two groups of tests were conducted at relative humidity of 100% to compare the amounts of water collected by artificial and cactus structures within specific time durations of 2 and 35 s, respectively. The amount of water collected by either type of structures was in the order of 0.01 μL. However, on average, what has been collected by the artificial structures was 1.4-5.0 times more than that harvested by the cactus ones. We further examined the mechanism that a cactus used to absorb a collected water drop into its stem. On the basis of the gained understanding, we developed a setup to successfully collect about 6 μL of water within 30 min.

  11. Protein Structural Deformation Induced Lifetime Shortening of Photosynthetic Bacteria Light-Harvesting Complex LH2 Excited State

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xing-Hai; Zhang, Lei; Weng, Yu-Xiang; Du, Lu-Chao; Ye, Man-Ping; Yang, Guo-Zhen; Fujii, Ritsuko; Rondonuwu, Ferdy S.; Koyama, Yasushi; Wu, Yi-Shi; Zhang, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacterial light-harvesting antenna complex LH2 was immobilized on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles in the colloidal solution. The LH2/TiO2 assembly was investigated by the time-resolved spectroscopic methods. The excited-state lifetimes for carotenoid-containing and carotenoidless LH2 have been measured, showing a decrease in the excited-state lifetime of B850 when LH2 was immobilized on TiO2. The possibility that the decrease of the LH2 excited-state lifetime being caused by ...

  12. Identification of Suitable Water Harvesting Zones Based on Geomorphic Resources for Drought Areas: A Case Study of Una District, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, D. C., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Water is one of the most vital natural resource and its availability and quality determine ecosystem productivity, both for agricultural and natural systems. Una district is one of the major potential agricultural districts in Himachal Pradesh, India. More than 70% of the population of this district is engaged in agriculture and allied sectors and major crops grown are maize, wheat, rice, sugarcane, pulses and vegetables. The region faces drought every year and about 90 per cent of the area is water stressed. This has resulted in crop loss and shortage of food and fodder. The sources of drinking water, small ponds and bowlies dry-up during summer season resulting in scarcity of drinking water. Una district receives rainfall during monsoons from June to September and also during non-monsoon period (winter). The annual average rainfall in the area is about 1040 mm with 55 average rainy days. But due to heavy surface run-off the farmers not able to cultivate the crops more than once in a year. Past research indicate that the geomorphology of the Una district might be responsible for such droughts as it controls the surface as well as ground water resources. The research proposes to develop a water stress model for Una district using the geomorphic parameters, water resource and land use land cover data of the study area. Using Survey of India topographical maps (1:50000), the geomorphic parameters are extracted. The spatial layers of these parameters i.e. drainage density, slope, relative relief, ruggedness index, surface water body's frequency are created in GIS. A time series of normalized remotely sensed data of the study area is used for land use land cover classification and analyses. Based on the results from the water stress model, the drought/water stress areas and water harvesting zones are identified and documented. The results of this research will help the general population in resolving the drinking water problem to a certain extent and also the

  13. Life cycle and hydrologic modeling of rainwater harvesting in urban neighborhoods: Implications of urban form and water demand patterns in the US and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Boix, Anna; Devkota, Jay; Phillips, Robert; Vargas-Parra, María Violeta; Josa, Alejandro; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan; Apul, Defne

    2018-04-15

    Water management plays a major role in any city, but applying alternative strategies might be more or less feasible depending on the urban form and water demand. This paper aims to compare the environmental performance of implementing rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in American and European cities. To do so, two neighborhoods with a water-stressed Mediterranean climate were selected in contrasting cities, i.e., Calafell (Catalonia, Spain) and Ukiah (California, US). Calafell is a high-density, tourist city, whereas Ukiah is a typical sprawled area. We studied the life cycle impacts of RWH in urban contexts by using runoff modeling before (i.e. business as usual) and after the implementation of this system. In general, cisterns were able to supply >75% of the rainwater demand for laundry and toilet flushing. The exception were multi-story buildings with roofs smaller than 200m 2 , where the catchment area was insufficient to meet demand. The implementation of RWH was environmentally beneficial with respect to the business-as-usual scenario, especially because of reduced runoff treatment needs. Along with soil features, roof area and water demand were major parameters that affected this reduction. RWH systems are more attractive in Calafell, which had 60% lower impacts than in Ukiah. Therefore, high-density areas can potentially benefit more from RWH than sprawled cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Shock wave focusing in water inside convergent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on shock focusing in water-filled convergent structures have been performed. A shock wave in water is generated by means of a projectile, launched from a gas gun, which impacts a water-filled convergent structure. Two types of structures have been tested; a bulk material and a thin shell structure. The geometric shape of the convergent structures is given by a logarithmic spiral, and this particular shape is chosen because it maximizes the amount of energy reaching the focal region. High-speed schlieren photography is used to visualize the shock dynamics during the focusing event. Results show that the fluid-structure interaction between the thin shell structure and the shock wave in the water is different from that of a bulk structure; multiple reflections of the shock wave inside the thin shell are reflected back into the water, thus creating a wave train, which is not observed for shock focusing in a bulk material.

  15. Integrated Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) with an anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) for low strength wastewater treatment, energy harvesting and water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Sandoval, Rodrigo J.

    2013-11-01

    Shortage of potable water is a problem that affects many nations in the world and it will aggravate in a near future if pertinent actions are not carried out. Decrease in consumption, improvements in water distribution systems to avoid losses and more efficient water treatment processes are some actions that can be implemented to attack this problem. Membrane technology and biological processes are used in wastewater treatment to achieve high water quality standards. Some other technologies, besides water treatment, attempt to obtain energy from organic wastes present in water. In this study, a proof-of-concept was accomplished demonstrating that a Microbial Electrolysis Cell can be fully integrated with a Membrane Bioreactor to achieve wastewater treatment and harvest energy. Conductive hollow fiber membranes made of nickel functioned as both filter material for treated water reclamation and as a cathode to catalyze hydrogen production reaction. The produced hydrogen was subsequently converted into methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Organic removal was 98.9% irrespective of operation mode. Maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate was 0.2 m3/m3d, while maximum current density achieved was 6.1 A/m2 (based on cathode surface area). Biofouling, an unavoidable phenomenon in traditional MBRs, can be minimized in this system through self-cleaning approach of hybrid membranes by hydrogen production. The increased rate of hydrogen evolution at high applied voltage (0.9 V) reduces the membrane fouling. Improvements can be done in the system to make it as a promising net energy positive technology for the low strength wastewater treatment.

  16. Review of magnetostrictive vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2017-10-01

    The field of energy harvesting has grown concurrently with the rapid development of portable and wireless electronics in which reliable and long-lasting power sources are required. Electrochemical batteries have a limited lifespan and require periodic recharging. In contrast, vibration energy harvesters can supply uninterrupted power by scavenging useful electrical energy from ambient structural vibrations. This article reviews the current state of vibration energy harvesters based on magnetostrictive materials, especially Terfenol-D and Galfenol. Existing magnetostrictive harvester designs are compared in terms of various performance metrics. Advanced techniques that can reduce device size and improve performance are presented. Models for magnetostrictive devices are summarized to guide future harvester designs.

  17. Water stale and structure analysis of Konjac irradiation copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Shengrong; Xia Hezhou; Chen Xueling; Ye Lixiu; Hua Yuejin

    2011-01-01

    To study the absorption performance of Konjac-AA copolymer prepared by using irradiation, the water absorption capacity, sorbent speed and water keeping ability were determined, DSC and TEM analysis were used to investigate the water content and structure characters. The results showed that the largest water absorption speed was 16 g · -1 · min -1 at room temperature, and the largest water absorption was 400 times within 60 minutes. The water absorption was affected by granularity, temperature, ion content and ion type, especially the ion type. The water keeping ability was affected by temperature and time, which was up to 35% of absorbed water when the fully water absorbed copolymer was kept under room temperature for 15 d. The free and bounder water content which could be assimilated by the plants was 99.617%. The water stale copolymer has a three-dimensional spiral structure. (authors)

  18. Assessing the biophysical and socio-economic potential of Sustainable Land Management and Water Harvesting Technologies for rainfed agriculture across semi-arid Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders in recent EU projects identified soil erosion as the most frequent driver of land degradation in semi-arid environments. In a number of sites, historic land management and rainfall variability are recognised as contributing to the serious environmental impact. In order to consider the potential of sustainable land management and water harvesting techniques stakeholders and study sites from the projects selected and trialled both local technologies and promising technologies reported from other sites . The combined PESERA and DESMICE modelling approach considered the regional effects of the technologies in combating desertification both in environmental and socio-economical terms. Initial analysis was based on long term average climate data with the model run to equilibrium. Current analysis, primarily based on the WAHARA study sites considers rainfall variability more explicitly in time series mode. The PESERA-DESMICE approach considers the difference between a baseline scenario and a (water harvesting) technology scenario, typically, in terms of productivity, financial viability and scope for reducing erosion risk. A series of 50 year rainfall realisations are generated from observed data to capture a full range of the climatic variability. Each realisation provides a unique time-series of rainfall and through modelling can provide a simulated time-series of crop yield and erosion risk for both baseline conditions and technology scenarios. Subsequent realisations and model simulations add to an envelope of the potential crop yield and cost-benefit relations. The development of such envelopes helps express the agricultural and erosional risk associated with climate variability and the potential for conservation measures to absorb the risk, highlighting the probability of achieving a given crop yield or erosion limit. Information that can directly inform or influence the local adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability in semi

  19. Structure of water and the thermodynamics of aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemethy, G.

    1970-10-26

    This report represents the summary of a series of lectures held at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Laboratori di Fisica, from 18 September to 26 October 1970. The topics discussed were: Intermolecular forces, the individual water molecule and the hydrogen bond, the structures of the solid phases of water, experimental information on the strucuture of liquid water, theoretical models of water structure, experimental properties and theoretical models of aqueous solutions of nonpolar solutes, polar solutes, and electrolytes, the conformational stability of biological macromolecules.

  20. Push-Pull Type Porphyrin Based Sensitizers: The Effect of Donor Structure on the Light-Harvesting Ability and Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao; Li, Renzhi; Luo, Jie; Zheng, Bin; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Peng; Wu, Jishan

    2015-01-01

    Push-pull type porphyrin-based sensitizers have become promising candidates for high-efficiency dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). It is of importance to understand the fundamental structure-physical property-photovoltaic performance relationships by varying the donor and acceptor moieties. In this work, two new porphyrin-based sensitizers, WW-7 and WW-8, were synthesized and compared with the known sensitizer YD20. All the three dyes have the same porphyrin core and acceptor group (ethynylbenzoic acid) but their donor groups vary from the triphenylamine in YD20 to meso-diphenylaminoanthracene in WW-7 to N-phenyl carbazole in WW-8. Co(II/III)-based DSC device characterizations revealed that WW-7 showed enhanced light harvesting ability in comparison to YD20 with improved incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiencies (IPCEs). As a result, WW-7 displayed much higher short circuit current (Jsc: 13.54 mA cm-2) and open-circuit voltage (Voc: 0.829 V), with a power conversion efficiency (η) as high as 7.7%. Under the same conditions, YD20 cell exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 6.6% and the dye WW-8 showed even lower efficiency (η = 4.6%). Detailed physical measurements and theoretic calculations were conducted to understand the difference and reveal how three different donor structures affect their molecular orbital profile, light-harvesting ability, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance.

  1. Push-Pull Type Porphyrin Based Sensitizers: The Effect of Donor Structure on the Light-Harvesting Ability and Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qingbiao

    2015-06-23

    Push-pull type porphyrin-based sensitizers have become promising candidates for high-efficiency dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). It is of importance to understand the fundamental structure-physical property-photovoltaic performance relationships by varying the donor and acceptor moieties. In this work, two new porphyrin-based sensitizers, WW-7 and WW-8, were synthesized and compared with the known sensitizer YD20. All the three dyes have the same porphyrin core and acceptor group (ethynylbenzoic acid) but their donor groups vary from the triphenylamine in YD20 to meso-diphenylaminoanthracene in WW-7 to N-phenyl carbazole in WW-8. Co(II/III)-based DSC device characterizations revealed that WW-7 showed enhanced light harvesting ability in comparison to YD20 with improved incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiencies (IPCEs). As a result, WW-7 displayed much higher short circuit current (Jsc: 13.54 mA cm-2) and open-circuit voltage (Voc: 0.829 V), with a power conversion efficiency (η) as high as 7.7%. Under the same conditions, YD20 cell exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 6.6% and the dye WW-8 showed even lower efficiency (η = 4.6%). Detailed physical measurements and theoretic calculations were conducted to understand the difference and reveal how three different donor structures affect their molecular orbital profile, light-harvesting ability, energy level alignment, and eventually the photovoltaic performance.

  2. Polyamide membranes with nanoscale Turing structures for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhe; Chen, Shengfu; Peng, Xinsheng; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Congjie

    2018-05-01

    The emergence of Turing structures is of fundamental importance, and designing these structures and developing their applications have practical effects in chemistry and biology. We use a facile route based on interfacial polymerization to generate Turing-type polyamide membranes for water purification. Manipulation of shapes by control of reaction conditions enabled the creation of membranes with bubble or tube structures. These membranes exhibit excellent water-salt separation performance that surpasses the upper-bound line of traditional desalination membranes. Furthermore, we show the existence of high water permeability sites in the Turing structures, where water transport through the membranes is enhanced.

  3. Local Level Stormwater Harvesting and Reuse: A Practical Solution to the Water Security Challenges Faced by Urban Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. B. Nichols

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD treatment devices are often used to restore natural drainage properties in developed catchments. WSUD can make positive contributions to the restoration of natural ecosystem processes, by supporting trees and habitats in urban areas without taking up limited urban space. This paper reports on the development and testing of a new WSUD device, the Wicking Tank. It is designed to supply sufficient volumes of water to urban trees through periods of drought via synthetic wicks from an underground storage tank to support adequate tree health. Relying on gravity fed stormwater, and the natural capillarity, adhesion, and cohesion properties of water and the process of hydraulic redistribution, water is transferred from the tank and into the rhizosphere of the tree. Water demand is controlled passively by the water potential differential across the root zone. Proof of concept testing of the Wicking Tank has shown the device to successfully draw water into soil to support the ongoing survival of a potted plant for over 20 weeks. Substantial differences are anticipated between this proof of concept test and an in-situ field trial. A field-based demonstration style version of the Wicking Tank is planned for construction and testing in 2015.

  4. Sustainability of Mangrove Harvesting: How do Harvesters' Perceptions Differ from Ecological Analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López-Hoffman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To harvest biological resources sustainably, it is first necessary to understand what "sustainability" means in an ecological context, and what it means to the people who use the resources. As a case study, we examined the extractive logging of the mangrove Rhizophora mangle in the Río Limón area of Lake Maracaibo, in western Venezuela. The ecological definition of sustainable harvesting is harvesting that allows population numbers to be maintained or to increase over time. In interviews, the harvesters defined sustainable harvesting as levels permitting the maintenance of the mangrove population over two human generations, about 50 yr. In Río Limón, harvesters extract a combination of small adult and juvenile trees. Harvesting rates ranged from 7-35% of small adult trees. These harvesting levels would be sustainable according to the harvester's definition as long as juvenile harvesting was less than 40%. However, some harvesting levels that would be sustainable according to the harvesters were ecologically unsustainable, i.e., eventually causing declines in mangrove population numbers. It was also determined that the structure of mangrove forests was significantly affected by harvesting; even areas harvested at low, ecologically sustainable intensities had significantly fewer adult trees than undisturbed sites. Western Venezuela has no organized timber industry, so mangrove logs are used in many types of construction. A lagging economy and a lack of alternative construction materials make mangrove harvesting inevitable, and for local people, an economic necessity. This creates a trade-off between preserving the ecological characteristics of the mangrove population and responding to human needs. In order to resolve this situation, we recommended a limited and adaptive mangrove harvesting regime. We also suggest that harvesters could participate in community-based management programs as harvesting monitors.

  5. Can we describe graphene confined water structures as overlapping of approaching graphene-water interfacial structures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chialvo, Ariel A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vlcek, Lukas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-21

    We investigate the microscopic mechanisms of the overlap of interfacial structures in confined fluids and attempt to answer the question whether the confined structures can be predicted from the original density profiles of individual solid-fluid interfaces. For that purpose we perform (globally) isobaricisothermal (locally, grand canonical) molecular dynamics simulations to extract not only the axial distribution functions of the water-sites for the uncoupled graphene-water interfaces, but also those corresponding to the confined aqueous environments over the interplate range 8 ≤ h(Å) ≤ 28 typically at ambient conditions. We have tested two (i.e., an arithmetic and a geometric) superposition approximations for the singlet density of confined water between flat graphene plates, as well as for a combination of flat and corrugated graphene plates. The outcome of this study suggests that the answer to the title’s question is a “yes”, provided that the interplate distance h is large enough to avoid fluid geometric packing frustration.

  6. Structural and functional significance of water permeation through cotransporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Gorraitz, Edurne; Her, Ka

    2016-01-01

    Membrane transporters, in addition to their major role as specific carriers for ions and small molecules, can also behave as water channels. However, neither the location of the water pathway in the protein nor their functional importance is known. Here, we map the pathway for water and urea...... through the intestinal sodium/glucose cotransporter SGLT1. Molecular dynamics simulations using the atomic structure of the bacterial transporter vSGLT suggest that water permeates the same path as Na+ and sugar. On a structural model of SGLT1, based on the homology structure of vSGLT, we identified...... to be due to alterations in steric hindrance to water and urea, and/or changes in protein folding caused by mismatching of side chains in the water pathway. Water permeation through SGLT1 and other transporters bears directly on the structural mechanism for the transport of polar solutes through...

  7. A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator

  8. Numerical study of the thermal behavior of a new deicing road structure design with energy harvesting capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Touz, Nicolas; Dumoulin, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Facing the heavy organisational, financial and environmental constraints imposed by usual winter maintenance salting operations, pavement engineers have been led to look for alternative solutions to avoid ice or snow deposit at pavements surface. Among the solutions, one is self-de-icing heating pavements, for which two technologies have been developed so far: one is based on embedded coils circulating a heated calorific fluid under the pavement surface; the other one relies on the use of embedded resistant electric wires. The use and operation of such systems in the world is still limited and was only confined to small road stretches or specific applications, such as bridges which are particularly sensitive to frost. One of the most significant "coil technology" example in Europe is the SERSO-System (Solar Energy recovery from road surfaces) built in 1994, on a Switzerland bridge. Many of these experiences are referenced in the technical literature, which provides state-of-the art papers (see for instance Eugster) and useful detailed information dealing with the construction and operational management of such installation. The present study is taking part of the Forever Open Road Concept addressed by the R5G: 5th Generation Road [1], one of the major project supported by IFSTTAR. It considers a different design of self-de-icing road that simplify its mode of construction and maintenance, compared to the two technologies mentioned above. It should also be noted that similar to pavements instrumented with coils, such structure could be used in the reversible way to capture the solar energy at the pavement surface during sunny days and store it, to either warm the pavement at a later stage or for exogenous needs (e.g. contribution to domestic hot water). To complete our study we also considered the use of semi-transparent pavement course wearing in place of the traditional opaque one. In the present study, a 2D model was developed using FEM approach. It combines 2

  9. Flexible one-structure arched triboelectric nanogenerator based on common electrode for high efficiency energy harvesting and self-powered motion sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; He, Jian; Song, Linlin; Zhang, Zengxing; Tian, Zhumei; Wen, Tao; Zhai, Cong; Chen, Yi; Cho, Jundong; Chou, Xiujian; Xue, Chenyang

    2018-04-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators are widely used because of low cost, simple manufacturing process and high output performance. In this work, a flexible one-structure arched triboelectric nanogenerator (FOAT), based on common electrode to combine the single-electrode mode and contact-separation, was designed using silicone rubber, epoxy resin and flexible electrode. The peak-to-peak short circuit current of 18μ A and the peak-to-peak open circuit voltage of 570V can be obtained from the FOAT with the size of 5×7 cm2 under the frequency of 3Hz and the pressure of 300N. The peak-to-peak short circuit current of FOAT is increased by 29% and 80%, and the peak-to-peak open circuit voltage is increased by 33% and 54% compared with single-electrode mode and contact-separation mode, respectively. FOAT realizes the combination of two generation modes, which improves the output performance of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). 62 light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) can be completely lit up and 2.2μ F capacitor can be easily charged to 1.2V in 9s. When the FOAT is placed at different parts of the human body, the human motion energy can be harvested and be the sensing signal for motion monitoring sensor. Based on the above characteristics, FOAT exhibits great potential in illumination, power supplies for wearable electronic devices and self-powered motion monitoring sensor via harvesting the energy of human motion.

  10. Water polygons in high-resolution protein crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonas; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2009-07-01

    We have analyzed the interstitial water (ISW) structures in 1500 protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank that have greater than 1.5 A resolution with less than 90% sequence similarity with each other. We observed varieties of polygonal water structures composed of three to eight water molecules. These polygons may represent the time- and space-averaged structures of "stable" water oligomers present in liquid water, and their presence as well as relative population may be relevant in understanding physical properties of liquid water at a given temperature. On an average, 13% of ISWs are localized enough to be visible by X-ray diffraction. Of those, averages of 78% are water molecules in the first water layer on the protein surface. Of the localized ISWs beyond the first layer, almost half of them form water polygons such as trigons, tetragons, as well as expected pentagons, hexagons, higher polygons, partial dodecahedrons, and disordered networks. Most of the octagons and nanogons are formed by fusion of smaller polygons. The trigons are most commonly observed. We suggest that our observation provides an experimental basis for including these water polygon structures in correlating and predicting various water properties in liquid state.

  11. Structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters containing up to 32 water molecules have been ... due to its importance in various real life systems. 1–8. High level ... It is well-known from the crystal structure data- base that the ...

  12. Structural transition in alcohol–water binary mixtures: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. The strengthening of the hydrogen bonding (H-bond) network as well as transition from the tetrahedral-like water network to the zigzag chain structure of alcohol upon increasing the alcohol con- centration in ethanol–water and tertiary butanol (TBA) – water mixtures have been studied by using both steady state ...

  13. Enhanced water desalination performance through hierarchically-structured ceramic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Tong; Lei, Libin; Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Yao; Winnubst, Louis; Chen, Chusheng; Ye, Chunsong; Chen, Fanglin

    2017-01-01

    Developments of membrane water desalination are impeded by low water vapor flux across the membrane. We present an innovative membrane design to significantly enhance the water vapor flux. A bilayer zirconia-based membrane with a thick hierarchically-structured support and a thin functional layer is

  14. Structure-function relationships in sapwood water transport and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2005-01-01

    Primary production by plants requires the loss of substantial quantities of water when the stomata are open for carbon assimilation. The delivery of that water to the leaves occurs through the xylem. The structure, condition, and quantity of the xylem control not only the transport efficiency but also the release of water from storage. For example, if there is high...

  15. Desert water harvesting from TAKYR surfaces: assessing the potential of traditional and experimental technologies in the karakum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Ataev, A.; Mamedov, B.; Spaan, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    From historical times the traditionally nomadic people in desert environments of Turkmenistan have applied a range of innovative technologies to secure water supply for consumptive and productive purposes. These technologies make use of takyrs, flat or slightly sloping dense clay surfaces which act

  16. Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Walkemeyer, Phillip E. (Inventor); Hall, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Colonius, Tim (Inventor); Tosi, Phillipe (Inventor); Kim, Namhyo (Inventor); Sun, Kai (Inventor); Corbett, Thomas Gary (Inventor); Arrazola, Alvaro Jose (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A flow energy harvesting device having a harvester pipe includes a flow inlet that receives flow from a primary pipe, a flow outlet that returns the flow into the primary pipe, and a flow diverter within the harvester pipe having an inlet section coupled to the flow inlet, a flow constriction section coupled to the inlet section and positioned at a midpoint of the harvester pipe and having a spline shape with a substantially reduced flow opening size at a constriction point along the spline shape, and an outlet section coupled to the constriction section. The harvester pipe may further include a piezoelectric structure extending from the inlet section through the constriction section and point such that the fluid flow past the constriction point results in oscillatory pressure amplitude inducing vibrations in the piezoelectric structure sufficient to cause a direct piezoelectric effect and to generate electrical power for harvesting.

  17. Contribution of rainwater harvesting technologies to rural livelihoods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water has long been regarded as the main limiting resource for crop ... However, the introduction of novel agricultural technologies such as rain-water harvesting ... water distribution problems, labour shortage, water-logging during periods of ...

  18. Water's Interfacial Hydrogen Bonding Structure Reveals the Effective Strength of Surface-Water Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sucheol; Willard, Adam P

    2018-06-05

    We combine all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with a mean field model of interfacial hydrogen bonding to analyze the effect of surface-water interactions on the structural and energetic properties of the liquid water interface. We show that the molecular structure of water at a weakly interacting ( i.e., hydrophobic) surface is resistant to change unless the strength of surface-water interactions are above a certain threshold. We find that below this threshold water's interfacial structure is homogeneous and insensitive to the details of the disordered surface, however, above this threshold water's interfacial structure is heterogeneous. Despite this heterogeneity, we demonstrate that the equilibrium distribution of molecular orientations can be used to quantify the energetic component of the surface-water interactions that contribute specifically to modifying the interfacial hydrogen bonding network. We identify this specific energetic component as a new measure of hydrophilicity, which we refer to as the intrinsic hydropathy.

  19. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

  20. Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support

  1. Wind energy harvesting with a piezoelectric harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Nan; Wang, Quan; Xie, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    An energy harvester comprising a cantilever attached to piezoelectric patches and a proof mass is developed for wind energy harvesting, from a cross wind-induced vibration of the cantilever, by the electromechanical coupling effect of piezoelectric materials. The vibration of the cantilever under the cross wind is induced by the air pressure owing to a vortex shedding phenomenon that occurs on the leeward side of the cantilever. To describe the energy harvesting process, a theoretical model considering the cross wind-induced vibration on the piezoelectric coupled cantilever energy harvester is developed, to calculate the charge and the voltage from the harvester. The influences of the length and location of the piezoelectric patches as well as the proof mass on the generated electric power are investigated. Results show that the total generated electric power can be as high as 2 W when the resonant frequency of the cantilever harvester is close to the vortex shedding frequency. Moreover, a value of total generated electric power up to 1.02 W can be practically realized for a cross wind with a variable wind velocity of 9–10 m s −1 by a harvester with a length of 1.2 m. This research facilitates an effective and compact wind energy harvesting device. (paper)

  2. Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Systems: A Systems Engineering Approach to Select Locations for the Practical Harvest of Electricity from Shallow Water Tidal Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, John

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its effect on global climates, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes a Clean Power Plan (CPP) mandating CO2 reductions which will likely force the early retirement of inefficient, aging power plants. Consequentially, removing these plants equates to a shortfall of approximately 66 GW of electricity. These factors add to the looming resource problems of choosing whether to build large replacement power plants or consider alternative energy sources as a means to help close the gap between electricity supply and demand in a given region. One energy source, shallow water tidal currents, represents opportunities to convert kinetic energy to mechanical forms and provide electricity to homes and businesses. Nearly 2,000 National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tidal current data points from Maine to Texas are considered. This paper, based on systems engineering thinking, provides key attributes (e.g. turbine efficiency, array size, transmission losses) for consideration as decision makers seek to identify where to site Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems and the number of homes powered by the practical harvest of electricity from tidal currents at those locations with given attributes. A systems engineering process model is proposed for consideration as is a regression based equation to estimate MHK machine parameters needed for power a given number of homes.

  3. Effect of sprinkler structure on water distribution uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M; Li, H; Chen, C; Tu, Q; Liu, J P

    2012-01-01

    Structures of sprinklers play important roles in the uniformity of water distribution. The advances and achievements to improve the distribution uniformity through the innovation in the sprinkler structures at home and abroad were presented in details. Analyses showed that three types of structure can ameliorate the water distribution efficiently. First, novel nozzle structures were applied, including the application of non-circle nozzle and special spread nozzles. Second, new structures of flow channel were used. Third, assistant device was added so as to improve the uneven water distribution, such as an assistant stream interrupter, pressure or flow rate regulator and so on. Compared to domestic sprinklers, sprinklers produced abroad have novel and special structures with better hydraulic performance. Basic theoretical researches should be strengthened and new materials, new manufacturing processes and new technique should be applied. Then new kinds of sprinkler will be produced and the hydraulic performance of sprinklers will be promoted to a higher level.

  4. Structural properties of water around uncharged and charged carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezfoli, Amir Reza Ansari; Mehrabian, Mozaffar Ali; Rafsanjani, Hassan Hashemipour

    2013-01-01

    Studying the structural properties of water molecules around the carbon nanotubes is very important in a wide variety of carbon nanotubes applications. We studied the number of hydrogen bonds, oxygen and hydrogen density distributions, and water orientation around carbon nanotubes. The water density distribution for all carbon nanotubes was observed to have the same feature. In water-carbon nanotubes interface, a high-density region of water molecules exists around carbon nanotubes. The results reveal that the water orientation around carbon nanotubes is roughly dependent on carbon nanotubes surface charge. The water molecules in close distances to carbon nanotubes were found to make an HOH plane nearly perpendicular to the water-carbon nanotubes interface for carbon nanotubes with negative surface charge. For uncharged carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes with positive surface charge, the HOH plane was in tangential orientation with water-carbon nanotubes interface. There was also a significant reduction in hydrogen bond of water region around carbon nanotubes as compared with hydrogen bond in bulk water. This reduction was very obvious for carbon nanotubes with positive surface charge. In addition, the calculation of dynamic properties of water molecules in water-CNT interface revealed that there is a direct relation between the number of Hbonds and self-diffusion coefficient of water molecules

  5. Modeling of soil-water-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian

    as the developed nonlinear soil displacements and stresses under monotonic and cyclic loading. With the FVM nonlinear coupled soil models as a basis, multiphysics modeling of wave-seabed-structure interaction is carried out. The computations are done in an open source code environment, OpenFOAM, where FVM models...

  6. The effect of structural changes on charge transfer states in a light-harvesting carotenoid-diaryl-porphyrin-C{sub 60} molecular triad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, Marco [Computational Science Program, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra R. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Baruah, Tunna, E-mail: tbaruah@utep.edu [Computational Science Program, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    We present a detailed study of charge transfer (CT) excited states for a large number of configurations in a light-harvesting Carotenoid-diaryl-Porphyrin-C{sub 60} (CPC{sub 60}) molecular triad. The chain-like molecular triad undergoes photoinduced charge transfer process exhibiting a large excited state dipole moment, making it suitable for application to molecular-scale opto-electronic devices. An important consideration is that the structural flexibility of the CPC{sub 60} triad impacts its dynamics in solvents. Since experimentally measured dipole moments for the triad of ∼110 D and ∼160 D strongly indicate a range in structural variability in the excited state, studying the effect of structural changes on the CT excited state energetics furthers the understanding of its charge transfer states. We have calculated the variation in the lowest CT excited state energies by performing a scan of possible variation in the structure of the triad. Some of these configurations were generated by incrementally scanning a 360° torsional (dihedral) twist at the C{sub 60}-porhyrin linkage and the porphyrin-carotenoid linkage. Additionally, five different CPC{sub 60} conformations were studied to determine the effect of pi-conjugation and particle-hole Coulombic attraction on the CT excitation energies. Our calculations show that configurational changes in the triad induces a variation of ∼0.6 eV in CT excited state energies in the gas-phase. The corresponding calculated excited state dipoles show a range of 47 D–188 D. The absorption spectra and density of states of these structures show little variation except for the structures where the porphyrin and aryl conjugation is changed.

  7. Water Vapor, Temperature and Wind Profiles within Maize Canopy under in-Field Rainwater Harvesting with Wide and Narrow Runoff Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldemichael A. Tesfuhuney

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Micrometeorological measurements were used to evaluate heat and water vapor to describe the transpiration (Ev and soil evaporation (Es processes for wide and narrow runoff strips under in-field rainwater harvesting (IRWH system. The resulting sigmoid-shaped water vapor (ea in wide and narrow runoff strips varied in lower and upper parts of the maize canopy. In wide runoff strips, lapse conditions of ea extended from lowest measurement level (LP to the upper middle section (MU and inversion was apparent at the top of the canopy. The virtual potential temperature (θv profile showed no difference in middle section, but the lower and upper portion (UP had lower  in narrow, compared to wide, strips, and LP-UP changes of 0.6 K and 1.2 K were observed, respectively. The Ev and Es within the canopy increased the ea concentration as determined by the wind order of magnitude. The ea concentration reached peak at about 1.6 kPa at a range of wind speed value of 1.4–1.8 m∙s−1 and 2.0–2.4 m∙s−1 for wide and narrow treatments, respectively. The sparse maize canopy of the wide strips could supply more drying power of the air in response to atmospheric evaporative demand compared to narrow strips. This is due to the variation in air flow in wide and narrow runoff strips that change gradients in ea for evapotranspiration processes.

  8. Structured ecosystem-scale approach to marine water quality management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available and implement environmental management programmes. A structured ecosystem-scale approach for the design and implementation of marine water quality management programmes developed by the CSIR (South Africa) in response to recent advances in policies...

  9. Structures of water molecular nanotube induced by axial tensile strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structures and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University (China)], E-mail: lihuilmy@hotmail.com; Zhang, X.Q. [Physics Department, Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); Liew, K.M. [Department of Building and Constructions, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Liu, X.F. [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structures and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University (China)

    2008-10-06

    Five well-ordered nano-ice structures embedded in carbon nanotubes are obtained in this study. These five nano-ice phases all exhibit single walled tubular morphologies, including the pentagon, hexagon ice nanotubes whose structures are quite different from bulk ice. Our simulation results indicate that water molecules tend to rearrange into surface ring structures to reduce the number of free OH groups. The structural behavior of these ice nanotubes inside CNTs subject to axial stress is also investigated. The ice nanotubes tend to be drawn to ice nanorings or ice nanospring during the mechanical stretching. The distribution function exhibits typical order-to-disorder transition of the water network confined in carbon nanotube during the stretching. By analysis, we suggest that it is unlikely that additional water molecules will enter the tubes because of the increased volume available if the tubes are stretched at contact with a water reservoir.

  10. Hydrogen/deuterium substitution methods: understanding water structure in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogen/deuterium substitution method has been used for different applications, such as the short range order between water molecules in a number of different environments (aqueous solutions of organic molecules), or to study the partial structure factors of water at high pressure and temperature. The absolute accuracy that can be obtained remains uncertain, but important qualitative information can be obtained on the local organization of water in aqueous solution. Some recent results with pure water, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solutions are presented. It is shown that the short range water structure is not greatly affected by most solutes except at high concentrations and when the solute species has its own distinctive interaction with water (such as a dissolved small ion). 3 figs., 14 refs

  11. heteroHarvest: Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. Finally we describe the results of experimental evaluation. The results are found promising with an overall error rate equal to 6.5% across heterogeneous formats....

  12. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  13. Identification of structural relaxation in the dielectric response of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Kisliuk, Alexander; Solokov, Alexei P.

    2016-01-01

    One century ago pioneering dielectric results obtained for water and n-alcohols triggered the advent of molecular rotation diffusion theory considered by Debye to describe the primary dielectric absorption in these liquids. Comparing dielectric, viscoelastic, and light scattering results, we...... unambiguously demonstrate that the structural relaxation appears only as a high-frequency shoulder in the dielectric spectra of water. In contrast, the main dielectric peak is related to a supramolecular structure, analogous to the Debye-like peak observed in monoalcohols....

  14. Structures of water molecules in carbon nanotubes under electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarto,; Takaiwa, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Eiji; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising for water transport through membranes and for use as nano-pumps. The development of CNT-based nanofluidic devices, however, requires a better understanding of the properties of water molecules in CNTs because they can be very different from those in the bulk. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the effect of axial electric fields on the structure of water molecules in CNTs having diameters ranging from (7,7) to (10,10). The water dipole moments were aligned parallel to the electric field, which increases the density of water inside the CNTs and forms ordered ice-like structures. The electric field induces the transition from liquid to ice nanotubes in a wide range of CNT diameters. Moreover, we found an increase in the lifetime of hydrogen bonds for water structures in the CNTs. Fast librational motion breaks some hydrogen bonds, but the molecular pairs do not separate and the hydrogen bonds reform. Thus, hydrogen bonds maintain the water structure in the CNTs, and the water molecules move collectively, decreasing the axial diffusion coefficient and permeation rate

  15. Structure and optical properties of water covered Cu(110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghbanpourasl, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis structural and optical properties of the water covered Cu(110) surface is studied using density functional theory within independent particle approximation. Several stable adsorption structures are studied such as water clusters (monomer, dimer, trimer, tetramer and pentamer), different hexagonal monolayers, partially dissociated water monolayers and three different types of chains among them a chain that consists of pentagon rings. For a copper surface in contact with water vapor, the energetically stable H 2 O/OH adsorbed structures are compared thermodynamically using adsorption free energy (change of free energy due to adsorption). Several phase diagrams with respect to temperature and pressure are calculated. It is found that among the large number of energetically stable structures (i.e. structures with positive adsorption energy ) only limited number of them are thermodynamically stable. These thermodynamically stable structures are the class of almost energetically degenerate hexagonal overlayers, one type of partially dissociated water structure that contains Bjerrum defect in the hydrogen bond network and pentagon chain. Since hydrogen atoms are light weight their vibrational effects can be considerable. Zero point vibration decreases the adsorption energy up to 0.1 eV and free energy of adsorbed molecules arising from vibrational degree of freedom can go up to -0.2 eV per adsorbed molecule at 500 Kelvin. However zero point energy and vibrational free energy of adsorbed molecules do not alter relative stability of the adsorbed structures. To account for the long range van der Waals interactions, a semi-empirical scheme is applied. Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS) is a fast and non destructive optical method that can be used to prob the surface in different conditions such as vacuum and electro-chemical environment. Elasto-optic coeficients of bulk are calculated from first principles and the change of the RA spectrum of the bare Cu

  16. Post-harvest physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather and management constraints, as well as the intended use of the harvested forage, all influence the forage harvest system selected by the producer. Generally, maximum retention of dry matter from harvested forage crops is achieved at moistures intermediate between the standing fresh crop and ...

  17. Energy harvesting through gas dynamics in the free molecular flow regime between structured surfaces at different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baier, Tobias; Dölger, Julia; Hardt, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    For a gas confined between surfaces held at different temperatures the velocity distribution shows a significant deviation from the Maxwell distribution when the mean free path of the molecules is comparable to or larger than the channel dimensions. If one of the surfaces is suitably structured...... from the thermal creep flow that has gained more attention so far. This situation is studied in the limit of free-molecular flow for the case that an unstructured surface is allowed to move tangentially with respect to a structured surface. Parameter studies are conducted, and configurations...

  18. Genetic modification and its impact on industry structure and performance: post-harvest deterioration of cassava in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, P.W.L.; Beek, van P.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification has led to fierce debates around the world. Nevertheless, scientific evidence for its potential effects on the structure and performance of industries has hitherto remained rather meagre. In this article, we take some preliminary steps towards closing this gap by exploring the

  19. Growth and fillet quality attributes of five genetic strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in a partial water reuse system and harvested at different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetics and environment can interact to influence fish growth performance and product quality attributes. Interaction in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) makes selection of fish strain and harvest sizes critical for optimizing fish quality. Definition of growth performance and quality outcom...

  20. Structural Optimization for Wideband Flexoelectric Energy Harvester Using Bulk Paraelectric Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuruddh; Chauhan, Aditya; Vaish, Rahul; Kumar, Rajeev; Jain, Satish Chandra

    2018-01-01

    Flexoelectricity is a phenomenon which allows all crystalline dielectric materials to exhibit strain-induced polarization. With recent articles reporting giant flexoelectric coupling coefficients for various ferroelectric materials, this field must be duly investigated for its application merits. In this study, a wide-band linear energy harvesting device has been proposed using Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 ceramic. Both structural and material parameters were scrutinized for an optimized approach. Dynamic analysis was performed using finite element modeling to evaluate several important parameters including beam deflection, open circuit voltage and net power output. It was revealed that open circuit voltage and net power output lack correlation. Further, power output lacks a dependency on optimized width ratios, with the highest power output of 0.07 μW being observed for a width ratio of 0.33 closely followed by ratios of 0.2 and 0.5 (˜0.07 μW) each. The resulting power was generated at discrete (resonant) frequencies lacking a broadband structure. A compound design with integrated beams was proposed to overcome this drawback. The finalized design is capable of a maximum power output of >0.04 μW with an operational frequency of 90-110 Hz, thus allowing for a higher power output in a broader frequency range.

  1. Fluid flow nozzle energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey [1] identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.

  2. Energy harvesting through gas dynamics in the free molecular flow regime between structured surfaces at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Tobias; Dölger, Julia; Hardt, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    For a gas confined between surfaces held at different temperatures the velocity distribution shows a significant deviation from the Maxwell distribution when the mean free path of the molecules is comparable to or larger than the channel dimensions. If one of the surfaces is suitably structured, this nonequilibrium distribution can be exploited for momentum transfer in a tangential direction between the two surfaces. This opens up the possibility to extract work from the system which operates as a heat engine. Since both surfaces are held at constant temperatures, the mode of momentum transfer is different from the thermal creep flow that has gained more attention so far. This situation is studied in the limit of free-molecular flow for the case that an unstructured surface is allowed to move tangentially with respect to a structured surface. Parameter studies are conducted, and configurations with maximum thermodynamic efficiency are identified. Overall, it is shown that significant efficiencies can be obtained by tangential momentum transfer between structured surfaces.

  3. Water relations, thallus structure and photosynthesis in Negev Desert lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1990-01-01

    The role of lichen thallus structure in water relations and photosynthesis was studied in Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory and Teloschistes lacunosus (Rupr.) Sav. Water-vapour adsorption and photosynthesis are dependent upon thallus integrity and are significantly lower in crushed thalli. Cultured phycobiont (Trebouxia sp.) cells are capable of photosynthesis over the same relative humidity range (> 80% RH) as are intact lichens. Thus, water-vapour adsorption by the thallus and physiological adaptation of the phycobiont contribute to the ability of these lichens to photosynthesize in an arid environment. Despite differences in their anatomical structure and water-uptake characteristics, their CO2 incorporation is similar. The two lichens use liquid water differently and they occupy different niches.

  4. Energy harvesting from high-rise buildings by a piezoelectric harvester device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, X.D.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel piezoelectric technology of harvesting energy from high-rise buildings is developed. While being used to harness vibration energy of a building, the technology is also helpful to dissipate vibration of the building by the designed piezoelectric harvester as a tuned mass damper. The piezoelectric harvester device is made of two groups of series piezoelectric generators connected by a shared shaft. The shaft is driven by a linking rod hinged on a proof mass on the tip of a cantilever fixed on the roof of the building. The influences of some practical considerations, such as the mass ratio of the proof mass to the main structure, the ratios of the length and flexural rigidity of the cantilever to those of the main structure, on the root mean square (RMS) of the generated electric power and the energy harvesting efficiency of the piezoelectric harvester device are discussed. The research provides a new method for an efficient and practical energy harvesting from high-rise buildings by piezoelectric harvesters. - Highlights: • A new piezoelectric technology in energy harvesting from high-rise buildings is introduced. • A new mathematics model to calculate the energy harvested by the piezoelectric device is developed. • A novel efficient design of the piezoelectric harvester device in provided. • An electric power up to 432 MW under a seismic excitation at a frequency of 30 rad/s is achieved.

  5. Structural and mechanical properties of glassy water in nanoscale confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Thomas G; Giovambattista, Nicolás; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the structure and mechanical properties of glassy water confined between silica-based surfaces with continuously tunable hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity by computing and analyzing minimum energy, mechanically stable configurations (inherent structures). The structured silica substrate imposes long-range order on the first layer of water molecules under hydrophobic confinement at high density (p > or = 1.0 g cm(-3)). This proximal layer is also structured in hydrophilic confinement at very low density (p approximately 0.4 g cm(-3)). The ordering of water next to the hydrophobic surface greatly enhances the mechanical strength of thin films (0.8 nm). This leads to a substantial stress anisotropy; the transverse strength of the film exceeds the normal strength by 500 MPa. The large transverse strength results in a minimum in the equation of state of the energy landscape that does not correspond to a mechanical instability, but represents disruption of the ordered layer of water next to the wall. In addition, we find that the mode of mechanical failure is dependent on the type of confinement. Under large lateral strain, water confined by hydrophilic surfaces preferentially forms voids in the middle of the film and fails cohesively. In contrast, water under hydrophobic confinement tends to form voids near the walls and fails by loss of adhesion.

  6. [Survival strategy of photosynthetic organisms. 1. Variability of the extent of light-harvesting pigment aggregation as a structural factor optimizing the function of oligomeric photosynthetic antenna. Model calculations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, Z G

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with our concept of rigorous optimization of photosynthetic machinery by a functional criterion, this series of papers continues purposeful search in natural photosynthetic units (PSU) for the basic principles of their organization that we predicted theoretically for optimal model light-harvesting systems. This approach allowed us to determine the basic principles for the organization of a PSU of any fixed size. This series of papers deals with the problem of structural optimization of light-harvesting antenna of variable size controlled in vivo by the light intensity during the growth of organisms, which accentuates the problem of antenna structure optimization because optimization requirements become more stringent as the PSU increases in size. In this work, using mathematical modeling for the functioning of natural PSUs, we have shown that the aggregation of pigments of model light-harvesting antenna, being one of universal optimizing factors, furthermore allows controlling the antenna efficiency if the extent of pigment aggregation is a variable parameter. In this case, the efficiency of antenna increases with the size of the elementary antenna aggregate, thus ensuring the high efficiency of the PSU irrespective of its size; i.e., variation in the extent of pigment aggregation controlled by the size of light-harvesting antenna is biologically expedient.

  7. Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: A synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse; Beier, Colin D; Groffman, Peter M; Burns, Douglas A.; Beall, Frederick D; Hazlett, Paul W.; Yorks, Thad E

    2016-01-01

    Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.

  8. Water infiltration and surface soil structural properties as influenced by animal traffic in the Southern Piedmont USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface-soil structural condition in long-term perennial pastures is expected to be modified by how forage is (a) harvested through haying or grazing and (b) stimulated through source of nutrient application. We determined the effects of harvest management and nutrient source on macropore filling, ...

  9. Energy Harvesting From Low Frequency Applications Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-11-06

    This paper reviewed the state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various types of harvester configurations, piezoelectric materials, and techniques used to improve the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency were discussed. Most of the piezoelectric energy harvesters studied today have focused on scavenging mechanical energy from vibration sources due to their abundance in both natural and industrial environments. Cantilever beams have been the most studied structure for piezoelectric energy harvester to date because of the high responsiveness to small vibrations.

  10. The effects of harvest on waterfowl populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooch, Evan G.; Guillemain, Matthieu; Boomer, G Scott; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Nichols, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Change in the size of populations over space and time is, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change in the abundance is the simple difference between the number of individuals entering the population and the number leaving the population, either or both of which may change in response to factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the population. While harvest of individuals from a population constitutes a clear extrinsic source of removal of individuals, the response of populations to harvest is frequently complex, reflecting an interaction of harvest with one or more population processes. Here we consider the role of these interactions, and factors influencing them, on the effective harvest management of waterfowl populations. We review historical ideas concerning harvest and discuss the relationship(s) between waterfowl life histories and the development and application of population models to inform harvest management. The influence of population structure (age, spatial) on derivation of optimal harvest strategies (with and without explicit consideration of various sources of uncertainty) is considered. In addition to population structure, we discuss how the optimal harvest strategy may be influenced by: 1) patterns of density-dependence in one or more vital rates, and 2) heterogeneity in vital rates among individuals within an age-sex-size class. Although derivation of the optimal harvest strategy for simple population models (with or without structure) is generally straightforward, there are several potential difficulties in application. In particular, uncertainty concerning the population structure at the time of harvest, and the ability to regulate the structure of the harvest itself, are significant complications. We therefore review the evidence of effects of harvest on waterfowl populations. Some of this evidence has

  11. Bond-Valence Constraints on Liquid Water Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickmore, Barry R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Brown, I. David; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2009-01-01

    The recent controversy about the structure of liquid water pits a new model involving water molecules in relatively stable rings-and-chains structures against the standard model that posits water molecules in distorted tetrahedral coordination. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations 'both classical and ab initio' almost uniformly support the standard model, but since none of them can yet reproduce all the anomalous properties of water, they leave room for doubt. We argue that it is possible to evaluate these simulations by testing them against their adherence to the bond-valence model, a well known, and quantitatively accurate, empirical summary of the behavior of atoms in the bonded networks of inorganic solids. Here we use the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of ice, water, and several solvated aqueous species to show that the valence sum rule (the first axiom of the bond-valence model,) is followed in both solid and liquid bond networks. We then test MD simulations of water, employing several popular potential models, against this criterion and the experimental O-O radial distribution function. It appears that most of those tested cannot satisfy both criteria well, except TIP4P and TIP5P. If the valence sum rule really can be applied to simulated liquid structures, then it follows that the bonding behaviors of atoms in liquids are in some ways identical to those in solids. We support this interpretation by showing that the simulations produce O-H-O geometries completely consistent with the range of geometries available in solids, and the distributions of instantaneous valence sums reaching the atoms in both the ice and liquid water simulations are essentially identical. Taken together, this is powerful evidence in favor of the standard distorted tetrahedral model of liquid water structure

  12. The effect of the water tariff structures on the water consumption in Mallorcan hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyà-Tortella, Bartolomé; Garcia, Celso; Nilsson, William; Tirado, Dolores

    2016-08-01

    Tourism increases water demand, especially in coastal areas and on islands, and can also cause water shortages during the dry season and the degradation of the water supply. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of water price structures on hotel water consumption on the island of Mallorca (Spain). All tourist municipalities on the island use different pricing structures, such as flat or block rates, and different tariffs. This exogenous variation is used to evaluate the effect of prices on water consumption for a sample of 134 hotels. The discontinuity of the water tariff structure and the fixed rate, which depends on the number of hotel beds, generate endogeneity problems. We propose an econometric model, an instrumental variable quantile regression for within artificial blocks transformed data, to solve both problems. The coefficients corresponding to the price variables are not found to be significantly different from zero. The sign of the effect is negative, but the magnitude is negligible: a 1% increase in all prices would reduce consumption by an average of only 0.024%. This result is probably due to the small share of water costs with respect to the total hotel operational costs (around 4%). Our regression model concludes that the introduction of water-saving initiatives constitutes an effective way to reduce consumption.

  13. Influence of thylakoid membrane lipids on the structure of aggregated light-harvesting complexes of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and the green alga Mantoniella squamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller-Laudel, Susann; Latowski, Dariusz; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Strzałka, Kazimierz; Daum, Sebastian; Bacia, Kirsten; Wilhelm, Christian; Goss, Reimund

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the effect of the thylakoid membrane lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) on the structure of two algal light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). In contrast to higher plants whose thylakoid membranes are characterized by an enrichment of the neutral galactolipids MGDG and DGDG, both the green alga Mantoniella squamata and the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contain membranes with a high content of the negatively charged lipids SQDG and PG. The algal thylakoids do not show the typical grana-stroma differentiation of higher plants but a regular arrangement. To analyze the effect of the membrane lipids, the fucoxanthin chlorophyll protein (FCP) complex of T. pseudonana and the LHC of M. squamata (MLHC) were prepared by successive cation precipitation using Triton X-100 as detergent. With this method, it is possible to isolate LHCs with a reduced amount of associated lipids in an aggregated state. The results from 77 K fluorescence and photon correlation spectroscopy show that neither the neutral galactolipids nor the negatively charged lipids are able to significantly alter the aggregation state of the FCP or the MLHC. This is in contrast to higher plants where SQDG and PG lead to a strong disaggregation of the LHCII whereas MGDG and DGDG induce the formation of large macroaggregates. The results indicate that LHCs which are integrated into thylakoid membranes with a high amount of negatively charged lipids and a regular arrangement are less sensitive to lipid-induced structural alterations than their counterparts in membranes enriched in neutral lipids with a grana-stroma differentiation. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Water-insoluble Silk Films with Silk I Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Q.; Hu, X; Wang, X; Kluge, J; Lu, S; Cebe, P; Kaplan, D

    2010-01-01

    Water-insoluble regenerated silk materials are normally produced by increasing the {beta}-sheet content (silk II). In the present study water-insoluble silk films were prepared by controlling the very slow drying of Bombyx mori silk solutions, resulting in the formation of stable films with a predominant silk I instead of silk II structure. Wide angle X-ray scattering indicated that the silk films stabilized by slow drying were mainly composed of silk I rather than silk II, while water- and methanol-annealed silk films had a higher silk II content. The silk films prepared by slow drying had a globule-like structure at the core surrounded by nano-filaments. The core region was composed of silk I and silk II, surrounded by hydrophilic nano-filaments containing random turns and {alpha}-helix secondary structures. The insoluble silk films prepared by slow drying had unique thermal, mechanical and degradative properties. Differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that silk I crystals had stable thermal properties up to 250 C, without crystallization above the T{sub g}, but degraded at lower temperatures than silk II structure. Compared with water- and methanol-annealed films the films prepared by slow drying had better mechanical ductility and were more rapidly enzymatically degraded, reflecting the differences in secondary structure achieved via differences in post processing of the cast silk films. Importantly, the silk I structure, a key intermediate secondary structure for the formation of mechanically robust natural silk fibers, was successfully generated by the present approach of very slow drying, mimicking the natural process. The results also point to a new mode of generating new types of silk biomaterials with enhanced mechanical properties and increased degradation rates, while maintaining water insolubility, along with a low {beta}-sheet content.

  15. Contact angles of wetting and water stability of soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Yashin, M. A.; Frid, A. S.; Lazarev, V. I.; Tyugai, Z. N.; Milanovskiy, E. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    From the soddy-podzolic soils and typical chernozems of different texture and land use, dry 3-1 mm aggregates were isolated and sieved in water. As a result, water-stable aggregates and water-unstable particles composing dry 3-1 mm aggregates were obtained. These preparations were ground, and contact angles of wetting were determined by the static sessile drop method. The angles varied from 11° to 85°. In most cases, the values of the angles for the water-stable aggregates significantly exceeded those for the water-unstable components. In terms of carbon content in structural units, there was no correlation between these parameters. When analyzing the soil varieties separately, the significant positive correlation between the carbon content and contact angle of aggregates was revealed only for the loamy-clayey typical chernozem. Based on the multivariate analysis of variance, the value of contact wetting angle was shown to be determined by the structural units belonging to water-stable or water-unstable components of macroaggregates and by the land use type. In addition, along with these parameters, the texture has an indirect effect.

  16. Harvesting Broad Frequency Band Blue Energy by a Triboelectric-Electromagnetic Hybrid Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Zi, Yunlong; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Wang, Xin; Deng, Jianan; Wang, Jie; Li, Shengming; Hu, Chenguo; Zhu, Liping; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    Ocean wave associated energy is huge, but it has little use toward world energy. Although such blue energy is capable of meeting all of our energy needs, there is no effective way to harvest it due to its low frequency and irregular amplitude, which may restrict the application of traditional power generators. In this work, we report a hybrid nanogenerator that consists of a spiral-interdigitated-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) and a wrap-around electromagnetic generator (W-EMG) for harvesting ocean energy. In this design, the S-TENG can be fully isolated from the external environment through packaging and indirectly driven by the noncontact attractive forces between pairs of magnets, and W-EMG can be easily hybridized. Notably, the hybrid nanogenerator could generate electricity under either rotation mode or fluctuation mode to collect energy in ocean tide, current, and wave energy due to the unique structural design. In addition, the characteristics and advantages of outputs indicate that the S-TENG is irreplaceable for harvesting low rotation speeds (10 Hz). The complementary output can be maximized and hybridized for harvesting energy in a broad frequency range. Finally, a single hybrid nanogenerator unit was demonstrated to harvest blue energy as a practical power source to drive several LEDs under different simulated water wave conditions. We also proposed a blue energy harvesting system floating on the ocean surface that could simultaneously harvest wind, solar, and wave energy. The proposed hybrid nanogenerator renders an effective and sustainable progress in practical applications of the hybrid nanogenerator toward harvesting water wave energy offered by nature.

  17. Ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer and harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Shima; Leadenham, Stephen; Guillot, François; Sabra, Karim; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates low-power electricity generation from ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer combined with piezoelectric energy harvesting for wireless applications ranging from medical implants to naval sensor systems. The focus is placed on an underwater system that consists of a pulsating source for spherical wave generation and a harvester connected to an external resistive load for quantifying the electrical power output. An analytical electro-acoustic model is developed to relate the source strength to the electrical power output of the harvester located at a specific distance from the source. The model couples the energy harvester dynamics (piezoelectric device and electrical load) with the source strength through the acoustic-structure interaction at the harvester-fluid interface. Case studies are given for a detailed understanding of the coupled system dynamics under various conditions. Specifically the relationship between the electrical power output and system parameters, such as the distance of the harvester from the source, dimensions of the harvester, level of source strength, and electrical load resistance are explored. Sensitivity of the electrical power output to the excitation frequency in the neighborhood of the harvester's underwater resonance frequency is also reported.

  18. Dielectric loss against piezoelectric power harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrui; Shu-Hung Chung, Henry; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-09-01

    Piezoelectricity is one of the most popular electromechanical transduction mechanisms for constructing kinetic energy harvesting systems. When a standard energy harvesting (SEH) interface circuit, i.e., bridge rectifier plus filter capacitor, is utilized for collecting piezoelectric power, the previous literature showed that the power conversion can be well predicted without much consideration for the effect of dielectric loss. Yet, as the conversion power gets higher by adopting power-boosting interface circuits, such as synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), the neglect of dielectric loss might give rise to deviation in harvested power estimation. Given the continuous progress on power-boosting interface circuits, the role of dielectric loss in practical piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems should receive attention with better evaluation. Based on the integrated equivalent impedance network model, this fast track communication provides a comprehensive study on the susceptibility of harvested power in PEH systems under different conditions. It shows that, dielectric loss always counteracts piezoelectric power harvesting by causing charge leakage across piezoelectric capacitance. In particular, taking corresponding ideal lossless cases as references, the counteractive effect might be aggravated under one of the five conditions: larger dielectric loss tangent, lower vibration frequency, further away from resonance, weaker electromechanical coupling, or using power-boosting interface circuit. These relationships are valuable for the study of PEH systems, as they not only help explain the role of dielectric loss in piezoelectric power harvesting, but also add complementary insights for material, structure, excitation, and circuit considerations towards holistic evaluation and design for practical PEH systems.

  19. Structure of liquid water at high pressures and temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Eggert, J H; Loubeyre, P

    2002-01-01

    We report quantitatively accurate structure-factor and radial-distribution-function measurements of liquid water in a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) using x-ray diffraction. During the analysis of our diffraction data, we found it possible (and necessary) to also determine the density. Thus, we believe we present the first-ever diffraction-based determination of a liquid structure factor and equation of state in a DAC experiment.

  20. Effect of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles on Water Glass Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to determine the effect of an addition of colloidal suspensions of the nanoparticles of magnesium oxide on the structure of water glass, which is a binder for moulding and core sands. Nanoparticles of magnesium oxide MgO in propanol and ethanol were introduced in the same mass content (5wt.% and structural changes were determined by measurement of the FT-IR absorption spectra.

  1. Freely floating structures trapping time-harmonic water waves (revisited)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Motygin, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    We study the coupled small-amplitude motion of the mechanical system consisting of infinitely deep water and a structure immersed in it. The former is bounded above by a free surface, whereas the latter is formed by an arbitrary finite number of surface-piercing bodies floating freely. The mathematical model of time-harmonic motion is a spectral problem in which the frequency of oscillations serves as the spectral parameter. It is proved that there exist axisymmetric structures consisting of ...

  2. Rooftop level rainwater harvesting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Hayssam; Traboulsi, Marwa

    2017-05-01

    Unfortunately, in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region, water becomes scarcer than ever before, and over the last decades the demand on domestic water has increased due to population and economic growth. Although rainwater harvesting is considered to be a safe and reliable alternative source for domestic water, the inconvenience or impracticalities related to the cost and space needed for the construction of ground or underground storage tanks makes this practice not widely common in rural areas and rarely implemented in urban cities. This paper introduces a new technique to rainwater harvesting which can be easily used in both rural and urban areas: it collects and stores rainwater directly in tanks already installed on building roofs and not necessarily in special ground or underground ones. If widely adopted in Lebanon, this technique could help in: (1) collecting around 23 MCM (70 % of the current deficit in the domestic water supply) of rainwater and thus increasing the available water per m2 of building by 0.4 m3 per year, (2) saving around 7 % of the amount of electric energy usually needed to pump water from an aquifer well and ground or underground tank, and (3) considerably reducing the rate of surface runoff of rainwater at the coastal zones where rainwater is not captured at all and goes directly to the sea.

  3. Triboelectric effect in energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, I.; Vassiliadis, S.; Siores, E.

    2017-10-01

    With the development of wearable technology, much research has been undertaken in the field of flexible and stretchable electronics for use in interactive attire. The challenging problem wearable technology faces is the ability to provide energy whilst keeping the endproduct comfortable, light, ergonomic and nonintrusive. Energy harvesting, or energy scavenging as it is also known, is the process by which ambient energy is captured and converted into electric energy. The triboelectric effect converts mechanical energy into electrical energy based on the coupling effect of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction and is utilized as the basis for triboelectric generators (TEG). TEG’s are promising for energy harvesting due their high output power and efficiency in conjunction with simple and economical production. Due to the wide availability of materials and ease of integration, in order to produce the triboelectric effect such functional materials are effective for wearable energy harvesting systems. Flexible TEG’s can be built and embedded into attire, although a thorough understanding of the underlying principle of how TEG’s operate needs to be comprehended for the development and in incorporation in smart technical textiles. This paper presents results associated with TEG’S and discusses their suitability for energy harvesting in textiles structures.

  4. Structure of human insulin monomer in water/acetonitrile solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocian, Wojciech; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Bednarek, Elzbieta [National Medicines Institute (Poland); Tarnowska, Anna; Kawecki, Robert [Institute of Organic Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland); Kozerski, Lech [National Medicines Institute (Poland)], E-mail: lkoz@icho.edu.pl

    2008-01-15

    Here we present evidence that in water/acetonitrile solvent detailed structural and dynamic information can be obtained for important proteins that are naturally present as oligomers under native conditions. An NMR-derived human insulin monomer structure in H{sub 2}O/CD{sub 3}CN, 65/35 vol%, pH 3.6 is presented and compared with the available X-ray structure of a monomer that forms part of a hexamer (Acta Crystallogr. 2003 Sec. D59, 474) and with NMR structures in water and organic cosolvent. Detailed analysis using PFGSE NMR, temperature-dependent NMR, dilution experiments and CSI proves that the structure is monomeric in the concentration and temperature ranges 0.1-3 mM and 10-30 deg. C, respectively. The presence of long-range interstrand NOEs, as found in the crystal structure of the monomer, provides the evidence for conservation of the tertiary structure. Starting from structures calculated by the program CYANA, two different molecular dynamics simulated annealing refinement protocols were applied, either using the program AMBER in vacuum (AMBER{sub V}C), or including a generalized Born solvent model (AMBER{sub G}B)

  5. Structure of human insulin monomer in water/acetonitrile solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocian, Wojciech; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Bednarek, Elzbieta; Tarnowska, Anna; Kawecki, Robert; Kozerski, Lech

    2008-01-01

    Here we present evidence that in water/acetonitrile solvent detailed structural and dynamic information can be obtained for important proteins that are naturally present as oligomers under native conditions. An NMR-derived human insulin monomer structure in H 2 O/CD 3 CN, 65/35 vol%, pH 3.6 is presented and compared with the available X-ray structure of a monomer that forms part of a hexamer (Acta Crystallogr. 2003 Sec. D59, 474) and with NMR structures in water and organic cosolvent. Detailed analysis using PFGSE NMR, temperature-dependent NMR, dilution experiments and CSI proves that the structure is monomeric in the concentration and temperature ranges 0.1-3 mM and 10-30 deg. C, respectively. The presence of long-range interstrand NOEs, as found in the crystal structure of the monomer, provides the evidence for conservation of the tertiary structure. Starting from structures calculated by the program CYANA, two different molecular dynamics simulated annealing refinement protocols were applied, either using the program AMBER in vacuum (AMBER V C), or including a generalized Born solvent model (AMBER G B)

  6. Holistic blue water use and life cycle cost savings of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale in the Southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to the U.S. Global Change Research Program, from 1970 to 2007 most of the Southeast U.S. received heavy downpours in recent autumns while moderate-to-severe drought increased in spring and summer (12% and 14%). Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is getting attention due to rece...

  7. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A structured ecosystem-scale approach to marine water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These, in turn, created the need for holistic and integrated frameworks within which to design and implement environmental management programmes. A structured ecosystem-scale approach for the design and implementation of marine water quality management programmes developed by the CSIR (South Africa) in ...

  9. Tempered Water Lower Port Connector Structural Analysis Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CREA, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Structural analysis of the lower port connection of the Tempered Water System of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility was performed. Subsequent detailed design changes to enhance operability resulted in the need to re-evaluate the bases of the original analysis to verify its continued validity. This evaluation is contained in Appendix A of this report. The original evaluation is contained in Appendix B

  10. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The basic problem consists of a liner flexible structure situated at or near the surface of a soil half-space. In keeping with typical small strain seismic analyses, the soil skeleton is represented as a linear medium in which all potential nonlinearities are at most lumped together into an equivalent hysteretic damping modulus. In addition, the ground water level is located at some depth relatively close to the structure, and in a position to impact on the seismic response of the facility. In order to estimate the response of this oil-water system, the two-phased medium formulation of Biot was used to treat the response of the solids and water as two separate linear media, coupled together through soil permeability and volume effects. (orig./HP)

  11. Structure of bound water and refinement of acid metmyoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghaven, N.V.; Schoenborn, B.P.

    1982-06-01

    The structure of myoglobin has been determined by x-ray diffraction for the acidmet, deoxy, and the oxy forms. Neutron diffraction work, done in this laboratory, has demonstrated that hydrogen and deuterium positions can be located. In addition to the localization of H and D, neutron diffraction provides a unique method for studying the water structure because of the strong scattering ability of D 2 O. The scattering factor of deuterium is nearly twice as large as that of hydrogen, and it increases the visibility of water molecules in Fourier maps, so that in a neutron map a water molecule appears about three times as strong as in an equivalent electron-density map. (DT)

  12. Structure of the floating water bridge and water in an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Lawrie B; Benmore, Chris J; Shyam, Badri; Weber, J K R; Parise, John B

    2012-10-09

    The floating water bridge phenomenon is a freestanding rope-shaped connection of pure liquid water, formed under the influence of a high potential difference (approximately 15 kV). Several recent spectroscopic, optical, and neutron scattering studies have suggested that the origin of the bridge is associated with the formation of anisotropic chains of water molecules in the liquid. In this work, high energy X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on a series of floating water bridges as a function of applied voltage, bridge length, and position within the bridge. The two-dimensional X-ray scattering data showed no direction-dependence, indicating that the bulk water molecules do not exhibit any significant preferred orientation along the electric field. The only structural changes observed were those due to heating, and these effects were found to be the same as for bulk water. These X-ray scattering measurements are supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations which were performed under electric fields of 10(6) V/m and 10(9) V/m. Directional structure factor calculations were made from these simulations parallel and perpendicular to the E-field. The 10(6) V/m model showed no significant directional-dependence (anisotropy) in the structure factors. The 10(9) V/m model however, contained molecules aligned by the E-field, and had significant structural anisotropy.

  13. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not be...

  14. 1970 Oregon timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    The 1970 Oregon timber harvest of 7.98 billion board feet was the lowest recorded since the recession year of 1961 when 7.41 billion board feet of timber was produced. The 1970 log production figure was 12.8 percent below the 1969 harvest, the second consecutive year of declining production in Oregon.

  15. Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Han; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chang, Hung-Chih; Lin, Chin-An; Kang, Chen-Fang; Hsing, Meng-Kai; Lai, Kun-Yu; He, Jr-Hau

    2012-12-07

    We experimentally and theoretically demonstrated the hierarchical structure of SiO(2) nanorod arrays/p-GaN microdomes as a light harvesting scheme for InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells. The combination of nano- and micro-structures leads to increased internal multiple reflection and provides an intermediate refractive index between air and GaN. Cells with the hierarchical structure exhibit improved short-circuit current densities and fill factors, rendering a 1.47 fold efficiency enhancement as compared to planar cells.

  16. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and…

  17. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farid U Khan

    Acoustics; energy harvesting; electromagnetic; Helmholtz resonator; sound pressure level; suspended coil. ... WSNs, which are supposed to operate for longer period of time. However ... several ambient energies such as wind, thermal, vibration, and solar are ..... textile plants in Northern India with specific reference to noise.

  18. Hydropower harvesting from a small scale reciprocating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malla, Ramesh B.; Shrestha, Binu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; Drasdis, Jonathon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Connecticut, 261 Glenbrook Road, Storrs, CT 06269-2037 (United States); Johnson, Paul [eGen LLC, 1084 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Conventional hydropower systems that can take advantage of low head movement of water require substantial flow rates. However, these systems cannot harvest hydro energy from small sources of water with low head and low discharge, such as streams and creeks. The reciprocating hydropower system discussed in this paper can harvest power from such low flow discharge and low head sources. This paper presents a detailed proof-of-concept study of the hydropower model, including the underlining theoretical principles. Laboratory test results demonstrating the dependence of the lift force in the reciprocating small scale hydropower model as a function of flow velocity, size and rotational speed of the cylinder and comparison of the results with a previous study are also included. Two methods of power harvesting from the output displacement obtained from the hydropower system are discussed. The first employs electromagnetic induction principles and the other is based on a linear inertial generator using a conventional second order spring mass damper system. Finally, results from a finite element analysis of the hydropower system are presented and facilitate future design of the structural aspects of the housing for the reciprocating cylinder. (author)

  19. Modelling soil-water dynamics in the rootzone of structured and water-repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hamish; Carrick, Sam; Müller, Karin; Thomas, Steve; Sharp, Joanna; Cichota, Rogerio; Holzworth, Dean; Clothier, Brent

    2018-04-01

    In modelling the hydrology of Earth's critical zone, there are two major challenges. The first is to understand and model the processes of infiltration, runoff, redistribution and root-water uptake in structured soils that exhibit preferential flows through macropore networks. The other challenge is to parametrise and model the impact of ephemeral hydrophobicity of water-repellent soils. Here we have developed a soil-water model, which is based on physical principles, yet possesses simple functionality to enable easier parameterisation, so as to predict soil-water dynamics in structured soils displaying time-varying degrees of hydrophobicity. Our model, WEIRDO (Water Evapotranspiration Infiltration Redistribution Drainage runOff), has been developed in the APSIM Next Generation platform (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulation). The model operates on an hourly time-step. The repository for this open-source code is https://github.com/APSIMInitiative/ApsimX. We have carried out sensitivity tests to show how WEIRDO predicts infiltration, drainage, redistribution, transpiration and soil-water evaporation for three distinctly different soil textures displaying differing hydraulic properties. These three soils were drawn from the UNSODA (Unsaturated SOil hydraulic Database) soils database of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). We show how preferential flow process and hydrophobicity determine the spatio-temporal pattern of soil-water dynamics. Finally, we have validated WEIRDO by comparing its predictions against three years of soil-water content measurements made under an irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) trial. The results provide validation of the model's ability to simulate soil-water dynamics in structured soils.

  20. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  1. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  2. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  3. The structure of liquid water; La structure de l'eau liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    We have tried to expose a bibliography so complete as possible on structure of liquid water. One synthesis of the different models of water structure is presently impossible, so, we have exposed the main properties of water. We have pointed out the new hypotheses on the electronic structure of water molecule and on the theory of hydrogen bond. After that, we have put together the studies of structure by spectroscopy and given the main deductions of some workers on this subject. We have also exposed the characteristics of processes: relaxation and dielectric constant, influence of temperature on structure. At last, we have considered briefly the partition and thermodynamic functions established from the various models proposed. (author) [French] Nous nous sommes proposes d'ecrire une bibliographie aussi complete que possible sur la structure de l'eau liquide. Apres avoir rappele les differentes tentatives d'etablissement de modele de structure, et s'etre rendu compte qu'une synthese s'averait impossible, il nous est apparu souhaitable d'exposer les principales proprietes de l'eau. C'est ainsi que nous avons donne les hypotheses les plus recentes sur la structure electronique de la molecule d'eau ainsi que celles concernant la theorie de la liaison hydrogene. Puis nous avons rassemble les etudes de structure par spectroscopie et fourni les deductions auxquelles les divers auteurs sont arrives. Nous avons egalement expose les caracteristiques des processus tels que: relaxation et constante dielectrique, l'influence de la temperature sur la structure et enfin nous avons donne brievement les fonctions de partition et les grandeurs thermodynamiques etablies a partir des divers modeles proposes. (auteur)

  4. Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Integrating devices with nanostructures is considered a promising strategy to improve the performance of solar energy harvesting devices such as photovoltaic (PV) devices and photo-electrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting devices. Extensive efforts have been exerted to improve the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of such devices by utilizing novel nanostructures to revolutionize device structural designs. The thicknesses of light absorber and material consumption can be substantially reduced because of light trapping with nanostructures. Meanwhile, the utilization of nanostructures can also result in more effective carrier collection by shortening the photogenerated carrier collection path length. Nevertheless, performance optimization of nanostructured solar energy harvesting devices requires a rational design of various aspects of the nanostructures, such as their shape, aspect ratio, periodicity, etc. Without this, the utilization of nanostructures can lead to compromised device performance as the incorporation of these structures can result in defects and additional carrier recombination. The design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices are summarized, including thin film non-uniformity on nanostructures, surface recombination, parasitic absorption, and the importance of uniform distribution of photo-generated carriers. A systematic view of the design concerns will assist better understanding of device physics and benefit the fabrication of high performance devices in the future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Structural conceptual models of water-conducting features at Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.; Mazurek, M.; Hermansson, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of the Fracture Classification and Characterization Project (FCC), water conducting features (WCF) in the Aespoe tunnel system and on the surface of Aespoe Island are being characterized over a range of scales. The larger-scale hierarchies of WCF are mostly constituted of fault arrays, i.e. brittle structures that accommodated episodes of shear strain. The smaller-scale WCF (contained within blocks 1 m. Structural evidence indicates that the fractures within the TRUE-1 block constitute an interconnected system with a pronounced anisotropy

  6. Induced activity in accelerator structures, air and water

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    A summary is given of several 'rules of thumb' which can be used to predict the formation and decay of radionuclides in the structure of accelerators together with the dose rates from the induced radioactivity. Models are also given for the activation of gases (air of the accelerator vault) and liquids (in particular cooling water), together with their transport front the activation region to the release point. (18 refs).

  7. Dropwise chains as the elements of water fog spatial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavlov, A.V.; Sokolov, I.V.; Romanyuk, S.N.; Dzhumandzhi, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    Video images of water fog drops were acquired under standard atmospheric conditions with weak turbulence of the environment. Pair correlation functions of the drops were performed and traces of the spatial arrangement of the drops inside the fog determined. The fog structure carriers are the drop chains with a fixed interdroplet distance. The possible influence of the drop chains on the shear viscosity and fog surface tension has been analysed.

  8. Soil-structure interaction Vol.3. Influence of ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, C J

    1986-04-01

    This study has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The study was conducted during the fiscal year 1965 on the program entitled 'Benchmarking of Structural Engineering Problems' sponsored by NRC. The program considered three separate but complementary problems, each associated with the soil-structure interaction (551) phase of the seismic response analysis of nuclear plant facilities. The reports, all entitled Soil-Structure Interaction, are presented in three separate volumes, namely: Vol. 1 Influence of Layering by AJ Philippacopoulos, Vol. 2 Influence of Lift-Off by C.A. Miller, Vol. 3 Influence of Ground Water by C.J. Costantino. The two problems presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were conducted at the City University of New York (CUNY) under subcontract to BNL. This report, Volume 3 of the report, presents a summary of the first year's effort on the subject of the influence of foundation ground water on the SSI phenomenon. A finite element computer program was developed for the two-phased formulation of the combined soil-water problem. This formulation is based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion for both the solid and fluid phases of a typical soil. Frequency dependent interaction coefficients were generated for the two-dimensional plane problem of a rigid surface footing moving against a saturated linear soil. The results indicate that interaction coefficients are significantly modified as compared to the comparable values for a dry soil, particularly for the rocking mode of response. Calculations were made to study the impact of the modified interaction coefficients on the response of a typical nuclear reactor building. The amplification factors for a stick model placed atop a dry and saturated soil were computed. It was found that pore water caused the rocking response to decrease and translational response to increase over the frequency range of interest, as

  9. Induced activity in accelerator structures, air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    A summary is given of several 'rules of thumb' which can be used to predict the formation and decay of radionuclides in the structure of accelerators together with the dose rates from the induced radioactivity. Models are also given for the activation of gases (air of the accelerator vault) and liquids (in particular cooling water), together with their transport from the activation region to the release point. (author)

  10. Thermomechanical finite element analysis of hot water boiler structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragoljub S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Finite Elements Method for stress and strain analysis of the hot water boiler structure. The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of the boiler scale on the thermal stresses and strains of the structure of hot water boilers. Results show that maximum thermal stresses appear in the zone of the pipe carrying wall of the first reversing chamber. This indicates that the most critical part of the boiler are weld spots of the smoke pipes and pipe carrying plate, which in the case of significant scale deposits can lead to cracks in the welds and water leakage from the boiler. The nonlinear effects were taken into account by defining the bilinear isotropic hardening model for all boiler elements. Temperature dependency was defined for all relevant material properties, i. e. isotropic coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus, and isotropic thermal conductivity. The verification of the FEA model was performed by comparing the measured deformations of the hot water boiler with the simulation results. As a reference object, a Viessmann - Vitomax 200 HW boiler was used, with the installed power of 18.2 MW. CAD modeling was done within the Autodesk Inventor, and stress and strain analysis was performed in the ANSYS Software.

  11. Structure of Mesozooplankton Communities in the Coastal Waters of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidvanov, V. V.; Grabko, O. G.; Kukuev, E. I.; Korolkova, T. G.

    2018-03-01

    Mero- and holoplanktonic organisms from 23 large taxa have been detected in the coastal waters of Morocco. Seven Cladocera species and 164 Copepoda species were identified. Copepod fauna mostly consisted of oceanic epipelagic widely tropical species, but the constant species group (frequency of occurrence over 50%) included neritic and neritic-oceanic widely tropical species. The neritic community that formed a biotopic association with coastal upwelling waters and the distant-neritic community associated with Canary Current waters were the two major communities detected. The former community was characterized by a high abundance and biomass (5700 ind./m3 and 260 mg/m3) and predominance of neritic species. The trophic structure was dominated by thin filter feeders, mixed-food consumers, and small grabbers; the species structure was dominated by Paracalanus indicus, Acartia clausi, and Oncaea curta; the indices of species diversity (3.07 bit/ind.) and evenness (0.63) were relatively low. The latter community was characterized by low abundance and biomass (1150 ind./m3 and 90 mg/m3); variable biotopic, trophic, and species structure; and higher Shannon indices (3.99 bit/ind.) and Pielou (0.75). Seasonal variation of the abundance of organisms was not detected in the communities. Anomalous mesozooplankton states were observed in summer 1998 and winter 1998-1999.

  12. Gas hydrate inhibition by perturbation of liquid water structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Natural gas hydrates are icy crystalline materials that contain hydrocarbons, which are the primary energy source for this civilization. The abundance of naturally occurring gas hydrates leads to a growing interest in exploitation. Despite their potential as energy resources and in industrial applications, there is insufficient understanding of hydrate kinetics, which hinders the utilization of these invaluable resources. Perturbation of liquid water structure by solutes has been proposed to be a key process in hydrate inhibition, but this hypothesis remains unproven. Here, we report the direct observation of the perturbation of the liquid water structure induced by amino acids using polarized Raman spectroscopy, and its influence on gas hydrate nucleation and growth kinetics. Amino acids with hydrophilic and/or electrically charged side chains disrupted the water structure and thus provided effective hydrate inhibition. The strong correlation between the extent of perturbation by amino acids and their inhibition performance constitutes convincing evidence for the perturbation inhibition mechanism. The present findings bring the practical applications of gas hydrates significantly closer, and provide a new perspective on the freezing and melting phenomena of naturally occurring gas hydrates.

  13. Influence of ground water on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Lung, R.H.; Graves, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The study of structural response to seismic inputs has been extensively studied and, particularly with the advent of the growth of digital computer capability, has lead to the development of numerical methods of analysis which are used as standard tools for the design of structures. One aspect of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) process which has not been developed to the same degree of sophistication is the impact of ground water (or pure water) on the response of the soil-structure system. There are very good reasons for his state of affairs, however, not the least of which is the difficulty of incorporating the true constitutive behavior of saturated soils into the analysis. At the large strain end of the spectrum, the engineer is concerned with the potential development of failure conditions under the structure, and is typically interested in the onset of liquefaction conditions. The current state of the art in this area is to a great extent based on empirical methods of analysis which were developed from investigations of limited failure data from specific sites around the world. Since it is known that analytic solutions are available for only the simplest of configurations, a numerical finite element solution process was developed. Again, in keeping with typical SSI analyses, in order to make the finite element approach yield resonable results, a comparable transmitting boundary formulation was included in the development. The purpose of the transmitting boundary is, of course, to allow for the treatment of extended soil/water half-space problems. For the calculations presented herein, a simple one dimensional transmitting boundary model was developed and utilized

  14. Solvation structures of lithium halides in methanol–water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Dixit, Mayank Kumar; Tembe, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Potentials of mean force for Li + -halides are calculated in methanol–water mixtures. • Stable CIP for x methanol = 1.0 becomes unstable at and below x methanol = 0.75. • The Li + ion is preferentially solvated by methanol molecules. • The halide ions are preferentially solvated by water molecules. - Abstract: The potentials of mean force (PMFs) for the ion pairs, Li + −Cl − , Li + −Br − and Li + −I − have been calculated in five methanol–water compositions. The results obtained are verified by trailing the trajectories and calculating the ion pair distance residence times. Local structures around the ions are studied using the radial distribution functions, density profiles, orientational correlation functions, running coordination numbers and excess coordination numbers. The major change in PMF is observed as the methanol mole fraction (x methanol ) is changed from 1.0 to 0.75. The stable contact ion pair occurring for x methanol = 1.0 becomes unstable at and below x methanol = 0.75. The preferential solvation data show that the halide ions are always preferentially solvated by water molecules. Although the lithium ion is preferentially solvated by methanol molecules, there is significant affinity towards water molecules as well

  15. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has...... the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate...... power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 µm silicon layer and 10-30 µm screen printed...

  16. African Urban Harvest

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban Harvest, a system-wide initiative of the Consultative Group on Agricultural ...... and urban old, using criteria of population density, land availability, and the prevalence of crop ...... Contact between milk and containers or the environment;.

  17. Triple oxygen isotope systematics of structurally bonded water in gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwartz, Daniel; Surma, Jakub; Voigt, Claudia; Assonov, Sergey; Staubwasser, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The triple oxygen isotopic composition of gypsum mother water (gmw) is recorded in structurally bonded water in gypsum (gsbw). Respective fractionation factors have been determined experimentally for 18O/16O and 17O/16O. By taking previous experiments into account we suggest using 18αgsbw-gmw = 1.0037; 17αgsbw-gmw = 1.00195 and θgsbw-gmw = 0.5285 as fractionation factors in triple oxygen isotope space. Recent gypsum was sampled from a series of 10 ponds located in the Salar de Llamara in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Total dissolved solids (TDS) in these ponds show a gradual increase from 23 g/l to 182 g/l that is accompanied by an increase in pond water 18O/16O. Gsbw falls on a parallel curve to the ambient water from the saline ponds. The offset is mainly due to the equilibrium fractionation between gsbw and gmw. However, gsbw represents a time integrated signal biased towards times of strong evaporation, hence the estimated gmw comprises elevated 18O/16O compositions when compared to pond water samples taken on site. Gypsum precipitation is associated with algae mats in the ponds with lower salinity. No evidence for respective vital effects on the triple oxygen isotopic composition of gypsum hydration water is observed, nor are such effects expected. In principle, the array of δ18Ogsbw vs. 17Oexcess can be used to: (1) provide information on the degree of evaporation during gypsum formation; (2) estimate pristine meteoric water compositions; and (3) estimate local relative humidity which is the controlling parameter of the slope of the array for simple hydrological situations. In our case study, local mining activities may have decreased deep groundwater recharge, causing a recent change of the local hydrology.

  18. Water linked 3D coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suryabhan; Bhim, Anupam

    2016-12-01

    Three new coordination polymers (CPs) based on Cd and Pb, [Cd(OBA)(μ-H2O)(H2O)]n1, [Pb(OBA)(μ-H2O)]n2 [where OBA=4,4'-Oxybis(benzoate)] and [Pb(SDBA)(H2O)]n.1/4DMF 3 (SDBA=4,4'-Sulfonyldibenzoate), have been synthesized and characterized. The single crystal structural studies reveal that CPs 1 and 2 have three dimensional structure. A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. Compound 3 has a supramolecular 3D structure involving water molecule and hydrogen bonds. A structural transformation is observed when 3 was heated at 100 °C or kept in methanol, forming [Pb(SDBA)]n4. Compound 4 is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. The PdNPs@4 exhibits good catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of NaBH4 at room temperature. Luminescence studies revealed that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives.

  19. Adaptive learning algorithms for vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, John K; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    By scavenging energy from their local environment, portable electronic devices such as MEMS devices, mobile phones, radios and wireless sensors can achieve greater run times with potentially lower weight. Vibration energy harvesting is one such approach where energy from parasitic vibrations can be converted into electrical energy through the use of piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers. Parasitic vibrations come from a range of sources such as human movement, wind, seismic forces and traffic. Existing approaches to vibration energy harvesting typically utilize a rectifier circuit, which is tuned to the resonant frequency of the harvesting structure and the dominant frequency of vibration. We have developed a novel approach to vibration energy harvesting, including adaptation to non-periodic vibrations so as to extract the maximum amount of vibration energy available. Experimental results of an experimental apparatus using an off-the-shelf transducer (i.e. speaker coil) show mechanical vibration to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 27–34%

  20. Antioxidant and enzymatic responses to oxidative stress induced by pre-harvest water supply reduction and ripening on mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Cogshall') in relation to carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalie, Rémy; Joas, Jacques; Deytieux-Belleau, Christelle; Vulcain, Emmanuelle; Payet, Bertrand; Dufossé, Laurent; Léchaudel, Mathieu

    2015-07-20

    The effects of a reduction in water supply during fruit development and postharvest fruit ripening on the oxidative status and the antioxidant defense system were studied in the mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Cogshall. Changes in non-enzymatic (ascorbate) and enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR) antioxidants, as well as oxidative parameters (H2O2 and MDA) and major carotenoids, were measured in unripe and ripe fruits from well-irrigated and non-irrigated trees. Under non-limiting water supply conditions, ripening induced oxidation as a result of the production of ROS and decreased ascorbate content. Antioxidant enzymatic systems were activated to protect fruit tissues and to regenerate the ascorbate pool. The carotenoid pool, mainly represented by β-carotene and esterified violaxanthine isomers, accumulated naturally during mango ripening. The suppression of irrigation decreased fruit size and induced accumulation of ABA and of its storage form, ABA-GE, in fruit pulp from the earliest harvest. It also increased oxidation, which was observable by the high levels of ascorbate measured at the early stages at harvest, and by the delay in the time it took to reach the pseudo constant carotene-to-xanthophyll ratio in ripe fruits. Nevertheless, differences between the irrigation treatments on the antioxidant system in ripe fruits were not significant, mainly because of the drastic changes in this system during ripening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C

    2012-01-01

    Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM.

  2. Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversi...... with performance of our tool with respect to each format. Finally, the different potential applications of the proposed tool are discussed with special emphasis on open source intelligence....... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. We also discuss state of the art tools along with the shortcomings and present the results of an analysis carried out over different heterogeneous formats along...

  3. Coplanar capacitance sensors for detecting water intrusion in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassr, Amr A; El-Dakhakhni, Wael W; Ahmed, Wael H

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials are becoming more affordable and widely used for retrofitting, rehabilitating and repairing reinforced concrete structures designed and constructed under older specifications. However, the mechanical properties and long-term durability of composite materials may degrade severely in the presence of water intrusion. This study presents a new non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting the water intrusion in composite structures by evaluating the dielectric properties of different composite system constituent materials. The variation in the dielectric signatures was employed to design a coplanar capacitance sensor with high sensitivity to detect such defects. An analytical model was used to study the effect of the sensor geometry on the output signal and to optimize sensor design. A finite element model was developed to validate analytical results and to evaluate other sensor design-related parameters. Experimental testing of a concrete specimen wrapped with composite laminate and containing a series of pre-induced water intrusion defects was conducted in order to validate the concept of the new technique. Experimental data showed excellent agreement with the finite element model predictions and confirmed sensor performance

  4. Investigation of structural responses of breakwaters for green water based on fluid-structure interaction analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Seung Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the structural response of breakwaters installed on container carriers against green water impact loads was numerically investigated on the basis of the fluid-structure interaction analysis. A series of numerical studies is carried out to induce breakwater collapse under such conditions, whereby a widely accepted fluid-structure interaction analysis technique is adopted to realistically consider the phenomenon of green water impact loads. In addition, the structural behaviour of these breakwaters under green water impact loads is investigated simultaneously throughout the transient analysis. A verification study of the numerical results is performed using data from actual collapse incidents of breakwaters on container carriers. On the basis of the results of a series of numerical analyses, the pressure distribution of green water was accurately predicted with respect to wave mass and velocity. It is expected that the proposed analytical methodology and predicted pressure distribution could be used as a practical guideline for the design of breakwaters on container carriers.

  5. Architectures for wrist-worn energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, R.; Halim, M. A.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Gu, L.; Yang, K.; Roundy, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the simulation-based analysis of six dynamical structures with respect to their wrist-worn vibration energy harvesting capability. This work approaches the problem of maximizing energy harvesting potential at the wrist by considering multiple mechanical substructures; rotational and linear motion-based architectures are examined. Mathematical models are developed and experimentally corroborated. An optimization routine is applied to the proposed architectures to maximize average power output and allow for comparison. The addition of a linear spring element to the structures has the potential to improve power output; for example, in the case of rotational structures, a 211% improvement in power output was estimated under real walking excitation. The analysis concludes that a sprung rotational harvester architecture outperforms a sprung linear architecture by 66% when real walking data is used as input to the simulations.

  6. Water linked 3D coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suryabhan, E-mail: sbs.bhu@gmail.com; Bhim, Anupam

    2016-12-15

    Three new coordination polymers (CPs) based on Cd and Pb, [Cd(OBA)(μ-H{sub 2}O)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}1, [Pb(OBA)(μ-H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}2 [where OBA=4,4’-Oxybis(benzoate)] and [Pb(SDBA)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}.1/4DMF 3 (SDBA=4,4’-Sulfonyldibenzoate), have been synthesized and characterized. The single crystal structural studies reveal that CPs 1 and 2 have three dimensional structure. A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. Compound 3 has a supramolecular 3D structure involving water molecule and hydrogen bonds. A structural transformation is observed when 3 was heated at 100 °C or kept in methanol, forming [Pb(SDBA)]{sub n}4. Compound 4 is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. The PdNPs@4 exhibits good catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of NaBH{sub 4} at room temperature. Luminescence studies revealed that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives. - Graphical abstract: Three new CPs based on Cd and Pb, have been synthesized and characterized. A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. One of the CP is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. The PdNPs@4 exhibits good catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Luminescence studies shown that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives. - Highlights: • Three new CPs based on Cd and Pb, have been synthesized and characterized. • A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. • One of the CP is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. • Luminescence studies shown that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives.

  7. Studies on melt-water-structure interaction during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Okkonen, T.J.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Andersson, J.

    1996-10-01

    Results of a series of studies, on melt-water-structure interactions which occur during the progression of a core melt-down accident, are described. The emphasis is on the in-vessel interactions and the studies are both experimental and analytical. Since, the studies performed resulted in papers published in proceedings of the technical meetings, and in journals, copies of a set of selected papers are attached to provide details. A summary of the results obtained is provided for the reader who does not, or cannot, venture into the perusal of the attached papers. (au)

  8. Studies on melt-water-structure interaction during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Okkonen, T.J.; Bui, V.A.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Andersson, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Div. of Nucl. Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Results of a series of studies, on melt-water-structure interactions which occur during the progression of a core melt-down accident, are described. The emphasis is on the in-vessel interactions and the studies are both experimental and analytical. Since, the studies performed resulted in papers published in proceedings of the technical meetings, and in journals, copies of a set of selected papers are attached to provide details. A summary of the results obtained is provided for the reader who does not, or cannot, venture into the perusal of the attached papers. (au).

  9. A One-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for a Water Transfer Project with Multihydraulic Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yujun Yi; Caihong Tang; Zhifeng Yang; Shanghong Zhang; Cheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The long Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project is composed of complex hydraulic structures (aqueduct, tunnel, control gate, diversion, culvert, and diverted siphon), which generate complex flow patterns. It is vital to simulate the flow patterns through hydraulic structures, but it is a challenging work to protect water quality and maintain continuous water transfer. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was built to understand the flow and pollutant movem...

  10. Rainwater harvesting in arid and semi-arid zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, the scarcity of water can be alleviated by rainwater harvesting, which is defined as a method of inducing, collecting, storing, and conserving local surface runoff for agriculture. Rainwater harvesting can be applied with different

  11. Simulating liquid water for determining its structural and transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arismendi-Arrieta, Daniel; Medina, Juan S.; Fanourgakis, George S.; Prosmiti, Rita; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for calculating structural and transport properties of pure liquid water, such as radial distribution functions and self-diffusion and viscosity coefficients, respectively. We employed reparameterized versions of the ab initio water potential by Niesar, Clementi and Corongiu (NCC). In order to investigate the role of the electrostatic contribution, the partial charges of the NCC model are adjusted so that to reproduce the dipole moment values of the SPC/E, SPC/Fw and TIP4P/2005 water models. The single and collective transport coefficients are obtained by employing the Green–Kubo relations at various temperatures. Additionally, in order to overcome convergence difficulties arising from the long correlation times of the stress-tensor autocorrelation functions, a previously reported fitting scheme was employed. The present results indicate that there is a significant relationship between the dipole moment value of the model, and the calculated transport coefficients. We found that by adjusting the molecular dipole moment of the NCC to the value of the TIP4P/2005, the obtained values for the self-diffusion and viscosity coefficients are in better agreement with experiment, compared to the values obtained with the original NCC model. Even though the predictions of the present model exhibits an overall correct behavior, we conclude that further improvements are still required. In order to achieve that, a careful reparameterization of the repulsion–dispersion terms of the potential model is proposed. Also, the effect of the inclusion of many-body effects such as polarizability, should also be investigated. - Highlights: ► Transport properties of liquid water are important in bio-simulations. ► Self-diffusion coefficient, shear and bulk viscosities calculations from NVE molecular dynamics simulations. ► Their comparison with experimental data provides information on intermolecular forces, and serve to develop water

  12. Fog harvesting on the verge of economic competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, K. J.; Lummerich, A.

    2010-07-01

    Water scarcity is the bottleneck for agriculture and development of Peru’s coast and subject to aggravation due to climate change. Until present day, Peru’s coast in general and the Lima Metropolitan Area (LMA) in particular have enjoyed to a great extend the effect of the country’s high altitude glaciers that serve as a buffer for the capital’s water demand during the highland dry season. However, climate models predict the disappearance of this buffer system below 5.500 masl by 2015, leaving one of the driest places on earth with yet another decrease in freshwater supply (Zapata 2008). The deviation of water resources from the highlands has led already to allocation conflicts. Peru is in urgent need of new concepts for water management. Fog harvesting was introduced to South America in the 1980s and has since been implemented at various locations in North and Central America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. The Standard Fog Collector (SFC) as described by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1994) has proven to be a successful instrument for this purpose. Apart from a number of small scale investigations, the design of the collector has barely been changed over the past three decades (e.g. Gioda et al. 1993). Within the framework of the presented project, financed primarily by the Global Exploration Fund of the National Geographic Society and Bayer AG, new fog collectors were designed at pilot and full scale. Best results in terms of simplicity of construction and water yield were obtained by a metal frame structure called Eiffel. While covering the same amount of space as an SFC and using the same Raschel 65% shadow net, the Eiffel collector harvested up to 2.650 liters of water within a frame of 8x4m compared to up to 600 liters of water harvested by a SFC at the same location. In combination with a simplified maintenance concept, our collectors present an economically competitive alternative to water supply by truck delivery in a region that is not likely to

  13. The Structure of Sea Water and Gelatinous Water in the Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Wojciechowicz, M.; Brewer, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    Gelatinous life forms are common in the deep sea and are able to maintain a careful combination of body integrity and easy fluidity of motion over a wide range of T and P. They accomplish this in part by modifying the molecular structure of water. Both the transparent body of the organism (the mesoglea) and the structure of the immediate surrounding sea water were investigated by in situ laser Raman spectroscopy at depths from 300m to 2,800m. The structure of water is reasonably well known; the basic unit is a hydrogen bonded pentamer with defined stretching and bending modes. The spectrum of the bending band is separable into two components while the stretching band spectrum is composed of five components representing both intra- and inter-molecular vibrations. The effect of temperature on the various vibrational modes is complex. While the effect of pressure on the bending modes is small, but the effect of temperature and pressure on the stretching modes is significant and can be modeled as a van `t Hoff function. Our in situ experiments were conducted using MBARI's ROV Ventana and ROV Doc Ricketts. We collected cnidarians and ctenophores into a 6 L glass detritus sampler fitted with a metal grid plate. Once the animal was captured, we introduced argon gas through the lid of the sampler displacing the contained sea water and leaving a motionless sea water free specimen for spectroscopy. The laser beam was focused through the glass wall of the container and the focal point adjusted to be inside the gelatinous body. Our results very clearly show that:i) The gelatinous mass effectively excludes salts with zero sulfate ion being detected.ii) The water bending modes are absent from the gelatinous spectra.iii) The water stretching modes are highly modified from the typical 5 band liquid pentamer structure with only 3 vibrational modes observable. These results stand in marked contrast to the familiar household gelatin which is typically derived from bovine sources

  14. Improving Vibration Energy Harvesting Using Dynamic Magnifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almuatasim Alomari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and evaluation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices based on a polyvinylidene fluoride unimorph cantilever beam attached to the front of a dynamic magnifier. Experimental studies of the electromechanical frequency response functions are studied for the first three resonance frequencies. An analytical analysis is undertaken by applying the chain matrix in order to predict output voltage and output power with respect to the vibration frequency. The proposed harvester was modeled using MATLAB software and COMSOL multi- physics to study the mode shapes and electrical output parameters. The voltage and power output of the energy harvester with a dynamic magnifier was 2.62 V and 13.68 mW, respectively at the resonance frequency of the second mode. The modeling approach provides a basis to design energy harvesters exploiting dynamic magnification for improved performance and bandwidth. The potential application of such energy harvesting devices in the transport sector include autonomous structural health monitoring systems that often include embedded sensors, data acquisition, wireless communication, and energy harvesting systems.

  15. Vibration energy harvesting using the Halbach array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dibin; Beeby, Steve; Tudor, John; Harris, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of vibration energy harvesting using a Halbach array. A Halbach array is a specific arrangement of permanent magnets that concentrates the magnetic field on one side of the array while cancelling the field to almost zero on the other side. This arrangement can improve electromagnetic coupling in a limited space. The Halbach array offers an advantage over conventional layouts of magnets in terms of its concentrated magnetic field and low-profile structure, which helps improve the output power of electromagnetic energy harvesters while minimizing their size. Another benefit of the Halbach array is that due to the existence of an almost-zero magnetic field zone, electronic components can be placed close to the energy harvester without any chance of interference, which can potentially reduce the overall size of a self-powered device. The first reported example of a low-profile, planar electromagnetic vibration energy harvester utilizing a Halbach array was built and tested. Results were compared to ones for energy harvesters with conventional magnet layouts. By comparison, it is concluded that although energy harvesters with a Halbach array can have higher magnetic field density, a higher output power requires careful design in order to achieve the maximum magnetic flux gradient. (paper)

  16. Integration with Energy Harvesting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Williams

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and implementation of a wireless sensor communication system with a low power consumption that allows it to be integrated with the energy harvesting technology. The system design and implementation focus on reducing the power consumption at three levels: hardware, software and data transmission. The reduction in power consumption, at hardware level in particular, is mainly achieved through the introduction of an energy-aware interface (EAI that ensures a smart inter-correlated management of the energy flow. The resulted system satisfies the requirements of a wireless sensor structure that possesses the energy autonomous capability.

  17. Structure and dynamics of interfacial water. Role of hydratation water in the globular proteins dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This memoir includes five chapters. In the first chapter, are given the elements of the neutrons scattering theory that is used in this study. the second chapter is devoted to a general presentation of the interaction between biological macro molecule and water. The third part is dedicated to the study of the structure and the dynamics of interfacial water in the neighbouring of model systems, the vycor and the amorphous carbon. The results presented in this part are compared with these one relative to water dynamics at the C-phycocyanin surface. This study makes the object of the fourth chapter. Then, in the fifth and last chapter are discussed the results relative to the role of hydratation on the parv-albumin dynamics for which have been combined the neutron quasi elastic incoherent scattering and the nuclear magnetic resonance of the carbon 13 solid in natural abundance

  18. Dielectric loss against piezoelectric power harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Junrui; Shu-Hung Chung, Henry; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectricity is one of the most popular electromechanical transduction mechanisms for constructing kinetic energy harvesting systems. When a standard energy harvesting (SEH) interface circuit, i.e., bridge rectifier plus filter capacitor, is utilized for collecting piezoelectric power, the previous literature showed that the power conversion can be well predicted without much consideration for the effect of dielectric loss. Yet, as the conversion power gets higher by adopting power-boosting interface circuits, such as synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), the neglect of dielectric loss might give rise to deviation in harvested power estimation. Given the continuous progress on power-boosting interface circuits, the role of dielectric loss in practical piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems should receive attention with better evaluation. Based on the integrated equivalent impedance network model, this fast track communication provides a comprehensive study on the susceptibility of harvested power in PEH systems under different conditions. It shows that, dielectric loss always counteracts piezoelectric power harvesting by causing charge leakage across piezoelectric capacitance. In particular, taking corresponding ideal lossless cases as references, the counteractive effect might be aggravated under one of the five conditions: larger dielectric loss tangent, lower vibration frequency, further away from resonance, weaker electromechanical coupling, or using power-boosting interface circuit. These relationships are valuable for the study of PEH systems, as they not only help explain the role of dielectric loss in piezoelectric power harvesting, but also add complementary insights for material, structure, excitation, and circuit considerations towards holistic evaluation and design for practical PEH systems. (fast track communications)

  19. Adjustable Nonlinear Springs to Improve Efficiency of Vibration Energy Harvesters

    OpenAIRE

    Boisseau, S.; Despesse, G.; Seddik, B. Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Vibration Energy Harvesting is an emerging technology aimed at turning mechanical energy from vibrations into electricity to power microsystems of the future. Most of present vibration energy harvesters are based on a mass spring structure introducing a resonance phenomenon that allows to increase the output power compared to non-resonant systems, but limits the working frequency bandwidth. Therefore, they are not able to harvest energy when ambient vibrations' frequencies shift. To follow sh...

  20. Perdas de solo e de água em sistemas de captação in situ no Semi-Árido brasileiro Soil and water losses in situ water harvesting systems in the brazilian semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza T. L. Brito

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de cultivo utilizados no semi-árido brasileiro apresentam riscos de perda devido à irregularidade das chuvas, devendo-se associá-los a práticas que propiciem maior infiltração e, conseqüentemente, menor erosão, o que pode ser obtido por meio de técnicas de captação de água de chuva in situ. Neste trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de avaliar as perdas de água e de solo em área cultivada com milho (Zea mays L., submetida a diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo, correspondendo aos tratamentos Guimarães Duque (T1; aração profunda (T2; aração parcial (T3 e sulcos barrados (T4, comparados com o sistema tradicional (T5, que corresponde ao plantio sem preparo do solo. Após cada evento de chuva, a água e o solo escoados foram coletados e medidos. A umidade do solo em diferentes profundidades foi monitorada durante o ciclo de produção da cultura e avaliada a produtividade dos grãos por meio da análise de variância. A partir dos resultados, pode-se observar que o método Guimarães Duque (T1 proporcionou maiores perdas de água (6.696 L e de solo (15.225 kg ha-1, enquanto as menores perdas foram obtidas com os sulcos barrados (T4, correspondendo a 1.066 L e 1.022 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Nesse tratamento (T4, também foi obtida a maior produtividade de grãos (606 kg ha-1, apresentando-se como o sistema mais indicado para as condições analisadas.The cropping systems used in the Brazilian semi-arid show risks of losses due to irregularity of rainfall, requiring the use of practices which produce higher water infiltration and, as a consequence, lower soil erosion, which can be obtained through in situ rainwater harvest techniques. This study had the objective of evaluating soil and water losses in a corn (Zea mays L. area subjected to different soil preparation systems: Guimarães Duque (T1, deep plowing (T2, partial plowing (T3, and furrows with barriers (T4, compared to the traditional system (T5, i.e., plain planting

  1. Structural characterization of the exopolysaccharides from water kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Lea; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F; Wefers, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Water kefir is a beverage which is produced by initiating fermentation of a fruit extract/sucrose solution with insoluble kefir grains. Exopolysaccharides that are formed from sucrose play a major role in the kefir grain formation, but the exopolysaccharides in the kefir beverage and the detailed structural composition of the whole kefir grains have not been studied yet. Therefore, kefir grains and the corresponding kefir beverage were analyzed for exopolysaccharides by multiple chromatographic approaches and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, different fractionation techniques were applied to obtain further information about the exopolysaccharides. The exopolysaccharide-fraction of the investigated kefir beverage was predominantly composed of O3- and O2-branched dextrans as well as lower amounts of levans. The insoluble dextrans from the kefir grains were mostly O3-branched and contained an elevated portion of 1,3-linked glucose units compared to the soluble dextrans. The structurally different exopolysaccharides in water kefir suggest the involvement of multiple bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of organobentonite structure on toluene adsorption from water solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Vidal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase water pollution by organic compound derived from hydrocarbons such as toluene, several alternative technologies for remediation of polluted water have been originated. In this work natural bentonites were modified with cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA+ for obtaining organophilic bentonites. The obtained CTMA-bentonites would be suitable for use as adsorbents of toluene present in water. The influence of structural characteristics of CTMA-bentonites on their adsorption capacity was studied. It was shown that adsorption of toluene depended on homogeneous interlayer space associated with arrangements of CTMA+ paraffin-monolayer and bilayer models, accompanied by a high degree ordering of the carbon chain of organic cation in both arrangements. However, packing density would not have an evident influence on the retention capacity of these materials. The solids obtained were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffractions and infrared spectroscopy. Toluene adsorption was measured by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Adsorption capacity was studied by determining adsorption isotherms and adsorption coefficient calculation. The adsorption isotherms were straight-line indicating a partition phenomenon of toluene between the aqueous and organic phase present in organophilic bentonites.

  3. Flow structure of steam-water mixed spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Toshiyuki; Mitsuhashi, Yuki; Mizutani, Hiroya; Saito, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the flow structure of a steam-water mixed spray is studied both numerically and experimentally. The velocity and pressure profiles of single-phase flow are calculated using numerical methods. On the basis of the calculated flow fields, the droplet behavior is predicted by a one-way interaction model. This numerical analysis reveals that the droplets are accelerated even after they are sprayed from the nozzle. Experimentally, the mixed spray is observed using an ultra-high-speed video camera, and the velocity field is measured by using the oarticle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Along with this PIV velocity field measurement, the velocities and diameters of droplets are measured by phase Doppler anemometry. Furthermore, the mixing process of steam and water and the atomization process of a liquid film are observed using a transparent nozzle. High-speed photography observations reveal that the flow inside the nozzle is annular flow and that most of the liquid film is atomized at the nozzle throat and nozzle outlet. Finally, the optimum mixing method for steam and water is determined.

  4. Flow structure of steam-water mixed spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Toshiyuki, E-mail: ttsanad@ipc.shizuoka.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Shizuoka (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Yuki; Mizutani, Hiroya; Saito, Takayuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the flow structure of a steam-water mixed spray is studied both numerically and experimentally. The velocity and pressure profiles of single-phase flow are calculated using numerical methods. On the basis of the calculated flow fields, the droplet behavior is predicted by a one-way interaction model. This numerical analysis reveals that the droplets are accelerated even after they are sprayed from the nozzle. Experimentally, the mixed spray is observed using an ultra-high-speed video camera, and the velocity field is measured by using the oarticle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Along with this PIV velocity field measurement, the velocities and diameters of droplets are measured by phase Doppler anemometry. Furthermore, the mixing process of steam and water and the atomization process of a liquid film are observed using a transparent nozzle. High-speed photography observations reveal that the flow inside the nozzle is annular flow and that most of the liquid film is atomized at the nozzle throat and nozzle outlet. Finally, the optimum mixing method for steam and water is determined.

  5. Structure design of water discharge surge tank of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fang; Hou Shuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Drainage is an important function of water discharge surge tank in nuclear power plant. There is little wall and beam inside the water discharge surge tank due to the requirement of major work, which is different from the general structure. Taking water discharge surge tank of nuclear power plant for example, concerned problems are expatiated in the structure scheme of water discharge surge tank, and important structural components are analyzed. Structural analysis model is established by ANSYS finite element analysis. A comprehensive and numerical analysis is performed for different combinations of structural model, and the internal force of structure is extracted. Finally, suggestions for design of similar structure are proposed. (authors)

  6. Energy harvesting from hydraulic pressure fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunefare, K A; Skow, E A; Erturk, A; Savor, J; Verma, N; Cacan, M R

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art hydraulic hose and piping systems employ integral sensor nodes for structural health monitoring to avoid catastrophic failures. Energy harvesting in hydraulic systems could enable self-powered wireless sensor nodes for applications such as energy-autonomous structural health monitoring and prognosis. Hydraulic systems inherently have a high energy intensity associated with the mean pressure and flow. Accompanying the mean pressure is the dynamic pressure ripple, which is caused by the action of pumps and actuators. Pressure ripple is a deterministic source with a periodic time-domain behavior conducive to energy harvesting. An energy harvester prototype was designed for generating low-power electricity from pressure ripples. The prototype employed an axially-poled off-the-shelf piezoelectric stack. A housing isolated the stack from the hydraulic fluid while maintaining a mechanical coupling allowing for dynamic-pressure-induced deflection of the stack. The prototype exhibited an off-resonance energy harvesting problem since the fundamental resonance of the piezoelectric stack was much higher than the frequency content of the pressure ripple. The prototype was designed to provide a suitable power output for powering sensors with a maximum output of 1.2 mW. This work also presents electromechanical model simulations and experimental characterization of the piezoelectric power output from the pressure ripple in terms of the force transmitted into the harvester. (paper)

  7. A novel bistable energy harvesting concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarselli, G; Nicassio, F; Pinto, F; Ciampa, F; Iervolino, O; Meo, M

    2016-01-01

    Bistable energy harvesting has become a major field of research due to some unique features for converting mechanical energy into electrical power. When properly loaded, bistable structures snap-through from one stable configuration to another, causing large strains and consequently power generation. Moreover, bistable structures can harvest energy across a broad-frequency bandwidth due to their nonlinear characteristics. Despite the fact that snap-through may be triggered regardless of the form or frequency of exciting vibration, the external force must reach a specific snap-through activation threshold value to trigger the transition from one stable state to another. This aspect is a limiting factor for realistic vibration energy harvesting application with bistable devices. This paper presents a novel power harvesting concept for bistable composites based on a ‘lever effect’ aimed at minimising the activation force to cause the snap through by choosing properly the bistable structures’ constraints. The concept was demonstrated with the help of numerical simulation and experimental testing. The results showed that the actuation force is one order of magnitude smaller (3%–6%) than the activation force of conventionally constrained bistable devices. In addition, it was shown that the output voltage was higher than the conventional configuration, leading to a significant increase in power generation. This novel concept could lead to a new generation of more efficient bistable energy harvesters for realistic vibration environments. (paper)

  8. A Galloping Energy Harvester with Attached Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Petr; Khovanov, Igor; Tucker-Harvey, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic energy harvesters are a promising technology for the operation of wireless sensors and microelectromechanical systems, as well as providing the possibility of harvesting wind energy in applications were conventional wind turbines are ineffective, such as in highly turbulent flows, or unreliable, such as in harsh environmental conditions. The development of aeroelastic energy harvesters to date has focused on the flutter of airfoils, the galloping of prismatic structures, and the vortex induced vibrations. We present a novel type of galloping energy harvester with the flow becoming attached when the oscillation amplitude is high enough. With the flow attached, the harvester blade acts closer to an aerofoil than a bluff body, which results in a higher efficiency. The dynamics of a prototype device has been characterised experimentally with the use of a motion tracking system. The flow structure in the vicinity of the device has been studied using smoke visualisation and PIV measurements. A lumped parameter mathematical model has been developed and related to the experimental results.

  9. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...

  10. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  11. Forest harvesting systems friendly to the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waesterlund, I [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg (Sweden); Hassan, A E [North Carolina State Univ. Col. of Forest Resources, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The trend in forestry practices today in Europe and U.S.A. in general and Scandinavian countries in particular, is towards adapting systems based on landscape planning. Thus common harvesting equipment available on the market will have to be replaced to meet these tough demands. Environmentalists recommend that wood fiber should be harvested either by selection cutting or commercial thinning thus leaving the site undisturbed with no sign of machine traffic. This mandate will preserve ground water quality and assist in soil conservation. However, to meet the pulp and paper as well as saw mill industries demand for wood from this method of cutting (selection or commercial thinning), requires a thorough examination of our harvesting systems and techniques. This paper will discuss present and future machines that are friendly to the environment. Hypothetical designs and improvements of existing machine systems will be addressed and recommendations will be made for future research activities. 75 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  12. Forest harvesting systems friendly to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waesterlund, I.; Hassan, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The trend in forestry practices today in Europe and U.S.A. in general and Scandinavian countries in particular, is towards adapting systems based on landscape planning. Thus common harvesting equipment available on the market will have to be replaced to meet these tough demands. Environmentalists recommend that wood fiber should be harvested either by selection cutting or commercial thinning thus leaving the site undisturbed with no sign of machine traffic. This mandate will preserve ground water quality and assist in soil conservation. However, to meet the pulp and paper as well as saw mill industries demand for wood from this method of cutting (selection or commercial thinning), requires a thorough examination of our harvesting systems and techniques. This paper will discuss present and future machines that are friendly to the environment. Hypothetical designs and improvements of existing machine systems will be addressed and recommendations will be made for future research activities. 75 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  13. Rainwater Harvesting for Military Installations -The Time is Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Alternate Water Sources US Army Corps of Engineers® Engineer Research and Development Center - Water Reuse - Desalination - Produced Water...RAINWATER HARVESTING - Ground Water Recharge - Graywater Reuse - Sewer Mining Other Water Use/Alternate Water Sources Options What can be done to increase...WATER NO TOME El AGUA .. US Army Corps of Engineers® Engineer Research and Development Center Mitchell Physics RWH 386,800 GPY AC 1,058,300 GPY

  14. Fabrication of SU-8 low frequency electrostatic energy harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2011-11-01

    A 1500μm × 1500μm × 150μm out-of-plane, gap closing, electrostatic energy harvester is designed and fabricated to harvest low-frequency ambient vibrations. SU-8 is used to fabricate the proof mass (1200μm × 1200μm × 150μm) and the 5 m springs. Different harvesters were designed to harvest at 50, 75 and 110 Hz. At 110 Hz, Simulations show that with an input vibration of 10 μm amplitude at the frequency of resonance of the structure, the energy harvester should generate an average output power density of 0.032μW/mm3. This is the most area-efficient low-frequency electrostatic harvester to-date. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Flexible electret energy harvesters with parylene electret on PDMS substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yi; Wu, Shih-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    Currently, most vibrational energy harvesters have rigid and resonant structures to harvest energy from periodic motions in specific directions. However, in some situations the motion is random and aperiodic; or the targeted energy source is the strain energy in deformation, rather than the kinetic energy in vibration. Therefore we propose and demonstrate a PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with parylene-C electret that can be attached to any deformable surfaces to harvest the stain energy caused by external deformation. The proposed flexible harvester was fabricated and characterized. The measured power at 20 Hz is 0.18 μW and 82 nW in the compression and bending modes, respectively. Such a harvester has the potential for wearable and implantable electronics applications

  16. Designing A General Deep Web Harvester by Harvestability Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; van Keulen, Maurice; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    To make deep web data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need of a general-purpose harvester which can be applied to different settings and situations. To develop such a harvester, a large number of issues should be addressed. To have

  17. Review of rainwater harvesting techniques and evidence for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... they are faced with shortage of appropriate technologies and knowledge. Keywords: Rainwater harvesting, runoff agriculture, soil-water conservation, microcatchments, macro-catchments. Tanzania ...

  18. Protocol and Practice in the Adaptive Management of Waterfowl Harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Johnson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in

  19. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  20. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho’s 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho’s industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.

  1. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Energy Harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    An energy harvester capable of converting low frequency vibrations into electrical energy is presented. The operating principle, fabrication process and output characteristics at different frequencies are discussed. The harvester is realized

  2. Community Structure Of Reef Fish In Eastern Luwu Water Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Tribuana Cinnawara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One bio-indicators the condition of coral reefs is a presence of reef fish. The purpose of research is to determine species composition abundance distribution and structure of reef fish communities in these waters. Data collection was conducted in April at six locations in the north and the south eastern Luwu. Mechanical Underwater Visual Cencus UVC and transect method Line intercept Transec LIT with SCUBA equipment used for research data collection. Total reef fish species collected as many as 366 species belonging to 31 families consisting of 150 species of fish target fish consumption 10 species of indicator fish indicator species 206 types of major fissh. The most dominant indicator type of fish is Chaetodon octofasciatus while the major dominant family Pomacentridae Labridae and Apogonidae. Diversity index values ranged from 2.145 to 3.408. Dominance index C is in the range of 0.056 to 0.298. The result is expected to be a reference literature as basic data for the management of reef fish especially in the waters of eastern Luwu.

  3. Impressed current cathodic protection of deep water structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.

    that the cathodic protection design approaches for shallow water may not be adequate for deeper water. This paper discusses on environmental factors encountered in deep water and their effect on cathodic protection behaviour of steel. Further, current CP design...

  4. Impact of biomass harvesting on forest soil productivity in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woongsoon Jang; Christopher R. Keyes; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2015-01-01

    Biomass harvesting extracts an increased amount of organic matter from forest ecosystems over conventional harvesting. Since organic matter plays a critical role in forest productivity, concerns of potential negative long-term impacts of biomass harvesting on forest productivity (i.e., changing nutrient/water cycling, aggravating soil properties, and compaction) have...

  5. Vibration Energy Harvesting Potential for Turbomachinery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian STOICESCU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vibration energy harvesting process represents one of the research directions for increasing power efficiency of electric systems, increasing instrumentation nodes autonomy in hard to reach locations and decreasing total system mass by eliminating cables and higher-power adapters. Research based on the possibility of converting vibration energy into useful electric energy is used to evaluate the potential of its use on turbomachinery applications. Aspects such as the structure and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, harvesting networks, their setup and optimization, are considered. Finally, performance test results are shown using piezoelectric systems on a turbine engine.

  6. Electronically droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2012-01-01

    A report is presented on free falling droplet energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever which is composed of five layers of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet kinetic energy is transferred into the form of mechanical stress forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate. Experimental results show energy of 0.3 μJ per droplet. The scenario of moderate falling drop intensity, i.e. 230 drops per second, yields a total energy of 400 μJ. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  7. Harvest Regulations and Implementation Uncertainty in Small Game Harvest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål F. Moa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge in harvest management is to set policies that maximize the probability that management goals are met. While the management cycle includes multiple sources of uncertainty, only some of these has received considerable attention. Currently, there is a large gap in our knowledge about implemention of harvest regulations, and to which extent indirect control methods such as harvest regulations are actually able to regulate harvest in accordance with intended management objectives. In this perspective article, we first summarize and discuss hunting regulations currently used in management of grouse species (Tetraonidae in Europe and North America. Management models suggested for grouse are most often based on proportional harvest or threshold harvest principles. These models are all built on theoretical principles for sustainable harvesting, and provide in the end an estimate on a total allowable catch. However, implementation uncertainty is rarely examined in empirical or theoretical harvest studies, and few general findings have been reported. Nevertheless, circumstantial evidence suggest that many of the most popular regulations are acting depensatory so that harvest bag sizes is more limited in years (or areas where game density is high, contrary to general recommendations. A better understanding of the implementation uncertainty related to harvest regulations is crucial in order to establish sustainable management systems. We suggest that scenario tools like Management System Evaluation (MSE should be more frequently used to examine robustness of currently applied harvest regulations to such implementation uncertainty until more empirical evidence is available.

  8. Promoting inclusive water governance and forecasting the structure of water consumption based on compositional data: A case study of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yigang; Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Huiwen; Yao, Tang; Li, Yan

    2018-09-01

    Water is centrally important for agricultural security, environment, people's livelihoods, and socio-economic development, particularly in the face of extreme climate changes. Due to water shortages in many cities, the conflicts between various stakeholders and sectors over water use and allocation are becoming more common and intense. Effective inclusive governance of water use is critical for relieving water use conflicts. In addition, reliable forecasting of the structure of water usage among different sectors is a basic need for effective water governance planning. Although a large number of studies have attempted to forecast water use, little is known about the forecasted structure and trends of water use in the future. This paper aims to develop a forecasting model for the structure of water usage based on compositional data. Compositional data analysis is an effective approach for investigating the internal structure of a system. A host of data transformation methods and forecasting models were adopted and compared in order to derive the best-performing model. According to mean absolute percent error for compositional data (CoMAPE), a hyperspherical-transformation-based vector autoregression model for compositional data (VAR-DRHT) is the best-performing model. The proportions of the agricultural, industrial, domestic and environmental water will be 6.11%, 5.01%, 37.48% and 51.4% by 2020. Several recommendations for water inclusive development are provided to give a better account for the optimization of the water use structure, alleviation of water shortages, and improving stake holders' wellbeing. Overall, although we focus on groundwater, this study presents a powerful framework broadly applicable to resource management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, Christopher A [Power Technology Branch, US Army, CERDEC, C2D, Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060-5816 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Piezoelectric materials can be used to convert oscillatory mechanical energy into electrical energy. This technology, together with innovative mechanical coupling designs, can form the basis for harvesting energy from mechanical motion. Piezoelectric energy can be harvested to convert walking motion from the human body into electrical power. Recently four proof-of-concept Heel Strike Units were developed where each unit is essentially a small electric generator that utilizes piezoelectric elements to convert mechanical motion into electrical power in the form factor of the heel of a boot. The results of the testing and evaluation and the performance of this small electric generator are presented. The generator's conversion of mechanical motion into electrical power, the processes it goes through to produce useable power and commercial applications of the Heel Strike electric generator are discussed. (author)

  10. Piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used to convert oscillatory mechanical energy into electrical energy. This technology, together with innovative mechanical coupling designs, can form the basis for harvesting energy from mechanical motion. Piezoelectric energy can be harvested to convert walking motion from the human body into electrical power. Recently four proof-of-concept Heel Strike Units were developed where each unit is essentially a small electric generator that utilizes piezoelectric elements to convert mechanical motion into electrical power in the form factor of the heel of a boot. The results of the testing and evaluation and the performance of this small electric generator are presented. The generator's conversion of mechanical motion into electrical power, the processes it goes through to produce useable power and commercial applications of the Heel Strike electric generator are discussed.

  11. Restoration of harvested peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarmets, Tiit

    1999-01-01

    A short analysis of the main topics of the IPS Symposium Peatland Restoration and Reclamation, Duluth, Minnesota, USA, 1998 is given. It has been single-mindedly recommended in Estonia so far that harvested peatland surfaces should be levelled and outflows shut. But following these recommendations will lead to an unfounded formation of marshy areas with a very low growth of plants. The reclamation of harvested peatlands for agricultural purposes is expensive and there is no commercial need for agricultural land in today's Estonia now. In the author's opinion the foreflows and intermediate ditches should be left open which would favour the growth of the brushwood to grow later into the forest of commercial value. (author)

  12. Anaerobic digestion of waste waters after washing olives used for oil production: in fluence of harvest time on the kinetics of the process. Digestion anaerobia de las aguas de lavado de aceitunas de almazara: influencia del periodo de recoleccion sobre la cinetica del proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Padilla, R.; Alba-Mendoza, J.; Hidalgo-Casado, F.

    1994-01-01

    A kinetic study was carried out of anaerobic digestion of waste waters after washing olives used for oil production, collected at three different harvest times (December 1992, January and February 1993). A 1-litre mixed batch bioreactor operated at 35 degree centigree and containing a sepiolite-immobilized biomass was used. Assuming that the overall anaerobic digestion process conforms to a first-order kinetics, experimental data pairs, namely methane volume yield (G) and time (t), fit Roediger's equation, from which the rate coefficient values, k[sub o], were determined in each of the situations studied. The rate coefficient considerably decreased with the harvest time, over the substrate concentration range studied (0.5-2.5 g COD/1). The average values obtained were [sub 1.67],[sub 1.13] and [sub 0.75] days for the waste waters corresponding to the three harvest times considered. Also, the methanogenic activity decreased with the ripening of the olives; the observed differences increased when the substrate concentration in the digester increased. The coefficients of methane yield, Yp ranged between 0.263 (first harvest time) and 0.298 I CH[sub 4]/g COD removed (third harvest time). The elimination of COD exceeded 64% in all cases. (Author) 13 refs.

  13. Características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-tifton 85 sob doses de nitrogênio e alturas de corte Morphogenic and structural characteristics of tifton 85 bermudagrass under different nitrogen doses and harvesting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-tifton 85 adubado com nitrogênio nas doses de 0, 33, 66, 100 ou 133 kg/ha.ano em três alturas à data de corte (30, 40 ou 50 cm. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As doses de nitrogênio (N corresponderam às parcelas e as alturas ao tempo de corte, às subparcelas. A taxa de aparecimento foliar do capim-tifton 85 foi influenciada de forma negativa pela altura da planta na época do corte e de maneira positiva pela dose de nitrogênio. A taxa de senescência foliar e o número total de folhas por perfilho diminuíram, enquanto a taxa de alongamento foliar aumentou com a adubação nitrogenada. Por outro lado, a taxa de senescência foliar e o número total de folhas por perfilho aumentaram com a altura das plantas na época da colheita. Já o número de folhas vivas por perfilho não foi influenciado pela dose de nitrogênio nem pela altura da planta na época do corte. Para uma mesma altura do capim-tifton 85 na época da colheita, a adubação nitrogenada aumenta o fluxo de tecidos e a frequência de desfolhação. Na condição de desfolhação intermitente, o capim-tifton 85 deve ser colhido com altura de até 30 cm.The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of tifton 85 bermudagrass under different nitrogen doses (0, 33, 66, 100 or 133 kg/ha.year of N and three different plant heights (30, 40 or 50 cm at harvesting time. A split plot scheme in a completely randomized design with three replications was used. The nitrogen (N doses stood for the portions and the haversting heights, for the subportions. The leaf appearance rate of tifton 85 bermudagrass was negatively influenced by plant height at harvesting time, but positively influenced by N dose. Leaf senescence rate and total number of leaves per tiller decreased, whereas leaf elongation rate

  14. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  15. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  16. Terra Harvest software architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeniuk, Dave; Klawon, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Under the Terra Harvest Program, the DIA has the objective of developing a universal Controller for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) community. The mission is to define, implement, and thoroughly document an open architecture that universally supports UGS missions, integrating disparate systems, peripherals, etc. The Controller's inherent interoperability with numerous systems enables the integration of both legacy and future UGS System (UGSS) components, while the design's open architecture supports rapid third-party development to ensure operational readiness. The successful accomplishment of these objectives by the program's Phase 3b contractors is demonstrated via integration of the companies' respective plug-'n'-play contributions that include controllers, various peripherals, such as sensors, cameras, etc., and their associated software drivers. In order to independently validate the Terra Harvest architecture, L-3 Nova Engineering, along with its partner, the University of Dayton Research Institute, is developing the Terra Harvest Open Source Environment (THOSE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running on an embedded Linux Operating System. The Use Cases on which the software is developed support the full range of UGS operational scenarios such as remote sensor triggering, image capture, and data exfiltration. The Team is additionally developing an ARM microprocessor-based evaluation platform that is both energy-efficient and operationally flexible. The paper describes the overall THOSE architecture, as well as the design decisions for some of the key software components. Development process for THOSE is discussed as well.

  17. Energy harvesting for self-powered aerostructure actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Matthew; Pizzonia, Matthew; Mehallow, Michael; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally investigates applying piezoelectric energy harvesting devices driven by flow induced vibrations to create self-powered actuation of aerostructure surfaces such as tabs, flaps, spoilers, or morphing devices. Recently, we have investigated flow-induced vibrations and limit cycle oscillations due to aeroelastic flutter phenomena in piezoelectric structures as a mechanism to harvest energy from an ambient fluid flow. We will describe how our experimental investigations in a wind tunnel have demonstrated that this harvested energy can be stored and used on-demand to actuate a control surface such as a trailing edge flap in the airflow. This actuated control surface could take the form of a separate and discrete actuated flap, or could constitute rotating or deflecting the oscillating energy harvester itself to produce a non-zero mean angle of attack. Such a rotation of the energy harvester and the associated change in aerodynamic force is shown to influence the operating wind speed range of the device, its limit cycle oscillation (LCO) amplitude, and its harvested power output; hence creating a coupling between the device's performance as an energy harvester and as a control surface. Finally, the induced changes in the lift, pitching moment, and drag acting on a wing model are quantified and compared for a control surface equipped with an oscillating energy harvester and a traditional, static control surface of the same geometry. The results show that when operated in small amplitude LCO the energy harvester adds negligible aerodynamic drag.

  18. Harvesting Venom Toxins from Assassin Bugs and Other Heteropteran Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew Allan; Rosenthal, Max; Undheim, Eivind E A; King, Glenn F

    2018-04-21

    Heteropteran insects such as assassin bugs (Reduviidae) and giant water bugs (Belostomatidae) descended from a common predaceous and venomous ancestor, and the majority of extant heteropterans retain this trophic strategy. Some heteropterans have transitioned to feeding on vertebrate blood (such as the kissing bugs, Triatominae; and bed bugs, Cimicidae) while others have reverted to feeding on plants (most Pentatomomorpha). However, with the exception of saliva used by kissing bugs to facilitate blood-feeding, little is known about heteropteran venoms compared to the venoms of spiders, scorpions and snakes. One obstacle to the characterization of heteropteran venom toxins is the structure and function of the venom/labial glands, which are both morphologically complex and perform multiple biological roles (defense, prey capture, and extra-oral digestion). In this article, we describe three methods we have successfully used to collect heteropteran venoms. First, we present electrostimulation as a convenient way to collect venom that is often lethal when injected into prey animals, and which obviates contamination by glandular tissue. Second, we show that gentle harassment of animals is sufficient to produce venom extrusion from the proboscis and/or venom spitting in some groups of heteropterans. Third, we describe methods to harvest venom toxins by dissection of anaesthetized animals to obtain the venom glands. This method is complementary to other methods, as it may allow harvesting of toxins from taxa in which electrostimulation and harassment are ineffective. These protocols will enable researchers to harvest toxins from heteropteran insects for structure-function characterization and possible applications in medicine and agriculture.

  19. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  20. Rainwater harvesting for drought disaster alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widodo, B.; Prinzand, D.; Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Too little water and too much water can be as devastating as well. Drought usually does not show up instantly like flood, but it creeps slowly. Drought that is less popular than flood has impact more serious than flood. It is difficult to be identified when it comes and when it goes away. However, it is suddenly understood when water becomes scare, or no more water is available in wells, rivers and reservoirs. Managing flood and drought has to be at an integrated basis. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) combined with water conservation methods can be developed to alleviate drought disaster as well as flood disaster in the same time. RWH and water conservation must be an integral part of integrated water resources management. Preventing drought could be automatically reducing the extent of flood that means preventing people and the environment from the disasters. (author)

  1. Effect of in situ water harvesting techniques on soil and nutriënt losses in semi-arid Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum, Berhane; Assefae, Dereje; Hessel, R.; Woldearegay, Kifle; Kessler, C.A.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Land degradation, mainly due to soil erosion and nutrient losses, is a global problem for sustainable agriculture. Farmlands in the Ethiopian
    highlands are susceptible to water erosion because of steep slopes and extensive cultivation. A field experiment was conducted in the

  2. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Ishii, N.

    2012-01-01

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  3. Structural analysis of fuel rod applied to pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Danilo P.; Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M.; Lotto, André A., E-mail: danilo.pinheiro@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The design of fuel assemblies applied to Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) has several requirements and acceptance criteria that must be attended for licensing. In the case of PWR fuel rods, an important mechanical structural requirement is to keep the radial stability when submitted to the coolant external pressure. In the framework of the Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) program new materials have been studied to replace zirconium based alloys as cladding, including iron-based alloys. In this sense, efforts have been made to evaluate the behavior of these materials under PWR conditions. The present work aims to evaluate the collapse cold pressure of a stainless steel thin-walled tube similar to that used as cladding material of fuel rods by means of the comparison of numeric data, and experimental results. As a result of the simulations, it was observed that the collapse pressure has a value intermediate value between those found by regulatory requirements and analytical calculations. The experiment was carried out for the validation of the computational model using test specimens of thin-walled tubes considering empty tube. The test specimens were sealed at both ends by means of welding. They were subjected to a high pressure device until the collapse of the tubes. Preliminary results obtained from experiments with the empty test specimens indicate that the computational model can be validated for stainless steel cladding, considering the difference between collapse pressure indicated in the regulatory document and the actual limit pressure concerning to radial instability of tubes with the studied characteristics. (author)

  4. Structural basis for catalysis at the membrane-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Petrou, Vasileios I; Clarke, Oliver B; Mancia, Filippo

    2017-11-01

    The membrane-water interface forms a uniquely heterogeneous and geometrically constrained environment for enzymatic catalysis. Integral membrane enzymes sample three environments - the uniformly hydrophobic interior of the membrane, the aqueous extramembrane region, and the fuzzy, amphipathic interfacial region formed by the tightly packed headgroups of the components of the lipid bilayer. Depending on the nature of the substrates and the location of the site of chemical modification, catalysis may occur in each of these environments. The availability of structural information for alpha-helical enzyme families from each of these classes, as well as several beta-barrel enzymes from the bacterial outer membrane, has allowed us to review here the different ways in which each enzyme fold has adapted to the nature of the substrates, products, and the unique environment of the membrane. Our focus here is on enzymes that process lipidic substrates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Timber harvesting patterns for major states in the central, northern, and mid-Atlantic hardwood regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2018-01-01

    Timber harvesting is a major disturbance agent influencing the composition and structure of eastern hardwood forests. To better understand timber harvesting practices, we examined roundwood harvesting patterns in 13 eastern states in the Central, Mid-Atlantic, and Northern regions that contained high proportional volumes of hardwood in their forest inventories. Nearly...

  6. Risk Analysis Approach to Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ursino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban rainwater reuse preserves water resources and promotes sustainable development in rapidly growing urban areas. The efficiency of a large number of urban water reuse systems, operating under different climate and demand conditions, is evaluated here on the base of a new risk analysis approach. Results obtained by probability analysis (PA indicate that maximum efficiency in low demanding scenarios is above 0.5 and a threshold, distinguishing low from high demanding scenarios, indicates that in low demanding scenarios no significant improvement in performance may be attained by increasing the storage capacity of rainwater harvesting tanks. Threshold behaviour is displayed when tank storage capacity is designed to match both the average collected volume and the average reuse volume. The low demand limit cannot be achieved under climate and operating conditions characterized by a disproportion between harvesting and demand volume.

  7. Water permeability evaluation of hollow cylindrical reinforced concrete structure by means of long-term water penetration test with pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Ai; Miura, Norihiko; Konishi, Kazuhiro; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate initial permeability of large concrete structure, hollow cylindrical reinforced concrete structure, having 6 m in outer diameter, 6 m in height, 1 m in thickness, had been tested by means of 0.25 MPa of outside water pressure. As the results, although surface cracking and partial separation of joint had been observed at the inner side, no water permeation through concrete could be happened even after 5.5 years. After this test, concrete core specimen showed less water penetration within the depth of concrete cover of reinforcement. Thus it was verified that this concrete structure had very high water-tightness, and that the initial average water permeability was estimated to be about 1.6 x 10 -12 m/s. (author)

  8. Biogenesis of light harvesting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Luca; Bressan, Mauro; Bassi, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The LHC family includes nuclear-encoded, integral thylakoid membrane proteins, most of which coordinate chlorophyll and xanthophyll chromophores. By assembling with the core complexes of both photosystems, LHCs form a flexible peripheral moiety for enhancing light-harvesting cross-section, regulating its efficiency and providing protection against photo-oxidative stress. Upon its first appearance, LHC proteins underwent evolutionary diversification into a large protein family with a complex genetic redundancy. Such differentiation appears as a crucial event in the adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to changing environmental conditions and land colonization. The structure of photosystems, including nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded subunits, presented the cell with a number of challenges for the control of the light harvesting function. Indeed, LHC-encoding messages are translated in the cytosol, and pre-proteins imported into the chloroplast, processed to their mature size and targeted to the thylakoids where are assembled with chromophores. Thus, a tight coordination between nuclear and plastid gene expression, in response to environmental stimuli, is required to adjust LHC composition during photoacclimation. In recent years, remarkable progress has been achieved in elucidating structure, function and regulatory pathways involving LHCs; however, a number of molecular details still await elucidation. In this review, we will provide an overview on the current knowledge on LHC biogenesis, ranging from organization of pigment-protein complexes to the modulation of gene expression, import and targeting to the photosynthetic membranes, and regulation of LHC assembly and turnover. Genes controlling these events are potential candidate for biotechnological applications aimed at optimizing light use efficiency of photosynthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast biogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance Study of Diagonally Segmented Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Eun [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This study proposes a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester composed of two diagonally segmented energy harvesting units. An auxiliary structural unit is attached to the tip of a host structural unit cantilevered to a vibrating base, where the two components have beam axes in opposite directions from each other and matched short-circuit resonant frequencies. Contrary to the usual observations in two resonant frequency-matched structures, the proposed structure shows little eigenfrequency separation and yields a mode sequence change between the first two modes. These lead to maximum power generation around a specific frequency. By using commercial finite element software, it is shown that the magnitude of the output power from the proposed vibration energy harvester can be substantially improved in comparison with those from conventional cantilevered energy harvesters with the same footprint area and magnitude of a tip mass.

  10. Energy harvesting for human wearable and implantable bio-sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcheson, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    There are clear trade-offs between functionality, battery lifetime and battery volume for wearable and implantable wireless-biosensors which energy harvesting devices may be able to overcome. Reliable energy harvesting has now become a reality for machine condition monitoring and is finding applications in chemical process plants, refineries and water treatment works. However, practical miniature devices that can harvest sufficient energy from the human body to power a wireless bio-sensor are still in their infancy. This paper reviews the options for human energy harvesting in order to determine power availability for harvester-powered body sensor networks. The main competing technologies for energy harvesting from the human body are inertial kinetic energy harvesting devices and thermoelectric devices. These devices are advantageous to some other types as they can be hermetically sealed. In this paper the fundamental limit to the power output of these devices is compared as a function of generator volume when attached to a human whilst walking and running. It is shown that the kinetic energy devices have the highest fundamental power limits in both cases. However, when a comparison is made between the devices using device effectivenesses figures from previously demonstrated prototypes presented in the literature, the thermal device is competitive with the kinetic energy harvesting device when the subject is running and achieves the highest power density when the subject is walking.

  11. Evaluation of Forest Dynamics Focusing on Various Minimum Harvesting Ages in Multi-Purpose Forest Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Mumcu Kucuker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Exploring the potential effects of various forest management strategies on the ability of forest ecosystems to sequester carbon and produce water has become of great concern among forest researchers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of management strategies with different minimum harvesting ages on the amount and monetary worth of carbon, water and timber values. Area of study: The study was performed in the Yalnızçam planning unit located on the northeastern part of Turkey. Material and Methods: A forest management model with linear programming (LP was developed to determine the effects of various minimum harvesting ages. Twenty-four different management strategies were developed to maximize the economic Net Present Value (NPV of timber, water and carbon values in addition to their absolute quantities over time. Amount and NPV of forest values and ending inventory with different minimum harvesting ages were used as performance indicators to assess and thus understand forest dynamics. Main results: Amount and NPV of timber and carbon generally decreased with extended minimum harvesting ages. However, similar trends were not observed for water production values. The results pointed out that the performance of a management strategy depends highly on the development of a management strategy and the initial forest structure aside from the growth rate Research highlights: Minimum harvesting ages affect forest outputs under the same objectives and constraints. Performance of a management strategy highly depends on initial age class structure in addition to the contents of a management strategy.

  12. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  13. Micro energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Briand, Danick; Roundy, Shad

    2015-01-01

    With its inclusion of the fundamentals, systems and applications, this reference provides readers with the basics of micro energy conversion along with expert knowledge on system electronics and real-life microdevices. The authors address different aspects of energy harvesting at the micro scale with a focus on miniaturized and microfabricated devices. Along the way they provide an overview of the field by compiling knowledge on the design, materials development, device realization and aspects of system integration, covering emerging technologies, as well as applications in power management, e

  14. Investigation of the Structures and Energy Landscapes of Thiocyanate-Water Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis C. Smeeton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Basin Hopping search method is used to find the global minima (GM and map the energy landscapes of thiocyanate-water clusters, (SCN−(H2On with 3–50 water molecules, with empirical potentials describing the ion-water and water-water interactions. (It should be noted that beyond n = 23, the lowest energy structures were only found in 1 out of 8 searches so they are unlikely to be the true GM but are indicative low energy structures. As for pure water clusters, the low energy isomers of thiocyanate-water clusters show a preponderance of fused water cubes and pentagonal prisms, with the weakly solvated thiocyanate ion lying on the surface, replacing two water molecules along an edge of a water polyhedron and with the sulfur atom in lower coordinated sites than nitrogen. However, by comparison with Density Functional Theory (DFT calculations, the empirical potential is found to overestimate the strength of the thiocyanate-water interaction, especially O–H⋯S, with low energy DFT structures having lower coordinate N and (especially S atoms than for the empirical potential. In the case of these finite ion-water clusters, the chaotropic (“disorder-making” thiocyanate ion weakens the water cluster structure but the water molecule arrangement is not significantly changed.

  15. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  16. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life

  17. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  18. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-01-15

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  19. Dynamics and structure of water-bitumen mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Greenfield, Michael L.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Systems of Cooee bitumen and water up to 4% mass are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The cohesive energy density of the system is shown to decrease with an increasing water content. This decrease is due mainly to an increase in the interaction energy which is not high enough to counter......Systems of Cooee bitumen and water up to 4% mass are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The cohesive energy density of the system is shown to decrease with an increasing water content. This decrease is due mainly to an increase in the interaction energy which is not high enough...... droplets being more stable at the highest temperature simulated. The droplet is mainly located close to the saturates molecules in bitumen. Finally, it is shown that the water dynamics is much slower in bitumen than in pure water because it is governed by the diffusion of the droplet and not of the single...

  20. Slow Dynamics and Structure of Supercooled Water in Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Camisasca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We review our simulation results on properties of supercooled confined water. We consider two situations: water confined in a hydrophilic pore that mimics an MCM-41 environment and water at interface with a protein. The behavior upon cooling of the α relaxation of water in both environments is well interpreted in terms of the Mode Coupling Theory of glassy dynamics. Moreover, we find a crossover from a fragile to a strong regime. We relate this crossover to the crossing of the Widom line emanating from the liquid-liquid critical point, and in confinement we connect this crossover also to a crossover of the two body excess entropy of water upon cooling. Hydration water exhibits a second, distinctly slower relaxation caused by its dynamical coupling with the protein. The crossover upon cooling of this long relaxation is related to the protein dynamics.

  1. The consequences of balanced harvesting of fish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2014-01-01

    community structure and yield. We use a size- and trait-based model that resolves individual interactions through competition and predation to compare balanced harvesting with traditional selective harvesting, which protects juvenile fish from fishing. Four different exploitation patterns, generated......Balanced harvesting, where species or individuals are exploited in accordance with their productivity, has been proposed as a way to minimize the effects of fishing on marine fish communities and ecosystems. This calls for a thorough examination of the consequences balanced harvesting has on fish...... by combining selective or unselective harvesting with balanced or unbalanced fishing, are compared. We find that unselective balanced fishing, where individuals are exploited in proportion to their productivity, produces a slightly larger total maximum sustainable yield than the other exploitation patterns and...

  2. Reactor water spontaneous circulation structure in reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazumi

    1998-01-01

    The gap between the inner wall of a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor and a reactor core shroud forms a down comer in which reactor water flows downwardly. A feedwater jacket to which feedwater at low temperature is supplied is disposed at the outer circumference of the pressure vessel just below a gas/water separator. The reactor water at the outer circumferential portion just below the air/water separator is cooled by the feedwater jacket, and the feedwater after cooling is supplied to the feedwater entrance disposed below the feedwater jacket by way of a feedwater introduction line to supply the feedwater to the lower portion of the down comer. This can cool the reactor water in the down comer to increase the reactor water density in the down comer thereby forming strong downward flows and promote the recycling of the reactor water as a whole. With such procedures, the reactor water can be recycled stably only by the difference of the specific gravity of the reactor water without using an internal pump. In addition, the increase of the height of the pressure vessel can be suppressed. (I.N.)

  3. A One-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for a Water Transfer Project with Multihydraulic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project is composed of complex hydraulic structures (aqueduct, tunnel, control gate, diversion, culvert, and diverted siphon, which generate complex flow patterns. It is vital to simulate the flow patterns through hydraulic structures, but it is a challenging work to protect water quality and maintain continuous water transfer. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was built to understand the flow and pollutant movement in this project. Preissmann four-point partial-node implicit scheme was used to solve the governing equations in this study. Water flow and pollutant movement were appropriately simulated and the results indicated that this water quality model was comparable to MIKE 11 and had a good performance and accuracy. Simulation accuracy and model uncertainty were analyzed. Based on the validated water quality model, six pollution scenarios (Q1 = 10 m3/s, Q2 = 30 m3/s, and Q3 = 60 m3/s for volatile phenol (VOP and contaminant mercury (Hg were simulated for the MRP. Emergent pollution accidents were forecasted and changes of water quality were analyzed according to the simulations results, which helped to guarantee continuously transferring water for a large water transfer project.

  4. High-efficiency integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, Abhiman; Shah, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes hierarchically architectured development of an energy harvesting (EH) system that consists of micro and/or macro-scale harvesters matched to multiple components of remote wireless sensor and communication nodes. The micro-scale harvesters consist of thin-film MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays and power generation modules in IC-like form to allow efficient EH from vibrations. The design uses new high conversion efficiency thin-film processes combined with novel cantilever structures tuned to multiple resonant frequencies as broadband arrays. The macro-scale harvesters are used to power the collector nodes that have higher power specifications. These bulk harvesters can be integrated with efficient adaptive power management circuits that match transducer impedance and maximize power harvested from multiple scavenging sources with very low intrinsic power consumption. Texas MicroPower, Inc. is developing process based on a composition that has the highest reported energy density as compared to other commercially available bulk PZT-based sensor/actuator ceramic materials and extending it to thin-film materials and miniature conversion transducer structures. The multiform factor harvesters can be deployed for several military and commercial applications such as underground unattended sensors, sensors in oil rigs, structural health monitoring, supply chain management, and battlefield applications such as sensors on soldier apparel, equipment, and wearable electronics.

  5. Thermoelectrics and its energy harvesting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    .... It details the latest techniques for the preparation of thermoelectric materials employed in energy harvesting, together with advances in the thermoelectric characterisation of nanoscale material...

  6. [Effects of plastic film mulching and rain harvesting modes on chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, yield and water use efficiency of dryland maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shang-Zhong; Fan, Ting-Lu; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Lei; Tang, Xiao-Ming; Dang, Yi; Zhao, Hui

    2014-02-01

    The differences on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, yield and water use efficiency of dryland maize were compared among full plastic film mulching on double ridges and planting in catchment furrows (FFDRF), half plastic film mulching on double ridges and planting in catchment furrows (HFDRF), plastic film mulching on ridge and planting in film-side (FS), and flat planting with no plastic film mulching (NM) under field conditions in dry highland of Loess Plateau in 2007-2012. The results showed that fluorescence yield (Fo), the maximum fluorescence yield (Fm), light-adapted fluorescence yield when PS II reaction centers were totally open (F), light-adapted fluorescence yield when PS II reaction centers closed (Fm'), the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), the actual photochemical efficiency of PS II in the light (Phi PS II), the relative electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (qP) and non-photochemical quenching (qN) in maize leaves of FFDRF were higher than that of control (NM), and the value of 1-qP was lower than that of control, at 13:00, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters values of FFDRF was significantly higher than control, which were increased by 5.3%, 56.8%, 10.7%, 36.3%, 23.6%, 56.7%, 64.4%, 45.5%, 23.6% and -55.6%, respectively, compared with the control. Yield and water use efficiency of FFDRF were the highest in every year no matter dry year, normal year, humid year and hail disaster year. Average yield and water use efficiency of FFDRF were 12,650 kg x hm(-2) and 40.4 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2) during 2007-2012, increased by 57.8% and 61.6% compared with the control, respectively, and also significantly higher compared with HFDRF and PS. Therefore, it was concluded that FFDRF had significantly increased the efficiency of light energy conversion and improved the production capacity of dryland maize.

  7. A vibration energy harvesting device with bidirectional resonance frequency tunability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, Vinod R; Prasad, M G; Shi Yong; Fisher, Frank T

    2008-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from vibrations and vibrating structures, a general requirement independent of the energy transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation frequency. Most energy harvesting devices developed to date are single resonance frequency based, and while recent efforts have been made to broaden the frequency range of energy harvesting devices, what is lacking is a robust tunable energy harvesting technique. In this paper, the design and testing of a resonance frequency tunable energy harvesting device using a magnetic force technique is presented. This technique enabled resonance tuning to ± 20% of the untuned resonant frequency. In particular, this magnetic-based approach enables either an increase or decrease in the tuned resonant frequency. A piezoelectric cantilever beam with a natural frequency of 26 Hz is used as the energy harvesting cantilever, which is successfully tuned over a frequency range of 22–32 Hz to enable a continuous power output 240–280 µW over the entire frequency range tested. A theoretical model using variable damping is presented, whose results agree closely with the experimental results. The magnetic force applied for resonance frequency tuning and its effect on damping and load resistance have been experimentally determined

  8. TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; Gaalen FW van; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P; Technische Universiteit Delft; LWD

    2001-01-01

    The 'Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer' (TAPWAT) model has been developed for describing drinking-water quality in integral studies in the context of the Environmental Policy Assessment of the RIVM. The model consists of modules that represent individual steps in a treatment

  9. Probing water structure and transport in proton exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, X.

    2018-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted tremendous attention as alternative energy sources because of their high energy density and practically zero greenhouse gas emission - water is their only direct by-product. Critical to the function of PEMFCs is fast proton and water

  10. The highly efficient photocatalytic and light harvesting property of Ag-TiO2 with negative nano-holes structure inspired from cicada wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Imran; Zhang, Wang; Zheng, Wangshu; Zhu, Yuying; Zhang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jianzhong; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Abbas, Waseem; Zhang, Di

    2017-12-08

    The negative replica of biomorphic TiO 2 with nano-holes structure has been effectively fabricated directly from nano-nipple arrays structure of cicada wings by using a simple, low-cost and highly effective sol-gel ultrasonic method. The nano-holes array structure was well maintained after calcination in air at 500 °C. The Ag nanoparticles (10 nm-25 nm) were homogeneously decorated on the surface and to the side wall of nano-holes structure. It was observed that the biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 showed remarkable photocatalytic activity by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under UV-vis light irradiation. The biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 with nano-holes structure showed superior photocatalytic activity compared to the biomorphic TiO 2 and commercial Degussa P25. This high-performance photocatalytic activity of the biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 may be attributed to the nano-holes structure, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of the Ag nanoparticles, and enhanced electron-hole separation. Moreover, the biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 showed more absorption capability in the visible wavelength range. This work provides a new insight to design such a structure which may lead to a range of novel applications.

  11. Improvement of Groundwater Regime Through Innovative Rainwater Harvesting Along Road Sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S. K.

    The paper deals about viable and immediate solution of shortage of drinking water in the countries like India, Asian, and African continents. The paper highlights rainwater harvesting along both the sides of roads with the help of suitable, simple structures, which are easy to maintain. This may turn out to be long-term solution for the areas, which are draught prone, or having below normal rainfall. The example given in the paper for “Golden Quadrilateral” project of express national highways in India is quite illustrative and is applicable to other countries also falling in almost similar kind of climatic zones. The concept given in the paper would enhance water availability 8—10 times compared to natural process of rainfall infiltration. It would also improve quality of ground water and would save considerable energy in lifting the water due to the rise in water levels.

  12. Stand, Harvest, and Equipment Interactions in Simulated Harvesting Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; W. Dale Greene; Bryce J. Stokes

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated potential interactions of stand type, harvesting method, and equipment in an experiment using interactive simulation. We examined three felling methods (chain saw, feller-buncher, harvester) and two extraction methods (grapple skidder and forwarder) performing clearcuts, sheltenvood cuts, and single-tree selection cuts in both an uneven-aged natural stand...

  13. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  14. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  15. IMPROVING STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY MONITORING CAPABILITY FOR WATER MAINS: COLLABORATION EFFORTS AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structural integrity of the approximately 1,000,000 miles of U.S. water mains is important to both immediate and long-term drinking water quality and availability. As pipes wear out, leaks and main breaks increase, as well as the associated occurrences of water loss and low-...

  16. The constructional design of cooling water discharge structures on German rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldner, P.; Zimmermann, C.

    1975-11-01

    The present compilation of structures for discharging cooling water from power stations into rivers is an attempt to make evident developments in the constructional design of such structures and to give reasons for special structure shapes. A complete collection of all structures built in Germany, however, is difficult to realize because of the large number of power stations. For conventionally heated power stations therefore only a selection was made, while nuclear power stations in operation or under construction could almost completely be taken into account. For want of sufficient quantities of water for river water cooling, projected power stations are now almost exclusively designed for closed-circuit cooling so that the required discharge structures for elutrition water from the cooling towers as well as for the emergency and secondary cooling circuits have to be designed only for small amounts of water. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Mathematical Model to Predict the Permeability of Water Transport in Concrete Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon Ndubuisi Eluozo

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical model to predict the permeability of water transport in concrete has been established, the model is to monitor the rate of water transport in concrete structure. The process of this water transport is based on the constituent in the mixture of concrete. Permeability established a relation on the influence of the micropores on the constituent that made of concrete, the method of concrete placement determine the rate of permeability deposition in concrete structure, permeability es...

  18. Harvesting and Organizing Knowledge from the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Weikum, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Information organization and search on the {W}eb is gaining structure and context awareness and more semantic flavor, for example, in the forms of faceted search, vertical search, entity search, and {D}eep-{W}eb search. I envision another big leap forward by automatically harvesting and organizing knowledge from the {W}eb, represented in terms of explicit entities and relations as well as ontological concepts. This will be made possible by the confluence of three stron...

  19. Water-mediated ionic interactions in protein structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ISHWARYA( R SARANI( M KIRTI VAISHNAVI and K SEKAR. Supplementary table 1. List of complete water-mediated ionic interactions formed by different combinations of charged atoms and their corresponding occurrences. S. No. Type.

  20. Combined Euler column vibration isolation and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. B.; McDowell, M. D.

    2017-05-01

    A new device that combines vibration isolation and energy harvesting is modeled, simulated, and tested. The vibration isolating portion of the device uses post-buckled beams as its spring elements. Piezoelectric film is applied to the beams to harvest energy from their dynamic flexure. The entire device operates passively on applied base excitation and requires no external power or control system. The structural system is modeled using the elastica, and the structural response is applied as forcing on the electric circuit equation to predict the output voltage and the corresponding harvested power. The vibration isolation and energy harvesting performance is simulated across a large parameter space and the modeling approach is validated with experimental results. Experimental transmissibilities of 2% and harvested power levels of 0.36 μW are simultaneously demonstrated. Both theoretical and experimental data suggest that there is not necessarily a trade-off between vibration isolation and harvested power. That is, within the practical operational range of the device, improved vibration isolation will be accompanied by an increase in the harvested power as the forcing frequency is increased.

  1. Power harvesting in helicopter rotorblades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Pieter; de Boer, Andries; Loendersloot, Richard; van der Hoogt, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Current power harvesting research has focused on bending beams and determining power output under a given excitation. For the European CleanSky – Green Rotor Craft project a tool is being developed which optimizes the piezoelectric material and placement thereof for power harvesting. It focuses on

  2. Exploring the effectiveness of sustainable water management structures in the Upper Pungwe river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyikadzino, B.; Chibisa, P.; Makurira, H.

    The study endeavoured to assess the effectiveness of stakeholder structures and their participation in sustainable water resources management in the Upper Pungwe river basin shared by Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The study sought to assess the level and effectiveness of stakeholder, gender and the vulnerable groups representation in sustainable water resources management as well as the whole stakeholder participation process. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods for data collection and analysis. Sampling data was obtained from 15 stakeholder representatives (councillors) constituting Pungwe Subcatchment Council, 30 water users ranging from small scale to large scale users and professionals in water resources management. Two different questionnaires and three structured interviews were administered during the study. Water permit database, financial reports and other source documents were also analysed. The study established that the sustainability and effectiveness of stakeholder structures and their participation in water resources management is being compromised by lack of stakeholder awareness. Water utilisation is very high in the subcatchment (99%) while women participation is still low (20%). The study therefore recommends the use of quotas for the participation of women in stakeholder structures. Stakeholder structures are encouraged to intensify stakeholder awareness on issues of river protection, efficient water use and pollution control. Further research is recommended to be carried out on the effectiveness of stakeholder structures in combating water pollution and enhancing river protection.

  3. The structure of water quality monitoring in the disaster area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Described are monitoring systems of water environment at usual times and after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster, and measures taken by the Ministry of the Environment (ME) for radioactive substances in the water environment. At usual times, the monitoring of hazardous substance in water environment is conducted by local governments. At/after the Disaster, ME conducted the monitoring investigation concerning the environmental quality standards and toxicants like dioxins in the river, sea and groundwater from late May to late July, 2011 because undesirable effects on health and life of the residents had been feared due to possible leak of hazardous substances in public water area and underground water of victim prefectures, Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima and Ibaraki. As the results, no high contamination due to the Disaster was found, and a part of regions exhibited the slight chemical contamination, where continuous and additional monitoring was to be kept locally with guidance of drinking the concerned well water. ME measured radioactive iodine and cesium at 29 places of Fukushima rivers to find <65 and <30,000 Bq/kg, respectively, of 4 spots of river bed material alone (late May); then Cs 32 Bq/L in water at 1 spot and <26,000 Bq/kg in bed at all places after rain (early July). In groundwater, no radioactive nuclides above were detected in any of 111 places of Fukushima Prefecture (late June to early August). Cs was not found in sea water of 9 places of concerned prefectures, but was in the sea bottom soil, <1,380 Bq/kg (middle June). As well, local governments measured those two radioactive nuclides in water and ambient dose rate of 551 sea bathing beaches (late May to early Oct.) and found only one beach (Iwaki City, Fukushima) inappropriate for swimming play. Hereafter, ME is still to investigate the bed material of public water area and to continue to monitor the marine environment in cooperation with related authorities. (T.T.)

  4. Trends and Consumption Structures of China’s Blue and Grey Water Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water footprint has become a common method to study the water resources utilization in recent years. By using input–output analysis and dilution theory, the internal water footprint, blue water footprint and grey water footprint of China from 2002 to 2012 were estimated, and the consumption structure of water footprint and virtual water trade were analyzed. The results show: (1 From 2002 to 2012, the average annual internal water footprint was 3.83 trillion m3 in China, of which the blue water footprint was 0.25 trillion m3, and the grey water footprint was 3.58 trillion m3 (with Grade III water standard accounting; both the internal water footprint and grey water footprint experienced decreasing trends from 2002 to 2012, except for a dramatic increase in 2010; (2 Average annual virtual blue water footprint was the greatest in agriculture (39.2%, while tertiary industry (27.5% and food and tobacco processing (23.7% were the top two highest for average annual virtual grey water footprint; (3 Virtual blue water footprint in most sectors showed increasing trends due to the increase of final demand, while virtual grey water footprint in most sectors showed decreasing trends due to the decreases of total return water coefficients and conversion coefficients of virtual grey water footprint; (4 For water resources, China was self-reliant: the water used for producing the products and services to meet domestic consumption was taken domestically; meanwhile, China exported virtual water to other countries, which aggravated the water stress in China.

  5. Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action NECHIBVUTE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This radio frequency (RF energy harvesting is an emerging technology and research area that promises to produce energy to run low-power wireless devices. The great interest that has recently been paid to RF harvesting is predominantly driven by the great progress in both wireless communication systems and broadcasting technologies that have availed a lot of freely propagating ambient RF energy. The principle aim of an RF energy harvesting system is to convert the received ambient RF energy into usable DC power. This paper presents a state of the art concise review of RF energy harvesting sources for low power applications, and also discusses open research questions and future research directions on ambient RF energy harvesting.

  6. Contribution of rainwater harvesting technologies to rural livelihoods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... Water has long been regarded as the main limiting resource for crop production in the drought-prone region of sub-Saharan. Africa in which Zimbabwe is located. However, the introduction of novel agricultural technologies such as rain-water harvest- ing (RWH) is seeking to mitigate the effects of these ...

  7. Performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester in actual rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Voon-Kean; Ho, Jee-Hou; Chai, Ai-Bao

    2017-01-01

    When raindrops impact on the surface of a piezoelectric beam, strain energy produced by the impinging raindrop will be converted to harvestable electrical energy by the piezoelectric layers in a cantilever beam. The novelty of this study is to investigate the performance of the harvester in actual rain and provide practical insights on implementation. The influences of rain parameters such as rain rate, rainfall depth, raindrop count, and drop size distribution (DSD) are discussed in this study. The raindrops accumulated on the surface of the piezoelectric beam will form a water layer. It is described using added mass coefficient in this study. In an actual rain experiment, a piezoelectric beam with surface area of 0.0018 m 2 is able to produce 2076 μJ of energy over a duration of 301 min. The energy generation of a raindrop impact piezoelectric energy harvester is highly dependent on the rain rate. Due to the inconsistency of the energy generation, the piezoelectric energy harvester would require an integration of suitable energy storage device for continuous operation. Nevertheless, this work shows the feasibility of harvesting raindrop energy using a piezoelectric beam. - Highlights: • The performance of a piezoelectric rain energy harvester is tested in actual rain. • The energy generation is highly dependent on the rain rate. • Practical insights on the implementation of the harvester are discussed. • A total energy of 2076 μJ is generated over a duration of 301 min.

  8. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  9. Structural evaluation report of piping and support structure for design-changed hot-water layer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    1998-05-01

    After hot-water layer system had been installed, the verification tests to reduce the radiation level at the top of reactor pool were performed many times. The major goal of this report is to assess the structural integrity on the piping and the support structures of design-changed hot-water layer system. The piping stress analysis was performed by using ADLPIPE program for the pump suction line and the pump discharge line subjected to dead weight, pressure, thermal expansion and seismic loadings. The stress analysis of the support structure was carried out using the reaction forces obtained from the piping stress analysis. The results of structural evaluation for the pipings and the support structures showed that the structural acceptance criteria were satisfied, in compliance with ASME, subsection ND for the piping and subsection NF for the support structures. Therefore based on the results of the analysis and the design, the structural integrity on the piping and the support structures of design-changed hot-water system was proved. (author). 9 refs., 9 tabs., 14 figs

  10. Structural material anomaly detection system using water chemistry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yamato; Nagase, Makoto; Uchida, Shunsuke; Ohsumi, Katsumi.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of an advanced water chemistry diagnosis system for detection of anomalies and preventive maintenance of system components is proposed and put into a concrete form. Using the analogy to a medical inspection system, analyses of water chemistry change will make it possible to detect symptoms of anomalies in system components. Then, correlations between water chemistry change and anomaly occurrence in the components of the BWR primary cooling system are analyzed theoretically. These fragmentary correlations are organized and reduced to an algorithm for the on-line diagnosis system using on-line monitoring data, pH and conductivity. By using actual plant data, the on-line diagnosis model system is verified to be applicable for early and automatic finding of the anomaly cause and for timely supply of much diagnostic information to plant operators. (author)

  11. Structural material anomaly detection system using water chemistry data, (7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Uchida, Shunsuke; Asakura, Yamato; Ohsumi, Katsumi.

    1993-01-01

    A method to detect small changes in water quality and diagnose their causes by analyzing on-line conductivity and pH data was proposed. Laboratory tests showed that effective noise reduction of measured on-line data could be got by using median filter to detect small changes of conductivity ; a relative change of 0.001 μS/cm was distinguishable. By simulating the changes of pH and conductivity in the reactor water against a small concentration change of sodium ion or sulfate ion in the feedwater, it was found that an adequate elapsed time for the diagnosis was 4 h from the start of the concentration change. A conductivity difference of 0.001 μS/cm in the reactor water made it theoretically possible to distinguish between a sodium ion concentration change of 4.6 ppt and a sulfate ion concentration change of 9.6 ppt in the feedwater. (author)

  12. Emergence of the Coherent Structure of Liquid Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bono

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine in some detail the interaction of water molecules with the radiative electromagnetic field and find the existence of phase transitions from the vapor phase to a condensed phase where all molecules oscillate in unison, in tune with a self-trapped electromagnetic field within extended mesoscopic space regions (Coherence Domains. The properties of such a condensed phase are examined and found to be compatible with the phenomenological properties of liquid water. In particular, the observed value of critical density is calculated with good accuracy.

  13. Vibration energy harvesting based monitoring of an operational bridge undergoing forced vibration and train passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Paul; Hazra, Budhaditya; Karoumi, Raid; Mathewson, Alan; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2018-06-01

    The application of energy harvesting technology for monitoring civil infrastructure is a bourgeoning topic of interest. The ability of kinetic energy harvesters to scavenge ambient vibration energy can be useful for large civil infrastructure under operational conditions, particularly for bridge structures. The experimental integration of such harvesters with full scale structures and the subsequent use of the harvested energy directly for the purposes of structural health monitoring shows promise. This paper presents the first experimental deployment of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting devices for monitoring a full-scale bridge undergoing forced dynamic vibrations under operational conditions using energy harvesting signatures against time. The calibration of the harvesters is presented, along with details of the host bridge structure and the dynamic assessment procedures. The measured responses of the harvesters from the tests are presented and the use the harvesters for the purposes of structural health monitoring (SHM) is investigated using empirical mode decomposition analysis, following a bespoke data cleaning approach. Finally, the use of sequential Karhunen Loeve transforms to detect train passages during the dynamic assessment is presented. This study is expected to further develop interest in energy-harvesting based monitoring of large infrastructure for both research and commercial purposes.

  14. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  15. Spatial genetic analyses reveal cryptic population structure and migration patterns in a continuously harvested grey wolf (Canis lupus population in north-eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Hindrikson

    Full Text Available Spatial genetics is a relatively new field in wildlife and conservation biology that is becoming an essential tool for unravelling the complexities of animal population processes, and for designing effective strategies for conservation and management. Conceptual and methodological developments in this field are therefore critical. Here we present two novel methodological approaches that further the analytical possibilities of STRUCTURE and DResD. Using these approaches we analyse structure and migrations in a grey wolf (Canislupus population in north-eastern Europe. We genotyped 16 microsatellite loci in 166 individuals sampled from the wolf population in Estonia and Latvia that has been under strong and continuous hunting pressure for decades. Our analysis demonstrated that this relatively small wolf population is represented by four genetic groups. We also used a novel methodological approach that uses linear interpolation to statistically test the spatial separation of genetic groups. The new method, which is capable of using program STRUCTURE output, can be applied widely in population genetics to reveal both core areas and areas of low significance for genetic groups. We also used a recently developed spatially explicit individual-based method DResD, and applied it for the first time to microsatellite data, revealing a migration corridor and barriers, and several contact zones.

  16. Biotechnologies based on simple and structured superlight water for use in biopharmaceutical and biocosmetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzatu, I.; Olariu, L.; Rusu, M.; Zamfir, S.

    2000-01-01

    S.C. Biotehnos S.A. has developed studies to obtain structured aqueous solutions to find biotechnologies that were patented both in this country and abroad. An increasing interest concerning the action of superlight water on biological systems as well as the investigation of possibility of incorporating this type of water in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products encouraged research upon the processes of structuring the deuterium depleted water to establish non-conventional modern biotechnologies. Thus, physico-chemical parameters of interest (pH-value, conductivity, redox potential) were determined for the superlight water systems resulting from structuration process. Also, these studies have dealt with the effects of superlight water and structured aqueous solutions upon cellular breeding, studies of major importance in cell physiology

  17. Dielectric study on hierarchical water structures restricted in cement and wood materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Fumiya; Nishi, Akihiro; Saito, Hironobu; Asano, Megumi; Watanabe, Seiei; Kita, Rio; Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yagihara, Shin; Fukuzaki, Minoru; Sudo, Seiichi; Suzuki, Youki

    2017-01-01

    Dielectric relaxation processes for mortar observed by broadband dielectric spectroscopy were analyzed in the drying and hydration processes for an aging sample in the frequency region from 1 MHz up to 2 MHz. At least two processes for structured water in the kHz frequency region and another mHz relaxation process affected by ionic behaviors were observed. Comparison of the relaxation parameters obtained for the drying and hydration processes suggests an existence of hierarchical water structures in the exchange of water molecules, which are originally exchanged from free water observed at around 20 GHz. The water molecules reflected in the lower frequency process of the two kHz relaxation processes are more restricted and take more homogeneous structures than the higher kHz relaxation process. These structured water usually hidden in large ionic behaviors for wood samples was observed by electrodes covered by a thin Teflon film, and hierarchical water structures were also suggested for wood samples. Dielectric spectroscopy technique is an effective tool to analyze the new concept of hierarchical water structures in complex materials. (paper)

  18. A study on the water permeability of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loadsman, R.V.C.; Acres, D.H.; Stokes, C.J.; Wadeson, L.

    1988-03-01

    This report forms part of the DoE's research programme on the disposal of nuclear waste. The information available on the permeability of concrete and the effects of various factors on this value are reviewed. The effect of defects on the overall permeability of concrete structures is examined and the recorded performance of a range of existing concrete structures is considered with identification of some of the factors that are significant in practice. Deficiencies in the information available on this subject are identified and recommendations for further work are made including a list of structures suitable for future monitoring. (author)

  19. Water structure near single and multi-layer nanoscopic hydrophobic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    We have performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations of water containing two nano- scopic hydrophobic ..... the simulation for l00 ps for equilibration during which ... was further run for a production phase of 100–200 ps depending on ...

  20. TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; van Gaalen FW; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P; LWD

    2001-01-01

    Het model TAPWAT (Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer), is ontwikkeld om de drinkwaterkwaliteit te beschrijven voor integrale studies in het kader van het planbureau Milieu en Natuur van het RIVM. Het model bestaat uit modules die de individuele zuiveringsstappen van het

  1. Power Control Optimization of an Underwater Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Aramendia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, it has been established that vibration energy harvesters with intentionally designed components can be used for frequency bandwidth enhancement under excitation for sufficiently high vibration amplitudes. Pipelines are often necessary means of transporting important resources such as water, gas, and oil. A self-powered wireless sensor network could be a sustainable alternative for in-pipe monitoring applications. A new control algorithm has been developed and implemented into an underwater energy harvester. Firstly, a computational study of a piezoelectric energy harvester for underwater applications has been studied for using the kinetic energy of water flow at four different Reynolds numbers Re = 3000, 6000, 9000, and 12,000. The device consists of a piezoelectric beam assembled to an oscillating cylinder inside the water of pipes from 2 to 5 inches in diameter. Therefore, unsteady simulations have been performed to study the dynamic forces under different water speeds. Secondly, a new control law strategy based on the computational results has been developed to extract as much energy as possible from the energy harvester. The results show that the harvester can efficiently extract the power from the kinetic energy of the fluid. The maximum power output is 996.25 µW and corresponds to the case with Re = 12,000.

  2. Generation of shockwave and vortex structures at the outflow of a boiling water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, M. V.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Sorokin, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Results of numerical simulation for shock waves and generation of vortex structures during unsteady outflow of boiling liquid jet are presented. The features of evolution of shock waves and vortex structures formation during unsteady outflow of boiling water are compared with corresponding structures during unsteady gas outflow.

  3. Networked Water Citizen Organisations in Spain: Potential for Transformation of Existing Power Structures in Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Hernández-Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from hierarchical-administrative water management toward more transparent, multi-level and participated governance approaches has brought about a shifting geography of players, scales of action, and means of influencing decisions and outcomes. In Spain, where the hydraulic paradigm has dominated since the early 1920s, participation in decisions over water has traditionally been limited to a closed water policy community, made up of economic water users, primarily irrigator associations and hydropower generators, civil engineering corps and large public works companies. The river basin planning process under the Water Framework Directive of the European Union presented a promise of transformation, giving access to non-economic water users, environmental concerns and the wider public to water-related information on planning and decision-making. This process coincided with the consolidation of the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs by the water administration, with the associated potential for information and data generation and dissemination. ICTs are also increasingly used by citizen groups and other interested parties as a way to communicate, network and challenge existing paradigms and official discourses over water, in the broader context of the emergence of 'technopolitics'. This paper investigates if and in what way ICTs may be providing new avenues for participated water resources management and contributing to alter the dominating power balance. We critically analyse several examples where networking possibilities provided by ICTs have enabled the articulation of interest groups and social agents that have, with different degrees of success, questioned the existing hegemonic view over water. The critical review of these cases sheds light on the opportunities and limitations of ICTs, and their relation with traditional modes of social mobilisation in creating new means of societal involvement in water

  4. Thermodynamic and structural signatures of water-driven methane-methane attraction in coarse-grained mW water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin; Molinero, Valeria

    2013-08-07

    Hydrophobic interactions are responsible for water-driven processes such as protein folding and self-assembly of biomolecules. Microscopic theories and molecular simulations have been used to study association of a pair of methanes in water, the paradigmatic example of hydrophobic attraction, and determined that entropy is the driving force for the association of the methane pair, while the enthalpy disfavors it. An open question is to which extent coarse-grained water models can still produce correct thermodynamic and structural signatures of hydrophobic interaction. In this work, we investigate the hydrophobic interaction between a methane pair in water at temperatures from 260 to 340 K through molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained monatomic water model mW. We find that the coarse-grained model correctly represents the free energy of association of the methane pair, the temperature dependence of free energy, and the positive change in entropy and enthalpy upon association. We investigate the relationship between thermodynamic signatures and structural order of water through the analysis of the spatial distribution of the density, energy, and tetrahedral order parameter Qt of water. The simulations reveal an enhancement of tetrahedral order in the region between the first and second hydration shells of the methane molecules. The increase in tetrahedral order, however, is far from what would be expected for a clathrate-like or ice-like shell around the solutes. This work shows that the mW water model reproduces the key signatures of hydrophobic interaction without long ranged electrostatics or the need to be re-parameterized for different thermodynamic states. These characteristics, and its hundred-fold increase in efficiency with respect to atomistic models, make mW a promising water model for studying water-driven hydrophobic processes in more complex systems.

  5. Harvesting a short rotation forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perttu, K L [ed.

    1984-12-01

    Willow and Sallow, considered of great interest for Swedish conditions, present new problems in harvesting. Traditional logging techniques offer few elements of equipment or methods. Light whips may be comminuted to a bulk product, easy to handle, difficult to store, requiring a hot logging system - and requiring a heavy, powerful harvester. Aggregating the material introduces an intermediate wood-fuel unit, suitable for storing, transport and infeed into any comminuter. If the harvester produced billets it would require less energy for its operation and it may be used for other purposes such as pre-commercial thinning or row thinning during the growing season. A few groups of designers have worked on analyses of requirements and possible solutions. Test rigs for severing and bundling were built and evaluated. Public funding was made available for design work on harvesters. Five groups were selected to produce layout designs of large and small harvesters. An evaluation procedure was performed, leading to selection of two concepts, slightly reworked from their original shapes. One is a large self-propelled front-sutting harvester, the other is a harvesting unit to be mounted on a suitable farm tractor. With 3 refs.

  6. Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong

    2010-05-01

    Domestic water cycle systems serving as one critical component of artificial water cycle at the catchment's scale, is so closely related to public healthy, human rights and social-economic development, and has gained the highest priority in strategic water resource and municipal infrastructure planning. In this paper, three basic patterns of domestic water cycle systems are identified and analyzed, including rural domestic water system (i.e. primary level), urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) and metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level), with different "abstract-transport-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of water consumption (such as drinking, cooking, toilet flushing, showering or cleaning). The rural domestic water system is general simple with three basic "abstract-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of basic water consumption such as drinking, cooking, washing and sanitation. The urban domestic water system has relative complex mechanisms of "abstract-supply-consume-treatment-discharge" and more micro-components of water consumption such as bath, dishwashing or car washing. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) has the most complex mechanisms by considering internal water reuse, external wastewater reclamation, and nutrient recycling processes. The detailed structures for different water cycle pattern are presented from the aspects of water quantity, wastewater quality and nutrients flow. With the speed up of urbanization and development of social-economy in China, those three basic patterns are interacting, transforming and upgrading. According to the past experiences and current situations, urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) is the dominant pattern based on indicator of system number or system scale. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) is the idealized model for the future development and management. Current domestic water system

  7. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  8. Energy Harvesting from Aerodynamic Instabilities: Current prospect and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M.; Rajendran, P.; Khan, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper evaluates the layout and advancement of energy harvesting based on aerodynamic instabilities of an aircraft. Vibration and thermoelectric energy harvesters are substantiated as most suitable alternative low-power sources for aerospace applications. Furthermore, the facility associated with the aircraft applications in harvesting the mechanical vibrations and converting it to electric energy has fascinated the researchers. These devices are designed as an alternative to a battery-based solution especially for small aircrafts, wireless structural health monitoring for aircraft systems, and harvester plates employed in UAVs to enhance the endurance and operational flight missions. We will emphasize on various sources of energy harvesting that are designed to come from aerodynamic flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to reduce both the cost and emissions of the aviation industry. The advancements achieved in the energy harvesting based on aerodynamic instabilities show very good scope for many piezoelectric harvesters in the field of aerospace, specifically green aviation technology in the future.

  9. Recent Progress on PZT Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gyu Kang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is the most effective way to respond to the energy shortage and to produce sustainable power sources from the surrounding environment. The energy harvesting technology enables scavenging electrical energy from wasted energy sources, which always exist everywhere, such as in heat, fluids, vibrations, etc. In particular, piezoelectric energy harvesting, which uses a direct energy conversion from vibrations and mechanical deformation to the electrical energy, is a promising technique to supply power sources in unattended electronic devices, wireless sensor nodes, micro-electronic devices, etc., since it has higher energy conversion efficiency and a simple structure. Up to now, various technologies, such as advanced materials, micro- and macro-mechanics, and electric circuit design, have been investigated and emerged to improve performance and conversion efficiency of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. In this paper, we focus on recent progress of piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies based on PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT materials, which have the most outstanding piezoelectric properties. The advanced piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies included materials, fabrications, unique designs, and properties are introduced to understand current technical levels and suggest the future directions of piezoelectric energy harvesting.

  10. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  11. How Do You Get Your Water? Structural Violence Pedagogy and Women's Access to Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Natalie; Bousalis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    In many parts of the less developed world it is women and girls who are expected to provide water for their family. Frequently, young girls are unable to complete school or get jobs because water scarcity means they are forced to walk miles daily to obtain this most basic need. Since the creation of the United Nations Millennium Goals, progress…

  12. Soft photo structuring of porous silicon in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, M.; Bouillard, J.S.; Plain, J.; Bachelot, R.; Adam, P.M.; Lerondel, G.; Royer, P. [ICD - Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, CNRS FRE 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2007-05-15

    We report on local photo-induced patterning of porous silicon in water. Scanning probe microscopy images of the sample surface after illumination show that the emission properties as well as the topography are modified according to the interferometric illumination pattern. Local photo-oxidation is believed to be at the origin of these modifications. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Comparison of Novel Carboneous Structures to Treat Nitroaromatic Impacted Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorinated Compounds from Groundwater using Granular Activated Carbon. University of Colorado. Li, L., Quinlivan, P. A, and Knappe, D. R. U. (2002...and Owens, G. (2009). "Kinetics and thermodynamics of sorption of nitroaromatic compounds to as-grown and oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes...used as adsorbents to treat water contaminated by a model nitroaromatic compound , 2,4- dinitrotoluene (DNT). The DNT adsorption capacity of pristine

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Urea/Water Mixtures Investigated by Vibrational Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. K.; Buchanan, L. E.; Schmidt, J. R.; Zanni, M. T.; Skinner, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Urea/water is an archetypical “biological” mixture, and is especially well known for its relevance to protein thermodynamics, as urea acts as a protein denaturant at high concentration. This behavior has given rise to an extended debate concerning urea’s influence on water structure. Based on a variety of methods and of definitions of water structure, urea has been variously described as a structure-breaker, a structure-maker, or as remarkably neutral towards water. Because of its sensitivity to microscopic structure and dynamics, vibrational spectroscopy can help resolve these debates. We report experimental and theoretical spectroscopic results for the OD stretch of HOD/H2O/urea mixtures (linear IR, 2DIR, and pump-probe anisotropy decay) and for the CO stretch of urea-D4/D2O mixtures (linear IR only). Theoretical results are obtained using existing approaches for water, and a modification of a frequency map developed for acetamide. All absorption spectra are remarkably insensitive to urea concentration, consistent with the idea that urea only very weakly perturbs water structure. Both this work and experiments by Rezus and Bakker, however, show that water’s rotational dynamics are slowed down by urea. Analysis of the simulations casts doubt on the suggestion that urea immobilizes particular doubly hydrogen bonded water molecules. PMID:23841646

  15. Canadian peat harvesting and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, ca 749,000 tonnes of peat were sold by Canadian producers, a small volume in comparison to the estimated 50 million tonnes or more that accumulate naturally each year in Canada. Most of the harvested peat was used for horticultural purposes. The relationship between peatlands and the peat industry is examined, and issues related to the environment and sustainable resource use are discussed. Case studies are used to examine several specific situations where peatland development proposals have undergone environmental assessments. The present status of peatland conservation in Canada is reviewed. To date, developed peatlands are primarily situated in the boreal wetland regions and consist mainly of the bog wetland class. Environmental issues related to peatland development include the need for conservation of flora, fauna, and other ecological values or functions. The potential for release of carbon gases due to Canadian peat harvesting is considered to be insignificant in relation to other uses of carbon sources such as the combustion of fossil fuel, and is unlikely to influence global warming at the present or projected levels of peatland development in Canada. The influence and mitigation of the effects of drainage of peatlands for peat production on water quality and flow regime are being addressed on a site-specific basis through existing regulatory procedures and research. Reclamation and restoration options are being incorporated during design and operational development of new peat harvesting areas. 39 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Centralised urban stormwater harvesting for potable reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, P; Gleeson, J; Hammond, T; Heslop, E; Holden, R; Kuczera, G

    2011-01-01

    Urban impervious areas provide a guaranteed source of runoff, especially in cities with high rainfall - this represents a source of water with low sensitivity to unfavourable climate change. Whilst the potential to reuse stormwater has long been recognised, its quality has largely limited usage to non-potable applications requiring the use of a third-pipe network, a prohibitively expensive option in established urban areas. Given recent advances in membrane filtration, this study investigates the potential of harvesting and treating stormwater to a potable standard to enable use of the potable distribution network. A case study based on the Throsby Creek catchment in Newcastle explores the issue. The high seasonally uniform rainfall provides insight into the maximum potential of such an option. Multicriterion optimisation was used to identify Pareto optimal solutions for harvesting, storing and treating stormwater. It is shown that harvesting and treating stormwater from a 13 km² catchment can produce yields ranging from 8.5 to 14.2 ML/day at costs ranging from AU$2.60/kL to AU$2.89/kL, which may become viable as the cost of traditional supply continues to grow. However, there are significant social impacts to deal with including alienation of public land for storage and community acceptance of treated stormwater.

  17. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  18. Structure and reactivity in amphiphile-water micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Yves

    1985-01-01

    Following a review of the general properties of micelles, this report contains two parts: - A structural study of octylphosphate micelles. Important structural changes have been evidenced by mean of small angle neutron scattering as the electrical charge of the interface is varied. The NMR relaxation study of the conformation of the hydrocarbon chains has shown that the micellar core is disordered in contrast with the interface which is rather structured. The diffusion motions in the interface and the segmental motions of the chains are fast. - Studies on the reactivity in micelles have been carried out. A large micellar effect on the complexation of transition ions by amphiphilic ligands is evidenced. The problem of solute localization in micelles is developed with few examples. (author) [fr

  19. Impact of soda-lime borosilicate glass composition on water penetration and water structure at the first time of alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebiscoul, D.; Bruguier, F.; Gin, S.; Magnin, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of soda-lime borosilicate glass composition and particularly the effect of charge compensators such Ca and Na and, of network formers such Si and Zr, on water penetration and water structure at the first time of alteration were investigated. Two non-destructive techniques were combined: the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection geometry to precise the predominant alteration mechanisms and assess the water structure in altered zone and the grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry to determine the thickness of the altered glass zone allowing to calculate the water diffusion coefficients through the glasses. The results of glass alteration at pH = 3 and 30 degrees C have shown that hydrolysis was the predominant mechanism after few seconds for glass having a high amount of non-binding oxygen. For the other glasses, which for the diffusion was the limiting reaction, the calculated water diffusion coefficients were comprised between 10 -21 and 10 -19 m 2 .s -1 and vary as a function of glass composition. An activation energy of 76.9 kJ.mol -1 was calculated and appears to be higher than inert gas diffusion through the glass highlighting that water molecules strongly interact with the glass matrix. (authors)

  20. After the Bell: Water Harvesting, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel; Craven, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The current drought conditions in the United States are correlated with inadequate infrastructure, a drop in the levels of the Great Lakes, desertification, and migration. Taken individually, none of these problems may seem alarming. However, in combination, freshwater shortages are a crisis in many areas of the United States. In order to develop…