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Sample records for water fluoride levels

  1. Geographical mapping of fluoride levels in drinking water sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of fluoride levels in drinking water is of importance in dental public health, yet this information is lacking, at national level, in Nigeria. Objective: To map out fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Fluoride levels in drinking water sources from 109 randomly ...

  2. US drinking water: fluoridation knowledge level of water plant operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumandier, J A; Hernandez, L C; Locci, A B; Reeves, T G

    2001-01-01

    We determined the knowledge level of water plant operators who fluoridate drinking water, and we compared small and large water plants. A pretested survey was sent to 2,381 water plant operators in 12 states that adjust the fluoride concentration of drinking water. A z-test for proportion was used to test for statistical difference between small and large plants at alpha = 0.05. Small water plants were those treating less than 1 million gallons of water daily. Eight hundred small and 480 large water plant operators responded, resulting in a response rate of 54 percent. Two-thirds of water plant operators correctly identified the optimal fluoride level, but more than 20 percent used a poor source for choosing the optimal level. Only one-fourth of operators were able to maintain the fluoride concentration to within 0.1 mg/L of the optimal concentration. A significantly greater proportion of operators at large water plants than at small water plants reported that they were able to maintain a fluoride concentration to within 0.1 mg/L of the optimal concentration (33.5% vs 21.3%, z = 4.74, P fluoride level, small water plant operators were less likely to use accurate reasoning for choosing that level and in maintaining fluoride concentrations within 0.1 mg/L of that level than large water plant operators.

  3. Fluoridated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  4. Determination of fluoride level in drinking water from water samples in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita M Ram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The concentration of fluoride in drinking water influences the dental caries situation in the region. There are no studies reported determining the fluoride levels in drinking water supplies of Navi Mumbai. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the fluoride level in drinking water samples from different areas of Navi Mumbai region. Materials and Methods: In an in vitro experimental study, water samples were collected from seven different locations of Navi Mumbai region. Water samples were collected from the Morbe dam, water purification plant at Bhokarpada in Raigad district, and five randomly selected residential areas of Navi Mumbai region. A total of 35 water subsamples were analyzed for fluoride content using fluoride analysis kit (HiMedia AQUACheck Fluoride Testing Kit. Results: The mean concentration of fluoride level in water samples from dam, water purification plant, as well as the five random residential areas was 0.5 mg/L (1 mg/L = 1 ppm. The fluoride level remained constant throughout from the source till the end consumer. Conclusion: There was no effect of water purification process at the plant on fluoride content of water samples. Similarly, the fluoride content was constant in the distributed purified water to residential areas. In this study, it was observed that the fluoride level in drinking water of Navi Mumbai was below the recommended levels by the World Health Organization as well as the Ministry of Health, Government of India.

  5. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  6. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  7. Survey of fluoride levels in vended water stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Urvi G; Archarya, Bhavini S; Velasquez, Gisela M; Vance, Bradley J; Tate, Robert H; Quock, Ryan L

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to measure the fluoride concentration of water derived from vended water stations (VWS) and to identify its clinical implications, especially with regard to caries prevention and fluorosis. VWS and corresponding tap water samples were collected from 34 unique postal zip codes; samples were analyzed in duplicate for fluoride concentration. Average fluoride concentration in VWS water was significantly lower than that of tap water (P water ranged from drinking water may not be receiving optimal caries preventive benefits; thus dietary fluoride supplementation may be indicated. Conversely, to minimize the risk of fluorosis in infants consuming reconstituted infant formula, water from a VWS may be used.

  8. Fluoride Levels in Water, Animal Feeds, Cow Milk, Cow Urine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean (0.25mg F/L) fluoride concentration in water for all the societies was below the tolerance level of fluoride for dairy cows of 3-6mgFL-1.one hundred and thirty dairy milk and 106 urine samples of dairy cattle were obtained for fluoride analysis. The mean fluoride level in milk was 0.0066 + 0.14mgF/kg. Milk fluoride ...

  9. Correlation between Fluoride in Drinking Water and Its Levels in Breast Milk in Golestan Province, Northern Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Faraji; Ali Akbar Mohammadi; Behrouz Akbari-Adergani; Naimeh Vakili Saatloo; Gholamreza Lashkarboloki; Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is an essential element for human health. However, excess fluoride in drinking water may cause dental and/or skeletal fluorosis. Drinking water is the main route of fluoride intake. The aim of the present study was to measure fluoride levels in human breast milk collected from two regions of Golestan Province, northern Iran with different amount of fluoride concentration of drinking water in Bandar Gaz and Nokande cities and to correlate it with fluoride concentrations in...

  10. Geographical mapping of fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpata, Enosakhare S; Danfillo, I S; Otoh, E C; Mafeni, J O

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge of fluoride levels in drinking water is of importance in dental public health, yet this information is lacking, at national level, in Nigeria. To map out fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Nigeria. Fluoride levels in drinking water sources from 109 randomly selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the 6 Nigerian geopolitical zones were determined. From the results, maps showing LGAs with fluoride concentrations exceeding 0.3 ppm, were drawn. ANOVA and t-test were used to determine the significance of the differences between the fluoride levels in the drinking water sources. Fluoride levels were low in most parts of the country, being 0.3 ppm or less in 62% of the LGAs. Fluoride concentrations were generally higher in North Central geopolitical zone, than the other zones in the country (pwater sources, fluoride concentrations exceeded 1.5 ppm, but was as high as 6.7 ppm in one well. Only 9% of the water sources were from waterworks. Most of the water sources in Nigeria contained low fluoride levels; but few had excessive concentrations and need to be partially defluoridated, or else alternative sources of drinking water provided for the community.

  11. Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, S; Lowery, D; Spencer, S

    2015-07-01

    While previous research has suggested that there is an association between fluoride ingestion and the incidence of hypothyroidism, few population level studies have been undertaken. In England, approximately 10% of the population live in areas with community fluoridation schemes and hypothyroidism prevalence can be assessed from general practice data. This observational study examines the association between levels of fluoride in water supplies with practice level hypothyroidism prevalence. We used a cross-sectional study design using secondary data to develop binary logistic regression models of predictive factors for hypothyroidism prevalence at practice level using 2012 data on fluoride levels in drinking water, 2012/2013 Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) diagnosed hypothyroidism prevalence data, 2013 General Practitioner registered patient numbers and 2012 practice level Index of Multiple Deprivation scores. We found that higher levels of fluoride in drinking water provide a useful contribution for predicting prevalence of hypothyroidism. We found that practices located in the West Midlands (a wholly fluoridated area) are nearly twice as likely to report high hypothyroidism prevalence in comparison to Greater Manchester (non-fluoridated area). In many areas of the world, hypothyroidism is a major health concern and in addition to other factors-such as iodine deficiency-fluoride exposure should be considered as a contributing factor. The findings of the study raise particular concerns about the validity of community fluoridation as a safe public health measure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  13. Natural fluoride levels in the drinking water, water fluoridation and estimated risk of dental fluorosis in a tropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Silva, Fábia Danielle; Silva, Andréa Cristina; Machado, Ana Thereza; de Araújo, Demétrius Antônio; de Sousa, Erik Melo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the natural fluoride levels in the drinking water supplies of a tropical area of Brazil to identify the cities at risk of high prevalence of dental fluorosis and to provide data for future water fluoridation projects in the region. The present study was carried out in Paraíba, in the north-eastern region of Brazil. A total of 223 cities were selected, and local health workers were instructed to collect three samples of drinking water: one from the main public water supply and the other two from a public or residential tap with the same water source. Fluoride analyses were carried out in duplicate using a fluoride-specific electrode coupled to an ion analyser. A total of 167 cities (75%) provided water samples for analysis. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm (mg/l). Samples from most of the cities (n = 163, 73%) presented low levels of fluoride (fluoride levels (0.6 to 0.8 mg/l). Samples from one city (16,724 inhabitants) with 1.0 mg/l of fluoride in the water were above the recommended level (0.7 mg/l) for the local temperature. It can be concluded that the cities in this area of Brazil presented low natural fluoride levels in the drinking water and could implement controlled water fluoridation projects when technical requirements are accomplished. A high or a moderate prevalence of dental fluorosis due to the intake of natural fluoride in the drinking water is likely to take place in one city only.

  14. Fluoride concentration level in rural area in Poldasht city and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Mohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to high level of fluoride can caused several adverse effects on human health including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We investigated all the drinking water source located in rural areas of Poldasht city, west Azerbaijan Province, North West Iran between 2014 and 2015. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in the villages of Poldasht the average of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources (well, and the river was in the range mg/l 0.28–10.23. The average daily received per 2 l of drinking water is in the range mg/l 0.7–16.6 per day per person. Drinking water demands cause fluorosis in the villages around the area residents and based on the findings of this study writers are announced suggestions below in order to take care of the health of area residents.

  15. Comparison of Fluoride Levels in Tap and Bottled Water and Reported Use of Fluoride Supplementation in a United States?Mexico Border Community

    OpenAIRE

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Victory, Kerton R; Cabrera, Nolan L; Daniela Larson; Kelly A. Reynolds; Joyce Latura; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Compared to the general United States (U.S.) population, Arizona counties along the U.S.–Mexico border have a higher prevalence of dental caries, which can be reduced with adequate fluoride exposure. Because of concern regarding local tap water quality, fluoride-free bottled water consumption is common in this region, raising concern that families are not receiving adequate fluoride to promote dental health. Objective To evaluate the levels of fluoride in tap and bottled...

  16. [Fluoride levels in commercial dentifrices and drinking water in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghache, D; Bellout, B; Merghache, S; Boucherit-Atmani, Z

    2011-12-01

    More and more scientific evidence show that fluorides have a cariostatic action to the plaque-saliva-tooth interface during cariogenous dissolution. Fluorides slow down demineralization and enhance remineralization. Their action is optimal, in the oral environment, when used at low concentrations on a continuous basis. The use of the fluorinated toothpastes during brushing of the teeth is a simple, rational method of daily topics application of fluorine, largely used in the context of prevention of dental caries and which can even be regarded as a public health measure. The water ingestion fluorinated represents itself an excellent average of the local application of fluorine. Our work concerned a quantitative study of fluorine in toothpaste and drinking water, and comparative between the local product and the imported one for the toothpastes, and the mineral water and public supply. The standard method of fluorine based on the potentiometry and distillation has shown that 50% of the tested toothpastes contain adequate concentration so that a product of dental care fights against decay. The Tlemcen tap water contains acceptable fluorine content, but the mineral water, with an excessive contribution, can cause fluorose. Of this, we can deduce that a topical application of a suitable quantity of fluorine on a daily basis in accordance with the precautions is not only the prevention of dental caries, but also to stabilize it if it already exists.

  17. Fluoride Levels of Major Sources of Drinking Water in Edo State of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out on the major sources of drinking water in the Fourteen Local Government Areas [L.G.A] of Edo State. The calorimetric method of fluoride level determination in water was used. The fluoride level in all the water sample analyses ranged between 0.0ppm to 0.8ppm, which is below the upper limit of ...

  18. Association of Down's syndrome and water fluoride level: a systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonagh Marian

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A review of the safety and efficacy of drinking water fluoridation was commissioned by the UK Department of Health to investigate whether the evidence supported a beneficial effect of water fluoridation and whether there was any evidence of adverse effects. Down's syndrome was one of the adverse effects reported. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for an association between water fluoride level and Down's syndrome. Methods A systematic review of research. Studies were identified through a comprehensive literature search, scanning citations and online requests for papers. Studies in all languages which investigated the incidence of Down's syndrome in areas with different levels of fluoride in their water supplies were included. Study inclusion and quality was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Results Six studies were included. All were ecological in design and scored poorly on the validity assessment. The estimates of the crude relative risk ranged from 0.84 to 3.0. Four studies showed no significant associations between the incidence of Down's syndrome and water fluoride level and two studies by the same author found a significant (p Conclusions The evidence of an association between water fluoride level and Down's syndrome incidence is inconclusive.

  19. Effect of fluoridated water on plasma insulin levels and glucose homeostasis in rats with renal deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Maela; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2011-05-01

    Glucose intolerance in fluorosis areas and when fluoride is administered for the treatment of osteoporosis has been reported. Controlled fluoridation of drinking water is regarded as a safe and effective measure to control dental caries. However, the effect on glucose homeostasis was not studied so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the intake of fluoridated water supply on glucose metabolism in rats with normal and deficient renal function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups of four rats. Renal insufficiency was induced in four groups (NX) which received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, and 15 ppm F (NaF) for 60 days. Four groups with simulated surgery acted as controls. There were no differences in plasma glucose concentration after a glucose tolerance test between controls and NX rats and among rats with different intakes of fluoride. However, plasma insulin level increased as a function of fluoride concentration in drinking water, both in controls and in NX rats. It is concluded that the consumption of fluoridated water from water supply did not affect plasma glucose levels even in cases of animals with renal disease. However, a resistance to insulin action was demonstrated.

  20. Comparison of Fluoride Levels in Tap and Bottled Water and Reported Use of Fluoride Supplementation in a United States–Mexico Border Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma I. Beamer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCompared to the general United States (U.S. population, Arizona counties along the U.S.–Mexico border have a higher prevalence of dental caries, which can be reduced with adequate fluoride exposure. Because of concern regarding local tap water quality, fluoride-free bottled water consumption is common in this region, raising concern that families are not receiving adequate fluoride to promote dental health.ObjectiveTo evaluate the levels of fluoride in tap and bottled water as well as the use of fluoride supplements in an Arizona border community.MethodsLow-income Latino households (n = 90 who report use of bottled water as their primary source of water intake were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire about their and their children’s dental histories and use of fluoride supplements. Water samples (bottled and tap were collected from a subset of households (n = 30 for analysis of fluoride.ResultsFluoride detection levels were significantly greater (p = 0.02, Fisher’s exact test in tap water (average = 0.49 mg/dL than in bottled water, yet, the majority (22/30 were below the range for optimal dental health (0.7–1.2 mg/L. Concentration of fluoride in the majority (29/30 of bottled water samples was below the quantitative detection limit of 0.4 mg/L. Children were significantly less likely to have dental caries if they received fluoride varnishing treatments (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, lived in households that reported using fluoridated mouthwash (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test, their parents received fluoride education (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, and their parents reported visiting a dentist yearly (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test. Furthermore, none of the participants reported receiving recommendations from health-care providers about fluoride supplementation or variance in content by the type of water consumed.ConclusionAlthough fluoride was significantly more

  1. Fluoride levels in commercial dentifrices and drinking Water in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    MERGHACHE, D.; BELLOUT, B.; MERGHACHE, S.; BOUCHERIT-ATMANI, Z.

    2011-01-01

    More and more scientific evidence show that fluorides have a cariostatic action to the plaque-saliva-tooth interface during cariogenous dissolution. Fluorides slow down demineralization and enhance remineralization. Their action is optimal, in the oral environment, when used at low concentrations on a continuous basis. The use of the fluorinated toothpastes during brushing of the teeth is a simple, rational method of daily topics application of fluorine, largely used in the context of prevent...

  2. Association between water fluoride and the level of children's intelligence: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Q; Jiao, J; Chen, X; Wang, X

    2018-01-01

    Higher fluoride concentrations in water have inconsistently been associated with the levels of intelligence in children. The following study summarizes the available evidence regarding the strength of association between fluoridated water and children's intelligence. Meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically analyzed from November 2016. Observational studies that have reported on intelligence levels in relation to high and low water fluoride contents, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were included. Further, the results were pooled using inverse variance methods. The correlation between water fluoride concentration and intelligence level was assessed by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twenty-six studies reporting data on 7258 children were included. The summary results indicated that high water fluoride exposure was associated with lower intelligence levels (standardized mean difference : -0.52; 95% CI: -0.62 to -0.42; P intelligence (P intelligence levels. Greater exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was significantly associated with reduced levels of intelligence in children. Therefore, water quality and exposure to fluoride in water should be controlled in areas with high fluoride levels in water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD (II) LEVELS AND LEAD (II) NEUROTOXICITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafl...

  4. Drinking water fluoridation and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allolio, B; Lehmann, R

    1999-01-01

    Drinking water fluoridation has an established role in the prevention of dental caries, but may also positively or negatively affect bone. In bone fluoride is incorporated into hydroxylapatite to form the less soluble fluoroapatite. In higher concentrations fluoride stimulates osteoblast activity leading to an increase in cancellous bone mass. As optimal drinking water fluoridation (1 mg/l) is widely used, it is of great interest, whether long-term exposition to artificial water fluoridation has any impact on bone strength, bone mass, and -- most importantly -- fracture rate. Animal studies suggest a biphasic pattern of the effect of drinking water fluoridation on bone strength with a peak strength at a bone fluoride content of 1200 ppm followed by a decline at higher concentrations eventually leading to impaired bone quality. These changes are not paralleled by changes in bone mass suggesting that fluoride concentrations remain below the threshold level required for activation of osteoblast activity. Accordingly, in most epidemiological studies in humans bone mass was not altered by optimal drinking water fluoridation. In contrast, studies on the effect on hip fracture rate gave conflicting results ranging from an increased fracture incidence to no effect, and to a decreased fracture rate. As only ecological studies have been performed, they may be biased by unknown confounding factors -- the so-called ecological fallacy. However, the combined results of these studies indicate that any increase or decrease in fracture rate is likely to be small. It has been calculated that appropriately designed cohort studies to solve the problem require a sample size of >400,000 subjects. Such studies will not be performed in the foreseeable future. Future investigations in humans should, therefore, concentrate on the effect of long-term drinking water fluoridation on bone fluoride content and bone strength.

  5. Low-Cost, Robust, and Field Portable Smartphone Platform Photometric Sensor for Fluoride Level Detection in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iftak; Ahamad, Kamal Uddin; Nath, Pabitra

    2017-01-03

    Groundwater is the major source of drinking water for people living in rural areas of India. Pollutants such as fluoride in groundwater may be present in much higher concentration than the permissible limit. Fluoride does not give any visible coloration to water, and hence, no effort is made to remove or reduce the concentration of this chemical present in drinking water. This may lead to a serious health hazard for those people taking groundwater as their primary source of drinking water. Sophisticated laboratory grade tools such as ion selective electrodes (ISE) and portable spectrophotometers are commercially available for in-field detection of fluoride level in drinking water. However, such tools are generally expensive and require expertise to handle. In this paper, we demonstrate the working of a low cost, robust, and field portable smartphone platform fluoride sensor that can detect and analyze fluoride concentration level in drinking water. For development of the proposed sensor, we utilize the ambient light sensor (ALS) of the smartphone as light intensity detector and its LED flash light as an optical source. An android application "FSense" has been developed which can detect and analyze the fluoride concentration level in water samples. The custom developed application can be used for sharing of in-field sensing data from any remote location to the central water quality monitoring station. We envision that the proposed sensing technique could be useful for initiating a fluoride removal program undertaken by governmental and nongovernmental organizations here in India.

  6. Investigation of Fluoride Level in Drinking Water Supplies of Qaemshahr City (North of IRAN from 2006 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Boudaghi Malidareh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Fluoride is one of the fundamental and required components in human body. The current study intends to survey the status of fluoride in drinking water supplies ( underground water source and drinking water in Qaemshahr city from 2006 (march/21 to 2012(march/19 and comparison with universal standards, national and climatic conditions. Materials and methods This is a descriptive and sectional study. Samples were experimented in Qaemshahr water and wastewater department laboratory. Fluoride concentration in samples has been measured by DR 2800 and SPADNS Fluoride Reagent Solution. Results were analyzed with Excel software. The medium of maximum temperature in different seasons has been obtained from meteorology department. Then fluoride levels in several years have been compared to each other and to universal, national and climatic standards. Results Comparing to standards National standards of IRAN and according to climatic conditions, proper levels of fluoride were in underground water sources respectively (9 % - 0.9 % in spring , (17 % - 6.5 % in summer and , (13 % - 0.00 % in autumn and in winter. Also in Urban water distribution network were respectively (3.2 % - 3.2 % in spring, (12.5 % - 5 % in summer, (8.3 % - 0.00 % in autumn and, (0.00 % - 0.00 % in winter. The Fluoride levels in 100% of samples were lower than standards (MCLG and MCL= 4 mg/l. Conclusion No significant relation was observed between fluoride concentrations obtained in different seasons and in different years.In most cases the Fluoride levels in studied city were lower than universal standards, national and climatic conditions. It is recommended that adding fluoride to food chain of the studied citizens should be noticed by the relevant authorities.

  7. Fluoride content of tank water in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, N J; Hopcraft, M S; Tong, A C; Thean, H l; Thum, Y S; Tong, D E; Wen, J; Zhao, S C; Stanton, D P; Yuan, Y; Shen, P; Reynolds, E C

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) analyse the fluoride content of tank water; (2) determine whether the method of water collection or storage influenced fluoride content; and (3) survey participant attitudes towards water fluoridation. Plastic tubes and a questionnaire were distributed through dentists to households with water tanks in Victoria. A midstream tank water sample was collected and fluoride analysed in triplicate using ion chromatography All samples (n = 123) contained negligible amounts of fluoride, with a mean fluoride concentration of fluoride content and variables investigated such as tank material, tank age, roof material and gutter material. Most people did not know whether their tank water contained fluoride and 40.8% preferred to have access to fluoridated water. The majority thought fluoride was safe and more than half of the respondents supported fluoridation. Fluoride content of tank water was well below the optimal levels for caries prevention. People who rely solely on tank water for drinking may require additional exposure to fluoride for optimal caries prevention. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014. Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  9. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014 Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  10. Association of dental caries with socioeconomic status in relation to different water fluoridation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Heung-Soo; Paik, Dai-Il; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in 11-year-old children, related to water fluoridation and family affluence scale (FAS), as an indicator of socioeconomic status (SES) in Korea. A total of eight areas were selected for study: four areas with fluoridated piped water (WF areas) and four areas with nonfluoridated piped water (non-WF areas). Non-WF areas had a similar economic level and population size compared with the WF areas. A total of 1446 elementary school students, 11 years of age, were included. They were examined, and questionnaires completed by their parents were analyzed. In the questionnaire, information about gender, FAS as an indicator of SES, occasions of daily cariogenic snack intake, occasions of daily cariogenic beverage intake, drinking of piped water, cooking with piped water, and usage of oral hygiene supplemental measures were surveyed. The bivariate association between the characteristics of the subjects and the number of decayed, filled, and missing permanent teeth (DMFT score) was analyzed through an independent samples t-test. The difference in the mean DMFT score between different FAS groups was analyzed by DMFT ratio, after adjusting for gender, oral health behaviors, and usage of piped water variables. The DMFT ratio was calculated from a Poisson regression model, because the DMFT score was not normally distributed. There was no significant association between FAS and the mean DMFT score in both areas, by bivariate analysis. After adjusting for each group of confounders, a significant association (95% CI: 1.032-1.513) was found between the FAS and mean DMFT scores in non-WF areas; however, no significant difference was observed in the WF areas (95% CI: 0.766-1.382). This study supported that water fluoridation could not only lead to a lower prevalence of dental caries, but also help to reduce the effect of SES inequalities on oral health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in association with different water fluoride levels in Mysore district, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sunitha, S

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride intake at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries. However, excessive intake, especially during developmental stages can cause adverse effects such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary school children born and raised in three villages of Mysore District. The three selected villages have different water fluoride concentrations. Three villages namely, Nerale (water fluoride 2.0 ppm), Belavadi (1.2 ppm) and Naganahally (0.4 ppm) were selected for the study. Then, a total of 405 children, 10-12-year-old (204 [50.4%] males and 201 [49.60%] females) were selected from three schools of the villages. Dean's fluorosis index recommended by World Health Organization was used to evaluate fluorosis among the study population. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 41.73%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI) was higher among those living in high water fluoride area. A significantly positive correlation was found between CFI and water fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  12. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluoride, such as drinking water at school or daycare, and fluoride toothpaste. It is not currently feasible ... 2015 Content source: Division of Oral Health , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email ...

  13. Fluoride Levels in Water, Animal Feeds, Cow Milk, Cow Urine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kiambu and Thika Districts are situated in Central part of Kenya. Most of the available land is suitable for agricultural use. Majority of the farmers are small scale or subsistence dairy farmers. Intake of excess fluoride in water, feed and mineral supplements may adversely affect health, reproduction and production in dairy ...

  14. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children in Sarada tehsil of Udaipur district, Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvaiya, B U; Bhayya, D; Arora, R; Mehta, D N

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children of 6-12 years age group. Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's index in school children of selected villages. The drinking water samples of all the selected villages were collected in polyethylene bottles and the fluoride content of these samples was determined by fluoride ion selective method using Orion microprocessor analyser. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 69.84%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI) with corresponding increase in water fluoride content was found. There was an increase in prevalence of dental fluorosis with a corresponding increase in water fluoride content from 0.8 ppm to 4.1 ppm. A significantly strong positive correlation was found between CFI and fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  15. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonola-Gallardo, Irvin; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Vera-Robles, Liliana; Campero, Antonio; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different concentrations of naturally fluoridated water. A total of 141 schoolchildren participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were selected from two communities: one with a low (0.4 ppm) and the other with a high (1.8 ppm) water fluoride concentration. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index (TFI) criteria. Stimulated saliva was obtained, and fluoride concentration and GST activity were measured. The GST activity was compared among children with different levels of dental fluorosis using multinomial logistic regression models and odds ratios (OR). The mean age of the children was 10.6 (±1.03) years. Approximately half of the children showed dental fluorosis (52.5 %). The average GST activity was 0.5678 (±0.1959) nmol/min/μg. A higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva was detected in children with a higher GST activity (p = 0.039). A multinomial logistic regression model used to evaluate the GST activity and the dental fluorosis score identified a strong association between TFI = 2-3 (OR = 15.44, p = 0.007) and TFI ≥ 4 (OR = 55.40, p = 0.026) and the GST activity level, compared with children showing TFI = 0-1, adjusted for age and sex. Schoolchildren with higher levels of dental fluorosis and a higher fluoride concentration in the saliva showed greater GST activity. The increased GST activity most likely was the result of the body's need to inactivate free radicals produced by exposure to fluoride.

  16. Cationic boranes for the complexation of fluoride ions in water below the 4 ppm maximum contaminant level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmin; Gabbaï, François P

    2009-03-11

    In search of a molecular receptor that could bind fluoride ions in water below the maximum contaminant level of 4 ppm set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), we have investigated the water stability and fluoride binding properties of a series of phosphonium boranes of general formula [p-(Mes(2)B)C(6)H(4)(PPh(2)R)](+) with R = Me ([1](+)), Et ([2](+)), n-Pr ([3](+)), and Ph ([4](+)). These phosphonium boranes are water stable and react reversibly with water to form the corresponding zwitterionic hydroxide complexes of general formula p-(Mes(2)(HO)B)C(6)H(4)(PPh(2)R). They also react with fluoride ions to form the corresponding zwitterionic fluoride complexes of general formula p-(Mes(2)(F)B)C(6)H(4)(PPh(2)R). Spectrophotometric acid-base titrations carried out in H(2)O/MeOH (9:1 vol.) afford pK(R+) values of 7.3(+/-0.07) for [1](+), 6.92(+/-0.1) for [2](+), 6.59(+/-0.08) for [3](+), and 6.08(+/-0.09) for [4](+), thereby indicating that the Lewis acidity of the cationic boranes increases in following order: [1](+) fluoride titration experiments in H(2)O/MeOH (9:1 vol.) show that the fluoride binding constants (K = 840(+/-50) M(-1) for [1](+), 2500(+/-200) M(-1) for [2](+), 4000(+/-300) M(-1) for [3](+), and 10 500(+/-1000) M(-1) for [4](+)) increase in the same order. These results show that the Lewis acidity of the cationic boranes increases with their hydrophobicity. The resulting Lewis acidity increase is substantial and exceeds 1 order of magnitude on going from [1](+) to [4](+). In turn, [4](+) is sufficiently fluorophilic to bind fluoride ions below the EPA contaminant level in pure water. These results indicate that phosphonium boranes related to [4](+) could be used as molecular recognition units in chemosensors for drinking water analysis.

  17. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia | Tegegne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline fusion was used for sample preparation of six varieties for both the raw rice and rice cooked with tap water and fluoridated water. Fluoride levels ... A statistical analysis of variance at 95% confidence level for fluoride determination indicated significant difference between the mean of each variety of rice samples.

  18. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  19. Seven years of external control of fluoride levels in the public water supply in Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Afonso Rabelo BUZALAF

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoridation of the public water supplies is recognized as among the top ten public health achievements of the twentieth century. However, the positive aspects of this measure depend on the maintenance of fluoride concentrations within adequate levels. Objective To report the results of seven years of external control of the fluoride (F concentrations in the public water supply in Bauru, SP, Brazil in an attempt to verify, on the basis of risk/benefit balance, whether the levels are appropriate. Material and Methods From March 2004 to February 2011, 60 samples were collected every month from the 19 supply sectors of the city, totaling 4,641 samples. F concentrations in water samples were determined in duplicate, using an ion-specific electrode (Orion 9609 coupled to a potentiometer after buffering with TISAB II. After the analysis, the samples were classified according to the best risk-benefit adjustment. Results Means (±standard deviation of F concentrations ranged between 0.73±0.06 and 0.81±0.10 mg/L for the different sectors during the seven years. The individual values ranged between 0.03 and 2.63 mg/L. The percentages of the samples considered “low risk” for dental fluorosis development and of “maximum benefit” for dental caries prevention (0.55-0.84 mg F/L in the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh years of the study were 82.0, 58.5, 37.4, 61.0, 89.9, 77.3, and 72.4%, respectively, and 69.0% for the entire period. Conclusions Fluctuations of F levels were found in the public water supply in Bauru during the seven years of evaluation. These results suggest that external monitoring of water fluoridation by an independent assessor should be implemented in cities where there is adjusted fluoridation. This measure should be continued in order to verify that fluoride levels are suitable and, if not, to provide support for the appropriate adjustments.

  20. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  1. [Water fluoridation and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Shlomo

    2003-11-01

    Fluoridation in Israel was first mooted in 1973 and finally incorporated into law in November 2002 obligating the Ministry of Health to add fluoride to the nation's water supply. Epidemiology studies in the USA have shown that the addition of one part per million of fluoride to the drinking water reduced the caries rate of children's teeth by 50% to 60% with no side effects. Both the WHO in 1994 and the American Surgeon General's report of 2000 declared that fluoridation of drinking water was the safest and most efficient way of preventing dental caries in all age groups and populations. Opposition to fluoridation has arisen from "antifluoridation" groups who object to the "pollution" of drinking water by the addition of chemicals and mass medication in violation of the "Patient's Rights" law and the Basic Law of Human Dignity and Liberty. A higher prevalence of hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic women and osteosarcoma in teenagers has been reported in areas where excess fluoride exists in the drinking water. However, none of the many independent professional committees reviewing the negative aspects of fluoridation have found any scientific evidence associating fluoridation with any ill-effects or health problems. In Israel, where dental treatment is not included in the basket of Health Services, fluoridation is the most efficient and cheapest way of reducing dental disease, especially for the poorer members of the population.

  2. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, P V; Patel, S V; Bhalani, K D; Shah, D; Shah, V S; Mehta, K G

    2012-06-01

    Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings.

  3. Well waters fluoride in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, I Si; Okoro, O Io; Ugwuja, E I

    2012-04-01

    Abnormal fluoride levels in drinking water have been associated with adverse health effects. To determine the fluoride content of well waters in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, water samples from 50 artisan wells chosen by multistage sampling procedure from the 5 zones of Enugu municipality were analyzed in duplicates for their fluoride content. The zonal mean values were 0.60, 0.70, 0.62, 0.62, and 0.63 mg/L for Abakpa Nike, Achara Layout, Obiagu/ Ogui, Trans Ekulu and Uwani, respectively (pwaters in the municipality in view of the increasing industrial activities going on in the city and heavy reliance on well water for domestic purposes and the widespread use of consumer products containing fluoride.

  4. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied

  5. Well Waters Fluoride in Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISI Ogbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal fluoride levels in drinking water have been associated with adverse health effects. To determine the fluoride content of well waters in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, water samples from 50 artisan wells chosen by multistage sampling procedure from the 5 zones of Enugu municipality were analyzed in duplicates for their fluoride content. The zonal mean values were 0.60, 0.70, 0.62, 0.62, and 0.63 mg/L for Abakpa Nike, Achara Layout, Obiagu/ Ogui, Trans Ekulu and Uwani, respectively (p<0.05. The mean value for the whole city was 0.63 mg/L. Although, the mean level of fluoride recorded in this study is currently within safe limits (1.5 mg/L, WHO 2011, it is important to monitor continuously the fluoride content of well waters in the municipality in view of the increasing industrial activities going on in the city and heavy reliance on well water for domestic purposes and the widespread use of consumer products containing fluoride.

  6. Drinking water quality and fluoride concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Paulo; Peres, Marco A; Cury, Jaime A

    2011-10-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the fluoride concentration in drinking water, taking into account the balance between the benefits and risks to health, in order to produce scientific backing for the updating of the Brazilian legislation. Systematic reviews studies, official documents and meteorological data were examined. The temperatures in Brazilian state capitals indicate that fluoride levels should be between 0.6 and 0.9 mg F/l in order to prevent dental caries. Natural fluoride concentration of 1.5 mg F/l is tolerated for consumption in Brazil if there is no technology with an acceptable cost-benefit ratio for adjusting/removing the excess. Daily intake of water with a fluoride concentration > 0.9 mg F/l presents a risk to the dentition among children under the age of eight years, and consumers should be explicitly informed of this risk. In view of the expansion of the Brazilian water fluoridation program to regions with a typically tropical climate, Ordinance 635/75 relating to fluoride added to the public water supply should be revised.

  7. Arsenic from community water fluoridation: quantifying the effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Emily; Shapiro, Howard; Li, Ye; Minnery, John G; Copes, Ray

    2016-04-01

    Community water fluoridation is a WHO recommended strategy to prevent dental carries. One debated concern is that hydrofluorosilicic acid, used to fluoridate water, contains arsenic and poses a health risk. This study was undertaken to determine if fluoridation contributes to arsenic in drinking water, to estimate the amount of additional arsenic associated with fluoridation, and compare this to the National Sanitation Foundation/American National Standards Institute (NSF/ANSI) standard and estimates from other researchers. Using surveillance data from Ontario drinking water systems, mixed effects linear regression was performed to examine the effect of fluoridation status on the difference in arsenic concentration between raw water and treated water samples. On average, drinking water treatment was found to reduce arsenic levels in water in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated systems by 0.2 μg/L. However, fluoridated systems were associated with an additional 0.078 μg/L (95% CI 0.021, 0.136) of arsenic in water when compared to non-fluoridated systems (P = 0.008) while controlling for raw water arsenic concentrations, types of treatment processes, and source water type. Our estimate is consistent with concentrations expected from other research and is less than 10% of the NSF/ANSI standard of 1 μg/L arsenic in water. This study provides further information to inform decision-making regarding community water fluoridation.

  8. Soluble fluoride levels in drinking water-a major risk factor of dental fluorosis among children in Bongo community of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firempong, Ck; Nsiah, K; Awunyo-Vitor, D; Dongsogo, J

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between fluoride ions in drinking water and the incidence of dental fluorosis in some endemic areas of Bongo District, Ghana. Two hundred children were randomly selected from various homes and taken through a questionnaire. Their teeth were examined for the detection of dental fluorosis using the Dean's specific index. Samples of their permanent sources of water were taken for the determination of soluble fluoride levels by SPADNS spectrophotometric method. The study revealed that the incidence of dental fluorosis among the children in the main Bongo township was 63.0%, whereas villages outside the township recorded less than 10.0%. The respondents from the various communities had similar age group, educational background, sources of drinking water, oral hygiene habits and usage of oral health products, p-value > 0.05. However, there were statistically significant differences in the cases of dental fluorosis and fluoride ions among the communities, p-value dental fluorosis and the other characteristics, except the age group and fluoride ion concentration of the area. These findings strongly support the association between the dental fluorosis and the high fluoride levels in the underground water of Bongo community. Therefore, policy makers need to consider an alternative source of drinking water for the area.

  9. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720 had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754 were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373 were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L. Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis.

  10. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba; SALIBA, Nemre Adas; SALIBA, Orlando; SUMIDA, Doris Hissako; de SOUZA, Neila Paula; CHIBA, Fernando Yamamoto; GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods: Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results: A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720) had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754) were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373) were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L). Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions: The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:23559106

  11. Portland Water Fluoridation: A Newspaper Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Allison; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Lewis, Patricia Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Portland, Oregon is the largest city in the United States without community water fluoridation (CWF). A newspaper analysis was conducted of the failed 2013 CWF campaign to evaluate anti-fluoridation and pro-fluoridation messaging provided by newspapers during the campaign. News content was categorized by type and slant (pro-fluoridation, anti-fluoridation, or neutral) and 34 variables were tabulated (23 anti-fluoridation, 11 pro-fluoridation). Results showed overall messaging was slightly pro-fluoridation, as compared to anti-fluoridation or neutral content (35%, 32%, and 33% respectively). Editorial content was 85% pro-fluoridation and 15% anti-fluoridation. The most frequent anti-fluoridation variables were alternatives to water fluoridation, mass/forced medication and concerns about the political process. Conversely, tooth decay and social justice were the most commonly cited pro-fluoridation variables. Newspapers can be influential in shaping public policy opinions in the fight for community water fluoridation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fluoride exposure and indicators of thyroid functioning in the Canadian population: implications for community water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Amanda M; Hosein, F Shaun; Quiñonez, Carlos; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-10-01

    There are concerns that altered thyroid functioning could be the result of ingesting too much fluoride. Community water fluoridation (CWF) is an important source of fluoride exposure. Our objectives were to examine the association between fluoride exposure and (1) diagnosis of a thyroid condition and (2) indicators of thyroid functioning among a national population-based sample of Canadians. We analysed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between fluoride from urine and tap water samples and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between fluoride exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (low/normal/high). Other available variables permitted additional exploratory analyses among the subset of participants for whom we could discern some fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products. There was no evidence of a relationship between fluoride exposure (from urine and tap water) and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. There was no statistically significant association between fluoride exposure and abnormal (low or high) TSH levels relative to normal TSH levels. Rerunning the models with the sample constrained to the subset of participants for whom we could discern some source(s) of fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products revealed no significant associations. These analyses suggest that, at the population level, fluoride exposure is not associated with impaired thyroid functioning in a time and place where multiple sources of fluoride exposure, including CWF, exist. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Special Report: Fluoridation of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hileman, Bette

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the controversy regarding water fluoridation in the United States during the last 50 years. Discusses the current status; benefits; and health risks including skeletal fluorosis, kidney disease, hypersensitivity, mutagenic effects, birth defects, and cancer. Presents statistics and anecdotal accounts. (CW)

  14. Risk perception, psychological heuristics and the water fluoridation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Andrea M L; Kiss, Simon J

    2015-04-29

    Increasingly, support for water fluoridation has come under attack. We seek an explanation, focusing on the case of Waterloo, Ontario, where a 2010 referendum overturned its water fluoridation program. In particular, we test whether individuals perceive the risks of water fluoridation based not on 'hard' scientific evidence but on heuristics and cultural norms. A sample of 376 residents in Waterloo were surveyed in June 2012 using random digit dialing. We use factor analysis, OLS regression, as well as t-tests to evaluate a survey experiment to test the credibility hypothesis. Perceptions of fluoride as a risk are lower among those who perceive fluoride's benefits (B = .473, p < 0.001) and those whose cultural view is 'egalitarian' (B = .156, p < 0.05). The experiment shows a lower level of perception of fluoride's benefits among respondents who are told that water fluoridation is opposed by a national advocacy group (Group A) compared to those who are told that the government and the World Health Organization support fluoridation (Group B) (t = 1.6547, p < 0.05), as well as compared to the control group (t = 1.8913, p < 0.05). There is no difference between Group B and the control, possibly because people's already general support for fluoridation is less prone to change when told that other public organizations also support fluoridation. Public health officials should take into account cultural norms and perceptions when individuals in a community appear to rise up against water fluoridation, with implications for other public health controversies.

  15. [Fluoridation of drinking water, why is it needed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, S P; Natapov, L; Ramon, T

    2004-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread disease. It causes irreversible damage, pain and considerable expense. Fluoride is the only known substance that raises the tooth's resistance to acid attack. Natural drinking waters contain fluoride at different concentration. The most effective method of fluoride administration to the community level is by adjustng the fluoride concentration in the drinking water to about 1 part per million. To describe the mode of action of fluoride, methods of administration and to describe water fluoridation, advantages and disadvantages. Fluoridation of drinking water started in 1945 in the world and in 1981 in Israel. Today more then 300 million people in some 60 countries enjoy the defending effect of fluoride in drinking water. This is the most effective method for decreasing incidence of caries, as well as being cost effective. Over the years there were many attempts to 'blame' fluoridation with negative side effects to human health. Till today, none of the allegations passed scientific scrutiny. There is overwhelming scientific support for the Regulations that oblige the Water supplier to adjust fluoride levels to 1 ppm in every town or municipality with more then 5,000 inhabitants.

  16. [Differential approach to spring water choice regarding fluoride content for caries prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeeva, I M; Protsenko, A S; Svistunova, E G

    2013-01-01

    The research includes an investigation of the tap water in different districts of Moscow. It was found out that Moscow tap water contains little fluoride, the difference between districts and okrugs is of no consequence. There is no centralized water fluoridization in Moscow therefore the authors suggest using bottled potable water with sufficient fluoride level. The fluoride concentration in one hundred of the most popular and wide-spread bottled potable water labels was examined. High in fluoride and low in fluoride labels were identified as well as the labels with the optimal fluoride content. Some practical guidelines for selection of bottled potable water depending on the quantity of liquid consummation were elaborated.

  17. Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Water in the Rift Valley, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the amount of Fluoride in ground, potable water in Njoro division, Nakuru district and some parts outside the division was conducted to determine the concentration of Fluoride the residents are consuming through water. This area is situated in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa, which is known to have high levels ...

  18. Household water sources and their contribution towards fluoride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluoride is regarded as an essential element for the formation of healthy bones and teeth. However, high fluoride levels in drinking water have been associated with high incidences of dental fluorosis. A 1996–1997 study in Njoro Division, Nakuru District, established that the groundwater used for cooking and drinking, ...

  19. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, A R; Raju, O S; Kurthukoti, A J; Vishwas, T D

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  20. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  1. Drinking Water Fluoride Levels for a City in Northern Mexico (Durango Determined Using a Direct Electrochemical Method and Their Potential Effects on Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Molina Frechero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is ingested primarily through consuming drinking water. When drinking water contains fluoride concentrations >0.7 parts per million (ppm, consuming such water can be toxic to the human body; this toxicity is called “fluorosis.” Therefore, it is critical to determine the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of this study was to determine the fluoride concentration in the drinking water of the city of Durango. The wells that supply the drinking water distribution system for the city of Durango were studied. One hundred eighty-nine (189 water samples were analyzed, and the fluoride concentration in each sample was quantified as established by the law NMX-AA-077-SCFI-2001. The fluoride concentrations in such samples varied between 2.22 and 7.23 ppm with a 4.313 ± 1.318 ppm mean concentration. The highest values were observed in the northern area of the city, with a 5.001 ± 2.669 ppm mean value. The samples produced values that exceeded the national standard for fluoride in drinking water. Chronic exposure to fluoride at such concentrations produces harmful health effects, the first sign of which is dental fluorosis. Therefore, it is essential that the government authorities implement water defluoridation programs and take preventative measures to reduce the ingestion of this toxic halogen.

  2. Drinking water fluoride levels for a city in northern Mexico (durango) determined using a direct electrochemical method and their potential effects on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Frechero, Nelly; Sánchez Pérez, Leonor; Castañeda Castaneira, Enrique; Oropeza Oropeza, Anastasio; Gaona, Enrique; Salas Pacheco, José; Bologna Molina, Ronell

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is ingested primarily through consuming drinking water. When drinking water contains fluoride concentrations>0.7 parts per million (ppm), consuming such water can be toxic to the human body; this toxicity is called "fluorosis." Therefore, it is critical to determine the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of this study was to determine the fluoride concentration in the drinking water of the city of Durango. The wells that supply the drinking water distribution system for the city of Durango were studied. One hundred eighty-nine (189) water samples were analyzed, and the fluoride concentration in each sample was quantified as established by the law NMX-AA-077-SCFI-2001. The fluoride concentrations in such samples varied between 2.22 and 7.23 ppm with a 4.313±1.318 ppm mean concentration. The highest values were observed in the northern area of the city, with a 5.001±2.669 ppm mean value. The samples produced values that exceeded the national standard for fluoride in drinking water. Chronic exposure to fluoride at such concentrations produces harmful health effects, the first sign of which is dental fluorosis. Therefore, it is essential that the government authorities implement water defluoridation programs and take preventative measures to reduce the ingestion of this toxic halogen.

  3. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  4. Water fluoridation: a critical review of the physiological effects of ingested fluoride as a public health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Stephen; Awofeso, Niyi

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine is the world's 13th most abundant element and constitutes 0.08% of the Earth crust. It has the highest electronegativity of all elements. Fluoride is widely distributed in the environment, occurring in the air, soils, rocks, and water. Although fluoride is used industrially in a fluorine compound, the manufacture of ceramics, pesticides, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, glassware, and Teflon cookware, it is a generally unwanted byproduct of aluminium, fertilizer, and iron ore manufacture. The medicinal use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries began in January 1945 when community water supplies in Grand Rapids, United States, were fluoridated to a level of 1 ppm as a dental caries prevention measure. However, water fluoridation remains a controversial public health measure. This paper reviews the human health effects of fluoride. The authors conclude that available evidence suggests that fluoride has a potential to cause major adverse human health problems, while having only a modest dental caries prevention effect. As part of efforts to reduce hazardous fluoride ingestion, the practice of artificial water fluoridation should be reconsidered globally, while industrial safety measures need to be tightened in order to reduce unethical discharge of fluoride compounds into the environment. Public health approaches for global dental caries reduction that do not involve systemic ingestion of fluoride are urgently needed.

  5. Water Fluoridation: A Critical Review of the Physiological Effects of Ingested Fluoride as a Public Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine is the world's 13th most abundant element and constitutes 0.08% of the Earth crust. It has the highest electronegativity of all elements. Fluoride is widely distributed in the environment, occurring in the air, soils, rocks, and water. Although fluoride is used industrially in a fluorine compound, the manufacture of ceramics, pesticides, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, glassware, and Teflon cookware, it is a generally unwanted byproduct of aluminium, fertilizer, and iron ore manufacture. The medicinal use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries began in January 1945 when community water supplies in Grand Rapids, United States, were fluoridated to a level of 1 ppm as a dental caries prevention measure. However, water fluoridation remains a controversial public health measure. This paper reviews the human health effects of fluoride. The authors conclude that available evidence suggests that fluoride has a potential to cause major adverse human health problems, while having only a modest dental caries prevention effect. As part of efforts to reduce hazardous fluoride ingestion, the practice of artificial water fluoridation should be reconsidered globally, while industrial safety measures need to be tightened in order to reduce unethical discharge of fluoride compounds into the environment. Public health approaches for global dental caries reduction that do not involve systemic ingestion of fluoride are urgently needed. PMID:24719570

  6. Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water Resources; North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouei A.I. PhD,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims Fluoride is one of the anions present in soil and water, and determining its level in drinking water is vital for preventing dental and bone diseases in societies. This research aimed to determine fluoride concentrations in drinking water sources of rural and urban areas of Babol City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Babol City, Iran, in 2014. 384 water samples were taken from 43 wells and 3 springs in the rural areas, and from 20 wells, 3 water reservoirs, and the water distribution system in the urban areas. Fluoride concentrations of water samples were measured with a model DR2000 spectrophotometer using the standard SPADNS method. Data were entered to SPSS 16 software and were analyzed by ANOVA test. Findings The mean fluoride concentrations in the water samples of the deep wells were higher compared to those of the springs (p=0.01. The mean fluoride concentrations in the plains areas were higher compared to the mountainous regions (p=0.02. The mean fluoride concentrations in the wells of the urban areas, in the urban reservoirs, and in the urban water distribution system were 0.40±0.14, 0.39±0.15, and 0.40±0.15mg/l, respectively (p=0.07. Fluoride concentrations in water in urban areas during various seasons varied from 0.31 to 0.45mg/l (p=0.06. Conclusion Fluoride concentrations in all drinking water sources in urban and rural areas of Babol are less than the ranges recommended by WHO and Iranian national standards.

  7. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; O'Malley, Lucy; Clarkson, Jan E; Macey, Richard; Alam, Rahul; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-06-18

    fluoridated) or non-fluoridated water. We used an adaptation of the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess risk of bias in the included studies.We included the following caries indices in the analyses: decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft (deciduous dentition) and DMFT (permanent dentition)), and proportion caries free in both dentitions. For dmft and DMFT analyses we calculated the difference in mean change scores between the fluoridated and control groups. For the proportion caries free we calculated the difference in the proportion caries free between the fluoridated and control groups.For fluorosis data we calculated the log odds and presented them as probabilities for interpretation. A total of 155 studies met the inclusion criteria; 107 studies provided sufficient data for quantitative synthesis.The results from the caries severity data indicate that the initiation of water fluoridation results in reductions in dmft of 1.81 (95% CI 1.31 to 2.31; 9 studies at high risk of bias, 44,268 participants) and in DMFT of 1.16 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.61; 10 studies at high risk of bias, 78,764 participants). This translates to a 35% reduction in dmft and a 26% reduction in DMFT compared to the median control group mean values. There were also increases in the percentage of caries free children of 15% (95% CI 11% to 19%; 10 studies, 39,966 participants) in deciduous dentition and 14% (95% CI 5% to 23%; 8 studies, 53,538 participants) in permanent dentition. The majority of studies (71%) were conducted prior to 1975 and the widespread introduction of the use of fluoride toothpaste.There is insufficient information to determine whether initiation of a water fluoridation programme results in a change in disparities in caries across socioeconomic status (SES) levels.There is insufficient information to determine the effect of stopping water fluoridation programmes on caries levels.No studies that aimed to determine the effectiveness of water fluoridation for preventing caries in adults

  8. Fluoride exposure in public drinking water and childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Natalie P; Napier, Thomas S; Villanacci, John F

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between fluoride levels in public drinking water and childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas; to date, studies examining this relationship have been equivocal. Using areas with high and low naturally occurring fluoride, as well as areas with optimal fluoridation, we examined a wide range of fluoride levels in public drinking water. This was a population-based case-control study, with both cases and controls obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Eligible cases were Texas children and adolescents water fluoride exposure levels based on the fluoride levels of their residence's public water system (PWS). Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association between osteosarcoma and public drinking water fluoride level, adjusting for several demographic risk factors. Three hundred and eight osteosarcoma cases, 598 leukemia controls, and 604 CNS tumor controls met selection criteria and were assigned a corresponding PWS fluoride level. PWS fluoride level was not associated with osteosarcoma, either in a univariable analysis or after adjusting for age, sex, race, and poverty index. Stratified analyses by sex were conducted; no association between PWS fluoride level and osteosarcoma was observed among either males or females. No relationship was found between fluoride levels in public drinking water and childhood/adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas.

  9. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toothpaste that carries the ADA's seal of acceptance. Brush babies' teeth as they come in with an infant toothbrush. ... locked cabinet. Also, supervise young kids when they brush their teeth to prevent swallowing of toothpaste or other fluoridated ...

  10. Debating Water Fluoridation Before Dr. Strangelove

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1930s, scientists learned that small amounts of fluoride naturally occurring in water could protect teeth from decay, and the idea of artificially adding fluoride to public water supplies to achieve the same effect arose. In the 1940s and early 1950s, a number of studies were completed to determine whether fluoride could have harmful effects. The research suggested that the possibility of harm was small. In the early 1950s, Canadian and US medical, dental, and public health bodies all endorsed water fluoridation. I argue in this article that some early concerns about the toxicity of fluoride were put aside as evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation mounted and as the opposition was taken over by people with little standing in the scientific, medical, and dental communities. The sense of optimism that infused postwar science and the desire of dentists to have a magic bullet that could wipe out tooth decay also affected the scientific debate. PMID:26066938

  11. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT LEAD (II) IN POTABLE WATER? HEXAFLUOROSILICATE AND FLUORIDE EQUILIBRIA IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of hexafluorosilicate hydrolysi...

  12. Western Australian schools access to dentally optimal fluoridated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, P; Kruger, E; Trolio, R; Tennant, M

    2015-03-01

    This study examined water fluoride levels at schools across Western Australia. The aim was to identify schools where levels of water fluoride appeared to be below dental health thresholds (0.5-1.0 mg/L) as recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The objective is to provide health organizations with the knowledge for a more targeted approach to schools with greater risk of decay. Population data, school location, enrolment data and water quality data were integrated into geographic databases for analysis using Quantum GIS, Lisboa 1.8. The results indicated that 46% of school attendees in the northern half of Western Australia were at schools where there was the potential that the water was not dentally optimally fluoridated while in the southern half of Western Australia this was about 10%. Of these attendees (north and south), 45% were at primary school. Similarly, there was an association between socio-economic decile and proportion of school attendees in non-dentally optimally fluoridated schools. Lower deciles (i.e. poorer attendees) had a greater risk of being in schools outside dentally optimally fluoridated areas. This study clearly highlights areas where more prevention (and probably) treatment needs are present and provides a framework for targeted service planning. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  13. Hair as Biomarker of Fluoride Exposure in a Fluoride Endemic Area and a Low Fluoridated Area

    OpenAIRE

    Parimi, Nalini; Viswanath, V; Kashyap, Bina; Patil, Pavan Uday

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine whether hair could be used as biomarker of fluoride exposure. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 30 people living in an endemically fluoridated area and a low fluoridated area. Samples of hair from the occipital were taken and subjected to fluoride analysis by a fluoride ion electrode. Results: Lower fluoride levels in water supplies correlated with lower levels of fluoride in hair and more over higher fluoride levels in wate...

  14. Community water fluoridation and health outcomes in England: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicholas; Newton, John; Morris, John; Morris, Joan; Langford, John; Iloya, Jonathan; Edwards, Diane; Makhani, Semina; Verne, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Six million people in England live in areas where the level of fluoride in water is adjusted to reduce the significant public health burden of dental caries. The dental effects of fluoride are well established, but evidence for suggested adverse health effects is limited, with a lack of rigorous small area population studies that control for confounding. This study aims to test the association between water fluoridation schemes and selected health outcomes using the best available routine data sources. Ecological level exposure to fluoridated water was estimated for standard small areas and administrative districts in England using Geographical Information Systems and digitized boundaries based on known patterns of water supply. The association between fluoridation and dental and nondental health indicators was tested using multivariable regression models including ecological level confounding variables. Health indicator data were obtained from routine sources. There was strong evidence of lower prevalence of dental caries (P fluoridated areas, they also had fewer teeth affected on average (P fluoridation and hip fracture, Down syndrome, all-cancer, all-cause mortality or osteosarcoma. Fluoridation was negatively associated with the incidence of renal stones (7.9% lower; 95% CI-9.6%,-6.2%; P fluoridation is a safe and highly effective public health measure to reduce dental decay. Although lower rates of certain nondental outcomes were found in fluoridated areas, the ecological, observational design prohibits any conclusions being drawn regarding a protective role of fluoridation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  16. The accuracy of fluoride measurement in water and its implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The accurate measurement of the fluoride concentration in water is an essential prerequisite to stay within the allowable dosing tolerances required by the South African water fluoridation legislation. In the absence of reliable error estimates for fluoride measurement in natural water samples, a study was conducted utilising ...

  17. Fluoride in drinking water and its removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi; Maheshwari, R C

    2006-09-01

    Excessive fluoride concentrations have been reported in groundwaters of more than 20 developed and developing countries including India where 19 states are facing acute fluorosis problems. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. In this paper, a broad overview of the available technologies for fluoride removal and advantages and limitations of each one have been presented based on literature survey and the experiments conducted in the laboratory with several processes. It has been concluded that the selection of treatment process should be site specific as per local needs and prevailing conditions as each technology has some limitations and no one process can serve the purpose in diverse conditions.

  18. Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-03-14

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

  19. Reducing Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water in Estonia—A Countrywide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004–2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). PMID:24637908

  20. Influence of different concentrations of fluoride in the water on epidemiologic indicators of oral health/disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raquel Baroni de Carvalho; Urubatan Vieira de Medeiros; Karina Tonini dos Santos; Antônio Carlos Pacheco Filho

    2011-01-01

    .... The fluoride level in the water of each area was analyzed by the selective electrode technique for the fluoride ion and the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis were evaluated, respectively, by...

  1. Spatial analysis of fluoride concentrations in drinking water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Namibia, the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa, is largely reliant on groundwater for its potable water demand and groundwater is a major source of naturally-occurring fluoride. This study assessed the spatial distribution of fluoride in potable water and appraised the population at risk for high fluoride intake. Analysis of ...

  2. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythri H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  3. Correlation among fluoride and metals in irrigation water and soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of fluoride and selected metals in Ethiopian Rift Valley soils and irrigation water in the nearby sources were determined by fluoride ion selective electrode and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The pH, conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solids in water and soil samples were also ...

  4. [Fluoride intake through consumption of water from municipal network in the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Otazua, Mónica; Ayerdi, Mikel; Galarza, Ane; Gallastegi, Mara; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Molinuevo, Amaia; Anabitarte, Asier; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2017-05-22

    To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants. 575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS). Water consumption habits and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire. 74.9% and 87.7% of women and children consumed water from the municipal network. Average fluoride levels in fluoridated water were 0.805 (SD: 0.194) mg/L during baseline recruitment and 0.843 (SD: 0.080) mg/L during follow up, at 4 years old of the children. Average and 95th percentile of fluoride intake were 0.015 and 0.026mg/kg per day in women and 0.033 and 0.059mg/kg per day in children. Considering only fluoride provided by drinking water, 8.71% of children living in fluoridated areas exceeded intake level recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, consisting in 0.05mg/kg per day. The results show that ingested levels of fluoride through consumption of municipal water can exceed the recommended levels in children and encourages further studies that will help in fluoridation policies of drinking water in the future. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of fluoride contamination in water by three aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sukalpa; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation, popularly known as 'green technology' has been employed in the present investigation to examine the potential of fluoride removal from water by some aquatic plants. Fluoride contamination in drinking water is very much prevalent in different parts of the world including India. Batch studies were conducted using some aquatic plants e.g., Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, and Spirodela polyrhiza which profusely grow in natural water bodies. The experimental data exhibited that all the above three aquatic floating macrophytes could remove fluoride to some relative degree of efficiency corresponding to initial concentration of fluoride 3, 5, 10, 20 mg/l after 10 days exposure time. Result showed that at lower concentration level i.e., 3 mg/L removal efficiency of Pistia stratiotes (19.87%) and Spirodela polyrhiza (19.23%) was found to be better as compared to Eichhornia crassipes (12.71%). Some of the physiological stress induced parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total protein, catalase, and peroxidase were also studied to explore relative damage within the cell. A marginal stress was imparted among all the plants for lower concentration values (3 mg/L), whereas at 20 mg/l, maximum damage was observed.

  6. Opinion of residents from the Gold Coast, Queensland, on community water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Jeroen; Reid, Kate Emily; Cutting, Jenna Renae; Lalloo, Ratilal; Chiu, Kandy Chien

    2014-02-01

    To investigate opinions and concerns of Gold Coast residents regarding fluoridation of community water supplies. Anonymous data were collected in four major shopping centers from approximately 500 Gold Coast residents. Eighty-one percent of participants were aware of the addition of fluoride to the water supply. More than half obtained information on water fluoridation through the print and electronic media. Sixty percent of respondents supported water fluoridation. The majority preferred the public and/or health professionals to have made the decision on water fluoridation rather than the government. The percentage of residents supporting water fluoridation was lower than that found in other Queensland, Australian, and worldwide surveys. In this study, only age and the highest level of education attained were factors significantly related to levels of support for water fluoridation. The Queensland Government's decision to implement water fluoridation without a referendum caused disquiet amongst some Gold Coast residents. Future public health initiatives therefore may be assisted by more consultation with, and involvement from, health professionals in the relevant fields. Public health campaigns may benefit more from interaction with the community in order to address their specific concerns. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-12

    Objective: To identify adolescents' self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2-3 (50%), TF 4-5 (45.6%) and TF 6-7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2-3 (12.3%), TF 4-5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  8. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  9. Effect of high fluoride concentration in drinking water on children’s intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraj B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Human and animal studies linking fluoride with diminished intelligence have been published. Although adverse effects of high intake of fluoride on intelligence and mental acuity continue to be reported, they are still controversial. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between fluoride in drinking water and children's intelligence. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 41 children were selected from the high fluoride area with 2.5mg/l (ppm fluoride in the drinking water and 85 children were selected from low fluoride area with 0.4mg/l (ppm fluoride in the drinking water. The intelligence quotient (IQ of each child was measured by the Raven's test. The history of illnesses affecting the nervous system, head trauma, birth weight (2.5kg or  2.5kg, residental history, age and sex of children were investigated by questionnaires completed by the children's parents. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: In the high fluoride area the mean IQ of children (87.911 was significantly lower than in the low fluoride area (98.912.9 (P=0.025. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, exposure of children to high levels of fluoride may carry the risk of impaired development of intelligence.

  10. Fluoride content of bottled waters available in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiropoulos, V

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride content of bottled drinking waters commercially available in northern Greece and to report on the accuracy of the labelling of fluoride concentration. Twenty-two randomly selected commercial brands of bottled water were obtained from three supermarkets in Thessaloniki, Greece. Three bottles of each brand were purchased. Following calibration, six tests were conducted on each bottle using a combination fluoride-ion selective electrode (Orion, 96-09-00, MA, USA). The average reading for each brand was estimated and also compared with the fluoride content printed on the label. The mean (+/- SD) fluoride content of the bottled water samples was 0.35 (+/- 1.00) mg F/L with a range from 0.05 to 4.8 mg F/L. Only 18% (N = 4) of brands tested mention the fluoride concentration on the label, and 90% (N = 22) had a tested fluoride between 0.05 and 0.21 mg F/L. Of the remaining two brands, one was found to contain 0.3 mg F/L without having the fluoride concentration indicated on the label, and the other was labelled at 6 mg F/L, whereas the concentration was estimated as 4.8 mg F/L. The use of bottled water may be a significant source of systemic fluoride and therefore be considered as a risk factor for dental fluorosis in young children. This article shows that bottled drinking waters contain differing concentrations of fluoride. The manufacturers' labelling of fluoride concentrations may be inaccurate. When prescribing fluoride supplements, dentists should be aware of the fluoride content of bottled waters used by paediatric patients, especially brands with a concentration higher than 0.3 mg F/L. In view of the wide variation of fluoride concentration in the tested bottled waters, regulatory guidelines for controlling concentration in order to prevent dental fluorosis are recommended.

  11. [The impact of tap water fluoridation on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Verena; Norris, Frances J; Ríos, Juvenal A; Cortés, Isel; González, Andrea; Gaete, Leonardo; Tchernitchin, Andrei N

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the osteological, neurological, endocrine and dermatological effects of fluoride ingestion. Additional aims are to evaluate whether the Chilean tap water fluoridation program has had any impact on dental health, and analyze the basis for the Chilean elementary school milk fluoridation program, which is targeted at children living in places where tap water has a fluoride concentration less than 0.3 mg/L, without any artificial fluoridation process. We discuss the finding that both public measures have no direct or remarkable effect on dental health, since topical dental hygiene products are the main and most effective contributors to the prevention of dental decay. We also suggest that the permanent and systematic ingestion of fluorides imposes health risks on the population. Therefore, we recommend reevaluating the national fluoridation program for public tap water and the elementary school milk program.

  12. Fluoride intake from meals served in daycare centres in municipalities with different fluoride concentrations in the water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliari Tiano, Ana Valéria; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Sumida, Dóris Hissako

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to determine the fluoride content in the meals served to children aged up to 36 months in daycare centres of two municipalities with different levels of fluoride in the water supply, (2) to calculate the mean fluoride ingested daily by the children when consuming those meals and (3) to analyse the contribution of this consumption to the development of dental fluorosis. Samples of the meals served to the children were collected during a whole week. The fluoride content of the samples of solid foods and milk was analysed using an ion-specific electrode combined with reference electrode after diffusion facilitated by hexamethyldisiloxane. Samples of beverages were buffered with an equal volume of total ionic strength adjustment buffer and analysed using a combined electrode. The results were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Mean fluoride contents of the meals were of 0.204 +/- 0.179 and 0.322 +/- 0.242 microg F/mL (P 0.05). The children were not exposed to dental fluorosis in the daycare centres. However, the risk cannot be ignored, considering the meals and the use of fluoridated dentifrices at home may also contribute to fluoride intake.

  13. An Investigation of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water of Sanganer Tehsil, Jaipur District, Rajasthan, India and Defluoridation from Plant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty water samples of 20 villages of Sanganer tehsil, Jaipur district were analyzed for determining fluoride ion concentrations. High fluoride containing regions were identified on the basis of fluoride levels of the water samples and also on the prevalence rate of dental and skeletal fluorosis of the study area. Fluoride maps, which distinguish the regions containing the water sources of different ranges of fluoride ion concentrations, were also prepared by isopleth’s technique, a statistical method. Water samples containing high fluoride levels were defluoridated with low-cost materials prepared from plant byproducts. These materials successfully decrease the fluoride ions concentration to an acceptable limit (from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L without disturbing drinking water quality standards.

  14. The dentist’s role in promoting community water fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L.R.; Armfield, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Overview Community water fluoridation is an important public health intervention that reduces oral health disparities and increases the health of the population. Promotion of its safety and effectiveness is critical to maintaining its widespread acceptance and ensuring its continued use. Dentists are a potentially important source of knowledge regarding the oral health benefits and safety of water fluoridation. However, few dentists regularly discuss fluorides, and water fluoridation in particular, with patients. The authors aim to describe and discuss the role and importance of dentists’ promotion of public water fluoridation, barriers to dentists’ involvement and some approaches that might influence dentists to promote water fluoridation more actively. Conclusions and Practice Implications Ongoing promotion of fluoridation by dentists is a key factor in ensuring sustained municipal water fluoridation. However, current undergraduate dental curricula do not adequately prepare dentists for this role, and continuing dental education may be insufficient to change clinical practice. Although smoking-cessation literature can shed some light on how to proceed, changing dentists’ practice behavior remains a largely unstudied topic. Dental associations are a key resource for dentists, providing information that can assist them in becoming advocates for water fluoridation. PMID:23283928

  15. [Exposure to fluorides from drinking water in the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Vázquez, R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

    2001-08-01

    Determine the fluoride content in all the wells that supply drinking water to the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico, in order to establish the population's degree of exposure. The fluoride content of the 126 wells that supply drinking water to the city of Aguascalientes was determined, using the SPADNS method, in accordance with two Mexican regulations, NMX-AA-77-1982 and NMX-014-SSAI-1993. Using that data, we created fluoride isopleth maps showing the distribution of fluoride concentrations in the water supplies for the city of Aguascalientes. We also estimated exposure doses for the city's inhabitants. The mean analysis uncertainty was 3.9%. Seventy-three wells had a fluoride concentration of" 1.5 mg/L, which was the maximum permissible value set by the Mexican standards then in effect. All the maximum exposure doses surpassed the minimum risk level set by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) of the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States of America. In the children under 1 year of age, even the minimum does was slightly higher than the ATSDR risk level. From estimating the fluoride exposure doses caused by water consumption in the city of Aguascalientes and comparing those doses with ones from other states in Mexico, we concluded that the fluoride intake in Aguascalientes represents a potential risk for inhabitants' health. The fluoride content of the city's drinking water should be reduced to 0.69 mg/L.

  16. Analysis of fluoride concentration in commercial bottled waters

    OpenAIRE

    BIZERRIL,Davi Oliveira; ALMEIDA, Janaína Rocha de Sousa; SALDANHA, Kátia de Góis Holanda; CABRAL FILHO,Ronaldo Emilio; Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate fluoride concentration in 500ml commercial brands of bottled water and compare it to the amount printed on the label. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted. Samples of nine different commercial brands of 500ml bottled water were collected at authorized distribution points in the city of Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, in 2013. Fluoride concentration was determined in duplicate using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The results were obtain...

  17. Fluoride exposure and reported learning disability diagnosis among Canadian children: Implications for community water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Amanda M; Quiñonez, Carlos; Hosein, F Shaun; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-09-14

    Recent studies have connected increased fluoride exposure with increased risk of neurodevelopmental-related outcomes, such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and lower IQ in children. Our primary objective was to examine the association between fluoride exposure and reported diagnosis of a learning disability among a population-based sample of Canadian children aged 3-12 years. We analyzed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Four measures of fluoride exposure were available: 1) urinary fluoride (μmol/L), 2) creatinine-adjusted urinary fluoride (μmol/mmol), 3) specific gravity-adjusted urinary fluoride (μmol/L), and 4) fluoride concentration of tap water (mg/L) (Cycle 3 only). Diagnosis of a learning disability (yes/no) was based on parental- or self-report. Associations were examined using logistic regression (where possible), unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. When Cycles 2 and 3 were examined separately, reported learning disability diagnosis was not significantly associated with any measure of fluoride exposure in unadjusted or adjusted models. When Cycles 2 and 3 were combined, a small but statistically significant effect was observed such that children with higher urinary fluoride had higher odds of having a reported learning disability in the adjusted model (p = 0.03). However, the association was not observed in models that used creatinine-adjusted urinary fluoride and specific gravity-adjusted urinary fluoride, which are believed to be more accurate measures due to their correction for urinary dilution. Overall, there did not appear to be a robust association between fluoride exposure and parental- or self-reported diagnosis of a learning disability among Canadian children.

  18. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  19. Examination of Reviews-Outcomes of Community Water Fluoridation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of Reviews-Outcomes of Community Water Fluoridation in Dental Caries Prevention. ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research ... The purpose of this paper is to examine the different reviews of the outcomes of fluoridation of community water in the prevention of dental caries in Cochrane ...

  20. The prevalence of fluorosis in children is associated with naturally occurring water fluoride concentration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo

    2013-09-01

    Fluorosis and dental caries in Mexican schoolchildren residing in areas with different water fluoride concentrations and receiving fluoridated salt. Garcia-Perez A, Irigoyen-Carnacho ME, Borges-Yanez A. Caries Res 2013;47(4):299-308. Rodrigo Mariño Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and fluoride concentration in drinking water? and Is there an association between the severity of fluorosis and dental caries experience in schoolchildren residing in two rural towns in Mexico (with water fluoride concentrations of 0.70 and 1.50 ppm) that also receive fluoridated salt? Government: National Council of Science and Technology (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, CONACYT) Other: Autonomous University, Xochimilco (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, UAM-X) TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Cross-sectional Level 3: Other evidence Not applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L. PMID:19440411

  2. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  3. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thippeswamy H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  4. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  5. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-02-26

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population.

  6. Heterocontrole da fluoretação da água de abastecimento público de Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil External control of fluoride levels in the public water supply in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti Toassi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar mensalmente e oficializar um programa de heterocontrole dos níveis de flúor na água de abastecimento público de Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil. O município foi dividido geograficamente em dez pontos e a coleta realizada de outubro de 2004 a setembro de 2005, em duplicata. Após a coleta, as amostras eram enviadas para o Laboratório de Vigilância Sanitária de Flúor da Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (Santa Catarina, que realizou as análises utilizando o método eletrométrico (Orion 920A/Eletrodo Orion 9609. Após doze meses, 45,8% das amostras de água coletadas apresentaram teores inadequados de flúor. Verificou-se uma elevada e contínua variabilidade nos resultados. Entre os pontos que apresentaram teores inadequados de flúor, houve predomínio daqueles com excesso de fluoretos (35,8%. Também houve um significativo número de unidades amostrais com uma concentração adequada de flúor (54,2%. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o heterocontrole em Lages é fundamental para a manutenção de um correto programa de fluoretação das águas de abastecimento público.The purpose of this study is a monthly assessment of fluoride levels in the public water supply in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This town was divided into ten regions, where water samples were collected from October 2004 to September 2005. Two samples were drawn from each region and sent to the Fluoride Health Surveillance Laboratory at Vale do Itajaí University for analysis through an electrometric method (Orion 920A/Orion Electrode 9609. After twelve months, 120 samples had been collected, demonstrating gaps in the fluoride levels and some points with excessive fluoride levels (35,8%. Several points with ideal fluoride concentrations (54.2% also appeared. These findings lead to the conclusion that external controls are required for monitoring fluoride levels in the public water supply in Lages.

  7. High resolution mapping of reticulated water fluoride in Western Australia: opportunities to improve oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bloushi, N S; Trolio, R; Kruger, E; Tennant, M

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water with an optimum fluoride concentration is a recognized effective method to reduce dental decay. In this study normal suppliers of drinking water in Western Australia provided map data regarding the distribution of their supplies and the locations of their test points. These data were collated into a single unified map of Western Australian water supplies and fluoride levels. It is clear that the effect of prevention in regionally isolated communities is significant as the cost of providing service is anywhere between 2 and 4 times higher than that in high density regions. The current study found that although a very significant proportion of the population has access to water with fluoride concentrations that would be caries protective, most of these are large urban centre based. Those with high burdens of dental disease are mostly residential in rural and remote areas where water is either not fluoridated, nor regulated, or low in fluoride. However, it is acknowledged that water fluoridation, for many reasons, is not always feasible in rural and remote communities, and preventive efforts through alternative sources of fluoride (e.g. toothpaste) should be considered, even if less effective at community level. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Use of bauxite from active Iranian mines for the removal of fluoride from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride plays an important role in bone and dentin mineralization; however, excess fluoride intake is harmful to mankind. Methods: This study evaluated the performance of bauxite from active Iranian mines in removing fluoride from drinking water. The effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and fluoride concentration on defluoridation and removal efficiency were determined. Kinetics and adsorption isotherms were studied. Fluoride levels were measured using SPADNS. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. Results: Bauxite from the Jajarm mine had the lowest adsorbency (20 g/L and required the shortest contact time (90 minutes to reach equilibrium compared with the ore from bauxite mines evaluated in another study which had greater efficiency rates in removing fluoride from drinking water (58.15%. The fluoride removal efficiency rates of the other bauxite mines were as follows: Mendon > Sadrabad > Khidabas > Khezri > Shahbalaghi > Tash > Biglar. Bauxite from Shomal-e Yazd, Hasanabad, and Shahid Nilchian mines could not achieve the required efficiency to remove fluoride from drinking water without initial preparation and modification. The removal efficiency rates of actual samples were much lower than the synthetic samples because of confounding factors. Conclusion: As a result of the low cost and abundant availability of bauxite and the fact that its use does not require a particular expertise or sophisticated technology, the removal efficiency of this adsorbent can be increased to desirable levels through the use of corrective methods such as heating, acidifying, particle crushing, or the mixing of two or more removal systems.

  9. Prevention and reversal of dental caries: role of low level fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, J D

    1999-02-01

    Dental caries is a bacterially based disease that progresses when acid produced by bacterial action on dietary fermentable carbohydrates diffuses into the tooth and dissolves the mineral, that is, demineralization. Pathological factors including acidogenic bacteria (mutans streptococci and lactobacilli), salivary dysfunction, and dietary carbohydrates are related to caries progression. Protective factors which include salivary calcium, phosphate and proteins, salivary flow, and fluoride in saliva can balance, prevent or reverse dental caries. Fluoride works primarily via topical mechanisms which include (1) inhibition of demineralization at the crystal surfaces inside the tooth, (2) enhancement of remineralization at the crystal surfaces (the resulting remineralized layer is very resistant to acid attack), and (3) inhibition of bacterial enzymes. Fluoride in drinking water and in fluoride-containing products reduces tooth decay via these mechanisms. Low but slightly elevated levels of fluoride in saliva and plaque provided from these sources help prevent and reverse caries by inhibiting demineralization and enhancing remineralization. The level of fluoride incorporated into dental mineral by systemic ingestion is insufficient to play a significant role in caries prevention. The effect of systemically ingested fluoride on caries is minimal. Fluoride "supplements" can be best used as a topical delivery system by sucking or chewing tablets or lozenges prior to ingestion.

  10. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO) process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  11. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Noroozi Karbasdehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO1 Reverse Osmosis. process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK. The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  12. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process

    OpenAIRE

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO)1 Reverse Osmosis. process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  13. Community water fluoridation on the Internet and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Aaron; Allukian, Myron

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, 95 percent of teens and 85 percent of adults use the Internet. Two social media outlets, Facebook and Twitter, reach more than 150 billion users. This study describes anti-fluoridation activity and dominance on the Internet and social media, both of which are community water fluoridation (CWF) information sources. Monthly website traffic to major fluoridation websites was determined from June 2011 to May 2012. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube fluoridation activity was categorized as "proCWF" or "anti-CWF." Twitter's anti-CWF tweets were further subcategorized by the argument used against CWF. Anti-CWF website traffic was found to exceed proCWF activity five- to sixty-fold. Searching "fluoride" and "fluoridation" on Facebook resulted in 88 to 100 percent anti-CWF groups and pages; "fluoridation" on Twitter and YouTube resulted in 64 percent anti-CWF tweets and 99 percent anti-CWF videos, respectively. "Cancer, " "useless, " and "poisonous" were the three major arguments used against fluoridation. Anti-fluoridation information significantly dominates the Internet and social media. Thousands of people are being misinformed daily about the safety, health, and economic benefits of fluoridation.

  14. The occurrence of fluoride in South African groundwater: A water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluoride data were obtained by extracting fluoride groundwater quality data from DWAF's Water Management Systems (WMS) database. STATISTICA and ARCVIEW were used to process the data. The dental fluorosis data were obtained from a field study conducted by the Department of Health. The degree of dental ...

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in drinking water using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sensitive spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in drinking water has been developed using aluminium complexes of triphenylmethane dyes (chrome azurol B and malachite green) as spectrophotometric reagents. The method allowed a reliable determination of fluoride in the range of 0.5–4.0 mg·l-1 for chrome ...

  16. Fluoride removal studies in water using natural materials : technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excess fluoride in water causes health hazards to the natural environment. The removal of fluoride was attempted using natural materials such as red soil, charcoal, brick, fly-ash and serpentine. Each material was set up in a column for a known volume and the defluoridation capacities of these materials were studied with ...

  17. Fluoride removal from water by zirconium (IV) doped chitosan bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This bio-composite was at par with commercial alumina to mitigate water fluoride limit up to 1 to 1.5 mg/L. Effect of parameters namely pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial fluoride concentration were studied in batch scale. Kinetic data showed a rapid adsorption, indicated practicable operations in packed column.

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in drinking water using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... A sensitive spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in drinking water has been developed using aluminium complexes of triphenylmethane dyes (chrome azurol B and malachite green) as spectrophotometric reagents. The method allowed a reliable determination of fluoride in the range of 0.5–4.0 ...

  19. Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Central Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikbal; Arif, Mohd; Hussain, Jakir

    2012-08-01

    Fluoride concentration in groundwater sources used as major drinking water source in rural area of block Nawa (Nagaur District), Rajasthan was examined and the toxic effects by intake of excess fluoride on rural habitants were studied. In block 13, habitations (30%) were found to have fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg/l (viz. maximum desirable limit of Indian drinking water standards IS 10500, 1999). In five habitations (11%), fluoride concentration in groundwater is at toxic level (viz. above 3.0 mg/l). The maximum fluoride concentration in the block is 5.91 mg/l from Sirsi village. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water, determined by World Health Organization or by Bureau of Indian Standards, the groundwater of about 13 habitations of the studied sites is unfit for drinking purposes. Due to the higher fluoride level in drinking water, several cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis have appeared at alarming rate in this region. There is an instant need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent the population from fluorosis. Groundwater sources of block Nawa can be used for drinking after an effective treatment in absence of other safe source. The evaluation of various defluoridation methods on the basis of social and economical structure of India reveals that the clay pot chip, activated alumina adsorption, and Nalgonda techniques are the most promising.

  20. Fluoride geochemistry of thermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. Aqueous fluoride speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Blaine, McCleskey R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal water samples from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have a wide range of pH (1–10), temperature, and high concentrations of fluoride (up to 50 mg/l). High fluoride concentrations are found in waters with field pH higher than 6 (except those in Crater Hills) and temperatures higher than 50 °C based on data from more than 750 water samples covering most thermal areas in YNP from 1975 to 2008. In this study, more than 140 water samples from YNP collected in 2006–2009 were analyzed for free-fluoride activity by ion-selective electrode (ISE) method as an independent check on the reliability of fluoride speciation calculations. The free to total fluoride concentration ratio ranged from 99% at high pH. The wide range in fluoride activity can be explained by strong complexing with H+ and Al3+ under acidic conditions and lack of complexing under basic conditions. Differences between the free-fluoride activities calculated with the WATEQ4F code and those measured by ISE were within 0.3–30% for more than 90% of samples at or above 10−6 molar, providing corroboration for chemical speciation models for a wide range of pH and chemistry of YNP thermal waters. Calculated speciation results show that free fluoride, F−, and major complexes (HF(aq)0">HF(aq)0, AlF2+, AlF2+">AlF2+and AlF30">AlF30) account for more than 95% of total fluoride. Occasionally, some complex species like AlF4-">AlF4-, FeF2+, FeF2+">FeF2+, MgF+ and BF2(OH)2-">BF2(OH)2- may comprise 1–10% when the concentrations of the appropriate components are high. According to the simulation results by PHREEQC and calculated results, the ratio of main fluoride species to total fluoride varies as a function of pH and the concentrations and ratios of F and Al.

  1. Estimation of fluoride concentration in drinking water and common beverages in United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Tarun; Abu Fanas, Salem; Akbar, Madiha; Eddin, Jamal; Adnan, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    To assess fluoride concentration in drinking water which include tap water of 4 emirates - Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and Ajman plus bottled water, commonly available soft drinks & juices in United Arab Emirates. Five different samples of tap water collected from each of the four emirates of UAE: Ajman, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi and Dubai; twenty-two brands of bottled water and fifteen brands of popular cold beverages, purchased from different supermarkets in U.A.E were tested using ion selective electrode method and the fluoride concentration was determined. The mean fluoride content of tap water samples was 0.14 mg F/L with a range of 0.04-0.3 mg F/L; with Ajman tap water samples showing the highest mean fluoride content of 0.3 mg F/L. The mean fluoride content for both bottled drinking water and beverages was 0.07 mg F/L with a range of 0.02-0.50 mg F/L and 0.04-0.1 mg F/L respectively. Majority (68.2%) of the bottled water are produced locally within U.A.E while a few (31.8%) are imported. The tap water, bottled water and beverages available in U.A.E show varying concentrations of fluoride, however none showed the optimal level necessary to prevent dental caries. Dental professionals in U.A.E should be aware of the fluoride concentrations before prescribing fluoride supplements to children.

  2. Fluoride: A naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, C Joon; Lye, Han Rui; Ziegler, Alan D; Wood, Spencer H; Kongpun, Chatpat; Rajchagool, Sunsanee

    2016-03-01

    In Northern Thailand, incidences of fluorosis resulting from the consumption of high-fluoride drinking-water have been documented. In this study, we mapped the high-fluoride endemic areas and described the relevant transport processes of fluoride in enriched waters in the provinces of Chiang Mai and Lamphun. Over one thousand surface and sub-surface water samples including a total of 995 collected from shallow (depth: ≤ 30 m) and deep (> 30 m) wells were analysed from two unconnected high-fluoride endemic areas. At the Chiang Mai site, 31% of the shallow wells contained hazardous levels (≥ 1.5 mg/L) of fluoride, compared with the 18% observed in the deep wells. However, at the Lamphun site, more deep wells (35%) contained water with at least 1.5mg/L fluoride compared with the shallow wells (7%). At the Chiang Mai site, the high-fluoride waters originate from a nearby geothermal field. Fluoride-rich geothermal waters are distributed across the area following natural hydrological pathways of surface and sub-surface water flow. At the Lamphun site, a well-defined, curvilinear high-fluoride anomalous zone, resembling that of the nearby conspicuous Mae Tha Fault, was identified. This similarity provides evidence of the existence of an unmapped, blind fault as well as its likely association to a geogenic source (biotite-granite) of fluoride related to the faulted zone. Excessive abstraction of ground water resources may also have affected the distribution and concentration of fluoride at both sites. The distribution of these high-fluoride waters is influenced by a myriad of complex natural and anthropogenic processes which thus created a challenge for the management of water resources for safe consumption in affected areas. The notion of clean and safe drinking water can be found in deeper aquifers is not necessarily true. Groundwater at any depth should always be tested before the construction of wells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between fluoride intake in Serbian children living in two areas with different natural levels of fluorides and occurrence of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Antonijevic, Biljana; Lekic, Charles P; Carevic, Momir

    2009-06-01

    The amount of fluoride present naturally in drinking water is highly variable, being dependent upon the individual geological environment from which the water is obtained. Chronic exposure to exceeding fluoride doses induces set of toxic effects, i.e. fluorosis. The aim of this study was to examine fluoride content in water and in the most frequently used vegetables, potato and bean, grown in two different Serbian regions, i.e. control region (Valjevo) and high naturally occurring fluoride region (Vranjska Banja), and moreover, to correlate estimated daily intake with dental fluorosis occurrence as an adverse effect of fluoride exposure of schoolchildren in Serbia. Study confirmed significant difference in fluoride content in water, potato and bean, consumed by 12-year-old children in two investigated municipalities. Results of the study indicated positive and statistically significant correlation between daily intake of fluoride and dental fluorosis level in the fluorotic municipality of Vranjska Banja (r = 0.61; p = 0.000017). Obtained relationship could be evaluated by means of binary logistic regression analysis, whereas probability for fluorosis occurrence could be predicted using the following equation: fluorosis occurence (%) = (34.852 x Cwater -12.644 x Cpotato - 9.362 x Cbean - 7.673) x 100 (Chi-Square (3) = 33.033; p < 0.001).

  4. Readying Community Water Fluoridation Advocates through Training, Surveillance, and Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veschusio, C; Jones, M K; Mercer, J; Martin, A B

    2017-11-10

    This paper describes the Community Water Fluoridation Advocacy Training Project that was designed to develop networks of community water fluoridation advocates in rural communities. The South Carolina (SC) Department of Health and Environmental Control Division of Oral Health staff and the SC Dental Association were responsible for developing and facilitating the training sessions for key policy influencers, which included medical and dental providers, early childhood educators, and water system operators and managers. Findings from the post-training survey indicate that participants increased their knowledge and skills to discuss the impact of water fluoridation on the dental health of community residents. Participants identified a need for online access to water fluoridation education and advocacy materials. Dental public health competencies illustrated: communication and collaboration with groups and individuals, and advocate, implement and evaluate public health policy, legislation and regulations. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  5. Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. It is taken up by teeth and helps to strengthen ... and block the cavity-forming action of bacteria. Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose ...

  6. "Borderline" fluorotic region in Serbia: correlations among fluoride in drinking water, biomarkers of exposure and dental fluorosis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Evica; Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Milicevic, Nemanja; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Carevic, Momir; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2016-06-01

    This study explores relation between dental fluorosis occurrence in schoolchildren, residents of Ritopek, a small local community near Belgrade, and fluoride exposure via drinking water. Additionally, fluoride levels were determined in children's urine and hair samples, and efforts were made to correlate them with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence were examined in a total of 52 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years (29 boys and 23 girls). Fluoride levels in three types of samples were analyzed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Results showed high prevalence of dental fluorosis (34.6 %) and low prevalence of dental caries (23.1 %, mean DMFT 0.96) among children exposed to wide range of water fluoride levels (0.11-4.14 mg/L, n = 27). About 11 % of water samples exceeded 1.5 mg/L, a drinking-water quality guideline value for fluoride given by the World Health Organization (2006). Fluoride levels in urine and hair samples ranged between 0.07-2.59 (n = 48) and 1.07-19.83 mg/L (n = 33), respectively. Severity of dental fluorosis was positively and linearly correlated with fluoride levels in drinking water (r = 0.79). Fluoride levels in urine and hair were strongly and positively correlated with levels in drinking water (r = 0.92 and 0.94, respectively). Fluoride levels in hair samples appeared to be a potentially promising biomarker of fluoride intake via drinking water on one hand, and severity of dental fluorosis on the other hand. Based on community fluorosis index value of 0.58, dental fluorosis revealed in Ritopek can be considered as "borderline" public health issue.

  7. The fractional urinary fluoride excretion of adults consuming naturally and artificially fluoridated water and the influence of water hardness: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A; Cabezas, L; Anabalón, M; Rugg-Gunn, A

    2009-09-01

    To assess whether there was any significant difference in the average fractional urinary fluoride excretion (FUFE) values among adults consuming (NaF) fluoridated Ca-free water (reference water), naturally fluoridated hard water and an artificially (H2SiF6) fluoridated soft water. Sixty adult females (N=20 for each treatment) participated in this randomized, double-blind trial. The experimental design of this study provided an indirect estimation of the fluoride absorption in different types of water through the assessment of the fractional urinary fluoride excretion of volunteers. Average daily FUFE values (daily amount of fluoride excreted in urine/daily total fluoride intake) were not significantly different between the three treatments (Kruskal-Wallis; p = 0.62). The average 24-hour FUFE value (n=60) was 0.69; 95% C.I. 0.65-0.73. The results of this study suggest that the absorption of fluoride is not affected by water hardness.

  8. Contemporary multilevel analysis of the effectiveness of water fluoridation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc; Spencer, A John

    2015-02-01

    Water fluoridation was extended in Queensland, Australia, across 2009-2011. A research program was commenced to inform the rationale for and the outcome of this program, to estimate the effectiveness of water fluoridation in preventing caries and to predict changes in caries experience as a result of the extension of fluoridation. Queensland children were selected through a stratified random sample selection in 2010-2012. Oral epidemiological examinations provided individual-level outcomes for decayed, missing or filled primary or permanent tooth surfaces: dmfs (among 5-8-year-olds) and DMFS (9-14-year-olds). Explanatory factors at the individual-level, school-level and area-level fluoridation status were derived. Data were weighted to represent the population. Three-level multilevel multivariable models were sequentially specified for negative binomial distribution of dmfs/DMFS to estimate rate ratios (RR). The effectiveness of area-level water fluoridation was evaluated in the full models controlling for other factors. Data from 2,214 5-8 year-olds and 3,186 9-14 year-olds from 207 schools in 16 areas were analysed. Queensland's average dmfs was 4.23 and DMFS 1.47. The lowest levels of dental caries were observed in long-term fluoridated Townsville. In the full models, Townsville children had significantly lower caries experience (RR for dmfs: 0.61 (95%CI: 0.44-0.82); RR for DMFS 0.60 (95%CI: 0.42-0.88)) compared with children in non-fluoridated areas. Comparison of caries experience of children at the time of the extension of water fluoridation supported the rationale for this population health measure. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Lithological Influences on Occurrence of High-Fluoride Waters in The Central Kenya Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaka, L. A.; Musolff, A.; Mulch, A.; Olago, D.; Odada, E. O.

    2013-12-01

    Within the East African rift, groundwater recharge results from the complex interplay of geology, land cover, geomorphology, climate and on going volcano-tectonic processes across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The interrelationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, reliability and quality. The hydrochemical evolution of the waters is further complex due to the different climatic regimes and geothermal processes going on in this area. High fluoridic waters within the rift have been reported by few studies, while dental fluorosis is high among the inhabitants of the rift. The natural sources of fluoride in waters can be from weathering of fluorine bearing minerals in rocks, volcanic or fumarolic activities. Fluoride concentration in water depends on a number of factors including pH, temperature, time of water-rock formation contact and geochemical processes. Knowledge of the sources and dispersion of fluoride in both surface and groundwaters within the central Kenya rift and seasonal variations between wet and dry seasons is still poor. The Central Kenya rift is marked by active tectonics, volcanic activity and fumarolic activity, the rocks are majorly volcanics: rhyolites, tuffs, basalts, phonolites, ashes and agglomerates some are highly fractured. Major NW-SE faults bound the rift escarpment while the rift floor is marked by N-S striking faults We combine petrographic, hydrochemistry and structural information to determine the sources and enrichment pathways of high fluoridic waters within the Naivasha catchment. A total of 120 water samples for both the dry season (January-February2012) and after wet season (June-July 2013) from springs, rivers, lakes, hand dug wells, fumaroles and boreholes within the Naivasha catchment are collected and analysed for fluoride, physicochemical parameters and stable isotopes (δ2 H, δ18 O) in order to determine the origin and evolution of the waters. Additionally, 30 soil and

  10. Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Simone T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian municipalities. Methods The information on the process of water fluoridation in the municipalities and in the macro region in which each municipality is located was obtained from the national epidemiological survey which was concluded in 2003. The data relating to the human development index at municipal level (HDI-M and access to mains water came from the Brazilian Human Development Atlas, whilst the size of the population was obtained from a governmental source. The Fisher exact test (P Results The results clearly showed that there is a relationship between municipalities with larger populations, located in more socio-economically advantaged regions and with better HDI-M, and where fluoridation is both present and has been implemented for a longer period of time (started before 1990. Conclusion The findings suggest that the aim of treating water with fluoride may not be being adequately achieved, requiring more effective strategies so that access to this measure can be expanded equitably.

  11. Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissouma, Wiem; Hakami, Othman; Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    The presence of fluoride in drinking water is known to reduce dental cavities among consumers, but an excessive intake of this anion might leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study reports a complete survey of the fluoridated tap water taken from 100 water consumption points in Tunisia. The fluoride concentrations in tap water were between 0 and 2.4 mg L(-1). Risk assessment of Fluoride exposure was assessed depending on the age of consumers using a four-step method: hazard identification, toxicity reference values selection (TRVs), daily exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Our findings suggest that approximately 75% of the Tunisian population is at risk for dental decay, 25% have a potential dental fluorosis risk, and 20% might have a skeletal fluorosis risk according to the limits of fluoride in drinking water recommended by WHO. More investigations are recommended to assess the exposure risk of fluoride in other sources of drinking water such as bottled water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Dental fluorosis and dental caries prevalence in Senegalese children living in a high-fluoride area and consuming a poor fluoridated drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, M; Diawara, C K; Ndiaye, K R; Yam, A A

    2008-01-01

    The role of fluoride in dental caries prevention when applied at optimal levels is well established. However, ingestion of excessive fluoride during tooth development can cause structural changes in tooth enamel named fluorosis. At Gandiaye a city situated in the Senegalese endemic fluorosis area, the main water supply provided by a unique drilling with highly fluoridated water has broken down in 1996. Since then, the drinking water comes from wells which have poor levels of fluorides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and tooth decays in children born and reared continuously at Gandiaye after the stoppage of the drills and who were drinking water well. Water samples were collected from two wells and analyzed using a spectrometer and a specific fluoride electrode. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis was evaluated according to Dean's method, and the caries experience was measured using the DMF teeth index in 150 children aged from 6 to 8 years. The fluoride levels in the water well were comprised between 0.03 ppm and 0.09 ppm according to the method used. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 39.33% with the predominance of the very low to low fluorosis forms. The tooth decay prevalence was 48.66% and the mean DMF tooth was 0.98. A significant relationship was found between the dental fluorosis and the low caries levels. A low to moderate dental fluorosis associated with a significant decrease of caries prevalence was found in children living in a high-fluoride area and consuming poorly fluorided water.

  13. Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Saurabh [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands); Krishnan, Sunderrajan [INREM Foundation (India); Rajkumar, Samuel; Halery, Nischal; Balkunde, Pradeep [Akvo Foundation (Netherlands)

    2016-05-01

    In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0–2 mg l{sup −1}. Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field. - Highlights: • Fluoride is an inorganic pollutant in ground water, affecting human health. • A colorimetric method for measurement of fluoride in drinking water with smartphone • Measurement is by mixing water with zirconyl xylenol orange complex reagent. • Results are comparable with laboratory-based ion selective fluoride electrode method.

  14. Systemic effect of water fluoridation on dental caries prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jae; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Deok-Young; Jung, Se-Hwan; Lee, Heung-Soo; Paik, Dai-Il; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the systemic effect of water fluoridation on dental caries prevalence and experience in Cheongju, South Korea, where water fluoridation ceased 7 years previously. A cross-sectional survey was employed at two schools where water fluoridation had ceased (WF-ceased area) and at two schools where the water had never been fluoridated (non-WF area). The schools in the non-WF area were of a similar population size to the schools in the WF-ceased area. Children of three age groups were examined in both areas: aged 6 (n = 505), 8 (n = 513), and 11 years (n = 467). The differences in the mean number of decayed or filled primary teeth (dft) and the mean number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) scores between areas after adjusting for oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors were analyzed by a Poisson regression model. The regression model showed that the DMFT ratio for children aged 11 years in the WF-ceased area was 0.581 (95% CI 0.450-0.751). In contrast, the dft ratio for age 6 in the WF-ceased area was 1.158 (95% CI 1.004-1.335). Only the DMFT ratio for age 8 (0.924, 95% CI 0.625-1.368) was not significant. While 6-year-old children who had not ingested fluoridated water showed higher dft in the WF-ceased area than in the non-WF area, 11-year-old children in the WF-ceased area who had ingested fluoridated water for approximately 4 years after birth showed significantly lower DMFT than those in the non-WF area. This suggests that the systemic effect of fluoride intake through water fluoridation could be important for the prevention of dental caries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  16. Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaratne, Ranjith W

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka's CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in drinking water and in the locally grown food in the affected areas are the culprits of CKD in Sri Lanka. Fluoride excretion rate is considerably lower in children than adults, leading to renal damage of children living in areas with high fluoride. Adults who had renal damage due to fluoride in childhood are vulnerable to CKD with continued consumption of water from the same source. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. High content of fluoride in groundwater paves the way to excess fluoride in local food crops, consequently adding more fluoride to the systems of the consumers. People who work outdoors for prolonged periods consume excess water and tea, and are subjected to additional doses of fluoride in their system. In the mid-1980s, the increase in water table levels of the affected areas due to new irrigation projects paved the way to adding more fluorides to their system through drinking water and locally grown foods.

  17. An assessment of the relationship between excess fluoride intake from drinking water and essential hypertension in adults residing in fluoride endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Li, Bingyun; Li, Mang; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-01-15

    In this study, the relationships between high water fluoride exposure and essential hypertension as well as plasma ET-1 levels were investigated. A total of 487 residents aged 40 to 75 were randomly recruited from eight villages in Zhaozhou County from Heilongjiang Province in China and were divided into 4 groups according to the concentrations of fluoride in their water. Consumption levels of drinking water fluoride for normal, mild, moderate, and high exposure groups were 0.84±0.26 mg/L, 1.55±0.22 mg/L, 2.49±0.30 mg/L, and 4.06±1.15 mg/L, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension in each group was 20.16%, 24.54%, 32.30%, and 49.23%, respectively. There were significant differences between all the groups; namely, with the increase in water fluoride concentrations, the risk of essential hypertension in adults grows in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant differences were observed in the plasma ET-1 levels between the different groups (Pwater fluoride concentrations (F(-)≥3.01 mg/L, OR(4/1)=2.84), age (OR(3/1)=2.63), and BMI (OR(2/1)=2.40, OR(3/1)=6.03) were closely associated with essential hypertension. In other words, the study not only confirmed the relationship between excess fluoride intake and essential hypertension in adults, but it also demonstrated that high levels of fluoride exposure in drinking water could increase plasma ET-1 levels in subjects living in fluoride endemic areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Drinking water fluoridation and oral health inequities in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; Emery, J C Herbert

    2012-02-01

    One argument made in favour of drinking water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on oral health. We examined the association between exposure to fluoridation and oral health inequities among Canadian children.PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND INTERVENTION: We analyzed data from 1,017 children aged 6-11 from Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey that included a clinic oral health examination and a household interview. The outcome measure was a count of the number of decayed, missing (because of caries or periodontal disease) or filled teeth, either deciduous or permanent (dmftDMFT). Data were analyzed using linear (ordinary least squares) and multinomial logistic regression; we also computed the concentration index for education-related inequity in oral health. Water fluoridation status (the intervention) was assigned on the basis of the site location of data collection. Fluoridation was associated with better oral health (fewer dmftDMFT), adjusting for socio-economic and behavioural variables, and the effect was particularly strong for more severe oral health problems (three or more dmftDMFT). The effect of fluoridation on dmftDMFT was observed across income and education categories but appeared especially pronounced in lower education and higher income adequacy households. dmftDMFT were found to be disproportionately concentrated in lower-education households, though this did not vary by fluoridation status. The robust main effect of fluoridation on dmftDMFT and the beneficial effect across socio-economic groups support fluoridation as a beneficial and justifiable population health intervention. Fluoridation was equitable in the sense that its benefits were particularly apparent in those groups with the poorest oral health profiles, though the nature of the findings prompts consideration of the values underlying the judgement of health equity.

  19. Fluoride removal from water by zirconium (IV) doped chitosan bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    sorbents for defluoridation below stringent level 1.5 mg/L, displayed low to moderate adsorption capacity at ... of the fluorides bearing minerals are associated with the rocks of ... chemical processing, aluminum making, electroplating also act ...

  20. [Ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, K P

    2009-05-01

    The article discusses two ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk. First, it considers whether fluoridation contradicts the right of self-determination. Second, it discusses the chances and risks of fluoridation. The answer to the first question depends on whether people can choose other options. Freedom of choice is not simply the right to choose between different options. It is a right which defends the moral integrity of persons. Nobody should be coerced to eat or drink something which he or she rejects morally. In the political sphere, personal rights of persons can be restricted if and only if it is necessary, if there is a public interest, and if the restriction of the right is reasonable. Regarding fluoridation, even in the best risk-chance scenario, some persons have to expect a net harm. Therefore, the reasoning in favor of fluoridation has to have a specific purpose. The proclaimed reasoning is that fluoridation will benefit the worst off and is therefore a demand of justice. But this argument fails as there are other options to benefit the worst off. Even in the best risk-chance scenario, only one option is morally permissible: the fluoridation of salt, which respects the freedom of choice.

  1. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  2. Data on fluoride concentration levels in semi-arid region of Medak, Telangana, South India

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    Adimalla Narsimha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization recommendation, the optimal fluoride concentration levels in drinking water have to be in the range of 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L since this permissible range is essential for normal mineralization of bones and teeth as well as for dental enamel formation in human's body Bell and budwig, 1970; Adimalla and Venkatayogi, 2017; Narsimha and Sudarshan, 2013, 2016; 2017 [1,2,4,5,6]. If continues intake of high fluoride (>1.5 water can severely cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. The investigated area people majorly depend on groundwater for drinking purposes and fluoride concentration ranged from 0.2 to 7.4 mg/L with mean concentration of 2.7 mg/L and data was compared with WHO guidelines for drinking purposes. Overall, data reveals that the 57% of groundwater samples data was not safe for drinking purposes. Therefore, distribution of fluoride in the groundwater of Medak region in Telangana was suggested to intake drinking water, which are below level of fluoride concentration in the groundwater and take care about health implications.

  3. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review.

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    Goodarzi, Fatemeh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Parvizishad, Mina; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Regarding the lack of comprehensive systematic review on the efficacy of water fluoridation and prevalence of dental fluorosis, the aim of the current research was to systematically study the prevalence of dental fluorosis at different levels of water fluoride in the world and lay emphasis on the amount of fluoride in drinking water. Methods. Studies were searched in PubMed, Scopus, SID, and IranMedex, with regard to inclusion criteria. Study validity was assessed with some checklists, and analyses were performed to ascertain the prevalence of dental fluorosis among individuals categorized in age groups. Results. Investigation of the heterogeneity and analysis of the subgroups revealed that in the 6-18 year age group, when water fluoride level was less than 0.7 ppm and there was exposure to water fluoride in the first 6-8 years of life, no significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in this subgroup. Thus, the pooled estimation of dental fluorosis prevalence in this subgroup was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.5-18.3%). Furthermore, meta-regression indicated that the exposure time to fluoride in drinking water, or exposure to fluoride in supplements, diets, air, etc as well as the quality of studies had a significant relation to the difference in the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion. The results revealed no heterogeneity in just 2 subgroups, and the results of subgroups could be pooled in them. Furthermore, the number of studies included in this review considerably decreased by considering all the detected confounding factors, whereas other similar systematic reviews mentioned at most 2 factors.

  4. Fluoride concentration in community water and bottled drinking water: a dilemma today.

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    Dhingra, S; Marya, C M; Jnaneswar, A; Kumar, H

    2013-01-01

    Because of the potential for contamination of municipal water supplies, people appear to be turning to alternative sources for their pure drinking water. The present study analyzed the fluoride concentration in community water and bottled drinking water sold in Faridabad city. A comparative evaluation of fluoride content in community water supply and bottled drinking water was done using ion-selective electrode method. The community water samples were collected from six different areas (i.e. north zone, south zone, east zone, west zone and central zone) in the city from public health water supply taps while bottled drinking water samples were randomly picked from grocery shops or supermarkets. The fluoride concentration in the community water supply in this study ranges from 0.11 to 0.26 mg/L with mean fluoride concentration of 0.17 mg/L. The mean concentration of fluoride in bottled drinking water was 0.06 mg/L. The differences observed between mean of two water samples was statistically significant. The results obtained from the present study clearly state that the fluoride concentration was insufficient in community water supply from all the areas and also was deficient in bottled drinking water sold in Faridabad city. So, Alternative sources of fluorides should be supplemented for optimal dental benefits from the use of fluoride.

  5. New Zealand dentists' views on community water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, S M; Dawson, S K; Thomson, W M

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether New Zealand general dental practitioners support community water fluoridation (CWF), and to gauge their opinions on its possible systemic side-effects. An online survey was conducted in 2010, involving the 1174 general dental practitioners who had email addresses on the Dental Register and were contactable in New Zealand. A total of 465 dentists (39.6%) participated. Most practitioners (93.5%) reported supporting community water fluoridation; the other 6.5% either were unsure or did not support it. Higher proportions of more recent graduates supported CWF. Some 85.6% of practitioners thought that drinking fluoridated water was a harmless way to prevent dental caries, but 6.2% felt that fluoridated water may cause other health problems. There were no systematic differences by sociodemographic and practice characteristics, except that a higher proportion of males and more experienced practitioners reported being confident in discussing CWF-related issues. Most New Zealand dental practitioners support community water fluoridation, although a very small proportion believe that it is harmful and/or does not prevent caries.

  6. Effects of tannin-fluoride and milk-fluoride mixture on human enamel erosion from inappropriately chlorinated pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonviriya, Sumalee; Tannukit, Sissada; Jitpukdeebodintra, Suwanna

    2017-01-01

    This in vitro study aimed to investigate the efficacy of tannin-fluoride and milk-fluoride mixtures on human enamel erosion after exposure to inappropriately chlorinated pool water. Enamel specimens were immersed in swimming pool water (pH 2.7) for 30 min and in each test reagent for 4 min once a day for 60 consecutive days (group I: control, group II: tannin-fluoride, group III: milk-fluoride, group IV: tannin-fluoride before and milk-fluoride after erosive challenge, and group V: milk containing tannin-fluoride before and after erosive exposure). Surface microhardness was assessed on days 0, 30, and 60. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were performed after treatment of samples for 60 days. Surface microhardness of experimental groups was ranked as follows: group III > group IV-group V > group II > group I (P EPMA profiles showed decrease of phosphorus and increase of fluoride content in groups II and IV. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with fluoridated milk with or without tannin-fluoride has protective effects against enamel erosion caused by low-pH swimming pool water.

  7. Analysis of Ground Water Fluoride Content and its Association with Prevalence of Fluorosis in Zarand/Kerman: (Using GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Malek Mohammadi; R, Derakhshani; M, Tavallaie; M, Raoof; N, Hasheminejad; Aa, Haghdoost

    2017-06-01

    The concentration of fluoride in water is usually higher in areas around the coal mines. Zarand region in the south-east of Iran is known for its coal mines. Some studies have shown the high prevalence of fluorosis and some studies reported high levels of fluoride in the region. This study aimed to use Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess the relationship between water fluoride content and the prevalence of fluorosis and its spatial distribution in Zarand region. This cross-sectional study aimed to recruit 550 people aged 7-40 years in Zarand. Dental examination for fluorosis was conducted based on the Dean's Index. The level of fluoride in the water was determined in samples of water taken from 35 areas. Information on fluorosis and fluoride content was mapped on GIS. Most participants lived in rural areas (87.25%) and had an educational status of high school level (66%). About 23% of the examined people had normal teeth, 10% had severe and 67% had mild to moderate fluorosis. Distribution of severe fluorosis was higher in areas with higher levels of fluoride in the water according to GIS map. GIS map clearly showed a positive relationship between the prevalence and severity of fluorosis with the level of fluoride in water in Zarand. The GIS analysis may be useful in the analysis of other oral conditions.

  8. Analysis of Ground Water Fluoride Content and its Association with Prevalence of Fluorosis in Zarand/Kerman: (Using GIS

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    Derakhshani R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Statement of Problem: The concentration of fluoride in water is usually higher in areas around the coal mines. Zarand region in the south-east of Iran is known for its coal mines. Some studies have shown the high prevalence of fluorosis and some studies reported high levels of fluoride in the region. Objectives: This study aimed to use Geographic Information System (GIS to assess the relationship between water fluoride content and the prevalence of fluorosis and its spatial distribution in Zarand region. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to recruit 550 people aged 7-40 years in Zarand. Dental examination for fluorosis was conducted based on the Dean’s Index. The level of fluoride in the water was determined in samples of water taken from 35 areas. Information on fluorosis and fluoride content was mapped on GIS. Results: Most participants lived in rural areas (87.25% and had an educational status of high school level (66%. About 23% of the examined people had normal teeth, 10% had severe and 67% had mild to moderate fluorosis. Distribution of severe fluorosis was higher in areas with higher levels of fluoride in the water according to GIS map. Conclusions: GIS map clearly showed a positive relationship between the prevalence and severity of fluorosis with the level of fluoride in water in Zarand. The GIS analysis may be useful in the analysis of other oral conditions.

  9. Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children′s intelligence in high and low fluoride areas of Delhi

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    Hansa Kundu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride is one of the indispensable elements for the living being. However, the intake of F above the threshold level can affect the central nervous system even before causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of fluoride in drinking water on the intelligence quotient (IQ of 8-12 years old school going children residing in high and low Fluoride (F areas of Delhi. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school children were selected, 100 from low F area and 100 from high F area. The IQ of the children was assessed using Ravens Standardized Progressive Matrices Test. Information for each child′s sociodemographic data, mother′s diet during pregnancy, duration of residency in the village, source of drinking water, and duration of drinking water from the source was entered on a specially designed proforma from mothers of children. Height and weight were also recorded for each child to assess the nutritional status. Independent t-test and Chi-square test was used to compare mean IQ scores in high and low fluoridated areas. Pearson′s correlation and multivariate linear regression were used to appraise the issue of all the study variables on IQ. Results: Comparison of mean IQ of children in both high (76.20 ± 19.10 and low F (85.80 ± 18.85 areas showed a significant difference (P = 0.013. Multiple regression analysis between child IQ and all other independent variables revealed that mother′s diet during pregnancy (P = 0.001 along with F in drinking water (P = 0.017 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child IQ variance (r2 = 0.417 without interaction with other variables. Conclusion: Fluoride in the drinking water was significantly related with the IQ of children. Along with fluoride, mother′s diet during pregnancy was also found to be significantly related with IQ of children. Researches in the same field are further advocated with large sample size and over a

  10. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey.

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    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10.

  11. Story of Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fluoride > The Story of Fluoridation The Story of Fluoridation Main Content It started as an observation, that ... fluoridate its drinking water.The Grand Rapids water fluoridation study was originally sponsored by the U.S. Surgeon ...

  12. The economic value of Quebec's water fluoridation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouaket, Eric; Brousselle, Astrid; Fansi, Alvine; Dionne, Pierre Alexandre; Bertrand, Elise; Fortin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a major public health problem worldwide, with very significant deleterious consequences for many people. The available data are alarming in Canada and the province of Quebec. The water fluoridation program has been shown to be the most effective means of preventing caries and reducing oral health inequalities. This article analyzes the cost-effectiveness of Quebec's water fluoridation program to provide decision-makers with economic information for assessing its usefulness. An approach adapted from economic evaluation was used to: (1) build a logic model for Quebec's water fluoridation program; (2) determine its implementation cost; and (3) analyze its cost-effectiveness. Documentary analysis was used to build the logic model. Program cost was calculated using data from 13 municipalities that adopted fluoridation between 2002 and 2010 and two that received only infrastructure grants. Other sources were used to collect demographic data and calculate costs for caries treatment including costs associated with travel and lost productivity. The analyses showed the water fluoridation program was cost-effective even with a conservatively estimated 1 % reduction in dental caries. The benefit-cost ratio indicated that, at an expected average effectiveness of 30 % caries reduction, one dollar invested in the program saved $71.05-$82.83 per Quebec's inhabitant in dental costs (in 2010) or more than $560 million for the State and taxpayers. The results showed that the drinking-water fluoridation program produced substantial savings. Public health decision-makers could develop economic arguments to support wide deployment of this population-based intervention whose efficacy and safety have been demonstrated and acknowledged.

  13. Removal of excess fluoride from water by aluminum hydroxide

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    Beneberu Shimelis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of untreated hydrated alumina (UHA and thermally treated hydrated alumina (THA obtained from hydrolysis of locally manufactured aluminum sulfate to remove fluoride from aqueous solution has been investigated in batch and continuous operation. The parameters considered were contact time and adsorbent dose, thermal pre-treatment of adsorbent, initial fluoride concentration and pH. The adsorption was rapid during the initial 20 min, but significant amount (> 90 % was removed within one hour at an optimum adsorbent dose of 1.6 g/L for initial F- concentration of 20 mg/L. The removal efficiency of F was increased with adsorbent dosage. Fluoride adsorption efficiencies increase with increase in the thermal treatment temperature up to 200 °C, but further increase in temperature resulted in decreased removal efficiency. For application in continuous packed bed column, treatment at 300 °C was taken as an optimum value. Fluoride adsorption capacity increases linearly with increase in F- concentration. High defluoridation efficiency was achieved using both UHA and THA within a pH range of 4.0 to 9.0. The adsorption data at ambient pH were well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model with a minimum capacity of 23.7 mg F-/g and 7.0 mg F-/g for THA and UHA, respectively. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption reaction of fluoride removal by hydrated alumina can be well described by a pseudo-second-order rate equation. Continuous packed bed column experiment using THA indicated that 4.5 g of THA could treat 6 L of water containing 20 mg/L fluoride before breakthrough. Hence, both UHA and THA can be applied for the treatment of water with high fluoride content.

  14. Effects of fluoride in drinking water on health of deciduous teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Duška; Stojšin Ivana

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION High incidence of decayed deciduous teeth, as well as lack of adequate therapy, makes tooth decay prevention very important. One of the simplest ways to reduce tooth decay is fluoridation of drinking water. The optimal concentration of fluoride in drinking water is 1 ppm/l, and many waters naturally contain this quantity. Waters in Vojvodina are mainly poor in fluoride, except in a few regions. It has long been postulated that fluoride has a prophyilactic effect during intrauteri...

  15. Experimental evaluation of sorptive removal of fluoride from drinking water using iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Beekam; Beyene, Abebe; Fufa, Fekadu; Megersa, Moa; Behm, Michael

    2016-03-01

    High concentrations of fluoride in drinking water is a public health concern globally and of critical importance in the Rift Valley region. As a low-cost water treatment option, the defluoridation capacity of locally available iron ore was investigated. Residence time, pH, agitation rate, particle size of the adsorbent, sorbent dose, initial fluoride concentration and the effect of co-existing anions were assessed. The sorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-first-order rate and the experimental equilibrium sorption data fitted reasonably well to the Freundlich model. The sorption capacity of iron ore for fluoride was 1.72 mg/g and the equilibrium was attained after 120 min at the optimum pH of 6. The sorption study was also carried out at natural pH conditions using natural ground water samples and the fluoride level was reduced from 14.22 to 1.17 mg/L (below the WHO maximum permissible limit). Overall, we concluded that iron ore can be used in water treatment for fluoride removal in the Rift Valley region and beyond.

  16. The relationship between water fluoridation and socioeconomic deprivation on tooth decay in 5-year-old children.

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    Jones, C M; Worthington, H

    1999-04-24

    To examine the relationship between water fluoridation, socioeconomic deprivation and tooth decay in 5-year-olds. 10,004 children: 1,051 in naturally fluoridated Hartlepool in 1991/92, 3,816 in fluoridated Newcastle & North Tyneside and 5,137 in non-fluoridated Salford & Trafford in 1993/94. Correlations between mean electoral ward dmft and ward Townsend Scores from the 1991 census. Regardless of the level of water fluoridation significant correlations were found between deprivation and tooth decay. Multiple linear regression models for dmft showed a statistically significant interaction between ward Townsend score, and both types of water fluoridation, confirming the more deprived the area the greater the reduction in tooth decay. At a Townsend score of zero (the English average) there was a predicted 43% reduction in decay in 5-year-olds in fluoridated areas. Tooth decay is strongly associated with social deprivation. The findings confirm that the implementation of water fluoridation has halved tooth decay in 5-year-old children and that the dental caries divide between rich and poor is reduced.

  17. THE USE OF FLUORIDE CONTAINING MINERAL WATER IN WORT PRODUCTION

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    Gunka Yonkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the quality of wort produced using fluoride containing mineral water. The results show that the mineral water has a negative impact on the enzymatic destruction of starch, proteins, color intensity and pH of the wort. The changes of pH during mashing process using tap and mineral water was studied. The lower acidity of wort obtained using mineral water didn’t change during the brewing process. The fluoride content of beer is lower than 5 mg.L-1 when wort is produced using mineral and tap water in 1:1 ratio and citric acid for pH correction. At the same time, the final degree of fermentation, α-amine nitrogen content and the intensity of color of produced wort are close to the control sample. The changes in fluoride ion concentration are monitored using ion-selective potentiometry. The fluoride content is decreased from 5.7 to 4.75 mg.L-1, the most intense change is observed during the mashing process.

  18. 76 FR 10899 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention... recommendations for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries has been extended.... Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards related to recommendations for fluoride concentrations in...

  19. Does water fluoridation affect the prevalence of enamel fluorosis differently among racial and ethnic groups?

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    Arora, Shivani; Kumar, Jayanth V; Moss, Mark Eric

    2017-11-24

    There are reports showing higher prevalence of enamel fluorosis among African-American children. This study was conducted to assess whether the effect of water fluoride level on enamel fluorosis is different among different race/ethnicity groups among US school children. Data from the National Survey of Oral Health of US School Children 1986-1987 were analyzed to determine the prevalence of enamel fluorosis among 7-17 year-old children. The association between race/ethnicity and enamel fluorosis was examined using logistic regression modeling after controlling for potential confounders age, gender, water fluoridation, other sources of fluoride, and region of residence. The prevalence of very mild to severe enamel fluorosis was 20.8 (95% CI, 15.4, 26.3) and 25.7 (95% CI, 15.0, 36.5) percent among non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black children, respectively. Neither the adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (0.8, 2.0) for the non-Hispanic Black group nor the interaction effect between non-Hispanic Black and water fluoridation were statistically significant. Enamel fluorosis was not associated with race/ethnicity. Our analysis suggests that exposure to similar levels of fluoride in the water does not appear to place certain race/ethnic groups at a higher risk for developing enamel fluorosis, and lowering the optimal range of drinking water fluoride to a single value of 0.7 ppm will provide a level of protection against enamel fluorosis that will benefit all race/ethnicity groups. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. An historical perspective on early progress of Queensland water fluoridation 1945-1954: sheep, climate and sugar.

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    Akers, H F; Porter, S A T

    2004-06-01

    Queensland's virtual rejection of artificial water fluoridation sets it apart from other Australian states, yet the early fluoride environs has been scantily recorded. This paper used archives, literature review, personal interview and the traditional historic method. The connection between Queensland artesian bore water and caries resistance was postulated as early as 1912. Four decades later, two Queensland-specific factors influenced the planning to fluoridate community water supplies. The first (1945-1950) was confusion between the high levels of fluoride in artesian water supplying the pastoral industry and the scientific concept of artificial water fluoridation of communal supplies. The second (1952-1954) involved further scientific investigation involving water consumption patterns, occupational dehydration and fluid homeostasis within a sub-tropical climate. The role of the Australian Dental Association Queensland Branch (ADAQ) in early fluoride politics was minimal. Four early protagonists are identified--two dentists, an engineer and the sugar industry. Queensland had its advocates for artificial water fluoridation of communal supply as a means of caries prevention. Interest came from the dental, medical and engineering professions, and from the sugar industry. However, these efforts met with indifference based on confused extrapolation of the artesian experience (1945-1952) and hesitancy (1952-1954) due to contemporaneous concerns about human fluid homeostasis in Queensland's sub-tropical climate.

  1. Socio-economic differences in public opinion regarding water fluoridation in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummery, W Kerry; Duncan, Mitchell; Kift, Ryan

    2007-08-01

    To describe public opinion relating to the fluoridation of drinking water in a sample of the Queensland population. Data were collected by means of a computer-assisted telephone interview survey from a sample of the Queensland population. Descriptive statistics and logistical regression were used to examine associations between variables. Seventy per cent of the total sample supported water fluoridation of their local supply. More than 71% of the total sample agreed that water fluoridation was safe. People living in areas of higher socio-economic/relative socio-economic advantage were more likely to support the addition of fluoride to local drinking water and agree that it was safe. Opinions about fluoridation varied by respondent age and gender. General support was found in this sample of the Queensland population for fluoridation of drinking water. In Queensland, fluoridation of the water supply is now a political decision. Information about public opinion on fluoridation may assist decision makers in the final determination.

  2. Drinking water fluoride and blood pressure? An environmental study.

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    Amini, Hassan; Taghavi Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Amini, Mohamad; Ramezani Mehrian, Majid; Mokhayeri, Yaser; Yunesian, Masud

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between intakes of fluoride (F) from drinking water and blood pressure has not yet been reported. We examined the relationship of F in ground water resources (GWRs) of Iran with the blood pressure of Iranian population in an ecologic study. The mean F data of the GWRs (as a surrogate for F levels in drinking water) were derived from a previously conducted study. The hypertension prevalence and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP & DBP) of Iranian population by different provinces and genders were also derived from the provincial report of non-communicable disease risk factor surveillance of Iran. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the mean concentrations of F in the GWRs and the hypertension prevalence of males (r = 0.48, p = 0.007), females (r = 0.36, p = 0.048), and overall (r = 0.495, p = 0.005). Also, statistically significant positive correlations between the mean concentrations of F in the GWRs and the mean SBP of males (r = 0.431, p = 0.018), and a borderline correlation with females (r = 0.352, p = 0.057) were found. In conclusion, we found the increase of hypertension prevalence and the SBP mean with the increase of F level in the GWRs of Iranian population.

  3. Factors affecting fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM) removal from natural waters in Tanzania by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Junjie; Schäfer, Andrea I

    2015-09-15

    This study examined the feasibility of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in treating challenging natural tropical waters containing high fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM). A total of 166 water samples were collected from 120 sources within northern Tanzania over a period of 16 months. Chemical analysis showed that 81% of the samples have fluoride levels exceeding the WHO drinking guideline of 1.5mg/L. The highest fluoride levels were detected in waters characterized by high ionic strength, high inorganic carbon and on some occasions high total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. Bench-scale experiments with 22 representative waters (selected based on fluoride concentration, salinity, origin and in some instances organic matter) and 6 NF/RO membranes revealed that ionic strength and recovery affected fluoride retention and permeate flux. This is predominantly due to osmotic pressure and hence the variation of diffusion/convection contributes to fluoride transport. Different membranes had distinct fluoride removal capacities, showing different raw water concentration treatability limits regarding the WHO guideline compliance. BW30, BW30-LE and NF90 membranes had a feed concentration limit of 30-40 mg/L at 50% recovery. NOM retention was independent of water matrices but is governed predominantly by size exclusion. NOM was observed to have a positive impact on fluoride removal. Several mechanisms could contribute but further studies are required before a conclusion could be drawn. In summary, NF/RO membranes were proved to remove both fluoride and NOM reliably even from the most challenging Tanzanian waters, increasing the available drinking water sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The next Stages in Researching Water Fluoridation: Evaluation and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Martin C.; Blinkhorn, Anthony S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: (1) to provide a commentary on a conference held at the University of Manchester entitled Researching Water Fluoridation: Evaluation and Surveillance; (2) to synthesize from the proceedings of the meeting suggestions for future research and public health surveillance. Method: The main points and problematic issues raised by the speakers…

  5. Natural fluoride levels from public water supplies in Piauí State, Brazil Concentração de flúor in natura em águas de abastecimento público no Piauí, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiene Saibrosa da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the natural fluoride concentrations in public water supplies in Piauí State, Brazil, in order to identify cities in risk for high prevalence of dental fluorosis. For each city, two samples of drinking water were collected in the urban area: one from the main public water supply and another from a public or residential tap from the same source. Fluoride analyses were carried out in duplicate using a specific ion electrode and TISAB II. From a total of 222 cities in Piauí, 164 (73.8% samples were analyzed. Urban population in these towns corresponds to 92.5% of the whole state with an estimated population of 1,654,563 inhabitants from the total urban population (1,788,590 inhabitants. A total of 151 cities showed low fluoride levels (O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento dos teores residuais de flúor (F in natura da água de abastecimento em municípios do Piauí para identificar localidades com risco de elevada prevalência de fluorose dentária. Para cada município, foram coletadas duas amostras da água de abastecimento da zona urbana, uma amostra da principal fonte de abastecimento público do município e a outra de uma torneira pública ou residencial abastecida pela mesma fonte. As análises de flúor foram realizadas em duplicata, utilizando um eletrodo específico e TISAB II. Dos 222 municípios do Piauí, 164 (73,8% enviaram amostras para análise. A população urbana desses municípios corresponde a 92,5% (1.654.536 habitantes da população urbana total do estado (1.788.590 habitantes. Observou-se que 151 municípios apresentam baixos teores residuais de flúor ( 0,81 mg/L. Conclui-se que a maioria dos municípios do Piauí possui água de abastecimento com baixos teores de flúor residual. O risco de uma elevada prevalência de fluorose dentária pelo flúor residual da água de abastecimento é pouco provável. Estudos sobre a prevalência de fluorose dentária no Piau

  6. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar A; Raju O; Kurthukoti A; Vishwas T

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, bo...

  7. Estimation of fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks in Chandigarh city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluoride has a preventive action on dental caries. However, Excessive ingestion of fluoride from different sources can lead to the development of dental fluorosis. Aim: To estimate fluoride levels in various commercially available carbonated soft drinks available in Chandigarh city. Materials and Methods: Twelve different brands of commercially available soft drinks were purchased from three different places and divided into three groups. Fluoride levels were estimated using fluoride test strips Quantofix 37211 Fluka; Sigma-Aldrich. Results: Fluoride levels ranged from 0.12 to 0.42 mg/dl F with the maximum level in Thumbs up and least in Diet Pepsi. Conclusion: The levels of fluoride varied in various carbonated soft drinks analyzed. This could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake from all sources and thus be an important risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis.

  8. Environmental evaluation of fluoride in drinking water at "Los Altos de Jalisco," in the central Mexico region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Roberto; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    Naturally occurring fluoride has been detected and quantified in drinking water in several cities of the "Los Altos de Jalisco" (LAJ) region. LAJ is located in the northeastern part of the state of Jalisco-Mexico, covering an area of 16,410 km2 with a population of 696,318 in 20 municipalities. Drinking water comes mainly from groundwater aquifers, located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which is a volcanic region characterized by hydrothermal activity. Results indicated that water supply from 42% of the municipalities had a fluoride concentration over the Mexican standards of 1.5 mg/L. It is important to notice that there are three cities, Lagos de Moreno (1.66-5.88 mg/L F(-)), Teocaltiche (3.82-18.58 mg/L F(-)), and Encarnación de Díaz (2.58-4.40 mg/L F(-)) where all water samples resulted in fluoride concentration over the maximum contaminant level. The total population from these three cities is over 122,000 inhabitants. Another important city with high levels of fluoride in the water supply was Tepatitlán de Morelos (2 wells with 6.54 and 13.47 mg/L F(-)). In addition to water supply, 30 samples of brand-name bottled water were tested. Surprisingly, 8 samples (27%) demonstrated fluoride level over the standards, mainly Agua de Lagos with 5.27 mg/L. Fluoridated table salt (200-300 mg/kg F(-)) is another important source of fluoride. A large number of people living in the region, mainly school children, might be under adverse health risk because they are consuming contaminated drinking water. It is well known that long-term exposure to water with high levels of fluoride produces severe health problems.

  9. Bioethical considerations about water fluoridation: a critical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Quinteros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the oral pathologies with greater burden of disease in the Chilean population. Fluoridation of drinking water has been used as a caries prevention strategy. However, its application as a public policy has been questioned since its implementation. The aim of this article is to analyze whether fluoridation of drinking water is a justified measure in reducing the incidence and prevalence of caries from the perspective of bioethics, taking into account the current evidence on its effectiveness. The arguments reviewed are based on the belief that water fluoridation is effective and, in general terms, ethically acceptable. A recent systematic review concludes that there is not enough evidence to support fluoridation as a public policy. There is a gap of knowledge that ought to be closed so that public health authorities can assess the significance of the intervention and make a democratic decision on its continuation or suspension based on scientific evidence. This decision should be informed and disseminated within the community.

  10. Correlation among fluoride and metals in irrigation water and soils of Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gizaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of fluoride and selected metals in Ethiopian Rift Valley soils and irrigation water in the nearby sources were determined by fluoride ion selective electrode and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The pH, conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solids in water and soil samples were also determined. Accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated using standard addition (spiking method and an acceptable percentage recovery was obtained. The fluoride concentrations in water samples were found in the range of 0.14-8.0 mg/L which is below the WHO limit of fluoride concentration for irrigation (less than 10 mg/L. The water soluble and total fluorides in soil were 2.3-16 µg/g and 209-1210 µg/g, respectively and are within the ranges recommended by FAO and WHO. The range of metal concentration in soil samples (µg/g dry weight basis and in water samples (mg/L respectively were: Na (684-6703, 8.6-67, Mg (1608-11229, 23-67, K (1776-4394, 1.1-20, Ca (7547-22998, 17-267, Cr (9.8-79, 0.07-0.17, Mn (143-700, 0.05-37, Co (50-112, 0.35-1.5, Ni (446-1288, 0.27-41, Fe (12180-32681, 6.0-48, Cu (8.9-45, 0.09-0.25 and Zn (31-89, 0.14-0.56. Fluoride was found to have significant correlation with major trace metals (Fe, Cu and Cr, but the correlation with other trace metals was not significant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i2.7

  11. Grounding a natural background level for fluoride in a potentially contaminated crystalline aquifer in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajil Kumar, P J

    2017-12-01

    Fluoride contamination is one of the most alarming issues for those countries that depend on groundwater drinking water supply. A careful examination of the hydrogeochemical conditions and routine monitoring of fluoride level are therefore quintessential. Estimation of natural background level (NBL) of fluoride becomes significant information for assessing the current and future contamination episodes. Vellore District in Tamil Nadu is a hard rock terrain known for its F-rich groundwater. In this study, we attempted to form a benchmark for fluoride using hydrochemical pre-selection (based on TDS and NO3) and cumulative probability plots (CPP). Principle components analysis is (PCA) applied to evaluate the corresponding factor grouping of the total of 68 samples, which is later mapped using geostatistical tool in ArcGIS. From the CPP, we derived the NBL of F as 0.75 mg/L. This value is compared with the observed concentration in each sample and they were spatially plotted based on the NBL. Resultant plot suggests that W-NW part of the study area has exceeded and E-EW regions are below the NBL of F. Spatial variation of the factor scores also supported this observation. Grounding an NBL and extending it to other parts of the potential contaminated aquifers are highly recommended for better understanding and management of the water supply systems.

  12. Relationship between water, urine and serum fluoride and fluorosis in school children of Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Lata, Suman; Yadav, Jyoti; Yadav, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between fluoride in water, urine and serum and dental fluorosis. The fluoride level in water and urine were measured spectrophotometrically by using acid zirconyl and SPADNS reagents, while the fluoride level in serum was determined by ion selective electrode meter. Dental fluorosis survey was conducted with the help of Performa prescribed by Rajiv Gandhi Drinking Water Mission and the use of Tooth Surface Index for Fluorosis. Mean fluoride values in water samples of Jhajjar City and Dadanpur and Dariyapur villages of Jhajjar District were measured to be 2.17 (range from 1.92 to 2.60 mg/L), 2.81 (range from 2.53 to 3.14 mg/L) and 2.22 mg/L (range from 1.63 to 3.33 mg/L), respectively. The mean fluoride values in the urine samples of children were found to be 1.51 (range from 0.05 to 2.64 mg/L), 1.71 (range from 0.69 to 2.80 mg/L) and 1.45 mg/L (range from 0.31 to 2.50 mg/L) at Jhajjar City and Dadanpur and Dariyapur sites, respectively. Serum fluoride was detected in the blood samples of children, who have high urinary fluoride at these three sites. The mean serum fluoride level was reported to be 0.15, 0.34 and 0.17 mg/L, respectively. A total of 842 children were also analyzed for dental fluorosis. The mean values of fluorosis-affected children in Jhajjar, Dadanpur and Dariyapur were 51.90, 94.63 and 36.84 %, respectively. A significantly positive correlation between water, urine, serum fluoride concentration and fluorosis was seen.

  13. Caries status in 16 year-olds with varying exposure to water fluoridation in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullen, J

    2012-12-01

    Most of the Republic of Ireland\\'s public water supplies have been fluoridated since the mid-1960s while Northern Ireland has never been fluoridated, apart from some small short-lived schemes in east Ulster.

  14. Fluoride content of still bottled waters available in the North-East of England, UK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zohouri, F V; Moynihan, P J; Maguire, A

    2003-01-01

    .... All samples were still spring, mineral or distilled waters, sold in plastic bottles. The fluoride content of all samples was determined, in duplicate, using a Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode. The mean (+/- SD...

  15. Probabilistic risk assessment of Chinese residents' exposure to fluoride in improved drinking water in endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li E; Huang, Daizheng; Yang, Jie; Wei, Xiao; Qin, Jian; Ou, Songfeng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Yunfeng

    2017-03-01

    Studies have yet to evaluate the effects of water improvement on fluoride concentrations in drinking water and the corresponding health risks to Chinese residents in endemic fluorosis areas (EFAs) at a national level. This paper summarized available data in the published literature (2008-2016) on water fluoride from the EFAs in China before and after water quality was improved. Based on these obtained data, health risk assessment of Chinese residents' exposure to fluoride in improved drinking water was performed by means of a probabilistic approach. The uncertainties in the risk estimates were quantified using Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis. Our results showed that in general, the average fluoride levels (0.10-2.24 mg/L) in the improved drinking water in the EFAs of China were lower than the pre-intervention levels (0.30-15.24 mg/L). The highest fluoride levels were detected in North and Southwest China. The mean non-carcinogenic risks associated with consumption of the improved drinking water for Chinese residents were mostly accepted (hazard quotient water, ingestion rate of water, and the exposure time in the shower were the most relevant variables in the model, therefore, efforts should focus mainly on the definition of their probability distributions for a more accurate risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of fluoride level in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, M; Husain, I; Hussain, J; Kumar, S

    2013-10-01

    In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem. To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India. The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis. The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L) in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%-72.1%) had dental fluoros---252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis. High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  17. Assessment of Fluoride Level in Groundwater and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in Didwana Block of Nagaur District, Central Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arif

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem. Objective: To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India. Methods: The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis. Results: The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%–72.1% had dental fluorosis—252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis. Conclusion: High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  18. Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmaratne, Ranjith W.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka’s CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in d...

  19. Public perceptions and scientific evidence for perceived harms/risks of community water fluoridation: An examination of online comments pertaining to fluoridation cessation in Calgary in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Paulina C; McLaren, Lindsay

    2015-06-19

    To examine the perceived harms/risks of fluoridation as expressed in online forums relating to cessation and aftermath in Calgary, specifically, 1) which harms/risks are mentioned, 2) for those harms/risks, what kinds of evidence are cited, 3) to what extent is scientific literature cited, and what is its quality, and 4) for a subset of harms/risks, what is known from the broader scientific literature? Relevant online comments were identified through free-text Internet searches, and those explicitly discussing the harms/risks of water fluoridation were extracted. Types of evidence mentioned were identified, and the scientific papers cited were reviewed. Finally, the broader scientific literature on two of the harms/risks was reviewed and synthesized. We identified 17 distinct groups of harms/risks, which spanned human body systems, the environment and non-human organisms. Most often, no evidence was cited. When evidence was cited, types included individuals viewed as authorities and personal experiences. Reference to scientific articles was rare, and those papers (n = 9) had significant methodological concerns. Our review of scientific literature on fluoride and 1) thyroid functioning and 2) phytoplankton revealed some negative effects of fluoride at concentrations exceeding maximum recommended levels (>1.5 ppm). The findings have implications for communication with the public about fluoridation. First, to the extent that the public consults the scientific literature, it is essential that the methodological limitations of a study, as well as its relevance to community water fluoridation, be widely and promptly communicated. Second, scientific evidence is only one component of why some people support or do not support fluoridation, and communication strategies must accommodate that reality.

  20. Assessment of potential health risk of fluoride consumption through rice, pulses, and vegetables in addition to consumption of fluoride-contaminated drinking water of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Piyal; Samal, Alok Chandra; Banerjee, Suman; Pyne, Jagadish; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2017-09-01

    A study was conducted in fluoride-affected Bankura and Purulia districts of West Bengal to assess the potential health risk from fluoride exposure among children, teenagers, and adults due to consumption of rice, pulses, and vegetables in addition to drinking water and incidental ingestion of soil by children. Higher mean fluoride contents (13-63 mg/kg dry weight) were observed in radish, carrot, onion bulb, brinjal, potato tuber, cauliflower, cabbage, coriander, and pigeon pea. The combined influence of rice, pulses, and vegetables to cumulative estimated daily intake (EDI) of fluoride for the studied population was found to be 9.5-16%. Results also showed that intake of ivy gourd, broad beans, rice, turnip, fenugreek leaves, mustard, spinach, and amaranth grown in the study area is safe at least for time being. The cumulative EDI values of fluoride (0.06-0.19 mg/kg-day) among different age group of people of the study area were evaluated to be ~104 times higher than those living in the control area; the values for children (0.19 and 0.52 mg/kg-day for CTE and RME scenarios, respectively) were also greater than the "Tolerable Upper Intake Level" value of fluoride. The estimated hazard index (HI) for children (3.2 and 8.7 for CTE and RME scenarios, respectively) living in the two affected districts reveals that they are at high risk of developing dental fluorosis due to the consumption of fluoride-contaminated rice, pulses, and vegetables grown in the study area in addition to the consumption of contaminated drinking water.

  1. A NOVEL BIO-WASTE INCORPORATED ALGINATE SORBENT FOR DE-FLUORIDATION OF WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmalin Sophia Ayyappan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the feasibility of using tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed powder for de-fluoridation of fluoride contaminated water. Batch study confirmed that tamarind seeds in dry powder form could remove 87% of fluoride from water. This bio-sorbent can be used effectively in areas where fluoride concentrations are above the permissible limits of 1.5 mg·l-1 as per WHO Standard, 1984. Tamarind seed powder was incorporated in a matrix of sodium alginate and made into gel-beads. The beads were tested for de-fluoridation efficiency by conducting column studies. The effect of various factors, such as flow rate, retention time, and the number of runs on the efficacy of fluoride removal was also studied. The results revealed that flow rate did not seem to have much effect on the percentage fluoride removal but the fluoride concentration decreased drastically upon greater retention time and multiple runs.

  2. Caution needed in altering the 'optimum' fluoride concentration in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, A John; Do, Loc G

    2016-04-01

    The US Public Health Service has finalized its recommendation relating to community water fluoridation (Federal Panel on Community Water Fluoridation, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). It recommends an optimal concentration of 0.7 mg/l F based on their argument that this concentration provides the best balance of protection from dental caries while limiting the risk of dental fluorosis. The rationale for this recommendation can be questioned, particularly given the contrasting etiologies and impact on the community. Uncertainty surrounds the key evidence considered by the panel. This study argues that the panel should have exercised more caution and called for further research before reducing the 'optimal' concentration of fluoride in water supplies. Up-to-date data on caries and fluorosis trend by age group or birth cohort, analyses on attributable risk for fluorosis, data on individual and population impact of caries and fluorosis, water intake over an extended period across the seasons, and the curvilinear relationship of fluoride concentration in water supplies and caries protection would have all been desirable to inform the panel, given the foreshadowing of the recommendation in late 2011. Further, a wider range of policy directions to achieve the best balance of protection from dental caries while limiting the risk of dental fluorosis are available from the international literature. Assessment of these should have been more evident. There is a public health policy responsibility to monitor water fluoridation programs so as to achieve a near maximum reduction in dental caries without unacceptable levels of dental fluorosis. However, recommendations to alter existing policy need to be cognizant of the balancing of risk and protective exposures across the entire population and potentially all ages and to be based on recent data that are purposefully collected, critically analyzed and carefully interpreted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A

  3. Presence and Origin of Fluoride in the Complex Terminal Water of Ouargla Basin (Northern Sahara of Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Imed E. Nezli; Samia Achour; Mohamed Djidel; Saïd Attalah

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The underground waters in the oriental regions of the Algerian Sahara, present real chemical quality problems. Their content in fluorides always exceeds the limit of the recommended levels. That is 0.8 mg L-1, according to the maximum temperature in the region. Combined to a high salinity, it affects the health of the population living around the region. The present work, deals with the presence of fluoride and the geochemical origin in the Complex Terminal aquifer of Ouarg...

  4. Populations receiving optimally fluoridated public drinking water--United States, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-11

    Water fluoridation has been identified by CDC as one of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century. The decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries (tooth decay) in the United States during the past 60 years has been attributed largely to the increased use of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is an equitable and cost-effective method for delivering fluoride to the community. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to increase to 75% the proportion of the U.S. population served by community water systems who receive optimally fluoridated water. To update and revise previous reports on fluoridation in the United States and describe progress toward the Healthy People 2010 objective, CDC analyzed fluoridation data for the period 1992-2006 from the 50 states and District of Columbia (DC). The results indicated that the percentage of the U.S. population served by community water systems who received optimally fluoridated water increased from 62.1% in 1992, to 65.0% in 2000, and 69.2% in 2006, and those percentages varied substantially by state. Public health officials and policymakers in states with lower percentages of residents receiving optimal water fluoridation should consider increasing their efforts to promote fluoridation of community water systems to prevent dental caries.

  5. Avaliação da fluoretação da água do sistema de abastecimento público na Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil Evaluation of fluoride levels in the public water supply in São Luis Island, Maranhão State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadidja Dayane Sousa do Carmo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os níveis de flúor na água de abastecimento público da Ilha de São Luís (MA. Aplicou-se uma amostragem estratificada, considerando-se as estações de tratamento de água (06 e os bairros abastecidos (46. A análise dos teores de flúor na água foi feita através de um eletrodo específico. A concentração nas amostras variou de 0,05 a 0,84 ppm de flúor. Apenas uma estação de tratamento (Italuís apresentou-se dentro do limite aceitável de fluoretação. A fluoretação da água de abastecimento público na Ilha de São Luís necessita de ajustes para se obter prevenção da cárie, evidenciando a importância de um controle externo para avaliação dos teores de flúor.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fluoride levels in public water supply in São Luís island, Maranhão State, Brazil, during the month of October of 2006. A stratification sampling was applied, considering the water treatment station (06 and the different districts (46. For fluoride analysis it was used a specific ion electrode. The fluoride concentration varied for 0.05 to 0.84 ppm. Only one water treatment station (Italuís presented an ideal concentration of fluoride. It was concluded that the fluoride levels need adjustments, evidencing that it is essential an external control for monitoring of those levels in public water supply of São Luis.

  6. REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM DRINKING WATER BY COCONUT HUSK AS NATURAL ADSORBENT

    OpenAIRE

    Islamuddin*, Rajneesh k Gautam, Shaista Fatima

    2016-01-01

    High fluoride concentration is a worldwide problem in drinking water due its health effects. In India large population is mainly belong to rural areas which depend on ground water for their drinking purpose. The fluoride concentration in ground water varies from place to place. The data show that the fluoride distribution in ground water varies from 0.01mg/l to 48 mg/l [2]. The fluoride comes into ground water by various ways, for example, weathering of rocks, industrial effluents and geoche...

  7. Vinte e quatro meses de heterocontrole da fluoretação das águas de abastecimento público de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Twenty-four months of external control of fluoride levels in the public water supply in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Garcia Lima

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar, mensalmente, os níveis de flúor na água de abastecimento público de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, bem como verificar a validade da formação de grupos de heterocontrole. Pelotas foi dividida em 16 pontos geográficos, incluindo as três Estações de Tratamento da água e a coleta foi feita de novembro de 1999 a outubro de 2001, em duplicata. Após a coleta, as amostras foram enviadas ao Laboratório de Vigilância Sanitária de Flúor da Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, onde a análise foi feita utilizando-se o método eletrométrico (Orion 920A/Eletrodo Orion 9609. Após 24 meses, 764 unidades amostrais foram coletadas e verificou-se uma inconstância nos resultados, predominando níveis insuficientes de flúor até o primeiro trimestre de 2001, quando houve um significativo aumento no número de unidades amostrais com uma concentração de flúor ideal (0,6-0,9ppmF, porém, há o surgimento de pontos revelando um excesso de fluoretos (> 1ppmF. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o heterocontrole é fundamental para buscar a manutenção de um correto programa de FAAP.The aim of the present study was monthly evaluation of fluoride levels in the public water supply in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and the validity of forming external control groups. Pelotas was divided into 16 geographic regions, including the three public water treatment stations. Water samples were collected from November 1999 to October 2001. Two samples were drawn from each region. Samples were sent to the Fluoride Health Surveillance Laboratory at Universidade do Vale do Itajaí. Fluoride analysis used an electrometric method (Orion 920 A/Electrometer Orion 9609. After 24 months, 764 samples were collected, demonstrating a discontinuity in the fluoride levels. There was an increase in the number of samples with an ideal concentration of fluoride. However, several points with excessive fluoride levels (> 0.9ppm

  8. Arsenic, Fluoride and Vanadium in surface water (Chasicó Lake, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria laura ePuntoriero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chasicó Lake is the main water body in the southwest of the Chaco-Pampean plain. It shows some differences from the typical Pampean shallow lakes, such as high salinity and high arsenic and fluoride levels. The aim of this paper is to analyze the trace elements [arsenic (As, fluoride (F- and vanadium (V] present in Chasicó Lake. Surface and groundwater were sampled in dry and wet periods, during 2010 and 2011. Fluoride was determined with a selective electrode. As and V were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Significant correlation in surface water was only found for As and F- (r=0.978, p<0.01. The As, F- and V concentration values were higher and more widely dispersed in surface water than in groundwater, as a consequence of evaporation. The fact that these elements do not correlate in surface water may also indicates that groundwater would not be the main source of origin of As, F- and V in surface water. The origin of these trace elements is from volcanic glass from Pampean loess. As, F- and V concentration were higher than in national and international guideline levels for the protection of aquatic biota. Hence, this issue is relevant since the silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis is the most important commercial species in Chasicó Lake. This fish is both consumed locally and exported to other South-American countries through commercial and sport fishing.

  9. Reduction in fluoride-induced genotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells after substituting high fluoride-containing water with safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Santosh; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2011-10-01

    Treatment of mice with 15 mg l(-1) sodium fluoride (NaF) for 30 days increased the number of cell death, chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and 'cells with chromatid breaks' (aberrant cells) compared with control. The present study was intended to determine whether the fluoride (F)-induced genotoxicity could be reduced by substituting high F-containing water after 30 days with safe drinking water, containing 0.1 mg F ions l(-1). A significant fall in percentage of CAs and aberrant cells after withdrawal of F-treatment following 30 days of safe water treatment in mice was observed which was highest after 90 days, although their levels still remained significantly high compared with the control group. This observation suggests that F-induced genotoxicity could be reduced by substituting high F-containing water with safe drinking water. Further study is warranted with different doses and extended treatment of safe water to determine whether the induced damages could be completely reduced or not. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Interaction between a transition-metal fluoride and a transition-metal hydride: water-mediated hydrofluoric acid evolution following fluoride solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierotti, Michele R; Rossin, Andrea; Gobetto, Roberto; Peruzzini, Maurizio

    2013-11-04

    The reaction between the nickel(II) PCP pincer fluoride complex ((tBu)PCP)Ni(F) [(tBu)PCP = 2,6-C6H3(CH2P(t)Bu2)2] and the tungsten(II) carbonyl hydride CpW(H)(CO)3 (Cp = η(5)-C5H5(-)) leads to hydrofluoric acid evolution and formation of the bimetallic isocarbonylic species [CpW(CO)2(μ-κ,C:κ,O-CO)···Ni((tBu)PCP)]. The process has been monitored through multinuclear ((19)F, (31)P{(1)H}, (1)H) variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy, collecting (19)F T1 data values for a fluoride ligand bound to a transition metal. The extremely short relaxation time (minimum value of 13 ms at 193 K) is ascribed to the large chemical shift anisotropy of the Ni-F bond (688 ppm). The in-depth NMR analysis has revealed that the fluoride-hydride interaction is not direct but water-mediated, at odds with what was previously observed for the "hydride-hydride" case ((tBu)PCP)Ni(H)/CpW(H)(CO)3. Kinetic measurements have unveiled that the first step of the overall mechanism is thought to be solvation of the fluoride ligand (as a result of Ni-F···H2O hydrogen bonding), while further reaction of the solvated fluoride with CpW(H)(CO)3 is extremely slow and competes with the side reaction of fluoride replacement by a water molecule on the nickel center to form the [((tBu)PCP)Ni(H2O)](+) aquo species. Finally, density functional theory analysis of the solvation process through a discrete + continuum model has been accomplished, at the M06//6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, to support the mechanistic hypothesis.

  11. Water fluoridation, dentition status and bone health of older people in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Sullivan, Vincent; O Connell, Brian C

    2015-02-01

    To examine some of the potential benefits and risks of water fluoridation for older adults. This study used 'The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing', to access a nationally representative sample of 4977 people aged 50 and older. The sample was used to estimate associations between the percentage of households in a respondent's local area with a currently fluoridated water supply and the probability of two binary outcomes: the respondent having all their own teeth and having normal bone density. Past exposure of individuals to fluoridated water was not assessed; the prevalence of fluoridated water in local supplies was obtained from the 2006 Census of Ireland. The Census data indicated that there was considerable variation in the proportion of households with fluoridated water supplies, especially in rural areas. Bone mineral density was estimated from a heel ultrasound of each respondent, and their number of teeth was self-reported. A range of individual variables, such as educational attainment, housing wealth, age and health behaviours, was controlled for. It was found that the greater the percentage of households with a fluoridated water supply in an area, the higher the probability that respondents had all their own teeth. There was no significant relationship between the proportion of households with a fluoridated water supply in an area and bone health. This study suggests that water fluoridation provides a net health gain for older Irish adults, though the effects of fluoridation warrant further investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The impact of aluminum, fluoride, and aluminum-fluoride complexes in drinking water on chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Perera, Gamage D R K; De Gunawardena, Panduka S; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2015-07-01

    It is suspected that drinking water containing fluoride and aluminum results in negative health effects especially on brain, liver, and kidney. In this investigation, the effect of F, Al, and AlFx complex on chronic kidney disease (CKD) was investigated. Mice were treated either with WHO recommended or slightly higher F and Al levels in drinking water. Treatment solutions contained 0.05-10.0 mg/L of F, 0.08-10.0 mg/L of Al, or 0.07-15 mg/L of AlFx, and the treatment period was 42 weeks. Blood urea level and creatinine levels were investigated as a measure of malfunction of kidneys. Histopathological evaluations of kidney tissues were carried out to assess the extent of damage that F, Al, and AlFx complex could cause. It was demonstrated that the treated drinking water containing F and Al with par with WHO or moderately above the WHO levels or AlFx in low level (0.07-15 mg/L) does not lead to CKD in mice.

  13. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis. © 2012 APJPH.

  14. The dentist's role in promoting community water fluoridation: a call to action for dentists and educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Molly L R; Armfield, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    Community water fluoridation is an important public health intervention that reduces oral health disparities and increases the health of the population. Promotion of its safety and effectiveness is critical to maintaining its widespread acceptance and ensuring its continued use. Dentists are a potentially important source of knowledge regarding the oral health benefits and safety of water fluoridation. However, few dentists regularly discuss fluorides, and water fluoridation in particular, with patients. The authors aim to describe and discuss the role and importance of dentists' promotion of public water fluoridation, barriers to dentists' involvement and some approaches that might influence dentists to promote water fluoridation more actively. Ongoing promotion of fluoridation by dentists is a key factor in ensuring sustained municipal water fluoridation. However, current undergraduate dental curricula do not adequately prepare dentists for this role, and continuing dental education may be insufficient to change clinical practice. Although smoking-cessation literature can shed some light on how to proceed, changing dentists' practice behavior remains a largely unstudied topic. Dental associations are a key resource for dentists, providing information that can assist them in becoming advocates for water fluoridation.

  15. Extraction of proteins with low fluoride level from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and their composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingzhao; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming; Yang, Bao

    2011-06-08

    The extraction of proteins with low fluoride level (LFP) from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) was investigated in this work. The optimal conditions for protein solubilization were determined to be pH 11.5 and 4 °C. The proteins were solubilized two times; a water/krill ratio (mL/g) of 6 and a time of 30 min were used for the first step, whereas the second used a water/krill residue ratio (mL/g) of 3 and a time of 30 min. The optimum pH for protein precipitation was 4.6. A LFP with fluoride content of 9.86 mg/kg (dry weight) was finally obtained through a fluoride removal program. The protein yield of LFP was 52.68%. Composition analysis of LFP indicated it was composed of 66.96% of crude proteins (dry weight) and 33.01% of total lipids (dry weight),, and all nine essential amino acids were in sufficient amounts to meet FAO/WHO/UNU requirements for adults and infants. In addition, LFP could be taken as a good source of EPA and DHA for consideration of use as a food item for human consumption.

  16. Toxic effect of sodium fluoride on hydroxyproline level and expression of collagen-1 gene in rat bone and its amelioration by Tamrindus indica L. fruit pulp extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit Raj; Dey, Sahadeb; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, Devendra

    2016-03-01

    Excessive fluoride intoxication plays an important role in the development of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain the toxic effect of excessive fluoride ingestion on the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in rat bone and its amelioration by supplementation with Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract. Forty albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups. The first group served as control and received only tap water. The second group received sodium fluoride (200 ppm) through drinking water. The third group received T. indica fruit pulp extract (200 mg/kg body weight) alone and the fourth group received the T. indica fruit pulp extract (200 mg/kg body weight) along with fluorinated drinking water (200 ppm) daily by gavage for a period of 90 days. The level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene using quantitative real time PCR in the tibia bone decreased significantly with continuous exposure to sodium fluoride. Co-administration of T. indica fruit pulp extract during exposure to fluoride through drinking water restored the level of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in serum and the concentration of hydroxyproline in urine. It increased the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in the tibia as compared to untreated fluoride-exposed rats. It is concluded that T. indica fruit pulp extract has an ameliorative potential to protect the bone from fluoride induced collagen damage.

  17. Effect of water fluoridation on the development of medial vascular calcification in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pardillos, Ana; Sosa, Cecilia; Millán, Ángel; Sorribas, Víctor

    2014-04-06

    Public water fluoridation is a common policy for improving dental health. Fluoride replaces the hydroxyls of hydroxyapatite, thereby improving the strength of tooth enamel, but this process can also occur in other active calcifications. This paper studies the effects of water fluoridation during the course of vascular calcification in renal disease. The effect of fluoride was studied in vitro and in vivo. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells were calcified with 2mM Pi for 5 days. Fluoride concentrations of 5-10 μM--similar to those found in people who drink fluoridated water--partially prevented calcification, death, and osteogene expression in vitro. The anticalcifying mechanism was independent of cell activity, matrix Gla protein, and fetuin A expressions, and it exhibited an IC50 of 8.7 μM fluoride. In vivo, however, fluoridation of drinking water at 1.5mg/L (concentration recommended by the WHO) and 15 mg/L dramatically increased the incipient aortic calcification observed in rats with experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD, 5/6-nephrectomy), fed a Pi-rich fodder (1.2% Pi). Fluoride further declined the remaining renal function of the CKD animals, an effect that most likely overwhelmed the positive effect of fluoride on calcification in vitro. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that fluoride did not modify the Ca/P atomic ratio, but it was incorporated into the lattice of in vivo deposits. Fluoride also converted the crystallization pattern from plate to rode-like structures. In conclusion, while fluoride prevents calcification in vitro, the WHO's recommended concentrations in drinking water become nephrotoxic to CKD rats, thereby aggravating renal disease and making media vascular calcification significant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CPP-ACP: Effect on Dental Plaque Acidity after Water Rinsing Following Topical Fluoride Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemeh, Mazhari; Marjan, Sharifi; Homa, Noorollahian; Mahsa, Sharifi

    There is some evidence that water rinsing immediately after topical fluoride therapy has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of fluoride. The aim was to determine if covering fluoridated teeth with a layer of mousse containing CPP-ACP could prevent the adverse effect of rinsing on fluoride and consequently its buffering effect on dental plaque pH during cariogenic challenge. This randomized, controlled, crossover, in situ study was conducted on 25 participants. The participants were subjected to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) application followed by five treatment protocols: (1) water rinsing after 30 minutes (APF-30) or (2) immediate water rinsing (APF-0); (3) using CPP-ACP immediately before water rinsing (F-CPP-ACP); and two control groups: (4) no fluoride therapy (No-F) and (5) using CPP-ACP and immediate water rinsing (CPP-ACP-0). After 48 hours, teeth were rinsed with 10% sucrose solution and plaque pH was measured before and after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes. The least pH changes, the lowest pH drop, and the quickest pH recovery were found in the APF-30 and F-CPP-ACP groups. APF-0 ranked in the middle and the highest values were in the control groups. The results show that in the case using CPP-ACP on fluoridated teeth, water rinsing immediately after topical fluoride therapy did not seem to influence the inhibitory effect of fluoride on plaque acidity.

  19. Validating a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ion Chromatography (HPLC-IC) Method with Conductivity Detection After Chemical Suppression for Water Fluoride Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondu, Joseph Dian; Selvakumar, R; Fleming, Jude Joseph

    2018-01-01

    A variety of methods, including the Ion Selective Electrode (ISE), have been used for estimation of fluoride levels in drinking water. But as these methods suffer many drawbacks, the newer method of IC has replaced many of these methods. The study aimed at (1) validating IC for estimation of fluoride levels in drinking water and (2) to assess drinking water fluoride levels of villages in and around Vellore district using IC. Forty nine paired drinking water samples were measured using ISE and IC method (Metrohm). Water samples from 165 randomly selected villages in and around Vellore district were collected for fluoride estimation over 1 year. Standardization of IC method showed good within run precision, linearity and coefficient of variance with correlation coefficient R2 = 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.027 ppm and limit of quantification was 0.083 ppm. Among 165 villages, 46.1% of the villages recorded water fluoride levels >1.00 ppm from which 19.4% had levels ranging from 1 to 1.5 ppm, 10.9% had recorded levels 1.5-2 ppm and about 12.7% had levels of 2.0-3.0 ppm. Three percent of villages had more than 3.0 ppm fluoride in the water tested. Most (44.42%) of these villages belonged to Jolarpet taluk with moderate to high (0.86-3.56 ppm) water fluoride levels. Ion Chromatography method has been validated and is therefore a reliable method in assessment of fluoride levels in the drinking water. While the residents of Jolarpet taluk (Vellore distict) are found to be at a high risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis.

  20. Community water fluoridation predicts increase in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence of diabetes in 22 states from 2005 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluegge, Kyle

    2016-10-01

    Community water fluoridation is considered a significant public health achievement of the 20th century. In this paper, the hypothesis that added water fluoridation has contributed to diabetes incidence and prevalence in the United States was investigated. Panel data from publicly available sources were used with population-averaged models to test the associations of added and natural fluoride on the outcomes at the county level in 22 states for the years 2005 and 2010. The findings suggest that a 1 mg increase in the county mean added fluoride significantly positively predicts a 0.23 per 1,000 person increase in age-adjusted diabetes incidence (P fluoride concentration is significantly protective. For counties using fluorosilicic acid as the chemical additive, both outcomes were lower: by 0.45 per 1,000 persons (P water consumption, poverty, year, population density, age-adjusted obesity and physical inactivity, and mean number of years since water fluoridation started. Sensitivity analyses revealed robust effects for both types of fluoride. Community water fluoridation is associated with epidemiological outcomes for diabetes.

  1. Root caries in areas with and without fluoridated water at the Southeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate root caries prevalence in areas with and without water fluoridation at the Southeast region of São Paulo State, in the adult population, employees of public and private schools, and elderly population. Epidemiological surveys were conducted according to the World Health Organization guidelines (1997, including 1,475 dentate individuals aged 35 to 44 years and 65 to 74 years, living in cities representing the southeast of São Paulo State, with (n=872 or without (n=603 fluoridated water supply. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests at a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of root caries was 15.6% for the 35-44-year-old age group and 31.8% for the 65-74-year-old age group . There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in the occurrence of root caries according to water fluoridation, although individuals living at non-fluoridated areas presented higher percentage of missing teeth; also, there was higher mean number of intact roots at fluoridated areas (p<0.05. Most individuals with gingival recession, both adults and elderly, did not have root caries experience. In this study, root caries prevalence was lower in areas with fluoridated water. Due to the reduced prevalence of edentulism and increased number of people keeping their natural teeth for a longer period, a future increase in root caries is expected, highlighting the importance of studies related to water fluoridation and its relationship with the oral health of adults and elderly, especially referring to tooth root.

  2. A NOVEL BIO-WASTE INCORPORATED ALGINATE SORBENT FOR DE-FLUORIDATION OF WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Carmalin Sophia Ayyappan; S. Sreeja; V.M. Bhalambaal

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of using tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed powder for de-fluoridation of fluoride contaminated water. Batch study confirmed that tamarind seeds in dry powder form could remove 87% of fluoride from water. This bio-sorbent can be used effectively in areas where fluoride concentrations are above the permissible limits of 1.5 mg·l-1 as per WHO Standard, 1984. Tamarind seed powder was incorporated in a matrix of sodium alginate and made into gel-beads. The bead...

  3. Performance of novel hydroxyapatite nanowires in treatment of fluoride contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Junyong; Zhang, Kaisheng [Nano-Materials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wu, Shibiao [Nano-Materials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Cai, Xingguo; Chen, Kai; Li, Yulian [Nano-Materials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun, Bai; Jia, Yong; Meng, Fanli; Jin, Zhen [Nano-Materials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Kong, Lingtao, E-mail: ltkong@iim.ac.cn [Nano-Materials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, Jinhuai [Nano-Materials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Novel ultralong hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires were developed for effective defluoridation. • High fluoride adsorption capacity, 40.65 mg/g at neutral pH. • The HAP nanowire membrane efficiently removed fluoride by dynamic adsorption. • The membrane could remove more than 98% fluoride, and filtered water amount reached 350 L/m{sup 2}. - Abstract: Novel ultralong hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires were successfully prepared for fluoride removal for the first time. The fluoride adsorption on the HAP nanowires was studied on a batch mode. The results revealed that the adsorption data could be well described by the Freundlich model, and the adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-second-order model. The maximum of adsorption capacity was 40.65 mg/g at pH 7.0 when the fluoride concentration is 200 mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that the adsorption of fluoride was a spontaneous endothermic process. The FT-IR, XPS and Zeta potential analysis revealed that both anion exchange and electrostatic interactions were involved in the adsorption of fluoride. Furthermore, the HAP nanowires were made into HAP membrane through a simple process of suction filtration. Membrane filtration experiments revealed that the fluoride removal capabilities depended on the membrane thickness, flow rate and initial concentration of fluoride. The as-prepared membrane could remove fluoride efficiently through continues filtration. The filtered water amount could reach 350, 192, and 64 L/m{sup 2} when the fluoride concentrations were 4, 5 and 8 ppm, respectively, using the HAP membrane with only 150 μm thickness. The as-synthesized ultralong HAP nanowires were thus demonstrated to be very effective and biocompatible adsorbents for fluoride removal from contaminated water.

  4. Removal of fluoride from fluoride contaminated industrial waste water by electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vijaya A; Nanoti, Madan V

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater containing fluoride are generally treated with lime or calcium salt supplemented with aluminium salts. Wastewater generated from different industries does not always behave in the same way due to the presence of interfering contaminants. A number of techniques have been developed and studied for the removal of excessive fluoride. Most of these are based on use of aluminium salt. In alum coagulation the sorption properties of product of hydrolysis of aluminium salts and capacity of fluoride for complex formation plays a very important role. These hydrolysis products of aluminium can be produced by passing direct current through aluminium electrode. The text presented in the paper deals with the various aspect of removal of fluoride by electrolysis using aluminium electrode from fluoride chemical based industrial wastewater.

  5. [Effects of fluoride in drinking water on health of deciduous teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Duska; Stojsin, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    High incidence of decayed deciduous teeth, as well as lack of adequate therapy, makes tooth decay prevention very important. One of the simplest ways to reduce tooth decay is fluoridation of drinking water. The optimal concentration of fluoride in drinking water is 1 ppm/l, and many waters naturally contain this quantity. Waters in Vojvodina are mainly poor in fluoride, except in a few regions. It has long been postulated that fluoride has a prophyilactic effect during intrauterine life. Today a theory of greater local impact of fluoride has been accepted, as well as its role in de- and remineralization of solid tooth tissue. This epidemiological study was performed in the area of Vojvodina, in places with various fluoride concentrations in drinking water (0.18-1.04 ppm/l). Dental examination was performed among 145 children, 6 years of age. For tooth decay detection DMF index was used. In places with low and optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water the percentage of children with decayed teeth is different, but without statistical significance. The percentage of affected deciduous teeth is high in all places. In places with low fluoride concentration it is 24.2-32.3%, in places with optimal concentration is it 27-32%. The average value of DMF in all places is between 4.7-6.4. These results show that the optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water decreases the incidence of tooth decay, but this difference is not significant. Presence of fluoride in drinking water doesn't affect health of deciduous teeth. Decreased incidence of decayed deciduous teeth can be achieved only with combined usage of fluoride (local and systemic), as well as with an intensive health education program.

  6. A hybrid approach for treating fluorided water and biogeophysical monitoring of treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    A laboratory experiment has been conducted for investigating the possibility of development of novel techniques for treating fluoride contamination and monitoring of physico-chemical alterations caused by biogeochemical processes in the media. In the present study, high adsorption capacity and ion-exchange property of natural zeolites have been utilized in treating fluoride contamination. The preset goals are achieved by designing and constructing experimental setup consisting of three columns, first one is filled with 450 ppm fluorided water prepared by dissolving sodium fluoride in deionized water, the second is filled with zeolite and fluorided water, and the third is filled with zeolite, fluorided water, sodium lactate and the bacterial seed. The first and the second columns were poisoned with sodium azide for preventing the growth of microorganisms. The self-potential (SP) signals associated with physico-chemical alterations in natural zeolite induced by biogeochemical processes are measured by using Cu-CuSO4 gel electrodes. Liquid-phase analysis of samples from column two and three show the reduced concentrations of fluoride and aluminum and it indicates the possibility of precipitation of insoluble aluminum fluoride. This is further confirmed by the presence of fluoride and aluminum in the solid samples as detected by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The distinct SP of the order of -50 mV and 200 mV have been associated with biostimulated fluoride remediation and geochemical fluoride remediation processes respectively. Thus, there is a possibility of non-invasive monitoring of fluoride remediation processes driven by both microbes and chemical processes. It is found that after thirty-day nitrate and sulfate is introduced in column two due chemical interaction between water and natural zeolite. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that a hybrid approach, a combination of ion exchange and adsorption properties of natural zeolite and the bioremediation is more

  7. ASSESSMENT AND TOXICITY OF FLUORIDE FROM GROUND WATER SOURCES IN AND AROUND BAGALKOT DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Kalshetty; S.M.Gaonkar; R. S. Gani; M.B.Kalashetti

    2013-01-01

    Physico-Chemical analysis of ground water samples was carried out from 20 locations of Bagalkot, Badami and Hungund and Ilkal taluks. The analysis of different parameters such as Temperature, pH, EC, TDS and Fluoride were carried out as per the standard methods. All the parameters studied were within the permissible limit except Fluoride content in few locations. The analyzed results indicate the Fluoride concentration in some sampling spots namely Simikeri (Govt. Primary School Campus) of Ba...

  8. Effects of fluoridated drinking water on dental caries in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, G D; Sanders, A E; Do, L; Roberts-Thomson, K; Spencer, A J

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews produce conflicting conclusions regarding dental caries-preventive effects of water fluoridation in adults. The authors investigated the relationship using data from the nationally representative 2004-2006 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health. Effects were compared between the pre-fluoridation cohort born before 1960 (n = 2,270) and the cohort born between 1960 and 1990 (n = 1,509), when widespread implementation of fluoridation increased population coverage from fluoridated water. Examiners recorded decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF-Teeth) and decayed and filled tooth surfaces (DF-Surfaces). Socio-demographic and preventive dental behaviors were included in multivariable least-squares regression models adjusted for potential confounding. In fully adjusted models, > 75% of lifetime exposure to fluoridation relative to fluoridation exposure suggested a dose-response relationship. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses accounting for missing data. In this nationally representative sample of Australian adults, caries-preventive effects of water fluoridation were at least as great in adults born before widespread implementation of fluoridation as after widespread implementation of fluoridation.

  9. A cross-sectional study to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Sunitha, S

    2015-01-01

    Besides dental and skeletal fluorosis, excessive fluoride intake can also affect the central nervous system without first causing the physical deformities associated with skeletal fluorosis. With the existence of widespread endemic fluorosis in India, the possible adverse effect of elevated fluoride in drinking water on the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) level of children is a potentially serious public health problem. This study assessed the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district with different fluoride levels. In this cross-sectional study, 405 school children aged 10-12 years were selected from three villages in Mysore district with normal fluoride (1.20 mg F/l), low fluoride (0.40 mg F/l) and high fluoride (2.20 mg F/l) in their water supplies. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the survey which included socio demographic details, oral hygiene practices, diet history, body mass index and dental fluorosis. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using Raven's colored Progressive Matrices Test. In bivariate analysis, significant relationships were found between water fluoride levels and Intelligence Quotient of school children (P intelligence when compared to school children residing in areas with normal and low water fluoride levels. Thus, children's intelligence can be affected by high water fluoride levels.

  10. Water consumption beliefs and practices in a rural Latino community: implications for fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Teresa; Barker, Judith C; Pollick, Howard; Weintraub, Jane A

    2010-01-01

    Adequate fluoride exposure is especially important for those experiencing disproportionately high prevalence of dental caries, such as rural Latino farm-workers and their children. Water is an important source of fluoride. This qualitative study examined water consumption beliefs and practices among Latino parents of young children in a rural community. Focus groups and open-ended in-depth interviews explored parents beliefs about tap water, beverage preferences, and knowledge of fluoride. A questionnaire documented socio-demographic characteristics and water consumption practices. Qualitative analysis revealed how water-related beliefs, social and cultural context, and local environment shaped participants' water consumption. The vast majority of participants (n = 46) avoided drinking unfiltered tap water based on perceptions that it had poor taste, smell, and color, bolstered by a historically justified and collectively transmitted belief that the public water supply is unsafe. Water quality reports are not accessible to many community residents, all of whom use commercially bottled or filtered water for domestic consumption. Most participants had little knowledge of fluoride beyond a general sense it was beneficial. While most participants expressed willingness to drink fluoridated water, many emphatically stated that they would do so only if it tasted, looked, and smelled better and was demonstrated to be safe. Perceptions about water quality and safety have important implications for adequate fluoride exposure. For vulnerable populations, technical reports of water safety have not only to be believed and trusted but matched or superseded by experience before meaningful change will occur in people's water consumption habits.

  11. External control of fluoridation of public water supplies of the city of Jaguaribara, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandes Peixoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor the levels of fluoride (F in public water supplies in the city of Jaguaribara, Ceará, Brazil. Methods: Water samples were collected from the urban area, at three different points. Samples were collected twice a month, from August 2010 to July 2011. The samples were analyzed in triplicate, using the combined electrode connected to a meter, previously calibrated with standards containing 0.2 to 6.4 ppm F, with Tisab II. Data was analyzed by three criteria: I (Brazil, 1975, II (Ramires et al., 2006 and III (Technical Consensus, 2011. results: Among a total of 72 water samples, we observed an average of 0.55 (± 0.19 ppm F, median of 0.61. According to Criterion I, acceptable levels of fluoride were found in 47.2% of samples, while 44,4% were underfluoridated ( 0.84 ppm F. Based on criterion III, 25% of samples showed negligible risk and benefits concerning dental fluorosis and prevention of dental caries, while 11.1% of the samples presented low risk and benefit and 63.9% pointed to low risk and maximum benefit. Conclusions: Altered levels of fluoride were observed in public water supplies in the studied period. It is suggested the need to improve operational control and also the external control of water fluoridation in Jaguaribara, Ceará, Brazil.

  12. FLUORIDE REDUCTION FROM WATER BY PRECIPITATION WITH CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND LIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Atia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El Oued is known for some diseases caused by fluoride concentration in drinkable water. To reduce it, we have chosen a sample with the highest content of fluoride among many sources in order to precipitate it with Ca(OH2 and CaCl2. In order to get better reduction yield of fluoride, a study has been done on the influencing parameters (concentration, pH, temperature to choose the best conditions. The remove of fluoride is favorable at low concentration of Ca(OH2, at room temperature and normal acidity.

  13. FLUORIDE REDUCTION FROM WATER BY PRECIPITATION WITH CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND LIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Atia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El Oued is known for some diseases caused by fluoride concentration in drinkable water. To reduce it, we have chosen a sample with the highest content of fluoride among many sources in order to precipitate it with Ca(OH2 and CaCl2. In order to get better reduction yield of fluoride, a study has been done on the influencing parameters (concentration, pH, temperature to choose the best conditions. The remove of fluoride is favorable at low concentration of Ca(OH2, at room temperature and normal acidity.

  14. [The influence of high fluoride exposure in drinking water on endocrine hormone in female].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jia-xiang; Yang, Yue-jin; Gong, Biao; Li, Shi-hong; Ding, Zhong; Wen, Shi-bao; Li, Shi-qun; Cheng, Xue-min; Cui, Liu-xin; Ba, Yue

    2013-02-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on reproductive hormones in female. Cross-sectional study was conducted in seven villages of a county in Henan province by using simple random sampling including high fluoride area, defluoridation project area and control area on April, 2011 based on the preliminary study results of fluoride concentration in drinking water. Women who were born and growth or lived in the village at least 5 years and aged 18-48 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. They were divided into high fluoride group (HFG, 116 subjects), defluoridation project group (DFPG, 132 subjects) and control group (CG, 227 subjects) in accordance with the above areas. All subjects accepted questionnaire and physical checkup. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The concentration of fluoride in urine was determined by fluoride ion selective electrode method. The serum level of GnRH was detected using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) were determined by chemiluminesence immunoassay (CLIA). The average age was (39.44 ± 7.34), (38.84 ± 8.03), (37.45 ± 7.70) years old in female from DFPG, HFG and CG respectively, there were no significant differences among the three groups (F = 3.02, P = 0.05). The urine fluoride levels were (1.34 ± 1.07), (2.59 ± 1.57), (0.92 ± 0.46) mg/ml in female from DFPG, HFG and CG respectively, there was a significant difference among three groups (F = 105.38, P 0.05). The serum levels of E2 in Ovulatory period were 67.73, 58.09, 84.96 pg/ml in female from DFPG, HFG and CG respectively. It was lower in HFG than that in CG (H = 4.00, P 0.05). The serum levels of GnRH in Luteal phase were 24.09, 20.16, 23.50 ng/ml in female from DFPG, HFG and CG respectively. It was lower in HFG than that in DFPG (H = 14.14, P 0.05 respectively). The abnormal rates of E2 level were 22.73 (30

  15. Effect of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water on Intelligence Quotient of 12-14-Year-Old Children in Mathura District: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Priyanka; Patthi, Basavaraj; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Agnihotri, Nikhil; Chaudhari, Prajakta; Prasad, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to assess and correlate the influence of the concentration of fluoride in ingested water on the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 12-14-year-old youngsters in Mathura district. A total of 219 children were selected, 75 from low F area, 75 medium F area, and 69 from high F area. The concentration of fluoride in the routinely ingested water was estimated using "Ion Selective Electrode method"; then, Raven's Test was utilized to estimate the IQ of the study participants. Independent t-test, Tukey's post hoc, Chi-square an analysis of variance tests were used to associate the mean and proportion IQ scores in high-, medium-, and low-fluoride regions along with inter-group significant differences (P ≤ 0.05). The comparison of IQ score showed that 35 (46.7%) participants from the high fluoride and 10 (13.3%) participants from the medium-fluoride areas had below average IQ. Further, it was noted that the lowest mean marks were obtained by the children in the high-fluoride region (13.9467) followed by those in medium (18.9467) and uppermost in least noted fluoride area (38.6087). However, gender-based intergroup comparison did not produce a significant relation with fluoride (P ≥ 0.05). Concentration of Fluoride in the ingested water was significantly associated with the IQ of children. It has also coined the proportional variability in mental output in accordance to the ingested fluoride level. As two sides of a coin, fluoride cannot be utterly blamed for a lower intelligence in a population; it puts forward a fact that intelligence is a multifactorial variable with a strategic role played by genetics and nutrition to develop cognitive and psychosomatic activities in an individual.

  16. Effect of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water on Intelligence Quotient of 12–14-Year-Old Children in Mathura District: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Priyanka; Patthi, Basavaraj; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Agnihotri, Nikhil; Chaudhari, Prajakta; Prasad, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to assess and correlate the influence of the concentration of fluoride in ingested water on the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 12–14-year-old youngsters in Mathura district. Materials and Methods: A total of 219 children were selected, 75 from low F area, 75 medium F area, and 69 from high F area. The concentration of fluoride in the routinely ingested water was estimated using “Ion Selective Electrode method”; then, Raven's Test was utilized to estimate the IQ of the study participants. Independent t-test, Tukey's post hoc, Chi-square an analysis of variance tests were used to associate the mean and proportion IQ scores in high-, medium-, and low-fluoride regions along with inter-group significant differences (P ≤ 0.05). Results: The comparison of IQ score showed that 35 (46.7%) participants from the high fluoride and 10 (13.3%) participants from the medium-fluoride areas had below average IQ. Further, it was noted that the lowest mean marks were obtained by the children in the high-fluoride region (13.9467) followed by those in medium (18.9467) and uppermost in least noted fluoride area (38.6087). However, gender-based intergroup comparison did not produce a significant relation with fluoride (P ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: Concentration of Fluoride in the ingested water was significantly associated with the IQ of children. It has also coined the proportional variability in mental output in accordance to the ingested fluoride level. As two sides of a coin, fluoride cannot be utterly blamed for a lower intelligence in a population; it puts forward a fact that intelligence is a multifactorial variable with a strategic role played by genetics and nutrition to develop cognitive and psychosomatic activities in an individual. PMID:29026697

  17. Determination of fluoride source in ground water using petrographic studies in Dashtestan area, south of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The groundwater occurs in Dashtestan area, contains a high level of fluoride. Since groundwater is vastly used for drinking and irrigation purposes, the local residents are at high risk of fluoride toxicity, as already evidenced by the occurrence of dental Fluorosis in many residents. 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected in September, 2009. The results show that in 23 samples the fluoride concentration is above the permissible level (1.5ppm). Petrographic study of lithological units in the catchment area indicates that mica minerals are the most probable source of fluoride content in the study area.

  18. Water defluoridation by hydrotalcite and takovite and subsequent formation of new fluoride-bearing phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Guo, Qingshan

    2013-01-01

    Hydrotalcite, takovite and their calcination products were used to remove fluoride from water at various molar ratios of initial fluoride to solid (F(initial):hydrotalcite or F(initial):takovite) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0, and their theoretical fluoride uptake limit. X-Ray powder diffraction and 19F magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were used to characterize the solid samples and to investigate the fluoride removal mechanisms. Water defluoridation by uncalcined and calcined hydrotalcite attributes mainly to the intercalation of F- into their interlayers and adsorption of F- onto their external surfaces. The fluoride removal percent of calcined hydrotalcite are higher than those of uncalcined hydrotalcite at F(initial):hydrotalcite ratios varying between 0.1 and 1.5, whereas the situation is the reverse at a ratio of 2.0 in the 30 d sorption runs. It was induced by the precipitation of fluoride-bearing nordstrandite and sellaite during a long contact of high concentration fluoride solution with uncalcined hydrotalcite. In contrast, the sorption of fluoride by uncalcined and calcined takovite occurs predominantly on their external surfaces. Fluoride-bearing gibbsite or nordstrandite and NiF2 were formed as the fluoride solutions were treated by uncalcined takovite in the 30 d runs, which enhanced its defluoridation effect. The fluoride removal efficiency of calcined takovite is much lower than uncalcined takovite and calcined hydrotalcite, because the expected restoration of original layered structure of takovite did not happen during the reaction of calcined takovite with the fluoride solution.

  19. Fluoride levels in various black tea, herbal and fruit infusions consumed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Yarat, Aysen; Akyuz, Serap

    2009-07-01

    The fluoride contents were determined by ion-selective electrode in 26 black tea samples originally produced in Turkey, Sri Lanka, India and Kenya, and in 14 herbal and seven fruit infusions originated from Turkey. Fluoride content in black tea infusions ranged from 0.57 to 3.72 mg/L after 5 min of brewing. Higher fluoride levels were found in black teas originated from Turkey when compared with teas originated from Sri Lanka. Moreover higher fluoride levels were determined in black tea bags compared with granular and stick-shaped black teas. However, herbal and fruit infusions were characterized by low values of fluoride (0.02-0.04 mg/L) after 5 min of brewing and increasing brewing time to 10 min caused only slight increases in some infusions. As a result, consuming tea infusions prepared from some black tea available in Turkish market, especially black tea bags, in large quantities may lead to exposion to a high amount of fluoride which may cause dental fluorosis. Although fruit and herbal infusions are safer to consume their fluoride contents are too low for caries prevention. In countries such as Turkey where tea is traditionally consumed, the fluoride concentration and daily safety precautions should be indicated on tea products.

  20. The CATFISH study protocol: an evaluation of a water fluoridation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Michaela; Emsley, Richard; Kelly, Michael; Rooney, Eric; Sutton, Matthew; Tickle, Martin; Wagstaff, Rebecca; Walsh, Tanya; Whittaker, William; Pretty, Iain A

    2016-02-01

    Tooth decay is the commonest disease of childhood. We have known for over 90 years that fluoride can prevent tooth decay; it is present in nearly all toothpastes and can be provided in mouthwashes, gels and varnishes. The oldest method of applying fluoride is via the water supply at a concentration of 1 part per million. The two most important reviews of water fluoridation in the United Kingdom (the York Review and MRC Report on water fluoridation and health) concluded that whilst there was evidence to suggest water fluoridation provided a benefit in caries reduction, there was a need to improve the evidence base in several areas. This study will use a natural experiment to assess the incidence of caries in two geographical areas, one in which the water supply is returned to being fluoridated following a discontinuation of fluoridation and one that continues to have a non-fluoridated water supply. The oral health of two discrete study populations will be evaluated - those born 9 months after the water fluoridation was introduced, and those who were in their 1st year of school after the introduction of fluoridated water. Both populations will be followed prospectively for 5 years using a census approach in the exposed group along with matched numbers recruitment in a non-exposed control. Parents of the younger cohort will complete questionnaires every 6 months with child clinical examination at ages 3 and 5, whilst the older cohort will have clinical examinations only, at approximately 5, 7 and 11 years old. This project provides a unique opportunity to conduct a high quality evaluation of the reintroduction of a water fluoridation scheme, which satisfies the inclusion criteria stipulated by the York systematic review and can address the design issues identified in the MRC report. The research will make a major contribution to the understanding of the costs and effects of water fluoridation in the UK in the 21st Century. Its findings will help inform UK policy on

  1. Water fluoridation, poverty and tooth decay in 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M; Worthington, H

    2000-08-01

    To examine the influence of water fluoridation, and socio-economic deprivation on tooth decay in the permanent dentition of 12 year old children. The North of England, fluoridated Newcastle and non-fluoridated Liverpool. A total of 6,638 children were examined. Multiple Regression analysis of fluoride status, mean electoral ward DMFT in 1992/93 and ward Townsend Scores from the 1991 census. Social deprivation and tooth decay were significantly correlated in areas with and without water fluoridation. Multiple linear regression showed a statistically significant interaction between ward Townsend score, mean DMFT and water fluoridation, showing that the more deprived the area the greater the reduction in tooth decay. At a Townsend score of zero (the English average) there was a predicted 37% reduction in decay in 12-year-olds in fluoridated wards. Tooth decay is strongly associated with social deprivation. The findings confirm that the implementation of water fluoridation has markedly reduced tooth decay in 12-year-old children and that socio-economic dental health inequalities are reduced.

  2. THE EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON CONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULFATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on the Information Collection Rule survey results of 600 large utilities, approximately 50% of them fluoridate their water and of those, 15-20% do so at the location of coagulant addition. In this case, the effect of fluoride on the coagulation process, floc properties, coa...

  3. Biosorption of fluoride ion from water using the seeds of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Said

    Conventional water treatment technologies for the removal of fluoride ion may not be feasible for developing countries due to their high investment and operational costs. The aim of this study was therefore, to investigate the fluoride biosorption potential of the seeds of the cabbage tree (Moringa stenopetala). The influence ...

  4. Some special features of the caries preventive effect of water-fluoridation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer Dirks, O.; Houwink, B.; Kwant, G.W.

    In March 1953 water-fluoridation was started in Tiel, the Netherlands. From the caries numbers of three age classes the differences in caries inhibition for the various teeth and for the various tooth surfaces are shown after 5 1/2 of fluoridation. The free smooth surfaces (buccal and labial)

  5. Fluoridation Status of U. S. Army Conus Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-30

    water source and date the water was analyzed. 3. The process of fluoridating or defluoridating water . a. Are chemicals used in the fluoridation... defluoridated ? Some installations are supplied water which is naturally fluoridated above optimal limits and there is need to remove a portion of the...Seven reported using no chemicals with 4 recording below 0.7 ppm levels of fluoride in the drinking water . Defluoridation was used at two installations

  6. A comparative in vitro study on fluoride release and water sorption of different flowable esthetic restorative materials

    OpenAIRE

    Harhash, Asmaa Youssif; ElSayad, Iman Ibrahim; Zaghloul, Ahmad G. S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate fluoride release and water sorption of three flowable esthetic restorative materials: a giomer, a fluoride-releasing resin composite, and a nonfluoridated resin composite. Materials and Methods: Ten samples from a giomer, a fluoride releasing nano-hybrid, and a nonfluoridated nano-hybrid composite were prepared and immersed in deionized water. Fluoride measurements were done using an ion-specific electrode attached to a microprocessor-bas...

  7. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  8. A Self-assembled Fluoride-Water Cyclic Cluster of $[F(H_2O)]_4^{4-}$ in a Molecular Box

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Md Alamgir; Pramanik, Avijit; Wong, Bryan M; Haque, Syed A; Powell, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    We present an unprecedented fluoride-water cyclic cluster of $[F(H_2O)]_4^{4-}$ assembled in a cuboid-shaped molecular box formed by two large macrocycles. Structural characterization reveals that the $[F(H_2O)]_4^{4-}$ is assembled by strong H-bonding interactions (OH...F = 2.684(3) to 2.724(3) {\\AA}), where a fluoride anion plays the topological role of a water molecule in the classical cyclic water octamer. The interaction of fluoride was further confirmed by $^{19}$F NMR and $^1$H NMR spectroscopies, indicating the encapsulation of the anionic species within the cavity in solution. High level DFT calculations and Bader topological analyses fully support the crystallographic results, demonstrating that the bonding arrangement in the fluoride-water cluster arises from the unique geometry of the host.

  9. Fluoride, boron and nitrate toxicity in ground water of northwest Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Veena; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Mukesh; Yadav, B S

    2010-02-01

    The study was carried out to access the fluoride, boron, and nitrate concentrations in ground water samples of different villages in Indira Gandhi, Bhakra, and Gang canal catchment area of northwest Rajasthan, India. Rural population, in the study site, is using groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes, without any quality test of water. All water samples (including canal water) were contaminated with fluoride. Fluoride, boron, and nitrate were observed in the ranges of 0.50-8.50, 0.0-7.73, and 0.0-278.68 mg/l, respectively. Most of the water samples were in the categories of fluoride 1.50 mg/l, of boron 2.0-4.0 mg/l, and of nitrate < 45 mg/l. There was no industrial pollution in the study site; hence, availability of these compounds in groundwater was due to natural reasons and by the use of chemical fertilizers.

  10. Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlock, Katherine; Johnson, Darren; Cornell, Cathy; Parnell, Shawn; Meshinchi, Soheil; Baker, K Scott; Englund, Janet A

    2015-05-01

    Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Does fluoride in the water close the dental caries gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, R; Jamieson, L M; Ha, D; Ellershaw, A; Luzzi, L

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous children experience significantly more dental caries than non-Indigenous children. This study assessed if access to fluoride in the water closed the gap in dental caries between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. Data from four states and two territories were sourced from the Child Dental Health Survey (CDHS) conducted in 2010. The outcomes were dental caries in the deciduous and permanent dentitions, and the explanatory variables were Indigenous status and access to fluoridated water (≥0.5 mg/L) prior to 2008. Dental caries prevalence and severity for Indigenous and non-Indigenous children, in both dentitions, was lower in fluoridated areas compared to non-fluoridated areas. Among non-Indigenous children, there was a 50.9% difference in mean dmft scores in fluoridated (1.70) compared to non-fluoridated (2.86) areas. The difference between Indigenous children in fluoridated (3.29) compared to non-fluoridated (4.16) areas was 23.4%. Among non-Indigenous children there was a 79.7% difference in the mean DMFT scores in fluoridated (0.68) compared to non-fluoridated (1.58) areas. The difference between Indigenous children in fluoridated (1.59) and non-fluoridated (2.23) areas was 33.5%. Water fluoridation is effective in reducing dental caries, but does not appear to close the gap between non-Indigenous children and Indigenous children. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  12. A critique of recent economic evaluations of community water fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Lee; Thiessen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although community water fluoridation (CWF) results in a range of potential contaminant exposures, little attention has been given to many of the possible impacts. A central argument for CWF is its cost-effectiveness. The U.S. Government states that $1 spent on CWF saves $38 in dental treatment costs. Objective: To examine the reported cost-effectiveness of CWF. Methods: Methods and underlying data from the primary U.S. economic evaluation of CWF are analyzed and corrected calculations are described. Other recent economic evaluations are also examined. Results: Recent economic evaluations of CWF contain defective estimations of both costs and benefits. Incorrect handling of dental treatment costs and flawed estimates of effectiveness lead to overestimated benefits. The real-world costs to water treatment plants and communities are not reflected. Conclusions: Minimal correction reduced the savings to $3 per person per year (PPPY) for a best-case scenario, but this savings is eliminated by the estimated cost of treating dental fluorosis. PMID:25471729

  13. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  14. [Fluoride in drinking water in Cuba and its association with geological and geographical variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Liliam Cuéllar; Melián, Maricel García

    2003-11-01

    To determine the association between different concentrations of the fluoride ion in drinking water and some geological and geographical variables in Cuba, by using a geographic information system. From November 1998 to October 1999 we studied the fluoride concentration in the sources of drinking water for 753 Cuban localities that had at least 1 000 inhabitants. For the information analysis we utilized the MapInfo Professional version 5.5 geographic information system, using the overlaying method. The study variables were the concentration of the fluoride ion in the water sources, the geological characteristics of the area, the alignments (geological characteristics that were found together), the types of water sources, and whether an area was a plain or mountainous. The results were grouped by locality and municipality. In 83.1% of the localities, the water samples were collected from wells and springs, and the remaining 16.9% came from dams and rivers. Of the 753 localities studied, 675 of them (89.6%) had low or medium fluoride concentrations (under 0.7 mg/L). The eastern region of the country was the one most affected by high fluoride concentrations in the waters, followed by the central region of the country. The majority of the localities with high natural fluoride concentrations were in areas located on Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks. The presence of fluoride in the drinking waters was related to the alignments with the earth's crust, in rock complexes of volcanic-sedimentary origin and of intrusive origin and also in carbonate rocks. However, the highest fluoride concentrations generally coincided with rock complexes of volcanic-sedimentary origin and of intrusive origin. All the localities with high fluoride concentrations in the water were associated with wells. The fluoride concentration is low or medium in the drinking water sources for 89.6% of the Cuban localities with at least 1 000 inhabitants. Geological and geographical characteristics can help

  15. The fluoride content of drinking water and caries experience in 15-19 year old school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, D M; Denloye, O O; Dosumu, O O

    2008-03-01

    Fluoride, a trace element with anticariogenic benefit may either occur naturally or be added to drinking water sources. This study aimed at determining the fluoride level of the different drinking water sources in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria and to relate this with the caries experience of secondary school children in the city. Sixteen samples of the drinking water sources from various locations in the five local government areas of the city were analysed for fluoride concentration. The locations were selected around the vicinities of the secondary schools used for caries study. Nine hundred and fifty five students aged 15-19 years randomly selected from eleven secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis were examined for dental caries over a period of 4-5 months. Only teeth with obvious cavitations were recorded as being carious using the WHO standard method. Teeth grossly covered with calculus and third molars were excluded. No radiograph was taken. The fluoride level of the different water sources was between 0.02 and 0.03 ppm. Forty-four (4.6%) of the children had dental caries. There was no statistically significant difference between either DMFT and gender (t = 0.67, p = 0.91) or DMFT and age (F = 1.488, p = 0.224). However, females had a slightly higher mean DMFT than males and the highest mean DMFT (2.67 +/- 1.15) was found among the 19-year-old children. Twenty-three (52.3%) of the students with caries had only one carious tooth while only two had four carious teeth each. In conclusion, both the fluoride level and caries prevalence were low.

  16. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Caries affected by calcium and fluoride in drinking water and family income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Spliid, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , independently against caries. From the model, the relative importance of fluoride and calcium to protect against caries is quantified. The relationship between caries and family income is also highly significant. It is illustrated how the linear model can be applied in planning and analyzing drinking water...... and fluoride can be described as independent effects of the two ions or, alternatively, in the form of saturation with respect to fluorite (CaF2). A general linear model describes this relationship with high significance and the model confirms the important protective effect of calcium and fluoride......Water quality and socioeconomics influence caries in populations. This study broadens previous studies on how caries is associated with fluoride and calcium in drinking water and with family income by quantifying the combined effect of the three independent variables. The effects of calcium...

  18. Fluoride concentration of drinking water and dental fluorosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Goodarzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, a number of studies have investigated the impact of fluoride concentration of drinking water on dental fluorosis. These Studies should be reviewed to provide a new outlook on the analysis of the causes and effects of dental fluorosis in specific regions. The objective of this study was to systematically review the fluoride concentration of drinking water and investigate its relation to the frequency of dental fluorosis in Iran. Materials and Methods: Dean′s index was used to classify data, and a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain summary measure with 95% confidence interval (CI. In this regard, Stata/SE 11.1 was employed for data analysis based on random effect models for reporting the results. In this systematic review, Scientific Information Database (SID and IranMedex databases were searched and studies were included based on specific criteria. Data validity was assessed using the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE checklist adapted for cross-sectional study designs. Furthermore, a series of predefined keywords were used, and the combination of these keywords were considered using operators. The inconsistency was examined using the χ2 test at a significance level of 10%. In addition, heterogeneity was quantified across studies using the І2 statistic. The difference between study variance was analyzed based on τ2 statistic. Results: In the age group of 6-18 years old based on the fluoride level in drinking water and exposure time, there was significant heterogeneity among the studies in all subgroups for determining the frequency of dental fluorosis and assessing the effect of other variables. Conclusions: The variables, water fluoride exposure time, and any exposure to fluoride are considered as confounding factors. Analyzing the subgroups and examining the heterogeneity showed that the results of the studies in all subgroups cannot be pooled.

  19. Dental fluorosis: concentration of fluoride in drinking water and consumption of bottled beverages in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, N; Torres-Mendoza, N; Borges-Yáñez, A; Irigoyen-Camacho, M E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify dental fluorosis prevalence and to analyze its association with tap water fluoride concentration and beverage consumption in school children from the city of Oaxaca, who were receiving fluoridated salt. A cross-sectional study was performed on elementary public school children. Dean's Index was applied to assess dental fluorosis. The parents of the children who were studied completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics and type of beverages consumed by their children. A total of 917 school children participated in this study. Dental fluorosis prevalence was 80.8%. The most frequent fluorosis category was very mild (41.0%), and 16.4% of the children were in the mild category. The mean water fluoride concentration was 0.43 ppm (±0.12). No association was detected between tap water fluoride concentration and fluorosis severity. The multinomial regression model showed an association among the mild fluorosis category and age (OR = 1.25, [95% CI 1.04, 1.50]) and better socio-economic status (OR = 1.78, [95% CI 1.21, 2.60]), controlling for fluoride concentration in water. Moderate and severe fluorosis were associated with soft drink consumption (OR = 2.26, [95% IC 1.01, 5.09]), controlling for age, socio-economic status, and water fluoride concentration. The prevalence of fluorosis was high. Mild fluorosis was associated with higher socio-economic status, while higher fluorosis severity was associated with soft drink consumption.

  20. Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water Using Modified Immobilized Activated Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeza Rafique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified immobilized activated alumina (MIAA prepared by sol-gel method. The modification was done by adding a specific amount of alum during the sol formation step. The fluoride removal efficiency of MIAA was 1.35 times higher as compared to normal immobilized activated alumina. A batch adsorption study was performed as a function of adsorbent dose, contact time, stirring rate, and initial fluoride concentration. More than 90% removal of fluoride was achieved within 60 minutes of contact time. The adsorption potential of MIAA was compared with activated charcoal which showed that the removal efficiency was about 10% more than the activated charcoal. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms fitted well for the fluoride adsorption on MIAA with the regression coefficient R2 of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. MIAA can both be regenerated thermally and chemically. Adsorption experiments using MIAA were employed on real drinking water samples from a fluoride affected area. The study showed that modified immobilized activated alumina is an effective adsorbent for fluoride removal.

  1. The relationships between low levels of urine fluoride on children's intelligence, dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunpeng; YanhuiGao; Sun, Huixin; Han, Hepeng; Wang, Wei; Ji, Xiaohong; Liu, Xuehui; Sun, Dianjun

    2011-02-28

    There has been public concern about children's intellectual performance at high levels of fluoride exposure, but few studies provide data directly to the question of whether low fluoride exposure levels less than 3.0 mg/L in drinking water adversely associated with children's intelligence. In this survey, we investigated the effects of low fluoride exposure on children's intelligence and dental fluorosis. 331 children aged from 7 to 14 were randomly recruited from four sites in Hulunbuir City, China. Intelligence was assessed using Combined Raven Test-The Rural in China while dental fluorosis was diagnosed with Dean's index. Mean value of fluoride in drinking water was 1.31±1.05 mg/L (range 0.24-2.84). Urine fluoride was inversely associated with IQ in the multiple linear regression model when children's age as a covariate variable was taken into account (Pdental fluorosis (Pdental health and confirmed the dose-response relationships between urine fluoride and IQ scores as well as dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik; von Platen-Hallermund, Frants; Sckerl, Halfdan; Carlsen, Anders; Larsen, M Joost; Poulsen, Sven

    2010-06-01

    To study the association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. The study linked registry data on fluoride concentration in drinking water over a 10-year period with data on dental caries from the Danish National Board of Health database on child dental health for 5-year-old children born in 1989 and 1999, and for 15-year-old children born in 1979 and 1989. The number of children included in the cohorts varied between 41.000 and 48.000. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlations, adjusting for gender and taxable family income as a proxy variable for socioeconomic status.   Fluoride concentration in drinking water varied considerably within the country from very low (fluoride concentration in drinking water was found in both primary and permanent teeth. The risk was reduced by approximately 20% already at the lowest level of fluoride exposure (0.125-0.25mg/l). At the highest level of fluoride exposure (>1 mg/l), a reduction of approximately 50% was found. Similar findings were found if analysis was limited to children residing in the same place during the entire study period. The study confirmed previous findings of an inverse relation between fluoride concentration in the drinking water and dental caries in children. This correlation was found in spite of the extensive use of fluoridated toothpaste and caries-preventive programs implemented by the municipal dental services in Denmark. Linking Danish health registers with environmental and administrative registers offers an opportunity for obtaining sample sizes large enough to identify health effect, which otherwise could not be identified. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Water Atomization of Barium Fluoride: Calcium Fluoride for Enhanced Flow Characteristics of PS304 Feedstock Powder Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    PS304 is a plasma spray deposited solid lubricant coating with feedstock composed of NiCr, Cr2O3, Ag, and BaF2-CaF2 powders. The effects of rounded BaF2-CaF2 particles on the gravity-fed flow characteristics of PS304 feedstock have been investigated. The BaF2-CaF2 powder was fabricated by water atomization using four sets of process parameters. Each of these powders was then characterized by microscopy and classified by screening to obtain 45 to 106 micron particles and added incrementally from 0 to 10 wt% to the other constituents of the PS304 feedstock, namely nichrome, chromia, and silver powders. The relationship between feedstock flow rate, measured with the Hall flowmeter, and concentration of fluorides was found to be linear in each case. The slopes of the lines were between those of the linear relationships previously reported using angular and spherical fluorides and were closer to the relationship predicted using the rule of mixtures. The results offer a fluoride fabrication technique potentially more cost-effective than gas atomization processes or traditional comminution processes.

  4. Estimated drinking water fluoride exposure and risk of hip fracture: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsman, P; Ekstrand, J; Granath, F; Ekbom, A; Fored, C M

    2013-11-01

    The cariostatic benefit from water fluoridation is indisputable, but the knowledge of possible adverse effects on bone and fracture risk due to fluoride exposure is ambiguous. The association between long-term (chronic) drinking water fluoride exposure and hip fracture (ICD-7-9: '820' and ICD-10: 'S72.0-S72.2') was assessed in Sweden using nationwide registers. All individuals born in Sweden between January 1, 1900 and December 31, 1919, alive and living in their municipality of birth at the time of start of follow-up, were eligible for this study. Information on the study population (n = 473,277) was linked among the Swedish National In-Patient Register (IPR), the Swedish Cause of Death Register, and the Register of Population and Population Changes. Estimated individual drinking water fluoride exposure was stratified into 4 categories: very low, fluoride exposure and the occurrence of hip fracture. The risk estimates did not change in analyses restricted to only low-trauma osteoporotic hip fractures. Chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not seem to have any important effects on the risk of hip fracture, in the investigated exposure range.

  5. Dental fluorosis in children in areas with fluoride-polluted air, high-fluoride water, and low-fluoride water as well as low-fluoride air: A study of deciduous and permanent teeth in the Shaanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, J.P.; Bardsen, A.; Astrom, A.N.; Huang, R.Z.; Wang, Z.L.; Bjorvatn, K. [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Oral Science

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess dental fluorosis (DF) in the deciduous and permanent teeth of children in areas with high-F coal (area A) and high-F water (area C) compared to children from area B, with low-F water and coal. DF was found to be prevalent in both dentitions in areas A and C. Similarity in percentages of DF may indicate that indoor air with about to 60 {mu}g F/m{sup 3} and drinking water with 3.6 mg F/L are similarly toxic to developing permanent teeth. The percentage of deciduous teeth with DF was significantly lower in area A compared to area C. Where low-F coal and low-F water were used (area B), similar to 20% of permanent teeth had DF, indicating a relatively low tolerance to fluoride in Chinese children brought up under the present living conditions.

  6. Adsorptive removal of fluoride from drinking water using porous starch loaded with common metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingyun; Chen, Guijie; Peng, Chuanyi; Qiao, Huanhuan; Ke, Fei; Hou, Ruyan; Li, Daxiang; Cai, Huimei; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-03-15

    In this study, porous corn starch was loaded with Zr, Al, Fe or La to produce the composites PS-Zr, PS-Al, PS-Fe and PS-La. Fluoride adsorption from water was tested at different biosorbent dosages, contact times, solution pH values and initial fluoride concentrations. The biosorbents were characterized by microscopy and spectroscopy. PS-Zr was shown superior defluoridation capacity over a pH range of 3.0-9.0. The adsorption process could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model and the Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacity calculated to be for PS-Zr was 25.41mg/g. Our results revealed that PS-Zr could be employed as an effective biosorbent for removal of fluoride from drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water fluoridation in the Blue Mountains reduces risk of tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R W; Hsiau, A C Y; Dennison, P J; Patterson, A; Jalaludin, B

    2009-12-01

    In April 1992, the fluoride concentration in the Blue Mountains water supply was adjusted to 1 mg/L. Baseline dmft/DMFT has been determined in children attending schools in the region and in the adjacent reference region of Hawkesbury, fluoridated since 1968. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the water fluoridation programme in the Blue Mountains. In 2003, children attending the same schools were sampled. Residential history data were obtained by questionnaire and caries experience was assessed according to WHO guidelines. The analysis was restricted to lifelong resident children aged 5-11 years. The baseline and follow-up dmft scores for Blue Mountains children aged 5-8 years were 2.36 and 0.67, respectively. The age-adjusted decrease in odds of experiencing one or more dmft due to fluoridation was 0.26 (CI(95) 0.19, 0.37). The corresponding DMFT scores for Blue Mountains children aged 8-11 were 0.76 and 0.21 and the corresponding decrease in odds of experiencing one or more DMFT due to fluoridation was 0.25 (CI(95) 0.16, 0.40). Tooth decay reduction observed in the Blue Mountains corresponds to high rates reported elsewhere and demonstrates the substantial benefits of water fluoridation.

  8. Economic Evaluation of Community Water Fluoridation: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Tao; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K

    2016-06-01

    A recently updated Community Guide systematic review of the effectiveness of community water fluoridation once again found evidence that it reduces dental caries. Although community water fluoridation was found to save money in a 2002 Community Guide systematic review, the conclusion was based on studies conducted before 1995. Given the update to the effectiveness review, re-examination of the benefit and cost of community water fluoridation is necessary. Using methods developed for Community Guide economic reviews, 564 studies were identified within a search period from January 1995 to November 2013. Ten studies were included in the current review, with four covering community fluoridation benefits only and another six providing both cost and benefit information. Additionally, two of the six studies analyzed the cost effectiveness of community water fluoridation. All currencies were converted to 2013 dollars. The analysis was conducted in 2014. The benefit-only studies used regression analysis, showing that different measures of dental costs were always lower in communities with water fluoridation. For the six cost-benefit studies, per capita annual intervention cost ranged from $0.11 to $4.92 for communities with at least 1,000 population, and per capita annual benefit ranged from $5.49 to $93.19. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from 1.12:1 to 135:1, and these ratios were positively associated with community population size. Recent evidence continues to indicate that the economic benefit of community water fluoridation exceeds the intervention cost. Further, the benefit-cost ratio increases with the community population size. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. [Survey on children's dental fluorosis and fluoride content in urine after defluridation to improve drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Zhang, J; Chen, Z; Du, G

    2000-07-01

    The authors surveyed the dental fluorosis and fluoride content in urine of 8-12 years old children's in 1993 to 1999 for the evaluation of the efficiency to prevent endemic fluorosis after defluoridation to change drinking water source in Guangdong Province. Three villages: slight fluorosis area in Dazhai village, middle fluorosis area in Hupi village and severe fluorosis area in Anquan village in Fengshun County were surveyed. The results showed that the fluoride contents in drinking water were 1 mg/L (or less) in Anquan village, at the same time the prevalence of dental fluorosis and indexes of dental fluorosis were decreasing as changing water time. Fluoride contents in urine were normal. But in other two villages, the fluoride contents in drinking water exceeded 1 mg/L, therefore the children's prevalence rates and indexes of dental fluorosis were higher than the national standards. It is important to keep fluoride contents in drinking water under 1 mg/L for preventing endemic fluorosis by defluoridation to improve drinking water.

  10. Impact of fluoride and other aquatic parameters on radon concentration in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, Isam; Baeckstroem, Mattias; Karlsson, Stefan; Lund, Eva; Pettersson, H.B.L. E-mail: hakan.pettersson@lio.se

    2004-01-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) accumulation in water in relation to stable elements was studied for the purpose of determining factors influencing the transfer of {sup 222}Rn to and from water. In 72 groundwater samples, {sup 222}Rn and about 70 analytical parameters were analysed using radiometric and ICP-MS techniques. Using multivariate statistics (partial least squares), it was observed that {sup 222}Rn has a positive correlation with fluoride and uranium. The correlation with fluoride was further investigated by a laboratory time-scale experiment to measure the emanation of {sup 222}Rn from water as a function of fluoride, pH and carbonate. The transfer of {sup 222}Rn from water was measured by continuous monitoring in air in a closed loop set-up. It was observed that fluoride in water adhere or trap {sup 222}Rn preferably in acidic water (pH 3). It is suspected that natural physical processes (such as diffusion and microbubble phenomenon) are less effective to transport {sup 222}Rn in the presence of fluoride.

  11. Aluminium fumarate metal-organic framework: A super adsorbent for fluoride from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmakar, Sankha [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Dechnik, Janina [Institut fur Anorganische Chemie und Strukturchemie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40204 Düsseldorf (Germany); Janiak, Christoph, E-mail: janiak@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institut fur Anorganische Chemie und Strukturchemie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40204 Düsseldorf (Germany); De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Maximum adsorption of fluoride on AlFu MOF occurred at 293 K. • Maximum adsorption capacity for fluoride was 600 mg/g at 293 K. • The MOF exhibited adequate charge characteristic and high surface area (1156 m{sup 2}/g). • Second order reaction and intra particle diffusion (first 1.5 h) was prevalent. • AlFu MOF exhibited high potential for fluoride removal from water. - Abstract: Potential of aluminium fumarate metal organic framework (MOF) for fluoride removal from groundwater has been explored in this work. The laboratory produced MOF exhibited characteristics similar to the commercial version. MOF was found to be micro-porous with surface area of 1156 m{sup 2}/g and average pore size 17 Å. Scanning electron micrograph of the AlFu MOF showed minute pores and texture was completely different from either of the parent materials. Change in the composition of AlFu MOF after fluoride adsorption was evident from powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal stability of the AlFu MOF up to 700 K was established by thermo-gravimetric analysis. Incorporation of fluoride phase after adsorption was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence analysis. As observed from FTIR study, hydroxyl ions in AlFu MOF were substituted by fluoride. 0.75 g/l AlFu MOF was good enough for complete removal of 30 mg/l fluoride concentration in feed solution. The maximum adsorption capacity for fluoride was 600, 550, 504 and 431 mg/g, respectively, at 293, 303, 313 and 333 K.

  12. Fluoride level in public water supplies of cities from the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil Concentração de flúor nas águas de abastecimento público de municípios da região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemre Adas Saliba

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It may be difficult for small and medium cities to obtain information about the fluoride content of public water, because of the lack of equipments and technicians. This study aimed to analyze the fluoride levels of the water supplied by the public treatment stations of 40 cities situated in the northwest region of São Paulo State, during a period of 6 months, to verify if fluoridation occurs in a continuous manner and if the fluoride levels are within the recommended. Maps of the water distribution system were obtained from the water treatment companies and utilized to randomize the addresses of the collection sites, so that they included all regions with treated water sources. One water sample by month was collected and analyzed in duplicate using an ion-specific-electrode. Samples with 0.6 to 0.8 mgF/L were considered acceptable. In the 38 cities that regularly provided the samples in the 6 months of the study, water from 144 collection sites was collected and a total of 864 samples were analyzed, of which 61.81 percent were classified as unacceptable. It was observed that 33 cities performed fluoridation but in 78.79 percent of these cities there were variations in the fluoride level among the sites and in the same site during the period of study. One can conclude that most of these cities do not control the fluoride levels in the public water, since fluoridation occurs in a discontinuous manner and in most of the situations not within the recommended concentrations.Municípios de pequeno e médio porte podem ter dificuldades em realizar o controle da adição de flúor nas águas de abastecimento público em função da falta de infra-estrutura laboratorial e técnica. Este estudo realizou análises do teor de flúor das águas de abastecimento de 40 municípios situados na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, durante 6 meses, para verificar se a adição ocorre de forma contínua e se os teores adicionados encontram-se dentro dos par

  13. Qualidade da água tratada: avaliação dos teores de flúor em 10 anos de heterocontrole no município de Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil | Quality of treated water: evaluation of fluoride levels in 10 years of heterocontrol in a city of the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Kuhnen

    2017-02-01

    Catarina, systematizing data from 10 years of external control (2004-2013. Monthly, every other day, 67 water samples from 11 points of supply were collected, totaling 737 samples. To determine the fluoride concentration in the water samples, an electrometric method was used. After analysis, the samples were classified according to the criteria of Ordinance nº 635/Bsd of 26/12/1975 (adequate or inadequate and the criteria proposed by the Ministry of Health Collaborating Centre for Surveillance of Oral Health (CECOL of the University of São Paulo (benefits and health risks of the population. Of the samples analyzed, 58.6% had adequate levels of fluoride and 51.1% had maximum benefit and low risk, according to each criterion. Of the inadequate samples of fluoride concentration, 34.7% stood at levels above 1.0 mg L-1 and 6.7% at low levels of fluoride in water (<0.7 mg L-1. For CECOL criteria, 45% of the samples were characterized by moderate to very high risk of developing fluorosis (fluoride content between 0.95 and ≥ 1.45 mg. L-1. It is recommended to adopt effective measures to ensure that the population ingests treated water quality, including appropriate levels of fluoride in the water and the maintenance of health surveillance by the Public Health authorities.

  14. [Influence of co-existing chloride on fluoride removal from drinking water by nanofiltration membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Fang; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2009-03-15

    The influence of co-existing chloride to defluoridation of groundwater using nanofiltration membrane and membrane fouling were studied. The results show that nanofiltration has retention effect to all co-existing anion. When influent fluoride concentration was less than 6 mg/L, the fluoride concentration in permeated water was less than 1.2 mg/L which could reach the drinking water standard in rural area. The fluoride retention rate decreases with the increase of influent fluoride concentration or co-existing chloride concentration. The decreasing percentage of fluoride retention rate is the same when Cl- concentration increased 1 mol or F- concentration increased 0.1 mol. The fluoride retention rate increased when influent chloride concentration exceeded 220 mg/L. But the variation had no significant change. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and its energetic chart analysis apparatus, X-ray diffration (XRD) analysis showed that the main fouling component was CaCO3. The fouling membrane could be recovered flux using citric acid and ammonia cleaning method.

  15. Influence of methionine and vitamin E on fluoride concentration in bones and teeth of rats exposed to sodium fluoride in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Iwona; Birkner, Ewa; Gutowska, Izabela; Romuk, Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-06-01

    Increased exposure to fluorine-containing compounds leads to accumulation of fluorides in hard tissues of bones and teeth, which may result in numerous skeletal and dental disorders. This study evaluates the influence of methionine and vitamin E on fluoride concentration in bones and teeth of rats subjected to long-term exposure to sodium fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted in 30 3-month-old female Wistar FL rats. The animals were divided into five groups, six rats per group. The control group consisted of rats receiving only distilled water as drinking water. All other groups received NaF in the amount of 10 mg/kg of body mass/day in their drinking water. In addition, respective animal groups received: NaF + Met group--10 mg of methionine/kg of body mass/day, NaF + Met + E group--10 mg of methionine/kg of body mass/day and 3 mg of vitamin E (tocopheroli acetas)/rat/day and NaF + E group--3 mg of vitamin E/rat/day. Femoral bones and incisor teeth were collected for the study, and the fluoride concentration was determined using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Fluoride concentration in both bones and teeth was found to be higher in the NaF and NaF + Met groups compared to the control group. In groups NaF + Met + E and NaF + E, the study material contained much lower fluoride concentration compared to the NaF group, while the effect was more prominent in the NaF + E group. The results of the studies indicate that methionine and vitamin E have opposite effects on accumulation of fluorides in hard tissue in rats. By stimulating fluoride accumulation, methionine reduces the adverse effect of fluorides on soft tissue, while vitamin E, which prevents excessive accumulation of fluorides in bones and teeth, protects these tissues from fluorosis. Therefore, it seems that combined application of both compounds would be optimal for the prevention of the adverse effects of chronic fluoride intoxication.

  16. removal of excess fluoride from water by aluminum hydroxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of untreated hydrated alumina (UHA) and thermally treated hydrated alumina (THA) obtained from hydrolysis of locally manufactured aluminum sulfate to remove fluoride from aqueous solution has been investigated in batch and continuous operation. The parameters considered were contact time and ...

  17. Adsorptive removal of fluoride from water using nanoscale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intraparticle diffusion was not a rate-controlling step for the adsorption process. Thus, the overall study indicates that nano-AlOOH is an efficient defluoridating material. KEY WORDS: Nanoscale AlOOH, Defluoridation, Fluoride removal efficiency, Adsorption capacity, Adsorption kinetics, Adsorption mechanism. Bull.

  18. Een ionchromatografische methode voor de bepaling van fluoride in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld WA van den; Cleven RFMJ; Neele J; LAC

    1998-01-01

    Dit rapport bevat resultaten van het onderzoek naar het ontwikkelen van een geautomatiseerde ionchromatografische methode voor de bepaling van fluoride, acetaat en formiaat in diverse waterige milieu's. Het onderzoek heeft geresulteerd in een betrouwbare, selectieve en gevoelige methode

  19. The accuracy of fluoride measurement in water and its implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    of a group of determinants which is measured every third month on three samples (one synthetic and two natural samples). The latest annual data set for 2002 was retrieved, during which a total of 631 fluoride values were returned from 55 laboratories. No outliers are removed in the reporting process adopted by the SABS, ...

  20. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 2: the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Taylor, Andrew; Goodwin, Michaela; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-08-21

    To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS) was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman's rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively). Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability.

  1. Preliminary human health risk assessment of arsenic and fluoride in tap water from Zacatecas, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Acuña, Mónica I; Mercado-Reyes, Marisa; Alegría-Torres, Jorge A; Mejía-Saavedra, José J

    2016-08-01

    Zacatecas state is located in the central area of Mexico, where the underground water contains elevated quantities of natural arsenic and fluoride. In order to estimate health risk associated with human exposure to these pollutants, tap water samples from the southern-central region of the state were analyzed. Ninety percent of the samples exceeded the levels of arsenic established by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 0.01 mg/L and 43 % exceeded the limit established by the NOM-127-SSA1(1) of 0.025 mg/L. Forty-three percent of the samples had fluoride levels above the Mexican regulation limit of 1.5 mg/L (NOM-127-SSA1). We used WHO and EPA's health risk assessment method, we estimated 80 % of the inhabitants of sites studied could be exposed to arsenic levels higher than those recommended by EPA and the WHO, 22 % could be exposed to fluoride levels higher than those recommended by EPA, and 16 % of the local population may be in risk of suffering dental fluorosis.

  2. SITUATION OF FLUORIDES RATE IN WATERS AND MAJOR CONSUMED FOOD IN WILAYA EL-OUED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zobeidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mineral salts in the drinking water, beneficial or harmful depending on their concentration, are known for many years and thus the problem posed by fluoride ions in the waters of the region (Fluorosis Dental and skeletal. This study proposes, the estimated daily intake of fluoride from its water distribution and the main food consumed per capita in the region of El-Oued (dates, tea, couscous, lentils, carrots, potatoes, pumpkin ..., which has a significant content of fluoride in their composition. In addition to the arid climatic conditions, the air temperature is very high in summer, leads to a strong human perspiration. This preliminary result leads us to propose a standard fluoride-specific region of El-Oued. The results showed that the majority of water samples and analyzed the main foods of the region of El-Oued is charged fluoride ions and exceed the maximum dose recommended for adults from 0.05 to 0.07 mg / kg / day.

  3. SITUATION OF FLUORIDES RATE IN WATERS AND MAJOR CONSUMED FOOD IN WILAYA EL-OUED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zobeidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mineral salts in the drinking water, beneficial or harmful depending on their concentration, are known for many years and thus the problem posed                     by fluoride ions in the waters of the region (Fluorosis Dental and skeletal. This                  study proposes, the estimated daily intake of fluoride from its water distribution and           the main food consumed per capita in the region of El-Oued (dates, tea,                          couscous, lentils, carrots, potatoes, pumpkin ..., which has a significant content of fluoride in their composition. In addition to the arid climatic conditions, the air temperature is very high in summer, leads to a strong human perspiration. This preliminary result leads us to propose a standard fluoride-specific region of El-Oued. The results showed that the majority of water samples and analyzed the main foods of the region of El-Oued is charged fluoride ions and exceed the maximum dose recommended for adults from 0.05 to 0.07 mg / kg / day.

  4. Plasma fluoride level as a predictor of voriconazole-induced periostitis in patients with skeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Woo J; Scheller, Erica L; Suneja, Anupam; Livermore, Jacob A; Malani, Anurag N; Moudgal, Varsha; Kerr, Lisa E; Ferguson, Eric; Vandenberg, David M

    2014-11-01

    Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal medication used for prophylaxis or to treat invasive fungal infections. Inflammation of the periosteum resulting in skeletal pain, known as periostitis, is a reported side effect of long-term voriconazole therapy. The trifluorinated molecular structure of voriconazole suggests a possible link between excess fluoride and periostitis, as elevated blood fluoride has been reported among patients with periostitis who received voriconazole. Two hundred sixty-four patients from Michigan were impacted by the multistate outbreak of fungal infections as a result of contaminated methylprednisolone injections. A retrospective study was conducted among 195 patients who received voriconazole therapy at St Joseph Mercy Hospital during this outbreak. Twenty-eight patients who received both bone scan and plasma fluoride measurements for skeletal pain were included in the statistical analyses. Increased tracer uptake on bone scan was considered positive for periostitis. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between plasma fluoride and bone scan results. Blood fluoride (P periostitis compared with those who did not. Discontinuation or dose reduction of voriconazole resulted in improvement of pain in 89% of patients. High plasma fluoride levels coupled with skeletal pain among patients who are on long-term voriconazole therapy is highly suggestive of periostitis. Initial measurement of fluoride may be considered when bone scan is not readily available. Early detection should be sought, as discontinuation of voriconazole is effective at reversing the disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Plasma Fluoride Level as a Predictor of Voriconazole-Induced Periostitis in Patients With Skeletal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Woo J.; Scheller, Erica L.; Suneja, Anupam; Livermore, Jacob A.; Malani, Anurag N.; Moudgal, Varsha; Kerr, Lisa E.; Ferguson, Eric; Vandenberg, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal medication used for prophylaxis or to treat invasive fungal infections. Inflammation of the periosteum resulting in skeletal pain, known as periostitis, is a reported side effect of long-term voriconazole therapy. The trifluorinated molecular structure of voriconazole suggests a possible link between excess fluoride and periostitis, as elevated blood fluoride has been reported among patients with periostitis who received voriconazole. Methods. Two hundred sixty-four patients from Michigan were impacted by the multistate outbreak of fungal infections as a result of contaminated methylprednisolone injections. A retrospective study was conducted among 195 patients who received voriconazole therapy at St Joseph Mercy Hospital during this outbreak. Twenty-eight patients who received both bone scan and plasma fluoride measurements for skeletal pain were included in the statistical analyses. Increased tracer uptake on bone scan was considered positive for periostitis. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between plasma fluoride and bone scan results. Results. Blood fluoride (P voriconazole dose (P voriconazole dose (P = .027) were significantly elevated in patients who had periostitis compared with those who did not. Discontinuation or dose reduction of voriconazole resulted in improvement of pain in 89% of patients. Conclusions. High plasma fluoride levels coupled with skeletal pain among patients who are on long-term voriconazole therapy is highly suggestive of periostitis. Initial measurement of fluoride may be considered when bone scan is not readily available. Early detection should be sought, as discontinuation of voriconazole is effective at reversing the disease. PMID:24992954

  6. Original Article. Toxic effect of sodium fluoride on hydroxyproline level and expression of collagen-1 gene in rat bone and its amelioration by Tamrindus indica L. fruit pulp extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Amit Raj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fluoride intoxication plays an important role in the development of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain the toxic effect of excessive fluoride ingestion on the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in rat bone and its amelioration by supplementation with Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract. Forty albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups. The first group served as control and received only tap water. The second group received sodium fluoride (200 ppm through drinking water. The third group received T. indica fruit pulp extract (200 mg/kg body weight alone and the fourth group received the T. indica fruit pulp extract (200 mg/kg body weight along with fluorinated drinking water (200 ppm daily by gavage for a period of 90 days. The level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene using quantitative real time PCR in the tibia bone decreased significantly with continuous exposure to sodium fluoride. Co-administration of T. indica fruit pulp extract during exposure to fluoride through drinking water restored the level of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in serum and the concentration of hydroxyproline in urine. It increased the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in the tibia as compared to untreated fluoride-exposed rats. It is concluded that T. indica fruit pulp extract has an ameliorative potential to protect the bone from fluoride induced collagen damage.

  7. Combined electrocoagulation and electroflotation for removal of fluoride from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Qianhai; Chen, Xueming; Li, Wei; Chen, Guohua

    2008-11-30

    A combined electrocoagulation (EC) and electroflotation (EF) process was proposed to remove fluoride from drinking water. Its efficacy was investigated under different conditions. Experimental results showed that the combined process could remove fluoride effectively. The total hydraulic retention time required was only 30 min. After treatment, the fluoride concentration was reduced from initial 4.0-6.0mg/L to lower than 1.0mg/L. The influent pH value was found to be a very important variable that affected fluoride removal significantly. The optimal influent pH range is 6.0-7.0 at which not only can effective defluoridation be achieved, but also no pH readjustment is needed after treatment. In addition, it was found that SO(4)(2-) had negative effect; Ca(2+) had positive effect; while Cl(-) had little effect on the fluoride removal. The EC charge loading, EF charge loading and energy consumption were 3.0 Faradays/m(3), 1.5 Faradays/m(3), and 1.2 kWh/m(3), respectively, under typical conditions where fluoride was reduced from initial 4.0 to 0.87 mg/L.

  8. Drinking water fluoridation in South East Queensland: a cost-effectiveness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciketic, Sadmir; Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R; Doran, Chris M

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine cost-effectiveness of fluoridation of drinking water supplies for Brisbane and South East Queensland. The benefits conveyed are expressed in reduced costs of dental treatment and years of life with dental caries as a disability. The analysis utilises a developed life table modelling initial cohort of 36,322 newborns, which when applied to the target population equals to 181,925 persons in the age group 2-100 years, 338,617 persons in the age group 7-100 years and 390,524 persons in the age group 12-100 years respectively. The analysis was conducted using a real discount rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses investigated the effects of varying the parameters such as: discount rate, costs of dental treatment and costs of fluoridation plant. Uncertainty analysis was also conducted on costs and the measure of ratio of decayed, missing, filled teeth surfaces in deciduous dentition between the cities of Brisbane (non-fluoridated) and Townsville (fluoridated). If fluoridation was implemented there would be a total saving of $10,437.43 (95% CI 6,406.50- 14,035.35) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and AU$ 665,686,529 (95% CI -$973,573,625- $381,322,176). This result is both desirable and dominant as more DALYs are saved along with significant cost savings. Fluoridation remains still a very cost-effective measure for reducing dental decay.

  9. The results of 6 1/2 years of artificial fluoridation of drinking water in The Netherlands : The tiel—Culemborg experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer Dirks, O.; Houwink, B.; Kwant, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of water fluoridation on dental caries under Dutch living conditions (food, water consumption, etc.) the drinking water of Tiel was fluoridated since 1953 at 1·1 mg/l. The nearby city of Culemborg served as control (±0·1 mg natural fluoride per litre of water). The

  10. Drinking water fluoridation and osteosarcoma incidence on the island of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Harry; Deady, Sandra; Montgomery, Erin; Gavin, Anna

    2011-06-01

    The incidence of osteosarcoma in Northern Ireland was compared with that in the Republic of Ireland to establish if differences in incidence between the two regions could be related to their different drinking water fluoridation policies. Data from the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry (NICR) and the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI) on osteosarcoma incidence in the respective populations were used to estimate the age-standardised and age-specific incidence rates in areas with and without drinking water fluoridation. One hundred and eighty-three osteosarcoma cases were recorded on the island of Ireland between 1994 and 2006. No significant differences were observed between fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas in either age-specific or age-standardised incidence rates of osteosarcoma. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that osteosarcoma incidence in the island of Ireland is significantly related to public water fluoridation. However, this conclusion must be qualified, in view of the relative rarity of the cancer and the correspondingly wide confidence intervals of the relative risk estimates.

  11. Critique of the review of 'Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries' published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, A J; Spencer, A J; Whelton, H P; Jones, C; Beal, J F; Castle, P; Cooney, P V; Johnson, J; Kelly, M P; Lennon, M A; McGinley, J; O'Mullane, D; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Sharma, P P; Thomson, W M; Woodward, S M; Zusman, S P

    2016-04-01

    The Cochrane Review on water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries was published in 2015 and attracted considerable interest and comment, especially in countries with extensive water fluoridation programmes. The Review had two objectives: (i) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. The authors concluded, inter alia, that there was very little contemporary evidence, meeting the Review's inclusion criteria, that evaluated the effectiveness of water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. The purpose of this critique is to examine the conduct of the above Review, and to put it into context in the wider body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of water fluoridation. While the overall conclusion that water fluoridation is effective in caries prevention agrees with previous reviews, many important public health questions could not be answered by the Review because of the restrictive criteria used to judge adequacy of study design and risk of bias. The potential benefits of using wider criteria in order to achieve a fuller understanding of the effectiveness of water fluoridation are discussed.

  12. The effect of fluoride on the serum level of calcium in the rat (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fočak M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fluoride on the calcium level in serum was analyzed in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. The control group consisted of 10, and the experimental group of 15 animals. In the experimental group, fluoride at a concentration of 3 mg/100 g body weight of rats was intramuscularly injected into the musculus gluteus maximus. The concentration of calcium was measured by the CPC method. The average serum calcium concentration was 2.46 mmol/l, with female rats having higher values of serum calcium than male rats. Fluoride caused the reduction of calcium concentration in serum (p<0.05; the reduction was significantly expressed in female rats (p<0.000.

  13. 40 CFR 142.61 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Activated alumina absorption, centrally applied (2) Reverse osmosis, centrally applied (b) The Administrator... treatment methods (1) to determine the probability that any of these methods will significantly reduce the level of fluoride for that system, and (2) if such probability exists, to determine whether any of these...

  14. Impact of caries and dental fluorosis on oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study in schoolchildren receiving water naturally fluoridated at above-optimal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Álvaro; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Borges-Yáñez, S Aída; Zepeda-Zepeda, Marco Antonio; Bolona-Gallardo, Irvin; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of caries and fluorosis on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among schoolchildren living in areas with high concentrations of fluoride in water. Five hundred and twenty-four schoolchildren (8-12 year olds) residing in rural communities in central Mexico were examined for oral hygiene, caries (International Caries Detection and Assessment System, ICDAS II), and fluorosis (Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index, TFI). OHRQoL was evaluated with the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for two age groups (CPQ8-10 and CPQ11-14). Generalized structural equation models were constructed for data analysis. Overall prevalence of caries was 88.5% and fluorosis 46.9%. In the group of 8-10 year olds, 48% of the children had advanced carious lesions in primary or permanent teeth (ICDAS ≥4), 22.6% had moderate/severe fluorosis, and 59.9% of children had an impact on OHRQoL. Schoolchildren with ICDAS ≥4 were more likely [OR = 1.75, (95% CI 1.34-2.28)] to suffer a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the group of 11-12 year olds, 19.9% of children had advanced carious lesions and 23.2% showed moderate/severe fluorosis; 67.3% of children reported had an impact on OHRQoL. Children 11-12 year olds with fluorosis (TFI ≥4) [OR = 2.39 (95% CI 2.12-2.69)], caries (ICDAS ≥4) [OR = 2.18 (95% CI 2.13-2.24)], and low brushing frequency [OR = 2.04 (95% CI 1.21-3.44)] were more likely to have deterioration on OHRQoL. A negative impact on OHRQoL was observed in children with caries and fluorosis. Deterioration on OHRQoL found in children as a sequel of caries and fluorosis should be considered when designing health policies leading to prevention and effective health promotion programs and incorporated to clinical guidelines for timely dental treatment.

  15. Blood Lead Concentrations in Children and Method of Water Fluoridation in the United States, 1988–1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, Mark D.; Matte, Thomas D.; Sinks, Thomas; Malvitz, Dolores M.

    2006-01-01

    Some have hypothesized that community water containing sodium silicofluoride and hydrofluosilicic acid may increase blood lead (PbB) concentrations in children by leaching of lead from water conduits and by increasing absorption of lead from water. Our analysis aimed to evaluate the relation between water fluoridation method and PbB concentrations in children. We used PbB concentration data (n = 9,477) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994) for children 1–16 years of age, merged with water fluoridation data from the 1992 Fluoridation Census. The main outcome measure was geometric mean PbB concentration, and covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, urbanicity, and length of time living in residence. Geometric mean PbB concentrations for each water fluoridation method were 2.40 μg/dL (sodium silicofluoride), 2.34 μg/dL (hydrofluosilicic acid), 1.78 μg/dL (sodium fluoride), 2.24 μg/dL (natural fluoride and no fluoride), and 2.14 μg/dL (unknown/mixed status). In multiple linear and logistic regression, there was a statistical interaction between water fluoridation method and year in which dwelling was built. Controlling for covariates, water fluoridation method was significant only in the models that included dwellings built before 1946 and dwellings of unknown age. Across stratum-specific models for dwellings of known age, neither hydrofluosilicic acid nor sodium silicofluoride were associated with higher geometric mean PbB concentrations or prevalence values. Given these findings, our analyses, though not definitive, do not support concerns that silicofluorides in community water systems cause higher PbB concentrations in children. Current evidence does not provide a basis for changing water fluoridation practices, which have a clear public health benefit. PMID:16393670

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of fluorides in water with Hach equipment; Determinacion espectrofotometrica de fluoruros en aguas con equipo Hach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta L, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: eal@nuclear.inin.mx

    1994-11-15

    The spectrophotometric method for the determination of the fluoride ion in water, demineralized water, raw waters, laundry waters and waters treated with ion exchange resins , using the technique and the SPADNS coloring indicated in the operation manual of the Hach equipment is described. This method covers the determination of the fluoride ion in the range from 0 to 2 mg/l on 25 ml. of radioactive base sample. These limits can be variable if the size of the used aliquot one is changed for the final determination of the fluoride ion. (Author)

  17. [Geographical distribution of fluoride in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Raúl Alberto; Durán, Estela Liliana; Ojeda, Graciela de Jesús; Castellanos, Walter Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    This work studied the geographical distribution of fluoride content in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. A total of 1,210 samples were collected in 190 localities of the 17 departments of the province during the 2008-2012 period. The analytical determination was performed using the SPADNS method and QGis 2.16 was used for processing the information. The fluoride content requirements in the studied localities were determined according to the Argentine Food Code. The results showed that 94% of population studied consumed water with fluoride concentrations below the recommended limits, 5% were exposed to fluoride concentrations above the required maximum limit and 1% consumed water at optimal fluoride concentrations. The maps showed a heterogeneous geographical distribution of fluorides, in which areas with deficit, excess and recommended values of fluorides can be differentiated; in some departments an inverse relationship between the density of the hydrological network and fluoride concentration can be observed. In the capital of the province, the average value found was 0.32 mg/l, presenting a homogeneous geographical distribution. The information obtained is indispensable for the proper management of fluoride, so as to improve public health through policy.

  18. Geographical distribution of fluoride in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Alberto Durán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the geographical distribution of fluoride content in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. A total of 1,210 samples were collected in 190 localities of the 17 departments of the province during the 2008-2012 period. The analytical determination was performed using the SPADNS method and QGis 2.16 was used for processing the information. The fluoride content requirements in the studied localities were determined according to the Argentine Food Code. The results showed that 94% of population studied consumed water with fluoride concentrations below the recommended limits, 5% were exposed to fluoride concentrations above the required maximum limit and 1% consumed water at optimal fluoride concentrations. The maps showed a heterogeneous geographical distribution of fluorides, in which areas with deficit, excess and recommended values of fluorides can be differentiated; in some departments an inverse relationship between the density of the hydrological network and fluoride concentration can be observed. In the capital of the province, the average value found was 0.32 mg/l, presenting a homogeneous geographical distribution. The information obtained is indispensable for the proper management of fluoride, so as to improve public health through policy.

  19. Optimization of regenerated bone char for fluoride removal in drinking water: a case study in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseva, M E

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents findings of a study on optimization and application of the regenerated bone char media for the defluoridation of drinking water in Tanzania where more than 30% of all water sources have fluoride concentrations above the 1.50 mg/I which is recommended by the World Heath Organization (WHO). In this study, regeneration temperature, regeneration duration, contact time, regenerated bone char dosage and particle size were investigated. Results indicate that the highest fluoride removal and adsorption capacity were 70.64% and 0.75 mg-F/g-bc, respectively, for a sample with bone char material that was regenerated at 500 degrees C. In this study the optimum burning duration was found to be 120 min, which resulted in residual fluoride that varied from a maximum value of 17.43 mg/I for a 2 min contact time to a minimum value of 8.53 mg/I for a contact time of 180 min. This study further indicated that the smallest size of regenerated bone char media (0.5-1.0 mm diameter) had the highest defluoridation capacity, with residual fluoride which varied from 17.82 mg/I at 2 min contact time to 11.26 mg/I at 120 min contact time. In terms of dosage of the regenerated bone char media it was established that the optimum dosage was 25g of bone char media with a grain size of 0.50-1.0 mm. This had a fluoride removal capacity of 0.55 mg-F/g-BC. Column filter experiments indicated that regenerated bone media is capable of removing fluoride from dinking water to meet both WHO and Tanzania recommended values.

  20. Method of excessive fluoride removal from potable water: a fluorosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SklIaI ftuorIde content of 0.31 mg/L m.n an Inidal fiuor1de level of 2.8 CD 3.2 mgIL The total. wIume of water treated ... 8,250 Ihres. ... defluoridation units were field tested for a period of nine months in Kitefu village Arusha region ..... material and technical support given by Central. Oral Health Unit, Ministry of Health, ...

  1. Removal of Fluoride from Water by Adsorption onto Fired Clay Pots: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Kofa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fluoride in potable water is a serious health problem in rural areas of many developing countries. Hence, there is a need to find a simple and cost-effective method for water defluoridation in such areas. In the northern part of Cameroon, clay pots are used for cooking food and water storage. The firing of these pots consists of intensive burning using fire wood. They were tested as a potential adsorbent for removing excess fluoride from water. Experiments were carried out in a jar test at room temperature (25 ± 2°C. Effects of contact time (0–90 min, pH (4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, stirring speed (60, 90, 120, and 200 rpm, and ionic strength (0–1000 mg/L were investigated. Results showed that equilibrium was attained in 10 min whatever the pH. Pseudo-second-order and pore diffusion models described well the adsorption process. The highest amount of fluoride adsorbed (1.6 mg/g was obtained at pH 4-5 and the optimum stirring speed is 120 rpm. Ionic strength has a significant effect on fluoride adsorption.

  2. Fluoride ions sorption of the water using natural and modified hematite with aluminium hydroxide; Sorcion de iones fluoruro del agua utilizando hematita natural y hematita acondicionada con hidroxido de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutli S, E. A.

    2011-07-01

    Fluorine is a mineral known for its dental benefits, but fluoride ions can cause fluoro sis in excessive quantities. There are many epidemiological studies on possible adverse effects resulting from prolonged ingestion of fluoride through drinking water. These studies demonstrate that fluoride mainly affects the bone tissue (bones and teeth), may produce an adverse effect on tooth enamel and can cause mild dental fluoro sis at concentrations from 0.9 to 1.2 mg/L in drinking water. In several states of Mexico, water contaminated with fluoride ions can be found, such as Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Sonora, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi and Jalisco, where the fluoride ions levels are higher than 1.5 mg/L, established by the Mexican Official Standard (NOM-127-Ssa-2000) which sets the permissible limits of water for human use and consumption. Currently, several technologies have been proposed to remove fluoride ions from water such as precipitation methods which are based on the addition of chemicals to water and sorption methods to removed fluoride ions by sorption or ion exchange reactions by some suitable substrate capable of regenerate and reuse. In this work, the sorption of fluoride ions using unmodified and modified hematite with aluminum hydroxide to remove fluoride ions from water by bath experiments was studied. The hematite was modified by treating it with aluminum hydroxide, NaOH and Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} solutions. The characterization of hematite before and after modification with aluminum hydroxide was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS and Bet. The effect of ph, contact time, concentration of fluoride ions, and the dose of sorbent on the sorption of fluoride ions by the modified hematite were studied. Equilibrium was reached within 48 hours of contact time and the maximum sorption of fluoride ions were in the range pH{sub eq} between 2.3 and 6.2. Sorption capacities of fluoride ions as a

  3. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dental Health Care Settings Single-Use (Disposable) Devices Sterilization Cleaning Monitoring Packaging & Storage Use & Handling of Toothbrushes ... Less pain and suffering because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists ...

  4. Characterization of a fluoride-resistant bacterium Acinetobacter sp. RH5 towards assessment of its water defluoridation capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shraboni; Yadav, Vaibhav; Mondal, Madhumanti; Banerjee, Soumya; Halder, Gopinath

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigates the defluoridation capability of fluoride-resistant bacteria from contaminated groundwater collected from Asanjola and Madhabpur, West Bengal, India. Seven strains of fluoride-resistant bacteria were isolated employing culture media containing 10-250 mg/L of fluoride to evaluate their ability in reducing fluoride concentration in water. Five isolates exhibited significant amount of reduction in fluoride. Isolate RH5 achieved a maximum fluoride removal of 25.7 % from the media at 30 °C and pH 7 after 8 days of incubation. Based on morphological, physiological characteristics and analysis of 16S rDNA gene sequence, isolate RH5 was identified as Acinetobacter sp. RH5. Growth of RH5 was analysed at a diverse pH range, and it could thrive at pH 5-10. The present investigation revealed that the selective pressure of fluoride results in growth of fluoride-resistant bacteria capable of secreting high-affinity anion-binding compounds. This bacterium played a dominant bioremediative role by concentrating the anions so that they become less available. Hence, the fluoride-resistant bacteria, Acinetobacter sp. RH5, could be used as a promising strain for application in water defluoridation from contaminated sites.

  5. Highly selective and efficient removal of fluoride from ground water by layered Al-Zr-La Tri-metal hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Zhu, Wenkun; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Hongping; Zhang, Yongde; Lin, Xiaoyan; Luo, Xuegang

    2018-03-01

    A novel layered Zr-Al-La tri-metal composite (AZL) was fabricated via co-precipitation method for fluoride removal. The as-prepared adsorbent was characterized by various technologies, and its adsorption behaviors to fluoride were thoroughly carried out to investigate the fluoride removal performance. The results showed that the layered structure existed and the AZL exhibited the maximum adsorption capacity of 90.48 mg g-1 at 308 K and pH 3.0 from the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was well fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation, and the adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equation. Adsorption thermodynamics result was indicative of endothermic reaction in the process of adsorption of AZL to fluoride. The as-prepared AZL composite has excellent fluoride removal performance for the practical ground water and satisfies the permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water recommended by Chinese Standard. In addition, based on the characterization, the adsorption mechanism of fluoride on AZL was proposed, including electrostatic interaction between the protonated surface of AZL and fluoride, as well as ion-exchange by hydroxyl group and fluoride.

  6. Rapid detection of fluoride in potable water using a novel fluorogenic compound 7-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-4-methylcoumarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Chavali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we have synthesized a new water soluble colorless chemical compound 7-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-4-methylcoumarin (TBDPSC that releases fluorescent molecules imparting blue fluorescence to the solution, upon interaction with fluoride ions in water. The blue fluorescence can be visualized using simple hand held ultraviolet (UV lamps. TBDPSC has excellent sensitivity and selectivity towards fluoride and our results indicate that fluoride concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/L can be accurately detected within a few seconds. Fluoride testing with TBDPSC is simple and rapid compared to the conventional methodologies without the requirement of trained personnel. Hence, the present fluoride detection method can be easily field deployable and particularly useful for monitoring water quality in limited resource communities.

  7. House hold unit for the treatment of fluoride, iron, arsenic and microorganism contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadge, Vijaykumar L; Medhi, Chitta Ranjan; Changmai, Murchana; Purkait, Mihir Kumar

    2018-02-16

    A first of its kind hybrid electrocoagulation-filtration prototype unit was fabricated for the removal of fluoride, iron, arsenic and microorganisms contaminated drinking water. The unit comprised of 3 chambers, chamber A consisting of an inlet for the water to be treated and an outlet for the treated water along with one block of aluminum electrodes. Chamber B consisted of ceramic membrane filtration assembly at the bottom over a metallic support which filters the flocs so produced in chamber A and chamber C consisting of space to collect the treated water. Operating parameters were maintained as current density of 625 A m -2 and an electrode distance of 0.005 m. Contaminated drinking water containing mixture of fluoride (10 mg L -1 ), iron (25 mg L -1 ), arsenic (200 μg L -1 ) and microorganisms (35 CFU ml -1 ) was used for the experiment. A removal of 98.74%, 95.65%, 93.2% and 100% were obtained for iron, arsenic, fluoride and microorganisms, respectively. The apparatus and method made it possible to efficiently treat contaminated drinking water to produce drinkable water as per WHO specification. By-products obtained from the electrocoagulation bath were analyzed using SEM, EDX and XRD and explained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasana, Hewa M. S.; Perera, Gamage D. R. K.; Gunawardena, Panduka De S.; Fernando, Palika S.; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-01

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined “consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer”. As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  9. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Perera, Gamage D R K; Gunawardena, Panduka De S; Fernando, Palika S; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-14

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined "consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer". As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  10. Fluoride-induced thyroid dysfunction in rats: roles of dietary protein and calcium level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Yang, Z; Zhou, B; Gao, H; Yan, X; Wang, J

    2009-02-01

    To assess the roles of dietary protein (Pr) and calcium (Ca) level associated with excessive fluoride (F) intake and the impact of dietary Pr, Ca, and F on thyroid function, 144 30-day-old Wistar albino rats were randomly allotted to six groups of 24 (female:male = 1:1). The six groups were fed (1) a normal control (NC) diet (17.92% Pr, 0.85% Ca = NC group); (2) the NC diet and high F (338 mg NaF [=150 mg F ion]/L in their drinking water = NC+F group); (3) low Pr and low Ca diet (10.01% Pr, 0.24% Ca = LPrLCa group); (4) low Pr and low Ca diet plus high F = LPrLCa+F group; (5) high Pr and low Ca diet plus high F (25.52% Pr, 0.25% Ca = HPrLCa+F group); and (6) low Pr and high Ca diet plus high F (10.60% Pr, 1.93% Ca = LPrHCa+F group). The areas of thyroid follicles were determined by Image-Proplus 5.1, and triiodothyronine (T3), free T3 (FT3), thyroxine (T4), and free T4 (FT4) levels in serum were measured by radioimmunoassay. The histopathological study revealed obviously flatted follicular epithelia cells and hyperplastic nodules, consisting of thyroid parafollicular cells that appeared by excessive F ingestion, on the 120th day. Pr or Ca supplementation reverses the F-induced damage in malnutrition. The serum T3, FT3, T4, and FT4 levels in the NC+F group were significantly decreased and significantly increased in the LPrLCa+F group. Thus, excessive F administration induces thyroid dysfunction in rats; dietary Pr and Ca level play key roles in F-induced thyroid dysfunction.

  11. Insights into isotherm making in the sorptive removal of fluoride from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoob, S; Gupta, A K

    2008-04-15

    The defluoridation research has thrown up many technologies, with adsorption as a popular alternative, especially among fluoride endemic habitations of the developing world. In the endeavor to develop novel adsorbents for defluoridation, the adsorption potential of hardened alumina cement granules (ALC) were examined through isotherm fitting. Though the adsorbent showed enhanced adsorption capacity at higher fluoride concentration ranges, the errors associated with linearization in isotherm fitting were also found to be increasing. The propagation of these errors was more prominent in Dubinin-Radushkevich and Langmuir models but negligible in Freundlich. The chi2 analysis, used to correlate the equilibrium experimental data and the isotherm models, also suggested poor correlations at higher fluoride concentration ranges for all the models. The procedure of linear and nonlinear regression through optimization of error functions rendered the 'best-fit' model and optimum model parameters, through sum of normalized error (SNE) values. Though ALC exhibited maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 34.36 mgg(-1) in concentration variation studies of fluoride in the range of 2.5-100 mg l(-1) in synthetic water, it got reduced to 10.215 mgg(-1) in dose variation studies and further to 0.9358 mgg(-1) in natural ground water. Though Langmuir appeared as the best-fit model in terms of R2 in synthetic studies of different fluoride concentrations, the procedure of linear and nonlinear regression demonstrated that Freundlich was the best-fit. The nonlinear chi2 analysis together with minimum SNE values convincingly demonstrated that the equilibrium studies with dose variations of ALC offers more reliable isotherm parameters than those with high fluoride concentrations. The sorption of fluoride by ALC appeared endothermic with Freundlich adsorption capacity parameter increased from 0.5589 to 0.9939 lg(-1) in natural water and 3.980-7.5198 lg(-1) in synthetic water systems for a

  12. Collaboration, vision and reality: water fluoridation in New Zealand (1952-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, H F

    2008-12-01

    In comparison with that of other nations in the British Commonwealth, New Zealand's early and comparatively high adoption of water fluoridation was a distinctive health policy. National concerns about the caries epidemic and the legacies of TR Hunter, F Truby King, HP Pickerill and JP Walsh engendered a spirit of cooperation between the Department of Health, the New Zealand School Dental Service, the Medical Research Council (of New Zealand), the New Zealand Dental Association and the University of Otago's dental and medical schools. The consequence was a contagious culture of multidisciplinary research and institutional liaisons that produced exceptional dental epidemiology. The government's involvement in children's public dentistry harmonised with fluoride advocates' radical vision of community caries reduction. New Zealand assumed not only a leading international role in immediate post-World War cariology, but also the dominant position in the fluoride politics of the British Commonwealth. The incomplete fulfilment of Fuller's "Dreams Pursued" presents a case study that confirms the roles of both scientific evidence and centralised political authority in public health administration. Paradoxically, political scientists have largely ignored New Zealand's early adoption of water fluoridation. This paper addresses this deficiency.

  13. Remediation of fluoride from drinking water using magnetic iron oxide coated hydrotalcite/chitosan composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandi, Kalimuthu; Periyasamy, Soodamani; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy

    2017-11-01

    The present study was performed to examine the probability of magnetic iron oxide fabricated hydrotalcite/chitosan (Fe 3 O 4 @HTCS) composite for the removal of excess fluoride content from drinking water. The developed Fe 3 O 4 @HTCS composite not only demonstrate the good separation ability but also display an extreme enhanced defluoridation capacity (DC) when compared to other base components and composite. The DCs of Fe 3 O 4 @HTCS composite, Fe 3 O 4 @HT composite, Fe 3 O 4 , HT and CS was found to be 5032, 3041, 1050, 1030 and 52mgF - /kg respectively. The structure and morphology of the prepared adsorbent and fluoride sorbed adsorbent was analysed using FTIR, SEM and EDAX with mapping techniques. The dependence of DC on various parameters like initial fluoride concentration, pH, contact time, interfering anions and temperature was studied by batch method. From isotherm modeling, the equilibrium data is well described by Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters confirm the spontaneity and endothermic nature of the fluoride adsorption. The performance of Fe 3 O 4 @HTCS composite to field water sample designates its adaptable nature at field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. From the source to the user, understanding a total water approach to fluoride treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo, K. A.; O'Garra, T.

    2014-12-01

    India is a large user of groundwater resources and one of the countries most impacted by fluoride; the rural areas, where 90% of drinking water is sourced from fluoride-contaminated groundwater, are particularly vulnerable. Since fluorosis has no cure, prevention is key, and defluoridation treatment is a primary mitigation approach. Despite the successful development of defluoridation treatments and technologies worldwide, these solutions encounter a range of operational barriers (e.g. lack of economic and chemical resources, scarcity of skilled operators) and uptake is hindered by a lack of user understanding and participation in the development of community treatment options. Preliminary research highlights that plants typically fail after the first three years of installation, we are investigating why and how to overcome this barrier. Monitoring fluoride concentrations, operations, and user attitudes at several defluoridation plants in Maharashtra, we assess the overall success of these installed technologies. The research considers: (1) the fluctuations in source concentrations with respect to climate and changing water use patterns, (2) treatment with regards to performance, operation, and maintenance of implemented technologies to meet fluoride standards, and (3) user understanding, acceptability and uptake of defluoridation technology. This presentation highlights the operational and behavioral barriers to sustainable defluoridation in India.

  15. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density, and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Kathy R; Orwoll, Eric S; Mason, Jill D; Cauley, Jane A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether fluoridation influences bone mineral density and fractures in older women. Design Multicentre prospective study on risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. Setting Four community based centres in the United States. Participants 9704 ambulatory women without bilateral hip replacements enrolled during 1986-8; 7129 provided information on exposure to fluoride. Main outcome measures Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, radius, and calcaneus plus incident fractures (fractures that occurred during the study) of vertebrae, hip, wrist, and humerus. Results Women were classified as exposed or not exposed or having unknown exposure to fluoride for each year from 1950 to 1994. Outcomes were compared in women with continuous exposure to fluoridated water for the past 20 years (n=3218) and women with no exposure during the past 20 years (n=2563). In women with continuous exposure mean bone mineral density was 2.6% higher at the femoral neck (0.017 g/cm2, Pfluoridated drinking water does not increase the risk of fracture. PMID:11021862

  16. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  17. Calculating fluoride concentrations data using ambient temperatures in drinking water distribution networks in select provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazouli, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghnezhad, Reza; Kalankesh, Laleh R

    2017-12-01

    Fluoride concentrations in drinking water were analyzed relative to air temperature data collected in different provinces of Iran. Determining suitable concentrations of fluoride in drinking water is crucial for communities because of the health effects of fluoride on humans. This study analyzed fluoride concentrations in drinking water from selected Iranian provinces. The data were derived mainly from a detailed literature review. The annual mean maximum temperatures (AMMTs) were collected from a popular website that maintains records of daily ambient temperature measurements for the last five years (2012-2016). Using regional ambient temperatures, the optimal value of fluoride in drinking water for each province was calculated by the Galgan and Vermillion formula. These optimal fluoride concentrations in drinking water for different Iranian regions were calculated to be 0.64-1.04 mg F/L. Most of the selected provinces were found to have acceptable concentrations of fluoride, except for Alborz, Khuzestan, and Hormozgan, which reported concentrations of 0.66, 0.66, and 0.64 mg/L, respectively.

  18. Effect of fulvic acid on the kinetics of aluminum fluoride complexation in acidic waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plankey, B.J.; Patterson, H.H.

    1988-12-01

    Both fluoride ion and fulvic acid are important aluminum binding ligands present in soil and surface waters. As such they play a role in the speciation and toxicity of natural waters that have increased aluminum concentration due to acid precipitation. We report here a kinetic study of aluminum complexation in the presence of both of these naturally occurring ligands. An overall mechanism has been identified and rate constants have been obtained for several of the reactions involved. We find that an a priori model of the two ligands in competition for aluminum is incorrect. In fact, the rate of fluoride ion consumption is increased by the presence of fulvic acid. Evidence is presented that this effect is due to several equilibria, some of which involve mixed-ligand species. The important equilibria in this three-component system are identified and discussed, as are aluminum speciation and toxicity in acidic waters.

  19. Removal of fluoride from low TDS water using low grade coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, L.; Dey, N.C. [NE Institute of Science & Technology, Jorhat (India)

    2009-07-15

    Defluoridation of ground water using low grade Assam coal as an adsorbent is studied by batch sorption experiments. Effect of the variables, like quantity of adsorbent, contact time, particle size of the adsorbent are examined to establish the optimum conditions. The results show that the low grade Assam coal, collected from Tirap colliery of the North Eastern coalfield, after pretreatment, can be used as an effective adsorbent in removing fluoride from ground water. The optimum conditions for the efficient removal of fluoride are observed to be (I) quantity of adsorbent = 1.25 g in 100 mL water, (ii) contact time = 60 min, (iii) particle size of adsorbent = -72 BSS or lower.

  20. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, David M; Dang, Liem X

    2015-01-01

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reaction...

  1. Rational Design of Antifouling Polymeric Nanocomposite for Sustainable Fluoride Removal from NOM-Rich Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Lu; Li, Zhixian; Jiang, Zhao; Zheng, Qi; Lin, Bin; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-11-21

    The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) exerts adverse effects on adsorptive removal of various pollutants including fluoride from water. Herein, we designed a novel nanocomposite adsorbent for preferable and sustainable defluoridation from NOM-rich water. The nanocomposite (HZO@HCA) is obtained by encapsulating hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticles (HZO NPs) inside hyper-cross-linked polystyrene anion exchanger (HCA) binding tertiary amine groups. Another commercially available nanocomposite HZO@D201, with the host of a cross-linked polystyrene anion exchanger (D201) binding ammonium groups, was involved for comparison. HZO@HCA features with abundant micropores instead of meso-/macropores of HZO@D201, resulting in the inaccessible sites for NOM due to the size exclusion. Also, the tertiary amine groups of HCA favor an efficient desorption of the slightly loaded NOM from HZO@HCA. As expected, Sigma-Aldrich humic acid even at 20 mg of DOC/L did not exert any observable effect on fluoride sequestration by HZO@HCA, whereas a significant inhibition was observed for HZO@D201. Cyclic adsorption runs further verified the superior reusability of HZO@HCA for defluoridation from NOM-rich water. In addition, the HZO@HCA column could generate ∼80 bed volume (BV) effluent from a synthetic fluoride-containing groundwater to meet the drinking water standard (water remediation.

  2. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using aluminum hydroxide coated activated carbon prepared from bark of Morinda tinctoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalraj, Augustine; Pius, Anitha

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to design and develop a novel cost effective method for fluoride removal, applicable to rural areas of developing countries. Adsorption is widely considered as one of the appropriate technologies for water defluoridation. This study investigates the feasibility of using low-cost biomass based activated carbon from the bark of Morinda tinctoria coated with aluminum hydroxide (AHAC) for water defluoridation, at neutral pH range. Characterization of AHAC was done through IR, SEM with EDAX studies before and after fluoride treatment. The fluoride adsorption capacity of AHAC as a function of contact time, pH and initial fluoride concentration was investigated. The role of co-existing interfering ions also was studied. The isotherm and kinetic models were used to understand the nature of the fluoride adsorption onto AHAC. Freundlich isotherm and intra-particle diffusion were the best-fitting models for the adsorption of fluoride on AHAC. Fluoride adsorption kinetics well fitted with pseudo-second order model. The results showed excellent fluoride adsorption capacity was found to be 26.03 mg g-1 at neutral pH.

  3. Evaluation of Effect of Brushite-Calcite and Two Indigenous Herbs in Removal of Fluoride from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Manumanthu Venkata; Naveenkumar, Puvvadi Gopalakrishna; Prashant, Gouder Manjunath; Sakeenabi, Basha; Allamaprabhu; Vijetha, Kothyala

    2016-06-01

    The acceptable concentration of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5mg/l. Excess fluoride in drinking water causes fluorosis. Fluorosis is an important public health problem in India. Several treatment technologies suggested in the past for removing excess fluoride generated and causes various chemical byproductswhich are hazardous to public. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest to use natural materials due to cost and associated health and environmental concerns of synthetic organic polymers and inorganic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the defluoridating capability of the brushite-calcite with that of two indigenous herbs, tulsi and wheat grass. One gram of brushite-calcite combination, tulsi and wheat grass were separately added to 10 containers, each containing 1.0 l of prepared distilled water with a fluoride concentration of 5ppm and naturally fluoridated water at 2ppm. Half of the samples were boiled for one minute in a domestic electric kettle for one minute and allowed to cool. The remaining half of the samples was left un-boiled. Fluoride concentration in all the samples was assessed at the end of 30 minutes and 24 hours using fluoride ion selective electrode method. Data was analyzed using unpaired t-test and one-way ANOVA. For water with 2ppm and 5ppm fluoride, brushite-calcite had shown highest de-fluoridation capacity (p=0.001) at the end of both 30 minutes and 24 hours in boiled samples whereas tulsi (p=0.001) was most effective in un-boiled samples. The results of the study suggest that tulsi can be used for domestic water defluoridation as it is economic, safe and effective.

  4. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  5. Contamination of nitrate and fluoride in ground water along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Sharma, Ajit Kumar; Iyengar, Leela

    2008-11-01

    Nitrate-N and Fluoride concentrations were analyzed in shallow and unconfined ground water aquifers of Kanpur district along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Northern India. Kanpur district was divided into three zones namely, Bithore, Kanpur City and Beyond Jajmau and sampling was carried out three seasons (summer, monsoon and winter). The data set consisted of the results of water samples from around 99 India Mark II hand Pumps, which were analyzed for summer monsoon and winter seasons. In Bithore zone, 19% of the samples exceeded the BIS (Bureau of India Standards) limit 10.2 mg/l as nitrate-N and as high as 166 mg/l as nitrate-N was observed. 10% and 7% samples in Kanpur city and beyond Jajmau zone respectively, exceeded the BIS limit. The Frequency distribution histogram of nitrate-N revealed a skewed (non-normal) distribution. Both point and non-point sources contribute to the ground water contamination. Especially in Bithore zone, the point sources could be attributed to the animal wastes derived from cows and buffaloes and non point sources could be due to the extensive agricultural activity prevalent in that area. Fluoride concentration in most samples was within the BIS maximum permissible level of 1.5 mg/l. No significant seasonal variation in water quality parameters was observed.

  6. Water-rock interaction study on the occurrence of fluoride-rich groundwater at Mizunami area, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman M. Abdelgawad

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available High fluoride concentration up to 12 mg/l was observed in the deep groundwater of Mizunami area, central Japan. Water-rock interaction tests were performed to investigate the factors affecting the fluoride concentration. Nine granitic and two sedimentary rock specimens were collected from the core of deep borehole drilled at the study area. The fluoride concentration is changed among different type of granitic rock specimens. That change may be occurred as a result of the spatial distribution of mineral composition in the granite mass. Moreover, groundwater residence time is an important factor that affects fluoride concentration. The most difficult point was the evaluation of the coexisting ions that affects on the fluoride concentration. Coexisting ions possibly related to the mineral composition in the rock specimens and chemical circumstances such as pH, groundwater type, etc.

  7. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified ultrafine tea powder processed using a ball-mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Huimei; Xu, Lingyun; Chen, Guijie; Peng, Chuanyi [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Ke, Fei [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); School of Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Liu, Zhengquan; Li, Daxiang; Zhang, Zhengzhu [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Wan, Xiaochun, E-mail: xcwan@ahau.edu.cn [School of Tea & Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China)

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafine tea powder (UTP) was prepared by ball-milling. • A novel and high efficient biosorbent from ultrafine tea powder (UTP) for the removal of fluoride from drinking water was prepared. • Loaded ultrafine tea powder adsorbed more fluoride adsorption than loaded tea waste. • UTP-Zr performed well over a considerably wide pH range, from 3.0 to 10.0. • UTP-Zr retains Zr metal ion during defluoridation, limiting secondary pollution. - Abstract: A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading zirconium(IV) onto ball-milled, ultrafine tea powder (UTP-Zr) for removal of fluoride from drinking water. To evaluate the fluoride adsorption capacity of UTP-Zr over a wide range of conditions, the biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial pH, initial fluoride concentration and presence of other ions were varied. UTP-Zr performed well over the considerably wide pH range of 3–10. The residual concentration of Zr in the treated water was below the limit of detection (0.01 mg/L). Fluoride adsorption by the UTP-Zr biosorbent followed the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.43 mgF/g at room temperature. The fluoride adsorption kinetics fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The synthesized biosorbent was characterized by BET, SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS to reveal how UTP-Zr interacts with fluoride. Results from this study demonstrated that UTP-based biosorbents will be useful and safe for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of water and salt community-based fluoridation methods in preventing dental caries among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabruccini, A; Alves, L S; Alvarez, L; Alvarez, R; Susin, C; Maltz, M

    2016-12-01

    To compare the effectiveness of water and salt community-based fluoridation methods on caries experience among schoolchildren. Data derived from two population-based oral health surveys of 12-year-old schoolchildren exposed to different community-based fluoridation methods were compared: artificially fluoridated water in Porto Alegre, South Brazil and artificially fluoridated salt in Montevideo, Uruguay. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, maternal education and oral hygiene were collected. Dental caries was defined according to the WHO criteria (cavitated lesions) and to the modified WHO criteria (active noncavitated lesions and cavitated ones). The association between community-based fluoridation methods and dental caries was modelled using logistic (caries prevalence) and Poisson regression (DMFT). Odds ratios (OR), rate ratios (RR), and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. A total of 1528 in Porto Alegre and 1154 in Montevideo were examined (response rates: 83.2% and 69.6%, respectively). Adjusted estimates for caries prevalence and DMFT showed that schoolchildren from Porto Alegre were less affected by dental caries than their counterparts from Montevideo, irrespective of the criteria used. After adjusting for important characteristics, schoolchildren exposed to fluoridated salt had significantly higher likelihood of having caries (WHO criteria) than those exposed to fluoridated water (OR for prevalence=1.61, 95% CI=1.26-2.07; RR for DMFT=1.32, 95% CI=1.16-1.51). Similar differences were observed using the modified WHO criteria. Fluoridated water appears to provide a better protective effect against dental caries than fluoridated household salt among schoolchildren from developing countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Removal of fluoride, arsenic and coliform bacteria by modified homemade filter media from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Rani; Alemayehu, Esayas; Singh, Vijender; Kumar, Ashok; Mengistie, Embialle

    2008-05-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the removal of fluoride, arsenic and coliform bacteria from drinking water using modified homemade filter media. Batch mode experimental study was conducted to test the efficiency of modified homemade filter for reduction of impurities under the operating condition of treatment time. The physico-chemical and biological analysis of water samples had been done before and after the treatment with filter media, using standard methods. Optimum operating treatment time was determined for maximum removal of these impurities by running the experiment for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h, respectively. The maximum reduction of fluoride, arsenic and coliform bacteria in percentage was 85.60%, 93.07% and 100% and their residual values were 0.72 mg/l, 0.009 mg/l and 0 coliform cells/100ml, respectively after a treatment time of 10h. These residual values were under the permissible limits prescribed by WHO. Hence this could be a cheap, easy and an efficient technique for removal of fluoride, arsenic and coliform bacteria from drinking water.

  10. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using a modified fly ash adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debasis Goswami; Arabinda K. Das

    2006-01-15

    Fly ash from a coal-fired power station was chemically modified and utilized for the removal of fluoride from drinking water. Two types of beds were used. Bed I was prepared by treatment with 12M HCl followed by neutralization with 5M NaOH solution. The reaction mass was filtered, washed, dried, and crushed to fine powder. Bed I material was mixed with alum and MgCl{sub 2} solutions and treated with 0.9M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} until pH reached to 4.5. Mass was again filtered, washed, dried at 120{sup o}C for 4 h and crushed to fine powder. This bed material is Bed II, which was used for defluoridation. Bed I was used to maintain pH (7.5-8.5) of the final effluent. Fluoride (100 ppm) present in both synthetic mixtures and drinking water samples was allowed to pass through Bed II (15 g) absorbent and effluents were found to contain no fluoride but pH of the effluent was 5.4-5.5. To maintain WHO guidelines for drinking water on pH, this effluent was again passed through Bed I. The effectiveness of the modified fly ash bed was satisfactory.

  11. Community water fluoridation: attitudes and opinions from the New Zealand Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyman, Robin A; Mahoney, Erin K; Børsting, Torunn

    2016-04-01

    To report the responses of adult participants in the 2009 New Zealand Oral Health Survey (NZOHS) to questions about community water fluoridation (CWF). The study used quantitative data from the NZOHS. All adult participants aged 18 years and over in the nationally representative NZOHS sample were included in the study (n=3475). Univariate analysis and multinominal logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between variables. Overall, 57.7% of respondents thought that there were dental benefits to adding fluoride to drinking water and 31.7% responded that they did not know. More than 45% of respondents did not know whether there were health risks from adding fluoride to drinking water. Overall, 42.0% of respondents were strongly or somewhat in favour of CWF. People in the Māori, Pacific and Asian ethnic groups, from the two most deprived quintiles, with no education after high school and who brushed their teeth less than twice a day expressed significantly greater uncertainty about CWF than other population groups. This study suggests further research is required to gain a greater understanding of health literacy about CWF and the cultural appropriateness of CWF in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Green, Water-Dispersible Photoluminescent On-Off-On Probe for Selective Detection of Fluoride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Pallavi; Vats, Bal Govind; Jha, Sanjay K; Neogy, Suman

    2017-06-21

    Considering the high toxicity and widespread availability of fluoride ions in different environmental matrices, it is imperative to design a probe for its detection. In view of this, a selective fluorescent on-off-on probe based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and Eu3+ has been designed. We have synthesized water-soluble carboxylic acid-functionalized CQDs and monitored their interaction with Eu3+. Luminescence quenching in the CQD emission was observed (switch-off) on adding Eu3+ ions. We investigate the reason for this luminescence quenching using time-resolved emission and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies and observed that both electron transfer from CQDs to Eu3+ and aggregation of CQDs are responsible for the luminescence quenching. ζ-Potential and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm Eu3+ binding with the COOH groups on CQD surface. Interestingly, luminescence regains after the addition of fluoride ions to the CQDs/Eu3+ system (switch-on). This has been assigned to the removal of Eu3+ from the CQD surface due to the formation of EuF3 and is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and HRTEM measurements. The sensitivity of the probe was tested by carrying out experiments with other competing ions and was found to be selective for fluoride ions. Experiments with variable concentrations of fluoride ions suggest that the working range of the probe is 1-25 ppm. The probe has been successfully tested for the detection of fluoride ions in a toothpaste sample and the results were compared to those of ion chromatography. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report based on CQDs and Eu3+ for the detection of fluoride ions, wherein a clear mechanism of the detection has been demonstrated, which, in turn, will help to develop better detection methods. The suggested probe is green, economical, rapid, efficient, and, most importantly, selective and can be used for the detection of fluoride ions in real environmental samples.

  13. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied.

  14. Influences of charcoal and bamboo charcoal amendment on soil-fluoride fractions and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjian; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2012-10-01

    High levels of fluoride in tea plants pose a potential health risk to humans who drink tea. It has been demonstrated that tea plant fluoride is closely related to the available fluoride in soil. But approaches that could be used to regulate the availability of fluoride in soil have been rarely seen. This study aims to investigate how the addition of charcoal and bamboo charcoal affected soil fluoride availability and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants. In a microcosm experiment, tea plants were grown in the tea garden soil mixed with different amounts of charcoal and bamboo charcoal [that is, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 % (w/w)]. Soil-fluoride fractions and fluoride accumulated in tea plants were determined using the sequential extraction and ion selective electrode method. Obtained results showed that both charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions significantly enhanced the concentrations of Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluoride, but significantly reduced the concentrations of water-soluble and exchangeable fluoride (p Charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions also significantly decreased the amounts of fluoride in tea roots and tea leaves (p charcoal and bamboo charcoal had no impacts on the tea quality, as indexed by the concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, amino acids, and caffeine in tea leaves. These results suggested that application of charcoal and bamboo charcoal may provide a useful method to reduce the availability of fluoride in soil and the subsequent fluoride uptake by tea plants.

  15. Qualitative investigation of the reasons behind opposition to water fluoridation in regional NSW, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Knox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate reasons behind strong opposition to water fluoridation in regional New South Wales, Australia, and to make recommendations to improve community engagement. Importance: Few studies have used qualitative methodologies to understand the reasons for strong antifluoridation views. An understanding of these reasons could be useful when designing public campaigns to combat the strong antifluoridation message. Methods: The qualitative study used semistructured interviewing and thematic analysis. Ten participants were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling methods until data saturation was reached. Thematic analysis and graphical representation of themes assisted in analysing the data for logical connections and relationships. Results: Six dominant themes and numerous subthemes were identified. Five of the major themes were reasons for opposition: scepticism, health effects, ethics, environmental impacts and economics. Each of these was inextricably linked to a sixth major theme: alternatives to fluoridation. Conclusions: All participants had strongly held antifluoridation views, and provided a unique insight into their perceptions and reasons for opposing water fluoridation. Concerns about ‘fraudulent research’ and the influence of industry on government bodies were novel themes. The concerns raised could be used to inform future population health campaigns, research, public education and resource-allocation decisions. Open community consultation may be able to address the issues raised in a nonjudgemental and collaborative manner.

  16. Catalytic degradation of the nerve agent VX by water-swelled polystyrene-supported ammonium fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Daniele; Goldvaser, Michael; Columbus, Ishay; Zafrani, Yossi

    2011-10-21

    The catalytic degradation of the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) by water-swelled polymer-supported ammonium fluorides is described. VX (0.06-0.53 mol/mol F(-)) is rapidly degraded (t(1/2) ∼ 10-30 min) to form the "G-analogue" (O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate), which hydrolyzes (t(1/2) ∼ 1-1.5 h) to the nontoxic EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid). The toxic desethyl-VX is not formed. The catalytic effect of fluoride is maintained even when 6 equiv of VX are loaded. GB (O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and desethyl-VX agents are also degraded under these conditions.

  17. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Chandra; Cheluvaiah, Manjunath Bhadravathi; Namile, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    The published literature on the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis among school going children in Nalgonda district - An Endemic Fluoride belt was lacking . To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water . It was a cross-sectional study, done in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India (endemic fluoride belt) . 5 of the 59 mandals in the district of Nalgonda were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 3 schools from each of these selected mandals were chosen at random. All the eligible 6 th and 9 th standard children were considered for final analysis. The demographic and other relevant information was collected by 3 trained and calibrated dentists, using a structured questionnaire. Dental caries were recorded using dentition status and treatment needs and fluorosis were recorded by Dean's fluorosis index. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. The prevalence of dental caries among children was 56.3% with the highest in below optimal fluoride area (71.3%) and lowest in optimal fluoride area (24.3%). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 71.5%. The prevalence was 39.7% in below optimal fluoride area and 100% in high and very fluoride areas. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The caries experience was more among boys than girls. There was a negative correlation between dental caries and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. However, in high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority here than water fluoridation, because the prevalence and severity of dental flurorosis is very high.

  18. [Problems of fluoride dosing to infants for dental fluorosis prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, B N; Borinskaia, E Iu; Kushnir, S M; Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Beliaev, V V

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride content in drinking water, breast milk, cow milk, additional food for newborns prepared with water containing different amount of fluoride was determined. Fluoride excretion in urine since the first days of birth and up to 4 months of postnatal development was investigated in breast and artificially fed infants. When a neonate was fed with breast milk, fluoride was received in the amount no more than 20 mkg/day. The additional food contained fluoride which water mainly had. Water with high level of fluorine increased its content in the additional food up to the values not comparable to those in breast milk that presented danger of dental fluorosis development. Data on fluorine content in drinking water were absolutely necessary to calculate daily fluorides consumption by infants and to prevent dental fluorosis.

  19. DE FLUORIDATION OF ETHIOPIAN RIFT VALLEY REGION WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Still significant flux remains to be recovered. The cause for the fouling may be dissolved minerals, such as CaC03, and humic material found in ground water. Thus, the cause of the fouling of the membrane and cleaning procedures need further study. Time. F - concentration (porn). Retention. (hour). Concentrate. Permeate.

  20. Diffusion of water and ethanol in silicalite crystals synthesized in fluoride media

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion of water and ethanol in silicalite has been studied in large crystals (70 μm × 30 μm × 15 μm) synthesized via a fluoride mediated route. The near-perfect hydrophobic silicalite (F-) crystals have very few internal silanol defects and, as a result, display water and ethanol transport behavior that is uncontaminated by these defects. The transport diffusivity (Dt) of ethanol is higher than that of water at the same sorbate activity. However, this difference is due to the difference in the shape of the isotherms. The thermodynamically corrected diffusivity (D o) of water is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of ethanol reflecting the difference in molecular size. Estimates of the permeability/permselectivity/separation factors for ethanol/water separation based on the present kinetic and equilibrium data for the fluoride synthesized crystals are compared with the values observed for traditional silicalite membranes. The present diffusivity values for fluoride synthesized silicalite are similar to the values for regular silicalite (OH-) derived from uptake rate measurements but much smaller (by more than four orders of magnitude) than the self-diffusivities derived from PFG-NMR measurements. This result is consistent with the results of other measurements of the diffusion of small molecules in silicalite which suggest that, in macroscopic measurements, the rate of intra-crystalline transport is controlled by the sub-structure (extensive twinning), rather than by diffusion in the ideal MFI micropores. In this situation microscale measurements such as PFG-NMR will lead to erroneously high estimates of transport rates and therefore of permeability and permselectivity. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration as a reflection of fluoride exposure and its impact on IQ level and BMI of children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kousik; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2016-04-01

    There has been growing public concern about intellectual performance of children at high levels of fluoride exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Simlapal Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, to find out the relationship between fluoride (F) exposure as exposure dose (ED) with dental fluorosis (DF), urinary fluoride concentration (UF), intelligence quotient (IQ) and body mass index (BMI). Fifty groundwater samples were collected from the target area. One hundred forty-nine children belonging to age group 6 to 18 years were considered for this study. Experimental results reveal that mean F(-) concentration of that area is 2.11 mg/L (±SD 1.64). On the basis of F concentration in groundwater and water consumption pattern, ED was calculated to explore the impact of F(-) on DF, UF, IQ, and BMI. Paired t test results suggest that exposure rate of F does not show any significant differences ( severe > mild > very mild > questionable > normal conditions. The highest UF concentration was recorded as 17 mg/L, but the status of DF in the affected children was recorded as moderate. The results also reveal that ED has a positive correlation with DF (r = 0.299, P < 0.01) and UF (r = 0.513, P < 0.01) and a negative correlation with IQ (r = -0.343, P < 0.01) along with BMI (r = 0.083, non-significant). Therefore, from this study, it may be concluded that UF and DF concentration could act as a biomarker of fluoride toxicity.

  2. Evaluation and Assessment of Fluoride in Drinking Water Wells Damavand Villages Zoning in GIS According to DMF Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kave Kheirkhah Rahimabad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Fluoride is one the vital anions and the drinking water is the main source of preparing it for the human body. Nonetheless, the aim of this paper is to investigate the Fluoride rate in water supplying wells by using GIS environment according to decay, missing or filled (DMF index.  Methods: This research is an analytic and cross-sectional descriptive study with sampling approach of 12 water supplying wells of Damavand villages in summer and autumn the year 2013. The Fluoride concentration was measured by standard method SPADNS using MN-Nano color 400 Photometer in laboratory of Rural Water and Wastewater Company of Tehran. Then DMF was investigated for local students and finally the obtained data were modeled in GIS. Results: The average of Fluoride concentration was 0.094 to 0.212 mg/L in summer and 0.137 to 3.48 mg/L in autumn. The DMF index was estimated around 5.46 for all evaluated students that the mentioned index was 7.635 and 3.29 for male and female pupils respectively which are statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The amounts of fluorine in drinking water supplies in rural Damavand villages are lower than the international water standards. According to the results of experiments and lack of fluorine ion in the villages of this town, required fluorine should be done by drinkable water fluoridation and continuities of implementation plan for fluoride ion among the schools until reaching the fluoride concentration to the standard threshold, Supplying required fluorine of body by mouth-wash materials for people of this region

  3. Evidence-based tailoring of behavior-change campaigns: increasing fluoride-free water consumption in rural Ethiopia with persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Alexandra C; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Since medical treatment of the disease is difficult and mostly ineffective, preventing fluoride uptake is crucial. In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, a fluoride-removal community filter was installed. Despite having access to a fluoride filter, the community used the filter sparingly. During a baseline assessment, 173 face-to-face interviews were conducted to identify psychological factors that influence fluoride-free water consumption. Based on the results, two behavior-change campaigns were implemented: a traditional information intervention targeting perceived vulnerability, and an evidence-based persuasion intervention regarding perceived costs. The interventions were tailored to household characteristics. The campaigns were evaluated with a survey and analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in changing behavior and targeted psychological factors. While the intervention targeting perceived vulnerability showed no desirable effects, cost persuasion decreased the perceived costs and increased the consumption of fluoride-free water. This showed that altering subjective perceptions can change behavior even without changing objective circumstances. Moreover, interventions are more effective if they are based on evidence and tailored to specific households. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. Concentrations of fluoride in water and plasma for US children and adolescents: Data from NHANES 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-03-01

    For the first time, for 2013-2014, as part of ongoing National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, data for fluoride concentrations in water and plasma for U.S. children and adolescents were released in the public domain. This study was undertaken to investigate how fluoride concentrations vary in water and plasma with age, gender, race/ethnicity, housing ownership, use of prescription fluoride drops and/or tablets, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and recent use of tobacco products (among adolescents). Fluoride concentrations in water were found to be lower among those aged 3-5 years than those aged 6-11 years (p=0.02), lower for non-Hispanic Asians than Hispanics (p=0.04) among 3-5 years old, lower for non-Hispanic Asians than non-Hispanic blacks (p=0.04) among 6-11 years old, and lower for those who used prescription fluoride drops and/or tablets than those who did not (p≤0.048) among 12-19 years old. Adjusted fluoride concentrations in plasma were found to be lower for females than males (pplasma than non-smoker adolescents. Over 60% of the children aged 6-11 years and adolescents aged 12-19 years were at the risk of developing dental caries/decay. About 30% of the children were at the risk of dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of water fluoridation on caries experience in the primary dentition in a high caries risk community in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Rongzhen; Pukallus, Margaret L; Newman, Bruce; Foley, Michael; Walsh, Laurence J; Seow, W Kim

    2015-01-01

    In December 2008, artificial water fluoridation was introduced for the first time to the Logan-Beaudesert district in the state of Queensland, Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation in the primary dentition in this community after a period of 36 months. Children aged 4-9 years with clinical examinations and bitewing radiographs (BWs) taken before water fluoridation (pre-F) were randomly selected as comparison controls for age matched children who had been exposed to a mean period of 36 months of water fluoridation (post-F). A total of 201 sets of pre-F BWs from children (mean age 6.95 ± 1.05 years) and 256 sets of post-F BWs from children (mean age 7.19 ± 1.23 years) attending schools in the district were randomly selected. Caries experience in the primary dentition was determined as decayed, missing or filled teeth/surfaces (dmft/dmfs). The caries prevalence for the pre-F group was 87% compared to 75% in the post-F group (Odds ratio (OR): 0.44, 95% CI: 0.27-0.72). Overall, there was a 19 percent reduction of mean dmft from 4.54 in the pre-F group to 3.66 in the post-F group (p = 0.005). After fluoridation, the dmfs was reduced from 6.68 to 5.17 (p = 0.0056). The distal surfaces of maxillary first primary molars experienced the greatest reduction (26%) in caries experience after water fluoridation (p water fluoridation there was a significant drop in caries prevalence from 87 to 75% and a 19% reduction in caries experience in a community with one of the highest caries rates in Australia.

  6. Associations of Community Water Fluoridation with Caries Prevalence and Oral Health Inequality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Na; Kim, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Se-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to confirm the association between the community water fluoridation (CWF) programme and dental caries prevention on permanent teeth, comparing to a control area, neighbouring population without the programme, and verifying whether the programme can reduce the socio-economic inequality related to the oral health of children in Korea. Evaluation surveys were conducted among 6-, 8-, and 11-year-old children living in Okcheon (CWF) and neighbouring Yeongdong (non-CWF, control area) towns in South Korea. Data on monthly family income, caregiver educational level, and Family Affluence Scale scores were evaluated using questionnaires that were distributed to the parents. The effectiveness of CWF in caries reduction was calculated based on the differences in decayed, missing, and filled teeth and decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces indices between the two towns. The data were analysed using logistic regression and univariate analysis of variance. Both 8- and 11-year-old children living in the CWF area had lower dental caries prevalence than those living in the non-CWF community. Differences in dental caries prevalence based on educational level were found in the control area but not in the CWF area. Socio-economic factor-related inequality in oral health were observed in the non-CWF community. Additionally, 8- and 11-year-old children living in the CWF area displayed lower dental caries prevalence in the pit-and-fissure and smooth surfaces than those living in the non-CWF community. These results suggest that CWF programmes are effective in the prevention of caries on permanent teeth and can reduce oral health inequalities among children. The implementation of CWF programmes should be sustained to overcome oral health inequalities due to socio-economic factors and improve children’s overall oral health. PMID:28608827

  7. Associations of Community Water Fluoridation with Caries Prevalence and Oral Health Inequality in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Na Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to confirm the association between the community water fluoridation (CWF programme and dental caries prevention on permanent teeth, comparing to a control area, neighbouring population without the programme, and verifying whether the programme can reduce the socio-economic inequality related to the oral health of children in Korea. Evaluation surveys were conducted among 6-, 8-, and 11-year-old children living in Okcheon (CWF and neighbouring Yeongdong (non-CWF, control area towns in South Korea. Data on monthly family income, caregiver educational level, and Family Affluence Scale scores were evaluated using questionnaires that were distributed to the parents. The effectiveness of CWF in caries reduction was calculated based on the differences in decayed, missing, and filled teeth and decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces indices between the two towns. The data were analysed using logistic regression and univariate analysis of variance. Both 8- and 11-year-old children living in the CWF area had lower dental caries prevalence than those living in the non-CWF community. Differences in dental caries prevalence based on educational level were found in the control area but not in the CWF area. Socio-economic factor-related inequality in oral health were observed in the non-CWF community. Additionally, 8- and 11-year-old children living in the CWF area displayed lower dental caries prevalence in the pit-and-fissure and smooth surfaces than those living in the non-CWF community. These results suggest that CWF programmes are effective in the prevention of caries on permanent teeth and can reduce oral health inequalities among children. The implementation of CWF programmes should be sustained to overcome oral health inequalities due to socio-economic factors and improve children’s overall oral health.

  8. A biocompatible and novelly-defined Al-HAP adsorption membrane for highly effective removal of fluoride from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junyong; Chen, Kai; Cai, Xingguo; Li, Yulian; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Kaisheng; Jin, Zhen; Meng, Fanli; Wang, Xuguang; Kong, Lingtao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2017-03-15

    A biocompatible and novelly-defined adsorption membrane for rapid removal of fluoride was prepared. Both adsorption and membrane techniques were used in this research. Al(OH) 3 nanoparticles modified hydroxyapatite (Al-HAP) nanowires were developed and made into Al-HAP membrane. The adsorption data of Al-HAP adsorbent could be well described by Freundlich isotherm model while the adsorption kinetic followed pseudo-second-order model. The maximum of adsorption capacity was 93.84mg/g when the fluoride concentration was 200mg/L. The adsorption mechanism was anion exchanges and electrostatic interactions. The contribution rates of HAP nanowires and Al(OH) 3 nanoparticles in fluoride removal were 36.70% and 63.30%, respectively. The fixed-bed column test demonstrate that the Al-HAP was biocompatible and in a good stability during the process of water treatment. The fluoride removal abilities of Al-HAP membrane with 0.3mm thickness could reach 1568L/m 2 when fluoride concentrations were 5mg/L. This study indicated that the Al-HAP membrane could be developed into a very viable technology for highly effective removal of fluoride from drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. THE EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONVENTIONAL COAGULATION/FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION USING ALUMINUM SULFATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Safe Drinking Water Act states that no drinking water facility is reuqired to fluoridate their water, however, any facility fluoridating their water is bound by the Maximum contaminant Level (MCL) of 4 mg/L. A survey of 600 large water utilities was conducted in conjunction w...

  10. [Effects of long-term fluoride in drinking water on risks of hip fracture of the elderly: an ecologic study based on database of hospitalization episodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Hwang, Seung Sik; Kim, Jai Yong; Cho, Soo Hun

    2008-05-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water is known to decrease dental caries, particularly in children. However, the effects of fluoridated water on bone over several decades are still in controversy. To assess the risk of hip fracture related to water fluoridation, we evaluated the hip fracture-related hospitalizations of the elderly between a fluoridated city and non-fluoridated cities in Korea. Cheongju as a fluoridated area and Chungju, Chuncheon, Suwon, Wonju as non-fluoridated areas were chosen for the study. We established a database of hip fracture hospitalization episode based on the claims data submitted to the Health Insurance Review Agency from January 1995 to December 2002. The hip fracture hospitalization episodes that satisfied the conditions were those that occurred in patients over 65 years old, the injuries had a hip fracture code (ICD-9 820, ICD-10 S72) and the patients were hospitalized for at least 7days. A total of 80,558 cases of hip fracture hospitalization episodes were analyzed. The admission rates for hip fracture increased with the age of the men and women in both a fluoridated city and the non-fluoridated cities (pfluoridated city and the nonfluoridated cities. We cannot conclude that fluoridation of drinking water increases the risk of hip fracture in the elderly.

  11. Removal of fluoride from water using iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raul, Prasanta Kumar; Devi, Rashmi Rekha; Umlong, Iohborlang M; Banerjee, Saumen; Singh, Lokendra; Purkait, Mihir

    2012-05-01

    A novel and facile method for the synthesis of uniform stoichiometric powder form of non-magnetic iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles with spherical morphology and its application for defluoridation of drinking water is reported. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), BET surface area, FTIR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images were used to characterize nanoscale iron oxide-hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image revealed the formation of iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles with spherical morphology. The iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles showed an excellent ability to remove fluoride (F-) from contaminated water over a wide range of pH. The influences of temperature, stirring speed, pH, adsorbent dose and contact time were studied. The equilibrium data were tested with various isotherm models and finally, a calculation procedure was reported for the calculation of adsorbent requirement. The fluoride adsorbed nanoparticles was regenerated upto 70% using sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid solution. The iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticles can be used as an effective and replicable adsorbent media for defluoridation of water in presence of competing anions like chloride, iodate, iodide and sulphate.

  12. Omniphobic Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane for Desalination of Shale Gas Produced Water by Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Chanhee; Lee, Jongho; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-11-15

    Microporous membranes fabricated from hydrophobic polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) have been widely used for membrane distillation (MD). However, hydrophobic MD membranes are prone to wetting by low surface tension substances, thereby limiting their use in treating challenging industrial wastewaters, such as shale gas produced water. In this study, we present a facile and scalable approach for the fabrication of omniphobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes that repel both water and oil. Positive surface charge was imparted to an alkaline-treated PVDF membrane by aminosilane functionalization, which enabled irreversible binding of negatively charged silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) to the membrane through electrostatic attraction. The membrane with grafted SiNPs was then coated with fluoroalkylsilane (perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane) to lower the membrane surface energy. Results from contact angle measurements with mineral oil and surfactant solution demonstrated that overlaying SiNPs with ultralow surface energy significantly enhanced the wetting resistance of the membrane against low surface tension liquids. We also evaluated desalination performance of the modified membrane in direct contact membrane distillation with a synthetic wastewater containing surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and mineral oil, as well as with shale gas produced water. The omniphobic membrane exhibited a stable MD performance, demonstrating its potential application for desalination of challenging industrial wastewaters containing diverse low surface tension contaminants.

  13. Surveillance and monitoring of fluorides in public drinking water: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Queluz Venturini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride can harm or protect human dentition according to its concentration in the water. This paper summarizes major methodological features and main findings described in studies of fluoride concentration in public supply water that were published in specialized journals between 2008 and 2012, highlighting their implications for public health surveillance. A systematic review was conducted comprising scientific articles in the databases Embase, Lilacs and PubMed. Thirty-six studies were included: 28 from the Americas, five from Asia, two from Africa and one from Europe. The variability of the studies related to design and methodological procedures was high. Although the studies provided information on the space-temporal distribution of the samples, few publications described the population covered by the investigated supply source. Almost half of the studies were cross-sectional and no dispersion or variation measure was associated to the mean value. The electrometric method and dichotomous classification of the samples were predominately used for evaluating the outcomes. Less than half of the studies were articulated to surveillance as a State action and a lesser number raised hypotheses regarding possible factors related to the findings. There is a major space to be narrowed between the results of these initiatives and the use of that information by public health authorities and to improve methodological procedures in future studies. The interaction between researchers and water quality control organizations should be increased.

  14. Community water fluoridation reduced dental caries in Australian adults born before its widespread implementation at least as much as after its widespread adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Vinicius N; Kumar, Jayanth V

    2013-09-01

    Effects of fluoridated drinking water on dental caries in Australian adults. Slade GD, Sanders AE, Do L, Roberts-Thomson K, Spencer AJ. J Dent Res 2013;92:376. Vinicius N. Tavares, DDS, MPH, Jayanth V. Kumar, DDS, MPH PURPOSE/QUESTION: This study investigated the long term caries-prevention benefits of community water fluoridation for individuals born before its widespread implementation Government: National Health and Medical Research Council grants Industry: Colgate-Palmolive, New York, USA provided gifts for study participants Other: Australian Dental Association and state and territory health departments and dental services Retrospective cohort study Level 2 STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Not applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of optimal water fluoridation on the incidence and skeletal distribution of naturally arising osteosarcoma in pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhun, R B; Kass, P H; Kent, M S; Watson, K D; Withers, S S; Culp, W T N; King, A M

    2017-06-01

    Experimental toxicological studies in laboratory animals and epidemiological human studies have reported a possible association between water fluoridation and osteosarcoma (OSA). To further explore this possibility, a case-control study of individual dogs evaluated by the UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital was conducted using ecologic data on water fluoridation based on the owner's residence. The case group included 161 dogs with OSA diagnosed between 2008-2012. Two cancer control groups included dogs diagnosed with lymphoma (LSA) or hemangiosarcoma (HSA) during the same period (n = 134 and n = 145, respectively). Dogs with OSA were not significantly more likely to live in an area with optimized fluoride in the water than dogs with LSA or HSA. Additional analyses within OSA patients also revealed no significant differences in age, or skeletal distribution of OSA cases relative to fluoride status. Taken together, these analyses do not support the hypothesis that optimal fluoridation of drinking water contributes to naturally occurring OSA in dogs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Construction and optimisation of a cartridge filter for removing fluoride in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wrensford

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to construct a cartridge to be used for the defluoridation of drinking water. The cartridge packed with bone char material could be fixed onto a domestic faucet as a flow through defluoridizer. PVC cartridges of various sizes were made from a ¾ inch pipe. The efficiency of fluoride removal was determined for the following parameters: cartridge length, flow rate of water, compactness of bone char material and particle size with the aim of determining the optimum conditions for a good cartridge. It was found that the optimal conditions for the F- filter that gave the best results in removing of F- from water with minimum inconvenience were: particle size, 0.2 mm mean diameter; the flow rate, equal or less than 20 mL/min; cartridge length, 10 cm filled with 20 g of bone char material.

  17. Assessment of arsenic, fluoride, bacteria, and other contaminants in drinking water sources for rural communities of Kasur and other districts in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nasima; Imran, Saiqa

    2017-01-01

    High levels of arsenic contamination in drinking water of two villages, Badarpur and Ibrahimabad of district Kasur, central Punjab, Pakistan is reported first time in present studies. Groundwater quality situation was found to be impaired when samples of different rural areas of district Kasur were monitored according to Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) for all significant water quality constituents and analyzed for trace elements, physico-chemical, and microbiological parameters. Out of 35water sources, 97 % were found unsafe and only 3 % of the sources were within safe limits. High concentrations of arsenic, fluoride, and bacteria were found in 91, 74, and 77 % sources of drinking water, respectively. Very high concentrations of arsenic ranging 58-3800 μg/L were found in the water samples obtained from Badarpur and Ibrahimabad. A decrease in water contamination was observed with increase in source depth. The health issues like arsenicosis and skeletal/dental flourosis were observed in the residents of the monitored areas. Drinking water quality conditions of some rural areas of northen and southern districts of Punjab was also analyzed and compared with Kasur district. High levels of nitrates were found in the samples of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, while high levels of arsenic, iron, fluoride, and TDS were found in Bahawalpur district. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  18. Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast

  19. Adsorption of fluoride from water by surface-functionalized polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, R J; Khan, M S; Das, S

    2010-01-01

    Surface-functionalized polyurethane foam (SPUF) showed an exceptionally high adsorption potential for defluoridation of drinking water. Kinetic experiments of fluoride adsorption on SPUF demonstrated quick adsorption in first 60 min and then achieved maximum adsorption (7.8 mg g⁻¹). The adsorption isotherm was described using Bradley equation. The adsorption capacity of SPUF was significantly influenced by the pH of the solution. The highest adsorption capacity was attained at pH 6.7 and no drastic reduction noticed in the adsorption capacity of SPUF at normal pH range (5.8-8.2). The fluoride adsorption capacity of SPUF was compared with other adsorbents like activated carbon, soil, alumina and carbon nanotubes. The added advantage of SPUF adsorbent is, it can be easily recharged by altering the pH of the solution using NaOH or Ca(OH)₂. The high adsorption capacity and easy-to-use nature of SPUF in batch mode and continuous system makes the new adsorbent a promising material for defluoridation of drinking water.

  20. Water fluoridation in Brazilian cities at the first decade of the 21st century

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    Paulo Frazão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the coverage of the fluoridation of the public water supply in Brazilian municipalities at the first decade of the 21st century, according to population size and municipal human development index (MHDI. METHODS We have used data produced by national information agencies and the United Nations Development Programme. Population size was separated into 50,000 inhabitants. The MHDI was classified into 0.799. Absolute and relative inequalities between categories were evaluated using indicators of effect and total impact. RESULTS We have obtained information for 5,558 municipalities. The coverage rate of water fluoridation increased from 67.7% to 76.3%. Approximately 884 (15.9% municipalities and 29,600,000 inhabitants started being benefited by the measure. We have observed a significant expansion in municipalities with < 10,000 inhabitants (increase of 21.0 percentage points and low or very low MHDI (17.7 percentage points. CONCLUSIONS Population coverage of the public policy has increased 8.6%, and we can also see significant reductions in absolute and relative inequality according to population size and MHDI. Regarding municipal coverage rate, there was also a reduction in inequality in all comparisons except for absolute inequality between the categories of MHDI. The public policy has operated as a factor of health protection in the context of the ongoing social protection policies in the country.

  1. Fluoride release, recharge and mechanical property stability of various fluoride-containing resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoum, S; Ellakwa, A; Martin, F; Swain, M

    2011-01-01

    To determine the fluoride release and recharge of three fluoride-containing resin composites when aged in deionized water (pH 6.5) and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and to assess mechanical properties of these composites following aging. Three fluoride-containing resin composites were analyzed in this study; a new giomer material named Beautifil II, Gradia Direct X, and Tetric EvoCeram. A glass ionomer cement, Fuji IX Extra, was also analyzed for comparison. Specimens were fabricated for two test groups: group 1 included 10 disc specimens initially aged 43 days in deionized water (five specimens) and lactic acid (five specimens). The fluoride release from these specimens was measured using a fluoride-specific electrode on nine specific test days during the aging period. Following 49 days of aging, each specimen was recharged in 5000 ppm neutral sodium fluoride solution for 5 minutes. Specimen recharge was then repeated on a weekly basis for 3 weeks. The subsequent fluoride rerelease was measured at 1, 3, and 7 days after each recharge episode. Group 2 included six disc specimens aged for 3 months in deionized water (three specimens) and lactic acid (three specimens). The hardness and elastic modulus of each specimen was measured using nano-indentation at intervals of 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months after fabrication. Two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc (Tukey) testing was used to assess the influence of storage media (two levels) and composite type (three levels) on the fluoride release, fluoride rerelease, hardness, and elastic modulus of the assessed materials. The level of significance was set at p=0.05. All three composites demonstrated fluoride release and recharge when aged in both deionized water and lactic acid. The cumulative fluoride released from Beautifil II into both media was substantially greater than the fluoride released from Gradia Direct X and Tetric EvoCeram after 43 days aging and was significantly (precharge ability of the three

  2. Effectiveness of fluoride varnish in preventing early childhood caries in rural areas without access to fluoridated drinking water: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Millán, Patricia; Zaror, Carlos; Espinoza-Espinoza, Gerardo; Vergara-Gonzalez, Carolina; Muñoz, Sergio; Atala-Acevedo, Claudia; Martínez-Zapata, Maria José

    2018-02-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) constitutes a serious public health issue, especially in communities without water fluoridation. We assessed the effectiveness of biannual fluoride varnish applications to prevent ECC in children from nonfluoridated rural areas. A triple-blind randomized control trial with two parallel arms was conducted with 275 two- to three-year-old children without cavitated carious lesions from 28 rural public preschools in Chile. The preschools were located in areas of low socioeconomic status without access to fluoridated water. An oral health education component was administered to children, parents and educators. A new toothbrush and toothpaste for each child was delivered to the parents at baseline and at four follow-up visits. The participants were randomly allocated to receive fluoride varnish or placebo applications every six months. Trained, calibrated dentists blind to the treatment arm performed visual dental assessments at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The primary endpoint was the development of cavitated carious lesions in children during the 24-month follow-up period using WHO criteria, and the secondary outcomes were an increase in caries measured as a change in the index of decayed, missing or filled teeth (dmft) since the beginning of the study and the development of adverse effects. An intention-to-treat (ITT) approach was used for the primary analysis. We included 131 participants in the intervention group and 144 participants in the placebo group; of these children, 89 (67.9%) in the intervention group and 100 (69.4%) in the control group completed the protocol. The comparative ITT analysis of caries incidence after 24 months of follow-up showed a between-group prevention fraction of 18.9% (-2.9%-36.2%). Caries incidence was 45.0% for the experiment group and 55.6% for the control group (P = .081), with a mean dmft of 1.6 (SD = 2.4) and 2.1 (SD = 2.5), respectively. No adverse effects were reported. In conclusion, biannual fluoride

  3. [Influence of natural fluoride concentration in drinking water on dental health of first class pupils in an area with enhanced fluoride content at the beginning of the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmeyer, R

    2011-08-01

    Since the end of the first half of the 20 (th) century it is well-known that fluoride concentrations in drinking water of about 1 ppm reduce the prevalence of dental caries by about 40-60%. This knowledge led to the fluoridation of drinking water during the second half of the 20 (th) century in many countries, including East Germany. Although the natural F (-) content in drinking water in Germany is usually very low, the eastern Eifel is one of the few larger areas in Germany with (nearly) optimal (0.7-1.0 ppm) or moderately enhanced (0.3-0.7 ppm) natural fluoride concentrations in drinking water. 30 years ago, in 1977, the caries prevalence of children of various age groups in the fluoride-rich areas of the eastern Eifel was established by Einwag to be about 40% lower than in adjacent fluoride-poor regions (0.1 ppm). Meanwhile fluoride has become available from many different sources for children of any age: e. g., toothpaste (with 500 ppm fluoride even for very young children who just got the first tooth), fluoridated salt, professional fluoride applications (paid by health insurances), the rising consumption of mineral waters (many of which have a fluoride content >0.3 ppm). This poses the question of the current influence of enhanced natural drinking water fluoride concentrations on caries prevalence in children. The results of the dental examinations of 9 555 pupils (6 or 7 years old) of the first classes of all 63 primary schools in the Landkreis Mayen-Koblenz from 5 years (2004/2005-2008/2009) are compared to the fluoride content of the drinking water. The data show no obvious correlation between dental health and fluoride concentration for any of the dental health parameters investigated. However, in spite of the low geographic resolution of social parameters, there was a notable connection between dental health status and sociodemographic indicators for the respective region. 30 years after the study by Einwag in the same region, the

  4. Effects of periodic fluoride treatment on fluoride ion release from fresh orthodontic adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bum-Soon; Lee, Shin-Jae; Lim, Young-Jun; Ahn, Sug-Joon

    2011-11-01

    Periodic fluoride treatment may contribute to the ability of fresh orthodontic adhesives to provide long-term F(-) release. The effects of periodic fluoride treatment on the amount of F(-) release from fresh orthodontic adhesives was investigated. F(-) release was measured from a nonfluoride-releasing composite, a fluoride-releasing composite, a polyacid-modified composite (compomer), and two resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs) at 1, 2, and 5 days after one of the following treatments: 225 ppm F(-) solution, 900 ppm F(-) solution, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APF), fluoridated dentifrice, and deionised water (control). F(-) release was measured in a 5-day cycle, which was repeated 9 consecutive times. The amount of F(-) release for each group was analysed using the repeated measures analysis of variance. Statistical significance was set at a level of α=0.05. Periodic fluoride treatment temporarily increased F(-) release in fresh fluoride-releasing orthodontic adhesives, but not in fresh nonfluoride-releasing composite. The order of effective fluoride-release was RMGICs>compomer>fluoride-releasing composite>nonfluoride-releasing composite. The application of APF or 900 ppm F(-) solution was the most effective way to maintain F(-) release from fresh orthodontic adhesives. However, the amount of F(-) release gradually decreased with increasing specimen age. Given the difficulty of routine use of APF at home, the results of this study show that a combination of RMGICs and high-dose fluoride mouth rinse is the most effective protocol to maintain F(-) release from fresh orthodontic adhesives. Most studies have investigated fluoride-uptake abilities using aged materials in which fluoride had been lost for at least 1 month. This study has found that periodic fluoride treatment altered the conventional F(-) release pattern of fresh fluoride-releasing materials and type of fluoride-containing medium plays a more critical role in fluoride recharging of the

  5. Saliva fluoride before and during 3 years of supervised use of fluoride toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A; Machiulskiene, V; Nyvad, B; Baelum, V

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine pre-brushing saliva fluoride concentrations before and during a large, 3-year, prospective toothpaste study on the effect of post-brushing rinsing on dental caries. The aims were to study saliva fluoride over time and the effect of rinsing on saliva fluoride and to relate saliva fluoride to caries increments and accumulation of plaque. Saliva samples (baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years) were collected from 11-year-old children attending two schools (A and B) in Kaunas, Lithuania, who refrained from brushing the evening and morning before saliva collection. Numbers of saliva samples collected varied from 264 at baseline to 188 at the 3-year follow-up. Children in school A rinsed with water after daily brushing, while children in school B did not rinse. Total caries and visible plaque were registered at baseline and after 3 years. Mean saliva fluoride concentrations at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 years from school A (rinsing) were 0.014, 0.026, 0.029, and 0.034 ppm and from school B (no rinsing) were 0.013, 0.028, 0.031, and 0.031 ppm, respectively. Increases in saliva fluoride from baseline were significant (Wilcoxon's test, p Saliva fluoride did not increase beyond year 1 and did at no time point differ between schools. Reductions in numbers of tooth surfaces with dental plaque were significantly positively related to the number of caries reversals over the 3 years. Background saliva fluoride concentration is increased by brushing at least once daily on schooldays, does not increase further over 3 years, and is not affected by rinsing after brushing. Continuous use of fluoride toothpaste produces ambient saliva fluoride levels similar to saliva fluoride in areas with fluoridated water.

  6. Biosorption of fluoride ion from water using the seeds of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fluoride biosorption potential of the seeds of the cabbage tree (Moringa stenopetala). The influence of Moringa dosage, pH, contact time, and initial concentration of fluoride ion was investigated. The maximum fluoride sorption capacity was found to be 1.32 mg.g-1 of dry weight of Moringa seeds at a biomass dosage of 2 ...

  7. Association of fluoride in water for consumption and chronic pain of body parts in residents of San Kamphaeng district, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkaew, Montakarn; Wiwatanadate, Phongtape

    2012-09-01

    To assess the dose response of fluoride exposure from water and chronic pain. Using a retrospective cohort design, the study was conducted in two sub-districts of San Kamphaeng district, Poo-kha and On-tai. Five hundred and thirty-four residents aged ≥50 years of age were interviewed about their sources of drinking water and assessed for chronic pain. Each water source was sampled for fluoride measurement, from which the average daily fluoride dose was estimated. Binary logistic regression with forward stepwise (likelihood ratio) model selection technique was used to examine the association between the average daily fluoride dose and chronic pain. We found associations between the average daily fluoride dose and lower back pain [odds ratio (OR) = 5.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.59-16.98], and between the high fluoride area vs. the low fluoride area (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.28; relative risk= 1.22 with 95% CI, 1.14-1.31) to lower back pain. Other risk factors, such as family history of body pain and a history of injury of the lower body, were also associated with lower back pain. However, there were no relationships between the average daily fluoride dose and leg and knee pains. To prevent further lower back pain, we recommend that the water in this area be treated to reduce its fluoride content. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Water fluoridation and the association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and dental caries in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Plastow, Katrina

    2013-03-01

    We examined demographic and socioeconomic differences in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), its association with dental caries in children, and whether exposure to water fluoridation modifies this association. In a cross-sectional study, we used a stratified, clustered sampling design to obtain information on 16 508 children aged 5 to 16 years enrolled in Australian school dental services in 2002 to 2005. Dental staff assessed dental caries, and parents completed a questionnaire about their child's residential history, sources of drinking water, toothbrushing frequency, socioeconomic status (SES), and SSB consumption. Children who brushed their teeth less often and were older, male, of low SES, from rural or remote areas consumed significantly more SSBs. Caries was significantly associated with greater SSB consumption after controlling for potential confounders. Finally, greater exposure to fluoridated water significantly reduced the association between children's SSB consumption and dental caries. Consumption of SSBs should be considered a major risk factor for dental caries. However, increased exposure to fluoridated public water helped ameliorate the association between SSB consumption and dental decay. These results reconfirm the benefits of community water fluoridation for oral health.

  9. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in 10-12 years old adolescents of Bushehr port

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    Giti Javan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride increases tooth resistance to dental caries, but mild toxicity due to excessive ingestion of fluoride can cause dental fluorosis. Drinking water naturally contains fluoride and is a major source of fluoride. In Bushehr port, drinking water is supplied from limestone springs with normal fluoride levels but dental fluorosis is observed. Methods: A total of 95 native school children (between the ages of 10-12 years old were randomly selected from four Bushehr port regions. Dental fluorosis, height and weight were examined. Probable attributing factors of dental fluorosis were also questioned. A 16 to 18 hours urinary fluoride concentration was measured with a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results: Dental fluorosis in four upper incisors was apparent in 52.6 % of the subjects. The urinary fluoride concentration was 2.18 mg/lit. Fluoride concentration in drinking water of schools ranged from 0.41 to 0.58 mg/lit. Forty percent of subjects were caries free. Conclusion: In spite of the normal range of fluoride concentration in the drinking water of Bushehr, dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration are higher than the recommended ranges. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the amount and effects of fluoride ingestion in residents of Bushehr province.

  10. Comparative studies on plasma mineral status of cattle in fluoride toxic brackish water zone of Punjab, India

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    Sushma Chhabra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic fluoride intoxication or fluorosis is a worldwide health problem in humans and animals. The present research work was aimed to assess the status of copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus in blood of fluorotic cattle in brackish water zone of Punjab. Methods: The present study was conducted in villages of district Muktsar, a brackish water zone, of Punjab state. Cattle (n=103 showing signs of dental lesions or lameness, from the villages with water fluoride concentration more than 1 ppm, were selected for the study whereas cattle (n=98 from villages with water fluoride concentration less than 1 ppm and with no clinical signs served as control. Blood samples were collected from both the groups and were analysed for minerals.Results: Significantly (P<0.05 higher plasma F concentrations were observed in animals of fluorotic region in comparison to healthy control animals. Concentrations of plasma Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn were significantly lower in cattle of hydrofluorotic region. Plasma phosphorus, iron and iodine concentrations were higher in animals of hydrofluorotic region whereas Mo and Mn did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions: Present study indicated decrease in certain essential minerals in animals of fluorotic region and such changes may contribute to the toxic effects associated with exposure to excess fluoride and salinity

  11. On the distribution of fluoride, calcium and magnesium in the waters off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Dias, C.F.M.

    The distribution of fluoride, calcium and magnesium was studied in the waters off the central west coast of India. The averages F/Cl, Ca/Cl and Mg/Cl ratios observed are (6.83 plus or minus 0.023) x 10@u-5@@, (0.02194 plus or minus 0.00068) and (0...

  12. The impact of geology on the migration of fluorides in mineral waters of the Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton area, Serbia

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    Papić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the hydrogeochemical parameters that classify groundwater as mineral water is the content of fluoride ions. Their concentration is both important and limited for bottled mineral waters. Hydrochemical research of mineral waters in the surrounding area of Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton, in central Serbia, was conducted in order to define the chemical composition and genesis of these waters. They are carbonated waters, with content of fluoride ranging from 0.2 up to 6.6 mg/L. Since hydrochemical analyses showed variations in the major water chemistry, it was obvious that, apart from hydrochemical research, some explorations of the structure of the regional terrain would be inevitable. For these purposes, some additional geological research was performed, creating an adequate basis for the interpretation of the genesis of these carbonated mineral waters. The results confirmed the significance of the application of hydrochemical methods in the research of mineral waters. The work tended to emphasize that “technological treatment” for decreasing the concentration of fluoride in mineral waters occurs in nature, indicating the existence of natural defluoridization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  13. Influence of the Curing Mode on Fluoride Ion Release of Self-adhesive Resin Luting Cements in Water or During pH-Cycling Regimen

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, T.R.; Pinto, C. F.; Cavalli, V; Santos, M. Nobre dos; AMBROSANO G.M.B.; Mathias, P; Giannini, M

    2012-01-01

    p. 63-70 This study evaluated the effects of curing modes and storage conditions on fluoride release of resin cements. In phase 1, the cumulative fluoride release rate from samples of the resin cements (Panavia F 2.0, RelyX Unicem, MaxCem, and BisCem) was quantified after 15 days storage in water (n=4). In phase 2, the fluoride release profiles from the same materials were analyzed during pH cycling (n=4). In this second phase, fluoride was measured at specific times (one, two, three, five...

  14. Dental caries prevalence in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different water fluoride content

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    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of cavitated caries lesions (CCL and early childhood caries (ECC, and the contribution of some variables in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply: AFC (adequate fluoride content and LFC (low fluoride content. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents were interviewed. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization and the ADA (American Dental Association. Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 was applied for statistical analysis of data. The dmft indices calculated in the LFC and AFC municipalities were 0.57 and 0.68, respectively. Considering all children examined, 17.6% presented CCL and 33.8% ECC. The economic classification, mother's education level and duration of breastfeeding were considered statistically significant with regards to CCL prevalence. The age group, duration of the habit of drinking milk before bedtime and age at which oral hygiene started were considered statistically significant with regards to ECC prevalence.

  15. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

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    Declan T. Waugh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand.

  16. Solvent-dependent properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) monolayers at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huie; Matsui, Jun; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2015-03-14

    The present work addresses the solvent-dependent properties of Langmuir films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and amphiphilic poly(N-dodecylacrylamide) (pDDA) at different mixing ratios. After introducing pDDA nanosheets, PVDF Langmuir films obtain a tremendously enhanced modulus as well as high transfer ratios using the vertical dipping method caused by the support of the pDDA two-dimensional hydrogen bonding network. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) was used to investigate PVDF monolayers at the air-water interface in situ. Spreading from different solvents, the PVDF molecules take completely different aggregation states at the air-water interface. The PVDF molecules aggregate to become large domains when spread from N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). However, the volatile and low-polarity methylethyl ketone (MEK) made the PVDF molecules more dispersive on the water surface. This study also discovers a versatile crystallization control of PVDF homopolymer from complete β phase (NMP) to complete α phase (MEK) at the air-water interface, thereby eliciting useful information for further manipulation of film morphologies and film applications.

  17. Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water and Hip Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin-Hai; Huang, Guang-Lei; Lin, Du-Ren; Wan, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Dong; Song, Ju-Kun; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown that exposure to fluoride in drinking water is associated with hip fracture risk. However, the findings are varied or even contradictory. In this work, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between fluoride exposure and hip fracture risk. Methods PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify relevant observational studies from the time of inception until March 2014 without restrictions. Data from the included studies were extracted and analyzed by two authors. Summary relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random- or fixed-effects models as appropriate. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were conducted to explore possible explanations for heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed. Results Fourteen observational studies involving thirteen cohort studies and one case-control study were included in the meta-analysis. Exposure to fluoride in drinking water does not significantly increase the incidence of hip fracture (RRs, 1.05; 95% CIs, 0.96–1.15). Sensitivity analyses based on adjustment for covariates, effect measure, country, sex, sample size, quality of Newcastle–Ottawa Scale scores, and follow-up period validated the strength of the results. Meta-regression showed that country, gender, quality of Newcastle–Ottawa Scale scores, adjustment for covariates and sample size were not sources of heterogeneity. Little evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusion The present meta-analysis suggests that chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water does not significantly increase the risk of hip fracture. Given the potential confounding factors and exposure misclassification, further large-scale, high-quality studies are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to fluoride in drinking water and hip fracture risk. PMID:26020536

  18. Comparison of Fluoride Content in Drinking Water and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in 6 - 12-Year-Old Students in Mariwan (a Cold Region and Behbahan (a Warm Region during the 2013 - 2014 Educational Year

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    Rezvan Rafatjou

    2016-07-01

    .6% very mild, 2.3% mild, and 0.8% moderate. In Mariwan, the prevalence in areas related to reservoir 1 was 96.7% healthy and 3.3% questionable; in areas related to reservoir 2 it was 94.4% healthy and 5.6% questionable. Conclusions The fluoride content of drinking water in reservoirs and at homes was below the optimal level in Mariwan. No differences were observed from the standard levels in Behbahan. There were no differences in fluoride content of water in reservoirs and in home pipelines, indicating no tangible changes in fluoride content from the reservoirs to the homes. In neither of the towns was severe fluorosis observed. There was no significant difference in the prevalence and severity of fluorosis between genders.

  19. A national cross-sectional study on effects of fluoride-safe water supply on the prevalence of fluorosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Han, Hepeng; Shi, Yuxia; Yu, Guangqian; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. Design A national cross-sectional study in China. Setting In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. Participants Involved 81 786 children aged from 8 to 12 and 594 698 adults aged over 16. Main outcome measure The prevalence of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis, the fluoride concentrations in the drinking-water in study villages and in the urine of subjects. Results The study showed that in the villages where the drinking-water fluoride concentrations were higher than the government standard of 1.2 mg/l, but no fluoride-safe drinking-water supply scheme was provided (FNB areas), the prevalence rate and index of dental fluorosis in children, and prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were all significantly higher than those in the historical endemic fluorosis villages after the fluoride-safe drinking-water were provided (FSB areas). Additionally, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis as well as clinical skeletal fluorosis, and the concentration of fluoride in urine were found increased with the increase of fluoride concentration in drinking-water, with significant positive correlations in the FNB areas. While, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis in different age groups and their degrees of prevalence were significantly lower in the FSB areas than those in the FNB areas. Conclusions The provision of fluoride-safe drinking-water supply schemes had significant effects on the prevention and control of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. The study also indicated that the dental and skeletal fluorosis is still prevailing in the high-fluoride drinking-water areas in China. PMID:23015601

  20. Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L

    2014-07-01

    Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed.

  1. Estimating Fluoride Exposure in Rural Communities: A Case Study in Western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Janessa M.; Daniell, William; James, Frank; Milgrom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Efforts to achieve national objectives for fluoridation, such as Healthy People 2010, and water quality monitoring regulations focus on public water systems and generally overlook the 15% of U.S. households with private wells. Mandated testing of public water systems and new building sites on San Juan Island, Washington revealed naturally occurring fluoride levels up to several times the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level. This study evaluated fluoride concentrations in private wells and estimated the prevalence of dental fluorosis among children to inform local stakeholders. Methods Primary school children were examined by a dentist for dental fluorosis, parents were surveyed about fluoride exposures, and household drinking water samples were collected to measure and map fluoride concentrations. De-identified data were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results 18.8% of examined children exhibited mild dental fluorosis, a prevalence similar to national averages. Fluoride concentrations in drinking water were 0.08 to 1.30 mg/L, below levels for health concerns, and generally (94%) below levels recommended for caries prevention. Supplemental sources of fluoride (e.g. tablets) did not account for observed fluorosis. Conclusions Results provided community stakeholders with valuable information to support decision-making regarding fluoride levels in drinking water. Previously available information suggested potential for excessive fluoride exposure, however, these study results indicated low fluoride levels were more common. The approach used in this case study suggests a simple method of assessing the scope of fluoridation needs in communities where private water sources are common, allowing for better informed decision-making with regard to future fluoridation efforts. PMID:20617156

  2. Exposición a fluoruros del agua potable en la ciudad de Aguascalientes, México Exposure to fluorides from drinking water in the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Trejo-Vázquez

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el contenido de fluoruros en todos los pozos de suministro de agua potable de la ciudad de Aguascalientes para establecer el grado de exposición de la población. Métodos. Se determinó el contenido de fluoruros de los 126 pozos de suministro de agua potable de la ciudad de Aguascalientes, México, con el método SPADNS, conforme a las normativas mexicanas NMX-AA-77-1982 y NMX-014-SSAI-1993. Con los datos obtenidos se crearon mapas de isolíneas de concentración que muestran la distribución de esta variable en los mantos freáticos que abastecen a la ciudad de Aguascalientes y se estimaron las dosis de exposición de los habitantes del área urbana. Resultados. El error medio de los análisis fue del 3,9%. Setenta y tres pozos presentaron una concentración Objective. Determine the fluoride content in all the wells that supply drinking water to the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico, in order to establish the population's degree of exposure. Methods. The fluoride content of the 126 wells that supply drinking water to the city of Aguascalientes was determined, using the SPADNS method, in accordance with two Mexican regulations, NMX-AA-77-1982 and NMX-014-SSAI-1993. Using that data, we created fluoride isopleth maps showing the distribution of fluoride concentrations in the water supplies for the city of Aguascalientes. We also estimated exposure doses for the city's inhabitants. Results. The mean analysis uncertainty was 3.9%. Seventy-three wells had a fluoride concentration of <= 1.5 mg/L, which was the maximum permissible value set by the Mexican standards then in effect. All the maximum exposure doses surpassed the minimum risk level set by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR of the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States of America. In the children under 1 year of age, even the minimum dose was slightly higher than the ATSDR risk level. Conclusions. From estimating the fluoride

  3. Chloride/bromide and chloride/fluoride ratios of domestic sewage effluents and associated contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vengosh, A.; Pankratov, I. [Hydrological Service, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-09-01

    To establish geochemical tools for tracing the origin of ground water contamination, the authors examined the variations of Cl/Br and Cl/F (weight) ratios in (1) domestic waste water from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project and from reservoirs in the central coast of Israel; (2) associated contaminated ground water; and (3) pristine ground water from the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel. The data show that supply water, anthropogenic NaCl and fluoridation control the Cl/Br and Cl/F ratios of domestic waste water, and conventional sewage treatment does not affect the anthropogenic inorganic signals. The Cl/Br ratios of ground water contaminated with sewage effluent reflect conservative mixing proportions of sewage and regional ground water components. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that it is possible to detect and distinguish sewage contamination from marine ratios after a sewage contribution of 5 to 15% is mixed with regional ground water. Mixing with Br-enriched fresh water however, would reduce this sensitivity. Since the high Cl/Br signal of sewage effluents is distinguishable from other anthropogenic sources with low Cl/Br ratios and from natural contamination sources, Cl/Br ratios can therefore be a useful inorganic tracer for identification of the origin of contaminated ground water. The Cl/F ratios of sewage-contaminated ground water were higher than those in the original sewage effluent, which suggests retention of fluoride into the aquifer solid phase.

  4. How Does Fluoride Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading How Does Fluoride Work? Is ... There's fluoride in your toothpaste and even in your water. But how does it work to keep teeth ...

  5. Atom Resolved Electron Microscpe Images of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanofibers for Water Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suqi; Reneker, Darrell

    Ultra-thin nanofibers of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), observed with an aberration corrected transmission electron microscope, in a through focus series of 50 images, revealed three-dimensional positions and motions of some molecular segments. The x,y positions of fluorine atoms in the PVDF segments were observed at high resolution as described in (DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01619c). The methods described in (DOI:10.1038/nature11074) were used to measure the positions of fluorine atoms along the observation direction of the microscope. PVDF is widely used to separate salt ions from water in reverse osmosis systems. The observed separation depends on the atomic scale positions and motions of segments of the PVDF molecules. Conformational changes and the associated changes in the directions of the dipole moments of PVDF segments distinguish the diffusion of dipolar water molecules from diffusion of salt ions to accomplish desalination. Authors thank Coalescence Filtration Nanofibers Consortium at The University of Akron for support.

  6. Synthesis and properties of a high-capacity iron oxide adsorbent for fluoride removal from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang; Li, Yingzhen; Wang, Ting-Jie; Jiang, Yanping; Fok, Jason

    2017-12-01

    A novel iron oxide adsorbent with a high fluoride adsorption capacity was prepared by a facile wet-chemical precipitation method and ethanol treatment. The ethanol-treated adsorbent was amorphous and had a high specific surface area. The adsorption capacity of the treated adsorbent was much higher than that of untreated adsorbent. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent prepared at a low final precipitation pH (≤9.0) and treated with ethanol reached 60.8 mg/g. A fast adsorption rate was obtained, and 80% of the adsorption equilibrium capacity was achieved within 2 min. The adsorbent had high fluoride-removal efficiency for water in a wide initial pH range of 3.5-10.3 and had a high affinity for fluoride in the presence of common co-anions. The ethanol treatment resulted in structure transformation of the adsorbent by inhibiting the crystallization of the nano-precipitates. The adsorption was confirmed to be ion exchange between fluoride ions and the hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent surface.

  7. Investigation of lanthanum impregnated cellulose, derived from biomass, as an adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Ammavasi; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Rajan, Mariappan

    2017-11-15

    High concentrations of fluoride in drinking water can cause the disease fluorosis. Our scope goal is to develop an effective biopolymeric adsorbent for the removal of fluoride to below a specific safety limit set by the World Health Organization. In this study, the natural adsorbent material cellulose was impregnated with lanthanum chloride and effectiveness in adsorbing fluoride was confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, and SEM coupled with EDX techniques. The adsorption data were analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption on cellulose and Lanthanum impregnated Cellulose (LaC) obeyed the pseudo second order kinetic model and thermodynamic parameters were shows the adsorption process was spontaneous and feasible. The high adsorption capacity of LaC was developed from waste materials through an easy procedure, has potential for application to efficient defluoridation. In future, the potential LaC adsorbent will be used for designing of household defluoridation unit for effective and economical fluoride removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Kirkeskov L, Kristiansen E, Bøggild H, von Platen-Hallermund F, Sckerl H, Carlsen A, Larsen MJ, Poulsen S. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers. Community...... Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract - Objectives: To study the association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Methods: The study linked registry data on fluoride concentration in drinking water over a 10-year period...... to assess the correlations, adjusting for gender and taxable family income as a proxy variable for socioeconomic status. Results: Fluoride concentration in drinking water varied considerably within the country from very low (1 mg/l), a reduction of approximately 50% was found. Similar findings were found...

  9. Water fluoridation in Brazilian cities at the first decade of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2017-05-15

    To assess the coverage of the fluoridation of the public water supply in Brazilian municipalities at the first decade of the 21st century, according to population size and municipal human development index (MHDI). We have used data produced by national information agencies and the United Nations Development Programme. Population size was separated into 50,000 inhabitants. The MHDI was classified into 0.799. Absolute and relative inequalities between categories were evaluated using indicators of effect and total impact. We have obtained information for 5,558 municipalities. The coverage rate of water fluoridation increased from 67.7% to 76.3%. Approximately 884 (15.9%) municipalities and 29,600,000 inhabitants started being benefited by the measure. We have observed a significant expansion in municipalities with humano municipal (IDH-M). Foram utilizados dados produzidos por agências nacionais de informação e pelo Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento. O porte demográfico foi separado em 50 mil habitantes. O IDH-M foi classificado em 0,799. As desigualdades absoluta e relativa entre as categorias foram avaliadas por meio de indicadores de efeito e de impacto total. Foram obtidas informações para 5.558 municípios. A taxa de cobertura da fluoretação da água aumentou de 67,7% para 76,3%. Passaram a ser beneficiados pela medida 884 (15,9%) municípios, e 29,6 milhões de habitantes. Observou-se ampliação expressiva em municípios com < 10 mil habitantes (aumento de 21,0 pontos percentuais) e com IDH-M baixo ou muito baixo (17,7 pontos percentuais). A cobertura populacional da política pública aumentou 8,6%, sendo expressivas as reduções das desigualdades absoluta e relativa segundo o porte demográfico e o IDH-M. Quanto à taxa de cobertura municipal, houve também redução da desigualdade em todas as comparações com exceção da desigualdade absoluta entre as categorias de IDH-M. A política pública operou como fator de prote

  10. Drinking water quality and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu): synergic effects of fluoride, cadmium and hardness of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Aluthpatabendi, Dharshani; Kularatne, W M T D; Wijekoon, Pushpa; Weerasooriya, Rohan; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2016-02-01

    High prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in some regions of the world is suspected mainly due to a toxin-mediated renal failure. We examined the incidence of CKDu and potable chemical water quality in a CKDu-affected region. This region has been identified as a high-risk zone for CKDu (location: latitude: 8.3500°-9.0000°, longitude: 80.3833°-81.3000°, North Central Province, NCP, Sri Lanka) by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, within this macro-region, small pockets of CKDu non-prevalence zones do exist; notably, the residents in those pockets consume spring water. Therefore, the drinking water quality of four areas, namely high-CKDu-prevalence areas (zone I), low-CKDu-prevalence area (zone II), the CKDu-free isolated pockets (zone III) and control areas (controls) were examined for F, Al, Cd, and As, and hardness and the statistical analysis were carried out to probe possible correlations among these parameters. The fluoride and hardness concentrations of water in zone III and control areas are much lower compared to zones I and II, and the water hardness is ~61 mg/L CaCO3. In zones I and II, the harness of drinking water is ~121-180 mg/L CaCO3; however, Al, Cd and As concentrations are almost comparable and below WHO recommendations. In most of the locations in zones I and II, the F concentration in drinking water is higher than the WHO recommendations. The peculiar distribution patterns of CKDu point to a synergic effect of trace elements in water for etiology of the disease.

  11. The association between social deprivation and the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in populations with and without water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Maguire, Anne; Goodwin, Michaela; Boothman, Nicola; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-12-28

    To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel) and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. The study also aimed to explore the use of remote, blinded methodologies to minimize the effect of examiner bias. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 11-13 years. Clinical assessments of caries and fluorosis were performed on permanent teeth using ICDAS and blind scoring of standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors using TF Index (with cases for fluorosis defined as TF > 0). Data from 1783 subjects were available (910 Newcastle, 873 Manchester). Levels of material deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation) were comparable for both populations (Newcastle mean 35.22, range 2.77-78.85; Manchester mean 37.04, range 1.84-84.02). Subjects in the fluoridated population had significantly less caries experience than the non-fluoridated population when assessed by clinical scores or photographic scores across all quintiles of deprivation for white spot lesions: Newcastle mean DMFT 2.94 (clinical); 2.51 (photo), Manchester mean DMFT 4.48 (clinical); 3.44 (photo) and caries into dentine (Newcastle Mean DMFT 0.65 (clinical); 0.58 (photo), Manchester mean DMFT 1.07 (clinical); 0.98 (photo). The only exception being for the least deprived quintile for caries into dentine where there were no significant differences between the cities: Newcastle mean DMFT 0.38 (clinical); 0.36 (photo), Manchester mean DMFT 0.45 (clinical); 0.39 (photo). The odds ratio for white spot caries experience (or worse) in Manchester was 1.9 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for caries into dentine in Manchester was 1.8 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for developing fluorosis in Newcastle was 3.3 relative to Manchester. Water fluoridation appears

  12. The association between social deprivation and the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in populations with and without water fluoridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. The study also aimed to explore the use of remote, blinded methodologies to minimize the effect of examiner bias. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 11–13 years. Clinical assessments of caries and fluorosis were performed on permanent teeth using ICDAS and blind scoring of standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors using TF Index (with cases for fluorosis defined as TF > 0. Results Data from 1783 subjects were available (910 Newcastle, 873 Manchester. Levels of material deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation were comparable for both populations (Newcastle mean 35.22, range 2.77-78.85; Manchester mean 37.04, range 1.84-84.02. Subjects in the fluoridated population had significantly less caries experience than the non-fluoridated population when assessed by clinical scores or photographic scores across all quintiles of deprivation for white spot lesions: Newcastle mean DMFT 2.94 (clinical; 2.51 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 4.48 (clinical; 3.44 (photo and caries into dentine (Newcastle Mean DMFT 0.65 (clinical; 0.58 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 1.07 (clinical; 0.98 (photo. The only exception being for the least deprived quintile for caries into dentine where there were no significant differences between the cities: Newcastle mean DMFT 0.38 (clinical; 0.36 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 0.45 (clinical; 0.39 (photo. The odds ratio for white spot caries experience (or worse in Manchester was 1.9 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for caries into dentine in Manchester was 1.8 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for developing fluorosis in Newcastle was 3.3 relative

  13. The association between social deprivation and the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in populations with and without water fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel) and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. The study also aimed to explore the use of remote, blinded methodologies to minimize the effect of examiner bias. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 11–13 years. Clinical assessments of caries and fluorosis were performed on permanent teeth using ICDAS and blind scoring of standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors using TF Index (with cases for fluorosis defined as TF > 0). Results Data from 1783 subjects were available (910 Newcastle, 873 Manchester). Levels of material deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation) were comparable for both populations (Newcastle mean 35.22, range 2.77-78.85; Manchester mean 37.04, range 1.84-84.02). Subjects in the fluoridated population had significantly less caries experience than the non-fluoridated population when assessed by clinical scores or photographic scores across all quintiles of deprivation for white spot lesions: Newcastle mean DMFT 2.94 (clinical); 2.51 (photo), Manchester mean DMFT 4.48 (clinical); 3.44 (photo) and caries into dentine (Newcastle Mean DMFT 0.65 (clinical); 0.58 (photo), Manchester mean DMFT 1.07 (clinical); 0.98 (photo). The only exception being for the least deprived quintile for caries into dentine where there were no significant differences between the cities: Newcastle mean DMFT 0.38 (clinical); 0.36 (photo), Manchester mean DMFT 0.45 (clinical); 0.39 (photo). The odds ratio for white spot caries experience (or worse) in Manchester was 1.9 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for caries into dentine in Manchester was 1.8 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for developing fluorosis in Newcastle was 3.3 relative to

  14. La{sup 3+}-modified activated alumina for fluoride removal from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jiemin, E-mail: jmcheng2002@hotmail.com [College of Population Resources and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 China (China); Meng, Xiaoguang; Jing, Chuanyong; Hao, Jumin [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A La{sup 3+}-modified activated alumina adsorbent was prepared for effective removal F{sup −}. • SEM/EDS and EXAFS analyses determined the formation of La(OH){sub 3} coating on the AA. • The La-AA had much high adsorption rate and capacity than the AA. • The La-AA was promising adsorbent for effective removal of F{sup −} from water. - Abstract: A La{sup 3+}-modified activated alumina (La-AA) adsorbent was prepared for effective removal of fluoride from water. The surface properties of adsorbent were characterized with zeta potential analysis, SEM-EDS and EXAFS. Batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate improvement of F{sup −} removal by the La-AA. SEM/EDS and EXAFS analyses determined the formation of La(OH){sub 3} coating on the AA and strong bonding interactions between La{sup 3+} and the Al atoms. The points of zero charge (pH{sub PZC}) of AA and La-AA were at pH 8.94 and 9.57, respectively. Batch experimental results indicated that the La-AA had much higher adsorption rate and capacity than the AA. The F{sup −} adsorption processes on La-AA and AA followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the Langmuir isotherm. Column filtration results shows that the La-AA and AA treated 270 and 170 bed volumes of the F{sup −}-spiked tap water, respectively, before F{sup −} breakthrough occurred. The results demonstrated that the La-AA was a promising adsorbent for effective removal of F{sup −} from water.

  15. Protective effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba against learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetti, Raghu; Raghuveer, C V; Mallikarjuna, Rao C

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is present in the ground water, World Health Organization permitted level of fluoride in the ground water is 0.5 ppm. Tooth pastes, mouth washes, tea and sea fish are the sources of fluoride. Exposure to these multiple sources results in several adverse effects in addition to the fluorosis. The present study aimed to test the effect of vitamin C and Ginkgo biloba against the behavioural deficits caused by fluoride. Rats were divided into five groups with six animals in each group (n = 6). Control group received ordinary tap water with 0.5 ppm of fluoride, the remaining groups received 100 ppm of fluoride for 30 days prior to fluoride exposure. Two groups of animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C and G. biloba for 15 days prior to fluoride exposure. After 45 days, behavioural studies (T-Maze, passive avoidance) were conducted on the experimental animals. The results of the present study showed no behavioural deficits in the control group of animals however, the rats that received fluoride water exhibited impairment in their spatial learning and memory deficits. The deficits are not marked in the vitamin C and G. biloba groups. To conclude chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride causes severe impairment in the spatial learning and memory, these deficits can be ameliorated with the vitamin C and G. biloba. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Fluoride removal from diluted solutions by Donnan dialysis using full factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubakri, Ali; Helali, Nawel; Tlili, Mohamed; Amor, Mohamed Ben [Center of Researches and Water Technologies, Soliman (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Excessive fluoride concentration in potable water can lead to fluorosis of teeth and bones. In the present study, Donnan dialysis (DD) is applied for the removal of fluoride ions from diluted sodium fluoride solutions. A four factor two level (2{sup 4}) full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of different physico-chemical parameters on fluoride removal efficiency (Y{sub F}) and fluoride flux (J{sub F}) through anion exchange membrane. The statistical design determines factors which have the important effects on Donnan dialysis performance and studies all interactions among the considered parameters. The four significant factors were initial fluoride concentration, feed flow rate, temperature and agitation speed. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that the temperature and agitation speed have positive effects on fluoride removal efficiency and the initial fluoride concentration has a negative effect. In the case of fluoride flux, feed flow rate and initial concentration are the main effect and all factors have a positive effect. The interaction between studied parameters was not negligible on two responses. A maximum fluoride removal of 75.52% was obtained under optimum conditions and the highest value of fluoride flux obtained was 2.4 mg/cm{sup 2}·h. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the flux and the fluoride removal profiles with satisfactory results.

  17. [Evaluation of iron, fluoride and iodine concentrations in underground water in some counties in Romania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcea, Monica; Toma, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    To compare the underground water mineral composition in iron, fluorine and iodine from different sources, with variable locations in Romania. It is a lab study based on Hanna Instruments C99 colorimeter used for our tests, that follows the levels of mineral parameters from water samples from several underground water supplie sources from 10 different romanian counties. It were significant differences between sources from different counties, and also from different sources in the same county, regarding minerals levels in water and also comparing to admitted levels. The most various data were related to fluorine and iodine levels in water samples and risk of exposure by deficiency. It is important to know the importance of supply water monitoring, to evaluate both the drinking water quality parameters and mineral composition, in order to estimate the influence on health status of long shut consumer population.

  18. Effect of Advocacy Training During Dental Education on Pediatric Dentists' Interest in Advocating for Community Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevetsky, Anna; Mirman, Jennifer; Bhoopathi, Vinodh

    2018-01-01

    Dentists, like other health professionals, are uniquely positioned to be public health advocates. One venue where dental students can become skilled public health advocates is in dental education programs. However, debates about the need and importance of integrating advocacy training into dental curricula exist. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between pediatric dentists' interest in and willingness to participate in an advocacy-related activity and their prior training in advocacy during dental education. The advocacy activity used in the study related to community water fluoridation (CWF). A 22-item pilot-tested online survey was sent in February-May 2016 to 5,394 pediatric dentists who were members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. The final response rate was 16% (n=830). Most (77%) of the respondents were willing to advocate for CWF initiatives at the community and/or state levels. Only 44% of the respondents reported receiving training in advocacy during their predoctoral dental and/or pediatric dental residency education. The pediatric dentists who were willing to advocate for CWF initiatives had 2.7 times (95% CI: 1.63-4.39, ppediatric dentists' willingness to advocate for CWF and their prior advocacy training during dental education. This finding provides support for the Commission on Dental Accreditation's requirement for pediatric dental residency programs to train residents in advocacy. Because dentists are respected leaders in their community, the study results also support the integration of advocacy training into predoctoral dental curricula.

  19. Effects of combined oleic acid and fluoride at sub-MIC levels on EPS formation and viability of Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-Na; Kim, Mi-A; Jung, Ji-Eun; Pandit, Santosh; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of fluoride, dental caries, a biofilm-related disease, remains an important health problem. This study investigated whether oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, can enhance the effect of fluoride on extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) formation by Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels, via microbiological and biochemical methods, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and real-time PCR. The combination of oleic acid with fluoride inhibited EPS formation more strongly than did fluoride or oleic acid alone. The superior inhibition of EPS formation was due to the combination of the inhibitory effects of oleic acid and fluoride against glucosyltransferases (GTFs) and GTF-related gene (gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD) expression, respectively. In addition, the combination of oleic acid with fluoride altered the bacterial biovolume of the biofilms without bactericidal activity. These results suggest that oleic acid may be useful for enhancing fluoride inhibition of EPS formation by S. mutans biofilms, without killing the bacterium.

  20. Mn-Ce oxide as a high-capacity adsorbent for fluoride removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Liu, Han; Zhou, Wei; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2011-02-28

    A novel Mn-Ce oxide adsorbent with high sorption capacity for fluoride was prepared via co-precipitation method in this study, and the granular adsorbent was successfully prepared by calcining the mixture of the Mn-Ce powder and pseudo-boehmite. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed that the Mn-Ce adsorbent consisted of about 4.5 nm crystals, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated the formation of solid solution by Mn species entering CeO(2) lattices. The surface hydroxyl group density on the Mn-Ce adsorbent was determined to be as high as 15.3 mmol g(-1), mainly responsible for its high sorption capacity for fluoride. Sorption isotherms showed that the sorption capacities of fluoride on the powdered and granular adsorbent were 79.5 and 45.5 mg g(-1) respectively at the equilibrium fluoride concentration of 1 mg L(-1), much higher than all reported adsorbents. Additionally, the adsorption was fast within the initial 1 h. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the hydroxyl groups on the adsorbent surface were involved in the sorption of fluoride. Both anion exchange and electrostatic interaction were involved in the sorption of fluoride on the Mn-Ce oxide adsorbent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Aluminium fumarate metal-organic framework: A super adsorbent for fluoride from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sankha; Dechnik, Janina; Janiak, Christoph; De, Sirshendu

    2016-02-13

    Potential of aluminium fumarate metal organic framework (MOF) for fluoride removal from groundwater has been explored in this work. The laboratory produced MOF exhibited characteristics similar to the commercial version. MOF was found to be micro-porous with surface area of 1156 m(2)/g and average pore size 17Å. Scanning electron micrograph of the AlFu MOF showed minute pores and texture was completely different from either of the parent materials. Change in the composition of AlFu MOF after fluoride adsorption was evident from powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal stability of the AlFu MOF up to 700K was established by thermo-gravimetric analysis. Incorporation of fluoride phase after adsorption was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence analysis. As observed from FTIR study, hydroxyl ions in AlFu MOF were substituted by fluoride. 0.75 g/l AlFu MOF was good enough for complete removal of 30 mg/l fluoride concentration in feed solution. The maximum adsorption capacity for fluoride was 600, 550, 504 and 431 mg/g, respectively, at 293, 303, 313 and 333K. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Poisoning by coal smoke containing arsenic and fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, D.; He, Y.G.; Hu, Q.X. [Guizhou Sanitary and Epidemiological Station, Guiyang (China)

    1997-02-01

    An investigation was made into a disease involving skin pigmentation, keratosis of the hands and feet, dental discoloration, and generalized bone and joint pain, stiffness and rigidity, in the village of Bazhi, Zhijin County, Ghizhou Province, People`s Republic of China. Measurements were made of the arsenic and fluoride levels of coal, water, air, food, urine and hair in Bazhi and a control village, Xinzhai, in which coal with a low arsenic content was used. Up to 188 people, including children, in Bazhi and 752 in Xinzhai, were examined for the presence of chronic arsenium, skeletal fluorosis, dental fluorosis and electrocardiogram abnormalities. The coal in Bazhi was found to contain high levels of arsenic and fluoride resulting, after burning in homes without an adequate chimney systems, in pollution of air and food with arsenic and fluoride. The coal in Xinzhai did not cause arsenic pollution but did produce a higher level of fluoride pollution. It was concluded that the endemic disease in Bazhi was caused by pollution by coal smoke containing arsenic and fluoride. It is suggested that arsenic may act synergistically with fluoride so that a lower level of fluoride may produce fluoride toxicity with dental and skeletal fluorosis.

  3. Health assessment fluoride levels above the parametric value in water for human consumption in relation to the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis in school children 12 years of age Valoración sanitaria de la superación del valor paramétrico de fluoruro en agua de consumo humano en relación con la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental en escolares de doce años de edad

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    Gladis Gómez Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Real Decreto 140/2003 of February 7, provides the opportunity to request approval of a temporary exception to the parametric value for the parameter B of Annex I, including fluoride. The work presented aims at testing the effect of water with fluoride levels above the parametric value on the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis, total and by grade, in the permanent dentition of schoolchildren in 12 years in order to establish the basis for the valuation of non-compliance and health decisions to applications for permits for temporary emergency situations and new parametric value. Sixty students were explored in a municipality of Tenerife where the concentration of fluoride in the water for human consumption has remained at 2,7 ± 0,5 mg / L, ie around the value ± 0,5 considered adequate to prevent dental caries and minimize the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The methodology used is standardized by the WHO. The examination included the recording of caries and dental fluorosis measured by the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF. There was a prevalence of dental caries of 38,33%, with a CAOD 0,87 and 81,67% of dental fluorosis: 35% for TF1-2, a 31,67% for TF3-4 and 15 % for grades TF5-9.Passing the values established requires the establishment of measures for health protection by restricting the use and consumption of water for children up to 8 years old.El R. D. 140/2003, de 7 de febrero, contempla la posibilidad de solicitud de autorización de excepción temporal al valor paramétrico establecido para parámetros de la parte B del anexo I, entre los que se encuentra el fluoruro. El trabajo que se presenta tiene como objeto la comprobación del efecto del consumo de agua con niveles de fluoruro superiores al valor paramétrico sobre la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental, total y por grados, en la dentición permanente de escolares de doce años con el fin de establecer las bases para la valoración sanitaria del incumplimiento y la toma

  4. [Epidemiological surveillance of dental fluorosis in a city with a tropical climate with a fluoridated public drinking water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Barbosa, Pablo Renan Ribeiro; Nunes-Dos-Santos, Danila Lorena; Dantas-Neta, Neusa Barros; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; de Lima, Marina de Deus Moura

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 11 to 14-year-old schoolchildren in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, which is a tropical city with a fluoridated public drinking water supply. It involved a cross-sectional observational study on a sample of 571 students in public and private schools. Informed Consent forms were approved for the data collection and the exams were conducted at the schools. Data were recorded on a questionnaire answered by the parents, regarding the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits of the sample. The dental exam was performed qualified dental sugeons. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index was used. The prevalence of fluorosis was 77.9%, and only 12.5% of the affected children had TF ≥ grade 3 (with aesthetic damage). The premolars were the teeth most affected by fluorosis. Among the students with the highest severity of fluorosis, 98.6% belonged to the lowest social bracket (> B2), 91.5% were born and had always lived in Teresina, 94.4% consumed water from the fluoridated public supply, 76% used toothpaste for children and 64% of mothers reported that they swallowed toothpaste. The prevalence of fluorosis was high, though the severity was low in individuals exposed to fluoridation since birth.

  5. The Effects of Remineralization via Fluoride Versus Low-Level Laser IR810 and Fluoride Agents on the Mineralization and Microhardness of Bovine Dental Enamel

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    Edith Lara-Carrillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the mineralization and microhardness of bovine dental enamel surfaces treated with fluoride, tri-calcium phosphate, and infrared (IR 810 laser irradiation. The study used 210 bovine incisors, which were divided into six groups (n = 35 in each: Group A: Untreated (control, Group B: Fluoride (Durapath-Colgate, Group C: Fluoride+Tri-calcium phosphate (Clin-Pro White-3 M, Group D: Laser IR 810 (Quantum, Group E: Fluoride+laser, and Group F: Fluoride+tri-calcium phosphate+laser. Mineralization was measured via UV-Vis spectroscopy for phosphorus and via atomic absorption spectroscopy for calcium upon demineralization and remineralization with proven agents. Microhardness (SMH was measured after enamel remineralization. Mineral loss data showed differences between the groups before and after the mineralizing agents were placed (p < 0.05. Fluoride presented the highest remineralization tendency for both calcium and phosphate, with a Vickers microhardness of 329.8 HV0.1/11 (p < 0.05. It was observed that, if remineralization solution contained fewer minerals, the microhardness surface values were higher (r = −0.268 and −0.208; p < 0.05. This study shows that fluoride has a remineralizing effect compared with calcium triphosphate and laser IR810. This in vitro study imitated the application of different remineralizing agents and showed which one was the most efficient for treating non-cavitated injuries. This can prevent the progression of lesions in patients with white spot lesions.

  6. Exposure to Fluoride in Smelter Workers in a Primary Aluminum Industry in India

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    AK Susheela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride is used increasingly in a variety of industries in India. Emission of fluoride dust and fumes from the smelters of primary aluminum producing industries is dissipated in the work environment and poses occupational health hazards. Objective: To study the prevalence of health complaints and its association with fluoride level in body fluids of smelter workers in a primary aluminum producing industry. Methods: In an aluminum industry, health status of 462 smelter workers, 60 supervisors working in the smelter unit, 62 non-smelter workers (control group 1 and 30 administration staff (control group 2 were assessed between 2007 and 2009. Their health complaints were recorded and categorized into 4 groups: 1 gastro-intestinal complaints; 2 non-skeletal manifestations; 3 skeletal symptoms; and (4 respiratory problems. Fluoride level in body fluids, nails, and drinking water was tested by an ion selective electrode; hemoglobin level was tested using HemoCue. Results: The total complaints reported by study groups were significantly higher than the control groups. Smelter workers had a significantly (p<0.001 higher urinary and serum fluoride level than non-smelter workers; the nail fluoride content was also higher in smelter workers than non-smelter workers (p<0.001. The smelter workers with higher hemoglobin level had a significantly (p<0.001 lower urinary fluoride concentration and complained less frequently of health problems. Only 1.4% of the smelter workers were consuming water with high fluoride concentrations. A high percentage of participants was using substances with high fluoride contents. Conclusions: Industrial emission of fluoride is not the only important sources of fluoride exposure—consumption of substance with high levels of fluoride is another important route of entry of fluoride into the body. Measurement of hemoglobin provides a reliable indicator for monitoring the health status of employees at risk of fluorosis.

  7. [Evolution in access to fluoridated water in São Paulo State, Brazil, from the 1950s to the early 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renata Ximenez; Fernandes, Grasiele Fretta; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Frazão, Paulo; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2012-01-01

    Access to fluoridated water is a known protective factor against dental caries. In 1974, fluoridation of the public water supply became mandatory by law in Brazil, resulting in improved coverage, especially in more developed regions of the country. Coverage increased across the country as a priority under the national oral health policy. This article systematizes information on the implementation and expansion of fluoridation in Sao Paulo State from 1956 to 2009, using secondary data from technical reports, official documents, and the Information System for Surveillance of Water Quality for Human Consumption (SISAGUA). In 2009, fluoridation covered 546 of 645 counties in São Paulo State (84.7%), reaching 85.1% of the total population and 93.5% of the population with access to the public water supply. The results indicate that fluoridation has been consolidated as part of State health policy. However, the challenge remains to implement and maintain fluoridation in 99 counties, benefiting 6.2 million inhabitants that are still excluded from this service.

  8. Altered sperm chromatin structure in mice exposed to sodium fluoride through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zilong; Niu, Ruiyan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Jundong

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on sperm abnormality, sperm chromatin structure, protamine 1 and protamine 2 (P1 and P2) mRNA expression, and histones expression in sperm in male mice. NaF was orally administrated to male mice at 30, 70, and 150 mg/l for 49 days (more than one spermatogenic cycle). Sperm head and tail abnormalities were significantly enhanced at middle and high doses. Similarly, sperm chromatin structure was also adversely affected by NaF exposure, indicating DNA integrity damage. Furthermore, middle and high NaF significantly reduced the mRNA expressions of P1 and P2, and P1/P2 ratio, whereas the sperm histones level was increased, suggesting the abnormal histone-protamine replacement. Therefore, we concluded that the mechanism by which F induced mice sperm abnormality and DNA integrity damage may involved in the alterations in P1, P2, and histones expression in sperm of mice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Influência de diferentes concentrações de flúor na água em indicadores epidemiológicos de saúde/doença bucal Influence of different concentrations of fluoride in the water on epidemiologic indicators of oral health/disease

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    Raquel Baroni de Carvalho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o acesso a fontes de fluoreto e as condições de saúde bucal de 237 escolares de nove a dezesseis anos, de três localidades com diferentes concentrações de fluoreto na água. O teor de flúor na água de cada região foi analisado pela técnica do eletrodo seletivo para o íon flúor e a foi avaliada prevalência de cárie e fluorose, respectivamente, pelo índice CPOD e TSIF, apresentando diferença estatisticamente significante (ANOVA; p The scope of this study was to evaluate access to fluoride sources and oral health hygiene of 237 schoolchildren aged nine to sixteen, from three locations with different fluoride concentrations in the water. The fluoride level in the water of each area was analyzed by the selective electrode technique for the fluoride ion and the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis were evaluated, respectively, by the DMFT and TSIF index, revealing a statistically significant difference (ANOVA; p <0,05 in the three locations: area without artificial fluoridation (DMTF 5.32 ± 3.49 and 16% of dental fluorosis; area with artificial fluoridation of 0.8 ppmF (DMTF 1.88 ± 2.22 and 94% of dental fluorosis; area with natural fluoridation of 2.54 ppmF (DMTF 3.96 ± 2.38 and 100% of dental fluorosis. The findings suggest that the epidemiologic indicators of oral health/disease are influenced by the presence of fluoride in the water supply and that supervision and orientation are fundamental in the correct use of fluoridated compositions, taking advantage of the maximum benefit in the control of dental caries with minimum risk of the occurrence of dental fluorosis.

  10. Water Intake by Outdoor Temperature Among Children Aged 1-10 Years: Implications for Community Water Fluoridation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Barker, Laurie; Sohn, Woosung; Wei, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. water fluoridation recommendations, which have been in place since 1962, were based in part on findings from the 1950s that children's water intake increased with outdoor temperature. We examined whether or not water intake is associated with outdoor temperature. Using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we examined reported 24-hour total and plain water intake in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per day of children aged 1-10 years by maximum outdoor temperature on the day of reported water intake, unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. We applied linear regression methods that were used in previously reported analyses of data from NHANES 1988-1994 and from the 1950s. We found that total water intake was not associated with temperature. Plain water intake was weakly associated with temperature in unadjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.015) and adjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.013) linear regression models. However, these models explained little of the individual variation in plain water intake (unadjusted: R(2)=0.005; adjusted: R(2)=0.023). Optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water to prevent caries need not be based on outdoor temperature, given the lack of association between total water intake and outdoor temperature, the weak association between plain water intake and outdoor temperature, and the minimal amount of individual variance in plain water intake explained by outdoor temperature. These findings support the change in the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries from temperature-related concentrations to a single concentration that is not related to outdoor temperature.

  11. Water Intake by Outdoor Temperature Among Children Aged 1–10 Years: Implications for Community Water Fluoridation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Sohn, Woosung; Wei, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The U.S. water fluoridation recommendations, which have been in place since 1962, were based in part on findings from the 1950s that children's water intake increased with outdoor temperature. We examined whether or not water intake is associated with outdoor temperature. Methods Using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we examined reported 24-hour total and plain water intake in milliliters per kilogram of body weight per day of children aged 1–10 years by maximum outdoor temperature on the day of reported water intake, unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. We applied linear regression methods that were used in previously reported analyses of data from NHANES 1988–1994 and from the 1950s. Results We found that total water intake was not associated with temperature. Plain water intake was weakly associated with temperature in unadjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.015) and adjusted (coefficient 5 0.2, p=0.013) linear regression models. However, these models explained little of the individual variation in plain water intake (unadjusted: R2=0.005; adjusted: R2=0.023). Conclusion Optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water to prevent caries need not be based on outdoor temperature, given the lack of association between total water intake and outdoor temperature, the weak association between plain water intake and outdoor temperature, and the minimal amount of individual variance in plain water intake explained by outdoor temperature. These findings support the change in the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries from temperature-related concentrations to a single concentration that is not related to outdoor temperature. PMID:26346578

  12. 4-phenylbutyrate Mitigates Fluoride-Induced Cytotoxicity in ALC Cells

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    Maiko Suzuki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fluoride over-exposure during pre-eruptive enamel development can cause dental fluorosis. Severe dental fluorosis is characterized by porous, soft enamel that is vulnerable to erosion and decay. The prevalence of dental fluorosis among the population in the USA, India and China is increasing. Other than avoiding excessive intake, treatments to prevent dental fluorosis remain unknown. We previously reported that high-dose fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and oxidative stress in ameloblasts. Cell stress induces gene repression, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. An aromatic fatty acid, 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA is a chemical chaperone that interacts with misfolded proteins to prevent ER stress. We hypothesized that 4PBA ameliorates fluoride-induced ER stress in ameloblasts. To determine whether 4PBA protects ameloblasts from fluoride toxicity, we analyzed gene expression of Tgf-β1, Bcl2/Bax ratio and cytochrome-c release in vitro. In vivo, we measured fluorosis levels, enamel hardness and fluoride concentration. Fluoride treated Ameloblast-lineage cells (ALC had decreased Tgf-β1 expression and this was reversed by 4PBA treatment. The anti-apoptotic Blc2/Bax ratio was significantly increased in ALC cells treated with fluoride/4PBA compared to fluoride treatment alone. Fluoride treatment induced cytochrome-c release from mitochondria into the cytosol and this was inhibited by 4PBA treatment. These results suggest that 4PBA mitigates fluoride-induced gene suppression, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage in vitro. In vivo, C57BL/6J mice were provided fluoridated water for six weeks with either fluoride free control-chow or 4PBA-containing chow (7 g/kg 4PBA. With few exceptions, enamel microhardness, fluorosis levels, and fluoride concentrations of bone and urine did not differ significantly between fluoride treated animals fed with control-chow or 4PBA-chow. Although 4PBA mitigated high-dose fluoride toxicity in vitro, a diet

  13. Design and development of sustainable remediation process for mitigation of fluoride contamination in ground water and field application for domestic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwala, Poonam; Andey, Subhash; Nagarnaik, Pranav; Ghosh, Sarika Pimpalkar; Pal, Prashant; Deshmukh, Prashant; Labhasetwar, Pawan

    2014-08-01

    Decentralised household chemo defluoridation unit (CDU) was developed and designed based on a combination of coagulation and sorption processes. Chemo-defluoridation process was optimised to reduce use of chemicals and increase acceptability among beneficiaries without affecting palatability of water. Chemical dose optimization undertaken in the laboratory using jar test revealed the optimum calcium salt to initial fluoride ratio of 60 for fluoride removal. Performance of CDU was evaluated in the laboratory for removal efficiency, water quality parameters, filter bed cleaning cycle and desorption of fluoride. CDU evaluation in the laboratory with spiked water (5 mg/L) and field water (~4.2 mg/L) revealed treated water fluoride concentration of less than 1mg/L. Seventy five CDUs were installed in households at Sakhara Village, Yavatmal District in Maharashtra State of India. Monthly monitoring of CDUs for one year indicated reduction of the raw water fluoride concentration from around 4 mg/L to less than 1mg/L. Post implementation survey after regular consumption of treated drinking water by the users for one year indicated user satisfaction and technological sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects.

  15. Physicochemical and Performance Evaluation of Natural and Modified Ire-Ekiti clay: Emerging Substrate in the De-fluoridation of Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    Eyitayo Emmanuel Awokunmi;

    2017-01-01

    Potable water is one of the implicit requisites for healthy living. Groundwater is an affordable source of drinking water in most rural areas of Nigeria. One of the major challenges in drinking water quality is fluoride, which dosage above 1.5mg/L has been reported to cause some related health issues. Adsorption methods have proven to be effective in the de-fluoridation of drinking water. However, this works examines the physiochemical and performance evaluation of Ire-Ekiti clay in the de-fl...

  16. High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry compared with ion chromatography for quantitative determination of dissolved fluoride in river water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Philip; Sturm, Manfred; Ternes, Thomas A; Meermann, Björn

    2017-10-03

    In addition to beneficial health effects, fluoride can also have adverse effects on humans, animals, and plants if the daily intake is strongly elevated. One main source of fluoride uptake is water, and thus several ordinances exist in Germany that declare permissible concentrations of fluoride in, for example, drinking water, mineral water, and landfill seepage water. Controlling the fluoride concentrations in aqueous matrices necessitate valid and fast analytical methods. In this work an alternative method for the determination of fluoride in surface waters based on high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFMAS) was applied. Fluoride detection was made possible by the formation of a diatomic molecule, GaF, and detection of characteristic molecular absorption. On HR-CS-GFMAS parameter optimization, the method was adapted to surface water sample analysis. The influence of potential main matrix constituents such as Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- as well as surface water sampling/storage conditions on the molecular absorption signal of GaF was investigated. Method validation demonstrated a low limit of detection (8.1 μg L-1) and a low limit of quantification (26.9 μg L-1), both sufficient for direct river water sample analysis after 0.45-μm filtration. The optimized HR-CS-GFMAS method was applied for the analysis of real water samples from the rivers Rhine and Moselle. For method validation, samples were also analyzed by an ion chromatography (IC) method. IC and HR-CS-GFMAS results both agreed well. In comparison with IC, HR-CS-GFMAS has higher sample throughput, a lower limit of detection and a lower limit of quantification, and higher selectivity, and is a very suitable method for the analysis of dissolved fluoride in river water. Graphical abstract High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFMAS) was applied for the quantitative analysis of dissolved fluoride in river

  17. Purifying fluoride-contaminated water by a novel forward osmosis design with enhanced flux under reduced concentration polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Madhubonti; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Pal, Parimal; Linnanen, Lassi

    2015-08-01

    For purifying fluoride-contaminated water, a new forward osmosis scheme in horizontal flat-sheet cross flow module was designed and investigated. Effects of pressure, cross flow rate, draw solution and alignment of membrane module on separation and flux were studied. Concentration polarization and reverse salt diffusion got significantly reduced in the new hydrodynamic regime. This resulted in less membrane fouling, better solute separation and higher pure water flux than in a conventional module. The entire scheme was completed in two stages-an upstream forward osmosis for separating pure water from contaminated water and a downstream nanofiltration operation for continuous recovery and recycle of draw solute. Synchronization of these two stages of operation resulted in a continuous, steady-state process. From a set of commercial membranes, two polyamide composite membranes were screened out for the upstream and downstream filtrations. A 0.3-M NaCl solution was found to be the best one for forward osmosis draw solution. Potable water with less than 1% residual fluoride could be produced at a high flux of 60-62 L m(-2) h(-1) whereas more than 99% draw solute could be recovered and recycled in the downstream nanofiltration stage from where flux was 62-65 L m(-2) h(-1).

  18. Fluoride exposure and its health risk assessment in drinking water and staple food in the population of Dayyer, Iran, in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Somayye; Ebrahimi, Afshin; Nikaeen, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine fluoride concentration in drinking water and staple foods consumed by residents of Dayyer port (Bushehr province, south of Iran) and to assess its health risk via human intake in 2013. Health risk assessment due to fluoride exposure via consumption of drinking water, date, vegetables and fish was conducted in spring and summer of 2013 using the US-EPA (United States-Environmental Protection Agency) method, which considers hazard quotient (HQ) as a ratio of the estimated dose of a contaminant to the reference dose. A fluoride ion-selective electrode (ISE) measured the fluoride contents of food samples. The sodium-2-(parasulfophenyl largo)-1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-naphtnalene disulfonate colorimetric method (SPADNS) was used to determine fluoride concentration in water samples. The total estimated oral intake of fluoride for children in summer and spring were 120.6 and 145.6 µg/kg/day, respectively. These values for adults were 99.2 and 112 µg/kg/day. This survey demonstrated that drinking water was the most important contributor of dietary fluoride intake in the study area. HQ values for adults and children were >1 which approves that a potential health risk of fluorosis can exist. The recommendations for the study area are supplying drinking water from alternative sources and defluoridation of drinking water by an adsorption technique and membrane filtration, respectively. Furthermore, people are suggested to have a good nutrition (especially rich of vitamin C) to reduce the risk of fluorosis.

  19. Adsorptive removal of fluoride from water using nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH

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    F. Adeno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the fluoride removal potential of nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (nano-AlOOH has been investigated. The material was produced using aluminium nitrate (Al(NO33.9H2O, 95%, and ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3, 98% and its density and mineralogy were investigated. A series of batch adsorption experiments were carried out to assess parameters that influence the adsorption process. The parameters considered were contact time and adsorbent dose, initial fluoride concentration, and pH. Results showed that most of the adsorption took place during the first 30 min; and equilibrium was reached at one hour contact time with an optimum adsorbent dose of 1.6 g L-1 for initial fluorideconcentration of 20 mg L-1. The removal efficiency of fluorideincreased with increase in adsorbent dosage. The fluoride removal efficiency was increased as the pH of the solution increases from pH 3 to 8, but any further increase in pH led to a decrease in fluoride removal efficiency. Maximum adsorption occurred at around pH 7 with initial fluoride concentration of 20 mg L-1. The adsorption data were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 62.5 mg F- g-1. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption of fluoride by nano-AlOOH obeys a pseudo-second order rate equation. The intraparticle diffusion was not a rate-controlling step for the adsorption process. Thus, the overall study indicates that nano-AlOOH is an efficient defluoridating material. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i2.6

  20. Estuarine response of fluoride - Investigations in Azhikode Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Joseph, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Concentrations of fluoride in Azhikode estuarine region (Kerala, India) were measured as a function of chlorinity during the different seasons. The type of behaviour indicated that fluoride was regulated by sea water incursion alone. Fluoride...

  1. Avaliação da concentração de flúor em águas minerais comercializadas no Brasil Evaluation of fluoride content of bottled drinking waters in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. Villena

    1996-12-01

    ionanalyser, previously calibrated with standard fluoride solutions. Different concentrations of fluoride ranging from 0.0 to 4.4 were found. It was discovered that specific bottled waters contained: 1 Significant concentrations of fluoride not reported by the producer; 2 Fluoride concentrations of no preventive effect, although the producer had advertised the water as a Fluoridated Mineral Water; 3 Fluoride concentrations high enough to cause dental fluorosis, although the producer did not alert the consumer to this fact. It is to be concluded, therefore, that a sanitary regulatory system for the control of the level of fluoride in the bottled mineral waters marketed is necessary. Such reputation should be formulated in terms of benefits as well as in terms of risks.

  2. Fluoride in drinking water and osteosarcoma incidence rates in the continental United States among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon

    2012-04-01

    It has been suggested that fluoride in drinking water may increase the risk of osteosarcoma in children and adolescents, although the evidence is inconclusive. We investigated the association between community water fluoridation (CWF) and osteosarcoma in childhood and adolescence in the continental U.S. We used the cumulative osteosarcoma incidence rate data from the CDC Wonder database for 1999-2006, categorized by age group, sex and states. States were categorized as low (≤30%) or high (≥85%) according to the percentage of the population receiving CWF between 1992 and 2006. Confidence intervals for the incidence rates were calculated using the Gamma distribution and the incidence rates were compared between groups using Poisson regression models. We found no sex-specific statistical differences in the national incidence rates in the younger groups (5-9, 10-14), although 15-19 males were at higher risk to osteosarcoma than females in the same age group (pfluoridation status. We also compared sex and age specific osteosarcoma incidence rates cumulated from 1973 to 2007 from the SEER 9 Cancer Registries for single age groups from 5 to 19. There were no statistical differences between sexes for 5-14 year old children although incidence rates for single age groups for 15-19 year old males were significantly higher than for females. Our ecological analysis suggests that the water fluoridation status in the continental U.S. has no influence on osteosarcoma incidence rates during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Salivary Fluoride level in preschool children after toothbrushing with standard and low fluoride content dentifrice, using the transversal dentifrice application technique: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Jandre Melo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the salivary fluoride concentration in pre-school children after toothbrushing with dentifrice containing standard (1100ppmF/NaF and low (500ppmF/NaF fluoride concentration, using the transversal technique of placing the product on the toothbrush. Methods: Eight children of both sexes, ranging from 4 to 9 years, and 5 years and 6 months of age, participated in the study. The experiment was divided into two phases with a weekly interval. In the first stage, the children used the standard concentration dentifrice for one week, and in the second, the low concentration product. Samples were collected at the end of each experimental stage, at the following times: Before brushing, immediately afterwards, and after 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fluoride contents were analyzed by the microdiffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done by the analysis of variance ANOVA and Student’s-t test (p<0.05. Results: The salivary fluoride concentration was significantly higher at all times, when the standard concentration product was used. The comparison between the Halogen concentration found before bushing and immediately afterwards, showed that there was a 6.8 times increase in the standard dentifrice (0.19 x 1.29μgF/ml and in the low concentration product, an increase of 20.5 times (0.02 x 0.41μgF/ml. Conclusion: Toothbrushing with both products promoted relevant increases in the salivary fluoride concentration; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the clinical result of this measurement.

  4. Fluoride removal by adsorption on thermally treated lateritic soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kefyalew Gomoro; Feleke Zewge; Bernd Hundhammer; Negussie Megersa

    2012-01-01

    The ability of lateritic soils to remove fluoride from water has been studied. Important issues considered in the study include the relation between the mineral composition of soils and their ability to remove fluoride, the effect of thermal treatment of the soil on fluoride removal; the predominant fluoride containing species remain in the treated water and the possible mechanism of fluoride removal by lateritic soils. The fluoride removal capacity of thermally treated lateritic soils used i...

  5. Substance Flow Analysis: A Case Study of Fluoride Exposure through Food and Beverages in Young Children Living in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Scheidegger, Ruth; Julshamn, Kåre; Bader, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Context Dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Children are especially vulnerable to excessive fluoride intake because their permanent teeth are still being formed. Strategies to reduce the total fluoride intake by children are thus warranted. Case presentation By combining the results of field studies in Ethiopia, the relevant pathways for fluoride intake have been identified in 28 children 2–5 years of age living in two villages on the Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The focus of the present study was to simulate the fluoride intake of the children using the methods of material flow analysis (MFA) and substance flow analysis. Discussion With a model based on MFA, we quantified the potential reduction in total fluoride intake given different scenarios—for example, by reducing the fluoride intake from drinking water and cooking water. The results show clearly that only by removing fluoride completely from both drinking and cooking water does the probability of remaining below the daily tolerable upper intake level exceed 50%. Both prepared food and food ingredients must be taken into consideration when assessing the total fluoride intake by children living in high-fluoride areas. Relevance This knowledge will help health personnel, the government, and the food authorities to give scientifically based advice on strategies for reducing the total fluoride intake by children living in high-fluoride areas in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. PMID:21463976

  6. FLUORIDE REMOVAL BY ADSORPTION ON THERMALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    I. M.Sc. Thesis, Addiss Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1999. 30. Bulusu, K.R.; Sundaresan, B.B. J. Environ. Eng. 1979, 60, 1. 31. Commis, B.T. Control of Excessive Fluoride Levels for Small Community Water Supplies with Particular Reference to Developing Countries: an interim brief Report, Maidenhead,.

  7. 76 FR 2383 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... come from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2004. NHANES assessed the.... Pendrys DG, Katz RV. Risk for enamel fluorosis associated with fluoride supplementation, infant formula... Child Nutrition Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for...

  8. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using aluminum hydroxide coated rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganvir, Vivek; Das, Kalyan

    2011-01-30

    Fluoride content in groundwater that is greater than the WHO limit of 1.5mg/L, causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. In India, several states are affected with excess fluoride in groundwater. The problem is aggravated due to the lack of appropriate and user friendly defluoridation technology. Several fluoride removal techniques are reported in the literature amongst which the Nalgonda technique and use of activated alumina have been studied extensively. However a simple, efficient and cost effective technology is not available for widespread use in many affected regions. In this paper, we present a novel cost effective defluoridation method that is based on surface modification of rice husk ash (RHA) by coating aluminum hydroxide. RHA is obtained by burning rice/paddy husk which is an abundantly available and is an inexpensive raw material. The results showed excellent fluoride removal efficiency and the adsorption capacity was found to be between 9 and 10mg/g. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  10. FeOOH-graphene oxide nanocomposites for fluoride removal from water: Acetate mediated nano FeOOH growth and adsorption mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Liyuan; Liu, Yuyang; Fu, Dandan; Zhao, Yaping

    2017-03-15

    Fluoride adsorption capacity in water matrices depends highly on the properties of each component of the adsorption system, the most important one of these is the physchemical properties of the adsorbent. Nanoparticle Goethite anchored onto graphene oxide (FeOOH+Ac/GO) and rice spike-like Akaganeite anchored onto graphene oxide (FeOOH/GO) were synthesized via an in-situ hydrolysis procedure and compared their fluoride adsorption performances in order to address the effect of crystalline structure growth induced by acetate sodium (NaAc), one important organic ligand in water and soil. The morphology, crystallinity, surface functional groups, elemental compositions and atomic percentage of the two hybrid graphene based nanocomposites were characterized. In order to evaluate fluoride adsorption capacity and reveal fluoride adsorption mechanism, adsorption kinetics and dynamics, effects of pH, effects of co-existing anions and mass transfer coefficients were comprehensively investigated for two adsorbents in water matrix. The results show that organic ligands like acetate greatly modify the crystalline structure of iron (oxy)hydroxide (FeOOH), thus altered its fluoride adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism. It would be very important to know the interface behaviors of mineral mediated by natural organic ligands in water or soil matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of fluoride content in tropical surface soils used for crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Bongo district of the Upper East Region of Ghana relies on groundwater as the main source of potable water supply for domestic purposes. However, available literature indicated that groundwater in the area has elevated fluoride levels. Little work is done on fluoride contents in the soils of the area and its implication to ...

  12. A randomised clinical study to evaluate the effect of brushing duration on fluoride levels in dental biofilm fluid and saliva in children aged 4-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Evelyn E; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A; Zero, Domenick T; Kelly, Sue A; Fleming, Nancy; North, Mairead; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2013-12-01

    To compare the effect of 40 seconds versus 2 minutes brushing on saliva and dental biofilm fluid fluoride in children ages 4-5 years over 1 hour. This was a single-blind, cross-over, randomised, two-period clinical study in healthy children. Three days before the start of each treatment subjects received a thorough brushing and then refrained from all oral hygiene procedures. At treatment visits, after collecting baseline biofilm and saliva samples, staff brushed the occlusal surfaces of the subject's posterior teeth with a pea-sized amount (0.25 g) of NaF/silica toothpaste for the randomised time. Samples were taken at 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after brushing and analysed for fluoride using a microanalytical methodology. There was a minimum 4-day washout period between treatments. Log changes from baseline biofilm fluid and saliva fluoride were statistically significant (P biofilm fluid and salivary fluoride after brushing for 2 minutes compared with brushing for 40 seconds over the 1-hour test period. There was a statistically significantly higher concentration of fluoride in the log change from baseline saliva levels after 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes for the 2-minute brushing time compared with 40 seconds brushing time. There was no statistically significant difference in concentration of log change from baseline fluoride levels in biofilm fluid at each individual time-point (5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes) for the 2-minute brushing time compared with the 40-second brushing time, but significant differences were observed for 15, 30 and 60 minutes in favour of 2-minute brushing time when log biofilm fluid value was analysed. The findings provide further evidence for the benefits of increased duration of brushing with respect to fluoride delivery. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Nutritional status and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a central region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; García Pérez, A; Mejía González, A; Huizar Alvarez, R

    2016-01-15

    Poor water quality and under nutrition are important factors affecting the health of many communities in developing countries. The aims of this study were: i) to describe the fluoride water concentration and the hydrogeological conditions in a region of a state located in the central in Mexico ii) to measure the association between undernutrition and dental fluorosis in children living in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a state located in the central region of Mexico. Field work was performed in the region to identify the prevailing groundwater flow characteristics and water wells were sampled to analyze water fluoride concentration. Children were selected from three communities that had different drinking water fluoride concentrations (i.e., 0.56, 0.70 and 1.60 mg/l). Fluoridated salt was available in these communities. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI) was used to assess dental fluorosis. Categories four or higher of this index involve changes in the entire tooth surface (ITF ≥ 4). The weight and height of the children were measured. The assessment of undernutrition was based on the World Health Organization criteria: children were classified as being at risk of low-height (Height-for-Age Z score water captured by the wells is the result of a reaction with volcanic materials. The water fluoride concentration in the region ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 mg/l. A total of 734 schoolchildren participated in the study. The percentage of children in fluorosis categories (ITF ≥ 4) was 15.9%, 21.1% of the children were at risk of low height-for-age, and 8.0% had low height-for-age. The percentage of children with fluorosis (ITF ≥ 4) was 6.3%, 9.1% and 31.9% (p ˂ 0.001) and low high-for-age was 2.9%, 2.5% and 8.4% (p ˂ 0.001), for the communities with F concentrations of 0.56 mg/l, 0.70 mg/l and 1.6 mg/l, respectively. The logistic regression model showed an association between dental fluorosis (TFI ≥ 4) and low height-for-age (OR

  14. Estado de salud bucodental de escolares residentes en localidades abastecidas con agua de consumo humano de muy alto y muy bajo contenido de fluoruros State of oral health among schoolchildren living in towns supplied with drinking water containing very high and very low levels of fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Azcurra

    1995-10-01

    ña a concentração é de 0,19mg/l. A proporção de escolares (6-7 e 12-13 anos que não apresentaram cárie foi significativamente maior em Sampacho do que em Porteña, enquanto, que os índices ceo-d, ceo-s, CPO-D e CPO-S resultaram consideravelmente mais altos nesta última localidade. A severidade da doença de cárie nas crianças de 12-13 anos de Sampacho esteve compreendida entre as categorias baixa e moderada (CPO-D = 2,53, enquanto que em suas similares em Porteña atingiu o grau de moderada e alta (CPO-D=4,41. Não se registrou nenhum caso de fluorose dental em Porteña enquanto que em Sampacho houve uma alta proporção de crianças que apresentou fluoroses leve (6-7 anos e leve ou intensa (12-13 anos. Os níveis salivares de cálcio, fosfatos, tiocianato, proteínas totais e lg A secretora foram muito similares nos escolares de ambas localidades, e também entre crianças com diferentes tipos de cárie e diferentes graus de gravidade de fluorose. Conclui-se ser necessária a aplicação de medidas sanitárias urgentes (preventivas ou curativas para reduzir ou controlar as doenças de cárie em Porteña e a fluorose dental em Sampacho.The results of a cross sectional epidemiological survey for the purpose of evaluating the state of dental health of schoolchildren (aged 6-7 and 12-13 living in Sampacho and Porteña, two towns in the Province of Córdoba (Argentina, supplied with drinking water containing quite different levels of fluoride, are described and analized. In Sampacho, F- level is 9.05 mg/l. while in Porteña the concentration is of 0.19 mg/l. The proportion of scholchildren (aged 6-7 and 12-13 without caries was significaticantly higher in Sampacho than in Porteña, while the dmf-t, dmf-s, DMF-Tand DMF-S indexes were considerably higher in the latter place. The severity of caries in children (age 12-13 living in Sampacho ranged from low to moderate (DMF-T=2.53, whilst in Porteña the range went from moderate to high (DMF-T=4.41. No cases of

  15. Modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) ultrafiltration membranes with poly(vinyl alcohol) for fouling control in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jennifer R; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M; Feng, Xianshe

    2009-10-01

    A commercial poly(vinylidene fluoride) flat sheet membrane was modified by surface coating with a dilute poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution followed by solid-vapor interfacial crosslinking. The resulting PVA layer increased membrane smoothness and hydrophilicity and resulted in comparable pure water permeation between the modified and unmodified membranes. Fouling tests using a 5 mg/L protein solution showed that a short period of coating and crosslinking improved the anti-fouling performance. After 18 h ultrafiltration of a surface water with a TOC of approximately 7 mg C/L, the flux of the modified membrane was twice as high as that of the unmodified membrane. The improved fouling resistance of the modified membrane was related to the membrane physiochemical properties, which were confirmed by pure water permeation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle, zeta potential and roughness measurements.

  16. Performance of granular zirconium-iron oxide in the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Yansu; Wang, Hongjie; Wang, Tingjie; Wang, Yili

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a granular zirconium-iron oxide (GZI) was successfully prepared using the extrusion method, and its defluoridation performance was systematically evaluated. The GZI was composed of amorphous and nano-scale oxide particles. The Zr and Fe were evenly distributed on its surface, with a Zr/Fe molar ratio of ∼2.3. The granular adsorbent was porous with high permeability potential. Moreover, it had excellent mechanical stability and high crushing strength, which ensured less material breakage and mass loss in practical use. In batch tests, the GZI showed a high adsorption capacity of 9.80 mg/g under an equilibrium concentration of 10 mg/L at pH 7.0, which outperformed many other reported granular adsorbents. The GZI performed well over a wide pH range, of 3.5-8.0, and especially well at pH 6.0-8.0, which was the preferred range for actual application. Fluoride adsorption on GZI followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and could be well described by the Freundlich equilibrium model. With the exception of HCO(3)(-), other co-existing anions and HA did not evidently inhibit fluoride removal by GZI when considering their real concentrations in natural groundwater, which showed that GZI had a high selectivity for fluoride. In column tests using real groundwater as influent, about 370, 239 and 128 bed volumes (BVs) of groundwater were treated before breakthrough was reached under space velocities (SVs) of 0.5, 1 and 3 h(-1), respectively. Additionally, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results suggested that the spent GZI was inert and could be safely disposed of in landfill. In conclusion, this granular adsorbent showed high potential for fluoride removal from real groundwater, due to its high performance and physical-chemical properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries: a natural experiment in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, L; Patterson, S; Thawer, S; Faris, P; McNeil, D; Potestio, M L; Shwart, L

    2017-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is common and can be serious. Dental caries is preventable, and community water fluoridation is one means of prevention. There is limited current research on the implications of fluoridation cessation for children's dental caries. Our objective was to explore the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries, by examining change in caries experience in population-based samples of schoolchildren in two Canadian cities, one that discontinued community water fluoridation and one that retained it. We used a pre-post cross-sectional design. We examined dental caries indices (deft [number of decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth] and DMFT [number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth]) among grade 2 schoolchildren in 2004/05 and 2013/14 in two similar cities in the province of Alberta, Canada: Calgary (cessation of community water fluoridation in 2011) and Edmonton (still fluoridated). We compared change over time in the two cities. For Calgary only, we had a third data point from 2009/10, and we considered trends across the three points. We observed a worsening in primary tooth caries (deft) in Calgary and Edmonton, but changes in Edmonton were less consistent and smaller. This effect was robust to adjustment for covariates available in 2013/14 and was consistent with estimates of total fluoride intake from biomarkers from a subsample. This finding occurred despite indication that treatment activities appeared better in Calgary. The worsening was not observed for permanent teeth. For prevalence estimates only (% with >0 deft or DMFT), the three data points in Calgary suggest a trend that, though small, appears consistent with an adverse effect of fluoridation cessation. Our results suggest an increase in dental caries in primary teeth during a time period when community fluoridation was ceased. That we did not observe a worsening for permanent teeth in the comparative analysis could

  18. Geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples, and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children in four municipalities of the department of Huila (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Opazo-Gutiérrez, Mario Omar; Velásquez-Riaño, Möritz; Orjuela-Osorio, Iván Rodrigo; Avila, Viviana; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles; González-Carrera, María Clara; Ruiz-Carrizosa, Jaime Alberto; Silva-Hermida, Blanca Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride is an element that affects teeth and bone formation in animals and humans. Though the use of systemic fluoride is an evidence-based caries preventive measure, excessive ingestion can impair tooth development, mainly the mineralization of tooth enamel, leading to a condition known as enamel fluorosis. In this study, we investigated the geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples in four endemic enamel fluorosis sentinel municipalities of the department of Huila, Colombia (Pitalito, Altamira, El Agrado and Rivera), and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water, table salt, active sediment, rock, and soil was evaluated by means of an ion selective electrode and the geochemical analyses were performed using X-ray fluorescence. Geochemical analysis revealed fluoride concentrations under 15 mg/kg in active sediment, rock and soil samples, not indicative of a significant delivery to the watersheds studied. The concentration of fluoride in table salt was found to be under the inferior limit (less than 180 μg/g) established by the Colombian regulations. Likewise, exposure doses for fluoride water intake did not exceed the recommended total dose for all ages from 6 months. Although the evidence does not point out at rocks, soils, fluoride-bearing minerals, fluoridated salt and water, the hypothesis of these elements as responsible of the current prevalence of enamel fluorosis cannot be discarded since, aqueducts might have undergone significant changes overtime.

  19. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 1. Scandium Group (Sc, Y, La)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mioduski, Tomasz [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, 03195 Warsaw (Poland); Gumiński, Cezary, E-mail: cegie@chem.uw.edu.pl [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, 02093 Warsaw (Poland); Zeng, Dewen, E-mail: dewen-zeng@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China)

    2014-03-15

    This work presents an assessment of solubility data for rare earth metal fluorides (generally of trivalent metals and of CeF{sub 4}) in water and in aqueous ternary systems. Compilations of all available experimental data are introduced for each rare earth metal fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such evaluation contains a collection of all solubility results in water, a selection of suggested solubility data, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Because the ternary systems were seldom studied more than once, no critical evaluations of such data were possible. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or binary salts) are treated as the input substances in this report. The literature has been covered through the end of 2013.

  20. Pollution level and inhalation exposure of ambient aerosol fluoride as affected by polymetallic rare earth mining and smelting in Baotou, north China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Buqing; Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-10-01

    Airborne fluoride associated with total suspended particles (TSP) and respirable particulate (PM10) in the rare earth mining and smelting areas were analyzed during August 2012 and March 2013. In March, average concentrations of fluoride bound to TSP in the mining and smelting areas were 0.598 ± 0.626 μg/m3 and 3.615 ± 4.267 μg/m3, respectively, whereas that in August were 0.699 ± 0.801 μg/m3 and 1.917 ± 2.233 μg/m3, respectively. TSP samples were classified into four categories by different sampling periods and locations using Kohonen's self-organizing map, which demonstrates that high airborne fluoride concentrations in March in the smelting area were probably attributed to industrial emissions from smelting activities and wind-blown dust from tailings pond, influenced by meteorologic parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed. The mean daily amount of fluoride inhaled in the mining and smelting areas were estimated to be in the range of 2.77-57.61 μg/day and 3.39-64.32 μg/day, respectively. These results indicate the high potential exposure level of fluoride inhaled for local residents in the polymetallic mining and smelting areas.

  1. The effective use of fluorides in public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    , systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on......: recent water fluoridation schemes in California, USA; salt fluoridation in Jamaica; milk fluoridation in Chile; and the development of "affordable" fluoride toothpastes in Indonesia. Common themes are the concern to reduce demands for compliance with fluoride regimes that rely upon action by individuals...... and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher...

  2. Optimization of a Nafion Membrane-Based System for Removal of Chloride and Fluoride from Lunar Regolith-Derived Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Captain, James G.; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Kenis, Paul J. A.

    2012-01-01

    A long-term human presence in space will require self-sustaining systems capable of producing oxygen and potable water from extraterrestrial sources. Oxygen can be extracted from lunar regolith, and water contaminated with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids is produced as an intermediate in this process. We investigated the ability of Nafion proton exchange membranes to remove hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids from water. The effect of membrane thickness, product stream flow rate, and acid solution temperature and concentration on water flux, acid rejection, and water and acid activity were studied. The conditions that maximized water transport and acid rejection while minimizing resource usage were determined by calculating a figure of merit. Water permeation is highest at high solution temperature and product stream flow rate across thin membranes, while chloride and fluoride permeation are lowest at low acid solution temperature and concentration across thin membranes. The figure of merit varies depending on the starting acid concentration; at low concentration, the figure of merit is highest across a thin membrane, while at high concentration, the figure of merit is highest at low solution temperature. In all cases, the figure of merit increases with increasing product stream flow rate.

  3. Optimization of fluoride removal from aqueous solution by Al[2]O[3] nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Hafshejani Laleh Divband; Tangsir Sareh; Daneshvar Ehsan; Maljanen Marja; Lähde Anna; Jokiniemi Jorma; Naushad Mu; Bhatnagar Amit

    2017-01-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO), fluoride has a narrow prescribed concentration level in drinking water (< 1.5 mg L− 1) and defluoridation of water is necessary to remove elevated concentrations of fluoride from water. In the present work, aluminium acetylacetonate was used as a precursor which was dissolved in methanol to produce Al2O3 nanoparticles by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) technique. Al2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques (e.g. Brunauer-Emmet-Teller ...

  4. Water Usage and Availability in Bongo's Communities: Research Leading to the Development of an Indigenous Fluoride Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friscia, J. M.; Epstein, B.; Cumberbatch, T.; Okuneff, A.

    2010-12-01

    Over the course of a six-week period in both 2009 and 2010, an investigation into the collection and usage of water was undertaken in the Bongo District of Ghana. The outcome of this research was to provide data for the design of a defluoridation filter for the groundwater that could be used either in the household or at the borehole. This filter would use laterite as the filter medium and would prevent the development of dental fluorosis, which is common in the District. In 2009, the focus was on denser, more centrally located communities, while the research in 2010 focused on communities in which people live further from water sources. The localities studied were in Namoo, Kuyelingo, Bongo Central, and Kadare. After an analysis of data collected in 2009 and a preliminary review of data collected in 2010, it has been determined that the different localities have different requirements for a filter design. Denser communities, including parts of Namoo, Kuyelingo, and Bongo Central, would benefit most from a filter installed directly at the borehole. This filter would not process all the water fetched, since less than half the water collected is ingested. In more remote communities, such as parts of Kuyelingo near the Vea Dam and Kadare, a household filter would be ideal. In these communities, when people live far from the borehole, they seek other sources, including river water, wells, rainwater, and dam water. Many of these sources are unsafe to drink without proper treatment. Therefore, a household filter that can filter the fluoride from borehole water (when the household does indeed fetch from the pump) and can filter bacteria and viruses from the other water sources would be most appropriate. The results from the water survey provide an overview of the water collection rate throughout the day, distance the water is carried to the individual households, and breakdown of water usage within the household - in both dense and remote communities. Child with Dental

  5. Development of an empirical model for fluoride removal from photovoltaic wastewater by electrocoagulation process

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2011-05-01

    Electrocoagulation experiments were conducted with bipolar aluminium electrodes to determine the optimum conditions for the fluoride removal from synthetic photovoltaic wastewater. A high fluoride concentration in community water supplies can cause fluorosis which has a detrimental effect on human health in particular on teeth and bones. A full 23 factorial design of experiments was used to obtain the best conditions of fluoride removal from water solutions. The three factors considered were initial fluoride concentration, applied potential, and supporting electrolyte dosage. Two levels for each factor were used; supporting electrolyte (0 and 100), applied potential (10 and 30 V), and initial fluoride concentration (20 and 25 mg/L). Results showed that the optimum conditions for fluoride removal from photovoltaic wastewater containing an initial fluoride concentration of 20 mg/L were a supporting electrolyte dose of 100 mg/L and an applied potential of 30 V. These gave a residual fluoride concentration of 8.6 mg/L which was below the standard discharge limit. A mathematical equation showing the relation between residual fluoride concentration and the effective variables was also developed. © 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  6. Emissions of fluorides from welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pągowska, Emilia; Pyrzyńska, Krystyna

    2015-11-01

    The levels of fluoride airborne particulates emitted from welding processes were investigated. They were sampled with the patented IOM Sampler, developed by J. H. Vincent and D. Mark at the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), personal inhalable sampler for simultaneous collection of the inhalable and respirable size fractions. Ion chromatography with conductometric detection was used for quantitative analysis. The efficiency of fluoride extraction from the cellulose filter of the IOM sampler was examined using the standard sample of urban air particle matter SRM-1648a. The best results for extraction were obtained when water and the anionic surfactant N-Cetyl-N-N-N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used in an ultrasonic bath. The limits of detection and quantification for the whole procedure were 8μg/L and 24μg/L, respectively. The linear range of calibration was 0.01-10mg/L, which corresponds to 0.0001-0.1mg of fluorides per m(3) in collection of a 20L air sample. The concentration of fluorides in the respirable fraction of collected air samples was in the range of 0.20-1.82mg/m(3), while the inhalable fraction contained 0.23-1.96mg/m(3) of fluorides during an eight-hour working day in the welding room. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Associations between Caries among Children and Household Sugar Procurement, Exposure to Fluoridated Water and Socioeconomic Indicators in the Brazilian Capital Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Martins Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the association between caries experience in 5- and 12-year-old Brazilian children in 2010 and household sugar procurement in 2003 and the effects of exposure to water fluoridation and socioeconomic indicators. Sample units were all 27 Brazilian capital cities. Data were obtained from the National Surveys of Oral Health; the National Household Food Budget Survey; and the United Nations Program for Development. Data analysis included correlation coefficients, exploratory factor analysis, and linear regression. There were significant negative associations between caries experience and procurement of confectionery, fluoridated water, HDI, and per capita income. Procurement of confectionery and soft drinks was positively associated with HDI and per capita income. Exploratory factor analysis grouped the independent variables by reducing highly correlated variables into two uncorrelated component variables that explained 86.1% of total variance. The first component included income, HDI, water fluoridation, and procurement of confectionery, while the second included free sugar and procurement of soft drinks. Multiple regression analysis showed that caries is associated with the first component. Caries experience was associated with better socioeconomic indicators of a city and exposure to fluoridated water, which may affect the impact of sugars on the disease.

  8. Fluoride varnish or fluoride mouth rinse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, M K; Klausen, BJ; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In many Danish communities, school-based fluoride programs are offered to children with high caries risk in adjunct to tooth brushing. The purpose of this field trial was to compare the caries-preventive effectiveness of two different fluoride programs in 6-12 year olds. BASIC RESEARCH...... week (FMR). All children received oral hygiene instructions and comprehensive dental care at the local Public Dental Clinics throughout the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Increment of caries lesions in permanent teeth at both cavitated and initial caries levels. RESULTS: The groups were balanced...

  9. Fluoride in African groundwater: Occurrence and mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasak, S.; Griffioen, J.; Feenstra, L.

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride in groundwater has both natural and anthropogenic sources. Fluoride bearing minerals, volcanic gases and various industrial and agricultural activities can contribute to high concentrations. High intake of fluoride from drinking water is the main cause of fluorosis and may lead to many

  10. Ingestão de flúor por crianças pela água e dentifrício Fluoride intake by children from water and dentifrice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ynara Bosco de Oliveira Lima

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a dose total de flúor proporcionada por dieta (líquidos e sólidos e escovação com dentifrícios fluoretados a crianças na idade crítica para o desenvolvimento da fluorose dental em uma região de água fluoretada. MÉTODOS: Para realização de um estudo-piloto, foram selecionadas 39 crianças (20 a 30 meses de idade de uma creche de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. Elas bebiam água fluoretada de abastecimento e comiam alimentos preparados com ela. Foi feita a coleta da dieta-duplicada e dos produtos da escovação por dois dias seguidos, em quatro períodos do ano. A concentração de flúor nas amostras foi determinada utilizando-se eletrodo específico. Foi realizada análise de variância (Anova com nível de 5% de significância. RESULTADOS: A dose total média encontrada foi de 0,090 mg F/dia/kg, tendo a dieta contribuído com 45%, e o dentifrício, com 55%. CONCLUSÕES: Aceitando-se o limite de 0,07 mg F/kg para exposição sistêmica ao flúor, conclui-se que as crianças estão expostas a uma dose total de risco em termos de fluorose dental clinicamente aceitável. Entre as várias medidas de precaução que poderiam ser tomadas para diminuir a ingestão de flúor, a redução da quantidade de dentifrício utilizada para escovar os dentes foi considerada a mais apropriada, contemplando risco/benefício para a saúde pública.OBJECTIVE: To determine the total fluoride dose to which children were exposed during the critical age of developing dental fluorosis, in an optimally fluoridated region, having diet (liquids and solids and dentifrice as fluoride sources. METHODS: For the pilot study, 39 children (aged 20 to 30 months were selected from a day care center in Piracicaba, Brazil. They drank and ate food prepared with fluoridated water. To determine the total dose of fluoride exposure, duplicate-plate samples and products from tooth brushing were collected for two consecutive days, in four periods of the year

  11. Environmental pollution in rural areas of Orissa state due to industrial emissions--with special reference to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A K; Ravichandran, B; Bhattacharya, S K; Ahmed, S; Roy, S K; Thakur, S; Roychowdhury, A; Saiyed, H N

    2003-10-01

    Angul - Talcher belt in Central Orissa, having a number of industries contributing to a great extent to deteriorate the air quality of the surrounding villages. Previous reports showed higher SPM, SO2, NO, levels in air and prevalence of respiratory illness, skin and teeth disorders among village population. Higher ground water fluoride, urine and serum fluoride among the cattle were also reported in some villages. Present study reports SPM, SO2, NOx and Fluorides (gaseous and Particulate) in ambient air around aluminium smelter during February and August 1996. High volume sampling technique for SPM and the standard colorimetric methods (BIS) for analyses of SO2 and NOx were adopted. Fluoride in air and water were estimated by standard fluoride ion selective electrode method. Higher SPM, SO2 and NOx values than prescribed CPCB standard were obtained in February. Gaseous fluoride in village air were varied between, 1.66 - 7.64 mg/m3 in February and 1.11 - 22.75 mg/m3 in August, whereas particulate fluoride ranged between, 0.054 - 19.61 mg/m3. Water sources of the villages near the smelter showed fluoride values above permissible limit. The study indicated higher fluoride pollution in air and water of the surrounding villages.

  12. Optimizing School-Based Health-Promotion Programmes: Lessons from a Qualitative Study of Fluoridated Milk Schemes in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Geraldine R. K.; Tickle, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: Some districts in the United Kingdom (UK), where the level of child dental caries is high and water fluoridation has not been possible, implement school-based fluoridated milk (FM) schemes. However, process variables, such as consent to drink FM and loss of children as they mature, impede the effectiveness of these…

  13. Role of aquaporins in root water transport of ectomycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings exposed to NaCl and fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Hee; Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Chung, Gap Chae; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2010-05-01

    Effects of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Suillus tomentosus on water transport properties were studied in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings. The hydraulic conductivity of root cortical cells (L(pc)) and of the whole root system (L(pr)) in ECM plants was higher by twofold to fourfold compared with the non-ECM seedlings. HgCl2 had a greater inhibitory effect on L(pc) in ECM compared with non-ECM seedlings, suggesting that the mercury-sensitive, aquaporin (AQP)-mediated water transport was largely responsible for the differences in L(pc) between the two groups of plants. L(pc) was rapidly and drastically reduced by the 50 mM NaCl treatment. However, in ECM plants, the initial decline in L(pc) was followed by a quick recovery to the pre-treatment level, while the reduction of L(pc) in non-ECM seedlings progressed over time. Treatments with fluoride reduced L(pc) by about twofold in non-ECM seedlings and caused smaller reductions of L(pc) in ECM plants. When either 2 mM KF or 2 mM NaF were added to the 50 mM NaCl treatment solution, the inhibitory effect of NaCl on L(pc) was rapidly reversed in both groups of plants. The results suggest that AQP-mediated water transport may be linked to the enhancement of salt stress resistance reported for ECM plants.

  14. Fluoride removal by adsorption on thermally treated lateritic soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of lateritic soils to remove fluoride from water has been studied. Important issues considered in the study include the relation between the mineral composition of soils and their ability to remove fluoride, the effect of thermal treatment of the soil on fluoride removal; the predominant fluoride containing species ...

  15. Heterocontrole da fluoretação das águas em três cidades no Piauí, Brasil Monitoring water fluoridation in three cities in Piauí State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiene Saibrosa da Silva

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar as concentrações de flúor na água de abastecimento público de Teresina, Floriano e Parnaíba, municípios do Piauí, Brasil. A coleta das amostras foi mensal por um período de um ano entre 2004 e 2005. Selecionaram-se aleatoriamente seis pontos de coleta de amostras de água em cada um dos três municípios, totalizando 576 amostras, sendo 192 por cidade. As análises de flúor foram realizadas em duplicata, utilizando-se um eletrodo específico. Os resultados demonstraram que a maioria da amostras ficou abaixo da concentração de flúor ideal e apenas 4,3% (n = 25 das amostras coletadas apresentaram valores aceitáveis de flúor (0,60 a 0,80ppm. Por cidade, o percentual de amostras aceitáveis foi de 7,8% (n = 15, 4,7% (n = 9 e 0,5% (n = 1 para Teresina, Floriano e Parnaíba, respectivamente. Conclui-se que as concentrações de flúor na água de abastecimento público das cidades avaliadas estão abaixo do ideal e que existe a necessidade de implantar medidas de controle e heterocontrole permanentes para garantir a eficácia da fluoretação de águas no Estado do Piauí.This study aimed to monitor the fluoride concentration in the public water supply in Teresina, Floriano, and Parnaíba, Piauí State, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly for one year between 2004 and 2005. Six sites in each city were randomly selected for water sampling (total n = 576, 192 in each city. Fluoride assays were performed in duplicate, using a specific electrode. Most samples were below the optimum fluoride concentration, and only 4.3% (n = 25 presented acceptable values (0.60-0.80ppm. Acceptable samples totaled 7.8% (n = 15, 4.7% (n = 9, and 0.5% (n = 1 in Teresina, Floriano, and Parnaíba, respectively. By conclusion, fluoride levels in the public water supply in the three cities were below the optimum concentration, and a permanent surveillance system is thus needed to guarantee effective water fluoridation in

  16. Fluoride - is it capable of fighting old and new dental diseases? An overview of existing fluoride compounds and their clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, E

    2001-01-01

    Since researchers first became aware of the anticaries action of fluoride, they have been investigating the effect of this preventive agent in inhibiting or arresting caries development. Many forms of systemic or topical fluoride have been studied and tested for clinical application. Water, salt, milk fluoridation and the use of fluoride supplements were introduced for systemic fluoridation mainly using sodium fluoride. Solutions, gels, toothpastes and rinses of sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, amine fluorides, acidulated phosphate fluoride and monofluorophosphate were used for topical fluoridation. More recently nonaqueous fluoride varnishes in an alcoholic solution of natural resins and difluorosilane agents in a polyurethane matrix were introduced. Although all of these fluoridation methods have a caries-preventive action, these benefits and the ease of application is variable. As fluoride is a key component of oral health promotion a coordinated approach on a community and individual basis seems to be needed to maximize the cost-benefit ratio of prevention. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Water: Local-Level Management

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Because of the hazards in black water, however, it has been judged prudent to treat only gray water in systems designed for isolated villages, individual .... For most of those centuries, of course, wells were limited to the depth of hand-dug holes (few deeper than 10 metres), or those drilled (to a few tens of metres) by human ...

  18. Adsorbent synthesis of polypyrrole/TiO(2) for effective fluoride removal from aqueous solution for drinking water purification: Adsorbent characterization and adsorption mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Shu, Chiajung; Wang, Ning; Feng, Jiangtao; Ma, Hongyu; Yan, Wei

    2017-06-01

    More than 20 countries are still suffering problems of excessive fluoride containing water, and greater than 8mg/L fluoride groundwater has been reported in some villages in China. In order to meet the challenge in the drinking water defluoridation engineering, a high efficiency and affinity defluoridation adsorbent PPy/TiO 2 composite was designed and synthetized by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction Investigator (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Thermogravimetric analysis (TG), N 2 isotherm analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Zeta potential analysis were conducted to characterize surface and textural properties of the as-prepared PPy/TiO 2 , and the possibility of fluoride adsorption was carefully estimated by adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies. Characterization investigations demonstrate the uniqueness of surface and textural properties, such as suitable specific surface area and abundant positively charged nitrogen atoms (N + ), which indicate the composite is a suitable material for the fluoride adsorption. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics follow better with Langmuir and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity reaches 33.178mg/g at 25°C according to Langmuir model, and particular interest was the ability to reduce the concentration of fluoride from 11.678mg/L to 1.5mg/L for drinking water at pH of 7 within 30min. Moreover, the adsorbent can be easily recycled without the loss of adsorption capacity after six cycles, greatly highlighting its outstanding affinity to fluoride, low-cost and novel to be used in the purification of fluoride containing water for drinking. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism was extensively investigated and discussed by FTIR investigation and batch adsorption studies including effect of pH, surface potential and thermodynamics. The adsorption is confirmed to be a spontaneous and exothermic

  19. Soil fluoride spiking effects on olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, M; Ben Ahmed, C; Fourati, R; Delmail, D; Ben Rouina, B; Labrousse, P; Ben Abdallah, F

    2014-10-01

    A pot experiment under open air conditions was carried out to investigate the uptake, accumulation and toxicity effects of fluoride in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) grown in a soil spiked with inorganic sodium fluoride (NaF). Six different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100mM NaF) of soil spiking were applied through NaF to irrigation water. At the end of the experiment, total fluoride content in soil was 20 and 1770mgFkg(-1) soil in control and 100mM NaF treatments, respectively. The comparative distribution of fluoride partitioning among the different olive tree parts showed that the roots accumulated the most fluoride and olive fruits were minimally affected by soil NaF spiking as they had the lowest fluoride content. In fact, total fluoride concentration varied between 12 and 1070µgFg(-1) in roots, between 9 and 570µgFg(-1) in shoots, between 12 and 290µgFg(-1) in leaves, and between 10 and 29µgFg(-1) in fruits, respectively for control and 100mM NaF treatments. Indeed, the fluoride accumulation pattern showed the following distribution: roots>shoots>leaves>fruits. On the other hand, fluoride toxicity symptoms such as leaf necrosis and leaf drop appeared only in highly spiked soils (60, 80 and 100mM NaF). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stibonium ions for the fluorescence turn-on sensing of F- in drinking water at parts per million concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Iou-Sheng; Myahkostupov, Mykhaylo; Castellano, Felix N; Gabbaï, François P

    2012-09-19

    The 9-anthryltriphenylstibonium cation, [1](+), has been synthesized and used as a sensor for the toxic fluoride anion in water. This stibonium cation complexes fluoride ions to afford the corresponding fluorostiborane 1-F. This reaction, which occurs at fluoride concentrations in the parts per million range, is accompanied by a drastic fluorescence turn-on response. It is also highly selective and can be used in plain tap water or bottled water to test fluoridation levels.

  1. Assessment of fluoride contamination in groundwater from Basara, Adilabad District, Telangana State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsimha, A.; Sudarshan, V.

    2017-10-01

    The major objective of this study was to locate the vulnerable areas in terms of fluoride contamination. A total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from major drinking water sources in rural areas of Basara, Telangana, and studied with reference to the distribution and hydrogeochemistry of fluoride. The geochemical trend of groundwater in the study area demonstrates that sodium is the dominant cation (Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+) and chloride is the dominant anion (Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- > CO3 2- > NO3 - > F-). The fluoride concentration varied from 0.06 to 4.33 (1.13 ± 0.90) mg L-1 with the highest fluoride level at Karegaon village (4.33 mg L-1). Seven locations showed the presence of fluoride in excess of permissible levels.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of functionally graded poly(vinylidine fluoride)-silver nanocomposite hollow fibers for sustainable water recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-12-01

    Poly(vinylidine fluoride) (PVDF) asymmetric hydrophobic hollow fibers were fabricated successfully using dryjet wet spinning. Hydrophobic silver nanoparticles were synthesized and impregnated into the PVDF polymer matrix and functionally graded PVDF-silver nanocomposite hollow fibers are fabricated and tested in the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), particle size distribution (PSD) and Ultra Violet (UV) visible spectroscopy. Both the PVDF and PVDF-silver nanocomposite asymmetric hollow fibers were characterized for their morphology, water contact angle and mechanical strength. Addition of hydrophobic silver nanoparticles was found to enhance the hydrophobicity and ~ 2.5 fold increase the mechanical strength of the hollow fibers. A water vapor flux of 31.9kg m-2 h-1 was observed at a feed inlet temperature of 80 °C and at a permeate temperature of 20 °C in the case of hollow fiber membrane modules fabricated using PVDF hollow fibers; the water vapor flux was found to be increased by about 8% and to reach 34.6kg m-2 h-1 for the hollow fiber membrane modules fabricated from the PVDF-silver nanocomposite hollow fibers at the same operating conditions with 99.99% salt rejection.

  3. The improved remineralization and fluoride uptake in vivo of triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride toothpaste vs. sodium fluoride toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun Po; Blake-Haskins, Jake; Din, Carol S; Gaffar, Abdul

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that the twice-daily use of the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride toothpaste can significantly reduce caries formation. The objective of this report was to review human studies comparing a triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride toothpaste to a placebo toothpaste (no fluoride), and a sodium fluoride toothpaste (positive control) for their ability to enhance remineralization of tooth enamel and increase the retention of fluoride by dental plaque for extended periods (up to 12 hours) after treatment. Two human plaque fluoride studies were conducted, measuring fluoride levels before brushing (baseline) and at two, six and twelve hours after brushing. An in situ enamel remineralization study, using microhardness measurements, was conducted as well. In the first study, the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride toothpaste group was associated with a two-times increase of mean plaque fluoride as compared to the placebo control dentifrice. This increase was statistically significant at p < 0.05. In the second study, the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride toothpaste group was associated with a 38% increase of mean plaque fluoride as compared to the sodium fluoride toothpaste group. This increase was statistically significant at p < 0.05. In the enamel remineralization study, the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride toothpaste was significantly better (p < 0.05) than the sodium fluoride toothpaste (positive control) at promoting percent mineral recovery. The results obtained from the plaque fluoride studies and in situ remineralization study corroborated the findings of a recently completed two-year caries clinical study, which demonstrated that the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride toothpaste provided superior cavity protection over the sodium fluoride toothpaste.

  4. Focus on fluorides: update on the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M

    2014-06-01

    Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  6. Effect of fluoride exposure on the intelligence of school children in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between exposure to different drinking water fluoride levels and children′s intelligence in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 12-year-old school children of Madhya Pradesh state, India. The children were selected from low (0.05. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the urinary fluoride levels (P 0.000. Reduction in intelligence was observed with an increased water fluoride level (P 0.000. The urinary fluoride level was a significant predictor for intelligence (P 0.000. Conclusion: Children in endemic areas of fluorosis are at risk for impaired development of intelligence.

  7. Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Anna L; Sun, Guifan; Zhang, Ying; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Although fluoride may cause neurotoxicity in animal models and acute fluoride poisoning causes neurotoxicity in adults, very little is known of its effects on children's neurodevelopment. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to investigate the effects of increased fluoride exposure and delayed neurobehavioral development. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Water Resources Abstracts, and TOXNET databases through 2011 for eligible studies. We also searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, because many studies on fluoride neurotoxicity have been published in Chinese journals only. In total, we identified 27 eligible epidemiological studies with high and reference exposures, end points of IQ scores, or related cognitive function measures with means and variances for the two exposure groups. Using random-effects models, we estimated the standardized mean difference between exposed and reference groups across all studies. We conducted sensitivity analyses restricted to studies using the same outcome assessment and having drinking-water fluoride as the only exposure. We performed the Cochran test for heterogeneity between studies, Begg's funnel plot, and Egger test to assess publication bias, and conducted meta-regressions to explore sources of variation in mean differences among the studies. The standardized weighted mean difference in IQ score between exposed and reference populations was -0.45 (95% confidence interval: -0.56, -0.35) using a random-effects model. Thus, children in high-fluoride areas had significantly lower IQ scores than those who lived in low-fluoride areas. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses also indicated inverse associations, although the substantial heterogeneity did not appear to decrease. The results support the possibility of an adverse effect of high fluoride exposure on children's neurodevelopment. Future research should include detailed individual-level information on prenatal

  8. Comparison of low cost materials to remove fluoride from drinking water in Sri Lanka; Response to health problems associated with contiguous hydrogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Randiligama, S.

    2010-12-01

    Considering medical geology, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), dental and skeletal fluorosis is emerging as major health problems in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. In the year of 2008, over 5,000 patients were under treatment for renal failure in the North Central Province. Large number of cases has been found with the dental fluorosis while few skeletal fluorosis is also reported. Recent research carried out in the CKD prevalent areas also demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between fluoride-rich areas and the high incidence of CKD. In some areas fluoride in drinking water reported as high as 9-10 ppm where the WHO maximum permissible limit is 1.5 ppm. Therefore, it is essential to remove excessive fluoride from water before drinking. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of low cost and locally available filter materials to be used easily in household filters. Batch experiments were carried out for different fluoride loadings (10, 20 and 50 ppm) and time for diverse adsorbents such as laterite, bricks, charcoal, serpentine, tile, quartz, marble and white clay balls (impure kaolinite) based on the adsorption technique. It was found that untreated charcoal and quartz have no effect on defluoridation and local bricks as well as marble demonstrated less defluoridation ability i.e. 28.83% and 12.7% respectively. White clay and laterite showed higher adsorption efficiency than tile chips and serpentinite. When consider adsorption amounts white clay, laterite and serpentinite exhibited 96.0%, 94.25% and 93.54% % respectively for 10 ppm initial concentration of fluoride. For the rest adsorbate loadings it showed similar behavior with more than 90 % adsorption. Most of the materials attend to equilibrium after 60 minutes. The presence of aluminium and iron oxides would place these materials on top of the better adsorbent list. Column experiments, effect of temperature on the adsorbents and modeling are under investigation for white clay

  9. Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Correia Cavalcante SOUZA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38 were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four treatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

  10. Fluoride retention in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Daniela Correia Cavalcante; Maltz, Marisa; Hashizume, Lina Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This single-blind, randomized, crossover study aimed at assessing the long-term fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm after different home-use fluoride treatments. The study volunteers (n = 38) were residents of an area with fluoridated drinking water. They were administered four treatments, each of which lasted for one week: twice-daily placebo dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice, twice-daily fluoride dentifrice and once-daily fluoride mouthrinse, and thrice-daily fluoride dentifrice. At the end of each treatment period, samples of unstimulated saliva and dental biofilm were collected 8 h after the last oral hygiene procedure. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were analyzed using a specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm 8 h after the last use of fluoride products did not differ among treatments. The results of this study suggest that treatments with home-use fluoride products have no long-term effect on fluoride concentrations in saliva and in dental biofilm of residents of an area with a fluoridated water supply.

  11. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 3. Heavy Lanthanides (Gd–Lu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mioduski, Tomasz [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, 03195 Warszawa (Poland); Gumiński, Cezary, E-mail: cegie@chem.uw.edu.pl [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, 02093 Warszawa (Poland); Zeng, Dewen, E-mail: dewen-zeng@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2015-06-15

    This is the third part of the volume devoted to solubility data for the rare earth metal (REM) fluorides in water and in aqueous ternary and multicomponent systems. It covers experimental results of trivalent fluorides of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu (so-called heavy lanthanides), since no quantitative data on solubilities of TbF{sub 4} and YbF{sub 2} (the most stable compounds at these valencies) are available. The related literature has been covered through the end of 2014. Compilations of all available papers with the solubility data are introduced for each REM fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such assessment contains a collection of all solubility results in aqueous solution, a selection of suggested solubility data, a solubility equation, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or double salts) are treated as the input substances in this report. General features of the systems, such as nature of the equilibrium solid phases, solubility as a function of temperature, influence of ionic strength, solution pH, mixed solvent medium on the solubility, quality of the solubility results, and the solubility as a function of REM atomic number, have already been presented in Part 1 of the volume.

  12. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 3. Heavy Lanthanides (Gd-Lu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumiński, Cezary; Zeng, Dewen

    2015-06-01

    This is the third part of the volume devoted to solubility data for the rare earth metal (REM) fluorides in water and in aqueous ternary and multicomponent systems. It covers experimental results of trivalent fluorides of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu (so-called heavy lanthanides), since no quantitative data on solubilities of TbF4 and YbF2 (the most stable compounds at these valencies) are available. The related literature has been covered through the end of 2014. Compilations of all available papers with the solubility data are introduced for each REM fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such assessment contains a collection of all solubility results in aqueous solution, a selection of suggested solubility data, a solubility equation, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or double salts) are treated as the input substances in this report. General features of the systems, such as nature of the equilibrium solid phases, solubility as a function of temperature, influence of ionic strength, solution pH, mixed solvent medium on the solubility, quality of the solubility results, and the solubility as a function of REM atomic number, have already been presented in Part 1 of the volume.

  13. Studying the properties and behaviour of high-level radioactive wastes from the BOR-60 reactor U-Pu and U spent fuel experimental gas-fluoride reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillovich, A.P.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.; Vorobej, M.P.; Pimonov, Yu.I.

    1982-07-01

    The results of investigations of physical-chemical and radiation properties of fluoride radioactive wastes produced during experimental reprocessing of spent oxide uranium-plutonium fuel as well as high-level radioactive waste behaviour in the process of their six-year controlled storage are presented. Radioactive gas release from solid wastes, gaseous phase composition, radionuclide leaching rate are determined. Investigations are performed at a special bench. Energy release of the spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes is determined by means of heat-conducting type calorimeter. Gas mixture composition in containers with wastes is determined by mass-spectrometric method at equilibrium temperature of high-level radioactive product self-heating and at external container heating up to 700 deg C. Thermal-physical characteristics of solid fluoride wastes are found by the differential thermography method under quasistationary heating. The results obtained show that about a half (44.8-60.9%) of fission product radioactivity is concentrated in fluorination wastes, specific heat release of which constitutes 50-52 W/kg, while ..beta..-activity exceeds 550 TBq/kg. Main contribution into ..beta..-activity is made by Ce, /sup 144/Pr, Ru, /sup 106/Rh, Zr, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 137/Cs. With waste storage time increase their thermal stability increases. It is concluded that the investigation results can be used for calculating the conditions of safe storage of high-level radiactive solid fluoride wastes and optimization of the technological process of spent fuel gas-fluoride reprossing.

  14. A study of fluoride groundwater occurrence in Nathenje, Lilongwe, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msonda, K. W. M.; Masamba, W. R. L.; Fabiano, E.

    A study was carried out to determine fluoride concentration in groundwaters of Nathenje area situated in Lilongwe District in the central region of Malawi. Water samples were collected from 176 boreholes and shallow wells during different months in 2001 and 2002. Samples were then analysed for fluoride by using a fluoride electrode and an ion selective meter. The results showed that fluoride concentrations for the rainy season varied from dental fluorosis in areas where the fluoride concentration was high.

  15. An inter-laboratory comparative study of