WorldWideScience

Sample records for water flood demonstration

  1. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States)]|[Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

  2. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project: Final report. [October 21, 1992-April, 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D. [Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US); Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc., Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (US); Nielson, D.L.; Lutz, S.J. [Energy and Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. Comprehensive reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations of the Monument Butte, Travis and Boundary units were presented in the two published project yearly reports. The primary and the secondary production from the Monument Butte unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close to its bubble point. The water flood in the smaller Travis unit appeared affected by natural and possibly by large interconnecting hydraulic fractures. Water flooding the boundary unit was considered more complicated due to the presence of an oil water contact in one of the wells. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter c ore, Formation Micro Imaging logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir characterization efforts identified new reservoirs in the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2000 barrels per day.

  3. Water NOT wanted - Coastal Floods and Flooding Protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    vulnerability towards coastal flooding, the country has experienced severe storm surges throughout history, and hitherto safe areas will become increasingly at risk this century as the climate changes. Historically a seafarers’ nation, Denmark has always been connected with the sea. From medieval time ports...... acceptance of floods has decreased from a “this is a natural consequence of living by the sea” to an explicit: Water Not Wanted! This paper provides a brief overview of floods and flooding protection issues in Denmark (Ch. 2 & Ch. 3), the current legislation (Ch. 4), and discusses challenges in relation...... to climate change adaptation, risk reduction, and to potential ways of rethinking flooding protection in strategies that also incorporate other uses (Ch. 5)....

  4. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  5. Uncertainty in surface water flood risk modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. B.; Martin, D. N.; Roberts, E.; Domuah, R.

    2009-04-01

    Two thirds of the flooding that occurred in the UK during summer 2007 was as a result of surface water (otherwise known as ‘pluvial') rather than river or coastal flooding. In response, the Environment Agency and Interim Pitt Reviews have highlighted the need for surface water risk mapping and warning tools to identify, and prepare for, flooding induced by heavy rainfall events. This need is compounded by the likely increase in rainfall intensities due to climate change. The Association of British Insurers has called for the Environment Agency to commission nationwide flood risk maps showing the relative risk of flooding from all sources. At the wider European scale, the recently-published EC Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks will require Member States to evaluate, map and model flood risk from a variety of sources. As such, there is now a clear and immediate requirement for the development of techniques for assessing and managing surface water flood risk across large areas. This paper describes an approach for integrating rainfall, drainage network and high-resolution topographic data using Flowroute™, a high-resolution flood mapping and modelling platform, to produce deterministic surface water flood risk maps. Information is provided from UK case studies to enable assessment and validation of modelled results using historical flood information and insurance claims data. Flowroute was co-developed with flood scientists at Cambridge University specifically to simulate river dynamics and floodplain inundation in complex, congested urban areas in a highly computationally efficient manner. It utilises high-resolution topographic information to route flows around individual buildings so as to enable the prediction of flood depths, extents, durations and velocities. As such, the model forms an ideal platform for the development of surface water flood risk modelling and mapping capabilities. The 2-dimensional component of Flowroute employs

  6. A surface water flooding impact library for flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldridge Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for improved risk-based Surface Water Flooding (SWF warning systems is evident in EU directives and in the UK Government’s Pitt Review of the 2007 summer floods. This paper presents a novel approach for collating receptor and vulnerability datasets via the concept of an Impact Library, developed by the Health and Safety Laboratory as a depository of pre-calculated impact information on SWF risk for use in a real-time SWF Hazard Impact Model (HIM. This has potential benefits for the Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC as the organisation responsible for the issuing of flood guidance information for England and Wales. The SWF HIM takes a pixel-based approach to link probabilistic surface water runoff forecasts produced by CEH’s Grid-to-Grid hydrological model with Impact Library information to generate impact assessments. These are combined to estimate flood risk as a combination of impact severity and forecast likelihood, at 1km pixel level, and summarised for counties and local authorities. The SWF HIM takes advantage of recent advances in operational ensemble forecasting of rainfall by the Met Office and of SWF by the Environment Agency and CEH working together through the FFC. Results are presented for a case study event which affected the North East of England during 2012. The work has been developed through the UK’s Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP, a group of organisations gathered to provide information, research and analysis on natural hazards for civil contingencies, government and responders across the UK.

  7. Water Tables, Flooding, and Water Use by Riparian Phreatophyte Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, J. R.; Cleverly, J. R.; Dahm, C.

    2010-12-01

    Phreatophytic riparian vegetation relies heavily on ground water transported from upstream sources. In the American southwest, the phenology of native phreatophytes, e.g., Rio Grande cottonwood, (Populus deltoides) is also dependent on seasonal flooding, which has been greatly diminished by hydrologic alterations and competing allocations. In this semi-arid, water-scarce region, a long history of agriculture and a rapidly expanding population impose limits on water available for ecological purposes, such as managed, restorative flooding. At native and non-native (e.g., saltcedar, (Tamarix spp.)) sites along the Rio Grande floodplain of central New Mexico, eddy covariance flux towers and monitoring wells are deployed to quantify evapotranspiration (ET) and investigate relationships between ET, water table (WT) depth, and flooding. Season-long measurements have been completed over several years in flooding and non-flooding sites under climatic conditions fluctuating from wet to extreme drought. Total growing season ET declines with deeper WTs across sites, with robust correlations where strong hydrologic connections exist between the river and ground water. As such, wet years with elevated WTs result in greater annual ET. However, ET responds less clearly to floods within the growing season. Longer duration floods lasting several weeks are more typical earlier in the growing season, associated with sufficient snowmelt runoff. Extensive spring flooding in two recent years coincided with significantly higher ET at a young, mixed stand, but had no effect on ET at a mature saltcedar forest. Summer monsoons and drier springs typically bring more transitory flood pulses with rapid WT ascent and decline measured in days. Elevated ET occurred during only one of several shorter flood pulses, at a saltcedar site during an otherwise dry spring. ET was not affected by monsoon flood pulses. Recruitment of native vegetation requires spring floods with favorable timing, magnitude

  8. Flood mapping with remote sensing and hydrochemistry: A new method to distinguish the origin of flood water during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chormanski, J.; Okruszko, T.; Ignar, S.; Batelaan, O.; Rebel, K.T.; Wassen, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    River flooding is important for the ecological functioning of river floodplains. It is implicitly assumed that in many river floodplains during floods, river water is spreading all over the floodplain. We hypothesize that during flood events a spatial distribution of water types exists, which is cor

  9. Flood Water Model Logan K. kuiper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, L. K.

    2013-05-01

    A mathematical model is developed to simulate flood water movement. Specifically, the model applies to situations where water depth is much smaller than the width or length of the water body, and resistance to flow from obstructions such as trees and structures is minimal. The model is applicable to many situations and in some cases may be able to suggest flood alleviation procedures. The derivation of the discretized form of the time dependant nonlinear equation governing the flow is based upon water conservation and the ability to approximate water flow rate (L2/T) as a function of the gradient of water surface elevation and water depth using the Manning equation. The flow equation is discretized using four sided finite elements. The resulting set of simultaneous nonlinear equations is solved iteratively using a conjugate gradient solver. To check for model programming error, a simple problem with constant water depth and constant water surface elevation gradient is checked against the Manning equation. An application of the model to a situation similar to the 2010 flood in northern Belize is ongoing.

  10. Bibliography of forest water yields, flooding issues, and the hydrologic modeling of extreme flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Eisenbies; M.B. Adams; W. Michael Aust; James A. Burger

    2007-01-01

    Floods continue to cause significant damage in the United States and elsewhere, and questions about the causes of flooding continue to be debated. A significant amount of research has been conducted on the relationship between forest management activities and water yield, peak flows, and flooding; somewhat less research has been conducted on the modeling of these...

  11. The management of urban surface water flood risks: SUDS performance in flood reduction from extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viavattene, C; Ellis, J B

    2013-01-01

    The need to improve the urban drainage network to meet recent urban growth and the redevelopment of old industrial and commercial areas provides an opportunity for managing urban surface water infrastructure in a more sustainable way. The use of sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) can reduce urban surface water flooding as well as the pollution impact of urban discharges on receiving waters. However, these techniques are not yet well known by many stakeholders involved in the decision-making process, or at least the evidence of their performance effectiveness may be doubted compared with more traditional engineering solutions often promoted by existing 1D/2D drainage models. The use of geographic information systems (GIS) in facilitating the inter-related risk analysis of sewer surface water overflows and urban flooding as well as in better communication with stakeholders is demonstrated in this paper. An innovative coupled 1D/2D urban sewer/overland flow model has been developed and tested in conjunction with a SUDS selection and location tool (SUDSLOC) to enable a robust management approach to surface water flood risks and to improve the resilience of the urban drainage infrastructure. The paper demonstrates the numerical and modelling basis of the integrated 1D/2D and SUDSLOC approach and the working assumptions and flexibility of the application together with some limitations and uncertainties. The role of the SUDSLOC modelling component in quantifying flow, and surcharge reduction benefits arising from the strategic selection and location of differing SUDS controls are also demonstrated for an extreme storm event scenario.

  12. Detection and characterization of enteric viruses in flood water from the 2011 thai flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaosuwankul, Nathamon; Thippornchai, Narin; Yamashita, Akifumi; Vargas, Ronald E Morales; Tunyong, Witawat; Mahakunkijchareon, Yuvadee; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan

    2013-01-01

    Severe flooding, which is associated with numerous outbreaks of a wide range of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by enteric viruses, occurred in all areas of Thailand in 2011. To determine the prevalence of five human enteric viruses, namely enterovirus, rotavirus (RV), norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and hepatitis E virus, in the flood water, 100 water samples were collected from flood-damaged areas in central Thailand. Viral RNA was extracted from concentrated samples and analyzed by RT-PCR and sequencing. NV was the most commonly detected pathogen in the tested samples (14%). RV and HAV were detected in 9% and 7% of samples, respectively. This study is the first to detect enteric viral genes in flood water in Thailand. Furthermore, it is the first to detect an NV gene in any type of environmental water in Thailand. These results provide useful information for estimating the risk of flood waterborne viral infection.

  13. A Cloud-Based Global Flood Disaster Community Cyber-Infrastructure: Development and Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhanming; Hong, Yang; Khan, Sadiq; Gourley, Jonathan; Flamig, Zachary; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Flood disasters have significant impacts on the development of communities globally. This study describes a public cloud-based flood cyber-infrastructure (CyberFlood) that collects, organizes, visualizes, and manages several global flood databases for authorities and the public in real-time, providing location-based eventful visualization as well as statistical analysis and graphing capabilities. In order to expand and update the existing flood inventory, a crowdsourcing data collection methodology is employed for the public with smartphones or Internet to report new flood events, which is also intended to engage citizen-scientists so that they may become motivated and educated about the latest developments in satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modeling technologies. Our shared vision is to better serve the global water community with comprehensive flood information, aided by the state-of-the- art cloud computing and crowdsourcing technology. The CyberFlood presents an opportunity to eventually modernize the existing paradigm used to collect, manage, analyze, and visualize water-related disasters.

  14. Water impoundment modes of flood utilization for the Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Taking the Songnen Plain as the research region and basing on the structural division of river water resources, the impounding models of flood water utilization are proposed. Considering the water requirement, potential impoundage and the degree of risk, two modes of the flood water utilization are developed: full impounding and partial impounding. A risk assessment method is put forward according to variation of the flood storage capacity before and after impounding water. A representative hydrological year is taken as an example to analyze the application of the model at the downstream of the Nenjiang River. It is found that the model is very useful for the flood utilization and protection. For flood utilization, the spring drought can be relieved and the risk of impounding water is also acceptable. For flood protection, the river flood peak can be largely reduced and the impounding water can increase the river discharge at the low water period, at the same time the structure of river water resources can be improved as well.

  15. Modeling Wettability Variation during Long-Term Water Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface property of rock affects oil recovery during water flooding. Oil-wet polar substances adsorbed on the surface of the rock will gradually be desorbed during water flooding, and original reservoir wettability will change towards water-wet, and the change will reduce the residual oil saturation and improve the oil displacement efficiency. However there is a lack of an accurate description of wettability alternation model during long-term water flooding and it will lead to difficulties in history match and unreliable forecasts using reservoir simulators. This paper summarizes the mechanism of wettability variation and characterizes the adsorption of polar substance during long-term water flooding from injecting water or aquifer and relates the residual oil saturation and relative permeability to the polar substance adsorbed on clay and pore volumes of flooding water. A mathematical model is presented to simulate the long-term water flooding and the model is validated with experimental results. The simulation results of long-term water flooding are also discussed.

  16. Water impoundment modes of flood utilization for the Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU ShiGuo; LI WenYi

    2008-01-01

    Taking the Songnen Plain as the research region and basing on the structural divi-sion of river water resources,the impounding models of flood water utilization are proposed.Considering the water requirement,potential impoundage and the de-gree of risk,two modes of the flood water utilization are developed:full impounding and partial impounding.A risk assessment method is put forward according to variation of the flood storage capacity before and after impounding water.A representative hydro-logical year is taken as an example to analyze the application of the model at the down-stream of the Nenjiang River.It is found that the model is very useful for the flood utiliza-tion and protection.For flood utilization,the spring drought can be relieved and the risk of impounding water is also acceptable.For flood protection,the river flood peak can be largely reduced and the impounding water can increase the river discharge at the low water period,at the same time the structure of river water resources can be improved as well.

  17. Flood Water Crossing: Laboratory Model Investigations for Water Velocity Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasnon N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of floods may give a negative impact towards road traffic in terms of difficulties in mobilizing traffic as well as causing damage to the vehicles, which later cause them to be stuck in the traffic and trigger traffic problems. The high velocity of water flows occur when there is no existence of objects capable of diffusing the water velocity on the road surface. The shape, orientation and size of the object to be placed beside the road as a diffuser are important for the effective flow attenuation of water. In order to investigate the water flow, a laboratory experiment was set up and models were constructed to study the flow velocity reduction. The velocity of water before and after passing through the diffuser objects was investigated. This paper focuses on laboratory experiments to determine the flow velocity of the water using sensors before and after passing through two best diffuser objects chosen from a previous flow pattern experiment.

  18. Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer; Tatarsky, Boaz; Enzel, Yehouda; Kulls, Christoph; Seely, Mary; Benito, Gererdo

    2008-01-01

    A study on flood water infiltration and ground water recharge of a shallow alluvial aquifer was conducted in the hyperarid section of the Kuiseb River, Namibia. The study site was selected to represent a typical desert ephemeral river. An instrumental setup allowed, for the first time, continuous monitoring of infiltration during a flood event through the channel bed and the entire vadose zone. The monitoring system included flexible time domain reflectometry probes that were designed to measure the temporal variation in vadose zone water content and instruments to concurrently measure the levels of flood and ground water. A sequence of five individual floods was monitored during the rainy season in early summer 2006. These newly generated data served to elucidate the dynamics of flood water infiltration. Each flood initiated an infiltration event which was expressed in wetting of the vadose zone followed by a measurable rise in the water table. The data enabled a direct calculation of the infiltration fluxes by various independent methods. The floods varied in their stages, peaks, and initial water contents. However, all floods produced very similar flux rates, suggesting that the recharge rates are less affected by the flood stages but rather controlled by flow duration and available aquifer storage under it. Large floods flood the stream channel terraces and promote the larger transmission losses. These, however, make only a negligible contribution to the recharge of the ground water. It is the flood duration within the active streambed, which may increase with flood magnitude that is important to the recharge process.

  19. Modelling the effects of surface water flood pulses on groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, P.P.; Wassen, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Flood pulses in wetlands steer ecosystem development directly through surface water processes and indirectly through the effects of the flood pulse on groundwater. Direct effects on ecosystems are exerted by e.g. inundation and deposition of sediments containing nutrients. Indirect effects include t

  20. Flood risk assessment of fresh water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a common hazard causing damages to people, buildings and infrastructures. Often located in low-lying areas or nearby rivers, water utilities are particularly vulnerable to flooding. Water and debris can inundate the facility, thereby damaging equipment and causing power outages. Such impacts can lead to costly repairs, disruptions of service, hazardous situations for personnel and public health advisories. While flood damage evaluation to buildings and their contents is becoming increasingly available, the quantification of impact on critical infrastructures is less common. In this work, we present the flood risk assessment of a fresh water supply system considering the hazard of a riverine flooding and exposure and vulnerability of the system components (i.e. pipes, junctions, lifting stations etc.). The evaluation of flood impact on the aqueduct network is carried out for flood scenarios with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to determine their residual functionality. Above a selected threshold, the affected elements are considered as failed. The water distribution piping system is modelled through a model based on EPANET designed so as to implement Pressure-Driven Demand (PDD), which is more appropriate when modelling water distribution networks with a high number of offline nodes. Results of piping system model affected by the flood are then compared in a QGIS environment with flood depth to identify the location of service outages and potential risk of contamination. The application to the water supply system of the city of Florence (Italy), serving approximately 385000 inhabitants through 900 km of piping is presented and discussed.

  1. Flood planning; the politics of water security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Floods are amongst the most common and devastating natural disasters. In the wake of such an event, the pressure to initiate flood protection schemes that will provide security is enormous, and politicians promise quick solutions in the national interest. Jeroen Warner examines a number of such proj

  2. Water Quality Dynamics of Urban Water Bodies during Flooding in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Quan Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution associated with flooding is one of the major problems in cities in the global South. However, studies of water quality dynamics during flood events are not often reported in literature, probably due to difficult conditions for sampling during flood events. Water quality parameters in open water (canals, rivers, and lakes, flood water on roads and water in sewers have been monitored during the extreme fluvial flood event on 7 October 2013 in the city of Can Tho, Vietnam. This is the pioneering study of urban flood water pollution in real time in Vietnam. The results showed that water quality is very dynamic during flooding, especially at the beginning of the event. In addition, it was observed that the pathogen and contaminant levels in the flood water are almost as high as in sewers. The findings show that population exposed to flood water runs a health risk that is nearly equal to that of being in contact with sewer water. Therefore, the people of Can Tho not only face physical risk due to flooding, but are also exposed to health risks.

  3. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  4. Flood-Fighting Structures Demonstration and Evaluation Program: Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    actual flood conditions. Log impact tests were conducted at a water elevation of 66 percent levee height to model the impact of waterborne debris...sand. A total of 250 cu yd of sand was delivered to the site. An automatic-speed sandbagger, Model ASB-3 (Hogan Manufacturing, Inc.) was rented...Local Sponsor Mr. Renold Minsky , President, Fifth Louisiana Levee Board Mr. Bump Calloway, Director, Warren County (MS) Civil Defense The

  5. Atmospheric Rivers, Floods and the Water Resources of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Cayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available California’s highly variable climate and growing water demands combine to pose both water-supply and flood-hazard challenges to resource managers. Recently important efforts to more fully integrate the management of floods and water resources have begun, with the aim of benefitting both sectors. California is shown here to experience unusually large variations in annual precipitation and streamflow totals relative to the rest of the US, variations which mostly reflect the unusually small average number of wet days per year needed to accumulate most of its annual precipitation totals (ranging from 5 to 15 days in California. Thus whether just a few large storms arrive or fail to arrive in California can be the difference between a banner year and a drought. Furthermore California receives some of the largest 3-day storm totals in the country, rivaling in this regard the hurricane belt of the southeastern US. California’s largest storms are generally fueled by landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs. The fractions of precipitation and streamflow totals at stations across the US that are associated with ARs are documented here and, in California, contribute 20–50% of the state’s precipitation and streamflow. Prospects for long-lead forecasts of these fractions are presented. From a meteorological perspective, California’s water resources and floods are shown to derive from the same storms to an extent that makes integrated flood and water resources management all the more important.

  6. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  7. Impacts of a flash flood on drinking water quality: case study of areas most affected by the 2012 Beijing flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rubao; An, Daizhi; Lu, Wei; Shi, Yun; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Can; Zhang, Ping; Qi, Hongjuan; Wang, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups. All of the samples showed different degrees of pollution, and most were unsuitable for drinking water as concentrations of various parameters exceeded recommended thresholds. Principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that two factors, the degree of mineralization and agricultural runoff, and flood entrainment, explained 82.50% of the total variance. The case study demonstrates that this method is useful for evaluating and interpreting large, complex water-quality data sets.

  8. Impacts of a flash flood on drinking water quality: case study of areas most affected by the 2012 Beijing flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubao Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups. All of the samples showed different degrees of pollution, and most were unsuitable for drinking water as concentrations of various parameters exceeded recommended thresholds. Principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that two factors, the degree of mineralization and agricultural runoff, and flood entrainment, explained 82.50% of the total variance. The case study demonstrates that this method is useful for evaluating and interpreting large, complex water-quality data sets.

  9. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) 400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective riverbank filtration

  10. INVESTIGATION OF QUANTIFICATION OF FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER UTILIZATION EFFECT OF RAINFALL INFILTRATION FACILITY BY USING WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    文, 勇起; BUN, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many flood damage and drought attributed to urbanization has occurred. At present infiltration facility is suggested for the solution of these problems. Based on this background, the purpose of this study is investigation of quantification of flood control and water utilization effect of rainfall infiltration facility by using water balance analysis model. Key Words : flood control, water utilization , rainfall infiltration facility

  11. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Office and analyzed to describe spatial and temporal characteristics of rescues. Between 2005 and 2014, 3256 swift water rescues were reported from 136 of 254 (54% counties. Over half (54.6%, n = 1777 occurred in counties known as Flash Flood Alley, which includes Texas’ largest and fastest growing cities. Less than 1.0% (n = 18 were reported from 49 counties designated as completely rural, or with an urban population less than 2500. Increases in swift water rescues were seen between March and September and during major weather events such as tropical storms. Because county-level data was utilized and demographic data was missing in all but 2% (n = 47 of the incidents, our ability to identify populations at risk or target interventions in the future using this data is limited. Despite the frequency of flash flood events and swift water rescues in Texas, knowledge gaps persist that should be addressed through the conduct of interdisciplinary research by epidemiologists and climatologists and by disseminating evidence-based health education and safety programs, particularly in rapidly growing counties that make up Texas’ Flash Flood Alley.

  12. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  13. From flood protection to flood risk management: condition-based and performance-based regulations in German water law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Albrecht, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many European countries, a paradigm shift from technically oriented flood protection to a holistic approach of flood risk management is taking place. In Germany, this approach is currently being implemented after several amendments of the Federal Water Act. The paradigm shift is also reflected in

  14. MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2013-06-01

    Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

  15. Integrated water resource and flood risk management: comparing the US and the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Serra-Llobet Anna; Conrad Esther; Schaefer Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the most important natural hazard in the EU and US, causing 700 deaths and at least €25 billion in insured economic losses in Europe since 1998, and causing nearly $10 billion annual average flood losses in the US. Flood control is commonly viewed as a matter of building dykes, dams, and other structures, but effective flood management within the perspective of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) must address multiple components of the flood risk management cycle (Figure 1)...

  16. Validating city-scale surface water flood modelling using crowd-sourced data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapeng; Yin, Jie; Liu, Min

    2016-12-01

    Surface water and surface water related flood modelling at the city-scale is challenging due to a range of factors including the availability of subsurface data and difficulty in deriving runoff inputs and surcharge for individual storm sewer inlets. Most of the research undertaken so far has been focusing on local-scale predictions of sewer surcharge induced surface flooding, using a 1D/1D or 1D/2D coupled storm sewer and surface flow model. In this study, we describe the application of an urban hydro-inundation model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D) to simulate surface water related flooding arising from extreme precipitation at the city-scale. This approach was applied to model an extreme storm event that occurred on 12 August 2011 in the city of Shanghai, China, and the model predictions were compared with a ‘crowd-sourced’ dataset of flood incidents. The results suggest that the model is able to capture the broad patterns of inundated areas at the city-scale. Temporal evaluation also demonstrates a good level of agreement between the reported and predicted flood timing. Due to the mild terrain of the city, the worst-hit areas are predicted to be topographic lows. The spatio-temporal accuracy of the precipitation and micro-topography are the two critical factors that affect the prediction accuracies. Future studies could be directed towards making more accurate and robust predictions of water depth and velocity using higher quality topographic, precipitation and drainage capacity information.

  17. The perception of flood risk and water nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, T; Gutteling, J M; Geldof, G D; Kappe, L J

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we applied the psychometric paradigm to validate a questionnaire that assesses the risk perception characteristics of flooding and water nuisance. The state-trait anxiety inventory was used as a bench mark to determine whether perceptions are related to anxiety characteristics. A focus group was used to further validate the questionnaire. Factor analyses of 49 questionnaires identified eight flooding factors (explained variance 74%) and three water nuisance factors (explained variance 62%). Internal consistencies of the obtained scales were moderate to high. Like in the perception of external safety risks, "dread" seems to be the most important concept binding different characteristics. Although dread towards both flooding and water nuisance is rather low, it seems more present in the latter case. Furthermore, the extent of dread for water nuisance seems related to someone's state anxiety. In both cases awareness of "increasing risks" is clearly present, and we find the characteristics "(no) dread", "(un)controllable situation" and "does not affect me" to be related.

  18. Effect of dyke construction on water dynamics in the flooding savannahs of Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.K.; Chacon Moreno, E.J.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Wenting, P.F.M.; Loedeman, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In the flooded savannahs water is the main factor determining the ecosystem and its change. During flooding, the level of water and the duration of flooding are highly dependent on the relative height position of the ecosystem unit. To understand the spatial processes in the ecosvstem one must know

  19. Relationship of Rainfall Distribution and Water Level on Major Flood 2014 in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nur Hishaam Sulaiman; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Hafizan Juahir; Frankie Marcus Ata; Azman Azid; Noor Jima Abd Wahab; Roslan Umar; Saiful iskandar Khalit; Mokhairi Makhtar; Amal Arfan; Uca Sideng

    2017-01-01

    .... This article discusses about the relationship of rainfall distribution and water level on major flood 2014 in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia in helping decision makers to flood management system...

  20. Theory and technology of preventing water from flooding roadways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Sheng-gen; HOU Shi-song; LI Zhong-hua

    2008-01-01

    According to the principle of effective stress action of rock and soil, we established a mechanical model of water flooding into roadways, analyzed the constitutive relation of hydrodynamic pressure and contact pressure of rock and soil and discovered that the process of pre-grouting of a roadway curtain is a dynamically balancing process in which effective stress keeps gradually increasing and pore water pressure gradually declines. In such a grouting process, the initial water plugging effect is realized when the effective stress and total stress reaches equilibrium. A rigid-flexible packing layer is designed behind the brickwork to increase the effective stress and reduce pore water pressure in order to have a permanent water proof performance. This provides a theoretical basis for roadway driving and permanent water prevention. The monitoring and application results show that the initial and permanent waterproof theory has provided an effective method for roadway driving and making it waterproof.

  1. Flood monitoring and damage assessment using water indices: A case study of Pakistan flood-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali Memon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI of McFeeters (1996, Water Index (WI introduced by Rogers and Kearney (2004, referred to as Red and Short Wave Infra-Red (RSWIR and WI suggested as the best by Ji et al. (2009, referred to as Green and Short Wave Infra-Red (GSWIR for delineating and mapping of surface water using MODIS (Terra near real time images during 2012 floods in Pakistan. The results from above indices have been compared with Landsat ETM+ classified images aiming to assess the accuracy of the indices. Accuracy assessment has been performed using spatial statistical techniques and found NDWI, RSWIR and GSWIR with kappa coefficient (κ of 46.66%, 70.80% and 60.61% respectively. It has been observed using statistical analysis and visual interpretation (expert knowledge gained by past experience that the NDWI and GSWIR have tendencies to underestimate and overestimate respectively the inundated area. Keeping in view the above facts, RSWIR has proved to be the best of the three indices. In addition, assessment of the damages has been carried out considering accumulated flood extent obtained from RSWIR. The information derived proved to be essential and valuable for disaster management plan and rehabilitation.

  2. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina seedlings exposed to flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo-Polanco Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi K. Koch produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack

  3. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  4. Modelling of Salt Solubilities for Smart Water flooding in Carbonate Reservoirs using Extended UNIQUAC Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara

    with water for more than a decade and are potential candidates for brine composition based EOR. Advanced water flooding through alteration in brine composition has been termed as Smart Water(SmW) Flooding, Designed Water flooding, Low salinity brine injection, LowSal(™) EOR, and Advanced Water flooding......+ ions, then SO42- ions gets adsorbed on the mineral surface. This leads to desorption of carboxyl ions from the mineral surface and makes the oil more mobile. Thus, eventually leading to an increase in oil recovery. According to the wettability alteration mechanism, an increase in oil recovery therefore...

  5. REMEDIATION OF LEON WATER FLOOD, BUTLER COUNTY, KANSAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Korphage; Kelly Kindscher; Bruce G. Langhus

    2001-11-26

    The Leon Water Flood site has undergone one season of soil amendments and growth of specialized plants meant to colonize and accelerate the remediation of the salt-impacted site. The researchers characterized the impacted soil as to chemistry, added soil amendments, and planted several species of seedlings, and seeded the scarred areas. After the first growing season, the surface soil was again characterized and groundcover was also characterized. While plant growth was quite meager across the area, soil chemistry did improve over most of the two scars.

  6. Fate of arsenite and arsenate in flooded and not flooded soils of southwest Bangladesh irrigated with arsenic contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maria; Violante, Antonio; Barberis, Elisabetta

    2007-10-01

    In Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, tons of arsenic are added every year to wide extensions of agricultural soils after irrigation with arsenic polluted groundwater, and the fate of the added arsenic in these water-soil environments is not yet clear. This work was aimed to investigate the accumulation and potential release of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in two adjacent soils of Bangladesh, irrigated with arsenic contaminated groundwater and cultivated under flooded or not flooded conditions. Both soils showed a scarce As accumulation, in spite of a good adsorption capacity, higher for As(III) than for As(V). The poorly ordered Fe oxides dominated As adsorption in the topsoil of the flooded soil, whereas the crystalline forms were more important in the well aerated soil. A high percentage of the native arsenic was exchangeable with phosphate and the freshly added arsenate or arsenite were even much more mobile. In our experimental conditions, the high As mobility was not dependent on the surface coverage, and, in the flooded soil, 60-70% of the freshly added arsenite or arsenate were desorbed with an infinite sink method, while in the not flooded soil arsenate was less desorbed than arsenite. Depending on their characteristics, some soils, in particular when cultivated under flooded conditions, can represent only a temporary sink for the added As, that can be easily released to waters and possibly enter the food chain from the water-soil system.

  7. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are

  8. Treatment by water flooding of aquifers contaminated by halogenated solvents; Saneamiento mediante water flooding de acuiferos contaminados por disolventes halogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Flores, A.

    2004-07-01

    The treatment of PCE, TCE and DCE contaminated ground water by water flooding and the application to an industrial facility located near of Barcelona, are described in this publications. The installed system comprises three extraction wells located over the edge of contaminant plume, two reinjection wells located near the hypothetic contaminant focus, and a superficial treatment system of contaminated ground water by Air-Stripping (flow rate: 1m''3/h). The modeling of contaminant transport by codes BIOCHOLOR shows the importance of biodegradation process in the mobilization of different contaminants, calculating the disappearance of PCE; TCE and DCE by biodegradation in 61.9%, 64,1% and 72,3% respectively, of total mobilizated mass on a 15 years period. Moreover, modeling allowed the effectiveness of the treatment, indicating a decrease of contaminant concentration of 79.1% , 36.9% and 63.0% for PCE, TCE and DCE. (Author) 19 refs.

  9. Seasonal fractal-scaling of floods in two U.S. water resources regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, M. H.; Rezakhani, A. T.; Shamsai, A.

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the behavior and estimating the magnitude of floods with specific recurrence intervals are important tasks for various applications such as flood protection strategies. Fractal analysis has proven useful in characterization of flood frequency behavior. We employ a systematic fractal approach which enables dividing streamflow data into different behavior regimes and, in particular, identifying flood regimes. Since seasonality is a key factor in flood-formation scenarios, we incorporate this concept in our analysis through generating two separate streamflow data sets for summer and winter, and next performing associated fractal analysis on each. To illustrate our approach and see how it enhances our flood-magnitude estimations, we study a large number of watersheds chosen from two adjacent water resources regions in the United States. Besides improving flood-magnitude estimates, this seasonal fractal analysis can suggest patterns through which one may obtain more fine-grained information about regional behavior of floods.

  10. Continental Shelf Freshwater Water Resources and Enhanced Oil Recovery By Low Salinity Water Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Morrow, N.; Wilson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the prospects of utilizing offshore freshwater in continental shelf oil production. Petroleum engineers have recently shown that tertiary water floods using freshwater can enhance oil recovery by as much as 18% (Morrow and Buckley, 2011). Hydrogeologists recently estimated that up to 5x105 km3of fresh to brackish water are sequestered in shallow ( world (Post et al., 2013). Most of the offshore freshwater was emplaced during the Pleistocene during periods of sea level low stands and when ice sheets over ran passive margins at high latitudes. We have analyzed a series of continental shelf cross sections from around the world estimating the average freshwater volume emplaced with distance offshore. We compare the distribution of fresh-brackish water with distance from the coastline to oil platform locations in order to assess the economic viability of this energy-water nexus. We also discuss a project that is currently underway within the North Sea (Clair Ridge) to field validate this concept. We present a series of variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport simulations that are intended to assess how long freshwater resources could be produced in an offshore environment using horizontal drilling technologies before seawater invades the well. We considered a 100m thick freshwater reservoir sandwiched between two 200-300m thick confining units. We pumped the horizontal well at a rate of 5.4 m3/day (1 gpm per meter of well). The resulting drawdown was less than 5 m at the well head (r=0.15 m). For a 1000 m long horizontal well, this resulted in the production of 5455 m3/day of fresh water (over 34,000 barrels per day). Concentrations increased at the wellhead by about 5000 mg/l after 20 years of continuous pumping using a reservoir permeability of 10-13 m2. This simulation demonstrates that where freshwater is available it is likely that it can be produced in commercially viable quantities to support tertiary water floods.

  11. Jakarta Under Water: The 2007 Flood and The Debate On Jakarta’s Future Water Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Mohsin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the debate in the wake of the 2007 flood in Jakarta, the biggest one to occur in the city’s history. By analyzing textual sources both online and in the archives as well as interviews with several actors in the debate, I demonstrate that a new sociopolitical condition in Indonesia facilitated a vibrant discourse in the wake of a so-called “natural disaster.” In a democratizing society such as Indonesia, state actors no longer monopolized the social production of a “risk object” or a source of danger or harm. I show that the Indonesian public, who participated in the debate, shaped “networks of risk objects” either by “emplacing” a risk object (i.e. defining an entity as an object and linking it to a potential harm or by “displacing” it (i.e. challenging the existence of a risky object or delinking it from a putative danger (Hilgartner 1992. These non-state actors managed to insert themselves into a sphere once dominated by the technocrats, in large part because the press was no longer controlled by the state. In doing so they exposed the messiness and vulnerability of the city’s water management system. The “risk objects” they identified run the whole gamut of entities that make up the entire Jakarta’s water management sociotechnical system, which includes water technologies, laws, practices, institutions, conditions, policies, and the environment.

  12. Legal instruments of the protection from waters (floods and droughts and of the protection of waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes the Serbian law, the laws of several European countries (Germany, France, Austria, Hungary and Croatia and European Union rules in respect of the protection from harmful effects of waters, such as floods, erosion, torrents, icing on the surface of waters, just as well as the rules on diverting of water from a territory where it is in surplus, on the one hand, or directing it from the territory where it is in surplus to the one with water shortage (amelioration, on the other. The subject of analysis is the instruments of water management in the function of protection from high-water, too, such as the long and short term planning of protection from floods, measures necessary to prevent them and elimination of their effects. The maintenance of required water regime is also considered as an instrument of protection from high-water, especially the construction and upkeep of facilities for protection from floods. Facilities for utilization of water resources, such as roads and bridges, should be constructed in accordance with environmental permits, at the level well above the high water level measured in a longer period of time.

  13. Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

  14. Hydrologic Modeling and Flood Frequency Analysis for Ordinary High Water Mark Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 2 Wetland Regulatory Assistance Program (WRAP) Hydrologic Modeling and Flood Frequency Analysis for Ordinary...Program (WRAP) ERDC/CRREL TR-16-2 February 2016 Hydrologic Modeling and Flood Frequency Analysis for Ordinary High Water Mark Delineation John...Abstract This document explores hydrologic modeling and flood frequency analysis for ordinary high water mark (OHWM) delineation performed for Clean

  15. Modeling Flood & Drought Scenario for Water Management in Porali River Basin, Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent history shows that floods have become a frequently occurring disaster in Balochistan, especially during monsoon season. Two rivers, river Porali and river Kud overflows, inundating its banks and causing destruction to cultivated land and property. This study is an attempt to identify flood prone areas of Porali river basin for future flood scenario and propose possible reservoir locations for excess flood water storage. Computer-based models Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF and HEC-river analysis system (HEC-RAS are used as tools to simulate existing and future flood and drought scenarios. Models are calibrated and validated using data from 3 weather stations, namely Wadh, Bela, and Uthal and stream flow data from two gauging stations. The highest and the lowest 10 years of precipitation data are extracted, from historic dataset of all stations, to attain future flooding and drought scenarios, respectively. Flood inundation map is generated highlighting agricultural prone land and settlements of the watershed. Using Digital Elevation Model (DEM and volume of water calculated from the flood scenario, possible locations for reservoirs are marked that can store excess water for the use in drought years. Flow and volume of water has also been simulated for drought scenario. Analyses show that 3 × 109 m3 of water available due to immense flooding that is sufficient for the survival for one drought year, as the volume of water for latter scenario is 2.9 × 108m3.

  16. Controlling flooding and water pollution with upland and streamside vegetation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dosskey

    2003-01-01

    Substantial research and development effort in the U.S. is being spent on developing strategies that address flooding and water pollution problems in agricultural areas. Concerns have been raised about the costs of flood damage, degradation of productive farm land, and declining water quality that are now recognized as unintended consequences of intensive, high-yield...

  17. Role of rock surface charge in the carbonated water flooding process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peksa, A.E.; Zitha, P.L.J.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonated Water Flooding (CWF) is an alternative EOR method where an oil reservoir is flooded with carbonated (CO2-enriched) water. It is a promising solution for improving oil recovery that benefits from oil viscosity reduction, an increase in oil relative permeability and enhancement of oil

  18. Introducing non-flooded crops in rice-dominated landscapes: Impact on carbon, nitrogen and water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauker, Frank; Wassmann, Reiner; Amelung, Wulf; Breuer, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Conrad, Ralf; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Goldbach, Heiner; He, Yao; John, Katharina; Kiese, Ralf; Kraus, David; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Siemens, Jan; Weller, Sebastian; Wolters, Volkmar

    2013-04-01

    Rice production consumes about 30% of all freshwater used worldwide and 45% in Asia. Turning away from permanently flooded rice cropping systems for mitigating future water scarcity and reducing methane emissions, however, will alter a variety of ecosystem services with potential adverse effects to both the environment and agricultural production. Moreover, implementing systems that alternate between flooded and non-flooded crops increases the risk of disruptive effects. The multi-disciplinary DFG research unit ICON aims at exploring and quantifying the ecological consequences of altered water regimes (flooded vs. non-flooded), crop diversification (irrigated rice vs. aerobic rice vs. maize), and different fertilization strategies (conventional, site-specific, and zero N fertilization). ICON particularly focuses on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen, green-house gas (GHG) emissions, water balance, soil biotic processes and other important ecosystem services. The overarching goal is to provide the basic process understanding that is necessary for balancing the revenues and environmental impacts of high-yield rice cropping systems while maintaining their vital ecosystem services. To this aim, a large-scale field experiment has been established at the experimental farm of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, Philippines). Ultimately, the experimental results are analyzed in the context of management scenarios by an integrated modeling of crop development (ORYZA), carbon and nitrogen cycling (MoBiLE-DNDC), and water fluxes (CMF), providing the basis for developing pathways to a conversion of rice-based systems towards higher yield potentials under minimized environmental impacts. In our presentation, we demonstrate the set-up of the controlled large-scale field experiment for simultaneous assessment of carbon and nitrogen fluxes and water budgets. We show and discuss first results for: - Quantification and assessment of the net-fluxes of CH4

  19. Big Muddy Field Low-Tension Flood Demonstration Project. Sixth annual report, April 1983-March 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The Big Muddy low-tension flood is a commercial-size demonstration project consisting of nine 10-acre injection patterns in the heart of the Big Muddy Oil Field located 15 miles east of Casper, Wyoming. The main goal of the project is to provide data for commercialization of the process for the Big Muddy Field and similar Wyoming and Colorado fields. Other objectives are discussed in previous annual reports. This report discusses the project performance during the polymer drive phase with emphasis on the analyses of oil cut, pattern balance, and early tracer response. The oil rate increased only slightly during 1983 and began to flatten near year-end at about 210 barrels per day or 12% of the injection rate. The injection rate was increased in late 1982 and early 1983 but simply resulted in a net input (influx plus injection) greater than production with only slight improvement in oil rate. In fact, the imbalance is suspected of contributing to the early flattening in oil production. Though the project oil rate flattened, an increased cut was observed in the north row of wells, indicating an oil response to slug injection in all wells except Well 54. Also during 1983, the polymer drive volume increased to about 10% of pore volume or to the midpoint of the polymer drive. Tracer and slug components have still appeared in only a few wells, even after 20% pore volume injection. Oil treating was becoming more troublesome but was relieved when the new treating facility was put into use. 5 references, 91 figures, 7 tables.

  20. Decision Making Support System (DMSS) For Water Resources And Flood Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful Ridwan Radzi, Mohd

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a significant issue in low-lying parts of the catchment in Malaysia, leading to flood damage & disruption in major storm events. Recognising the potential to reduce damage, the decision making support system (DMSS) has been developed to optimise the operation of the water resources assets to both maximise the effectiveness of flood control & maximize the availability of water for public supply & irrigation demand under drought conditions. DMSS functions as to reduce human error during critical times. The tools optimized rules for barrage, sluice gates, pumping station & dams. Its provide priority for flood zone protection & fuzzy logic supervisory control for all equipment.

  1. Coupled modelling of subsurface water flux for an integrated flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sommer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Flood events cause significant damage not only on the surface but also underground. Infiltration of surface water into soil, flooding through the urban sewer system and, in consequence, rising groundwater are the main causes of subsurface damage. The modelling of flooding events is an important part of flood risk assessment. The processes of subsurface discharge of infiltrated water necessitate coupled modelling tools of both, surface and subsurface water fluxes. Therefore, codes for surface flooding, for discharge in the sewerage system and for groundwater flow were coupled with each other. A coupling software was used to amalgamate the individual programs in terms of mapping between the different model geometries, time synchronization and data exchange. The coupling of the models was realized on two scales in the Saxon capital of Dresden (Germany. As a result of the coupled modelling it could be shown that surface flooding dominates processes of any flood event. Compared to flood simulations without coupled modelling no substantial changes of the surface inundation area could be determined. Regarding sewerage, the comparison between the influx of groundwater into sewerage and the loading due to infiltration by flood water showed infiltration of surface flood water to be the main reason for sewerage overloading. Concurrent rainfalls can intensify the problem. The infiltration of the sewerage system by rising groundwater contributes only marginally to the loading of the sewerage and the distribution of water by sewerage has only local impacts on groundwater rise. However, the localization of risk areas due to rising groundwater requires the consideration of all components of the subsurface water fluxes. The coupled modelling has shown that high groundwater levels are the result of a multi-causal process that occurs before and during the flood event.

  2. 76 FR 39091 - San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of... for a Conduit Hydroelectric Project \\1\\ to the San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation...\\ San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District, 17 FERC ] 62,113 (1981). On October...

  3. Quantification of the recovered oil and water fractions during water flooding laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    During core flooding experiments where water is injected in residual oil saturated core plugs, the fluids are often produced in small amounts. Oil and water come out of the core and are collected in glass vials using a fraction collector. Quantification of these fluids is often difficult since th...... the volume might be less than a few microliters. In this study, we approach the determination of the oil volumes in flooding effluents using predetermined amounts of the North Sea oil with synthetic seawater. The UV/visible spectroscopy method and low-field NMR spectrometry are compared...... for this determination, and an account of advantages and disadvantages of each method is given. Both methods are reproducible with high accuracy. The NMR method was capable of direct quantification of both oil and water fractions, while the UV/visible spectroscopy quantifies only the oil fraction using a standard curve....

  4. Integrated water resource and flood risk management: comparing the US and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra-Llobet Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Floods are the most important natural hazard in the EU and US, causing 700 deaths and at least €25 billion in insured economic losses in Europe since 1998, and causing nearly $10 billion annual average flood losses in the US. Flood control is commonly viewed as a matter of building dykes, dams, and other structures, but effective flood management within the perspective of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM must address multiple components of the flood risk management cycle (Figure 1. We systematically reviewed governance structures, guidance documents, and mapping products in both the EU and US, drawing particular examples from California and Spain, to determine how the US and the EU approach the flood risk management within different IWRM initiatives, which strategies and agencies are involved in the different phases –characterization (flood hazard and risk assessment and mapping, mitigation (prevention and protection, emergency (preparation and response, and (short and long term recovery-, and how these agencies relate to each other. The regions have strong similarities in economy and environmental values, but have evolved very different approaches to cope with floods. The US and EU have similar organizational structures, but very different legislative frameworks. In the US overarching policy and large scale infrastructure funding have traditionally resided at the federal level with state and local agencies exercising strong land use control. EU member states have arguably advanced ahead of the US in some significant ways since adoption of the EU Floods Directive in 2007, a more top-down approach. Among the Directive’s many components, one important requirement is submission of flood risk management plans (by the end of 2015, which, for first time, take into account all phases of flood management. This umbrella strategy to cope with floods is creating a more consistent and integrated flood risk management approach in Europe. In

  5. Classification and assessment of water bodies as adaptive structural measures for flood risk management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, William R; Yang, Qinli; Scholz, Miklas

    2010-09-01

    Severe rainfall events have become increasingly common in Europe. Flood defence engineering works are highly capital intensive and can be limited by land availability, leaving land and communities exposed to repeated flooding. Any adaptive drainage structure must have engineered inlets and outlets that control the water level and the rate of release. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of drinking water reservoirs (operated by Scottish Water), which fall within this defined category and could contribute to flood management control. Reducing the rate of runoff from the upper reaches of a catchment will reduce the volume and peak flows of flood events downstream, thus allowing flood defences to be reduced in size, decreasing the corresponding capital costs. A database of retention basins with flood control potential has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could reduce the costs of complying with the EU Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders.

  6. Links Between Flood Frequency and Annual Water Balance Behaviors: A Basis for Similarity and Regionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiali; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-03-28

    This paper presents the results of a data based comparative study of several hundred catchments across continental United States belonging to the MOPEX dataset, which systematically explored the connection between the flood frequency curve and measures of mean annual water balance. Two different measures of mean annual water balance are used: (i) a climatic aridity index, AI, which is a measure of the competition between water and energy availability at the annual scale; and, (ii) baseflow index, BFI, the ratio of slow runoff to total runoff also at the annual time scale, reflecting the role of geology, soils, topography and vegetation. The data analyses showed that the aridity index, AI, has a first order control on both the mean and Cv of annual maximum floods. While mean annual flood decreases with increasing aridity, Cv increases with increasing aridity. BFI appeared to be a second order control on the magnitude and shape of the flood frequency curve. Higher BFI, meaning more subsurface flow and less surface flow leads to a decrease of mean annual flood whereas lower BFI leads to accumulation of soil moisture and increased flood magnitudes that arise from many events acting together. The results presented in this paper provide innovative means to delineate homogeneous regions within which the flood frequency curves can be assumed to be functionally similar. At another level, understanding the connection between annual water balance and flood frequency will be another building block towards developing comprehensive understanding of catchment runoff behavior in a holistic way.

  7. Numerical studies on liquid water flooding in gas channels used inpolymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, CZ.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Rensink, D.

    2012-01-01

    Water management plays an important role in the development of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The lack of a macroscopic gas channel (GC) flooding model constrains the current predictions of PEFC modeling under severe flooding situations. In this work, we have extended our pr

  8. Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

  9. Using Water Clover to Demonstrate Sexual Reproduction in Ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Wilbur J.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures are described for preparing spores from the fern, water clover, for an educational demonstration of germination and sexual reproduction. The demonstration is recommended for biology instructors who want to illustrate the alternation of phases in plants. (SA)

  10. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  11. Phosphorus Mobilization from Manure-Amended and Unamended Alkaline Soils to Overlying Water during Simulated Flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarawansha, E A G S; Kumaragamage, D; Flaten, D; Zvomuya, F; Tenuta, M

    2015-07-01

    Anaerobic soil conditions resulting from flooding often enhance release of phosphorus (P) to overlying water. Enhanced P release is well documented for flooded acidic soils; however, there is little information for flooded alkaline soils. We examined the effect of flooding and anaerobic conditions on P mobilization using 12 alkaline soils from Manitoba that were either unamended or amended with solid cattle manure. Pore water and floodwater were analyzed over 8 wk of simulated flooding for dissolved reactive P (DRP), Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. As expected, manured soils had significantly greater pore and floodwater DRP concentrations than unamended. Flooding increased pore water DRP concentrations significantly in all soils and treatments except one manured clay in which concentrations increased initially and then decreased. Floodwater DRP concentrations increased significantly by two- to 15-fold in 10 soils regardless of amendment treatment but remained relatively stable in the two soils with greatest clay content. Phosphorus release at the onset of flooding was associated with the release of Ca, Mg, and Mn, suggesting that P release may be controlled by the dissolution of Mg and Ca phosphates and reductive dissolution of Mn phosphates. Thereafter, P release was associated with release of Fe, suggesting the reductive dissolution of Fe phosphates. Differences in pore water and floodwater DRP concentrations among soils and amendment treatments and the high variability in P mobilization from pore water to floodwater among soils indicate the need to further investigate chemical reactions responsible for P release and mobility under anaerobic conditions.

  12. Design and field test equipment of river water level detection based on ultrasonic sensor and SMS gateway as flood early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Riny; Sujono, Hari Agus; Musthofa, Ahmad Khamdi

    2017-06-01

    Due to the high rainfall, flood often occurs in some regions, especially in the area adjacent to the river banks that led to the idea to make the river water level detection system as a flood early warning. Several researches have produced flood detection equipment based on ultrasonic sensors and android as flood early warning system. This paper reported the results of a field test detection equipment to measure the river water level of the Bengawansolo River that was conducted in three villages in the district of Bungah, Dukun, and Manyar in Gresik regency. Tests were conducted simultaneously for 21 hours during heavy rainfall. The test results demonstrated the accuracy of the equipment of 97.28% for all categories of observation. The application of AFD (Android Flood Detection) via android smartphone demonstrated its precision in conveying the information of water level as represented by the status of SAFE, STAND, WARNING, and DANGER. Some charts presented from the analysis of data was derived from the data acquisition time of testing that can be used as an evaluation of flooding at some points prone to flood.

  13. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  14. Oil Palm and Rubber Tree Water Use Patterns: Effects of Topography and Flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardanto, Afik; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Meijide, Ana; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm and rubber plantations extend over large areas and encompass heterogeneous site conditions. In periods of high rainfall, plants in valleys and at riparian sites are more prone to flooding than plants at elevated topographic positions. We asked to what extent topographic position and flooding affect oil palm and rubber tree water use patterns and thereby influence spatial and temporal heterogeneity of transpiration. In an undulating terrain in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia, plantations of the two species were studied in plot pairs consisting of upland and adjacent valley plots. All upland plots were non-flooded, whereas the corresponding valley plots included non-flooded, long-term flooded, and short-term flooded conditions. Within each plot pair, sap flux densities in palms or trees were monitored simultaneously with thermal dissipation probes. In plot pairs with non-flooded valleys, sap flux densities of oil palms were only slightly different between the topographic positions, whereas sap flux densities of rubber trees were higher in the valley than at the according upland site. In pairs with long-term flooded valleys, sap flux densities in valleys were lower than at upland plots for both species, but the reduction was far less pronounced in oil palms than in rubber trees (-22 and -45% in maximum sap flux density, respectively). At these long-term flooded valley plots palm and tree water use also responded less sensitively to fluctuations in micrometeorological variables than at upland plots. In short-term flooded valley plots, sap flux densities of oil palm were hardly affected by flooding, but sap flux densities of rubber trees were reduced considerably. Topographic position and flooding thus affected water use patterns in both oil palms and rubber trees, but the changes in rubber trees were much more pronounced: compared to non-flooded upland sites, the different flooding conditions at valley sites amplified the observed heterogeneity of plot mean

  15. Flood frequency matters: Why climate change degrades deep-water quality of peri-alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Wessels, Martin; Wüest, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    Sediment-laden riverine floods transport large quantities of dissolved oxygen into the receiving deep layers of lakes. Hence, the water quality of deep lakes is strongly influenced by the frequency of riverine floods. Although flood frequency reflects climate conditions, the effects of climate variability on the water quality of deep lakes is largely unknown. We quantified the effects of climate variability on the potential shifts in the flood regime of the Alpine Rhine, the main catchment of Lake Constance, and determined the intrusion depths of riverine density-driven underflows and the subsequent effects on water exchange rates in the lake. A simplified hydrodynamic underflow model was developed and validated with observed river inflow and underflow events. The model was implemented to estimate underflow statistics for different river inflow scenarios. Using this approach, we integrated present and possible future flood frequencies to underflow occurrences and intrusion depths in Lake Constance. The results indicate that more floods will increase the number of underflows and the intensity of deep-water renewal - and consequently will cause higher deep-water dissolved oxygen concentrations. Vice versa, fewer floods weaken deep-water renewal and lead to lower deep-water dissolved oxygen concentrations. Meanwhile, a change from glacial nival regime (present) to a nival pluvial regime (future) is expected to decrease deep-water renewal. While flood frequencies are not expected to change noticeably for the next decades, it is most likely that increased winter discharge and decreased summer discharge will reduce the number of deep density-driven underflows by 10% and favour shallower riverine interflows in the upper hypolimnion. The renewal in the deepest layers is expected to be reduced by nearly 27%. This study underlines potential consequences of climate change on the occurrence of deep river underflows and water residence times in deep lakes.

  16. Ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems with flooded evaporators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Sieres, Jaime [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No. 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    The harmful effects of water accumulation in the evaporator in ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems (AARS) with flooded evaporators are a crucial issue. In this paper, the effects of the ammonia purification and the liquid entrainment and blow-down from the evaporator in AARS are analyzed. A mathematical model based on a single stage system with complete condensation has been developed. The ammonia purification is evaluated by means of the Murphree efficiencies of the stripping and rectifying sections of the distillation column. The entrainment and blow-down are taking into account considering the corresponding flow rates as a fraction of the dry vapour at the evaporator outlet. The influence of the distillation column components efficiency on the attainable distillate concentration and the effects of the distillate concentration and the liquid entrainment and blow-down on the system operating conditions and performance are analyzed and quantified. If no liquid entrainment or blow-down is considered, very high efficiencies in the distillation column are required. Small values of liquid entrainment or blow-down fractions increase significantly the operating range of the absorption system. If high values of the blow-down fraction are required, then a heat exchanger should be added to the system in order to recover the refrigeration capacity of the blow-down by additional subcooling of the liquid from the condenser. For a fixed value of the distillation column efficiency, an optimum value of the liquid blow-down fraction exists. Moreover, an optimum combination of generation temperature, reflux ratio and blow-down fraction can be found, which should be considered in designing and controlling an AARS. (author)

  17. East Valley Water District: Public Assistance Worksheets for Damage from 2010 Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Valley Water District (EVWD) in San Bernardino, California had significant damage due to flooding in December 2010. There was a presidentially-declared disaster. EVWD applied to FEMA under the Public Assistance Grant Program.

  18. Monitoring of human enteric viruses and coliform bacteria in waters after urban flood in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanuwan, C; Takizawa, S; Oguma, K; Katayama, H; Yunika, A; Ohgaki, S

    2006-01-01

    Floodwaters in Kampung Melayu village, Jakarta, Indonesia, as well as river water and consumable water (including groundwater and tap water) samples in flooded and non-flooded areas, were quantitatively analysed to assess occurrence of viruses and total coliforms and E. coli as bacterial indicators after flooding event. High numbers of enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, norovirus (G1, G2) and adenovirus were detected at high concentration in floodwaters and waters sampled from Ciliwung River which runs across metropolitan Jakarta and is used widely for agriculture and domestic purposes by poor residents. One out of three groundwater wells in the flooded area was contaminated with all viruses tested while no viruses were found in groundwater samples in non-flooded areas and tap water samples. The results revealed that human enteric viruses, especially hepatitis A virus and adenovirus, were prevalent in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study suggested that flooding posed a higher risk of viral infection to the people through contamination of drinking water sources or direct contact with floodwaters.

  19. Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water

  20. Big Muddy Field Low-Tension Flood Demonstration Project. Third annual report, April 1980-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.G.; Ferrell, H.H.; Stewart, W.C.

    1981-11-01

    Objectives of the project are: evaluate a commercial-scale field test using cost-optimized chemical slug size and composition; field test a surfactant system which could be made available in commercial quantities; demonstrate oil recovery effectiveness in multiple patterns; and demonstrate the feasibility of applying a low-tension process to low-permeability sands by using propped fractures in injection and producing wells. The first annual report dealt primarily with drilling, formation evaluation, and preliminary plant design. The second annual report emphasized plant construction and completion of laboratory work to specify the chemicals needed for the project. This report discusses the project operation during the preflush and problems arising during start-up of chemical injection. The most significant operating problem during the preflush was failure of the monel filter screens due to chlorine attack. The monel screens were replaced with polyester cloth screens. The cloth screens worked very well filtering the preflush water. After a short term test in which the 200-square-foot filter showed that the cloth screens would also filter the polymer, polyester cloth screens were ordered as replacement screens for the 800-square-foot product filter. All of the construction and installation necessary for the chemical phase handling and blending were completed, individual components were checked out, and the low-tension slug injection was scheduled to begin the latter half of January. In spite of the preparation, low-tension slug injection has been delayed because of continued faulty filter operation. The exact cause of the erratic filter operation is still being evaluated.

  1. Microbial risks associated with exposure to pathogens in contaminated urban flood water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R; Sterk, G; Berends, B R

    2010-05-01

    Urban flood incidents induced by heavy rainfall in many cases entail flooding of combined sewer systems. These flood waters are likely to be contaminated and may pose potential health risks to citizens exposed to pathogens in these waters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbial risk associated with sewer flooding incidents. Concentrations of Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci and Campylobacter were measured in samples from 3 sewer flooding incidents. The results indicate faecal contamination: faecal indicator organism concentrations were similar to those found in crude sewage under high-flow conditions and Campylobacter was detected in all samples. Due to infrequent occurrence of such incidents only a small number of samples could be collected; additional data were collected from controlled flooding experiments and analyses of samples from combined sewers. The results were used for a screening-level quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). Calculated annual risks values vary from 5 x 10(-6) for Cryptosporidium assuming a low exposure scenario to 0.03 for Giardia assuming a high exposure scenario. The results of this screening-level risk assessment justify further research and data collection to allow more reliable quantitative assessment of health risks related to contaminated urban flood waters.

  2. 2-D NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOODING EFFECTS CAUSED BY SOUTH-TO-NORTH WATER TRANSFER PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dong-po; XUE Hai; WANG Peng-tao; LU Rui-li; LIAO Xiao- long

    2008-01-01

    Since the General Channel designed for the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China has to cross many rivers and streams flowing from west to east, there are potentially serious effects additional flooding on the westem side of the project alignment. Therefore, a 2-D numerical model for forecasting basin flood disasters was established and verified using historical flood data. The model was applied to researching the interaction between the proposed Project and flooding events for 5 streams in the Anyang River reach as a representative case study. Simulated results indicate that the model could correctly forecast the flood, submerged area and depths, and water surface elevations along the left side of the channel. The discharge capacity and location of hydraulic structures in the transfer canal alignment were analyzed. Then adjustments to the dimensions and positioning of proposed hydraulic structures were recommended at intersections, especially the addition of a channel to transfer flood water from one stream to another, which can effectively limit the sluice and protect the Anyang City from flooding.

  3. Characteristics of remaining oil viscosity in water-and polymer-flooding reservoirs in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of 21 crude oil samples shows a good correlation between high molecular-weight hydrocarbon components (C 40+) and viscosity.Forty-four remaining oil samples extracted from oil sands of oilfield development coring wells were analyzed by high-temperature gas chromatography (HTGC),for the relative abundance of C 21-,C 21-C 40 and C 40+ hydrocarbons.The relationship between viscosity of crude oil and C 40+ (%) hydrocarbons abundance is used to expect the viscosity of remaining oil.The mobility characteristics of remaining oil,the properties of remaining oil,and the next displacement methods in reservoirs either water-flooded or polymer-flooded are studied with rock permeability,oil saturation of coring wells,etc.The experimental results show that the hydrocarbons composition,viscosity,and mobility of remaining oil from both polymer-flooding and water-flooding reservoirs are heterogeneous,especially the former.Relative abundance of C 21- and C 21-C 40 hydrocarbons in polymer-flooding reservoirs is lower than that of water-flooding,but with more abundance of C 40+ hydrocarbons.It is then suggested that polymer flooding must have driven more C 40- hydrocarbons out of reservoir,which resulted in relatively enriched C 40+,more viscous oils,and poorer mobility.Remaining oil in water-flooding reservoirs is dominated by moderate viscosity oil with some low viscosity oil,while polymer-flooding mainly contained moderate viscosity oil with some high viscosity oil.In each oilfield and reservoir,displacement methods of remaining oil,viscosity,and concentration by polymer-solution can be adjusted by current viscosity of remaining oil and mobility ratio in a favorable range.A new basis and methods are suggested for the further development and enhanced oil recovery of remaining oil.

  4. Much Improved Water Use Efficiency of Rice under Non-Flooded Mulching Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Water shortage is increasingly limiting the luxury use of water in rice cultivation. In this study, non-flooded mulching cultivation of rice only consumed a fraction of the water that was needed for traditional flooded cultivation and largely maintained the grain yield. We also investigated the growth and development of rice plants and examined grain yield formation when rice was subjected to non-flooded mulching cultivation. One indica hybrid rice combination was grown in a field experiment and three cultivation methods, traditional flooding (TF), non-flooded straw mulching cultivation (SM) and non-flooded plastic mulching cultivation (PM), were conducted during the whole season. Grain yield showed that there was no significant difference between SM and TF rice, but the grain yield of SM cultivation was significantly higher than that of PM. The tiller numbers were inhibited in the early stage under non-flooded mulching cultivation, but the situation was reversed at the later period. Both SM and PM rice reduced dry matter accumulation of shoot, but increased root dry weight,enhanced the remobilization of assimilates from stems to grains and increased the harvest index. During the middle and later grain filling period, mulched plants showed a faster decrease in chlorophyll concentrations, photosynthetic rates of flag leaves and root activity than TF rice, indicating that non-flooded mulching cultivation enhanced plant senescence. In comparison, SM treatment produced higher grain yield and, more dry matter accumulation and panicle numbers than the PM treatment. The overall results suggest that high yield of non-flooded mulching cultivation of rice can be achieved with much improved irrigational water use efficiency.

  5. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are discusse

  6. Effects of water-damaged homes after flooding: health status of the residents and the environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Hasegawa, Kenichi; Osawa, Haruki

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the health status of residents and the environmental risk factors of housing after flooding. Questionnaires were distributed to 595 selected households (one adult resident per household) in six areas in Japan which were severely flooded between 2004 and 2010. A total of 379 responses were obtained. Indoor dampness and visible mold growth significantly increased in homes with greater flood damage. The incidence of respiratory, dermal, ocular, and nasal symptoms one week after flooding was significantly higher in flooded homes compared with non-flooded homes, the incidence of psychological disorders was significantly high for six months after flooding, and the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly high six months after flooding. Significant risk factors for respiratory and nasal symptoms included proximity to industrial and waste incineration plants. Our results suggest that rapid action should be taken after flooding to ensure adequate public health and environmental hygiene in the water-damaged homes.

  7. Irrelevant water-management scales for flood prevention, water harvesting and eutrophication control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jafet; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    This poster will give three examples of popular water-management methods, which we discovered had very little effect in practice because they were applied on irrelevant scales. They all use small scale solutions to large scale problems, and did not provide expected results due to neglecting the magnitude of components in the large-scale water budget. 1) Flood prevention: ponds are considered to be able to buffer water discharge in catchments and was suggested as a measure to reduce the 20-years return floods in an exposed areas in Sweden. However, when experimenting with several ponds allocation and size in a computational model, we found out that ponds had to cover 5-10% of the catchment to convert the 20-yr flood into an average flood. Most effective was to allocate one single water body at the catchment outlet, but this would correspond to 95 km2 which is by far too big to be called a pond. 2) Water Harvesting: At small-scale it is designed to increase water availability and agricultural productivity in smallholder agriculture. On field scale, we show that water harvesting decreases runoff by 55% on average in 62 investigated field-scale trials of drainage area ≤ 1ha in sub-Saharan Africa (Andersson et al., 2011). When upscaling, to river basin scale in South Africa (8-1.8×106 km2), using a scenario approach and the SWAT hydrological model we found that all smallholder fields would not significantly alter downstream river discharge (effect on low flows). It shows some potential to increase crop yields but only in some water-scarce areas and conditioned on sufficient fertilizers being available (Andersson et al., 2013). 3) Eutrophication control: Constructed wetlands are supposed to remove nutrients from surface water and therefore 1,574 wetlands were constructed in southern Sweden during the years 1996-2006 as a measure to reduce coastal eutrophication. From our detailed calculations, the gross removal was estimated at 140 tonnes Nitrogen per year and 12

  8. Spatial-Temporal dynamics of surface water flooding and consequences for emergency services accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Green, Daniel; Yu, Dapeng; Bosher, Lee; Wilby, Rob; Yang, Lili; Ryley, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas are increasingly susceptible to surface water flooding, with more intense precipitation and intensification of land development. Flooding has both direct impacts i.e. locations inundated with water, and indirect impacts i.e. transport networks, utility e.g. electricity/water services etc. The direct areas flooded evolve in space through the event, and are predicted by standard inundation models. However, the wider indirect impacts and the spatial-temporal patterns are less constrained and it is these that are needed to manage the impacts in real-time. This paper focusses on the Category One responders of the Fire and Rescue and Ambulance Services in the City of Leicester, East Midlands, UK. Leicester is ranked 16th out of 4215 settlements at risk of surface water flooding in the UK based upon the population at risk (15,200 people) (DEFRA, 2009). The analysis undertaken involved overlaying the flood extent with the Integrated Transport Network (ITN) data within a GIS framework. Then a simple transport routing algorithm was used to predict the travel time from specific nodes representing ambulance or fire stations to different parts of the city. Flood magnitudes with 1:20, 1:100 and 1:1000 return periods have been investigated. Under a scenario of no flooding, 100% of the city is accessible by the six fire stations in the city. However, in the 1 in 20 year surface water flood event the peak inundation results in 66.5% being accessible in the 10 minute permitted time and 6% is totally inaccessible. This falls to 40% and 13% respectively for the 1 in 100 year event. Maps show the area of the city that are accessible by two or more stations within the permitted response time, which shows these areas are the most resilient to surface water flooding. However, it isn't just the peak water depths at every location which impacts accessibility within the city but the spatial-temporal patterns of the inundation. The areas within the 10 minute response time expand

  9. Urban Flood Risk Insurance Models as a Strategy for Proactive Water Management Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciosa, M. C.; Mendiondo, E. M.

    2006-12-01

    To improve the water management through hydrological sciences, novel integration strategies could be underpinned to bridge up both engineering and economics. This is especially significant in developing nations where hydrologic extremes are expressive while the financial resources to mitigate that variability are scarce. One example of this problem is related to floods and their global and regional consequences. Floods mainly cause disasters in terms of human and material losses. In 2002, more than 30% of extreme climatic events occurred worldwide were floods, representing 42% of fatalities and 66% of material losses, mostly related to reactive policies. Throughout the last century, hydrological variability and rapidly growing of urban areas have developed new environmental problems in Brazilian cities, such as inundation occurrences on non-planned river basins. One of the causes of flood impacts is that public funds (national, state or municipal) have barely introduced wise proactive polices to follow up rapidly growing urban areas. Inexistent flood-risk-transfer mechanisms have caused the so-called `flood poverty cycle' due to reactive polices that have been increasing flood losses and, sometimes, became flood disasters. Flood risk management (FRM) is part of pro-active policies to mitigate inundation losses, in order to sustain environmental, social and economic aspects. Concepts and principles of FRM are part of a process that encompasses three phases: (1) preparedness stage, that consists in structural and non-structural actions to prevent and protect potential risk areas, such as early warning systems and scenarios development; (2) control stage, that refers to help actions and protection facilities during the event, and (3) restoration stage, that is related to rebuild affected areas, restore the river dynamics and transfer the socio-economic risks through flood insurances. Flood risk insurances agree to the goals of losses mitigation programs. Their use is

  10. Local Equivalent Water Thickness Determination as a Source of Data for Flood Phenomenon Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryło, Monika; Nastula, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    In the paper a flood phenomenon is analyzed. For this purpose data from GRACE satellites (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) was used. Filtered data presented in a form of millimeters of Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT) was interpolated in places where flood in 2010 had happened (south of Poland). On a basis of graph where time series of EWT were presented, some conclusions were made. For the thesis confirmation meteorological WGHM and hydrological NOAA models were added to the GRACE model.

  11. Evaluating flood potential with GRACE in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodtsova, Tatiana; Molodtsov, Sergey; Kirilenko, Andrei; Zhang, Xiaodong; VanLooy, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Reager and Famiglietti (2009) proposed an index, Reager's Flood Potential Index (RFPI), for early large-scale flood risk monitoring using the Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly (TWSA) product derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We evaluated the efficacy of the RFPI for flood risk assessment over the continental USA using multi-year flood observation data from 2003 to 2012 by the US Geological Survey and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. In general, we found a good agreement between the RFPI flood risks and the observed floods on regional and even local scales. RFPI demonstrated skill in predicting the large-area, long-duration floods, especially during the summer season.

  12. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified.

  13. Bacterial community structure and dissolved organic matter in repeatedly flooded subsurface karst water pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabarova, Tanja; Villiger, Jörg; Morenkov, Oleg; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial diversity, community assembly, and the composition of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) were studied in three temporary subsurface karst pools with different flooding regimes. We tested the hypothesis that microorganisms introduced to the pools during floods faced environmental filtering toward a 'typical' karst water community, and we investigated whether DOM composition was related to floodings and the residence time of water in stagnant pools. As predicted, longer water residence consistently led to a decline of bacterial diversity. The microbial assemblages in the influx water harbored more 'exotic' lineages with large distances to known genotypes, yet these initial communities already appeared to be shaped by selective processes. β-Proteobacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) closely related to microbes from subsurface or surface aquatic environments were mainly responsible for the clustering of samples according to water residence time in the pools. By contrast, several Cytophagaceae and Flavobacteriaceae OTUs were related to different floodings, which were also the main determinants of DOM composition. A subset of compounds distinguishable by molecular mass and O/C content were characteristic for individual floods. Moreover, there was a transformation of DOM in stagnant pools toward smaller and more aromatic compounds, potentially also reflecting microbial utilization. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout Caused by External Flooding Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impact of these factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) project aims to provide insight to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This report focuses, in particular, on the application of a RISMC detailed demonstration case study for an emergent issue using the RAVEN and RELAP-7 tools. This case study looks at the impact of a couple of challenges to a hypothetical pressurized water reactor, including: (1) a power uprate, (2) a potential loss of off-site power followed by the possible loss of all diesel generators (i.e., a station black-out event), (3) and earthquake induces station-blackout, and (4) a potential earthquake induced tsunami flood. The analysis is performed by using a set of codes: a thermal-hydraulic code (RELAP-7), a flooding simulation tool (NEUTRINO) and a stochastic analysis tool (RAVEN) – these are currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  15. Decreasing flood risk perception in Porto Alegre - Brazil and its influence on water resource management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allasia, D. G.; Tassi, R.; Bemfica, D.; Goldenfum, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.

  16. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Today, the potential impact of extremely high floods, which in the last years have become a rather frequent weather-related disaster, is the problem of primary concern. In studies of the potential impact of floods the emphasis is placed first of all on the estimation of possible flood zones and the analysis of the flow regimes in these zones. However, in some cases the hydrochemical parameters related to changes in the chemical composition of water are more important than the hydraulic parameters. It is generally believed that the higher is the flow rate, the more intensive is the process of dissolution, i.e. the lower is the concentration of limiting contaminants in water. However, this statement is valid provided that flooding does not activate new sources of water pollution such as contaminated floodplain water bodies located in the vicinity of water supply systems. Being quite reliable and safe at small and moderate discharges, in the case of extremely high level of river waters they become intensive sources of water pollution, essentially limiting the water consumption schedule for downstream water consumers. It should be noted that compared to the well-studied mechanisms of waste discharge due to failure of hydraulic engineering structures by flood waves, the mechanisms of pollutant washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies by the flood waves is still poorly understood. We analyze the impacts of such weather-related events on the quality of water in the water intake system, taking as an example, the section of the Vyatka River located in the Prikamskaya lowland of the Russian Federation. The risk of river pollution due to washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods is studied by hydrodynamical modeling in the framework of combined approach using one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models are implemented and by in situ measurements. It is shown that during high floods the removal of pollutants from the

  17. Web-based flood database for Colorado, water years 1867 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Jarrett, Robert D.; Krammes, Gary S.; Mommandi, Amanullah

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide a centralized repository of flood information for the State of Colorado, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Transportation, created a Web-based geodatabase for flood information from water years 1867 through 2011 and data for paleofloods occurring in the past 5,000 to 10,000 years. The geodatabase was created using the Environmental Systems Research Institute ArcGIS JavaScript Application Programing Interface 3.2. The database can be accessed at http://cwscpublic2.cr.usgs.gov/projects/coflood/COFloodMap.html. Data on 6,767 flood events at 1,597 individual sites throughout Colorado were compiled to generate the flood database. The data sources of flood information are indirect discharge measurements that were stored in U.S. Geological Survey offices (water years 1867–2011), flood data from indirect discharge measurements referenced in U.S. Geological Survey reports (water years 1884–2011), paleoflood studies from six peer-reviewed journal articles (data on events occurring in the past 5,000 to 10,000 years), and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System peak-discharge database (water years 1883–2010). A number of tests were performed on the flood database to ensure the quality of the data. The Web interface was programmed using the Environmental Systems Research Institute ArcGIS JavaScript Application Programing Interface 3.2, which allows for display, query, georeference, and export of the data in the flood database. The data fields in the flood database used to search and filter the database include hydrologic unit code, U.S. Geological Survey station number, site name, county, drainage area, elevation, data source, date of flood, peak discharge, and field method used to determine discharge. Additional data fields can be viewed and exported, but the data fields described above are the only ones that can be used for queries.

  18. A review of water flooding issues in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Tang, Yanghua; Wang, Zhenwei; Shi, Zheng; Wu, Shaohong; Song, Datong; Zhang, Jianlu; Fatih, Khalid; Zhang, Jiujun; Wang, Haijiang; Liu, Zhongsheng; Abouatallah, Rami; Mazza, Antonio

    We have reviewed more than 100 references that are related to water management in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, with a particular focus on the issue of water flooding, its diagnosis and mitigation. It was found that extensive work has been carried out on the issues of flooding during the last two decades, including prediction through numerical modeling, detection by experimental measurements, and mitigation through the design of cell components and manipulating the operating conditions. Two classes of strategies to mitigate flooding have been developed. The first is based on system design and engineering, which is often accompanied by significant parasitic power loss. The second class is based on membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design and engineering, and involves modifying the material and structural properties of the gas diffusion layer (GDL), cathode catalyst layer (CCL) and membrane to function in the presence of liquid water. In this review, several insightful directions are also suggested for future investigation.

  19. Microbiological evaluation of water during the 2011 flood crisis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon; Keeratipibul, Suwimon

    2013-10-01

    In 2011, a severe flood occurred in Thailand, covering nearly half the country in water for several months. The contamination of floodwater and subsequent contamination of water for human consumption could have potentially led to a widespread health crisis. However, to date, no study has been conducted to determine the safety of the waters used for human consumption in Thailand during the severe flood. Therefore, we conducted microbiological analysis of 4 kinds of water (floodwater, river water, tap water, and filtered tap water) collected from industrial and residential areas that were damaged due to flooding. Higher net levels of bacteria were found in water with a higher turbidity. No clear trend was observed in the pH value of all 4 water samples. The level of total bacterial contamination in the water samples was estimated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven of the 12 tap water samples and all of the filtered tap water samples had a total bacterial load that exceeded the Thai water quality standards. One of the tap water samples and one of the filtered tap water samples were found to be positive for Shigella sp., although none of the floodwater samples showed detectable levels of this pathogen as determined by PCR analysis. One of the samples of floodwater was also found to be positive for Leptospira sp., but none of the tap water or filtered tap water samples were positive. Most of the tap water samples and all filtered tap water samples were found to be contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Bacterial contamination in water samples was also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. These results revealed that several microorganisms were transferred via floodwater to different areas in the central part of Thailand and cross-contaminated between floodwater and water for human consumption.

  20. Impact of wet season river flood discharge on phytoplankton absorption properties in the southern Great Barrier Reef region coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Brando, Vittorio E.; Blondeau-Patissier, David; Ford, Phillip W.; Clementson, Lesley A.; Robson, Barbara J.

    2017-09-01

    Light absorption due to particulate and dissolved material plays an important role in controlling the underwater light environment and the above water reflectance signature. Thorough understanding of absorption properties and their variability is important to estimate light propagation in the water column. However, knowledge of light absorption properties in flood impacted coastal waters is limited. To address this knowledge gap we investigated a bio-optical dataset collected during a flood (2008) in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region coastal waters. Results presented here show strong impact of river flood discharges on water column stratification, distribution of suspended substances and light absorption properties in the study area. Bio-optical analysis showed phytoplankton absorption efficiency to reduce in response to increased coloured dissolved organic matter presence in flood impacted coastal waters. Biogeophysical property ranges, relationships and parametrisation presented here will help model realistic underwater light environment and optical signature in flood impacted coastal waters.

  1. Real-time multi-step-ahead water level forecasting by recurrent neural networks for urban flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chen, Pin-An; Lu, Ying-Ray; Huang, Eric; Chang, Kai-Yao

    2014-09-01

    Urban flood control is a crucial task, which commonly faces fast rising peak flows resulting from urbanization. To mitigate future flood damages, it is imperative to construct an on-line accurate model to forecast inundation levels during flood periods. The Yu-Cheng Pumping Station located in Taipei City of Taiwan is selected as the study area. Firstly, historical hydrologic data are fully explored by statistical techniques to identify the time span of rainfall affecting the rise of the water level in the floodwater storage pond (FSP) at the pumping station. Secondly, effective factors (rainfall stations) that significantly affect the FSP water level are extracted by the Gamma test (GT). Thirdly, one static artificial neural network (ANN) (backpropagation neural network-BPNN) and two dynamic ANNs (Elman neural network-Elman NN; nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs-NARX network) are used to construct multi-step-ahead FSP water level forecast models through two scenarios, in which scenario I adopts rainfall and FSP water level data as model inputs while scenario II adopts only rainfall data as model inputs. The results demonstrate that the GT can efficiently identify the effective rainfall stations as important inputs to the three ANNs; the recurrent connections from the output layer (NARX network) impose more effects on the output than those of the hidden layer (Elman NN) do; and the NARX network performs the best in real-time forecasting. The NARX network produces coefficients of efficiency within 0.9-0.7 (scenario I) and 0.7-0.5 (scenario II) in the testing stages for 10-60-min-ahead forecasts accordingly. This study suggests that the proposed NARX models can be valuable and beneficial to the government authority for urban flood control.

  2. Flood frequency analysis and discussion of non-stationarity of the Lower Rhine flooding regime (AD 1350-2011): Using discharge data, water level measurements, and historical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, W. H. J.

    2015-09-01

    Accurate estimates of the recurrence time of extreme floods are essential to assess flood safety in flood-prone regions, such as the Lower Rhine in The Netherlands. Measured discharge records have a limited length and are, in general, poorly representing extremes, which results in considerable uncertainties when used for flood frequency analysis. In this paper, it is shown how alternative discharge monitoring stations along the Rhine, measurements of water levels, and historical records can be used to increase data availability. Although pre-processing and the conversion of data types into discharge estimates introduces extra uncertainty, the added value of this data in flood frequency analysis is considerable, because extending record length by including slightly less-precise data results in much better constrained estimates for the discharges and recurrence intervals of extreme events. Based on results obtained with the Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, it was concluded that large floods of the last century are presumably rarer than previously considered using shorter data series. Moreover, the combined effect of climatic and anthropogenic-induced non-stationarities of the flooding regime is more easily recognised in extended records. It is shown that non-stationarities have a significant effect on the outcomes of flood frequency analysis using both short and long input data series. Effects on outcomes of dominant multi-decadal variability are, however, largely subdued in the longer 240-year series.

  3. Surface Water and Flood Extent Mapping, Monitoring, and Modeling Products and Services for the SERVIR Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SERVIR is a joint NASA - US Agency for International Development (USAID) project to improve environmental decision-making using Earth observations and geospatial technologies. A common need identified among SERVIR regions has been improved information for disaster risk reduction and in specific surface water and flood extent mapping, monitoring and forecasting. Of the 70 SERVIR products (active, complete, and in development), 4 are related to surface water and flood extent mapping, monitoring or forecasting. Visit http://www.servircatalog.net for more product details.

  4. Flooding in Jakarta : Towards a blue city with improved water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J.M. Nas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunday, 27 January 2002, a large flood swept down on Jakarta and inundated several parts of the city. From the evening of 27 January to the morning of 28 January rain came streaming down, and the dike south of Jakarta broke. The pungent black water, with a hefty cargo of garbage, poured onto the main roads to Bogor, Kramat Jati and East Jakarta. In North Jakarta, in Kelurahan Pejagalan, Kecamatan Penjaringan, the flooding or banjir hit at midnight and continued until five o’clock in the morning, reaching levels as high as 20 cm. Even harder hit was Kelurahan Kapuk Muara, inundated with 70 cm of water.

  5. Microbiological evaluation of water during the 2011 flood crisis in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Keeratipibul, Suwimon, E-mail: Suwimon.k@chula.ac.th [Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2013-10-01

    In 2011, a severe flood occurred in Thailand, covering nearly half the country in water for several months. The contamination of floodwater and subsequent contamination of water for human consumption could have potentially led to a widespread health crisis. However, to date, no study has been conducted to determine the safety of the waters used for human consumption in Thailand during the severe flood. Therefore, we conducted microbiological analysis of 4 kinds of water (floodwater, river water, tap water, and filtered tap water) collected from industrial and residential areas that were damaged due to flooding. Higher net levels of bacteria were found in water with a higher turbidity. No clear trend was observed in the pH value of all 4 water samples. The level of total bacterial contamination in the water samples was estimated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven of the 12 tap water samples and all of the filtered tap water samples had a total bacterial load that exceeded the Thai water quality standards. One of the tap water samples and one of the filtered tap water samples were found to be positive for Shigella sp., although none of the floodwater samples showed detectable levels of this pathogen as determined by PCR analysis. One of the samples of floodwater was also found to be positive for Leptospira sp., but none of the tap water or filtered tap water samples were positive. Most of the tap water samples and all filtered tap water samples were found to be contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Bacterial contamination in water samples was also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. These results revealed that several microorganisms were transferred via floodwater to different areas in the central part of Thailand and cross-contaminated between floodwater and water for human consumption. - Highlights: • We investigated the flood impact on the waters used for human consumption. • Higher net levels of

  6. Redistribution of filtration flows by thermogel at boundary water flooding of oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakova, N. K.; Penkovsky, V. I.; Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The results of physical simulation by a two-dimensional reservoir model and numerical calculation by a finite element method for the GALKA-NT thermogel influence on the redistribution of filtration flows of injected water in the oil production by boundary water flooding are presented. The reserve development by this method, especially in the case of viscose oil pools, occurs with an unstable displacement front that causes growing water fingers, which finally transform into the network of water-conducting channels in the direction of the least filtration resistance between well rows. Here the most amount of oil remains in the nonmobile capillary-locked state, which is in dynamic equilibrium with the flow of displacing water. The injection of thermogel into the reservoir area between the wells is shown to widen the displacement front and to increase the reservoir coverage by water flooding at a later stage in order to enhance oil recovery.

  7. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-01-01

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>105 km3) within short time span (basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB. PMID:27143196

  8. Wall pressure measurements of flooding in vertical countercurrent annular air–water flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choutapalli, I., Vierow, K.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of flooding in countercurrent air-water annular flow in a large diameter vertical tube using wall pressure measurements is described in this paper. Axial pressure profiles along the length of the test section were measured up to and after flooding using fast response pressure transducers for three representative liquid flow rates representing a wide range of liquid Reynolds numbers (ReL = 4Γ/μ; Γ is the liquid mass flow rate per unit perimeter; μ is the dynamic viscosity) from 3341 to 19,048. The results show that flooding in large diameter tubes cannot be initiated near the air outlet and is only initiated near the air inlet. Fourier analysis of the wall pressure measurements shows that up to the point of flooding, there is no dominant wave frequency but rather a band of frequencies encompassing both the low frequency and the broad band that are responsible for flooding. The data indicates that flooding in large diameter vertical tubes may be caused by the constructive superposition of a plurality of waves rather than the action of a single large-amplitude wave.

  9. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by miceller-polymer flooding. M-1 project: facilities report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, B.L. (ed.)

    1977-04-01

    ERDA and Marathon Oil Company contracted together for a commercial scale demonstration of enhanced oil recovery by the Maraflood (TM) oil recovery process. This M-1 Project is located within Sections 15, 16, 21 and 22, T6N, R13W, Crawford County, Illinois, encompassing approximately 407 acres of Robinson Sand reservoir developed in the first decade of the century. The area covers portions of several waterfloods developed on 10-acre spacing in the 1950's that were approaching their economic limit. This report describes all M-1 Project facilities, how they were prepared or constructed, their purpose and how they operate: (1) wells (drilling and completion); (2) production facility; (3) injection facility; and (4) various service systems required during project development and/or operation. (48 fig, 7 tables) (DLC).

  10. Flooding and drying in finite-element discretizations of shallow-water equations. Part 1: One dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2003-01-01

    Free boundaries in shallow-water equations demarcate the time-dependent water line between ``flooded'' and ``dry'' topography. A novel numerical algorithm to treat flooding and drying in a formally second-order explicit space discontinuous finite element discretization of the one-dimensional or symm

  11. Simulation of gas production from hydrate reservoir by the combination of warm water flooding and depressurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gas production from hydrate reservoir by the combination of warm water flooding and depressurization is proposed,which can overcome the deficiency of single production method.Based on the combination production method,the physical and mathematical models are developed to simulate the hydrate dissociation.The mathematical model can be used to analyze the effects of the flow of multiphase fluid,the kinetic process of hydrate dissociation,the endothermic process of hydrate dissociation,ice-water phase equilibrium,the convection and conduction on the hydrate dissociation and gas and water production.The mechanism of gas production by the combination of warm water flooding and depressurization is revealed by the numerical simulation.The evolutions of such physical variables as pressure,temperature,saturations and gas and water rates are analyzed.Numerical results show that under certain conditions the combination method has the advantage of longer stable period of high gas rate than the single producing method.

  12. Water treatment by aquatic ecosystem: Nutrient removal by reservoirs and flooded fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. R.; Sacco, P. D.; Graetz, D. A.; Campbell, K. L.; Sinclair, L. R.

    1982-05-01

    Potential use of reservoirs and flooded fields stocked with aquatic plants for reduction of the nutrient levels of organic soil drainage water was evaluated. The treatment systems include 1) a large single reservoir (R1) stocked with waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes), elodea ( Egeria densa), and cattails ( Typha sp.) in series; 2) three small reservoirs in series with waterhyacinth (R2), elodea (R3), and cattails (R4), grown in independent reservoirs; 3) a control reservoir (R5) with no cultivated plants; 4) a large single flooded field planted to cattails; 5) three small flooded fields in a series planted to cattails; and 6) a flooded field with no cultivated plants. Drainage water was pumped daily (6 hours a day, and 6 days a week) into these systems for a period of 27 months at predetermined constant flow rates. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of each treatment system and analyzed for N and P forms. The series of reservoirs stocked with aquatic plants functioned effectively in the removal of N and P from agricultural drainage water, compared to a single large reservoir. Allowing the water to flow through the reservoir stocked with waterhyacinth plants with a residence time of 3.6 days was adequate to remove about 50% of the incoming inorganic N. Allowing the water to flow through a series of two small reservoirs, R2 and R3, with a residence time of 7.3 days was necessary to remove about 60% of the incoming ortho-P. Flooded fields were effective in the removal of inorganic N, but showed poor efficiency in the removal of ortho-P.

  13. Identification and contribution of water sources to the extent of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowski, Tomasz; Partington, Daniel; Chormański, Jarosław; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    The extent of floods is the result of the discharge of various water sources in the floodplain. These water sources originate from upstream river discharge, direct rainfall on the floodplain, snowmelt or groundwater discharge. The differentiation between these water sources, including the spatial delineation of their contributing areas is an important issue for flood protection, ecohydrology and hydrological modelling. So far the most reliable method for differentiation and spatial delineation of the water sources in the overall flood extent is extensive hydrochemical analysis involving numerous sampling points. In this study we compare results from such an analysis with a coupled groundwater-surface water simulation approach. The comparison is performed for the Lower Biebrza Basin, north-eastern Poland (453 km2). This study area is a natural wetland river valley dominated by peat soils with extensive agriculture. Floods in this area occur yearly and are considered of major importance for the ecology of the basin. The hydrochemical analysis was conducted for the 2002 spring flood and consisted of sampling 538 points for 19 parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and concentration of 16 ions). The identification of spatial water sources was further conducted by means of dimensionality reduction and cluster analysis. The hydrological modelling of different water sources was conducted with a HydroGeoSphere (HGS) model for the whole Biebrza catchment (7000 km2). HGS is a finite element, fully integrated physically based hydrological model, which simulates unsaturated/saturated groundwater flow, surface flow, evapotranspiration, snowmelt, etc. Hence, it offers coupled groundwater-surface water interaction and an important new feature that allows to calculate the composition of different water sources in each computational node of the model. Results of this mixing-cell methodology are compared with the hydrochemical analysis and show good agreement for

  14. Dynamics of water and nutrients for potted plants induced by flooded bench fertigation: experiments and simulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.

    1994-01-01

    Dynamics of water and nutrients as affected by physical and chemical characteristics of a substrate, fertigation method and schedule, and plant uptake were studied for a flooded bench fertigation system for potted plants, through a detailed experimental study of the root environment and a simulation

  15. Water discharge during an Antarctic subglacial flood from CryoSat interferometric altimetry. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, M.; Corr, H.; Shepherd, A.; Ridout, A.; Laxon, S.; Cullen, R.

    2013-12-01

    Beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet lies a network of subglacial lakes which can store, and periodically release, some of the estimated 65 Gt of water generated annually by subglacial melting. These lakes produce a system of episodic mass transfer at the ice sheet base, with the capacity to alter the subglacial environment, the flow of overlying ice and the delivery of freshwater to the ocean. In this study, we use data acquired by the CryoSat-2 interferometric radar altimeter to map the perimeter and depth of a 260 km2 surface depression above an Antarctic subglacial lake (SGL). In combination with ICESat laser altimetry, we chart decadal changes in SGL volume. During 2007-2008, between 4.9 and 6.4 km3 of water drained from the SGL, and peak discharge exceeded 160 m3s-1. The flood was twice as large as any previously recorded, and equivalent to ~ 10 % of the meltwater generated annually beneath the ice sheet. The ice surface has since uplifted at a rate of 5.6 × 2.8 m yr-1. Our study demonstrates the ability of CryoSat-2 to provide detailed maps of ice sheet topography, its potential to accurately measure SGL drainage events, and the contribution it can make to understanding mass transport beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  16. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  17. Interactions of fines with base fractions of oil and its implication in smart water flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Migration of fines, and formation of oil emulsion have been independently observed during smart water flooding both have been suggested to play a vital role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). But, the exact role of fines and the reason of emulsion formation are not well studied for carbonate reservo...... reservoirs. This study shows that addition of water and crude oil on calcite fines leads to formation of soluble oil emulsions in the water phase. Formation of these emulsions and its implication in EOR has been experimentally analyzed.......Migration of fines, and formation of oil emulsion have been independently observed during smart water flooding both have been suggested to play a vital role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). But, the exact role of fines and the reason of emulsion formation are not well studied for carbonate...

  18. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  19. Experimental studies of low salinity water flooding in carbonate reservoirs: A new promising approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Skauge, Arne

    2012-01-01

    additional oil recovery can be achieved when successively flooding composite carbonate core plugs with various diluted versions of seawater. The experimental data on carbonates is very limited, so more data and better understanding of the mechanisms involved is needed to utilize this method for carbonate...... reservoirs. In this paper, we have experimentally investigated the oil recovery potential of low salinity water flooding for carbonate rocks. We used both reservoir carbonate and outcrop chalk core plugs. The flooding experiments were carried out initially with the seawater, and afterwards additional oil...... of experimental results, discussions are made about possible mechanisms for improving oil recovery in carbonate reservoir as a function of change in brine salinity. Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers....

  20. Numerical simulation of flood inundation processes by 2D shallow water equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xinhua; LONG Wenfei; XIE Heping; ZHU Jiahua; WANG Jiangping

    2007-01-01

    In order to strengthen flood risk management in a river basin,to upgrade the capability of flood control,and to reduce the loss of lives and properties in urban areas,a numerical simulation model using 2D shallow water equations was proposed in this study.A satisfactory result has been obtained by applying the model in the Fuji River basin in central Japan.The result indicates that the numerical:simulation model proposed can be adopted not only in the risk management of a river basin,but also in the study of realtime operations of rescue jobs and evacuation routes in a municipal region suffering from a serious flooding event.

  1. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  2. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood

  3. Active and Passive Remote Sensing Data Time Series for Flood Detection and Surface Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioresita, Filsa; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of environmental changes surface waters are undergoing changes in time and space. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface waters resources becomes essential to support sustainable policies and development activities. Especially because surface waters, are not only a vital sweet water resource, but can also pose hazards to human settlements and infrastructures through flooding. Floods are a highly frequent disaster in the world and can caused huge material losses. Detecting and mapping their spatial distribution is fundamental to ascertain damages and for relief efforts. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an effective way to monitor surface waters bodies over large areas since it provides excellent temporal coverage and, all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. However, emergent vegetation, trees, wind or flow turbulence can increase radar back-scatter returns and pose problems for the delineation of inundated areas. In such areas, passive remote sensing data can be used to identify vegetated areas and support the interpretation of SAR data. The availability of new Earth Observation products, for example Sentinel-1 (active) and Sentinel-2 (passive) imageries, with both high spatial and temporal resolution, have the potential to facilitate flood detection and monitoring of surface waters changes which are very dynamic in space and time. In this context, the research consists of two parts. In the first part, the objective is to propose generic and reproducible methodologies for the analysis of Sentinel-1 time series data for floods detection and surface waters mapping. The processing chain comprises a series of pre-processing steps and the statistical modeling of the pixel value distribution to produce probabilistic maps for the presence of surface waters. Images pre-processing for all Sentinel-1 images comprise the reduction SAR effect like orbit errors, speckle noise, and geometric effects. A modified

  4. From Flood Control to Water Management: A Journey of Bangladesh towards Integrated Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh K. Gain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM is considered as a practical approach in solving water-related problems, which are socio-ecologically complex in nature. Bangladesh has also embraced the IWRM approach against its earlier attempt to flood control. In this paper, we evaluate the current status of IWRM in Bangladesh through the lens of policy shifts, institutional transitions and project transformations using seven key dimensions of IWRM. Looking at IWRM from such perspectives is lacking in current literature. A thorough review of policy shifts suggests that all the key dimensions of IWRM are “highly reflected” in the current policy documents. The dimension of “integrated management” is “highly reflected” in both institutional transition and project-level transformation. Most other dimensions are also recognised at both institutional and project levels. However, such reflections gradually weaken as we move from policies to institutions to projects. Despite catchment being considered as a spatial unit of water management at both institutional and project levels, transboundary basin planning is yet to be accomplished. The participation of local people is highly promoted in various recent projects. However, equity and social issues have received less attention at project level, although it has significant potential for supporting some of the key determinants of adaptive capacity. Thus, the IWRM dimensions are in general reflected in recent policies, institutional reforms and project formulation in Bangladesh. However, to solve the complex water-problems, basin scale management through transboundary cooperation and equity and social issues need to be implemented at institutional and project levels.

  5. Flood Transformation Effect of a System of Small Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Tlapák

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper resumes the investigation of transformation of watershed flow off caused by retention volumes of small water reservoirs (SWR in landscape. Based on our work experience in the field of water reservoir design and research, we know that simple system of even small fishponds disposes of nonnegligible free retention volume. We decided to verify this assumption with aid of exact determination of discharge transformation within the basin containing realized system of small water reservoirs. The input water management data for design of water reservoirs are represented by water discharge in existing stream related to the point of designed SWR. In the Czech Republic, the data are provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI, however the data refer to an unaffected discharges, i.e. without consideration of transformation effects of existing small water reservoirs within the basin. Although the total available volume for transformation purposes of investigated SWR system is relatively small, the results show the transformation effect of such reservoirs is not insignificant. Furthermore the transformation effect is raised by proper design and functionality of the whole system of water reservoirs.

  6. Effects of Non-flooded Cultivation with Straw Mulching on Rice Agronomic Traits and Water Use Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jiang-tao; HU Feng; LI Hui-xin; WANG Yi-ping; HUANG Fa-quan; HUANG Hua-xiang

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study water use efficiency and agronomic traits in rice cultivated in flooded soil and non-flooded soils with and without straw mulching. The total amount of water used by rice under flooded cultivation (FC) was 2.42 and 3.31 times as much as that by rice under the non-flooded cultivation with and without straw mulching, respectively. The average water seepage was 13 560 m3/ha under the flooded cultivation, 4 750 m3/ha under the non-flooded cultivation without straw mulching (ZM)and 4 680 m3/ha under non-flooded cultivation with straw mulching (SM). The evapotranspiration in the SM treatment was only 38.2% and 63.6% of the FC treatment and ZM treatment, respectively. Compared with the ZM treatment, straw mulching significantly increased leaf area per plant, main root length, gross root length and root dry weight per plant of rice. The highest grain yield under the SM treatment (6 747 kg/ha) was close to the rice cultivated in flooded soil (6 811.5 kg / ha). However, the yield under the ZM treatment (4 716 kg/ha) was much lower than that under the FS treatment and SM treatment. The order of water use efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency were both as follows: SM> ZM> FC.

  7. Uncertainty estimation of water levels for the Mitch flood event in Tegucigalpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Andino, D. C.; Halldin, S.; Lundin, L.; Xu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Hurricane Mitch in 1998 left a devastating flood in Tegucigalpa, the capital city of Honduras. Simulation of elevated water surfaces provides a good way to understand the hydraulic mechanism of large flood events. In this study the one-dimensional HEC-RAS model for steady flow conditions together with the two-dimensional Lisflood-fp model were used to estimate the water level for the Mitch event in the river reaches at Tegucigalpa. Parameters uncertainty of the model was investigated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) framework. Because of the extremely large magnitude of the Mitch flood, no hydrometric measurements were taken during the event. However, post-event indirect measurements of discharge and observed water levels were obtained in previous works by JICA and USGS. To overcome the problem of lacking direct hydrometric measurement data, uncertainty in the discharge was estimated. Both models could well define the value for channel roughness, though more dispersion resulted from the floodplain value. Analysis of the data interaction showed that there was a tradeoff between discharge at the outlet and floodplain roughness for the 1D model. The estimated discharge range at the outlet of the study area encompassed the value indirectly estimated by JICA, however the indirect method used by the USGS overestimated the value. If behavioral parameter sets can well reproduce water surface levels for past events such as Mitch, more reliable predictions for future events can be expected. The results acquired in this research will provide guidelines to deal with the problem of modeling past floods when no direct data was measured during the event, and to predict future large events taking uncertainty into account. The obtained range of the uncertain flood extension will be an outcome useful for decision makers.

  8. Water-responsive shape memory hybrid: Design concept and demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory materials are featured by their ability to recover their original shapes when a particular stimulus, such as heat, light, magnetic field, even moisture/water, etc. is applied. However, it is not an easy task for non-professionals to synthesize a shape memory material which can meet all the requirements of a particular application. Even for professionals, like materials researchers, it could involve tedious trial and error procedures. In this paper, the concept of water-responsive shape memory hybrid is proposed and the advantages are demonstrated by two examples. The hybrid concept is versatile and can be easily accessed by those even without much polymer/chemistry background. Moreover, the performance of such hybrids can be well-predicted. This concept can be further extended into solvent-responsive shape memory hybrids, which can be routinely designed and realized in a Do-It-Yourself manner by almost anyone.

  9. Relationship between flood control limited level adjustment and water storage of Taolinkou reservoir%桃林口水库汛限水位调整与蓄水关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 高金燕; 张秀梅

    2015-01-01

    探讨了桃林口水库汛限水位调整与蓄水的关系,阐明了在不影响水库蓄水的前提下,无调洪库容的大型水库如何合理调整汛限水位,满足下游防洪需求,为水库的洪水调度和防汛工作提供了科学依据。%The relationship between flood control limited level (FCLL) adjustment and water storage of Taolinkou reservoir was discussed. We demonstrated how the large reservoirs which had no flood regulation storage capacity reasonable adjust the FCLL to satisfy the need of downriver flood control on the premise that water storage will no affecting , this provided a scientific basis for flood dispatching and flood prevention work of Taolinkou reservoir.

  10. Study of impacts of floods on the water quality in an arid zone: the case of the Tarim River in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean de la Paix, Mupenzi; Lanhai, Li; Xi, Chen; Varenyam, Achal; Anming, Bao

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study undertaken at the Tarim River Basin in Northwest China to analyze impacts of flooding on water quality. It was shown that irregular rainfall was the cause of flash floods that affected many ecosystems and eroded soils. Simulation results and the existence of relationships between flood volume and flood peak allowed potential model application that included flood peak estimation. The analysis of water pollution through sample sediment was helped by spectroscopy techniques and it was found that the flood was the main cause of many chemical elements in water. The floods affected the quality of water in the Tarim River where it was slightly basic with pH = 8.1 before flooding and acidic with pH = 6.9 after flooding.

  11. Hydrogeochemical Simulation of Water-Rock Interaction Under Water Flood Recovery in Renqiu Oilfield, Hebei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯启言; 韩宝平

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogeochemical simulation is an effective method to study water-rock interaction.In this paper, PHREEQM was used for the simulation of water-rock interaction under water flooding in the Renqiu Oilfield. Calculated results revealed that when fresh water was injected into the reservoir, Cl- and Na+ would decrease without involvement in water-rock interaction.Erosion to dolomite will lead to an increase in Ca2 + , Mg2 + and CaHCO3+. Saturation index of calcite and aragonite decreased first and then increased. With fresh water accounting for up to 70 %, mixed water has the strongest erosion ability. Deoiled water has erosion ability under high temperature and high partial pressure of CO2. Pyrite and gypsum were sensitive to deoiled water, which can cause the dissolution of pyrite and the precipitation of gypsum. Micrographs revealed a great deal of information about water-rock interaction.

  12. Big Muddy Field low-tension flood-demonstration project. Fifth annual report, April 1982-March 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, T.R.; Borah, M.T.; Ferrell, H.H.

    1983-08-01

    The Big Muddy low-tension flood is a commercial-size demonstration project consisting of nine 10-acre injection patterns in the heart of the Big Muddy Oil Field located 15 miles east of Casper, Wyoming. The main goal of the project is to provide data for commercialization of the process for the Big Muddy Field and similar Wyoming and Colorado fields. This report discusses the project performance during the last part of slug injection with particular emphasis on the analysis of the early oil response and the injectivity. Other work discussed in this report includes the pilot testing for an oil-treating facility which led to a new design. The oil production rate increased from about 75 BPD at year-end 1981 to about 170 BPD, or from about 4 percent to about 11 percent of the injection rate, in March of 1983. During the same period, the produced oil cut increased from 2 percent to about 5 percent. The low-tension slug injection was completed in August 1982 and injection of a polymer solution having the same mobility is continuing. The total low-tension slug volume was 873,000 barrels or 10.2 percent pore volume. 4 references, 91 figures, 19 tables.

  13. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during 8 years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (PN) during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential (ψ) suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  14. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eHerrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during eight years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthetic rate (PN during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential ( suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  15. Major influencing factors of water flooding in abnormally high-pressure carbonate reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingying, Hou; Kaiyuan, Chen; Zifei, Fan; Libing, Fu; Yefei, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The higher pressure coefficient is the major characteristics of the abnormal high pressure carbonate reservoirs, which the pressure coefficient generally exceeds 1.2 and the initial formation pressure is higher than normal sandstone reservoirs. Due to the large pressure difference between initial formation and saturated pressure, oil wells are capable to production with high flow rate by the natural energy at early production stage. When the formation pressure drops to the saturation pressure, the water or gas is usually injected to stabilize the well productivity and sustain the formation pressure. Based on the characteristics of Kenkiak oilfield, a typical abnormal high pressure carbonate reservoir, a well group model is designed to simulate and analyze the influence factors on water flooding. The conclusion is that permeability, interlayer difference and reserve abundance are the main three factors on the water flooding development in these reservoirs.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of dimensionless parameters for physical simulation of water-flooding reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yuhu; LI Jiachun; ZHOU Jifu

    2005-01-01

    A numerical approach to optimize dimensionless parameters of water-flooding porous media flows is proposed based on the analysis of the sensitivity factor defined as the variation ration of a target function with respect to the variation of dimensionless parameters. A complete set of scaling criteria for water-flooding reservoir of five-spot well pattern case is derived from the 3-D governing equations, involving the gravitational force,the capillary force and the compressibility of water, oil and rock. By using this approach,we have estimated the influences of each dimensionless parameter on experimental results, and thus sorting out the dominant ones with larger sensitivity factors ranging from 10-4 to 100.

  17. Impact of treated wastewater reuse and floods on water quality and fish health within a water reservoir in an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibel, Inbal; Zilberg, Dina; Groisman, Ludmila; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-15

    Treated wastewater (TWW) reuse for agricultural irrigation is a well-established approach to coping with water shortages in semi-arid and arid environments. Recently, additional uses of TWW have emerged, including streamflow augmentation and aquatic ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the water quality and fish health, in an artificial reservoir located in an arid climate (the Yeruham Reservoir, Israel), which regularly receives TWW and sporadic winter floods. The temporal distribution of water levels, nutrients and organic micropollutants (OMPs) were measured during the years 2013-2014. OMPs were also measured in sediment and fish tissues. Finally, the status of fish health was evaluated by histopathology. Water levels and quality were mainly influenced by seasonal processes such as floods and evaporation, and not by the discharge of TWW. Out of 16 tested OMPs, estrone, carbamazepine, diclofenac and bezafibrate were found in the reservoir water, but mostly at concentrations below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for fish. Concentrations of PCBs and dioxins in fish muscle and liver were much lower than the EU maximal permitted concentrations, and similar to concentrations that were found in food fish in Israel and Europe. In the histopathological analysis, there were no evident tissue abnormalities, and low to moderate infection levels of fish parasites were recorded. The results from the Yeruham Reservoir demonstrated a unique model for the mixture effect between TWW reuse and natural floods to support a unique stable and thriving ecosystem in a water reservoir located in an arid region. This type of reservoir can be widely used for recreation, education, and the social and economic development of a rural environment, such as has occurred in the Yeruham region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Global terrestrial water storage capacity and flood potential using GRACE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reager, J. T; Famiglietti, J. S

    2009-01-01

    .... Over the GRACE record length, instances of repeated maxima in water storage anomaly that fall short of variable maxima in cumulative precipitation suggest an effective storage capacity for a given...

  19. Water Flooding Development and Enhanced Oil Recovery of Daqing Oilfields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zefu; Yue Dengtai; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Daqing oil region consists of typical sand oilfields formed by a large inland shallow water lake basin and riverdelta. It is characterized by multiple reservoirs, extreme heterogeneity, and insufficient natural oil reservoir energy. A comparatively long period of high stable yield and high efficiency recovery was achieved in the initial stage of development through the use of the hydraulic pressure drive technique, which manually injected water to maintain formation pressure.

  20. Hydrochemical characteristics of the natural waters associated with the flooding of the Meirama open pit (A Coruna, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vazquez, A.; Falcon, I.; Canal, J.; Hernandez, H.; Padilla, F.; Rodriguez-Vellando, P.; Delgado, J.L. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama ceased extraction of brown lignite. Since then operations have begun which will lead to the formation of a big mining lake (about 2 km{sup 2} surface and up to 180 m deep) after controlled flooding of the open pit. In the process of flooding, both surface and ground waters are involved, each with their own chemical signature. According to the information available, the diversion of surface waters towards the pit hole should lead to the formation of a water body of acceptable quality. However, all unassisted flooding process could eventually form all acidic lake.

  1. Scheduling satellite imagery acquisition for sequential assimilation of water level observation into flood modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pintado, Javier; Neal, Jeff C.; Mason, David C.; Dance, Sarah L.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-04-01

    Satellite-based imagery has proved useful for obtaining information on water levels in flood events. Microwave frequencies are generally more useful for flood detection than visible-band sensors because of its all-weather day-night capability. Specifically, the future SWOT mission, with Ka-band interferometry, will be able to provide direct Water Level Observations (WLOs), and current and future Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can provide information of flood extent, which, when intersected with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the floodplain, provides indirect WLOs. By either means, satellite-based WLOs can be assimilated into a hydrodynamic model to decrease forecast uncertainty and further to estimate river discharge into the flooded domain. Operational scenarios can even make a combined use of imagery from different uncoordinated missions to sequentially estimate river discharge. Thus, with an increasing number of operational satellites with WLO capability, information on the relationship between satellite first visit, revisit times, and forecast performance is required to optimise the operational scheduling of satellite imagery. By using an Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) and a synthetic analysis with the 2D hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP based on a real flooding case affecting an urban area (summer 2007, Tewkesbury, Southwest UK), we evaluate the sensitivity of the forecast performance to visit parameters. As an example, we use different scenarios of revisit times and observational errors expected from the current COSMO-Skymed (CSK) constellation, with X-band SAR. We emulate a generic hydrologic-hydrodynamic modelling cascade by imposing a bias and spatiotemporal correlations to the inflow error ensemble into the hydrodynamic domain. First, in agreement with previous research, estimation and correction for this bias leads to a clear improvement in keeping the forecast on track. Second, imagery obtained early in the flood is shown to have a

  2. Stream Flooding Response and Water Quality as a Function of Increasing Impervious Surface Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenmueller, E. A.; Criss, R. E.; Winston, W. E.; Shaughnessy, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Urban and suburban streams often exhibit frequent flash floods and low water quality, but surprisingly few studies of these systems attempt to resolve the relative contributions of different runoff fractions and their associated geochemistry. This study deliberately examined concurrent responses in three watersheds and two subbasins along a gradient of increasing impervious surface area in and around highly urbanized Saint Louis, Missouri, USA, to quantify changes in the relative contributions of pre-event (baseflow) and event (runoff) water to streamflow during flooding using hydrograph separations. Our high frequency monitoring of stable isotopes ratios (δ2H and δ18O) and water quality (temperature, dissolved O2, pH, turbidity, specific conductivity, concentrations of Cl- and nutrients, and bacterial loads) quantify large hydrologic and geochemical differences across the land use gradient. Following precipitation events, floods on a rural stream feature slow flow responses, hydrographs with low peak discharges and long lag times, high baseflow contributions, and small geochemical variations. In contrast, the flows of an urban stream and its tributary respond in a flashier manner, with peak flows that are nearly 10 times higher, average lag times that decrease by 85%, and event water contributions that are 2 times higher compared to the rural stream. The urban streams also exhibit large fluctuations in geochemistry, often with 5 times the variability of the rural end-member. These large geochemical changes in urban streams following storms are paralleled by more chaotic diurnal and seasonal variations. Importantly, we find that reduced baseflow as a function of increasing impervious surface area is not linear; thus, the hydrology of suburban streams is less impacted than would be predicted by impervious surface alone. This non-linear relationship with impervious surface area is also observed in some of the geochemical responses to flooding, and therefore

  3. Interactions of fines with base fractions of oil and its implication in smart water flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Migration of fines, and formation of oil emulsion have been independently observed during smart water flooding both have been suggested to play a vital role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). But, the exact role of fines and the reason of emulsion formation are not well studied for carbonate...... reservoirs. This study shows that addition of water and crude oil on calcite fines leads to formation of soluble oil emulsions in the water phase. Formation of these emulsions and its implication in EOR has been experimentally analyzed....

  4. 北京城市洪涝模型建设与典型示范%Construction and demonstration of urban flood modeling in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 刘洪伟; 潘兴瑶; 邸苏闯

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization, the ratio of impervious area in river basins has increased greatly. It resulted in the increase of peak flood discharges, reduction of time of concentrations, and expanding threat of flood disasters. Especially, under the unified planning and overall management of channels and drainage systems for urban rivers, the rainfall-runoff relationship is changed greatly at urban river basin scale. Considering the complex and uncertainty of urban flood disasters, this paper proposes a technical framework of urban flood model, and taking Qinghe River as an example to construct the model. The river flood diversion capacity is rechecked. The indicator levels of early warning of river flood are refined with quantified the relationship between flood peak and rainfall depth. The watershed flood risk characteristics are also addressed based on the model. This study would provide a guide to flood control and storm water utilization assessment in the watershed of urban area.%伴随城市快速发展,城市不透水面积持续增加,使得在同等降雨条件下流域内洪峰流量增加、峰现时间缩短,洪涝灾害威胁扩大.城市水利工程众多,虽然城市排水管网和河道都经过全面整治,但随着城区面积增加,城区防洪排涝河道和管网的服务范围、下垫面状况、排水单元和沟渠、支流发生了显著改变,河网的产汇流过程也发生了较大变化.针对城市洪涝灾害发生的复杂性和不确定性特点,提出北京市洪涝模型构建技术框架,并以清河流域为典型流域构建洪涝模型,分别从不同下垫面和降雨条件下河网排洪能力复核、河道防洪预警指标细化、城市洪涝风险量化等方面构建基于洪涝模拟的城市防汛安全调度技术体系.

  5. Streamflow characterization and summary of water-quality data collection during the Mississippi River flood, April through July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.

    2013-01-01

    From April through July 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey collected surface-water samples from 69 water-quality stations and 3 flood-control structures in 4 major subbasins of the Mississippi River Basin to characterize the water quality during the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Most stations were sampled at least monthly for field parameters suspended sediment, nutrients, and selected pesticides. Samples were collected at daily to biweekly frequencies at selected sites in the case of suspended sediment. Hydro-carbon analysis was performed on samples collected at two sites in the Atchafalaya River Basin to assess the water-quality implications of opening the Morganza Floodway. Water-quality samples obtained during the flood period were collected at flows well above normal streamflow conditions at the majority of the stations throughout the Mississippi River Basin and its subbasins. Heavy rainfall and snowmelt resulted in high streamflow in the Mississippi River Basin from April through July 2011. The Ohio River Subbasin contributed to most of the flow in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Subbasin during the months of April and May because of widespread rainfall, whereas snowmelt and precipitation from the Missouri River Subbasin and the upper Mississippi River Subbasin contributed to most of the flow in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Subbasin during June and July. Peak streamflows from the 2011 flood were higher than peak streamflow during previous historic floods at most the selected streamgages in the Mississippi River Basin. In the Missouri River Subbasin, the volume of water moved during the 1952 flood was greater than the amount move during the 2011 flood. Median concentrations of suspended sediment and total phosphorus were higher in the Missouri River Subbasin during the flood when compared to the other three subbasins. Surface water in the upper Mississippi River Subbasin contained higher median concentrations of total nitrogen, nitrate

  6. Towards an Australian ensemble streamflow forecasting system for flood prediction and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.; David, R. E.; Wang, Q.; Li, M.; Shrestha, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Flood forecasting in Australia has historically relied on deterministic forecasting models run only when floods are imminent, with considerable forecaster input and interpretation. These now co-existed with a continually available 7-day streamflow forecasting service (also deterministic) aimed at operational water management applications such as environmental flow releases. The 7-day service is not optimised for flood prediction. We describe progress on developing a system for ensemble streamflow forecasting that is suitable for both flood prediction and water management applications. Precipitation uncertainty is handled through post-processing of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) output with a Bayesian rainfall post-processor (RPP). The RPP corrects biases, downscales NWP output, and produces reliable ensemble spread. Ensemble precipitation forecasts are used to force a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model. Uncertainty in precipitation forecasts is insufficient to reliably describe streamflow forecast uncertainty, particularly at shorter lead-times. We characterise hydrological prediction uncertainty separately with a 4-stage error model. The error model relies on data transformation to ensure residuals are homoscedastic and symmetrically distributed. To ensure streamflow forecasts are accurate and reliable, the residuals are modelled using a mixture-Gaussian distribution with distinct parameters for the rising and falling limbs of the forecast hydrograph. In a case study of the Murray River in south-eastern Australia, we show ensemble predictions of floods generally have lower errors than deterministic forecasting methods. We also discuss some of the challenges in operationalising short-term ensemble streamflow forecasts in Australia, including meeting the needs for accurate predictions across all flow ranges and comparing forecasts generated by event and continuous hydrological models.

  7. Evaluation of crop yield loss of floods based on water turbidity index with multi-temporal HJ-CCD images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohe; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiuhui

    2015-12-01

    Paddy is one of the most important food crops in China. Due to the intensive planting in the surrounding of rivers and lakes, paddy is vulnerable to flooding stress. The research on predicting crop yield loss derived from flooding stress will help the adjustment of crop planting structure and the claims of agricultural insurance. The paper aimed to develop a method of estimating yield loss of paddy derived from flooding by multi-temporal HJ CCD images. At first, the water pixels after flooding were extracted, from which the water line (WL) of turbid water pixels was generated. Secondly, the water turbidity index (WTI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) was defined and calculated. By analyzing the relation among WTI, PVI and paddy yield, the model of evaluating yield loss of flooding was developed. Based on this model, the spatial distribution of paddy yield loss derived from flooding was mapped in the study area. Results showed that the water turbidity index (WTI) could be used to monitor the sediment content of flood, which was closely related to the plant physiology and per unit area yield of paddy. The PVI was the good indicator of paddy yield with significant correlation (0.965). So the PVI could be used to estimate the per unit area yield before harvesting. The PVI and WTI had good linear relation, which could provide an effective, practical and feasible method for monitoring yield loss of waterlogged paddy.

  8. A Flooding Induced Station Blackout Analysis for a Pressurized Water Reactor Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mandelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: the RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., component/system activation and to perform statistical analyses. In our case, the simulation of the flooding is performed by using an advanced smooth particle hydrodynamics code called NEUTRINO. The obtained results allow the user to investigate and quantify the impact of timing and sequencing of events on system safety. In addition, the impact of power uprate is determined in terms of both core damage probability and safety margins.

  9. Uncertainty estimation of simulated water levels for the Mitch flood event in Tegucigalpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Andino, Diana Carolina; Halldin, Sven; Keith, Beven; Chong-Yu, Xu

    2013-04-01

    Hurricane Mitch in 1998 left a devastating flood in Tegucigalpa, the capital city of Honduras. Due to the extremely large magnitude of the Mitch flood, hydrometric measurements were not taken during the event. However, post-event indirect measurements of the discharge were obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and post-event surveyed high water marks were obtained by the Japan International Cooperation agency (JICA). This work proposes a methodology to simulate the water level during the Mitch event when the available data is associated with large uncertainty. The results of the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP will be evaluated using the Generalized Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework. The main challenge in the proposed methodology is to formulate an approach to evaluate the model results when there are large uncertainties coming from both the model parameters and the evaluation data.

  10. Effects of sonication radiation on oil recovery by ultrasonic waves stimulated water-flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rahmani, Omeid; Idris, Ahmad Kamal

    2013-02-01

    Due to partial understanding of mechanisms involved in application of ultrasonic waves as enhanced oil recovery method, series of straight (normal), and ultrasonic stimulated water-flooding experiments were conducted on a long unconsolidated sand pack using ultrasonic transducers. Kerosene, vaseline, and SAE-10 (engine oil) were used as non-wet phase in the system. In addition, a series of fluid flow and temperature rise experiments were conducted using ultrasonic bath in order to enhance the understanding about contributing mechanisms. 3-16% increase in the recovery of water-flooding was observed. Emulsification, viscosity reduction, and cavitation were identified as contributing mechanisms. The findings of this study are expected to increase the insight to involving mechanisms which lead to improving the recovery of oil as a result of application of ultrasound waves.

  11. An application of water quality index to reduce the effect of flood on water quality of rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Nooralinejad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rivers are among the most important resources of water supplying used for drinking consumptions, agriculture, industry, etc. Creation of a regular control plan and monitoring the water quality of these resources are the most important solutions in order to reduce the pollution and promote their qualitative conditions. The changes in climatic such as low levels of rainfall, is one of the factors influencing on the quantitative level of rivers. In addition, weather pollution and reduction in the power of soil resources are very important. This paper presents an investigation to investigate on how to reduce the influences of flood water on the water quality of the rivers based on the model of water quality index. The applied methodology is descriptive-analytical, which uses SPSS software, and t-test and correlation tests are used to analyze the data. The investigation carried out on the influences of the flood water due to raining on the qualitative changes of the water of Cesar River represented that there was a significant relationship between raining, discharge and the parameters of water quality. These relations indicate that the occurrence of raining and increase in the discharge follow the increase in the water quality of the river.

  12. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. East Grand Forks Flood Fight Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    may be wiped dry and used. Cans with fitted lids, non-sealed type ( cocoa , baking powder , etc.): If there is damage from water, open and examine. If...temporary means. In consideration of the benefits which are expected to accrue by reason of the participation of the United States in said emergency flood...cabinet-maker. If your insurance allows benefits on damaged furniture, it may be better to apply the allowance on new articles than to pay for repairs on

  13. B-SPLINE-BASED SVM MODEL AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO OIL WATER-FLOODED STATUS IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Fuhua; Zhao Tiejun; Yi Xiongying

    2007-01-01

    A method of B-spline transform for signal feature extraction is developed. With the B-spline,the log-signal space is mapped into the vector space. An efficient algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to automatically identify the water-flooded status of oil-saturated stratum is described.The experiments show that this algorithm can improve the performances for the identification and the generalization in the case of a limited set of samples.

  14. Monitoring the variability of precipitable water vapor over the Klang Valley, Malaysia during flash flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Rahman, R.; Singh, M. S. J.

    2014-06-01

    Klang Valley is a focal area of Malaysian economic and business activities where the local weather condition is very important to maintain its reputation. Heavy rainfalls for more than an hour were reported up to 40 mm in September 2013 and 35 mm in October 2013. Both events are monitored as the first and second cases of flash flood, respectively. Based on these cases, we investigate the water vapor, rainfall, surface meteorological data (surface pressure, relative humidity, and temperature) and river water level. The precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) is used to indicate the impact of flash flood on the rainfall. We found that PWV was dropped 4 mm in 2 hours before rainfall reached to 40 mm and dropped 3 mm in 3 hours before 35 mm of rainfall in respective cases. Variation of PWV was higher in September case compared to October case of about 2 mm. We suggest the rainfall phenomena can disturb the GPS propagation and therefore, the impact of PWV before, during and after the flash flood event at three selected GPS stations in Klang Valley is investigated for possible mitigation in the future.

  15. Demonstration of anaerobic stabilization of black water in accumulation systems under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.; Sanders, W.; Lettinga, G.

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of "human waste" was studied at Mlalakuwa residential settlement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania at ambient tropical temperatures (24-31 degrees C). This settlement experiences a high water table with flooding during the rainy season, resulting in a very costly emptying of the lat

  16. Understanding flood-induced water chemistry variability extracting temporal patterns with the LDA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, A. H.; Tavenard, R.; Emonet, R.; De Lavenne, A.; Malinowski, S.; Guyet, T.; Quiniou, R.; Odobez, J.; Merot, P.; Gascuel-odoux, C.

    2013-12-01

    Studying floods has been a major issue in hydrological research for years, both in quantitative and qualitative hydrology. Stream chemistry is a mix of solutes, often used as tracers, as they originate from various sources in the catchment and reach the stream by various flow pathways. Previous studies (for instance (1)) hypothesized that stream chemistry reaction to a rainfall event is not unique but varies seasonally, and according to the yearly meteorological conditions. Identifying a typology of flood temporal chemical patterns is a way to better understand catchment processes at the flood and seasonal time scale. We applied a probabilistic model (Latent Dirichlet Allocation or LDA (2)) mining recurrent sequential patterns from a dataset of floods. A set of 472 floods was automatically extracted from a daily 12-year long record of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, sulfate and chloride concentrations. Rainfall, discharge, water table depth and temperature are also considered. Data comes from a long-term hydrological observatory (AgrHys, western France) located at Kervidy-Naizin. From each flood, a document has been generated that is made of a set of "hydrological words". Each hydrological word corresponds to a measurement: it is a triplet made of the considered variable, the time at which the measurement is made (relative to the beginning of the flood), and its magnitude (that can be low, medium or high). The documents and the number of pattern to be mined are used as input data to the LDA algorithm. LDA relies on spotting co-occurrences (as an alternative to the more traditional study of correlation) between words that appear within the flood documents. It has two nice properties that are its ability to easily deal with missing data and its additive property that allows a document to be seen as a mixture of several flood patterns. The output of LDA is a set of patterns easily represented in graphics. These patterns correspond to typical reactions to rainfall

  17. Comparison of Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation of Water Supply and Flood Control Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. L.; Yang, P.; Bhushan, R.

    2016-12-01

    With climate change, streamflows are expected to become more fluctuating, with more frequent and intense floods and droughts. This complicates reservoir operation, which is highly sensitive to inflow variability. We make a comparative evaluation of three strategies for adapting reservoirs to climate-induced shifts in streamflow patterns. Specifically, we examine the effectiveness of (i) expanding the capacities of reservoirs by way of new off-stream reservoirs, (ii) introducing wastewater reclamation to augment supplies, and (iii) improving real-time streamflow forecasts for more optimal decision-making. The first two are hard strategies involving major infrastructure modifications, while the third a soft strategy entailing adjusting the system operation. A comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the three strategies is as yet lacking in the literature despite the many past studies investigating the strategies individually. To this end, we developed an adaptive forward-looking linear program that solves to yield the optimal decisions for the current time as a function of an ensemble forecast of future streamflows. Solving the model repeatedly on a rolling basis with regular updating of the streamflow forecast simulates the system behavior over the entire operating horizon. Results are generated for two hypothetical water supply and flood control reservoirs of differing inflows and demands. Preliminary findings suggest that of the three strategies, improving streamflow forecasts to be most effective in mitigating the effects of climate change. We also found that, in average terms, both additional reservoir capacity and wastewater reclamation have potential to reduce water shortage and downstream flooding. However, in the worst case, the potential of the former to reduce water shortage is limited, and similarly so the potential of the latter to reduce downstream flooding.

  18. Releasing the flood waters: diuril and the reshaping of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2005-01-01

    This article narrates the development and promotion in the 1950s and 1960s of Merck, Sharp & Dohme's Diuril (chlorothiazide), an antihypertensive drug, which played a significant role in the redefinition of high blood pressure as a widespread target for chronic pharmaceutical consumption. The joined careers of Diuril and hypertension in the late twentieth century demonstrate the connections between the clinical research, clinical practice, and marketing practices through which pharmaceuticals and disease categories come to define one another. By examining a series of internal documents preserved in the Merck Archives alongside a careful reading of the clinical literature and industry journals of the time, this article explores how the ambitions of marketers, physicians, and public health advocates found convergence in the expanding pharmaceutical prevention of chronic diseases.

  19. Demonstrator Flood Control Room : Inventarisatie van de wensen van de verschillende Deltares onderdelen en een hierop gebaseerd ontwerp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjens, G.J.; Attema-van Waas, A.R.; Guikema, M.; Schilder, C.M.C.; Veen, M.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    Op basis van het uitgevoerde onderzoek trekt TNO de volgende conclusies: • De bestaande ruimte die Deltares op het oog heeft voor de realisatie van de trainingsruimte is klein. Een eerste fase van de gewenste Flood Control Room is realiseerbaar in deze ruimte, met inachtneming dat niet alle geïdenti

  20. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

  1. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

  2. Explorers Presentation: Flooding and Coastal Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    : Explorers Flooding and Coastal Communities presentation provides an introduction to flooding. This can be used with the lesson plan on building flood defences. It covers: What is a flood? Why does it flood? Where does the water come from? The water cycle; Where is water stored? Examples of Pluvial vs. Coastal flooding; Impacts of flooding; Flood defences; What else influences flooding - Human impacts, Urbanisation, Deforestation, Sea level rise

  3. One year water chemistry monitoring of the flooding of the Meirama open pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vázquez, A.; Fernández-Bogo, S.

    2009-04-01

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama finished the extraction of brown lignite. Starting in April 2008, the flooding of the open pit has started and this is leading to the formation of a large mining lake (~2 km2 surface and up to 180 m depth) in which surface (river and rain water) and ground waters are involved. Since the beginning of the flooding, lake waters are weekly sampled and analyzed for temperature, pH, redox, EC, TDS, TSS, DO,DIC, DOC, turbidity, alkalinity/acidity as well as nearly 40 inorganic chemical components. Stable water isotopes (deuterium and oxygen) are also being recorded. In order to better understand the dynamic chemical evolution of lake waters, the chemical characteristics of rain water as well as a series of lake tributaries and ground waters are also being measured. Since the beginning of the flooding process, the chemical quality of lake water has experienced an interesting evolution that obeys to a variety of circumstances. The silicic geologic substratum of the catchment determines that both ground and surface waters have a rather low alkalinity. Moreover, the presence of disseminated sulfides (mainly pyrite) within the schistous materials of the mine slopes and internal rock dumps provokes a significant acidic load. From April to October 2008, the lake waters had only the contribution of rain and ground waters. Since the beginning of October, a significant volume of surface waters has been derived to the mine hole. Taking pH as indicator, the first water body had a rather acidic pH (~3) which was progressively amended with the addition of a certain amount of lime to reach an upper value of ~8 by late August. The diminution in the addition of lime up to its elimination, in December, has conducted to the progressive acidification of the lake. At present, an instrumented floating deck is being deployed in the lake. This device will serve as a base point where it is planned to locate a series of

  4. Using LiDAR surveys to document floods: A case study of the 2008 Iowa flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Krajewski, Witold F.; Goska, Radek; Young, Nathan

    2017-10-01

    Can we use Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), an emergent remote sensing technology with wide applications, to document floods with high accuracy? To explore the feasibility of this application, we propose a method to extract distributed inundation depths from a LiDAR survey conducted during flooding. This method consists of three steps: (1) collecting LiDAR data during flooding; (2) classifying the LiDAR observational points as flooded water surface points and non-flooded points, and generating a floodwater surface elevation model; and (3) subtracting the bare earth Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from the flood surface elevation model to obtain a flood depth map. We applied this method to the 2008 Iowa flood in the United States and evaluated the results using the high-water mark measurements, flood extent extracted from SPOT (Small Programmable Object Technology) imagery, and the near-simultaneously acquired aerial photography. The root mean squared error of the LiDAR-derived floodwater surface profile to high-water marks was 30 cm, the consistency between the two flooded areas derived from LiDAR and SPOT imagery was 72% (81% if suspicious isolated ponds in the SPOT-derived extent were removed), and LiDAR-derived flood extent had a horizontal resolution of ∼3 m. This work demonstrates that LiDAR technology has the potential to provide calibration and validation reference data with appreciable accuracy for improved flood inundation modeling.

  5. Water power and flood control of Colorado River below Green River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rue, Eugene Clyde; Work, Hubert; Grover, Nathan C.

    1925-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the facts regarding available water supply and all known dam sites on Colorado River between Cataract Canyon, Utah, and Parker, Ariz., and to show the relative value of these dam sites. To determine the relative value of the dam sites, a comprehensive plan of development for Colorado River below the mouth of Green River is presented that will provide for the maximum practicable utilization of the potential power, maximum preservation of water for irrigation, effective elimination of the flood menace, and adequate solution of the silt problem. This plan, which is preliminary and is offered by the writer to show the basis for his conclusions relative to flood control, irrigation, power development, and silt storage, contemplates the construction of 13 dams making available 3,383 feet of head for the development of power and a maximum of 42,000,000 acre-feet of storage capacity for the control of floods, equalization of flow, and storage of silt.

  6. Modeling of a Flooding Induced Station Blackout for a Pressurized Water Reactor Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego; Prescott, Steven R; Smith, Curtis L; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua J; Kinoshita, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    In the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach we want to understand not just the frequency of an event like core damage, but how close we are (or are not) to key safety-related events and how might we increase our safety margins. The RISMC Pathway uses the probabilistic margin approach to quantify impacts to reliability and safety by coupling both probabilistic (via stochastic simulation) and mechanistic (via physics models) approaches. This coupling takes place through the interchange of physical parameters and operational or accident scenarios. In this paper we apply the RISMC approach to evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., system activation) and to perform statistical analyses (e.g., run multiple RELAP-7 simulations where sequencing/timing of events have been changed according to a set of stochastic distributions). By using the RISMC toolkit, we can evaluate how power uprate affects the system recovery measures needed to avoid core damage after the PWR lost all available AC power by a tsunami induced flooding. The simulation of the actual flooding is performed by using a smooth particle hydrodynamics code: NEUTRINO.

  7. Utilization of Thermal Energy of Mine Waters from Flooded Underground Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnošt Grmela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dozens of ore, uranium and coal underground mines have been closed in the Czech Republic recently as a result of ending or considerable cutting down the mining of raw materials. After the completion of all necessary works associated with the decommissioning of underground mine workings, the mines were mostly left to spontaneous natural flooding with water. The volumes of mine waters in the underground reach up to millions of cubic metres. Taking into account the huge volumes and temperature of waters, which is in range of 10 to 290C at the site of draining from the underground, mine waters represent a considerable and stable source of thermal energy, the utilization of which is still wholly neglected. The authors inform about the principles of the use of mine waters for this purpose and about two projects that are in a different stage of realization.

  8. NASA Global Flood Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Slayback, Dan; Brakenridge, Bob; Nigro, Joe; Hubbard, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Product utility key factors: Near real time, automated production; Flood spatial extent Cloudiness Pixel resolution: 250m; Flood temporal extent; Flash floods short duration on ground?; Landcover--Water under vegetation cover vs open water

  9. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  10. Resolution Enhancement of MODIS-Derived Water Indices for Studying Persistent Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, L. W.; Kalcic, Maria; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring coastal marshes for persistent flooding and salinity stress is a high priority issue in Louisiana. Remote sensing can identify environmental variables that can be indicators of marsh habitat conditions, and offer timely and relatively accurate information for aiding wetland vegetation management. Monitoring activity accuracy is often limited by mixed pixels which occur when areas represented by the pixel encompasses more than one cover type. Mixtures of marsh grasses and open water in 250m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data can impede flood area estimation. Flood mapping of such mixtures requires finer spatial resolution data to better represent the cover type composition within 250m MODIS pixel. Fusion of MODIS and Landsat can improve both spectral and temporal resolution of time series products to resolve rapid changes from forcing mechanisms like hurricane winds and storm surge. For this study, using a method for estimating sub-pixel values from a MODIS time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), using temporal weighting, was implemented to map persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes. Ordinarily NDWI computed from daily 250m MODIS pixels represents a mixture of fragmented marshes and water. Here, sub-pixel NDWI values were derived for MODIS data using Landsat 30-m data. Each MODIS pixel was disaggregated into a mixture of the eight cover types according to the classified image pixels falling inside the MODIS pixel. The Landsat pixel means for each cover type inside a MODIS pixel were computed for the Landsat data preceding the MODIS image in time and for the Landsat data succeeding the MODIS image. The Landsat data were then weighted exponentially according to closeness in date to the MODIS data. The reconstructed MODIS data were produced by summing the product of fractional cover type with estimated NDWI values within each cover type. A new daily time series was produced using both the reconstructed 250

  11. Development of realtime, handheld and portable flood distribution and water quality sensor based android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmatika, Ratih; Adriyanto, Feri

    2017-09-01

    Current sensors to monitor water quality are made of manual sensors, which reported to have good performance. However, the major problems, which manual process to get the data. In addition, the data interpretation takes a long time. Due to these problems, a new approach needs to be introduced into the process to prevent a long data acquisition. Therefore, the SIAGA application was proposed. The application of SIAGA is divided into two main applications which are SIBA (Siaga Banjir) and SIAB (Siaga Air Bersih). We using WiFi system which is located at points along the flow of river.. The result can be monitored in the online application based on smartphone which is divided into the river water quality, potential sources of pollution and flood area. Each WiFi point is completed with the instruments which are divided into the sensors that can do the identification of parameters to determine the water quality such as temperature, pH, water level and turbidity. This instrument completed using GPS (Global Positioning System), Full Map menu. The instrument was succesfully monitoredthe flood distribution and water quality in Bengawan Solo river.

  12. Forecasting surface water flooding hazard and impact in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven J.; Moore, Robert J.; Wells, Steven C.

    2016-04-01

    Across the world, there is increasing demand for more robust and timely forecast and alert information on Surface Water Flooding (SWF). Within a UK context, the government Pitt Review into the Summer 2007 floods provided recommendations and impetus to improve the understanding of SWF risk for both off-line design and real-time forecasting and warning. Ongoing development and trial of an end-to-end real-time SWF system is being progressed through the recently formed Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP) with delivery to the Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC) providing coverage over England & Wales. The NHP is a unique forum that aims to deliver coordinated assessments, research and advice on natural hazards for governments and resilience communities across the UK. Within the NHP, a real-time Hazard Impact Model (HIM) framework has been developed that includes SWF as one of three hazards chosen for initial trialling. The trial SWF HIM system uses dynamic gridded surface-runoff estimates from the Grid-to-Grid (G2G) hydrological model to estimate the SWF hazard. National datasets on population, infrastructure, property and transport are available to assess impact severity for a given rarity of SWF hazard. Whilst the SWF hazard footprint is calculated in real-time using 1, 3 and 6 hour accumulations of G2G surface runoff on a 1 km grid, it has been possible to associate these with the effective rainfall design profiles (at 250m resolution) used as input to a detailed flood inundation model (JFlow+) run offline to produce hazard information resolved to 2m resolution. This information is contained in the updated Flood Map for Surface Water (uFMfSW) held by the Environment Agency. The national impact datasets can then be used with the uFMfSW SWF hazard dataset to assess impacts at this scale and severity levels of potential impact assigned at 1km and for aggregated county areas in real-time. The impact component is being led by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) within the NHP

  13. Piloting a real-time surface water flood nowcasting system for enhancing operational resilience of emergency responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapeng; Guan, Mingfu; Wilby, Robert; Bruce, Wright; Szegner, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Emergency services (such as Fire & Rescue, and Ambulance) can face the challenging tasks of having to respond to or operate under extreme and fast changing weather conditions, including surface water flooding. UK-wide, return period based surface water flood risk mapping undertaken by the Environment Agency provides useful information about areas at risks. Although these maps are useful for planning purposes for emergency responders, their utility to operational response during flood emergencies can be limited. A street-level, high resolution, real-time, surface water flood nowcasting system, has been piloted in the City of Leicester, UK to assess emergency response resilience to surface water flooding. Precipitation nowcasting over 7- and 48-hour horizons are obtained from the UK Met Office and used as inputs to the system. A hydro-inundation model is used to simulate urban surface water flood depths/areas at both the city and basin scale, with a 20 m and 3 m spatial resolution respectively, and a 15-minute temporal resolution, 7-hour and 48-hour in advance. Based on this, we evaluate both the direct and indirect impacts of potential surface water flood events on emergency responses, including: (i) identifying vulnerable populations (e.g. care homes and schools) at risk; and (ii) generating novel metrics of accessibility (e.g. travel time from service stations to vulnerable sites; spatial coverage with certain legislative timeframes) in real-time. In doing so, real-time information on potential risks and impacts of emerging flood incidents arising from intense rainfall can be communicated via a dedicated web-based platform to emergency responders thereby improving response times and operational resilience.

  14. ADDRESSING WATER FOOTPRINT CONCEPT: A DEMONSTRABLE STRATEGY FOR PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Shen; Xueren Qian

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of the water footprint concept in 2002, in the context of humankind’s ever-increasing awareness of the valuable global freshwater resources, it has received more and more attention. The application of this relatively new concept has been expected to provide ecological and environmental benefits. For the water-intensive papermaking industry, it seems that water footprint needs to be addressed. The water footprint of cellulosic paper can be divided into three components, ...

  15. Environmental health aspects of drinking water-borne outbreak due to karst flooding: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Gyula; Pándics, Tamás; Kádár, Mihály; Krisztalovics, Katalin; Kiss, Zoltánné; Bodnár, Judit; Asztalos, Agnes; Papp, Erzsébet

    2010-09-01

    Climate change may increase the incidence of waterborne diseases due to extreme rainfall events, and consequent microbiological contamination of the water source and supply. As a result of the complexity of the pathways from the surface to the consumer, it is difficult to detect an association between rainfall and human disease. The water supply of a Hungarian city, Miskolc (174,000 inhabitant), is mainly based on karstic water, a vulnerable underground water body. A large amount of precipitation fell on the catchment area of the karstic water source, causing an unusually strong karstic water flow and flooding, and subsequent microbiological contamination. The presence of several potential sources of contamination in the protective zone of the karstic water source should be emphasized. The water supplier was unprepared to treat the risk of waterborne outbreak caused by an extreme weather event. Public health intervention and hygienic measures were taken in line with epidemiological actions, focusing on the protection of consumers by providing safe drinking water. The contamination was identified, and measures were taken for risk reduction and prevention. This case study underlines the increasing importance of preparedness for extreme water events in order to protect the karstic water sources and to avoid waterborne outbreaks.

  16. 基于贝叶斯定理与洪水预报误差抬高水库汛限水位的风险分析%Risk analysis of raising reservoir flood limited water level based on Bayes theorem and flood forecast error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周如瑞; 卢迪; 王本德; 周惠成

    2016-01-01

    control of flood limited water level was compared with the conventional mode risk calculation results, which could be concluded that upper bound of dynamic control of flood limited water level considering forecast errors was safe and feasible. The risk method of single condition calculation was compared with Bayesian risk, which could be concluded that the proposed method was reasonable. The results showed that for the design flood level of 138.06 m, the risk rate of raising the flood limited water level as 127.80 m for flood forecast operation was 0.00077%, smaller than the original design risk rate (0.01%). It demonstrated that the risk of taking flood forecast results as discriminant index to raise the reservoir flood control level was smaller than the original routine operation risk. It was also fully proved that the Qinghe reservoir forecast operation mode used to determine the water level of reservoir flood control was safe and feasible. The upper bound of dynamic control of flood limited water level 127.80 m according to forecast operation mode in Qinghe reservoir is safe. The calculation results of single condition risk were smaller than the Bayesian posterior probability calculation, and the sum probability of mutually exclusive events was not equal to 1. Because the single condition of the completeness of time was irrespective, and the risk was calculated under the condition of incomplete calculation results. In addition, the distribution probability of flood forecast error multiplying the design flood frequency was lack of rationality. Using Bayesian formula to calculate the posterior probability had not only considered the conditions of mutually and complete event occurrence, but also combined the weighted probability, which was more reasonable than conventional irrespective of the posteriori probability calculation results. Above all, the proposed risk analysis method has certain theoretical meaning and practical value, and it can be used as the reference of

  17. The Met Office NWP-based Nowcasting Demonstration Project for the summer 2012 floods and London Olympics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan P.; Li, Zhihong; Simonin, David; Tubbs, Robert; Kelly, Graeme; Caron, Jean-Francois

    2013-04-01

    The Met Office developed a high resolution (1.5km) NWP system covering southern England and Wales for nowcasting (NDP) for the London Olympics 2012 using the Unified Model and hourly cycling 4D-Var data assimilation. The system produces 6 hour forecasts every hour. This has been running near-real-time since March 2012 on the IBM Power 6 and moved to the new IBM Power 7 in September 2012. The system uses latent heat nudging of radar derived rain rates provided every 15mins, direct assimilation in VAR of an hourly 3D cloud cover analysis and high time frequency subhourly radar Doppler winds (6 per hour), wind profiler and MSG SEVIRI upper tropospheric water vapour channels every 15mins as well as hourly surface synoptic reports and AMDAR reports. Eumetsat Satellite winds (AMVs) are used but they are very coarse horizontally and temporally eg at T-30mins only. The domain includes 8 of the UK network radars of which 5 were providing Doppler radial winds by the time of the Olympics and 4 wind. Boundary condition updates were provided every 30mins from 1.5km resolution 6hourly forecasts from a 3hourly cycling 3-km 3D-VAR for the UK region, UKV model. The NDP uses a 4D-Var data assimilation system with 1/2 UM resolution (i.e. 3km), hourly assimilation windows with 10 minute LS states, and 100 second timestep. The PF model and its adjoint have dimensions of 180 x 144 x 70. Observations are extracted in the observation time window T-30 mins to T+30 mins. The 1.5km UM (360 x 288 x 70) uses 50 sec time-stepping on 6 nodes in 12 x16 decomposition. 4D-Var increments are added to UM at the initial forecast time T-30 mins (at first UM time step). A 45 minute data cutoff was used and forecasts were available within 1 hour of nominal analysis time ie taking 15mins for observation processing, data assimilation and forecast. Summer 2012 was an excellent time to assess the skill of the system for flash flood prediction due to the extreme weather over the UK during that period

  18. 大庆油田提高原油采收率技术综述(英文)%What is After Water Flooding in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德民; 廖广志

    2001-01-01

    Many EOR methods have been tested after water flooding in Daqing Oilfield.CO2,natural gas, micellar, microbial, steam, polymer and ASP flooding have been tested in the lab and field (some field tests have been performed). Most of the results are good. CO2、natural gas、micellar are not suitable to be used in Daqing Oilfield. Polymer flooding of pilots and industrial scale have been successful. The results of polymer flooding are related closely to the injection parameters and injection methods. The incremental oil productions are 100 to 140 tons of oil per ton of polymer injected. The oil recovery increased 10% to 14%OOIP. ASP flooding is successful. The cost of chemicals per barrel of incremental oil is $4.0 to $6.2.The incremental recovery is 18% to 20% OOIP over water flooding.Daqing Oilfield;Polymer flooding;ASP flooding

  19. A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackketter, Donald [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Executive Summary An innovative 50-ton ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system was installed to provide space heating and cooling for a 56,000 square foot (5,200 square meter) building in Butte Montana, in conjunction with its heating and chiller systems. Butte is a location with winter conditions much colder than the national average. The GSHP uses flooded mine waters at 78F (25C) as the heat source and heat sink. The heat transfer performance and efficiency of the system were analyzed using data from January through July 2014. This analysis indicated that for typical winter conditions in Butte, Montana, the GSHP could deliver about 88% of the building’s annual heating needs. Compared with a baseline natural-gas/electric system, the system demonstrated at least 69% site energy savings, 38% source energy savings, 39% carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a savings of $17,000 per year (40%) in utility costs. Assuming a $10,000 per ton cost for installing a production system, the payback period at natural gas costs of $9.63/MMBtu and electricity costs of $0.08/kWh would be in the range of 40 to 50 years. At higher utility prices, or lower installation costs, the payback period would obviously be reduced.

  20. Discovering temporal patterns in water quality time series, focusing on floods with the LDA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélène Aubert, Alice; Tavenard, Romain; Emonet, Rémi; Malinowski, Simon; Guyet, Thomas; Quiniou, René; Odobez, Jean-Marc; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2013-04-01

    Studying floods has been a major issue in hydrological research for years. It is often done in terms of water quantity but it is also of interest in terms of water quality. Stream chemistry is a mix of solutes. They originate from various sources in the catchment, reach the stream by various flow pathways and are transformed by biogeochemical reactions at different locations. Therefore, we hypothesized that reaction of the stream chemistry to a rainfall event is not unique but varies according to the season (1), and the global meteorological conditions of the year (2). Identifying a typology of temporal chemical patterns of reaction to a rainfall event is a way to better understand catchment processes at the flood time scale. To answer this issue, we applied a probabilistic model (Latent Dirichlet Allocation or LDA (3)) mining recurrent sequential patterns to a dataset of floods. The dataset is 12 years long and daily recorded. It gathers a broad range of parameters from which we selected rainfall, discharge, water table depth, temperature as well as nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, sulphate and chloride concentrations. It comes from a long-term hydrological observatory (AgrHys, western France) located at Kervidy-Naizin. A set of 472 floods was automatically extracted (4). From each flood, a document has been generated that is made of a set of "hydrological words". Each hydrological word corresponds to a measurement: it is a triplet made of the considered variable, the time at which the measurement is made (relative to the beginning of the flood), and its magnitude (that can be low, medium or high). The documents are used as input data to the LDA algorithm. LDA relies on spotting co-occurrences (as an alternative to the more traditional study of correlation) between words that appear within the flood documents. It has two nice properties that are its ability to easily deal with missing data and its additive property that allows a document to be seen as a mixture

  1. Study about Interpretation Models and Algorithm of Water-Flooded Formation Based on Resistivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYinghui; TANDehui; WANGQiongfang; CAIHongjie

    2005-01-01

    Many oil fields are developed by water injection in the world, it's difficult to interpret by welllogging information. EPT and C/O identify residual oil saturation or moveable oil, but they are only fit for oil-reservoir with porosity over 20%, and not for borehole. Additionally, Archie model is not completely fit for dynamic but the static oil-reservoir. Therefore, it's more difficult for WF (Water-flooded) oil-zone (dynamic oil-reservoir) with LPP (Low porosity and low permeability) to be interpreted. Resistivity logging series are the dominating tools to WF formation, so it becomes significantly important to research new interpretation models and algorithm based on resistivity well-logging for WF oil-zone with LPP. A set of new interpretation models for WFZ (Water flooded zone) are established according to the “U” type curve from experimentation, as well as according to mathematics analysis. The notable Archie model is only one case of these new models under special conditions. It is most important that these new models are all fit from exploration stage to development stage in oil field. At last, algorithm process and application result of these models are described.

  2. Relationship of Rainfall Distribution and Water Level on Major Flood 2014 in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change gives impact on extreme hydrological events especially in extreme rainfall. This article discusses about the relationship of rainfall distribution and water level on major flood 2014 in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia in helping decision makers to flood management system. Based on DID Malaysia rainfall station, 56 stations have being use as point in this research and it is including Pahang, Terengganu, Kelantan and Perak. Data set for this study were analysed with GIS analysis using interpolation method to develop Isohyet map and XLstat statistical software for PCA and SPC analyses. The results that were obtained from the Isohyet Map for three months was mid-November, rainfall started to increase about in range of 800mm-1200mm and the intensity keep increased to 2200mm at mid-December 2014. The high rainfall intensity sense at highland that is upstream of Pahang River. The PCA and SPC analysis also indicates the high relationship between rainfall and water level of few places at Pahang River. The Sg. Yap station and Kg. Serambi station obtained the high relationship of rainfall and water level with factor loading value at 0.9330 and 0.9051 for each station. Hydrological pattern and trend are extremely affected by climate such as north east monsoon season that occurred in South China Sea and affected Pahang during November to March. The findings of this study are important to local authorities by providing basic data as guidelines to the integrated river management at Pahang River Basin.

  3. Data assimilation (4D-VAR) to forecast flood in shallow-waters with sediment erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Eric; Vincent, Alain

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the four-dimensional variational data assimilation technique (4D-VAR) is presented as a tool to forecast floods. Our study is limited to purely hydrological flows and supposes that the weather, here a big rain, has been already forecasted by meteorological services. The technique consists in minimizing, in the sense of Lagrange, the cost function: a measure of the difference between calculated data and available observations, here the water level. This is done under constraints that are the equations of the physical model. In our case, we modified the shallow-water equations to include a simplified sediment transport model. The steepest descent algorithm is then used to find the minimum. This is made possible because we can compute analytically the gradient of the cost function by using the adjoint equations of the model. As an application of the 4D-VAR technique, the overflowing of the Chicoutimi River at the Chute-Garneau dam, during the 1996 flood, is investigated. It is found that the 4D-VAR method reduces the error in the water height forecast even when the erosion model is not activated. In terms of Lyapunov exponents, we estimate the predictability horizon of such an event to be about half-an-hour after a big rain. However, this limit of predictability can be increased by using more observations or by using a finer computational grid.

  4. Contamination of water in Oliwski Stream after the flood in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej-Łukowicz Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article pollution of stream waters with surface runoff from an urbanized area caused by an extremely high rainfall is discussed. The analyzes were carried out after the rainfall of the depth 152 mm which took place in Gdańsk on 14th and 15th July 2016. This extreme rainfall caused urban flooding, damage of several retention ponds and pollution of surface waters. In the article the results of physical and chemical analyzes of the water samples from Oliwski Stream, inflowing to the Gulf of Gdańsk at the beach in Jelitkowo, are presented. The samples were collected at six points along the Stream in order to evaluate potential pollution sources. The results of the study indicated elevated concentrations of phosphorus compounds and nitrates (V. Additionally, the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS, solids granulometry and grain size distribution along the stream was investigated.

  5. The Use of Water Vapor for Detecting Environments that Lead to Convectively Produced Heavy Precipitation and Flash Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Rod; Vicente, Gilberto; Hodges, Mike

    2000-01-01

    This Tech Report summarizes years of study and experiences on using GOES Water vapor (6.7 micron and precipitable water) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/1) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) derived Precipitable Water (PNAI) for detecting environments favorable for convectively produced flash floods. An emphasis is on the moisture. upper air flow, and equivalent potential temperature (Theta(sub e)) patterns that lead to devastating flood events. The 15 minute 6.7 micron water vapor imagery is essential for tracking middle to upper tropospheric disturbances that produce upward vertical motion and initiate flash flood producing systems. Water vapor imagery at 6.7 micron is also used to detect surges of upper level moisture (called tropical water vapor plumes) that have been associated with extremely heavy rainfall. Since the water vapor readily depicts lifting mechanisms and upper level moisture, water vapor imagery is often an excellent source of data for recognizing patterns of heavy precipitation and flash floods. In order to analyze the depth of the moisture, the PW aspects of the troposphere must be measured. The collocation (or nearby location) of high values ofP\\V and instability are antecedent conditions prior to the flash flood or heavy rainfall events. Knowledge of PW magnitudes have been used as thresholds for impending flash flood events, PW trends are essential in flash flood prediction. Conceptual models and water vapor products are used to study some of the characteristics of convective systems that occurred over the United States of America (USA) during the summer of 1997 and the 1997-1998 El Nino. P\\V plumes were associated with most of the \\vest coast heavy precipitation events examined during the winter season of 1997 - 1998, In another study, conducted during the summer season of 1997. results showed that the collocation of water vapor (6.7 micron) and P\\N' plumes possessed higher correlations with predicted

  6. Effect of Water Flooding on the Oviposition Capacity of Engorged Adult Females and Hatchability of Eggs of Dog Ticks: Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis leachi leachi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson O. Adejinmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water flooding on the oviposition capacity of engorged adult females and hatchability of eggs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis leachi leachi under laboratory conditions were investigated. The durations of time of water flooding were 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Engorged females of R. sanguineus and H. leachi leachi did not oviposit after being flooded for more than 48 and 6 hours, respectively. The preoviposition periods of both species were longer than those of their controls. The number of eggs laid were significantly lower (<.05 and higher (<.05 than their controls, respectively, for R. sanguineus and H. leachi leachi flooded for 1–4 hours. The hatchability of eggs of both species decreased as flooding time increased. The percentage of hatchability was negatively correlated with flooding time and was highly significant (=−0.97; <.10. It is concluded that R. sanguineus tolerated simulated water flooding more than H. leachi leachi.

  7. Irrigation with oxygen-nanobubble water can reduce methane emission and arsenic dissolution in a flooded rice paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masayoshi; Makino, Tomoyuki; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2015-08-01

    A remarkable feature of nanobubbles (arsenic, an environmental load. We tested this hypothesis by performing a pot experiment and measuring redox-related variables. The NBs were introduced into control water (with properties similar to those of river water) using a commercially available generator. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth did not differ between plants irrigated with NB water and those irrigated with control water, but NB water significantly (p plants, soil reduction was not enhanced, regardless of the water type. The results indicate that NB water reduced CH4 emission and arsenic dissolution through an oxidative shift of the redox conditions in the flooded soil. We propose the use of NB water as a tool for controlling redox conditions in flooded paddy soils.

  8. 水利建筑工程中的防汛对策%Flood Prevention Countermeasure of Water Construction Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆喜

    2015-01-01

    The flood control level of water conservancy project has an important impact on the overall work of flood prevention, but there are some issues in the current flood prevention work that hinder the further improvement of the flood prevention level. In order to reduce the harm of flood to social production, we should pay adequate attention to flood prevention work, take effective measures for the construction of flood control projects, so as to reduce unnecessary losses.%水利工程的防汛水平对我国整体的防汛工作有着重要的影响,但是当前的防汛工作中存在着一些问题,阻碍着防汛工作水平的进一步提高。为了减少洪水为社会生产带来的危害,应当对防汛工作给予足够的重视,采取有效的措施进行防汛工程的建设,减少不必要的损失。

  9. Spatially distributed modelling of surface water-groundwater exchanges during overbank flood events - a case study at the Garonne River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Brito, David; Sun, Xiaoling; Jauch, Eduardo; Neves, Ramiro; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, José-Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Exchanges between surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) are of considerable importance to floodplain ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. Flood events in particular are important for riparian water budget and element exchanges and processing. However SW-GW exchanges present complex spatial and temporal patterns and modelling can provide useful knowledge about the processes involved at the scale of the reach and its adjacent floodplain. This study used a physically-based, spatially-distributed modelling approach for studying SW-GW exchanges. The modelling in this study is based on the MOHID Land model, combining the modelling of surface water flow in 2D with the Saint-Venant equation and the modelling of unsaturated groundwater flow in 3D with the Richards' equation. Overbank flow during floods was also integrated, as well as water exchanges between the two domains across the entire floodplain. Conservative transport simulations were also performed to study and validate the simulation of the mixing between surface water and groundwater. The model was applied to the well-monitored study site of Monbéqui (6.6 km²) in the Garonne floodplain (south-west France) for a five-month period and was able to represent the hydrology of the study area. Infiltration (SW to GW) and exfiltration (SW to GW) were characterised over the five-month period. Results showed that infiltration and exfiltration exhibited strong spatiotemporal variations, and infiltration from overbank flow accounted for 88% of the total simulated infiltration, corresponding to large flood periods. The results confirmed that overbank flood events played a determinant role in floodplain water budget and SW-GW exchanges compared to smaller (below bankfull) flood events. The impact of floods on water budget appeared to be similar for flood events exceeding a threshold corresponding to the five-year return period event due to the study area's topography. Simulation of overbank flow during flood events was an

  10. Uncertainty in the Himalayan energy-water nexus: estimating regional exposure to glacial lake outburst floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Himalayan water resources attract a rapidly growing number of hydroelectric power projects (HPP) to satisfy Asia’s soaring energy demands. Yet HPP operating or planned in steep, glacier-fed mountain rivers face hazards of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that can damage hydropower infrastructure, alter water and sediment yields, and compromise livelihoods downstream. Detailed appraisals of such GLOF hazards are limited to case studies, however, and a more comprehensive, systematic analysis remains elusive. To this end we estimate the regional exposure of 257 Himalayan HPP to GLOFs, using a flood-wave propagation model fed by Monte Carlo-derived outburst volumes of >2300 glacial lakes. We interpret the spread of thus modeled peak discharges as a predictive uncertainty that arises mainly from outburst volumes and dam-breach rates that are difficult to assess before dams fail. With 66% of sampled HPP are on potential GLOF tracks, up to one third of these HPP could experience GLOF discharges well above local design floods, as hydropower development continues to seek higher sites closer to glacial lakes. We compute that this systematic push of HPP into headwaters effectively doubles the uncertainty about GLOF peak discharge in these locations. Peak discharges farther downstream, in contrast, are easier to predict because GLOF waves attenuate rapidly. Considering this systematic pattern of regional GLOF exposure might aid the site selection of future Himalayan HPP. Our method can augment, and help to regularly update, current hazard assessments, given that global warming is likely changing the number and size of Himalayan meltwater lakes.

  11. Parts-based geophysical inversion with application to water flooding interface detection and geological facies detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei

    I built parts-based and manifold based mathematical learning model for the geophysical inverse problem and I applied this approach to two problems. One is related to the detection of the oil-water encroachment front during the water flooding of an oil reservoir. In this application, I propose a new 4D inversion approach based on the Gauss-Newton approach to invert time-lapse cross-well resistance data. The goal of this study is to image the position of the oil-water encroachment front in a heterogeneous clayey sand reservoir. This approach is based on explicitly connecting the change of resistivity to the petrophysical properties controlling the position of the front (porosity and permeability) and to the saturation of the water phase through a petrophysical resistivity model accounting for bulk and surface conductivity contributions and saturation. The distributions of the permeability and porosity are also inverted using the time-lapse resistivity data in order to better reconstruct the position of the oil water encroachment front. In our synthetic test case, we get a better position of the front with the by-products of porosity and permeability inferences near the flow trajectory and close to the wells. The numerical simulations show that the position of the front is recovered well but the distribution of the recovered porosity and permeability is only fair. A comparison with a commercial code based on a classical Gauss-Newton approach with no information provided by the two-phase flow model fails to recover the position of the front. The new approach could be also used for the time-lapse monitoring of various processes in both geothermal fields and oil and gas reservoirs using a combination of geophysical methods. A paper has been published in Geophysical Journal International on this topic and I am the first author of this paper. The second application is related to the detection of geological facies boundaries and their deforation to satisfy to geophysica

  12. Characterizing 13 Years of Surface Water Variability from MODIS-based Near Real-Time Flood Mapping Products in the Indus River, Tonle Sap Lake, and Lake Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Policelli, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Driven by an increase in extreme weather events in a warming world, flooding appears to be increasing in many regions. Since 2012, we have been using the twice-daily near-global observations of the two MODIS instruments to operate a near real-time flood mapping capability. Primarily intended to support disaster response efforts, our system generates daily near-global maps of flood water extent, at 250 m resolution. Although cloud cover is a challenge, the twice-daily coverage from the Terra and Aqua satellites helps to capture most major events. We use the MOD44W product (the "MODIS 250-m land-water mask") to differentiate "normal" water from flood water. Products from the system are freely available, and used by disaster response agencies and academic and industry researchers. An open question, however, is: how "normal" are recently observed floods? Destructive and — as reported by the press — record floods seem to be occurring more and more frequently. With the MODIS archive going back to 1999 (Terra satellite) and 2002 (Aqua satellite), we now have more than a decade of twice-daily near-global observations to begin answering this question. Although the 13 years of available twice-daily data (2002-2015) are not sufficient to fully characterize surface water normals (e.g., 100-year floods), we can start examining recent trends in surface water extent and flood frequency. To do so, we have back-processed our surface water product through mid-2002 (Aqua launch) for a few regions, and have used this to evaluate the variability in surface water extent and flood frequency. These results will eventually feed back into an improved characterization of flood water in our near real-time flood product. Here we will present results on trends in surface water extent and flood frequency for a few regions, including the Indus in Pakistan, the Tonle Sap lake in Cambodia, and lake Chad in Africa.

  13. Shoreside Boiler Demonstration of Fuel-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    34Fuel/Water Emulsions," Principal Investigator, Professor H.S. Fogler , Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan...Bertin Emulsifier," Symposium on Emuls- ified Fuels in Combustion, DOT/TSC, Cambridge, Massachusetts, * September, 1978. * Watts, R., and Scott , W.M

  14. The flooding incident at the Aagesta pressurized heavy water nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, C. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1996-03-01

    This work is an independent investigation of the consequences of the flooding incident at the Aagesta HPWR, Stockholm in May 1969. The basis for the report is an incident in which, due to short circuits in the wiring because of flooding water, the ECCS is momentarily subjected to a pressure much higher than designed for. The hypothetical scenario analyzed here is the case in which the ECCS breaks due to the high pressure. As a consequence of the break, the pressure and the water level in the reactor vessel decrease. The report is divided into three parts; First the Aagesta HPWR is described as well as the chronology of the incident, an analysis of the effects of a hypothetical break in the ECCS is then developed. The second part is a scoping analysis of the incident, modeling the pressure decrease and mass flow rate out of the break. The heat-up of the core, and the core degradation was modeled as well. The third part is formed by a RELAP5/MOD3.1 modeling of the Aagesta HPWR. 18 refs.

  15. Managing urban water crises: adaptive policy responses to drought and flood in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Head

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, I examine the quality of decision-making under conditions of rapidly evolving urban water crises, and the adaptive policy challenges of building regional resilience in response to both drought and flood. Like other regions of Australia, Southeast Queensland has been subject to substantial cycles of drought and flood. I draw on resilience literature concerning sustainability, together with governance literature on policy change, to explain the changing awareness of urban water crises and the strategic options available for addressing these crises in this case study. The problem of resilience thinking opens up a number of important questions about the efficacy and adaptability of the policy system. The case provides insights into the interplay between the ways in which problems are framed, the knowledge bases required for planning and decision-making, the collaborative governance processes required for managing complex and rapidly evolving issues, and the overall capacity for policy learning over time. Regional resilience was proclaimed as a policy goal by government, but the practices remained largely anchored in traditional technical frameworks. Centralized investment decisions and governance restructures provoked conflict between levels of government, undermining the capacity of stakeholders to create more consensual approaches to problem-solving and limiting the collective learning that could have emerged.

  16. Numerical simulation of shallow-water flooding using a two-dimensional finite volume model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Bing; SUN Jian; YUAN De-kui; TAO Jian-hua

    2013-01-01

    A 2-D Finite Volume Model (FVM) is developed for shallow water flows over a complex topography with wetting and drying processes.The numerical fluxes are computed using the Harten,Lax,and van Leer (HLL) approximate Riemann solver.Second-order accuracy is achieved by employing the MUSCL reconstruction method with a slope limiter in space and an explicit two-stage Runge-Kutta method for time integration.A simple and efficient method is introduced to deal with the wetting and drying processes without any correction of the numerical flux term or the source term.In this new method,a switch of alternative schemes is used to compute the water depths at the cell interface to obtain the numerical flux.The model is verified against benchmark tests with analytical solutions and laboratory experimental data.The numerical results show that the model can simulate different types of flood waves from the ideal flood wave to cases over complex terrains.The satisfactory performance indicates an extensive application prospect of the present model in view of its simplicity and effectiveness.

  17. Flood analysis in mixed-urban areas reflecting interactions with the complete water cycle through coupled hydrologic-hydraulic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sto Domingo, N D; Refsgaard, A; Mark, O; Paludan, B

    2010-01-01

    The potential devastating effects of urban flooding have given high importance to thorough understanding and management of water movement within catchments, and computer modelling tools have found widespread use for this purpose. The state-of-the-art in urban flood modelling is the use of a coupled 1D pipe and 2D overland flow model to simultaneously represent pipe and surface flows. This method has been found to be accurate for highly paved areas, but inappropriate when land hydrology is important. The objectives of this study are to introduce a new urban flood modelling procedure that is able to reflect system interactions with hydrology, verify that the new procedure operates well, and underline the importance of considering the complete water cycle in urban flood analysis. A physically-based and distributed hydrological model was linked to a drainage network model for urban flood analysis, and the essential components and concepts used were described in this study. The procedure was then applied to a catchment previously modelled with the traditional 1D-2D procedure to determine if the new method performs similarly well. Then, results from applying the new method in a mixed-urban area were analyzed to determine how important hydrologic contributions are to flooding in the area.

  18. Poster abstract: Water level estimation in urban ultrasonic/passive infrared flash flood sensor networks using supervised learning

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a machine learning approach to water level estimation in a dual ultrasonic/passive infrared urban flood sensor system. We first show that an ultrasonic rangefinder alone is unable to accurately measure the level of water on a road due to thermal effects. Using additional passive infrared sensors, we show that ground temperature and local sensor temperature measurements are sufficient to correct the rangefinder readings and improve the flood detection performance. Since floods occur very rarely, we use a supervised learning approach to estimate the correction to the ultrasonic rangefinder caused by temperature fluctuations. Preliminary data shows that water level can be estimated with an absolute error of less than 2 cm. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. A new approach of proration-injection allocation for water-flooding mature oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyong Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of injection-production allocation estimation for water-flooding mature oilfields. The suggested approach is based on logistic growth rate functions and several type-curve matching methods. Using the relationship between these equations, oil production and water injection rate as well as injection-production ratio can be easily forecasted. The calculation procedure developed and outlined in this paper requires very few production data and is easily implemented. Furthermore, an oilfield case has been analyzed. The synthetic and field cases validate the calculation procedure, so it can be accurately used in forecasting production data, and it is important to optimize the whole injection-production system.

  20. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding as water levels in the country's huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued. As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage areas of the Yangtze River had exceeded 50 mm,after three rounds of rainstorms,said Cai Qihua,Deputy Director of the Yangtze River Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters.

  1. Formation of Martian flood features by release of water from confined aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    It is proposed that the rapid release of water under great pressure from deeply buried aquifers is responsible for the formation of the Martian channels suggestive of catastrophic flooding (outflow channels). Fine channels in the Martian surface suggest the presence of surface water early in the history of the planet, which would have entered the ground water system through the porous near-surface rocks. Subsequent global cooling would have trapped the ground water under a thick permafrost layer and formed a system of confined aquifers. High pore pressures within the aquifers are considered to have triggered the breakout of water from the aquifers at rates of from 10 to the 5th to 10 to the 7th cu m/sec, which would be prevented from reentering the ground water system by the layer of permafrost. Outflow from the aquifer is also considered to have caused the undermining of adjacent areas and the collapse of the surface to form areas of chaos, often associated with channels.

  2. Formation of Martian flood features by release of water from confined aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    It is proposed that the rapid release of water under great pressure from deeply buried aquifers is responsible for the formation of the Martian channels suggestive of catastrophic flooding (outflow channels). Fine channels in the Martian surface suggest the presence of surface water early in the history of the planet, which would have entered the ground water system through the porous near-surface rocks. Subsequent global cooling would have trapped the ground water under a thick permafrost layer and formed a system of confined aquifers. High pore pressures within the aquifers are considered to have triggered the breakout of water from the aquifers at rates of from 10 to the 5th to 10 to the 7th cu m/sec, which would be prevented from reentering the ground water system by the layer of permafrost. Outflow from the aquifer is also considered to have caused the undermining of adjacent areas and the collapse of the surface to form areas of chaos, often associated with channels.

  3. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during periods of high magnitude floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, T.; Lepikhin, A.; Parshakova, Ya.; Tiunov, A.

    2016-03-01

    The risk of river pollution due to washout (removal of pollutants) from contaminated floodplain water bodies (floodplain lakes and quarries whose origin is related to the large-scale mining of nonmetallic building materials in the floodplain zone) during high magnitude flood periods is analyzed using a combination of one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling and in situ measurements. The modeling performed for the floodplain water bodies contaminated by N compounds shows that during large magnitude floods washout occurs. The washout process consists of two stages: an initial rapid stage lasting about two hours during which the upper (3-4 m thick) layer is washed out, followed by a second stage when the concentration of NH4-N in the floodplain water body remains nearly constant. The maximum contaminant concentration in the river in the vicinity of a water intake for drinking water located 21 km downstream is attained about 9 h from the beginning of the flood; concentration of NH4-N can reach values several times larger than acceptable concentration guidelines. The initial primary peak in contaminant concentration at the water intake is followed by a slight decrease in contaminant concentration; a second peak related to the contaminant transport through the inundated floodplain subsequently occurs, after which the concentration slowly decreases, reaching acceptable values after 30-40 h. Contaminated floodplain water bodies located near drinking water supply systems are not significant sources of contamination during small and moderate floods, but during high magnitude floods, they can become sources of water pollution. Operational measures that can decrease potential health risks are discussed.

  4. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Observations into a Land Surface Model for the Assessment of Regional Flood Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reager, John T.; Thomas, Alys C.; Sproles, Eric A.; Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Li, Bailing; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate performance of the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) under flood conditions after the assimilation of observations of the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Assimilation offers three key benefits for the viability of GRACE observations to operational applications: (1) near-real time analysis; (2) a downscaling of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution; and (3) state disaggregation of the vertically-integrated TWSA. We select the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin as a case study, and find that assimilation generally made the model wetter in the months preceding flood. We compare model outputs with observations from 14 USGS groundwater wells to assess improvements after assimilation. Finally, we examine disaggregated water storage information to improve the mechanistic understanding of event generation. Validation establishes that assimilation improved the model skill substantially, increasing regional groundwater anomaly correlation from 0.58 to 0.86. For the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin, results show that groundwater and snow water equivalent were contributors to pre-event flood potential, providing spatially-distributed early warning information.

  5. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Observations into a Land Surface Model for the Assessment of Regional Flood Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reager, John T.; Thomas, Alys C.; Sproles, Eric A.; Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Li, Bailing; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate performance of the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) under flood conditions after the assimilation of observations of the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Assimilation offers three key benefits for the viability of GRACE observations to operational applications: (1) near-real time analysis; (2) a downscaling of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution; and (3) state disaggregation of the vertically-integrated TWSA. We select the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin as a case study, and find that assimilation generally made the model wetter in the months preceding flood. We compare model outputs with observations from 14 USGS groundwater wells to assess improvements after assimilation. Finally, we examine disaggregated water storage information to improve the mechanistic understanding of event generation. Validation establishes that assimilation improved the model skill substantially, increasing regional groundwater anomaly correlation from 0.58 to 0.86. For the 2011 flood event in the Missouri river basin, results show that groundwater and snow water equivalent were contributors to pre-event flood potential, providing spatially-distributed early warning information.

  6. Estimation of the possible flood discharge and volume of stormwater for designing water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzhner, Felix; Kadmon, Avri

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of good-quality water resources is an important issue in arid and semiarid zones. Stormwater-harvesting systems that are capable of delivering good-quality wastewater for non-potable uses while taking into account environmental and health requirements must be developed. For this reason, the availability of water resources of marginal quality, like stormwater, can be a significant contribution to the water supply. Current stormwater management practices in the world require the creation of control systems that monitor quality and quantity of the water and the development of stormwater basins to store increased runoff volumes. Public health and safety considerations should be considered. Urban and suburban development, with the creation of buildings and roads and innumerable related activities, turns rain and snow into unwitting agents of damage to our nation's waterways. This urban and suburban runoff, legally known as stormwater, is one of the most significant sources of water pollution in the world. Based on various factors like water quality, runoff flow rate and speed, and the topography involved, stormwater can be directed into basins, purification plants, or to the sea. Accurate floodplain maps are the key to better floodplain management. The aim of this work is to use geographic information systems (GIS) to monitor and control the effect of stormwater. The graphic and mapping capabilities of GIS provide strong tools for conveying information and forecasts of different storm-water flow and buildup scenarios. Analyses of hydrologic processes, rainfall simulations, and spatial patterns of water resources were performed with GIS, which means, based on integrated data set, the flow of the water was introduced into the GIS. Two cases in Israel were analyzed--the Hula Project (the Jordan River floods over the peat soil area) and the Kishon River floodplains as it existed in the Yizrael Valley.

  7. On the predictability of high water level along the US East Coast: can the Florida Current measurement be an indicator for flooding caused by remote forcing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Atkinson, Larry P.

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies show that in addition to wind and air pressure effects, a significant portion of the variability of coastal sea level (CSL) along the US East Coast can be attributed to non-local factors such as variations in the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic circulation; these variations can cause unpredictable coastal flooding. The Florida Current transport (FCT) measurement across the Florida Straits monitors those variations, and thus, the study evaluated the potential of using the FCT as an indicator for anomalously high water level along the coast. Hourly water level data from 12 tide gauge stations over 12 years are used to construct records of maximum daily water levels (MDWL) that are compared with the daily FCT data. An empirical mode decomposition (EMD) approach is used to divide the data into high-frequency modes (periods T flooding events; it is estimated that ˜10-25% of the sea level variability in those modes can be attributed to variations in the FCT. An example from Hurricane Joaquin (September-October, 2015) demonstrates how an offshore storm that never made landfall can cause a weakening of the FCT and unexpected high water level and flooding along the US East Coast. A regression-prediction model based on the MDWL-FCT correlation shows some skill in estimating high water levels during past storms; the water level prediction is more accurate for slow-moving and offshore storms than it is for fast-moving storms. The study can help to improve water level prediction since current storm surge models rely on local wind but may ignore remote forcing.

  8. Assessment of spring floods and surface water extent over the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofaier, A. M.; Bartsch, A.; Rees, W. G.; Leibman, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing of Arctic water bodies is an essential method for monitoring the dynamics of frozen ground. Thaw lake change provides insight into the state of permafrost. In the vast Arctic and sub-Arctic areas capturing changes in lake extent is assisted by satellite data. In particular, active microwave sensors can be used in a straightforward manner for water body classifications. This study uses the pan-Siberian datasets that are provided under the ESA STSE-ALANIS methane project. Surface water classifications in 10-day intervals have been produced using Envisat ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) operating in wide swath mode. The high temporal frequency of these data allows an investigation of surface hydrology on an intra-annual basis. The current study applies a post-processing algorithm to the ALANIS products in order to investigate changes in surface inundation across the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District over the summer period of 2007. Multiple areas are found to exhibit changes in surface inundation. Strong seasonal variations occur in areas where previous investigations determined disappearing lakes. Spring floods associated with the depletion of snow-cover and melt waters as well as floodplain dynamics can be identified. On the Yamal peninsula, these changes occur most dominantly in the west; an area subject to anthropogenic land-use change. Changes in water body extent for each hot spot of seasonal variations are quantified and discussed.

  9. The symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis drives root water transport in flooded tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Molina, Sonia; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    It is known that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the plant roots enhances the tolerance of the host plant to different environmental stresses, although the positive effect of the fungi in plants under waterlogged conditions has not been well studied. Tolerance of plants to flooding can be achieved through different molecular, physiological and anatomical adaptations, which will affect their water uptake capacity and therefore their root hydraulic properties. Here, we investigated the root hydraulic properties under non-flooded and flooded conditions in non-mycorrhizal tomato plants and plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Only flooded mycorrhizal plants increased their root hydraulic conductivity, and this effect was correlated with a higher expression of the plant aquaporin SlPIP1;7 and the fungal aquaporin GintAQP1. There was also a higher abundance of the PIP2 protein phoshorylated at Ser280 in mycorrhizal flooded plants. The role of plant hormones (ethylene, ABA and IAA) in root hydraulic properties was also taken into consideration, and it was concluded that, in mycorrhizal flooded plants, ethylene has a secondary role regulating root hydraulic conductivity whereas IAA may be the key hormone that allows the enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity in mycorrhizal plants under low oxygen conditions.

  10. Prevention of the water flooding by micronizing the pore structure of gas diffusion layer for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramitsu, Yusuke; Sato, Hitoshi; Hori, Michio

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cells, high humidity must be established to maintain high proton conductivity in the polymer electrolyte. However, the water that is produced electrochemically at the cathode catalyst layer can condense in the cell and cause an obstruction to the diffusion of reaction gas in the gas diffusion layer and the gas channel. This leads to a sudden decrease of the cell voltage. To combat this, strict water management techniques are required, which usually focus on the gas diffusion layer. In this study, the use of specially treated carbon paper as a flood-proof gas diffusion layer under extremely high humidity conditions was investigated experimentally. The results indicated that flooding originates at the interface between the gas diffusion layer and the catalyst layer, and that such flooding could be eliminated by control of the pore size in the gas diffusion layer at this interface.

  11. Natural flood risk management in flashy headwater catchments: managing runoff peaks, timing, water quality and sediment regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Addy, Steve; Ghimire, Sohan; Kenyon, Wendy; Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Stutter, Marc; Watson, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade many European catchments have experienced an unusually high number of flood events. A large number of these events are the result of intense rainfall in small headwater catchments which are dominated by surface runoff generation, resulting in flash flooding of local communities. Soil erosion and related water quality issues, among others, are typically associated with such rapid runoff generation. The hazard of flooding is increasing owing to impacts of changing climatic patterns (including more intense summer storms), intensification of agriculture within rural catchments and continued pressure to build on floodplains. Concurrently, the cost of constructing and maintaining traditional flood defences in small communities outweigh the potential benefits. Hence, there is a growing interest in more cost effective natural approaches that also have multipurpose benefits in terms of sediment, water quality, and habitat creation. Many catchments in Europe are intensively farmed and there is great potential for agriculture to be part of the solution to flood risk management. Natural flood management (NFM) is the alteration, restoration or use of landscape features with the aim of reducing flood risk by slowing down, storing (and filtering) rapid surface runoff. NFM includes measures such as temporarily storing water in ponds/wetlands, increasing soil infiltration, planting trees on floodplains and within catchments, re-meandering and wood placements in streams/ditches. In this presentation we highlight case studies from densely instrumented research sites across the UK (which could be typical of many European catchments) where NFM measures have been installed in small scale flashy catchments. The presentation will give an overview of the function of these measures in these catchments and how other multiple benefits are being accrued. Study catchments include the headwater catchments of the Bowmont (3 to 8 km2) and Belford Burn (6 km2) catchments. These

  12. Flood simulation and verification with IoT sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Hao; Hsu, Chih-Tsung; Wu, Shiang-Jen; Huang, Sue-Wei

    2017-04-01

    2D flood dynamic simulation is a vivid tool to demonstrate the possible expose area that sustain impact of high rise of water level. Along with progress in high resolution digital terrain model, the simulation results are quite convinced yet not proved to be close to what is really happened. Due to the dynamic and uncertain essence, the expose area usually could not be well defined during a flood event. Recent development in IoT sensors bring a low power and long distance communication which help us to collect real time flood depths. With these time series of flood depths at different locations, we are capable of verifying the simulation results corresponding to the flood event. 16 flood gauges with IoT specification as well as two flood events in Annan district, Tainan city, Taiwan are examined in this study. During the event in 11, June, 2016, 12 flood gauges works well and 8 of them provide observation match to simulation.

  13. The role of water and sediment connectivity in integrated flood management: a case study on the island of Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Victor; van Westen, Cees; Ettema, Janneke; van den Bout, Bastian

    2016-04-01

    Disaster Risk Management combines the effects of natural hazards in time and space, with elements at risk, such as ourselves, infrastructure or other elements that have a value in our society. The risk in this case is defined as the sum of potential consequences of one or more hazards and can be expressed as potential damages. Generally, we attempt to reduce risk by better risk management, such as increase of resilience, protection and spatial planning. Caribbean islands are hit by hurricanes and tropical storms with a frequency of 1 to 2 every 10 years, with devastating consequences in terms of flash floods and landslides. The islands basically consist of a central (volcanic) mountain range, with medium and small sized catchments radiating outward towards the ocean. The coastal zone is inhabited, while the ring road network is essential for functioning of the island. An example of a case study is given for the island of Saint Lucia. Recorded rainfall intensities during tropical storms of 12 rainfall stations surpass 200 mm/h, causing immediate flash floods. Very often however, sediment is a forgotten variable in flash flood management: protection and mitigation measures as well as spatial planning all focus on the hydrology, the extent and depth of flood water, and sometimes of flood velocities. With recent developments, the opensource model LISEM includes hydrology and runoff, flooding, and erosion, transport and deposition both in runoff, channel flow and flood waters. We will discuss the practical solutions we implemented in connecting slopes, river channels and floodplains in terms of water and sediment, and the strength and weaknesses we have encountered so far. Catchment analysis shows two main effects: on the one hand in almost all cases upstream flooding serves as a temporary water storage that prevents further damage downstream, while on the other hand, erosion upstream often blocks bridges and decreases channel storage downstream, which increases the

  14. The European flood risk management plan : Between spatial planning and water engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Thomas; Juepner, R.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the extreme flood events of recent decades, the European Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) requires Member States of the European Union to develop Flood Risk Management Plans (Dworak & Görlach 2005). These plans need to be in place by 2015 and set‘appropriate objectives for the management

  15. The European flood risk management plan : Between spatial planning and water engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Thomas; Juepner, R.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the extreme flood events of recent decades, the European Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) requires Member States of the European Union to develop Flood Risk Management Plans (Dworak & Görlach 2005). These plans need to be in place by 2015 and set‘appropriate objectives for the management

  16. Project house water: a novel interdisciplinary framework to assess the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of flood-related impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sarah E; Cofalla, Catrina Brüll Nee; Aumeier, Benedikt; Brinkmann, Markus; Classen, Elisa; Esser, Verena; Ganal, Caroline; Kaip, Elena; Häussling, Roger; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Letmathe, Peter; Müller, Anne-Katrin; Rabinovitch, Ilja; Reicherter, Klaus; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Schmitt, Marco; Stauch, Georg; Wessling, Matthias; Yüce, Süleyman; Hecker, Markus; Kidd, Karen A; Altenburger, Rolf; Brack, Werner; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Hollert, Henner

    2017-01-01

    Protecting our water resources in terms of quality and quantity is considered one of the big challenges of the twenty-first century, which requires global and multidisciplinary solutions. A specific threat to water resources, in particular, is the increased occurrence and frequency of flood events due to climate change which has significant environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In addition to climate change, flooding (or subsequent erosion and run-off) may be exacerbated by, or result from, land use activities, obstruction of waterways, or urbanization of floodplains, as well as mining and other anthropogenic activities that alter natural flow regimes. Climate change and other anthropogenic induced flood events threaten the quantity of water as well as the quality of ecosystems and associated aquatic life. The quality of water can be significantly reduced through the unintentional distribution of pollutants, damage of infrastructure, and distribution of sediments and suspended materials during flood events. To understand and predict how flood events and associated distribution of pollutants may impact ecosystem and human health, as well as infrastructure, large-scale interdisciplinary collaborative efforts are required, which involve ecotoxicologists, hydrologists, chemists, geoscientists, water engineers, and socioeconomists. The research network "project house water" consists of a number of experts from a wide range of disciplines and was established to improve our current understanding of flood events and associated societal and environmental impacts. The concept of project house and similar seed fund and boost fund projects was established by the RWTH Aachen University within the framework of the German excellence initiative with support of the German research foundation (DFG) to promote and fund interdisciplinary research projects and provide a platform for scientists to collaborate on innovative, challenging research. Project house water consists of six

  17. Preliminary assessment of water chemistry related to groundwater flooding in Wawarsing, New York, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig J.; Eckhardt, David A.; Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Water-quality samples collected in an area prone to groundwater flooding in Wawarsing, New York, were analyzed and assessed to better understand the hydrologic system and to aid in the assessment of contributing water sources. Above average rainfall over the past decade, and the presence of a pressurized water tunnel that passes about 700 feet beneath Wawarsing, could both contribute to groundwater flooding. Water samples were collected from surface-water bodies, springs, and wells and analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents, dissolved gases, age tracers, and stable isotopes. Distinct differences in chemistry exist between tunnel water and groundwater in unconsolidated deposits and in bedrock, and among groundwater samples collected from some bedrock wells during high head pressure and low head pressure of the Rondout-West Branch Tunnel. Samples from bedrock wells generally had relatively higher concentrations of sulfate (SO42-), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and lower concentrations of calcium (Ca) and bicarbonate (HCO3-), as compared to unconsolidated wells. Differences in stable-isotope ratios among oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 (δ18O), hydrogen-2 to hydrogen-1 (δ2H), sulfur-34 to sulfur-32(δ34S) of SO42-, Sr-87 to Sr-86 (87Sr/86Sr), and C-13 to C-12 (δ13C) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) indicate a potential for distinguishing water in the Delaware-West Branch Tunnel from native groundwater. For example, 87Sr/86Sr ratios were more depleted in groundwater samples from most bedrock wells, as compared to samples from surface-water sources, springs, and wells screened in unconsolidated deposits in the study area. Age-tracer data provided useful information on pathways of the groundwater-flow system, but were limited by inherent problems with dissolved gases in bedrock wells. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and (or) chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) apparent recharge years of most water samples from wells screened in unconsolidated deposits and springs ranged

  18. Influence of urban surface properties and rainfall characteristics on surface water flood outputs - insights from a physical modelling environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Pattison, Ian; Yu, Dapeng

    2017-04-01

    Surface water (pluvial) flooding occurs when excess rainfall from intense precipitation events is unable to infiltrate into the subsurface or drain via natural or artificial drainage channels. Surface water flood events pose a major hazard to urban regions across the world, with nearly two thirds of flood damages in the UK being caused by surface water flood events. The perceived risk of surface water flooding appears to have increased in recent years due to several factors, including (i) precipitation increases associated with climatic change and variability; (ii) population growth meaning more people are occupying flood risk areas, and; (iii) land-use changes. Because urban areas are often associated with a high proportion of impermeable land-uses (e.g. tarmacked or paved surfaces and buildings) and a reduced coverage of vegetated, permeable surfaces, urban surface water flood risk during high intensity precipitation events is often exacerbated. To investigate the influence of urbanisation and terrestrial factors on surface water flood outputs, rainfall intensity, catchment slope, permeability, building density/layout scenarios were designed within a novel, 9m2 physical modelling environment. The two-tiered physical model used consists of (i) a low-cost, nozzle-type rainfall simulator component which is able to simulate consistent, uniformly distributed rainfall events of varying duration and intensity, and; (ii) a reconfigurable, modular plot surface. All experiments within the physical modelling environment were subjected to a spatiotemporally uniform 45-minute simulated rainfall event, while terrestrial factors on the physical model plot surface were altered systematically to investigate their hydrological response on modelled outflow and depth profiles. Results from the closed, controlled physical modelling experiments suggest that meteorological factors, such as the duration and intensity of simulated rainfall, and terrestrial factors, such as model slope

  19. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  20. The cumulative impacts of repeated heavy rainfall, flooding and altered water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, I R; Sommer, B; Zann, M; Zhao, J-X; Pandolfi, J M

    2015-07-15

    Terrestrial runoff and flooding have resulted in major impacts on coral communities worldwide, but we lack detailed understanding of flood plume conditions and their ecological effects. Over the course of repeated flooding between 2010 and 2013, we measured coral cover and water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia. In 2013, salinity, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were altered for up to six months post-flooding. Submarine groundwater caused hypo-saline conditions for a further four months. Despite the greater magnitude of flooding in 2013, declines in coral abundance (∼28%) from these floods were lower than the 2011 flood (∼40%), which occurred immediately after a decade of severe drought. There was an overall cumulative decrease of coral by ∼56% from 2010 to 2013. Our study highlights the need for local scale monitoring and research to facilitate informed management and conservation of catchments and marine environments.

  1. One-dimensional phenomenological model for liquid water flooding in cathode gas channel of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Rensink, D.; Fell, S.

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical description of liquid water flooding in the gas channel (GC) of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) at the macro scale has remained a challenge up to now. The mist flow assumption in the GC has been commonly used in previous numerical studies. In this work, a one-dimensional (dow

  2. Scour hole ('wielen') sediments as historical archive of floods, vegetation, and air and water quality in lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, Holger; van Hoof, Thomas; Bunnik, Frans; Donders, Timme

    2010-01-01

    The sediment record from a maximum 18 m deep scour hole lake (Haarsteegse Wiel) near the embanked Meuse River in the Netherlands was studied for past changes in flooding frequency, water quality, and landscape change using a combined geochemical, geobiological and historical approach. The results ar

  3. Planning support for reducing risks related to flooding and water quality in the City of Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, Ulla; Lundgren, Kajsa; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    The urbanization trend during the last decades have several environmental impacts, particularly associated with increasing runoff and flood hazard, and decreasing water quality. These topics have been investigated all around the world, but relatively little is known about the impacts of urban development at the early stage of the urban planning in cities. This project aims to develop planning support tools for addressing impacts of different urbanization patterns in alternative planning scenarios on surface water within the City of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. With the help of urban planners at the municipality, alternative future urban scenarios will be created and assessed from a hydro-meteorological risk assessment perspective. The scenarios will include alternative development patterns for buildings, infrastructure and supply of several regulating and cultural ecosystem services. For the water-related risk assessment, a hydrological model will be set up and validated using available data for a selected catchment that is affected by the scenarios. This will then be used to assess the impacts of the scenarios on the hydrological response and its implications. In the end, the results are expected to contribute to identifying how localization and type of different ecosystem services in the urban planning can be employed as nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological risk reduction and climate adaptation.

  4. Flooding in Myanmar: joint occurrence of high discharges and high sea water levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Vatvani, Deepak; Diermanse, Ferdinand

    2016-04-01

    In the summer of 2015 serious flooding occurred in Myanmar when cyclone Komen made landfall in Bangladesh, bringing strong winds and heavy rains to Myanmar. The cyclone struck the country during the monsoon season and resulted in widespread flooding, temporarily displacing over 1.6 million people. It was hypothesized that there could be a relation between occurrences of storm surges and extreme discharges in Myanmar. Comparable studies have shown that dependence between storm surge at Hoek van Holland in the Netherlands and high river discharges of the Rhine at Lobith exist with a lag of 6 days (Klerk et. al, 2015). The processes generating high discharges in the Ayeyarwady river and storm surges along the Myanmar coast were analyzed using global precipitation data (EU FP7 eartH2Observe), a distributed wflow-sbm hydrological model of the Ayeyarwady and a global storm surge model. About 15 historical tropical storms and hurricanes affecting Myanmar since 1992 were analyzed in terms of rainfall distribution over the country, discharged river flow volumes and storm surge extent and magnitude. All storms except for Komen in 2015 occurred between October and May, which does not coincide with the monsoon season (mainly June, July and August). The intensities and the paths of the 15 studied cyclones varied considerably and largely affected the spatial extent and the magnitude of storm surges. The study showed that high Ayeyarwady river flows and high surges generally do not coincide for the following reasons: the large scale of the river basin, the estimated one week travel time of water from the upstream catchment to the mouth, the occurrence of the majority of historical storms outside the monsoon season and the (relatively) limited spatial extent of a storm surge (at the scale of Myanmar). While the applied method is deemed successful for the identification of joint probabilities of surges and river discharges, this study indicates that such analyses are more relevant

  5. Tool to address green roof widespread implementation effect in flood characteristics for water management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, R.; Lorenzini, F.; Allasia, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    In the last decades, new approaches were adopted to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible through technologies and devices that preserve and recreate natural landscape features. Green Roofs (GR) are examples of these devices that are also incentivized by city's stormwater management plans. Several studies show that GR decreases on-site runoff from impervious surfaces, however, the analysis of the effect of widespread implementation of GR in the flood characteristics at the urban basin scale in subtropical areas are little discussed, mainly because of the absence of data. Thereby, this paper shows results related to the monitoring of an extensive modular GR under subtropical weather conditions, the development of a rainfall-runoff model based on the modified Curve Number (CN) and SCS Triangular Unit Hydrograph (TUH) methods and the analysis of large-scale impact of GR by modelling different basins. The model was calibrated against observed data and showed that GR absorbed almost all the smaller storms and reduced runoff even during the most intense rainfall. The overall CN was estimated in 83 (consistent with available literature) with the shape of hydrographs well reproduced. Large-scale modelling (in basins ranging from 0.03 ha to several square kilometers) showed that the widespread use of GRs reduced peak flows (volumes) around 57% (48%) at source and 38% (32%) at the basin scale. Thus, this research validated a tool for the assessment of structural management measures (specifically GR) to address changes in flood characteristics in the city's water management planning. From the application of this model it was concluded that even if the efficiency of GR decreases as the basin scale increase they still provide a good option to cope with urbanization impact.

  6. The stability of chalk during flooding of carbonated sea water at reservoir in-situ conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar I.; Madland, Merete V.

    2014-05-01

    triggering. The main findings of our investigations are: 1. The creep rate in the plastic phase is pore fluid dependent. The injection of sea water induces a period of accelerating creep. 2. The injection of CO2 and sea water reduces the deformation rate, a result which is in contrast to what has previously been shown. 3. The solid weight of the plugs is maintained during flooding which indicates that the observed carbonate dissolution at the inlet side is counteracted with secondary precipitation, possibly calcium sulphate, within the plug. These recent obtained results show that chalk cores maintain their mechanical integrity during flooding of carbonated water. This experimental study, however, separates from earlier studies by the low injection rate which allows secondary precipitation processes to equilibrate within the plugs, chalk type, test temperature, and stress conditions, which all are factors that will affect the reported dynamics.

  7. Disinfection byproduct precursor dynamics and water treatability during an extreme flooding event in a coastal blackwater river in southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, A; Uzun, H; Karanfil, T; Tsui, M T K; Chow, A T

    2017-12-01

    Coastal blackwater rivers, characterized by high concentrations of natural organic matter, are source water for millions of people in the southeastern US. In October 2015, large areas of coastal South Carolina were flooded by Hurricane Joaquin. This so-called "thousand-year" rainfall mobilized and flushed large amounts of terrestrial organic matter and associated pollutants (e.g. mercury) into source water, affecting water quality and safety of municipal water supply. To understand the dynamics of water quality and water treatability during this extreme flood, water samples were collected from Waccamaw River (a typical blackwater river in the southeastern US) during rising limb, peak discharge, falling limb, and base flow. Despite decreasing water flow after peak discharge, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels (increased by up to 125%), and formation potentials of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids (increased by up to 150%) remained high for an extended period of time (>eight weeks after peak discharge), while variation in the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) FP was negligible. Coagulation with alum and ferric at optimal dosage significantly reduced concentrations of DOC by 51-76%, but up to 10 mg/L of DOC still remained in treated waters. For an extended period of time, elevated levels of THMs (71-448 μg/L) and HAAs (88-406 μg/L) were quantified in laboratory chlorination experiments under uniform formation conditions (UFC), exceeding the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) maximum contaminant level of 80 and 60 μg/L, respectively. Results demonstrated that populations in coastal cities are at high risk with disinfection by-products (DBPs) under the changing climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treading water: Flood hazard management and adapting to climate change in BC’s Lower Mainland

    OpenAIRE

    Arros, Pomme Mira

    2013-01-01

    Increases in coastal flooding from climate change related sea level rise and increased rainfall will stress local government’s resources. While local governments are planning for expected climate change effects through the use of adaptation and flood management tools, a number of barriers limit long-term adaptation planning. This study examines which flood management tools are currently used in four municipalities in the Lower Mainland: the City of Vancouver, Delta, Richmond and Surrey. The s...

  9. Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Louise J.; Bliss Singer, Michael; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is a major threat to lives and infrastructure, yet trends in flood hazard are poorly understood. The capacity of river channels to convey flood flows is typically assumed to be stationary, so changes in flood frequency are thought to be driven primarily by trends in streamflow. However, changes in channel capacity will also modify flood hazard, even if the flow frequency distribution does not change. We developed new methods for separately quantifying how trends in both streamflow and channel capacity have affected flood frequency at gauging sites across the United States. Using daily discharge records and manual field measurements of channel cross-sectional geometry for USGS gauging stations that have defined flood stages (water levels), we present novel methods for measuring long-term trends in channel capacity of gauged rivers, and for quantifying how they affect overbank flood frequency. We apply these methods to 401 U.S. rivers and detect measurable trends in flood hazard linked to changes in channel capacity and/or the frequency of high flows. Flood frequency is generally nonstationary across these 401 U.S. rivers, with increasing flood hazard at a statistically significant majority of sites. Changes in flood hazard driven by channel capacity are smaller, but more numerous, than those driven by streamflow, with a slight tendency to compensate for streamflow changes. Our results demonstrate that accurately quantifying changes in flood hazard requires accounting separately for trends in both streamflow and channel capacity, or using water levels directly. They also show that channel capacity trends may have unforeseen consequences for flood management and for estimating flood insurance costs. Slater, L. J., M. B. Singer, and J. W. Kirchner (2015), Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 370-376, doi:10.1002/2014GL062482.

  10. International approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff in mitigating flood and environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard Bridget Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts a number of international approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff from new development and redevelopment, known as sustainable drainage systems (SuDS or low impact development (LID. The paper provides a commentary on the progress and current status of national standards for SuDS in the UK to control the frequency, flow rate and volume of runoff from both frequent and extreme rainfall events, and the best practice design criteria presented in the revised UK CIRIA SuDS Manual, published in November 2015. The paper then compares these design criteria and standards with those developed and applied in China, USA, France and Germany and also looks at the drivers behind their development. The benefits of these different approaches are assessed in the context of flood risk mitigation, climate resilience and wider environmental protection objectives, including water quality, morphology and ecology. The paper also reviews the design approaches promoted by the new SuDS Manual and internationally for delivering additional benefits for urban spaces (such as recreation, visual character, education and economic growth through multi-functional urban design.

  11. Performance of dithiocarbamate-type flocculant in treating simulated polymer flooding produced water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoyu Gao; Yuyan Jia; Yongqiang Zhang; Qian Li; Qinyan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Produced water from polymer flooding is difficult to treat due to its high polymer concentration, high viscosity, and emulsified characteristics. The dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403. The product was characterized by IR spectra and elemental analysis. The DTC agent chelating with Fe2+produced a network polymer matrix, which captured and removed oil droplets efficiently. Oil removal by the flocculent on simulated produced water with 0, 200, 500, 900 mg/L of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) was investigated for aspects of effectiveness of DTC (T403) dosage and concentrations of HPAM and Fe2+ ions in the wastewater. Results showed that HPAM had a negative influence on oil removal efficiency when DTC (T403) dosage was lower than 20 mg/L. However, residual oil concentrations in tested samples with different concentrations of HPAM all decreased below 10 mg/L when DTC (T403) dosage reached 30 mg/L.The concentration of Fe2+ in the initial wastewater had a slight effect on oil removal at the range of 2-12 mg/L. Results showed that Fe3+ could not be used in place of Fe2+ as Fc3+ could not react with DTC under flocculated conditions. The effects of mineral salts ions were also investigated.

  12. Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve

  13. Effects of flooding and drought on water quality in Gulf Coastal Plain streams in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golladay, Stephen W; Battle, Juliann

    2002-01-01

    Since 1994, water-quality constituents have been measured monthly in three adjacent Coastal Plain watersheds in southwestern Georgia. During 1994, rainfall was 650 mm above annual average and the highest flows on record were observed. From November 1998 through November 2000, 19 months had below average rainfall. Lowest flows on record were observed during the summer of 2000. The watersheds are human-dominated with row-crop agriculture and managed forestlands being the major land uses. However, one watershed (Chickasawhatchee Creek) had 10 to 13% less agriculture and greater wetland area, especially along the stream. Suspended particles, dissolved organic carbon, NH4-N, and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations were greater during wet and flood periods compared with dry and drought periods for each stream. Regional hydrologic conditions had little effect on NO3-N or dissolved inorganic carbon. Chickasawhatchee Creek had significantly lower suspended sediment and NO3-N concentrations and greater organic and inorganic carbon concentrations, reflecting greater wetland area and stronger connection to a regional aquifer system. Even though substantial human land use occurred within all watersheds, water quality was generally good and can be attributed to low stream drainage density and relatively intact floodplain forests. Low drainage density minimizes surface run-off into streams. Floodplain forests reduce nonpoint-source pollutants through biological and physical absorption. In addition to preserving water quality, floodplain forests provide important ecological functions through the export of nutrients and organic carbon to streams. Extreme low flows may be disruptive to aquatic life due to both the lack of water and to the scarcity of biologically important materials originating from floodplain forests.

  14. A Novel Nanodrag Reducer for Low Permeability Reservoir Water Flooding: Long-Chain Alkylamines Modified Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of graphene oxide (GO by grafting hydrophobic chains on the surface has drawn much attention nowadays in the academic world, and it was suggested that modified GO could lead to new functionalized materials with specific structure and different properties. In this paper, modified GO (M-GO were synthesized by chemically grafting alkylamines with varying chain lengths on the graphene oxide surface. Successful grafting of alkylamines was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and Raman spectroscopy measurements. In addition, we investigated the properties of M-GO as nanodrag reducer in low permeability reservoir water flooding. Water contact angle (CA measurements revealed that the hydrophobic nature of GO depended on the chain length of the grafted alkylamines. And flooding experiments showed that the hexadecylamine- and octadecylamine-modified GO had an ability to reduce water injection pressure and improve water-phase permeability of the low permeability reservoirs during water flooding. So the M-GO would have potential applications in oilfield exploitation.

  15. Scour hole ('wielen') sediments as historical archive of floods, vegetation, and air and water quality in lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Holger; van Hoof, Thomas; Bunnik, Frans; Donders, Timme

    2010-05-01

    The sediment record from a maximum 18 m deep scour hole lake (Haarsteegse Wiel) near the embanked Meuse River in the Netherlands was studied for past changes in flooding frequency, water quality, and landscape change using a combined geochemical, geobiological and historical approach. The results are highly significant for determining long-term trends of river flood frequency, eutrophication, atmospheric pollution, and vegetation development. Haarsteegse Wiel consists of two basins connected by a shallow sill. The first flooding event is indicated in the sediment at AD 1610 when the 8 m deep southern basin of the lake was created by flood water masses bursting through the embankment. In AD 1740 embankments burst again and resulted in the formation of the northern basin of Haarsteegse Wiel. This part of the lake was originally 21 m deep and was filled up with a 3.50 m thick sediment layer since then. The sediment was dated by combining 137Cs activity measurements, biostratigraphical ages of pollen, microtephra, and historically documented floods indicated by the magnetic susceptibility of the sediment. The resulting chronology is highly accurate and shows that sedimentation rates decrease sharply with the widespread change from cereal cultivation to pasture land from around AD 1875 (agricultural crisis) as a direct result of falling wheat prices and intensified cattle farming. Water quality (total phosphorus concentration) was reconstructed using a diatom-based transfer function. Results show that the currently nutrient enriched lake has mostly been in a mesotrophic state prior to AD 1920, with the exception of several sharp eutrophication events that are generally coeval with river floods. After 1920, eutrophication of Haarsteegse Wiel is clearly documented and generally caused by the increased population, enhanced use of fertilizers and settlement of dairy industry in the region. Industrial development in both the vicinity and the hinterland of Haarsteegse Wiel

  16. Flood regime and water table determines tree distribution in a forest-savanna gradient in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Júnior, Walnir G; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Cunha, Cátia N; Duarte, Temilze G; Chieregatto, Luiz C; Carmo, Flávia M S

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to recognized the preferential location of species of the tree sinusiae in response to a moisture gradient in Pantanal Matogrossense, Brazil. We established sampling plots of arboreal sinusiae along a soil moisture and flood gradient. Piezometers were installed, allowing monthly measurements of water table depth and flood height during one year. Detrended Correspondence Analysis, Gradient Direct Analysis, Multi-response Permutation Procedures and Indicator Species Analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of moisture gradient on tree distribution. The annual variation of water table is shallower and similar in Seasonally Flooded Forest and Termite Savanna, with increasing depths in Open Savanna, Savanna Forest and Dry Forest. Circa 64% of the species were characterized as having a preferential location in "terrestrial habitats normally not subjected to inundation", while 8% preferentially occur in "wet habitats". Lowest tree richness in flood-affected vegetation types is related to both present-day high climatic seasonality and Late Pleistocene dry paleoclimates in the Pantanal wetland. The tree distribution across different formations in the Pantanal shows a direct relationship with soil moisture gradient.

  17. Remote Sensing-Derived Water Extent and Level to Constrain Hydraulic Flood Forecasting Models: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Stefania; Li, Yuan; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2016-09-01

    Accurate, precise and timely forecasts of flood wave arrival time, depth and velocity at each point of the floodplain are essential to reduce damage and save lives. Current computational capabilities support hydraulic models of increasing complexity over extended catchments. Yet a number of sources of uncertainty (e.g., input and boundary conditions, implementation data) may hinder the delivery of accurate predictions. Field gauging data of water levels and discharge have traditionally been used for hydraulic model calibration, validation and real-time constraint. However, the discrete spatial distribution of field data impedes the testing of the model skill at the two-dimensional scale. The increasing availability of spatially distributed remote sensing (RS) observations of flood extent and water level offers the opportunity for a comprehensive analysis of the predictive capability of hydraulic models. The adequate use of the large amount of information offered by RS observations triggers a series of challenging questions on the resolution, accuracy and frequency of acquisition of RS observations; on RS data processing algorithms; and on calibration, validation and data assimilation protocols. This paper presents a review of the availability of RS observations of flood extent and levels, and their use for calibration, validation and real-time constraint of hydraulic flood forecasting models. A number of conclusions and recommendations for future research are drawn with the aim of harmonising the pace of technological developments and their applications.

  18. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. Chukwudeme

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane, model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO2, after which (> 3 years oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1% compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure.

  19. Flood Control Measures in the Water Conservancy Construction Project%水利建筑工程中的防汛措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季春雷

    2013-01-01

    做好工程建设期的防汛抗洪工作是保障水利建筑工程的重要步骤,以便顺利的渡过汛期。总结了防汛过程所涉及到的防汛程序及防汛措施等,以供参考。%Making a good flood control and flood fighting work in engineering construction is an important step to ensure water conservancy construction project smoothly through the flood season.Flood prevention program and flood control measures involved in flood control process were summarized so as to provide the reference.

  20. Low-cost Space-borne Data for Inundation Modelling: Topography, Flood Extent and Water Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Floods are among the most damaging natural hazards and their impacts have been dramatically increasing worldwide over the past decades. As most basins of the world are ungauged or poorly gauged and some measurement networks are continuously under decline, the spatial distribution of flood hazard is

  1. Effect of water stress on growth, water consumption and yield of silage maize under flood irrigation in semi-arid clilmate of Tadla (Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    Bouazzama, B.; Xanthoulis, D.; Bouaziz, A.; Ruelle, P.; Mailhol, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The field study of crops response to water stress is important to reduce agricultural water use in areas where the water resources are limited. This study was carried out during two growing periods of 2009 and 2010 in order to study the effect of water stress on crops growth, water consumption and dry matter yield of silage maize supplied with flood irrigation under the semiarid climate of Tadla in Morocco. Four to five irrigation treatments were applied at the rates of 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20...

  2. Video- Demonstration of Seltzer Tablet in Water Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Pettit demonstrates dropping an Alka Seltzer tablet into a film of water which becomes a floating ball of activity filled water. Watch the video to see the surprising results!

  3. Pilot Field Demonstration of Alternative Fuels in Force Projection Petroleum and Water Distribution Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED PILOT FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS IN FORCE PROJECTION PETROLEUM AND WATER DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT...Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060- 6218. Disposition Instructions Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator ...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED PILOT FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS IN FORCE PROJECTION PETROLEUM AND WATER DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT

  4. Flood regimes in a changing world: What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloeschl, G.

    2015-12-01

    There has been a surprisingly large number of major floods in the last years around the world which suggests that floods may have increased and will continue to increase in the next decades. However, the realism of such changes is still hotly discussed in the literature. In this presentation I will argue that a fresh look is needed at the flood change problem in terms of the causal factors including river training, land use changes and climate variability. Analysing spatial patterns of dynamic flood characteristics helps learn form the rich diversity of flood processes across the landscape. I will present a number of examples across Europe to illustrate the range of flood generation processes and the causal factors of changes in the flood regime. On the basis of these examples, I will demonstrate how comparative hydrology can assist in learning from the differences of flood characteristics between catchments both for present and future conditions. Focus on the interactions of the natural and human water system will be instrumental in making meaningful statements about future floods in a changing world. References Hall et al. (2014) Understanding Flood Regime Changes in Europe: A state of the art assessment. Hydrol. Earth Sys. Sc., 18, 2735-2772. Blöschl et al. (2015) Increasing river floods: fiction or reality? Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1079

  5. Combating Floods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In summer and autumn of 1998, the river vatleys of the Changjiang, Songhua and Nenjiang rivers were stricken by exceptionally serious floods, As of the, 22nd of August, the flooded areas stretched over 52.4 million acres. More than 223 million people were affected by the flood. 4.97 million houses were ruined, economic losses totaled RMB 166 billion, and most tragically, 3,004 people lost their byes. It was one of the costliest disasters in Chinese history. Millions of People’s Liberation Army soldiers and local people joined hands to battle the floodwaters. Thanks to their unified efforts and tenacious struggle, they successfully withstood the rising, water, resumed production and began to rebuild their homes.

  6. eWaterCycle: Live Demonstration of an Operational Hyper Resolution Global Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, N.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Hut, R.; van Meersbergen, M.; Donchyts, G.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2014-12-01

    The eWaterCycle project works towards running an operational hyper-resolution hydrological global model, assimilating incoming satellite data in real time, and making 14 day predictions of floods and droughts.In our approach, we aim to re-use existing models and techniques as much as possible, and make use of standards and open source software wherever we can. To couple the different parts of our system we use the Basic Model Interface (BMI) as developped in the CSDMS community.Starting point of the eWaterCycle project was the PCR-GLOBWB model built by Utrecht University. The software behind this model has been partially re-engineered in order to enable it to run in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment, and to be able to interface using BMI, and run on multiple compute nodes in parallel. The final aim is to have a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km, (currently 10 x 10km).For the data assimilation we make heavy use of the OpenDA system. This allows us to make use of different data assimilation techniques without the need to implement these from scratch. We have developped a BMI adaptor for OpenDA, allowing OpenDA to use any BMI compatible model. As a data assimilation technique we currently use an Ensemble Kalman Filter, and are working on a variant of this technique optimized for HPC environments.One of the next steps in the eWaterCycle project is to couple the model with a hydrodynamic model. Our system will start a localized simulation on demand based on triggers in the global model, giving detailed flow and flood forecasting in support of navigation and disaster management.We will show a live demo of our system, including real-time integration of satellite data.

  7. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver; Tuttenuj, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Part I: Dr. Oliver Wetter. (Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) Part II: PhD student Daniel Tuttenuj (Oeschger Centre of Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet

  8. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttenuj, Daniel; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers in Switzerland. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet systematically analysed the period from 1446-1542 and could prove a large number of pre-instrumental flood events of river Rhine, Birs, Birsig and Wiese in Basel. All in all the weekly led account books

  9. Beyond 'flood hotspots': Modelling emergency service accessibility during flooding in York, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Daniel; Yu, Dapeng; Wilby, Robert L.; Green, Daniel; Herring, Zara

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the development of a method that couples flood modelling with network analysis to evaluate the accessibility of city districts by emergency responders during flood events. We integrate numerical modelling of flood inundation with geographical analysis of service areas for the Ambulance Service and the Fire & Rescue Service. The method was demonstrated for two flood events in the City of York, UK to assess the vulnerability of care homes and sheltered accommodation. We determine the feasibility of emergency services gaining access within the statutory 8- and 10-min targets for high-priority, life-threatening incidents 75% of the time, during flood episodes. A hydrodynamic flood inundation model (FloodMap) simulates the 2014 pluvial and 2015 fluvial flood events. Predicted floods (with depth >25 cm and areas >100 m2) were overlain on the road network to identify sites with potentially restricted access. Accessibility of the city to emergency responders during flooding was quantified and mapped using; (i) spatial coverage from individual emergency nodes within the legislated timeframes, and; (ii) response times from individual emergency service nodes to vulnerable care homes and sheltered accommodation under flood and non-flood conditions. Results show that, during the 2015 fluvial flood, the area covered by two of the three Fire & Rescue Service stations reduced by 14% and 39% respectively, while the remaining station needed to increase its coverage by 39%. This amounts to an overall reduction of 6% and 20% for modelled and observed floods respectively. During the 2014 surface water flood, 7 out of 22 care homes (32%) and 15 out of 43 sheltered accommodation nodes (35%) had modelled response times above the 8-min threshold from any Ambulance station. Overall, modelled surface water flooding has a larger spatial footprint than fluvial flood events. Hence, accessibility of emergency services may be impacted differently depending on flood mechanism

  10. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment using a time series of satellite images: a case study in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the use of time series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment is presented. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images for the flood-prone territory, and a maximum flood extent image for each flood event is produced. These maps are further fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI). The study shows that RFI values and relative water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution, which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The produced RFI map can be used as a flood hazard map, especially in cases when flood modeling is complicated by lack of available data and high uncertainties. The derived RFI map is further used for flood risk assessment. Efficiency of the presented approach is demonstrated for the Katima Mulilo region (Namibia). A time series of Landsat-5/7 satellite images acquired from 1989 to 2012 is processed to derive RFI map using the presented approach. The following direct damage categories are considered in the study for flood risk assessment: dwelling units, roads, health facilities, and schools. The produced flood risk map shows that the risk is distributed uniformly all over the region. The cities and villages with the highest risk are identified. The proposed approach has minimum data requirements, and RFI maps can be generated rapidly to assist rescuers and decisionmakers in case of emergencies. On the other hand, limitations include: strong dependence on the available data sets, and limitations in simulations with extrapolated water depth values.

  11. The Interface Conditions for Pressures at Oil-water Flood Front in the Porous Media Considering Capillary Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaolong; Du, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Flood front is the jump interface where fluids distribute discontinuously, whose interface condition is the theoretical basis of a mathematical model of the multiphase flow in porous medium. The conventional interface condition at the jump interface is expressed as the continuous Darcy velocity and fluid pressure (named CPVCM). This paper has inspected it via the studying the water-oil displacement in one dimensional reservoir with considering capillary pressure but ignoring the compressibility and gravity. It is proved theoretically that the total Darcy velocity and total pressure (defined by Antoncev etc.), instead of the Darcy velocities and pressures of water and oil, are continuous at the flood front without considering the compressibility of fluid and porous media. After that, new interface conditions for the pressures and Darcy velocity of each fluid are established, which are collectively named as Jump Pressures and Velocities Conditions Model (JPVCM) because the model has shown the jump pressures and...

  12. Unjust waters. Climate change, flooding and the protection of poor urban communities. Experiences from six African cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Floods are natural phenomena, but damage and losses from floods are the consequence of human action. The increasing climatic variability, storminess and more frequent flooding driven by climate change will affect poor urban communities far more than other people living in towns and cities. Although driven by human activities ranging from modernisation and development to land degradation by poor farmers and grazing flocks, climate change in Africa has uneven impacts, affecting the poor severely. Flooding in urban areas is not just related to heavy rainfall and extreme climatic events; it is also related to changes in the built-up areas themselves. Urbanisation aggravates flooding by restricting where floods waters can go, by covering large parts of the ground with roofs, roads and pavements, by obstructing sections of natural channels, and by building drains that ensure that water moves to rivers more rapidly than it did under natural conditions. As people crowd into African cities, these human impacts on urban land surfaces and drainage intensify. The proportions of small stream and river catchment areas that are urbanised will increase. As a result, even quite moderate storms now produce quite high flows in rivers because much more of the catchment area supplies direct surface runoff from its hard surfaces and drains. Where streams flow through a series of culverts and concrete channels, they cannot adjust to changes in the frequency of heavy rain as natural streams do. They often get obstructed by silt and urban debris, particularly when houses are built close to the channels. Such situations frequently arise where poor people build their shelters on low-lying flood plains, over swamps or above the tidewater on the coast. The effects of climate change are superimposed on these people-driven local land surface modifications. The links between changes in land use and in heavy rainfall patterns, the frequency and depth of flooding and the problems of the urban poor

  13. STUDY ON THE POLLUTION OF URBAN SCENIC WATER BODY BY MUNICIPAL DRAINAGE IN FLOOD SEASON AND ITS CONTROL PLANNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this article, based on river quality simulation and system optimization, a water quality model was established for scenic river after rainfall discharge in flood season, with the target of making water pollutants meet the standard in priority and saving expenditure on pollution control. With the principle of reducing sewage from combined sewage pumping station and heavily polluted initial rainwater, a mathematical multiobjective planning model was constructed for rain sewage pollution control in flood season, and one scenic river in a northern city was taken for simulation example. The results show that: the optimization result meets the requirements of planning, among which, sewage reduction from the combined pumping station accounts for 17.38% in the total reduction of rain sewage, and the reduction in the heavily polluted rain water accounts for 77.24% in the total reduction of rainwater pumping station. The planning scheme can provide theoretical basis for pollution control of scenic river in flood season, and for rational reconstruction and layout of outfalls along two banks of the river.

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout caused by external flooding using the RISMC toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis; Prescott, Steven; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impacts of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization project aims to provide insights to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This paper focuses on the impacts of power uprate on the safety margin of a boiling water reactor for a flooding induced station black-out event. Analysis is performed by using a combination of thermal-hydraulic codes and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. RAVEN. We employed both classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. Results obtained give a detailed investigation of the issues associated with a plant power uprate including the effects of station black-out accident scenarios. We were able to quantify how the timing of specific events was impacted by a higher nominal reactor core power. Such safety insights can provide useful information to the decision makers to perform risk informed margins management.

  15. Ohio flood regions for use with Water Resources Investigations Report 03-4164

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage was used to determine the flood region associated with stream basins in Ohio. This information is required to use regression equations presented by...

  16. MARSOL: Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueth, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region are facing the challenge of managing its water resources under conditions of increasing scarcity and concerns about water quality. Already, the availability of fresh water in sufficient quality and quantity is one of the major factors limiting socio economic development. Innovative water management strategies such as the storage of reclaimed water or excess water from different sources in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes can greatly increase water availability and therefore improve water security. Main objective of the proposed project MARSOL is to demonstrate that MAR is a sound, safe and sustainable strategy that can be applied with great confidence and therefore offering a key approach for tackling water scarcity in Southern Europe. For this, eight field sites were selected that will demonstrate the applicability of MAR using various water sources, ranging from treated wastewater to desalinated seawater, and a variety of technical solutions. Targets are the alleviation of the effect of climate change on water resources, the mitigation of droughts, to countermeasure temporal and spatial misfit of water availability, to sustain agricultural water supply and rural socio-economic development, to combat agricultural related pollutants, to sustain future urban and industrial water supply and to limit seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Results of the demonstration sites will be used to develop guidelines for MAR site selection, technical realization, monitoring strategies, and modeling approaches, to offer stakeholders a comprehensive, state of the art and proven toolbox for MAR implementation. Further, the economic and legal aspects of MAR will be analyzed to enable and accelerate market penetration. The MARSOL consortium combines the expertise of consultancies, water suppliers, research institutions, and public authorities, ensuring high practical relevance and market intimacy.

  17. Using the latest paleoclimate insights to better quantify the risk of low probability, high impact floods and hydrological droughts - how robust are existing water resource management and supply systems in eastern Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiem, Anthony; Vance, Tessa; Roberts, Jason; Ho, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Floods and droughts always have and always will occur. Both natural climate variability and anthropogenic change influence flood and drought risk but their exact roles, and proportional importance, are not yet properly understood or quantified. To address these challenges, and to move towards a more resilient, well adapted world, a paradigm shift is required that accepts and accounts for the non-linear and non-stationary nature of the processes that drive hydroclimatic risk. This study focuses on recent research from Australia that utilizes several independently derived paleoclimate reconstructions to better understand interannual to multidecadal climate variability and to provide improved quantification of the true risk of low probability, high impact floods and hydrological droughts in the heavily populated eastern Australian region. It is demonstrated that the instrumental hydroclimatic records (which cover only 100 years at best for most parts of Australia) do not capture the full range of flooding and drought that is possible. Also discussed are the implications for water resources management of the realisation that hydroclimatic risk changes over time and that fundamental questions of whether flood and drought risk in Australia will increase or decrease in the future (and where and when and by how much) are as yet unanswered, and how decision makers can robustly deal with such uncertainty.

  18. Detectability of Water Level along Yaluzangbu River Demonstrated by Envisat, Jason-2, and SARAL/AltiKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, K. H.; Liu, G. T.; Shum, C. K.; Lee, H.; Kuo, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Periodic and flash flood is one of major natural disasters happened annually in mainland South Asia, especially for countries within the basin of Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Mekong River. The flood either caused by massive rainfall or melting glacier/snow water has combined with land subsidence and results in exacerbated economic loss in adjacent regions. A monitoring system based on satellite observation is thus necessary for early warning and precautionary estimate of inundation area since it is difficult to build river gauges and collect data in remote areas. The knowledge of water level along the river is thus important for monitoring the anomalous rise of water flow that potentially causes floods downstream. The satellite altimetry, which was widely used for open ocean sea-level measurements, had been applied for monitoring inland waters, such as rivers, reservoirs, and even glaciers surface elevation change. In this study, we utilized and compared a series of altimetry satellites along the Yaluzangbu River, upstream of the Brahmaputra River, located in the southern Tibetan Plateau with its origin located at Angsi Glacier. These satellites include Envisat, Jason-2, and SARAL/AltiKa. The detectability of water level has been examined in terms of the backscattering coefficient in radar echo, radar waveform pattern, height retrieval, stability of measurement over water surface, and percentage of detectable crossovers. Our preliminary result shows that the Ka-band AltiKa is more stable over narrow (level.

  19. Twelve Month Weekly Monitoring of Stable Isotopes of Water Associated to the Flooding of the Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vázquez, A.

    2009-04-01

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of extraction, the mine of Meirama stopped the production of brown lignite. Since April 2008, a controlled flooding process is taking place by which a large mining lake with nearly 150 cubic hectometers and a maximum depth of 180 meters will join the geography of Galicia in a few years. A weekly-based monitoring survey has been taking place in the lake since the beginning of the flooding process. Nearly 50 components and physico-chemical parameters of a series of sampling points located in the surface of the lake as well as in related tributaries, ground and rain waters are being recorded. Among the parameters analyzed, the stable isotopes of water (18-O and 2-H) are worth noting. The data collected so far help us to better understand the hydrological processes occurring in the first year of flooding and combined with different types of chemical constituents (conservative and non-conservative) put important constrains on the hydrochemical processes observed in the lake up to date.

  20. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  1. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  2. Continuum: a distributed hydrological model for water management and flood forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Silvestro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Full process description and distributed hydrological models are very useful tools in hydrology as they can be applied in different contexts and for a wide range of aims such as flood and drought forecasting, water management, prediction of impact on the hydrologic cycle due to natural and human changes to catchment features in present and changing climates. Since they must mimic a variety of physical processes they can be very complex and with a high degree of parameterization. This complexity can be increased by the need to relate the state variables to observations in order to allow data assimilation.

    In this work a model, aiming at balancing the need to reproduce the physical processes with the practical goal of avoiding over-parameterization, is presented. The model is designed to be implemented in different contexts with a special focus on data scarce environments.

    All the main hydrological phenomena are modeled in a distributed way. Mass balance and energy balance are solved explicitly. Land surface temperature, which is particularly suited to being extensively observed and assimilated, is an explicit state variable.

    An objective performance evaluation, based on both traditional and satellite derived data, is presented with a specific reference to the application in an Italian catchment. The model has been calibrated and validated using different data sets on two nested outlet sections and the capability of the model in reproducing both the stream-flow measurements and the land surface temperature retrieved by satellite measurements, has been investigated.

  3. Characteristics of water isotopes and hydrograph separation during the spring flood period in Yushugou River basin, Eastern Tianshans, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoyan Wang; Zhongqin Li; Edwards Ross; Ruozihan Tayier; Ping Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Many of the river basins in northwest China receive water from melting glaciers and snow in addition to groundwater. This region has experienced a significant change in glacier and snowpack volume over the past decade altering hydrology. Quantifying changes in water resources is vital for developing sustainable strategies in the region. During 2013, a water-isotope source apportionment study was conducted during the spring flood in the Yushugou River basin, northwestern China. The study found significant differences in water isotopes between river water, snowmelt water, and groundwater. During the study period, the isotopic composition of groundwater remained relatively stable. This stability suggests that the groundwater recharge rate has not been significantly impacted by recent hydro-climatic variability. The river water flow rate and water 18O displayed an inverse relationship. This relationship is indicative of snowmelt water injection. The relative contribution of the two sources was estimated using a two-component isotope hydrograph separation. The contribution of snowmelt water and groundwater to Yushugou River were ∼63% and ∼37%, respectively. From the study, we conclude that snowmelt water is the dominant water source to the basin during the spring melt period.

  4. Influence of the Changjiang River flood on Synechococcus ecology in the surface waters of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chih-Ching; Huang, Chin-Yi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Lin, Yun-Chi

    2014-02-01

    Synechococcus spp. have been suggested as the primary component of picophytoplankton in the East China Sea (ECS). However, the influences of sudden environmental changes on Synechococcus assemblage composition have not yet been investigated. In the summer of 2010, a disastrous flood occurred in the Changjiang River basin. To improve our understanding of how this flood affected the Synechococcus ecology on the ECS surface, their assemblages and distributions have been described using two-laser flow cytometry and phylogenetic analysis of the phycocyanin operon. During the nonflooding summer of 2009, phycoerythrin-rich (PE-rich) Synechococcus thrived near the outer boundary of the Changjiang River diluted water (CDW) coverage, while phycocyanin-rich (PC-rich) Synechococcus predominated inside the turbid CDW with a transparency of flooding expanded the CDW coverage area to over half of the ECS. PE-rich cells showed a homogeneous distribution and a decline in abundance, while the spatial pattern of the PC-rich Synechococcus resembled the pattern from 2009. Based on the phycocyanin operon phylogeny, the Synechococcus in the ECS were categorized into five groups, ECS-1 to ECS-4 and ECS-PE, comprising a total of 19 operational taxonomic units. In the summer of 2009, ECS-2 dominated in the coast, and the ECS-3 and ECS-PE clades prevailed in the offshore waters. However, during the summer of 2010, ECS-4 and ECS-PE became the dominant strains. The injection of abundant anthropogenic pollutants and the enhancement of transparency within the CDW expansion area appear to be the factors needed to transiently alter the ecology of Synechococcus after flooding.

  5. Identifying heavy metal levels in historical flood water deposits using sediment cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, Anna; Leahy, Paul J; Heijnis, Henk; Zawadzki, Atun; Gadd, Patricia; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Deletic, Ana; Mccarthy, David T

    2016-11-15

    When designing mitigation and restoration strategies for aquatic systems affected by heavy metal contamination, we must first understand the sources of these pollutants. In this study, we introduce a methodology that identifies the heavy metal levels in floodplain lake sediments deposited by one source; fluvial floods. This is done by comparing sediment core heavy metal profiles (i.e., historical pollution trends) to physical and chemical properties of sediments in these cores (i.e., historical flooding trends). This methodology is applied to Willsmere and Bolin Billabongs, two urban floodplain lakes (billabongs) of the Yarra River (South-East Australia). Both billabongs are periodically inundated by flooding of the Yarra River and one billabong (Willsmere Billabong) is connected to an urban stormwater drainage network. 1-2-m long sediment cores (containing sediment deposits up to 500 years old) were taken from the billabongs and analysed for heavy metal concentrations (arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc). In cores from both billabongs, arsenic concentrations are high in the flood-borne sediments. In Bolin Billabong, absolute metal levels are similar in flood and non-flood deposits. In Willsmere Billabong, absolute copper, lead and zinc levels were generally lower in fluvial flood-borne sediments in the core compared to non-fluvial sediments. This suggests that heavy metal concentrations in Bolin Billabong sediments are relatively similar regardless of whether or not fluvial flooding is occurring. However for Willsmere Billabong, heavy metal concentrations are high when overland runoff, direct urban stormwater discharges or atmospheric deposition is occurring. As such, reducing the heavy metal concentrations in these transport pathways will be of great importance when trying to reduce heavy metal concentrations in Willsmere Billabong sediments. This study presents a proof-of-concept that can be applied to other polluted aquatic systems, to understand the

  6. Nutrients levels in paddy soils and flood waters from Tagus-Sado basin: the impact of farming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S.; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Magalhães, Maria Clara; Viegas, Wanda; Amâncio, Sara; Cordovil, Cláudia

    2017-04-01

    Application of fertilizers for crops can contribute to nutrients surplus, namely nitrogen, in both groundwater and surface waters resulting in serious environmental problems. The impacts on water quality due to fertilizers are related to land management. In paddy fields using high amounts of water, the nutrient dynamic knowledge is essential to evaluate the impact of farming system. The aims of this study were to evaluate: i)nutrients levels in soils and floodwaters from rice cultivation in Tagus-Sado basin (Portugal); ii)the effect, under controlled conditions, of different irrigation techniques on nutrient enrichment of floodwaters from rice cultivation. Composite samples (n=24) of paddy soils (0-15 cm) and floodwaters were collected, during rice flooding period. In the field, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined in waters. Soil pH, concentrations of Corganic, NPK and nutrients (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn) in soils and floodwaters (nitrites, nitrates, phosphates) were determined. A mesocosm assay was performed in lysimeters with a paddy soil (pH: 5.6; g/kg- Ntotal: 2.0, Pextractable: 0.04, Kextractable: 0.6, Corganic: 35.5) and different irrigation techniques (n=3): a)flood; b)four floods per day (great water renewal); c)flood until rice flowering and then a normal superficial irrigation. Rice cultivation was done by transplant as in the field. Irrigation water come from a well. Same chemical characterization than in field assay were determined in floodwater and irrigation water. In field conditions, paddy soils had values of pH between 5.1 and 8.1 and a great fertility range (g/kg; Ntotal: 0.4‒2.2; Pextractable: 0.01‒0.2; Kextractable: 0.04‒0.7; Corganic: 6.5‒37.9). Total soil concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Zn in soils were in same range and below maximum admissible values for agriculture. Total soil concentrations of Ca, Mg and Mn, showed higher heterogeneity (g/kg; 1.2‒19.3, 7.6‒34.2 and 0.2‒1.5 respectively). Floodwaters presented pH

  7. 2 Dimensional Hydrodynamic Flood Routing Analysis on Flood Forecasting Modelling for Kelantan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Wan Hazdy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood disaster occurs quite frequently in Malaysia and has been categorized as the most threatening natural disaster compared to landslides, hurricanes, tsunami, haze and others. A study by Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID show that 9% of land areas in Malaysia are prone to flood which may affect approximately 4.9 million of the population. 2 Dimensional floods routing modelling demonstrate is turning out to be broadly utilized for flood plain display and is an extremely viable device for evaluating flood. Flood propagations can be better understood by simulating the flow and water level by using hydrodynamic modelling. The hydrodynamic flood routing can be recognized by the spatial complexity of the schematization such as 1D model and 2D model. It was found that most of available hydrological models for flood forecasting are more focus on short duration as compared to long duration hydrological model using the Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM. The aim of this paper is to discuss preliminary findings on development of flood forecasting model using Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM for Kelantan river basin. Among the findings discuss in this paper includes preliminary calibrated PDM model, which performed reasonably for the Dec 2014, but underestimated the peak flows. Apart from that, this paper also discusses findings on Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD and flood plain analysis. Flood forecasting is the complex process that begins with an understanding of the geographical makeup of the catchment and knowledge of the preferential regions of heavy rainfall and flood behaviour for the area of responsibility. Therefore, to decreases the uncertainty in the model output, so it is important to increase the complexity of the model.

  8. How Sensitive is Large-scale Flood Inundation to Rainfall Variability?: Water Balance Analysis Based on Basin-wide Rainfall-Runoff-Inundation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, T.; Tatebe, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 large-scale flood over the Chao Phraya River (CPR) basin resulted in the worst economic flood damage to Thailand. The flooding was induced mainly by unprecedented rainfall from five typhoons and tropical depressions between May and October. The total rainfall in the six months during the monsoon season was approximately 1,400 mm, while the average monsoon-season rainfall in this region is about 1,000 mm, and previous large-scale floods were caused by a total rainfall of approximately 1,200 mm. The interpretation of the additional 200 mm of rainfall compared to past events can greatly affect the understanding of the 2011 flood disaster. Up until now, the magnitude of the flood hazard itself has received little attention due to the seemingly insignificant rainfall variability. Instead, the increase of societal vulnerability, such as accumulation of assets in flood-prone areas, has been more highlighted. Nevertheless, without understanding the impact of the rainfall variability on flood runoff and inundation, essential characteristics of the flood disaster may be misinterpreted. In this study, we focused on the hydrologic characteristics of the flood based on 52 year-long inundation simulation. We applied a 2D Rainfall-Runoff-Inundation (RRI) model to the entire CPR basin. After the model validation with river discharges and water levels, remote sensing inundation extents, and peak inundation water depths for 2011, we conducted water balance analysis from the simulation results to investigate the relationship among rainfall, runoff and inundation volumes. The simulation, by taking two major dams into account, found that 131 mm (9%) of the total rainfall (1,400 mm) may have flooded at the peak. The estimated sensitivity of flood inundation to rainfall (dF/dP) was 0.25. This suggests that the additional 200 mm of rainfall may have resulted in a 50 mm, or 8.2 billion m3, increase in flood inundation volume. It accounts for more than 60 % of the total storage

  9. Water Use Optimization Toolset Project: Development and Demonstration Phase Draft Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, John R. [Argonne National Laboratory; Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Laboratory; Mahalik, Matthew R. [Argonne National Laboratory; Hayse, John W. [Argonne National Laboratory; Saha, Samrat [Argonne National Laboratory; Wigmosta, Mark S. [PNNL; Voisin, Nathalie [PNNL; Rakowski, Cynthia [PNNL; Coleman, Andre [PNNL; Lowry, Thomas S. [SNL

    2014-05-19

    This report summarizes the results of the development and demonstration phase of the Water Use Optimization Toolset (WUOT) project. It identifies the objective and goals that guided the project, as well as demonstrating potential benefits that could be obtained by applying the WUOT in different geo-hydrologic systems across the United States. A major challenge facing conventional hydropower plants is to operate more efficiently while dealing with an increasingly uncertain water-constrained environment and complex electricity markets. The goal of this 3-year WUOT project, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is to improve water management, resulting in more energy, revenues, and grid services from available water, and to enhance environmental benefits from improved hydropower operations and planning while maintaining institutional water delivery requirements. The long-term goal is for the WUOT to be used by environmental analysts and deployed by hydropower schedulers and operators to assist in market, dispatch, and operational decisions.

  10. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  11. Comparison of microbial community compositions of injection and production well samples in a long-term water-flooded petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water.

  12. Temporal Variation in Water Quality Parameters under Different Vegetative Communities in Two Flooded Forests of the Northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, E. G.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Johnson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Pantanal is one of the largest flood plains in the world, and is characterized by large variability in vegetative communities and flooding dynamics. Some woody plant species have been observed to colonize large areas forming monospecific stands. We measured chemical parameters of flood waters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as physical parameters such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature (Tw), turbidity (Turb) and water levels (WL). These chemical and physical measurements were conducted with the intent to characterize spatial and temporal differences of monospecific stands in order to understand if these different formations alter the biogeochemistry of the Pantanal waters. Water sample campaigns were conducted during the inundation period of January to May 2013 in two areas located in the Private Reserve of the Brazilian Social Service of Commerce (RPPN-SESC) near Poconé, Mato Grosso. Research sites included: (1) a flooded tall-stature forest (known as Cambarazal) dominated by the Vochysia divergens species; and (2) in a flooded scrub forest (known as Baia das Pedras) dominated by the Combretum lanceolatum species. Results showed three principal factors which explained 80% of variance in aquatic physical and chemical parameters. The first factor (PCA-1) explained 38% of variance (DO, PAR and WL), PCA-2 explained 23% (NO3, Tw, DOC), while PCA-3 explained only 19% of variance (CO2 and Turb). During the entire study period, the major concentration of variables were observed in the flooded forest. Physical variables presented small alterations, with the exception of water levels, that were greater in the flooded forest. With respect to temporal variables, all chemical parameters were greater at the beginning of the inundation and gradually dropped with the water level. With this work, we observed that the different monospecific formations influenced water

  13. The Protection of China's Ancient Cities from Flood Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingzhou, W

    1989-09-01

    Over many centuries, the repeated and serious flooding of many of China's ancient cities has led to the development of various measures to mitigate the impact of floods. These have included structural measures, such as the construction of walls, dams and dykes, with tree planting for soil consolidation; installation of drainage systems and water storage capacity; the raising of settlement levels and the strengthening of building materials. Non-structural measures include warning systems and planning for emergency evacuation. Urban planning and architectural design have evolved to reduce flood damage, and government officials have been appointed with specific responsibilities for managing the flood control systems. In view of the serious consequences of modern neglect of these well-tried methods, this paper examines China's historical experience of flooding and demonstrates its continuing relevance for today. A brief historical survey is followed by a detailed discussion of various flood prevention measures. The paper is illustrated by city plans from ancient local chronicles.

  14. A methodological approach to rapid assessment of a river flood in coastal waters. First test in the Po River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Bellafiore, Debora; Bensi, Manuel; Bignami, Francesco; Caccamo, Giuseppe; Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola; Ferrarin, Christian; Marini, Mauro; Paschini, Elio; Zaggia, Luca

    2014-05-01

    As part of the actions of the flagship project RITMARE (Ricerca ITaliana per il MARE) a daily oceanographic survey was performed on 29th November 2013 in front of the Po River delta (Northern Adriatic Sea). The Po river affects a large part of the Northern Adriatic Sea with strong implications on the circulation and functionality of the basin. Physical-chemical and biological properties of coastal waters were investigated after a moderate flood occurred around 25th-27th November. The cruise activities, carried out using a small research boat, were mainly focused on the test of a methodological approach to investigate the environment variability after a flood event in the framework of rapid assessment. The effects of the flood on the coastal waters, have been evaluated in the field using operational forecasts and real-time satellite imagery to assist field measurements and samplings. Surface satellite chlorophyll maps and surface salinity and current maps obtained from a numerical model forced by meteorological forecast and river data were analyzed to better identify the Po plume dispersion during and after the event in order to better locate offshore monitoring stations at the sea. Profiles of Temperature, Salinity, Turbidity, Fluorescence and Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) throughout the water column were collected at 7 stations in front of the Po River delta. Sea surface water samples were also collected for the analysis of nutrients, Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and CDOM (surface and bottom). The CDOM regulates the penetration of UV light throughout the water column and mediates photochemical reactions, playing an important role in many marine biogeochemical processes. Satellite images showed a strong color front that separates the higher-chlorophyll coastal water from the more oligotrophic mid-basin and eastern boundary Adriatic waters. In front of the river mouth, the surface layer was characterized by low salinity (14-15), high turbidity (8-11 NTU

  15. Hydrological analysis of high waters and flash floods occurred in September 2007 in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobold, M; Susnik, M; Robic, M; Ulaga, F; Lalic, B [Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Vojkova lb, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: mira.kobold@gov.si

    2008-11-01

    Heavy and intense precipitation which fell in just a few hours across the western, north-western and northern Slovenia on 18 September 2007, caused quick rise of river discharges especially in the region of Baska grapa, Davca, the Cerkljansko and Skofja Loka hills. In that area the streams caused huge destruction on infrastructure, homes, business buildings and other property. More than 300 mm of rain was recorded on some precipitation measurement stations. The return period of the highest precipitation was more than 100 years. The amount of precipitation decreased from the west to the east of the country where above 100 mm of precipitation was recorded and torrential streams and rivers flooded in the region of Karavanke and foothills of the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Kranj and Domzale fields, the Tuhinj valley and extensive Celje region. Observed discharges of streams and rivers on the most affected area exceeded periodical maximum discharges. The simulation of flood hydrograph for Zelezniki was done by HEC-1 model. The return period of floods was more than 100 years. Besides flooding many landslides were triggered. The result of this catastrophe was enormous economic damage and loss of six people's lives.

  16. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  17. The water footprint of human-made reservoirs for hydropower, irrigation, water supply, flood prevention, fishing and recreation on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeboom, Rick; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    Increasing the availability of freshwater to meet growing and competing demands is on many policy agendas. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) prescribe sustainable management of water for human consumption. For centuries humans have resorted to building dams to store water in periods of excess for use in times of shortage. Although dams and their reservoirs have made important contributions to human development, it is increasingly acknowledged that reservoirs can be substantial water consumers as well. We estimated the water footprint of human-made reservoirs on a global scale and attributed it to the various reservoir purposes (hydropower generation, residential and industrial water supply, irrigation water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation) based on their economic value. We found that economic benefits from derived products and services from 2235 reservoirs globally, amount to 311 billion US dollar annually, with residential and industrial water supply and hydropower generation as major contributors. The water footprint associated with these benefits is the sum of the water footprint of dam construction (methods for estimating open water evaporation. The total water footprint of reservoirs globally adds up to ˜104 km3yr-1. Attribution per purpose shows that, with a global average water footprint of 21,5 m3GJ,-1 hydropower on average is a water intensive form of energy. We contextualized the water footprint of reservoirs and their purposes with regard to the water scarcity level of the river basin in which they occur. We found the lion's share (55%) of the water footprint is located in non-water scarce basins and only 1% in year-round scarce basins. The purpose for which the reservoir is primarily used changes with increasing water scarcity, from mainly hydropower generation in non-scarce basins, to the (more essential) purposes residential and industrial water supply, irrigation and flood control in scarcer areas. The quantitative

  18. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Flood and Water-logging Disasters in Dongting Lake Area and Control Strategies%洞庭湖区洪涝灾害的时空分布与防灾减灾对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向万胜; 李卫红

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the genesis,evolutionary tendency andspatial-temporal distribution of flood and water-logging in Dongting Lake area were discussed.Based on analysis of historical data,the occurrence of flood and water-logging disasters was divided into four different phases.In view of the causes of disaster formation,the author brought up the comprehensive countermeasures for flood and water-logging control in Dongting Lake area.

  19. Albemarle Sound demonstration study of the national monitoring network for US coastal waters and their tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Sharon Fitzgerald; Keith Loftin; Elizabeth Fensin

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) is implementing a demonstration project in the Albemarle Sound for the National Monitoring Network for U.S. coastal waters and their tributaries. The goal of the National Monitoring Network is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource...

  20. Drought to flood: a comparative assessment of four parallel surface water treatments during the 2010-2012 inflows to the Murray-Darling Basin, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kalan; Fabris, Rolando; Morran, Jim; Ho, Lionel; Drikas, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Four treatment processes; conventional coagulation, magnetic ion exchange (MIEX)/coagulation, with and without granular activated carbon (GAC), and membrane treatment combining microfiltration (MF) and nanofiltration (NF), were operated in parallel using the same source water from the Murray-Darling basin in South Australia. During the two year study, high levels of natural organic matter and turbidity arising from floods affecting the Murray-Darling basin in 2010-2012 challenged the four processes. The comparative study indicated that all four processes could effectively meet basic water quality guidelines of turbidity and colour despite challenging source water quality but that the more advanced treatments improved overall organic and bacterial removal. Interestingly, the high organics and turbidity arising from the floods resulted in improved treatment efficiency for all treatments incorporating coagulation to the extent that, despite flood conditions, treated water quality could remain comparatively constant provided that the process was operated and optimised effectively.

  1. Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.

    2016-05-01

    Many low-lying tropical islands are susceptible to sea level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, a 5 month deployment of wave gauges and a current meter was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had waves with maximum heights greater than 6 m with peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly skewed infragravity (0.04-0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004-0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, reached 3.7 m above the reef bed at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3 h time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results (1) demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash, and (2) lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of these extreme events, negatively impacting coastal resources and infrastructure.

  2. Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia; Storlazzi, Curt; Rosenberger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Many low-lying tropical islands are susceptible to sea level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, a 5 month deployment of wave gauges and a current meter was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had waves with maximum heights greater than 6 m with peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly skewed infragravity (0.04–0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004–0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, reached 3.7 m above the reef bed at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3 h time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results (1) demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash, and (2) lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of these extreme events, negatively impacting coastal resources and infrastructure.

  3. [Influence of perennial flooding and drought on growth restoration of Acorus calamus in water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Wu-quan; Zhu, Qi-hong; Ou, Yuan; Liu, Yu

    2012-08-01

    Acorus calamus L. is a common kind of wetland plant species in the Three Gorges Reservoir. In this study, we investigated the influence of perennial flooding on growth restoration of A. calamus in the lightless conditions and the drought stress on this plant species' growth after flooding. Our research provided the scientific basis for the selection of candidate species for vegetations restoration in water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir. A. calamus plants were exposed to waters in the lightless conditions in September 2009 and September 2010 respectively and taken away from the waters and grew in natural conditions in the following March, April and May (named as S1, S2, S3). All plants in the control, S1 and S2 groups were challenged with drought stress in May for 20 days. During the experiment, the plant number and leaf number were recorded regularly, as well as leaf length and leaf width. The results showed that flooding restrained the germination of the plants with much less plant in flooding groups than the control, and the plant germination rate had inverse relation to the flooding time. Flooding promoted formation and elongation of the leaves in S1 and S2 groups, which showed higher leaf growth parameters, such as leaf length, leaf number, total leaf length of one plant and total leaf length of all plants than the control. However, all of these growth parameters in S3 group had significantly lower values compared to the control. The survival rate of the plants after flooding decreased significantly with longer flooding time. Besides, the leaf length and leaf width in S1 and S2 groups increased significantly but with decreased leaf number. Additionally, all growth parameters (leaf length, leaf width, leaf number, total leaf number, total leaf length of one plant, total leaf length of all plants) in S3 group decreased remarkably. Furthermore, drought decreased the values of all growth parameters and the plant number in the control, S1 and

  4. Reducing urban diffuse pollution and surface water flooding using retrofit street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, James; Stringer, Pete; Causer, Katherine; Ryan, Matt; Mangan, Steve; Appleton, Ian; Savage, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Nature-based solutions for the management of urban stormwater have been growing in popularity, but there is a lack of empirical performance data for field-scale installations, especially in a UK context. To address this deficiency, a novel retrofit street tree demonstration project was commissioned in the City of Salford, near Manchester (UK). Three fifteen year-old London Plane trees were planted within a large roadside tree trench on an urban residential street. The DeepRoot Silvia Cell modular suspended pavement system was used to maximise soil volume, avoid compaction and support large tree growth. Road runoff is directed to the tree trench via AKO Slot Kerbs. Water is then distributed evenly throughout the whole system via a perforated pipe. Excess water is conveyed out of the system via an underdrain, which is subsequently connected to the sewer network. The tree trench is lined with an impermeable membrane. Access chambers are positioned on the inflow and outflow of the tree trench to facilitate hydrological and water quality monitoring. Installation was completed in autumn 2015 and monitoring will be conducted over a three year period. This paper will provide an overview of the installation process and present initial results on the pollutant removal performance and hydrological functioning of the system.

  5. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EMERGING PIPE WALL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LARGE CAST IRON WATER MAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  7. USEPA'S SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN ECUADOR AND MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to support and help in the struggle to improve the quality of drinking water in the United States and abroad, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conducts research studies for the demonstration and evaluation of alternative and innovative drinking w...

  8. USEPA'S SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN ECUADOR AND MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to support and help in the struggle to improve the quality of drinking water in the United States and abroad, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conducts research studies for the demonstration and evaluation of alternative and innovative drinking w...

  9. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  10. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease.

  11. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞENILĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals of drinking water of twenty-four wells and the presence of Escherichia coli in ten selected wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania, a rural area frequently affected by flood events. Water samples were collected in July 2014. Concerntrations of fluorides, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs for drinking water established by European legislation (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE in all the analysed samples. Concentration of nitrates exceeded MAC (50 mg L-1 in five samples, while concentration of sulphates exceeded MAC (250 mg L-1 in two samples. Among the analysed metals, Mn exceeded MAC (50 μg L-1 in two samples, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentrations did not exceeded the corresponding MACs. E. coli (over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1 was found in six water samples. The results show that majority of the studied parameters were below the threshold limits, however in some of the studied wells the water was found to be contaminated both by some chemical pollutants and by E. coli, which prepresent a risk for local population health.

  12. Survey of water after the flood situation in the flood zone in Fuzhou%抚州市洪灾区灾后生活饮用水水质调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军; 李小慧

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解我市洪灾区洪水过后饮用水水质情况.方法:随机抽取每个受灾行政村内5口敞口水井(或大口水井)及10口密封手压泵取水井水样,按照(GB5749-2006),对水样的菌落总数(CFU/ml)、总大肠菌群(MPN/100 ml)、耐热大肠菌群(MPN/100 ml)、大肠埃希氏菌(MPN/100 ml)、pH值及浑浊度6项进行检测.结果:洪灾后大口井不合格率为98.4%,压水井的不合格率为90.4%.结论:洪灾对水质的影响是非常大的,应加强灾后水质的监测与管理,确保群众饮水安全.%Objective: To understand the quality of drinking water in the flood disaster area after the flood situation in the flood zone. Methods: The affected administrative villages were randomly selected for each exposure of 5 wells ( or large wells) and 10 sealed hand pump water well water samples, according to the “life Drinking Water Standards” ( GB5749 - 2006), the total number of bacteria in water samples ( CFU/ml), total colfforms ( MPN/100 ml), heat - resistant coliform bacteria ( MPN/100 ml),Escherichia coli (MPN/100 ml), pH and turbidity were detected. Results: After the flood disas ter, the failed rate of the large well is 98.4%, the failed of rate presses water wells is 90.4%. Conclusion: The impact of floods on water quality is very large,we should enhance the water quality monitoring and disaster management to ensure drinking water safety.

  13. Optimal strategies for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijgenraam, Carel; Brekelmans, Ruud; den Hertog, Dick; Roos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flood prevention policy is of major importance to the Netherlands since a large part of the country is below sea level and high water levels in rivers may also cause floods. In this paper we propose a dike height optimization model to determine economically efficient flood protection standards. We i

  14. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  15. Modeling of Flood Risk for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, D.; Li, S.; Katz, B.; Goteti, G.; Kaheil, Y. H.; Vojjala, R.

    2011-12-01

    The science of catastrophic risk modeling helps people to understand the physical and financial implications of natural catastrophes (hurricanes, flood, earthquakes, etc.), terrorism, and the risks associated with changes in life expectancy. As such it depends on simulation techniques that integrate multiple disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, structural engineering, statistics, computer science, financial engineering, actuarial science, and more in virtually every field of technology. In this talk we will explain the techniques and underlying assumptions of building the RMS US flood risk model. We especially will pay attention to correlation (spatial and temporal), simulation and uncertainty in each of the various components in the development process. Recent extreme floods (e.g. US Midwest flood 2008, US Northeast flood, 2010) have increased the concern of flood risk. Consequently, there are growing needs to adequately assess the flood risk. The RMS flood hazard model is mainly comprised of three major components. (1) Stochastic precipitation simulation module based on a Monte-Carlo analogue technique, which is capable of producing correlated rainfall events for the continental US. (2) Rainfall-runoff and routing module. A semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model was developed to properly assess the antecedent conditions, determine the saturation area and runoff. The runoff is further routed downstream along the rivers by a routing model. Combined with the precipitation model, it allows us to correlate the streamflow and hence flooding from different rivers, as well as low and high return-periods across the continental US. (3) Flood inundation module. It transforms the discharge (output from the flow routing) into water level, which is further combined with a two-dimensional off-floodplain inundation model to produce comprehensive flood hazard map. The performance of the model is demonstrated by comparing to the observation and published data. Output from

  16. Remote-Sensing and Automated Water Resources Tracking: Near Real-Time Decision Support for Water Managers Facing Drought and Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M. E.; Elliott, N.; Veloz, S.; Love, F.; Moody, D.; Hickey, C.; Fitzgibbon, M.; Reynolds, M.; Esralew, R.

    2016-12-01

    Innovative approaches for tracking the Earth's natural resources, especially water which is essential for all living things, are essential during a time of rapid environmental change. The Central Valley is a nexus for water resources in California, draining the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. The distribution of water throughout California and the Central Valley, while dynamic, is highly managed through an extensive regional network of canals, levees, and pumps. Water allocation and delivery is determined through a complex set of rules based on water contracts, historic priority, and other California water policies. Furthermore, urban centers, agriculture, and the environment throughout the state are already competing for water, particularly during drought. Competition for water is likely to intensify as California is projected to experience continued increases in demand due to population growth and more arid growing conditions, while also having reduced or modified water supply due to climate change. As a result, it is difficult to understand or predict how water will be used to fulfill wildlife and wetland conservation needs. A better understanding of the spatial distribution of water in near real-time can facilitate adaptation of water resource management to changing conditions on the landscape, both over the near- and long-term. The Landsat satellite mission delivers imagery every 16-days from nearly every place on the earth at a high spatial resolution. We have integrated remote sensing of satellite data, classification modeling, bioinformatics, optimization, and ecological analyses to develop an automated near real-time water resources tracking and decision-support system for the Central Valley of California. Our innovative system has applications for coordinated water management in the Central Valley to support people, places, and wildlife and is being used to understand the factors that drive variation in the distribution and abundance of water

  17. Stream Flow Prediction and Flood Mapping in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya with the ICIMOD Water Resources App Portal (IWRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Ames, D. P.; Jones, N.; Souffront, M.

    2016-12-01

    Earth observations of precipitation, temperature, moisture, and other atmospheric and land surface conditions form the foundation of global hydrologic forecasts that are increasingly available in native as well as other derived products. The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have developed such products for global flood awareness which can be downscaled to smaller regions and used for stream flow prediction in underserved areas such as the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Combined with digital elevation data, now available at 30 meters through the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) reconnaissance-level flood maps can be generated across wide regions that would otherwise not be possible and where increased information to drive higher resolution models are available the same forecasts can be used to provide forcing inflows for improved flood maps. Advances in cloud computing offer a unique opportunity to facilitate deployment of water resources models as decision-making tools in the cloud-based ICIMOD Water Resources App Portal or IWRAP. The interactive nature of web apps makes this an excellent medium for creating decision support tools that harness cutting edge modeling techniques. Thin client apps hosted in a cloud portal eliminates the need for the decision makers to procure and maintain the high performance hardware required by the models, deal with issues related to software installation and platform incompatibilities, or monitor and install software updates, a problem that is exacerbated in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya where both financial and technical capacity are limited. All that is needed to use the system is an Internet connection and a web browser. We will take advantage of these technologies to develop tools which can be centrally maintained but openly accessible. Advanced mapping and visualization will make results intuitive and information derived actionable. We will also take advantage of the emerging standards for sharing water

  18. Effect of tidal flooding on metal distribution in pore waters of marsh sediments and its transport to water column (Tagus estuary, Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Vale, Carlos; Caetano, Miguel; Pereira, Patrícia; Prego, Ricardo

    2010-12-01

    Sediment cores and flooding water were collected at 0, 5, 10 and 50 min of tidal inundation in two sites of the Rosário salt marsh located in the proximity of a heavy industrialised zone of Tagus estuary colonised by pure stands of Spartina maritima (low marsh) and Sarcocornia fruticosa (high marsh). The cores were sliced in 5 cm layers and sediment solids, pore water, and belowground biomass were separated in order to measure Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The pore waters and sediments colonised by S. fruticosa, as well as belowground biomass presented high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. Belowground biomass exceeded in one order of magnitude the metal levels in sediments. Abundant belowground biomass and small dimension of S. fruticosa roots facilitates the root-sediment interactions and presumably the metal retention in the higher marsh. The novelty of this work is the result of tidal inundation on pore water concentrations of metals in salt marsh sediments and their exportation to the water column. Concentrations in pore waters varied at minute scales, but 50 min after inundation levels were comparable to the initial values. The metal levels in flooding water increased abruptly during the first 10-20 min of inundation. The concentration peaks (Fe = 60 μM, Mn = 7.5 μM, Zn = 1.7 μM, Cu = 550 nM, Pb = 100 nM, Cd = 1.7 nM) reached one to two orders of magnitude above the values found in subsequent periods of inundation. The advective transports during the 50 min inundation during two daily pulses of inundation were: Fe (9520 and 1640), Mn (24), Zn (220 and 82), Cu (74 and 16), Pb (13 and 15) and Cd (0.3 and 0.08) for S. maritima and S. fruticosa, respectively. These quantities exceeded three to four orders of magnitude of the corresponding predicted diffusive fluxes (Fick 1st law) on a daily basis. This work emphasizes the importance of tidal flooding over salt marsh sediments to the metal exportation to the water column. Copyright

  19. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  20. Assessment of the costs, risks and benefits of selected integrated policy options to adapt to flood and drought in the water and agricultural sectors of the Warta River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendzimir, Jan; Dubel, Anna; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Damurski, Jakub; Schroeter, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    Historically large reservoirs have been the dominant strategy to counter flood and drought risk in Europe. However, a number of smaller-scale approaches have emerged as alternative strategies. To compare the cost effectiveness of reservoirs and these alternatives, we calculated the Investment & maintenance costs in terms of (euros) /m3 water stored or annual runoff reduced for five different strategies: large reservoirs (1.68 euros), large on-farm ponds (5.88 euros), small on-farm ponds (558.00 euros), shelterbelts (6.86 euros), switching to conservation tillage (-9.20 euros). The most cost effective measure for reducing runoff is switching to conservation tillage practices because this switch reduces machinery and labor costs in addition to reducing water runoff. Although shelterbelts that reduce annual runoff cannot be directly compared to ponds and reservoirs that store water, our estimates show that they likely compare favorably as a natural water retention measure, especially when taking account of their co-benefits in terms of erosion control, biodiversity and pollination. Another useful result is our demonstration of the economies of scale among reservoirs and ponds for storing water. Small ponds are two orders of magnitude more costly to construct and maintain as a flood and drought prevention measure than large reservoirs. Here, again, there are large co-benefits that should be factored into the cost-benefit equation, including especially the value of small ponds in promoting corridors for migration. This analysis shows the importance of carrying out more extensive cost-benefit estimates across on-farm and off-farm measures for tackling drought and flood risk in the context of a changing climate. While concrete recommendations for supporting water retention measures will depend on a more detailed investigation of their costs and benefits, this research highlights the potential of natural water retention measures as a complement to conventional investments

  1. Dynamic Flood Vulnerability Mapping with Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellman, B.; Kuhn, C.; Max, S. A.; Sullivan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Satellites capture the rate and character of environmental change from local to global levels, yet integrating these changes into flood exposure models can be cost or time prohibitive. We explore an approach to global flood modeling by leveraging satellite data with computing power in Google Earth Engine to dynamically map flood hazards. Our research harnesses satellite imagery in two main ways: first to generate a globally consistent flood inundation layer and second to dynamically model flood vulnerability. Accurate and relevant hazard maps rely on high quality observation data. Advances in publicly available spatial, spectral, and radar data together with cloud computing allow us to improve existing efforts to develop a comprehensive flood extent database to support model training and calibration. This talk will demonstrate the classification results of algorithms developed in Earth Engine designed to detect flood events by combining observations from MODIS, Landsat 8, and Sentinel-1. Our method to derive flood footprints increases the number, resolution, and precision of spatial observations for flood events both in the US, recorded in the NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) storm events database, and globally, as recorded events from the Colorado Flood Observatory database. This improved dataset can then be used to train machine learning models that relate spatial temporal flood observations to satellite derived spatial temporal predictor variables such as precipitation, antecedent soil moisture, and impervious surface. This modeling approach allows us to rapidly update models with each new flood observation, providing near real time vulnerability maps. We will share the water detection algorithms used with each satellite and discuss flood detection results with examples from Bihar, India and the state of New York. We will also demonstrate how these flood observations are used to train machine learning models and estimate flood exposure. The final stage of

  2. Heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater of Brahmaputra flood plain: an assessment of water quality in Barpeta District, Assam (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H P

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contamination status of groundwater in Brahmaputra flood plain Barpeta District, Assam, India. The Brahmaputra River flows from the southern part of the district and its many tributaries flow from north to south. Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn are estimated by using atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200. The quantity of heavy metals in drinking water should be checked time to time; as heavy metal accumulation will cause numerous problems to living being. Forty groundwater samples were collected mainly from tube wells from the flood plain area. As there is very little information available about the heavy metal contamination status in the heavily populated study area, the present work will help to be acquainted with the suitability of groundwater for drinking applications as well as it will enhance the database. The concentration of iron exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 0.3 mg/L in about 80% of the samples, manganese values exceed 0.4 mg/L in about 22.5% of the samples, and lead values also exceed limit in 22.5% of the samples. Cd is reported in only four sampling locations and three of them exceed the WHO permissible limit (0.003 mg/L). Zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. Therefore, pressing awareness is needed for the betterment of water quality; for the sake of safe drinking water. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).

  3. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure.

  4. Numerical modeling of water flow spreading out over the land surface due to flash flood/debris by methods of nonlinear fluid dynamics and GIS-technologies - a flood zone distribution in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrakhin, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    1. The problem of forecasting, both in time and space, for the flood zones due to catastrophic flash water events is considered in the frames of dynamic model for the water flow movement on the land surface. The analysis is carried out in analogous with sudden dam destruction on the river channel. 2. To solve the problem, a mathematical apparatus has been used to describe the processes of water flow motion in approximation of one-dimensional equation for kinematic wave. In the case, the change of depth for water flow in time is associated with a change in the water flow discharge along the propagation coordinate. The model takes into account both the slope of the river bottom and the surface roughness coefficient resulting in resistance by friction. Because the proposition is that catastrophic events already occurred, and flow speed is sufficiently high, we do not take into account the precipitation and filtration processes. By setting the initial and boundary conditions in spatial-time domain the solution of the problem gives a complete picture of the water flow spreading dynamics for breakthrough wave. The procedure of explicit difference scheme with the use of an uniform grid and a three-point template has been used to find the solution, for a first order approximation. The condition of stability for the solution was obtained. 3. In the model we introduced some database on the land surface parameters being control parameters for the water flow. Forecasting technology is the following: for prediction of the breakthrough wave spreading over the land surface, the river downstream areas divide on the sections, being perpendicular to the riverbed. To estimate the parameters of breakthrough wave we calculate a maximum flood level in each cross-section of the river channel. Next, a flood zone for each section builds as a surface corresponding to the maximum level of flooding. All operations, i.e. on initial database collection as well as construction of the flood zones

  5. Investigating hillslope afforestation as a potential natural flood management strategy in the Eddleston Water catchment, Scottish Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Natural Flood Management (NFM) represents a sustainable alternative to traditional ‘hard- engineered’ flood defences. NFM has come to the forefront of environmental policy interest in recent years, particularly in light of projected increases in flood risk due to changes in climate and land use. Afforestation of hillslopes has been proposed as one such method of flood alleviation. However, the scientific evidence base for its effectiveness is limited. This project seeks to address this knowle...

  6. A new methodology for dynamic modelling of health risks arising from wastewater influenced urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Mark, Ole; Djordjevic, Slobodan; Hammond, Michael; Khan, David M.; Erichsen, Anders; Dorrit Enevoldsen, Ann; Heinicke, Gerald; Helwigh, Birgitte

    2015-04-01

    flood water, based on either measured waste water pathogen concentrations or on assumptions regarding the prevalence of infections in the population. The exposure (dosage) to pathogens was estimated by multiplying the concentration with literature values for the ingestion of water for different exposure groups (e.g. children, adults). The probability of infection was determined by applying dose response relations and MonteCarlo simulation. The methodology is demonstrated on two cases, i.e one case from a developing country with poor sanitation and one case from a developed country, where climate adaptation is the main issue: The risk of cholera in the City of Dhaka, Bangladesh during a flood event 2004, and the risk of bacterial and viral infections of during a flood event in Copenhagen, Denmark in 2011. Results PIC The historical flood events in Dhaka (2004) and Copenhagen (2011) were successfully modelled. The urban flood model was successfully coupled to QMRA. An example of the results of the quantitative microbial risk assessment given as the average estimated risk of cholera infection for children below 5 years living in slum areas in Dhaka is shown in the figure. Similarly, the risk of infection during the flood event in Copenhagen will be presented in the article. Conclusions We have developed a methodology for the dynamic modeling of the risk of infection during waste water influenced urban flooding. The outcome of the modelling exercise indicates that direct contact with polluted flood water is a likely route of transmission of cholera in Dhaka, and bacterial and viral infectious diseases in Copenhagen. It demonstrates the applicability and the potential for linking urban flood models with QMRA in order to identify interventions to reduce the burden of disease on the population in Dhaka City and Copenhagen.

  7. Effects of long-term flooding on biogeochemistry and vegetation development in floodplains; a mesocosm experiment to study interacting effects of land use and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, A. M.; Banach, K.; Peters, R. C. J. H.; Jansen, R. H. M.; Visser, E. J. W.; Stepniewska, Z.; Roelofs, J. G. M.; Lamers, L. P. M.

    2009-07-01

    Raising safety levees and reinforcing dykes is not a sufficient and sustainable solution to the intense winter and summer floods occurring with increasing frequency in Eastern Europe. An alternative, creating permanently flooded floodplain wetlands, requires improved understanding of ecological consequences. A 9 month mesocosm study (starting in January), under natural light and temperature conditions, was initiated to understand the role of previous land use (fertility intensity) and flooding water quality on soil biogeochemistry and vegetation development. Flooding resulted in severe eutrophication of both sediment pore water and surface water, particularly for more fertilized soil and sulphate pollution. Vegetation development was mainly determined by soil quality, resulting in a strong decline of most species from the highly fertilized location, especially in combination with higher nitrate and sulphate concentrations. Soils from the less fertilized location showed, in contrast, luxurious growth of target Carex species regardless water quality. The observed interacting effects of water quality and agricultural use are important in assessing the consequences of planned measures for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity in river floodplains.

  8. Effects of long-term flooding on biogeochemistry and vegetation development in floodplains; a mesocosm experiment to study interacting effects of land use and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. J. H. Peters

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Raising safety levees and reinforcing dykes is not a sufficient and sustainable solution to the intense winter and summer floods occurring with increasing frequency in Eastern Europe. An alternative, creating permanently flooded floodplain wetlands, requires improved understanding of ecological consequences. A 9 month mesocosm study (starting in January, under natural light and temperature conditions, was initiated to understand the role of previous land use (fertility intensity and flooding water quality on soil biogeochemistry and vegetation development. Flooding resulted in severe eutrophication of both sediment pore water and surface water, particularly for more fertilized soil and sulphate pollution. Vegetation development was mainly determined by soil quality, resulting in a strong decline of most species from the highly fertilized location, especially in combination with higher nitrate and sulphate concentrations. Soils from the less fertilized location showed, in contrast, luxurious growth of target Carex species regardless water quality. The observed interacting effects of water quality and agricultural use are important in assessing the consequences of planned measures for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity in river floodplains.

  9. Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The Final Report of the Solar Hot Water System located at the Red Star Industrial Laundry, 3333 Sabre Avenue, Fresno, California, is presented. The system was designed as an integrated wastewater heat recovery and solar preheating system to supply a part of the hot water requirements. It was estimated that the natural gas demand for hot water heating could be reduced by 56 percent (44 percent heat reclamation and 12 percent solar). The system consists of a 16,500 gallon tube-and-shell wastewater heat recovery subsystem combined with a pass-through 6,528 square foot flat plate Ying Manufacturing Company Model SP4120 solar collector subsystem, a 12,500 gallon fiber glass water storage tank subsystem, pumps, heat exchangers, controls, and associated plumbing. The design output of the solar subsystem is approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/year. Auxiliary energy is provided by a gas fired low pressure boiler servicing a 4,000 gallon service tank. This project is part of the US Department of Energy's Solar Demonstration Program with DOE sharing $184,841 of the $260,693 construction cost. The system was turned on in July 1977, and acceptance tests completed in September 1977. The demonstration period for this project ends September 2, 1982.

  10. Flood Impact Modelling and Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; ODonnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    Local implementation of Natural Flood Management methods are now being proposed in many flood schemes. In principal it offers a cost effective solution to a number of catchment based problem as NFM tackles both flood risk and WFD issues. However within larger catchments there is the issue of which subcatchments to target first and how much NFM to implement. If each catchment has its own configuration of subcatchment and rivers how can the issues of flood synchronisation and strategic investment be addressed? In this study we will show two key aspects to resolving these issues. Firstly, a multi-scale network water level recorder is placed throughout the system to capture the flow concentration and travel time operating in the catchment being studied. The second is a Flood Impact Model (FIM), which is a subcatchment based model that can generate runoff in any location using any hydrological model. The key aspect to the model is that it has a function to represent the impact of NFM in any subcatchment and the ability to route that flood wave to the outfall. This function allows a realistic representation of the synchronisation issues for that catchment. By running the model in interactive mode the user can define an appropriate scheme that minimises or removes the risk of synchornisation and gives confidence that the NFM investment is having a good level of impact downstream in large flood events.

  11. Coupling Modelling of Urban Development and Flood Risk – An Attempt for a Combined Software Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Sto Domingo, Nina; Urich, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    to use the results of the hydraulic simulation to condition DANCE4WATER and to account for flood risk in the simulated urban development. In an Australian case study, we demonstrate that future flood risk can be significantly reduced while maintaining the overall speed of urban development....

  12. Assessing Flood Risk Using Reservoir Flood Control Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Fu; Yadong Mei; Zhihuai Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The application of conventional flood operation regulation is restricted due to insufficient description of flood control rules for the Pubugou Reservoir in southern China. Based on the require-ments of different flood control objects, this paper proposes to optimize flood control rules with punish-ment mechanism by defining different parameters of flood control rules in response to flood inflow fore-cast and reservoir water level. A genetic algorithm is adopted for solving parameter optimization problem. The failure risk and overflow volume of the downstream insufficient flood control capacity are assessed through the reservoir operation policies. The results show that an optimised regulation can provide better performance than the current flood control rules.

  13. Building a flood climatology and rethinking flood risk at continental scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos; Schumann, Guy; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Smith, Andrew; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Sampson, Christopher; Brakenridge, Robert; Kettner, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the costliest natural disasters and the ability to understand their characteristics and their interactions with population, land cover and climate changes is of paramount importance. In order to accurately reproduce flood characteristics such as water inundation and heights both in the river channels and floodplains, hydrodynamic models are required. Most of these models operate at very high resolutions and are computationally very expensive, making their application over large areas very difficult. However, a need exists for such models to be applied at regional to global scales so that the effects of climate change with regards to flood risk can be examined. We use the a modeling framework that includes the VIC hydrologic and the LISFLOOD-FP hydrodynamic model to simulate a 40-year history of flood characteristics at the continental scale, particularly Australia. In order to extend the simulated flood climatology to 50-100 years in a consistent manner, reanalysis datasets have to be used as meteorological forcings to the models. The objective of this study is the evaluation of multiple atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA, NCEP, MERRA, JRA) as inputs to the VIC/LISFLOOD-FP model. Comparisons of the simulated flood characteristics are made with both satellite observations of inundation and a benchmark simulation of LISFLOOD-FP being forced by observed flows. The implications of having a climatology of flood characteristics are discussed, and in particular We found the magnitude and timing of floodplain water storage to significantly differ from streamflow in terms of their distribution. Furthermore, floodplain volume gave a much sharper discrimination of high hazard and low hazard periods than discharge, and using the latter can lead to significant overestimation. These results demonstrate that global streamflow statistics or precipitation should not be used to infer flood hazard and risk, but instead a flood inundation climatology is necessary.

  14. Flood Risk Analysis and Flood Potential Losses Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heavy floods in the Taihu Basin showed increasing trend in recent years. In thiswork, a typical area in the northern Taihu Basin was selected for flood risk analysis and potentialflood losses assessment. Human activities have strong impact on the study area' s flood situation (asaffected by the polders built, deforestation, population increase, urbanization, etc. ), and havemade water level higher, flood duration shorter, and flood peaks sharper. Five years of differentflood return periods [(1970), 5 (1962), 10 (1987), 20 (1954), 50 (1991)] were used to cal-culate the potential flood risk area and its losses. The potential flood risk map, economic losses,and flood-impacted population were also calculated. The study's main conclusions are: 1 ) Humanactivities have strongly changed the natural flood situation in the study area, increasing runoff andflooding; 2) The flood risk area is closely related with the precipitation center; 3) Polder construc-tion has successfully protected land from flood, shortened the flood duration, and elevated waterlevel in rivers outside the polders; 4) Economic and social development have caused flood losses toincrease in recent years.

  15. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Detailed Project Report for Flood Management in Cayuga Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    ln,1110 2. F: -oe rl I-t,oa Wdollars. 1 - 14.90a.200; 51,20 0 1- 9 0,2’.S ON, 1 rio .11 T ,’ dolloa 2 0 7.11: MINI11w I NAO 1010 lSS*𔃺i (A14,01 1. N... carnival , circus or other amusement enterprises (5) storage for equipment/material not subject to movement by flood waters B47 b. Buildings - no...Cefutuifon of *f Compated 167 Y_ keed by, reL l 7 tv E~ riO 1-2-60 - -SJle 5 (oees _t V 14 /! I ShO~4 9 .3P -Seo 13r -A i2-b 13. D~D Ft- c DS* .23 11~~ LAA%5

  16. Aerobic biodegradation process of petroleum and pathway of main compounds in water flooding well of Dagang oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Minmin; Yao, Jun; Yang, Huaijun; Wang, Ruixia; Masakorala, Kanaji

    2013-09-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of crude oil and its pathways were investigated via in vitro culture and GC-MS analysis in water flooding wells of Dagang oil field. The in vitro aerobic culture lasted 90 days when 99.0% of n-alkanes and 43.03-99.9% of PAHs were degraded and the biomarkers and their ratios were changed. The spectra of components in the residual oil showed the similar biodegradation between aerobic process of 90 days and degradation in reservoir which may last for some millions years, and the potential of serious aerobic biodegradation of petroleum in reservoir. 24 Metabolites compounds were separated and identified from aerobic culture, including fatty acid, naphthenic acid, aromatic carboxylic acid, unsaturated acid, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The pathways of alkanes and aromatics were proposed, which suggests that oxidation of hydrocarbon to organic acid is an important process in the aerobic biodegradation of petroleum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  18. Channel Shallowing as Mitigation of Coastal Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Orton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate that reductions in the depth of inlets or estuary channels can be used to reduce or prevent coastal flooding. A validated hydrodynamic model of Jamaica Bay, New York City (NYC, is used to test nature-based adaptation measures in ameliorating flooding for NYC's two largest historical coastal flood events. In addition to control runs with modern bathymetry, three altered landscape scenarios are tested: (1 increasing the area of wetlands to their 1879 footprint and bathymetry, but leaving deep shipping channels unaltered; (2 shallowing all areas deeper than 2 m in the bay to be 2 m below Mean Low Water; (3 shallowing only the narrowest part of the inlet to the bay. These three scenarios are deliberately extreme and designed to evaluate the leverage each approach exerts on water levels. They result in peak water level reductions of 0.3%, 15%, and 6.8% for Hurricane Sandy, and 2.4%, 46% and 30% for the Category-3 hurricane of 1821, respectively (bay-wide averages. These results suggest that shallowing can provide greater flood protection than wetland restoration, and it is particularly effective at reducing "fast-pulse" storm surges that rise and fall quickly over several hours, like that of the 1821 storm. Nonetheless, the goal of flood mitigation must be weighed against economic, navigation, and ecological needs, and practical concerns such as the availability of sediment.

  19. Interactive Web-based Floodplain Simulation System for Realistic Experiments of Flooding and Flood Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.

    2013-12-01

    Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage and visualize large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to create realistic environments, and interact with data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. The floodplain simulation system is a web-based 3D interactive flood simulation environment to create real world flooding scenarios. The simulation systems provides a visually striking platform with realistic terrain information, and water simulation. Students can create and modify predefined scenarios, control environmental parameters, and evaluate flood mitigation techniques. The web-based simulation system provides an environment to children and adults learn about the flooding, flood damage, and effects of development and human activity in the floodplain. The system provides various scenarios customized to fit the age and education level of the users. This presentation provides an overview of the web-based flood simulation system, and demonstrates the capabilities of the system for various flooding and land use scenarios.

  20. Interactions of Landowners' Land Use Decisions with Flood and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y.; Mohammed, I. N.; Turnbull, S.; Zia, A.; Bomblies, A.

    2014-12-01

    Human-induced changes in landscape occurring at an unprecedented rate and spatial scale have significantly altered the hydrological processes. However, due to the complexity of human decision making on land management in response to various socio-economic circumstances, anthropogenic changes in landscape rarely occur homogenously across temporal and special scales, so do the underlying drivers for land management decisions. For this reason and that for achieving more sustainable natural resources management, we develop a cascading integrated assessment model (CIAM) that accounts for dynamic land use characteristics in modeling hydrological variability, heterogeneity in human land management decisions under various socio-economic scenarios, and feedback of hydrological responses to human behaviors. The CIAM consists of two core components: the interactive land-use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM) and the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). The ILUTABM simulates heterogeneity in land use decisions at parcel levels by differentiating decision making processes for agricultural, urban and forest landowners. A landowner is expected to make decisions given his expected utility with respect to different underlying socio-economic drivers given the landowner category and the characteristics of his landholdings. These attributes of the land include but not limited to the neighboring land use, zoning rules, current use, soil, slope and elevation. The RHESSys is physical-based watershed model that uses a hierarchical spatial framework to simulate runoff, snow, soil and vegetation processes. Here we use the CIAM to examine the impacts of coupled landscape and climate changes on flood and nutrient transport and consequently the impacts of flood and nutrient loadings on human decisions for land use in the Missisquoi Watershed, Vermont.

  1. Quantitative analysis of urban pluvial flood alleviation by open surface water systems in new towns: Comparing Almere and Tianjin eco-city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Z.; Qu, L.; Zou, T.

    2015-01-01

    Increased surface runoff generated in urban areas due to larger proportion of impervious surfaces has, in many cases, exceeded the capacity of urban drainage systems. In response to such challenge, this paper introduces the quantitative analysis of pluvial flood alleviation by open surface water sys

  2. Quantitative analysis of urban pluvial flood alleviation by open surface water systems in new towns: Comparing Almere and Tianjin eco-city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Z.; Qu, L.; Zou, T.

    2015-01-01

    Increased surface runoff generated in urban areas due to larger proportion of impervious surfaces has, in many cases, exceeded the capacity of urban drainage systems. In response to such challenge, this paper introduces the quantitative analysis of pluvial flood alleviation by open surface water sys

  3. Hydroclimatological Aspects of the Extreme 2011 Assiniboine River Basin Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimelow, J.; Szeto, K.; Bonsal, B. R.; Hanesiak, J.; Kochtubajda, B.; Stewart, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    In the spring and early summer of 2011, the Assiniboine River Basin in Canada experienced an extreme flood that was unprecedented in terms of duration and volume of water. The flood had significant socioeconomic impacts and caused over one billion dollars in damage. Contrary to what one might expect for such an extreme flood, individual precipitation events before and during the 2011 flood were not extreme; instead, it was the cumulative impact and timing of precipitation events going back to the summer of 2010 that played a key role in the 2011 flood. The summer and fall of 2010 were exceptionally wet, resulting in soil moisture levels being much above normal at the time of freeze up. This was followed by above-average precipitation during the winter of 2010-2011, and record-breaking basin-averaged snow-water equivalent values in March and April 2011. Abnormally cold temperatures in March delayed the spring melt by about two weeks, with the result that the above-average seasonal melt freshet occurred close to the onset of abnormally heavy rains in May and June. The large-scale atmospheric flow during May and June 2011 favoured increased cyclone activity over the central and northern U.S., which produced an anomalously large number of heavy rainfall events over the basin. All of these factors combined to generate extreme surface runoff and flooding. We used JRA-55 reanalysis data to quantify the relative importance of snowmelt, soil moisture and spring precipitation in contributing to the unprecedented flood and to demonstrate how the 2011 flood was unique compared to previous floods in the basin. Data and research from this study can be used to validate and improve flood forecasting techniques over this important basin; our findings also raise important questions regarding the impact of climate change on basins that experience pluvial and nival flooding.

  4. Sedimentary structures formed under water surface waves: examples from a sediment-laden flash flood observed by remote camer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froude, Melanie; Alexander, Jan; Cole, Paul; Barclay, Jenni

    2014-05-01

    On 13-14 October 2012, Tropical Storm Rafael triggered sediment-laden flash floods in the Belham Valley on Montserrat, West Indies. Rainfall was continuous for ~38 hours and intensity peaked at 48 mm/hr. Flow was strongly unsteady, turbulent with sediment concentrations varying up to hyperconcentrated. Time-lapse images captured at >1 frame per second by remote camera overlooking a surveyed valley section show the development of trains of water surface waves at multiple channel locations during different flow stages. Waves grew and diminished in height and remained stationary or migrated upstream. Trains of waves persisted for <5 minutes, until a single wave broke, sometimes initiating the breaking of adjacent waves within the train. Channel-wide surges (bores) propagating downstream with distinct turbulent flow fronts, were observed at irregular intervals during and up to 7 hours after peak stage. These bores are mechanically similar to breaking front tidal bores and arid flood bores, and resulted in a sudden increase in flow depth and velocity. When a bore front came into close proximity (within ~10 m) upstream of a train of water surface waves, the waves appeared to break simultaneously generating a localised surge of water upstream, that was covered by the bore travelling downstream. Those trains in which waves did not break during the passage of a bore temporarily reduced in height. In both cases, water surface waves reformed immediately after the surge in the same location. Deposits from the event, were examined in <4 m deep trenches ~0.5 km downstream of the remote camera. These contained laterally extensive lenticular and sheet-like units comprised of varying admixtures of sand and gravel that are attributed to antidunes, and associated transitions from upper-stage-plane-beds. Some of the structures are organised within concave upward sequences which contain downflow shifts between foreset and backset laminae; interpreted as trough fills from chute

  5. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, A C; Desutter, T M; Casey, F X M; Kolka, R; Hakk, H

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements, the objectives of this study, which focused on Fargo, ND, and Moorhead, MN, were to assess floodwater quality and to determine the quantity and quality of overbank sediment deposited after floodwaters recede and the quality of soil underlying sediment deposits. 17β-Estradiol was detected in 9 of 24 water samples, with an average concentration of 0.61 ng L. Diesel-range organics were detected in 8 of 24 samples, with an average concentration of 80.0 μg L. The deposition of sediment across locations and transects ranged from 2 to 10 kg m, and the greatest mass deposition of chemicals was closest to the river channel. No gasoline-range organics were detected, but diesel-range organics were detected in 26 of the 27 overbank sediment samples (maximum concentration, 49.2 mg kg). All trace elements detected in the overbank sediments were within ranges for noncontaminated sites. Although flooding has economic, social, and environmental impacts, based on the results of this study, it does not appear that flooding in the RR in F-M led to decreased quality of water, sediment, or soil compared with normal river flows or resident soil.

  6. City-scale accessibility of emergency responders operating during flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Yu, Dapeng; Pattison, Ian; Wilby, Robert; Bosher, Lee; Patel, Ramila; Thompson, Philip; Trowell, Keith; Draycon, Julia; Halse, Martin; Yang, Lili; Ryley, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Emergency responders often have to operate and respond to emergency situations during dynamic weather conditions, including floods. This paper demonstrates a novel method using existing tools and datasets to evaluate emergency responder accessibility during flood events within the city of Leicester, UK. Accessibility was quantified using the 8 and 10 min legislative targets for emergency provision for the ambulance and fire and rescue services respectively under "normal" no-flood conditions, as well as flood scenarios of various magnitudes (1 in 20-year, 1 in 100-year and 1 in 1000-year recurrence intervals), with both surface water and fluvial flood conditions considered. Flood restrictions were processed based on previous hydrodynamic inundation modelling undertaken and inputted into a Network Analysis framework as restrictions for surface water and fluvial flood events. Surface water flooding was shown to cause more disruption to emergency responders operating within the city due to its widespread and spatially distributed footprint when compared to fluvial flood events of comparable magnitude. Fire and rescue 10 min accessibility was shown to decrease from 100, 66.5, 39.8 and 26.2 % under the no-flood, 1 in 20-year, 1 in 100-year and 1 in 1000-year surface water flood scenarios respectively. Furthermore, total inaccessibility was shown to increase with flood magnitude from 6.0 % under the 1 in 20-year scenario to 31.0 % under the 1 in 100-year flood scenario. Additionally, the evolution of emergency service accessibility throughout a surface water flood event is outlined, demonstrating the rapid impact on emergency service accessibility within the first 15 min of the surface water flood event, with a reduction in service coverage and overlap being observed for the ambulance service during a 1 in 100-year flood event. The study provides evidence to guide strategic planning for decision makers prior to and during emergency response to flood events at the city

  7. Mississippi Waters Reaching South Florida Reefs Under No Flood Conditions: Synthesis of Observing and Modeling System Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Henaff, M.; Kourafalou, V.

    2016-02-01

    In August 2014, in situ measurements revealed an intense salinity drop impacting South Florida coral reefs. Satellite observations showed that this drop in salinity was due to a southeastward export of Mississippi waters from the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Unlike previous events of long-distance Mississippi water export, this episode is not marked by Mississippi flooding conditions, which makes it a unique study case.We have developed a high-resolution ( 2 km) numerical model of the Gulf of Mexico to study the conditions that controlled the 2014 Mississippi water export episode. It is based on the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), which has a detailed representation of coastal physics (especially river plume dynamics) and employs high frequency river discharge and atmospheric forcing. In addition, it assimilates remotely sensed altimetry and sea surface temperature observations. The simulation reveals a unique pathway that brought Mississippi waters along the Northern Gulf continental shelf, before reaching the deep Gulf. In the Florida Straits, Mississippi waters were advected from the deep ocean to the continental shelf under the influence of both deep sea (frontal dynamics of the local western boundary current) and shelf flows (wind-induced Ekman transport). The combined use of a regional, data-assimilative nested simulation and available observations followed best practices recommended under the Coastal Ocean and Shelf Seas Task Team of the GODAE (Global Data Assimilation Experiment) OceanView initiative. It allowed identifying key processes and features that characterize the unique episode of Mississippi River waters export of 2014, and helped analyze the wide range of processes affecting the connectivity at both the local and basin scale in the Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  9. The impacts of urbanisation and climate change on urban flooding and urban water quality: A review of the evidence concerning the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Miller

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: There is a lack of nationally research focused on the dual impacts of climate change and urbanisation on flooding and water quality in UK urban areas. This is despite there being a clear acceptance that flood risk is increasing, water quality is generally not meeting desirable levels, and that combined population and climate change projections pose a pressing challenge. The available evidence has been found to be of medium-high confidence that both pressures will result in (i an increase in pluvial and fluvial flood risk, and (ii further reduction in water quality caused by point source pollution and altered flow regimes. Evidence concerning urban groundwater flooding, diffuse pollution and water temperature was found to be more sparse and was ascribed a low-medium confidence that both pressures will further exacerbate existing issues. The confidence ascribed to evidence was also found to reflect the utility of current science for setting policy and urban planning. Recurring factors that limit the utility of evidence for managing the urban environment includes: (i climate change projection uncertainty and suitability, (ii lack of sub-daily projections for storm rainfall, (iii the complexity of managing and modelling the urban environment, and (iv lack of probable national-scale future urban land-use projections. Suitable climate products are increasingly being developed and their application in applied urban research is critical in the wake of a series of extreme flooding events across the UK and timely for providing state-of-the-art evidence on which to base possible future water quality legislation in a post Brexit-WFD era.

  10. Flood-event based metal distribution patterns in water as approach for source apportionment of pollution on catchment scale: Examples from the River Elbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baborowski, Martina; Einax, Jürgen W.

    2016-04-01

    With the implementation of European Water Frame Work Directive (EU-WFD), the pollution sources in the River Elbe were assessed by the River Basin Community Elbe (RBC Elbe). Contaminated old sediments played the most significant role for inorganic and organic pollution. In terms of further improvement of the water quality in the river system, a prioritization of the known pollution sources is necessary, with respect to the expected effect in the case of their remediation. This requires information on mobility of contaminated sediments. To create a tool that allows the assessment of pollution trends in the catchment area, event based flood investigations were carried out at a sampling site in the Middle Elbe. The investigations were based on a comparable, discharge related sampling strategy. Four campaigns were performed between 1995 and 2006. The majority of the investigated 16 elements (>80%) studied more intensively in 2006 reached its maximum concentration during the first five days of the event. Only the concentrations of B, Cl-, and U declined with increasing discharge during the flood. The aim of the study was to verify that each flood event is characterized by an internal structure of the water quality. This structure is formed by the appearance of maximum values of water quality parameters at different times during the event. It could be detected by descriptive and multivariate statistical methods. As a result, internal structure of the water quality during the flood was influenced primarily by the source of the metals in the catchment area and its distance from the sampling point. The transport of metals in dissolved, colloidal or particulate form and changes of their ratios during the flood were however, not decisive for the formation of the structure. Our results show that the comparison of the structures obtained from events in different years is indicative of the pollution trend in the catchment area. Exemplarily the trend of the metal pollution in the

  11. Influence of flooding and vegetation on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics in the pore water of a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanesa L. Negrin; Carla V. Spetter; Raúl O. Asteasuain; Gerardo M. E. Perillo; Jorge E. Marcovecchio

    2011-01-01

    Four sites were selected in a salt marsh in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina): (1) low marsh (flooded by the tide twice daily) vegetated by S.alterniflora; (2) non-vegetated low marsh; (3) high marsh (flooded only in spring tides) vegetated by S.alterniflora;(4) non-vegetated high marsh.The pH and Eh were measured in sediments, while dissolved nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in pore water.pH (6.2-8.7) was only affected by vegetation in low areas.Eh (from -300 to 250 mV) was lower at low sites than at high ones; in the latter, the values were higher in the non-vegetated sediments.The POM concentration was greater in the high marsh than in the low marsh, with no effect of vegetation.Ammonium was the most abundant nitrogen nutrient species in pore water, except in the non-vegetated high marsh where nitrate concentration was higher.All nitrogen nutrients were affected by both flooding and vegetation.Phosphate was always present in pore water at all sites throughout the year and its concentration varied within narrow limits, with no effect of flooding and greater values always at non-vegetated sites.Our results showed that the variability of the pore water composition within the marsh is greater than the temporal variation, meaning that both tidal flooding and vegetation are important in the dynamics of nutrients and organic matter in the sediment pore water.

  12. Evaluation of spatial and temporal root water uptake patterns of a flood-irrigated pecan tree using the hydrus (2D/3D) model

    OpenAIRE

    Deb, SK; Shukla, MK; J. Šimůnek; Mexal, JG

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative information about the spatial and temporal patterns of compensatory root water uptake (RWU) in flood-irrigated pecan orchard is limited. We evaluated spatio-temporal compensated and uncompensated RWU patterns of mature pecan tree in a silty clay loam orchard using the HYDRUS (2D/3D) model. HYDRUS (2D/3D) simulations, which agreed well with measured water contents and temperatures at different soil depths and horizontal distances from the tree trunk, suggested that while both comp...

  13. Letter to the editor: Generation of self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM) of randomly situated water bodies during flooding process

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2001-01-01

    This letter presents a brief framework based on nonlinear morphological transformations to generate a self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM) in 2-dimensional space. This simple and elegant framework is implemented on a section that contains a few simulated water bodies to generate SOCCNM. This is based on a postulate that the randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes self organize during flooding process.

  14. Letter to the editor: Generation of self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM of randomly situated water bodies during flooding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a brief framework based on nonlinear morphological transformations to generate a self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM in 2-dimensional space. This simple and elegant framework is implemented on a section that contains a few simulated water bodies to generate SOCCNM. This is based on a postulate that the randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes self organize during flooding process.

  15. A practical demonstration of water disinfection using TiO2 films and sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Silvia; Gómez, Luis A; Reyes, Karina; Teresa Leal, Ma

    2006-10-01

    The scope of this study is the assessment of the efficiency of solar disinfection by heterogeneous photocatalysis with sol-gel immobilized (titanium dioxide) TiO2 films over glass cylinders. The solar disinfection process known as SODIS was considered as a reference. Spring water naturally polluted with coliform bacteria was exposed to sunlight in plastic bottles with and without TiO2 over simple solar collectors and the disinfection effectiveness was measured. Total and fecal coliforms quantification was performed by means of the chromogenic substrate method in order to obtain the efficiency of each disinfection treatment. The disinfection with TiO2 was more efficient than the SODIS process, inactivating total coliforms as well as fecal coliforms. On a sunny day (more than 1000 W m(-2) irradiance), it took the disinfection with immobilized TiO2 15 min of irradiation to inactivate the fecal coliforms to make them undetectable. For inactivation of total coliforms, 30 min was required, so that in less than half the time it takes SODIS, the treated water complies with the microbial standards for drinking water in Mexico. Another important part of this study has been to determine the bacterial regrowth in water after the disinfection processes were tested. After SODIS, bacterial regrowth of coliforms was observed. In contrast, when using the TiO2 catalyst, coliforms regrowth was not detected, neither for total nor for fecal coliforms. The disinfection process using TiO2 kept treated water free of coliforms at least for seven days after sun irradiation. This demonstration opens the possibility of application of this simple method in rural areas of developing countries.

  16. Assessing hyporheic zone dynamics in two alluvial flood plains of the Southern Alps using water temperature and tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hoehn

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature can be used as a tracer for the interaction between river water and groundwater, interpreting time shifts in temperature signals as retarded travel times. The water temperature fluctuates on different time scales, the most pronounced of which are the seasonal and diurnal ones. While seasonal fluctuations can be found in any type of shallow groundwater, high-frequency components are more typical for freshly infiltrated river water, or hyporheic groundwater, and are thus better suited for evaluating the travel time of the youngest groundwater component in alluvial aquifer systems. We present temperature time series collected at two sites in the alpine floodplain aquifers of the river Brenno in Southern Switzerland. At the first site, we determine apparent travel times of temperature for both the seasonal and high-frequency components of the temperature signals in several wells. The seasonal signal appears to travel more slowly, indicating a mixture of older and younger groundwater components, which is confirmed by sulphate measurements. The travel times of the high-frequency component qualitatively agree with the groundwater age derived from radon concentrations, which exclusively reflects young water components. Directly after minor floods, the amplitude of temperature fluctuations in an observation well nearby the river is the highest. Within a week, the riverbed is being clogged, leading to stronger attenuation of the temperature fluctuations in the observation well. At the second site, very fast infiltration to depths of 1.9m under the riverbed could be inferred from the time shift of the diurnal temperature signal.

  17. Global and regional aspects for genesis of catastrophic floods - the problems of forecasting and estimates for mass and water balance (surface and groundwater contribution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Arakelian, Sergei; Trifonov, Dmitriy; Abrakhin, Sergei

    2017-04-01

    1. The principal goal of present talk is, to discuss the existing uncertainty and discrepancy between water balance estimation for the area under heavy rain flood, on the one hand from the theoretical approach and reasonable data base due to rainfall going from atmosphere and, on the other hand the real practicle surface water flow parameters measured by some methods and/or fixed by some eye-witness (cf. [1]). The vital item for our discussion is that the last characteristics sometimes may be noticeably grater than the first ones. Our estimations show the grater water mass discharge observation during the events than it could be expected from the rainfall process estimation only [2]. The fact gives us the founding to take into account the groundwater possible contribution to the event. 2. We carried out such analysis, at least, for two catastrophic water events in 2015, i.e. (1) torrential rain and catastrophic floods in Lousiana (USA), June 16-20; (2) Assam flood (India), Aug. 22 - Sept. 8. 3. Groundwater flood of a river terrace discussed e.g. in [3] but in respect when rise of the water table above the land surface occurs coincided with intense rainfall and being as a relatively rare phenomenon. In our hypothesis the principal part of possible groundwater exit to surface is connected with a crack-net system state in earth-crust (including deep layers) as a water transportation system, first, being in variated pressure field for groundwater basin and, second, modified by different reasons ( both suddenly (the Krimsk-city flash flood event, July 2012, Russia) and/or smoothly (the Amur river flood event, Aug.-Sept. 2013, Russia) ). Such reconstruction of 3D crack-net under external reasons (resulting even in local variation of pressures in any crack-section) is a principal item for presented approach. 4. We believe that in some cases the interconnection of floods and preceding earthquakes may occur. The problem discuss by us for certain events ( e.g. in addition to

  18. Management of flood victims: Chainat Province, central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitwong, Anchaleeporn; McMillan, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    This article focuses on the processes of flood management and the experiences of flood victims in Chainat Province, central Thailand, so as to develop knowledge about the future handling of such disasters. A phenomenological qualitative approach was used to describe the processes of providing assistance to flood victims. In-depth interviews and observation were used to collect the data. Criterion sampling was used to select 23 participants. Content analysis of the data revealed that some flood victims could predict flooding based on prior experiences, so they prepared themselves. The data revealed six themes that demonstrated that those who could not predict how floods would impact on them were unprepared and suffered losses and disruption to their daily life. Damaged routes meant people could not go to work, resulting in the loss of income. There was a lack of sanitary appliances and clean drinking water, people were sick, and experienced stress. At the community level, people helped one another, making sandbags and building walls as a defense against water. They formed support groups to enable the processing of stressful experiences. However, later, the water became stagnant and contaminated, creating an offensive smell. The government provided assistance to cut off electricity services, food and water, toilets and health services, and water drainage. In the recovery phase, the victims needed money for investment, employment opportunities, books for children, extra time to pay off loans, reconnection of electricity, surveys of damage, and pensions to deal with damage and recovery.

  19. Effects of long-term flooding on biogeochemistry and vegetation development in floodplains - a mesocosm experiment to study interacting effects of land use and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, A. M.; Banach, K.; Peters, R. C. J. H.; Jansen, R. H. M.; Visser, E. J. W.; Stepniewska, Z.; Roelofs, J. G. M.; Lamers, L. P. M.

    2009-03-01

    The frequent occurrence of summer floods in Eastern Europe, possibly related to climate change, urges the need to understand the consequences of combined water storage and nature rehabilitation as an alternative safety measure instead of raising and reinforcing dykes, for floodplain biogeochemistry and vegetation development. We used a mesocosm design to investigate the possibilities for the creation of permanently flooded wetlands along rivers, in relation to water quality (nitrate, sulphate) and land use (fertilization). Flooding resulted in severe eutrophication of both sediment pore water and surface water, particularly for more fertilized soil and sulphate pollution. Vegetation development was mainly determined by soil quality, resulting in a strong decline of most species from the highly fertilized location, especially in combination with higher nitrate and sulphate concentrations. Soils from the less fertilized location showed, in contrast, luxurious growth of target Carex species regardless water quality. The observed interacting effects of water quality and agricultural use are important in assessing the consequences of planned measures for ecosystem functioning (including peat formation) and biodiversity in river floodplains.

  20. Effects of long-term flooding on biogeochemistry and vegetation development in floodplains – a mesocosm experiment to study interacting effects of land use and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Banach

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequent occurrence of summer floods in Eastern Europe, possibly related to climate change, urges the need to understand the consequences of combined water storage and nature rehabilitation as an alternative safety measure instead of raising and reinforcing dykes, for floodplain biogeochemistry and vegetation development. We used a mesocosm design to investigate the possibilities for the creation of permanently flooded wetlands along rivers, in relation to water quality (nitrate, sulphate and land use (fertilization. Flooding resulted in severe eutrophication of both sediment pore water and surface water, particularly for more fertilized soil and sulphate pollution. Vegetation development was mainly determined by soil quality, resulting in a strong decline of most species from the highly fertilized location, especially in combination with higher nitrate and sulphate concentrations. Soils from the less fertilized location showed, in contrast, luxurious growth of target Carex species regardless water quality. The observed interacting effects of water quality and agricultural use are important in assessing the consequences of planned measures for ecosystem functioning (including peat formation and biodiversity in river floodplains.

  1. Urban RoGeR: Merging process-based high-resolution flash flood model for urban areas with long-term water balance predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, M.

    2016-12-01

    Heavy rain induced flash floods are still a serious hazard and generate high damages in urban areas. In particular in the spatially complex urban areas, the temporal and spatial pattern of runoff generation processes at a wide spatial range during extreme rainfall events need to be predicted including the specific effects of green infrastructure and urban forests. In addition, the initial conditions (soil moisture pattern, water storage of green infrastructure) and the effect of lateral redistribution of water (run-on effects and re-infiltration) have to be included in order realistically predict flash flood generation. We further developed the distributed, process-based model RoGeR (Runoff Generation Research) to include the relevant features and processes in urban areas in order to test the effects of different settings, initial conditions and the lateral redistribution of water on the predicted flood response. The uncalibrated model RoGeR runs at a spatial resolution of 1*1m² (LiDAR, degree of sealing, landuse), soil properties and geology (1:50.000). In addition, different green infrastructures are included into the model as well as the effect of trees on interception and transpiration. A hydraulic model was included into RoGeR to predict surface runoff, water redistribution, and re-infiltration. During rainfall events, RoGeR predicts at 5 min temporal resolution, but the model also simulates evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge during rain-free periods at a longer time step. The model framework was applied to several case studies in Germany where intense rainfall events produced flash floods causing high damage in urban areas and to a long-term research catchment in an urban setting (Vauban, Freiburg), where a variety of green infrastructures dominates the hydrology. Urban-RoGeR allowed us to study the effects of different green infrastructures on reducing the flood peak, but also its effect on the water balance (evapotranspiration and groundwater

  2. Results from the Big Spring basin water quality monitoring and demonstration projects, Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden, R.D.; Liu, H.; Libra, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural practices, hydrology, and water quality of the 267-km2 Big Spring groundwater drainage basin in Clayton County, Iowa, have been monitored since 1981. Land use is agricultural; nitrate-nitrogen (-N) and herbicides are the resulting contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Ordovician Galena Group carbonate rocks comprise the main aquifer in the basin. Recharge to this karstic aquifer is by infiltration, augmented by sinkhole-captured runoff. Groundwater is discharged at Big Spring, where quantity and quality of the discharge are monitored. Monitoring has shown a threefold increase in groundwater nitrate-N concentrations from the 1960s to the early 1980s. The nitrate-N discharged from the basin typically is equivalent to over one-third of the nitrogen fertilizer applied, with larger losses during wetter years. Atrazine is present in groundwater all year; however, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater respond directly to recharge events, and unique chemical signatures of infiltration versus runoff recharge are detectable in the discharge from Big Spring. Education and demonstration efforts have reduced nitrogen fertilizer application rates by one-third since 1981. Relating declines in nitrate and pesticide concentrations to inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides at Big Spring is problematic. Annual recharge has varied five-fold during monitoring, overshadowing any water-quality improvements resulting from incrementally decreased inputs. ?? Springer-Verlag 2001.

  3. Travel-time tomography in shallow water: experimental demonstration at an ultrasonic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Philippe; Iturbe, Ion; Nicolas, Barbara; Virieux, Jean; Mars, Jérôme I

    2011-09-01

    Acoustic tomography in a shallow ultrasonic waveguide is demonstrated at the laboratory scale between two source-receiver arrays. At a 1/1,000 scale, the waveguide represents a 1.1-km-long, 52-m-deep ocean acoustic channel in the kilohertz frequency range. Two coplanar arrays record the transfer matrix in the time domain of the waveguide between each pair of source-receiver transducers. A time-domain, double-beamforming algorithm is simultaneously performed on the source and receiver arrays that projects the multi-reflected acoustic echoes into an equivalent set of eigenrays, which are characterized by their travel times and their launch and arrival angles. Travel-time differences are measured for each eigenray every 0.1 s when a thermal plume is generated at a given location in the waveguide. Travel-time tomography inversion is then performed using two forward models based either on ray theory or on the diffraction-based sensitivity kernel. The spatially resolved range and depth inversion data confirm the feasibility of acoustic tomography in shallow water. Comparisons are made between inversion results at 1 and 3 MHz with the inversion procedure using ray theory or the finite-frequency approach. The influence of surface fluctuations at the air-water interface is shown and discussed in the framework of shallow-water ocean tomography.

  4. GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OIL RESERVOIRS FLOODED BY WATER AND POLYMER%水驱和聚合物驱油藏地球化学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居和; 冯子辉; 方伟; 张琨

    2012-01-01

    油藏地球化学研究是水驱综合挖潜、聚驱精细调整开采剩余油的基础,采集萨尔图油田北一断西区聚合物驱前后2口小井距对比检查井的葡一组油砂样品51件,通过岩心分析获得油藏剩余油黏度、流度、含油饱和度、驱油效率等实验数据.实验研究结果表明,水驱后和聚合物驱后油藏剩余油黏度、流度、含油饱和度、驱油效率分布都呈现一定的非均质性特征,聚合物驱后较水驱后油藏剩余油变稠,剩余油开采潜力明显降低,驱油效率显著提高,驱油效率和含油饱和度的非均质性减弱;聚合物驱技术能够提高各种物性油藏的驱油效率,水驱技术能够提高高中低渗透油层的驱油效率,但在特高渗透油层则“无效循环”且随渗透率增大呈下降趋势;提高水驱油藏驱油效率的方法是降低剩余油黏度或提高水驱溶液的黏度即加入黏稠化学剂;提高聚合物驱油藏驱油效率的方法是降低剩余油黏度、提高聚合物驱溶液黏度或改善油层物性.%Geochemical researches of an oil reservoir are the basis of exploiting the remained oil by comprehensively tapping the potentials in water flooding and fine adjustment to polymer flooding. 51 oil-sand samples are collected in Pul Formation of two close-spacing comparing & inspecting wells in West Beil Fault Block of Saertu Oilfield before and after polymer flooding. Experimental data were gained by coring analysis, such as the remained oil viscosity, mobility, oil saturation, oil displaced efficiency and so on. The experimental study results show that the distributions of the above parameters after water and polymer floodings are characterized by a certain heterogeneity. The remained oil becomes more thicker after polymer flooding than water flooding, and furthermore the exploitation potentials of the remained oil are obviously reduced, the oil displaced efficiency is remarkably increased and heterogeneities of

  5. Base of brackish-water mud as key regional stratigraphic marker of mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Endler, Michael; Moros, Matthias; Jokinen, Sami A.; Hämäläinen, Jyrki; Kotilainen, Aarno T.

    2016-08-01

    Many modern epicontinental seas were dry land before their marine flooding by the mid-Holocene glacioeustatic sea-level rise, whereas the Baltic Sea Basin was covered by a huge postglacial lake. This change from a postglacial lake to the present-day semi-enclosed brackish-water sea is studied here in sediment cores and acoustic profiles from the Baltic Sea major sub-basins, based on novel datasets combined with information extracted from earlier publications. In shallow areas (water depth), the base of the brackish-water mud is erosional and covered by a patchy, thin, transgressive silt-sand sheet resulting from decreased sediment supply, winnowing and the redistribution of material from local coarse-grained deposits during transgression. This erosional marine flooding surface becomes sharp and possibly erosional in deep areas (>50m water depth), where it may be locally less clearly expressed due to reworking and bioturbation. Both in the shallow and deep areas, the brackish-water mud is strongly enriched in organic matter compared to underlying sediments. Bioturbation type changes at the flooding surface in response to the increased sedimentary organic content, but no firm-ground ichnofacies were developed because of low erosion. It is concluded that the base of the brackish-water mud is a robust allostratigraphic bounding surface that is identifiable by the lithologic examination of cores over the Baltic Sea. The surface is a distinct reflector in seismic-acoustic profiles, which facilitates mapping and basin-wide stratigraphic subdivision. Detailed geochronologic studies are required to confirm if sediments immediately overlying the erosional flooding surface in shallow areas are younger than the basal part of the brackish-water mud in deep areas that is predicted to be time-equivalent to the erosion.

  6. Flood Risk Management in Iowa through an Integrated Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Krajewski, Witold

    2013-04-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 1100 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert

  7. Modeling tools for the assessment of microbiological risks during floods: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collender, Philip; Yang, Wen; Stieglitz, Marc; Remais, Justin

    2015-04-01

    Floods are a major, recurring source of harm to global economies and public health. Projected increases in the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation events under future climate change, coupled with continued urbanization in areas with high risk of floods, may exacerbate future impacts of flooding. Improved flood risk management is essential to support global development, poverty reduction and public health, and is likely to be a crucial aspect of climate change adaptation. Importantly, floods can facilitate the transmission of waterborne pathogens by changing social conditions (overcrowding among displaced populations, interruption of public health services), imposing physical challenges to infrastructure (sewerage overflow, reduced capacity to treat drinking water), and altering fate and transport of pathogens (transport into waterways from overland flow, resuspension of settled contaminants) during and after flood conditions. Hydrological and hydrodynamic models are capable of generating quantitative characterizations of microbiological risks associated with flooding, while accounting for these diverse and at times competing physical and biological processes. Despite a few applications of such models to the quantification of microbiological risks associated with floods, there exists limited guidance as to the relative capabilities, and limitations, of existing modeling platforms when used for this purpose. Here, we review 17 commonly used flood and water quality modeling tools that have demonstrated or implicit capabilities of mechanistically representing and quantifying microbial risk during flood conditions. We compare models with respect to their capabilities of generating outputs that describe physical and microbial conditions during floods, such as concentration or load of non-cohesive sediments or pathogens, and the dynamics of high flow conditions. Recommendations are presented for the application of specific modeling tools for assessing

  8. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  9. Intelligent Real-Time Reservoir Operation for Flood Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L.; Hsu, H.

    2008-12-01

    Real-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. It is a continuous and instant decision-making process based on relevant operating rules, policy and water laws, in addition the immediate rainfall and the hydrology information; however, it is difficult to learn the intelligent experience from the elder operators. The main purpose of this study is to establish the automatic reservoir flood control model to achieve the goal of a reservoir operation during flood periods. In this study, we propose an intelligent reservoir operating methodology for real-time flood control. First, the genetic algorithm is used to search the optimal solutions, which can be considered as extracting the knowledge of reservoir operation strategies. Then, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which uses a hybrid learning procedure for extracting knowledge in the form of fuzzy if-then rules, is used to learn the input-output patterns and then to estimate the optimal flood operation. The Shihmen reservoir in Northern Taiwan was used as a case study, where its 26 typhoon events are investigated by the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed control model can perform much better than the original reservoir operator in 26 flood events and effectively achieve decreasing peak flood stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage.

  10. Base of brackish-water mud as key regional stratigraphic marker of mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Endler, Michael; Moros, Matthias; Jokinen, Sami A.; Hämäläinen, Jyrki; Kotilainen, Aarno T.

    2016-12-01

    Many modern epicontinental seas were dry land before their marine flooding by the mid-Holocene glacioeustatic sea-level rise, whereas the Baltic Sea Basin was covered by a huge postglacial lake. This change from a postglacial lake to the present-day semi-enclosed brackish-water sea is studied here in sediment cores and acoustic profiles from the Baltic Sea major sub-basins, based on novel datasets combined with information extracted from earlier publications. In shallow areas (50m water depth), where it may be locally less clearly expressed due to reworking and bioturbation. Both in the shallow and deep areas, the brackish-water mud is strongly enriched in organic matter compared to underlying sediments. Bioturbation type changes at the flooding surface in response to the increased sedimentary organic content, but no firm-ground ichnofacies were developed because of low erosion. It is concluded that the base of the brackish-water mud is a robust allostratigraphic bounding surface that is identifiable by the lithologic examination of cores over the Baltic Sea. The surface is a distinct reflector in seismic-acoustic profiles, which facilitates mapping and basin-wide stratigraphic subdivision. Detailed geochronologic studies are required to confirm if sediments immediately overlying the erosional flooding surface in shallow areas are younger than the basal part of the brackish-water mud in deep areas that is predicted to be time-equivalent to the erosion.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Urban Pluvial Flood Alleviation by Open Surface Water Systems in New Towns: Comparing Almere and Tianjin Eco-City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengnan Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased surface runoff generated in urban areas due to larger proportion of impervious surfaces has, in many cases, exceeded the capacity of urban drainage systems. In response to such challenge, this paper introduces the quantitative analysis of pluvial flood alleviation by open surface water systems in the case of Almere in the Netherlands and compares it with Tianjin Eco-City in China, with the aim of optimizing land use planning and urban design for new urban districts. The methodology is a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis. With the analytical tool of ArcGIS, the authors have investigated the influence of spatial distribution of surface water system on the reduction of pluvial flood risks. The conclusions include some preliminary principles: (1 a densely distributed surface water network is preferable; (2 areas farther away from water body require water sensitive spatial intervention; and (3 optimizing the allocation of different types of ground surface could contribute to pluvial flood alleviation. An alternative design proposal for a typical urban block in Tianjin Eco-City has been put forward to illustrate these principles.

  12. Effects of connate water on chemical flooding processes in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, L.; Neale, G.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-03-12

    This work examines the effects of connate water on the unstable displacement patterns and fractional oil recoveries observed when simulated secondary and tertiary oil displacement processes are conducted in the laboratory. Three displacement systems were investigated; a non-reacting system without surfactant (water displacing non-acidic paraffin oil), a non-reacting system with externally added surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate solution displacing non-acidic paraffin oil), and a reacting system with internally generated surfactant (sodium hydroxide solution displacing acidified paraffin oil). A consolidated porous medium constructed of fused glass beads was used to simulate the underground oil reservoir. Each of the three basic displacement processes was conducted both in the absence and presence of connate water, and at three different flow rates. The results obtained indicate that the presence of connate water can exert a significant influence on the displacement pattern with the non-reacting systems, particularly at low flow rates. Some of these effects include an increase in the number of fingers and/or much thinner fingers with many tiny branches. At low flow rates, the presence of connate water tends to decrease the breakthrough oil recovery for the non-surfactant system, but increases the breakthrough recovery for the surfactant-containing systems. At high flow rates, connate water has a much less pronounced effect due to the dominance of viscous forces

  13. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of flood management measures based on the concept of "retaining water in the landscape" in different European hydro-climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the effectiveness of flood management measures based on the concept known as "retaining water in the landscape". The investigated measures include afforestation, micro-ponds and small-reservoirs. A comparative and model-based methodological approach has been developed and applied for three meso-scale catchments located in different European hydro-climatological regions: Poyo (184 km2 in the Spanish Mediterranean, Upper Iller (954 km2 in the German Alps and Kamp (621 km2 in Northeast-Austria representing the Continental hydro-climate. This comparative analysis has found general similarities in spite of the particular differences among studied areas. In general terms, the flood reduction through the concept of "retaining water in the landscape" depends on the following factors: the storage capacity increase in the catchment resulting from such measures, the characteristics of the rainfall event, the antecedent soil moisture condition and the spatial distribution of such flood management measures in the catchment. In general, our study has shown that, this concept is effective for small and medium events, but almost negligible for the largest and less frequent floods: this holds true for all different hydro-climatic regions, and with different land-use, soils and morphological settings.

  14. Flood hazard and management: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, Howard S

    2006-08-15

    This paper discusses whether flood hazard in the UK is increasing and considers issues of flood risk management. Urban development is known to increase fluvial flood frequency, hence design measures are routinely implemented to minimize the impact. Studies suggest that historical effects, while potentially large at small scale, are not significant for large river basins. Storm water flooding within the urban environment is an area where flood hazard is inadequately defined; new methods are needed to assess and manage flood risk. Development on flood plains has led to major capital expenditure on flood protection, but government is attempting to strengthen the planning role of the environmental regulator to prevent this. Rural land use management has intensified significantly over the past 30 years, leading to concerns that flood risk has increased, at least at local scale; the implications for catchment-scale flooding are unclear. New research is addressing this issue, and more broadly, the role of land management in reducing flood risk. Climate change impacts on flooding and current guidelines for UK practice are reviewed. Large uncertainties remain, not least for the occurrence of extreme precipitation, but precautionary guidance is in place. Finally, current levels of flood protection are discussed. Reassessment of flood hazard has led to targets for increased flood protection, but despite important developments to communicate flood risk to the public, much remains to be done to increase public awareness of flood hazard.

  15. Water budget and simulation of one-dimensional unsaturated flow for a flood- and a sprinkler-irrigated field near Milford, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susong, David D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water recharge to basin-fill aquifers from unconsumed irrigation water in the western United States is being reduced as irrigators convert to more efficient irrigation systems. In some areas, these changes in irrigation methods may be contributing to ground-water-level declines and reducing the quantity of water available to downgradient users. The components of the water budget were measured or calculated for each field for the 1992 and 1993 irrigation seasons. Precipitation was about 6.5 cm (2.6 inches) both years. The flood-irrigated field received 182 and 156 centimeters (71.6 and 61.4 inches) of irrigation water in 1992 and 1993, and the sprinkler-irrigated field received 52.8 and 87.2 centimeters (20.8 and 34.3 inches) of water, respectively. Evapotranspiration for alfalfa was calculated using the Penman-Monteith combination equation and was 95.4 and 84.3 centimeters (37.2 and 33.2 inches) for 1992 and 1993, respectively. No runoff and no significant change in soil moisture in storage was observed from either field. Recharge to the aquifer from the flood-irrigated field was 93.3 and 78.1 centimeters (36.7 and 30.7 inches) in 1992 and 1993 and from the sprinkler-irrigated field was -35.9 and 9.3 centimeters (-14.1 and 3.7 inches), respectively. The daily water budget and soil-moisture profiles in the upper 6.4 meters (21 feet) of the unsaturated zone were simulated with an unsaturated flow model for average climate conditions. Simulated recharge was 57.4 and 50.5 percent of the quantity of irrigation water applied to the flood-irrigated field during 1992 and 1993, respectively, and was 8.7 and 13.8 percent of the quantity of irrigation water applied to the sprinkler- irrigated field.

  16. The use of Natural Flood Management to mitigate local flooding in the rural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Quinn, Paul; Ghimire, Sohan; Nicholson, Alex; Addy, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The past decade has seen increases in the occurrence of flood events across Europe, putting a growing number of settlements of varying sizes at risk. The issue of flooding in smaller villages is usually not well publicised. In these small communities, the cost of constructing and maintaining traditional flood defences often outweigh the potential benefits, which has led to a growing quest for more cost effective and sustainable approaches. Here we aim to provide such an approach that alongside flood risk reduction, also has multipurpose benefits of sediment control, water quality amelioration, and habitat creation. Natural flood management (NFM) aims to reduce flooding by working with natural features and characteristics to slow down or temporarily store flood waters. NFM measures include dynamic water storage ponds and wetlands, interception bunds, channel restoration and instream wood placement, and increasing soil infiltration through soil management and tree planting. Based on integrated monitoring and modelling studies, we demonstrate the potential to manage runoff locally using NFM in rural systems by effectively managing flow pathways (hill slopes and small channels) and by exploiting floodplains and buffers strips. Case studies from across the UK show that temporary storage ponds (ranging from 300 to 3000m3) and other NFM measures can reduce peak flows in small catchments (5 to 10 km2) by up to 15 to 30 percent. In addition, increasing the overall effective storage capacity by a network of NFM measures was found to be most effective for total reduction of local flood peaks. Hydraulic modelling has shown that the positioning of such features within the catchment, and how they are connected to the main channel, may also affect their effectiveness. Field evidence has shown that these ponds can collect significant accumulations of fine sediment during flood events. On the other hand, measures such as wetlands could also play an important role during low flow

  17. Nogales flood detention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  18. Stabilized oil production conditions in the development equilibrium of a water-flooding reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renshi Nie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water injection can compensate for pressure depletion of production. This paper firstly investigated into the equilibrium issue among water influx, water injection and production. Equilibrium principle was elaborated through deduction of equilibrium equation and presentation of equilibrium curves with an “equilibrium point”. Influences of artificial controllable factors (e.g. well ratio of injection to production and total well number on equilibrium were particularly analyzed using field data. It was found that the influences were mainly reflected as the location move of equilibrium point with factor change. Then reservoir pressure maintenance level was especially introduced to reveal the variation law of liquid rate and oil rate with the rising of water cut. It was also found that, even if reservoir pressure kept constant, oil rate still inevitably declined. However, in the field, a stabilized oil rate was always pursued for development efficiency. Therefore, the equilibrium issue of stabilized oil production was studied deeply through probing into some effective measures to realize oil rate stability after the increase of water cut for the example reservoir. Successful example application indicated that the integrated approach was very practical and feasible, and hence could be used to the other similar reservoir.

  19. Sustainable Improvement of Urban River Network Water Quality and Flood Control Capacity by a Hydrodynamic Control Approach-Case Study of Changshu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Yang, Fan; Liu, Guoqing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Long; Fan, Ziwu

    2017-01-01

    Water environment of urban rivers suffers degradation with the impacts of urban expansion, especially in Yangtze River Delta. The water area in cites decreased sharply, and some rivers were cut off because of estate development, which brings the problems of urban flooding, flow stagnation and water deterioration. The approach aims to enhance flood control capability and improve the urban river water quality by planning gate-pump stations surrounding the cities and optimizing the locations and functions of the pumps, sluice gates, weirs in the urban river network. These gate-pump stations together with the sluice gates and weirs guarantee the ability to control the water level in the rivers and creating hydraulic gradient artificially according to mathematical model. Therefore the flow velocity increases, which increases the rate of water exchange, the DO concentration and water body self-purification ability. By site survey and prototype measurement, the river problems are evaluated and basic data are collected. The hydrodynamic model of the river network is established and calibrated to simulate the scenarios. The schemes of water quality improvement, including optimizing layout of the water distribution projects, improvement of the flow discharge in the river network and planning the drainage capacity are decided by comprehensive Analysis. Finally the paper introduces the case study of the approach in Changshu City, where the approach is successfully implemented.

  20. Field demonstration of on-site analytical methods for TNT and RDX in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, H. [Environmental Protection Agency Region 10, Portland, OR (United States); Ferguson, G.; Markos, A. [Black and Veatch Special Projects Corp., Tacoma, WA (United States); Kusterbeck, A.; Shriver-Lake, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering; Jenkins, T.; Thorne, P. [Army Corps of Engineers, Hanover, NH (United States). Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab.

    1996-12-31

    A field demonstration was conducted to assess the performance of eight commercially-available and emerging colorimetric, immunoassay, and biosensor on-site analytical methods for explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in ground water and leachate at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon and US Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington, Superfund sites. Ground water samples were analyzed by each of the on-site methods and results compared to laboratory analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with EPA SW-846 Method 8330. The commercial methods evaluated include the EnSys, Inc., TNT and RDX colorimetric test kits (EPA SW-846 Methods 8515 and 8510) with a solid phase extraction (SPE) step, the DTECH/EM Science TNT and RDX immunoassay test kits (EPA SW-846 Methods 4050 and 4051), and the Ohmicron TNT immunoassay test kit. The emerging methods tested include the antibody-based Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Continuous Flow Immunosensor (CFI) for TNT and RDX, and the Fiber Optic Biosensor (FOB) for TNT. Accuracy of the on-site methods were evaluated using linear regression analysis and relative percent difference (RPD) comparison criteria. Over the range of conditions tested, the colorimetric methods for TNT and RDX showed the highest accuracy of the emerging methods for TNT and RDX. The colorimetric method was selected for routine ground water monitoring at the Umatilla site, and further field testing on the NRL CFI and FOB biosensors will continue at both Superfund sites.

  1. Relationship Between Surplus Floodwater in Flood Season and Coupling Risk of Soil and Water Loss%汛期洪水弃水与水土流失耦合风险关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勋贵; 魏霞

    2011-01-01

    ,a function relationship between sediment concentration in runoff and coupling risk grade of soil and water loss is established.A maximum rating method is employed to calculate the coefficient of surplus floodwater in flood season based on the independent variable of sediment concentration in runoff.Therefore,the relation between the coefficient of surplus floodwater and the coupling risk grade of soil and water loss is achieved with the intermediate variable of sediment concentration in runoff.A case study related to Jinghe River Basin with representative characteristics of floodwater resources utilization and soil and water loss has been performed.Results demonstrate that: 1) the coupling risk grades of soil and water loss for 1986,1995 and 2000 at the upper watershed of the controlled section of Zhangjiashan Station are 2.5437,2.5421 and 2.4722,respectively,which shows a total decrease trend of the coupling risk of soil and water loss in the basin;2) there is a prominent relationship at the confidence level of 0.01 between sediment concentration in runoff(y) and coupling risk grade of soil and water loss(x) as y=0.0108exp(2.4211x).The square of correlation coefficient R is equal to 0.4037(R 2= 0.4037).The higher the coupling risk grade(x) is,the larger the sediment concentration in runoff(y) is,vice versa;and 3) a prominent function relationship at 0.01 confidence level exists between the coefficient of surplus floodwater in flood season(y) and the coupling risk grade of soil and water loss(x) as y =0.0229exp(0.9937 x) R 2=0.3878.The bigger the coupling risk(x) is,the larger the coefficient of surplus floodwater(y) is,the larger the amount of surplus floodwater in flood season is,and the greater the flood disaster risk is.The results can provide a reference for analysis on relationship between the risks of watershed soil and water loss and flood disaster.

  2. Effect of water stress on growth, water consumption and yield of silage maize under flood irrigation in a semi-arid climate of Tadla (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouazzama, B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The field study of crop response to water stress is important to maximize yield and improve agricultural water use efficiency in areas where water resources are limited. This study was carried out during two growing periods in 2009 and 2010 in order to study the effect of water stress on crop growth, water consumption and dry matter yield of silage maize (Zea mays L. supplied with flood irrigation under the semi-arid climate of Tadla in Morocco. Four to five irrigation treatments were applied at the rates of 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20% crop evapotranspiration (ETc of maize. Soil water status, crop growth, leaf area index and above-ground biomass were measured. Results showed that irrigation deficit affected plant height growth, accelerated the senescence of the leaves and reduced the leaf area index. The maximum values of this parameter reached at flowering under the full irrigation treatment (100% ETc were 5.1 and 4.8 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Dry matter yields varied from 5.3 t·ha-1 under T4 (40% ETc to 16.4 t·ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc in 2009, whereas in 2010, it oscillated between 3.9 t·ha-1 under T5 (20% ETc to 12.5 t·ha-1 under T1 (100% ETc. The establishment of the water budget by growth phase showed that the water use efficiency was higher during the linear phase of growth. Water use efficiency calculated at harvest varied between 2.99 kg·m-3 under T1 to 1.84 kg·m-3 under T5. The actual evapotranspiration under T1 (100% ETc was 478 mm and 463 mm in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Using the averaged values of the two years, linear relationships were evaluated between dry matter yield and water consumption ETa. The yield response factor (Ky for the silage maize for both growth seasons was 1.12. Under the Tadla semi-arid climate, it is proposed that silage maize should be irrigated as a priority before other crops with a Ky lower than 1.12. It is also recommended that, under limited water supplies, irrigation be applied during the linear

  3. Efficient solar hydrogen production by photocatalytic water splitting: From fundamental study to pilot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dengwei; Guo, Liejin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Ximin; Liu, Huan; Li, Mingtao; Shen, Shaohua; Liu, Guanjie; Hu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Lijin; Guo, Penghui [State Key Lab of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Photocatalytic water splitting with solar light is one of the most promising technologies for solar hydrogen production. From a systematic point of view, whether it is photocatalyst and reaction system development or the reactor-related design, the essentials could be summarized as: photon transfer limitations and mass transfer limitations (in the case of liquid phase reactions). Optimization of these two issues are therefore given special attention throughout our study. In this review, the state of the art for the research of photocatalytic hydrogen production, both outcomes and challenges in this field, were briefly reviewed. Research progress of our lab, from fundamental study of photocatalyst preparation to reactor configuration and pilot level demonstration, were introduced, showing the complete process of our effort for this technology to be economic viable in the near future. Our systematic and continuous study in this field lead to the development of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) based photocatalytic hydrogen production solar rector for the first time. We have demonstrated the feasibility for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light. The exiting challenges and difficulties for this technology to proceed from successful laboratory photocatalysis set-up up to an industrially relevant scale are also proposed. These issues have been the object of our research and would also be the direction of our study in future. (author)

  4. Integrating Decentralized Rainwater Management in Urban Planning and Design: Flood Resilient and Sustainable Water Management Using the Example of Coastal Cities in The Netherlands and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanized delta areas worldwide share a growing tendency of exposure to water stress induced by the effects of climate change and anthropogenic factors, threatening the operation of infrastructure systems and future urban development. The important synergistic impacts coexisting with freshwater scarcity are increasing urbanization rates, subsiding soils, saltwater intrusion in aquifers and rivers, coastal erosion, and increased flooding. Innovative design strategies and concepts for the integration of decentralized rainwater management measures can contribute to the integrated and climate resilient planning of urban spaces that are threatened by climate change scenarios that worsen the security of urban infrastructures and the future availability of fresh water. Decentralized rainwater management, including retention, storage, and reuse strategies that are integrated into spatial planning and urban design, can reduce flood risks while simultaneously enhancing freshwater availability. This paper discusses a paradigm shift in urban water management, from centralized to decentralized management (that is, from threats to opportunities, using the example of two case studies. Concepts and strategies for building climate resilient cities, which address flood control, the protection of freshwater resources, and the harmonization of a natural and more sustainable water balance, are presented for Almere (Rhine Schelde Delta, The Netherlands and Hsingchu (Dotzpu Delta, Taiwan.

  5. Short-term emissions of CO2 and N2O in response to periodic flood irrigation with waste water in the Mezquital Valley of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Méndez, B.; Webster, R.; Fiedler, S.; Loza-Reyes, E.; Hernández, J. M.; Ruíz-Suárez, L. G.; Siebe, C.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation with waste water adds labile carbon and nitrogen compounds to the soil, and when applied by flooding it rapidly changes the soil's atmosphere and redox potential. In the Mezquital Valley more than 90 000 ha is irrigated with waste water from Mexico City, and enhanced emissions of CO2 and N2O follow each flooding. We measured the emissions of these two gases from a field irrigated periodically with waste water and under three crops, namely alfalfa, rye-grass and maize, using static chambers for 21 months. We also measured emissions from a field growing rain-fed maize before and shortly after two rain events. The data from repeated measurements from the same chambers are correlated in time, and so we modelled the ante-dependence and fitted the models by residual maximum likelihood (REML). The emissions of both CO2 and N2O increased rapidly in response to flood irrigation with peaks up to 448 mg C m-2 hour-1 for CO2 and 2.98 mg N m-2 hour-1 for N2O under maize. Emissions peaked in particular irrigation events either as the infiltrating water replaced the gas from air-filled pores or several days after irrigation as excess nitrogen and fresh sources of carbon were mineralized. Processes operating during the few days during and immediately after irrigation seem to determine the dynamics of gaseous production in this agricultural ecosystem.

  6. Integration of Drainage, Water Quality and Flood Management in Rural, Urban and Lowland Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlotman, W.F.; Wong, T.; Schultz, E.

    2007-01-01

    Managing drainage in rural and peri-urban environments has become an essential part of integrated water management. Drainage has become a science of control, storage and (re)use while meeting triple bottom-line requirements (environment, social and economic assessments). Controlled drainage in rural

  7. Climate-Determined Suitability of the Water Saving Technology "Alternate Wetting and Drying" in Rice Systems: A Scalable Methodology demonstrated for a Province in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    Full Text Available 70% of the world's freshwater is used for irrigated agriculture and demand is expected to increase to meet future food security requirements. In Asia, rice accounts for the largest proportion of irrigated water use and reducing or conserving water in rice systems has been a long standing goal in agricultural research. The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD technique has been developed to reduce water use by up to 30% compared to the continuously flooded conditions typically found in rice systems, while not impacting yield. AWD also reduces methane emissions produced by anaerobic archae and hence has applications for reducing water use and greenhouse gas emissions. Although AWD is being promoted across Asia, there have been no attempts to estimate the suitable area for this promising technology on a large scale. We present and demonstrate a spatial and temporal climate suitability assessment method for AWD that can be widely applied across rice systems in Asia. We use a simple water balance model and easily available spatial and temporal information on rice area, rice seasonality, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration and soil percolation rates to assess the suitable area per season. We apply the model to Cagayan province in the Philippines and conduct a sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainties in soil percolation and suitability classification. As expected, the entire dry season is climatically suitable for AWD for all scenarios. A further 60% of the wet season area is found suitable contradicting general perceptions that AWD would not be feasible in the wet season and showing that spatial and temporal assessments are necessary to explore the full potential of AWD.

  8. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment at the local spatial scale: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Vojtek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With regard to minimizing flood damage, there are measures of different character each of which has its justification and plays an important role in flood protection. Implementation of traditional flood protection measures is still very important; however, an increasing role should be played particularly by flood prevention and flood risk management. The paper presents a case study on flood hazard and flood risk assessment at the local spatial scale using geographic information systems, remote sensing, and hydraulic modelling. As for determining flood hazard in the model area, which has 3.23 km2, the estimation of maximum flood discharges and hydraulic modelling were important steps. The results of one-dimensional hydraulic modelling, which are water depth and flow velocity rasters, were the basis for determining flood hazard and flood risk. In order to define flood risk, the following steps were applied: determining flood intensity on the basis of water depth and flow velocity rasters, determining flood hazard using three categories (low, medium, and high based on flood intensity, defining vulnerability for the classes of functional areas using three categories of acceptable risk (low, medium, and high, and lastly determination of flood risk which represents a synthesis of flood hazard and vulnerability of the model area.

  9. Estimating flooded area and mean water level using active and passive microwaves: the example of Paraná River Delta floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salvia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure to estimate both the fraction of flooded area and the mean water level in vegetated river floodplains by using a synergy of active and passive microwave signatures. In particular, C band Envisat ASAR in Wide Swath mode and AMSR-E at X, Ku and Ka band, are used. The method, which is an extension of previously developed algorithms based on passive data, exploits also model simulations of vegetation emissivity. The procedure is applied to a long flood event which occurred in the Paraná River Delta from December 2009 to April 2010. Obtained results are consistent with in situ measurements of river water level.

  10. Estimating flooded area and mean water level using active and passive microwaves: the example of Paraná River Delta floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salvia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure to estimate both the fraction of flooded area and the mean water level in vegetated river floodplains by using a synergy of active and passive microwave signatures. In particular, C Band Envisat ASAR in Wide Scan mode and AMSR-E at X, Ku and Ka Band, are used. The method, which is an extension of previously developed algorithms based on passive data, exploits also model simulations of vegetation emissivity. The procedure is applied to a long flood event which occurred in the Paraná River Delta from December 2009 to April 2010. Obtained results are consistent with in situ measurements of river water level.

  11. The interrelationship of riparian vegetation and water temperature demonstrated with field data measurements and analysis of the rivers Pinka and Lafnitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde

    2015-04-01

    Riparian vegetation is an important part of riverine system and plays a key role in terms of eco-sustainable streams, which consequently also affect the water driven erosion processes and flooding from an engineering point of view. Furthermore it is a crucial prerequisite for intact and balanced terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Due to intensive anthropogenic impacts, especially in lowlands, streams in Central Europe were strongly influenced and set to a moderate ecological status. Riverine forests changed to settlements or agricultural areas and so important functions of the riparian vegetation, such as shading decreased. Consequently, stream warming occurs and has an impact on the water quality of small and moderate sized streams. The objective of this study is to correlate different vegetation parameters and the river water temperature. The study was carried out in the Pinka and Lafnitz river catchments, located in the Austrian provinces Styria and Burgenland. Both rivers are medium sized lowland rivers of the "Hungarian Plains". Digital aerial photograph analysis and field measurements are the basement of the vegetation analysis. Water temperature was measured at several points along both rivers. Data were sampled every hour from July 2012 until September 2013. For the water temperature measurements HOBO Pendant Temperature/Light Data Logger 8K * UA-002-08 were used. The results show that there is a correlation between water temperature and riparian vegetation parameter depending on the temporal and spatial scale. There is a verifiable difference in daily water temperature range (6.7° to 3.5°) of different vegetation stands in contrast to unshaded areas. Also the peak time of the daily water temperature is different comparing high shaded areas with unshaded areas. The results confirm that the riparian vegetation has a significantly impact on the water temperature specifically at low water conditions and demonstrate the need for more in depth studies of this

  12. Urban flood modeling using shallow water equations with depth-dependent anisotropic porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen, Ilhan; Zhao, Jiaheng; Liang, Dongfang; Hinkelmann, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The shallow water model with anisotropic porosity conceptually takes into account the unresolved subgrid-scale features, e.g. microtopography or buildings. This enables computationally efficient simulations that can be run on coarser grids, whereas reasonable accuracy is maintained via the introduction of porosity. This article presents a novel numerical model for the depth-averaged equations with anisotropic porosity. The porosity is calculated using the probability mass function of the subgrid-scale features in each cell and updated in each time step. The model is tested in a one-dimensional theoretical benchmark before being evaluated against measurements and high-resolution predictions in three case studies: a dam-break over a triangular bottom sill, a dam-break through an idealized city and a rainfall-runoff event in an idealized urban catchment. The physical processes could be approximated relatively well with the anisotropic porosity shallow water model. The computational resolution influences the porosities calculated at the cell edges and therefore has a large influence on the quality of the solution. The computational time decreased significantly, on average three orders of magnitude, in comparison to the classical high-resolution shallow water model simulation.

  13. Integrating Decentralized Rainwater Management in Urban Planning and Design: Flood Resilient and Sustainable Water Management Using the Example of Coastal Cities in The Netherlands and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Schuetze; Lorenzo Chelleri

    2013-01-01

    Urbanized delta areas worldwide share a growing tendency of exposure to water stress induced by the effects of climate change and anthropogenic factors, threatening the operation of infrastructure systems and future urban development. The important synergistic impacts coexisting with freshwater scarcity are increasing urbanization rates, subsiding soils, saltwater intrusion in aquifers and rivers, coastal erosion, and increased flooding. Innovative design strategies and concepts for the integ...

  14. The Influence of Flash Flood Disasters on the Surface of Water Environment%暴洪灾害对地表水环境的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡彬

    2013-01-01

    根据2010年8月甘肃舟曲特大泥石流灾害应急监测结果,分析了暴洪灾害对地表水环境产生的主要影响.%According to Gansu zhouqu espcially big mud-rock flow disaster emergency monitoring results, the main influence of the flash flood disaster on surface water enviroment is analyzed.

  15. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value publication of this report. StreamStats is the interactive Web-based map tool created by the U.S. Geological Survey to allow the user to choose a streamgage and obtain published statistics or choose ungaged locations where the program automatically applies the regional regression equations and computes the estimates of the AEP statistics.

  16. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Sučany village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Trenčín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  18. Health impacts of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.

  19. Flood water storage as a resource for agriculture and groundwater recharge: the empting of artificial leaking ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oria, M.; Tanda, M.; Zanini, A.

    2008-12-01

    The large industrialization, intensive agriculture and the increasing population is giving rise to a lack of water resources. There is the need of capturing runoff for storing the water and using it during dry periods, but people now opposes to the realization of new dams. In Italy Public Authorities are showing a great interest in using ponds or small lakes located in the fluvial surroundings for storing water. The reservoirs can be filled up during flood events and can become, maintaining the water for a certain period, a resource for agriculture and a source of artificial recharge of groundwater. The hydraulic risks in the management of such small structures and the economic budget are lower than those involved in traditional reservoirs. In this work we propose a set of relationships with the aim of describing the interactions between the pond lakes and the beneath groundwater. This methodology allows to estimate the emptying time of the lake and its relative flow rate in a very fast way. It requires only a few parameters: the geometry of the problem, the initial lake and groundwater level and the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer and of the bottom of the lake. The solution of the problem was split in two cases: groundwater level always below the lakebed and groundwater level interacting with the lake level. It is possible to identify the two cases comparing the maximum flow rate drained from the aquifer (QS) to the one provided by the lake (QL). If QS is greater than QL the groundwater level maintains below the lakebed and vice versa. The two cases are well represented by simple relationships developed by the authors. These relationships were obtained using the results provided by a numerical model developed using MODFLOW 2000 with the LAKE3 package. Considering the first case, the relationship between the lake, groundwater level, the time and the leakance is represented by a straight line in a semi-logarithmic plane. In the case of the lake interconnected

  20. Research advance and prospect of low salinity water flooding%低矿化度水驱研究进展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 姜瑞忠; 王公昌; 梁宇

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the current status that low salinity water flooding has been applied to pilot test abroad while in China there is little research,this paper analyzed the current research status and existing problems,and proposed prospects for low salinity water flooding.It is concluded that for sand reservoirs,the main mechanisms of low salinity water flooding are similar to alkaline flooding,fines migration and the wettability alteration caused by multi-component ion exchange,while for carbonate reservoirs,the mechanism of low salinity water flooding is wettability alteration caused by multi-component ion exchange.Crude oil properties,reservoir rock properties,formation and injected water salinity and reservoir temperature can all influence the effects of low salinity water flooding.The main problems lie in the unclear mechanisms,low salinity water source limitation and reservoir adaptability.Finally,it is pointed out that low salinity water flooding can be combined with current oilfield development techniques,coal bed methane production techniques,development techniques for low permeability oilfield and high water-cut oilfield,which will form new economical,environmental-friendly and great potential techniques for enhanced oil recovery.%针对国外低矿化度水驱已运用于矿场实践而国内相关研究还未开展的现状,对低矿化度水驱机理及其存在的问题进行了综述,并对低矿化度水驱的发展趋势作了展望。对于砂岩油藏,低矿化度水驱提高采收率的机理主要为类碱驱、微粒运移以及多组分离子交换引起的储层润湿性改变;而对于碳酸盐岩油藏,低矿化度水驱提高采收率的机理则主要是多组分离子交换引起的储层润湿性改变。原油性质、储层性质、地层水及注入水性质、地层温度等因素均可以影响低矿化度水驱提高采收率的效果。目前低矿化度水驱存在的问题主要包括提高采收率机理不清、

  1. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used

  2. Methylmercury in flood-control impoundments and natural waters of northwestern Minnesota, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, M.E.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Olson, M.L.; DeWild, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    We studied methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (HgT) in impounded and natural surface waters in northwestern Minnesota, in settings ranging from agricultural to undeveloped. In a recently constructed (1995) permanent-pool impoundment, MeHg levels typically increased from inflow to outflow during 1997; this trend broke down from late 1998 to early 1999. MeHg levels in the outflow reached seasonal maxima in mid-summer (maximum of 1.0 ng L−1 in July 1997) and late-winter (maximum of 6.6 ng L−1 in February 1999), and are comparable to high levels observed in new hydroelectric reservoirs in Canada. Spring and autumn MeHg levels were typically about 0.1–0.2 ng L−1. Overall, MeHg levels in both the inflow (a ditch that drains peatlands) and outflow were significantly higher than in three nearby reference natural lakes. Eleven older permanent-pool impoundments and six natural lakes in northwestern Minnesota were sampled five times. The impoundments typically had higher MeHg levels (0.071–8.36 ng L−1) than natural lakes. Five of six lakes MeHg levels typical of uncontaminated lakes (0.014–1.04 ng L−1) with highest levels in late winter, whereas a hypereutrophic lake had high levels (0.37–3.67 ng L−1) with highest levels in mid-summer. Seven temporary-pool impoundments were sampled during summer high-flow events. Temporary-pool impoundments that retained water for about 10–15 days after innundation yielded pronounced increases in MeHg from inflow to outflow, in one case reaching 4.6 ng L−1, which was about 2 ng L−1 greater than the mean inflow concentration during the runoff event.

  3. High-resolution urban flood modelling - a joint probability approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Michael; Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    (Divoky et al., 2005). Nevertheless, such events occur and in Ireland alone there are several cases of serious damage due to flooding resulting from a combination of high sea water levels and river flows driven by the same meteorological conditions (e.g. Olbert et al. 2015). A November 2009 fluvial-coastal flooding of Cork City bringing €100m loss was one such incident. This event was used by Olbert et al. (2015) to determine processes controlling urban flooding and is further explored in this study to elaborate on coastal and fluvial flood mechanisms and their roles in controlling water levels. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology to assess combined effect of multiple source flooding on flood probability and severity in urban areas and to establish a set of conditions that dictate urban flooding due to extreme climatic events. These conditions broadly combine physical flood drivers (such as coastal and fluvial processes), their mechanisms and thresholds defining flood severity. The two main physical processes controlling urban flooding: high sea water levels (coastal flooding) and high river flows (fluvial flooding), and their threshold values for which flood is likely to occur, are considered in this study. Contribution of coastal and fluvial drivers to flooding and their impacts are assessed in a two-step process. The first step involves frequency analysis and extreme value statistical modelling of storm surges, tides and river flows and ultimately the application of joint probability method to estimate joint exceedence return periods for combination of surges, tide and river flows. In the second step, a numerical model of Cork Harbour MSN_Flood comprising a cascade of four nested high-resolution models is used to perform simulation of flood inundation under numerous hypothetical coastal and fluvial flood scenarios. The risk of flooding is quantified based on a range of physical aspects such as the extent and depth of inundation (Apel et al

  4. Simulated and observed 2010 flood-water elevations in selected river reaches in the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket River Basins, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Straub, David E.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy persistent rains from late February through March 2010 caused severe flooding and set, or nearly set, peaks of record for streamflows and water levels at many long-term U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in Rhode Island. In response to this flood, hydraulic models were updated for selected reaches covering about 33 river miles in Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket River Basins from the most recent approved Federal Emergency Management Agency flood insurance study (FIS) to simulate water-surface elevations (WSEs) from specified flows and boundary conditions. Reaches modeled include the main stem of the Moshassuck River and its main tributary, the West River, and three tributaries to the West River—Upper Canada Brook, Lincoln Downs Brook, and East Branch West River; and the main stem of the Woonasquatucket River. All the hydraulic models were updated to Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) version 4.1.0 and incorporate new field-survey data at structures, high-resolution land-surface elevation data, and flood flows from a related study. The models were used to simulate steady-state WSEs at the 1- and 2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flows, which is the estimated AEP of the 2010 flood in the Moshassuck River Basin and the Woonasquatucket River, respectively. The simulated WSEs were compared to the high-water mark (HWM) elevation data obtained in these basins in a related study following the March–April 2010 flood, which included 18 HWMs along the Moshassuck River and 45 HWMs along the Woonasquatucket River. Differences between the 2010 HWMs and the simulated 2- and 1-percent AEP WSEs from the FISs and the updated models developed in this study varied along the reach. Most differences could be attributed to the magnitude of the 2- and 1-percent AEP flows used in the FIS and updated model flows. Overall, the updated model and the FIS WSEs were not appreciably different when compared to the observed 2010 HWMs along the

  5. Dip-angle influence on areal DNAPL recovery by co-solvent flooding with and without pre-flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Glen R; Li, Minghua; Husserl, Johana; Ocampo-Gómez, Ana M

    2006-01-10

    A two-dimensional (2D) laboratory model was used to study effects of gravity on areal recovery of a representative dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminant by an alcohol pre-flood and co-solvent flood in dipping aquifers. Recent studies have demonstrated that injection of alcohol and co-solvent solutions can be used to reduce in-situ the density of DNAPL globules and displace the contaminant from the source zone. However, contact with aqueous alcohol reduces interfacial tension and causes DNAPL swelling, thus facilitating risk of uncontrolled downward DNAPL migration. The 2D laboratory model was operated with constant background gradient flow and a DNAPL spill was simulated using tetrachloroethene (PCE). The spill was dispersed to a trapped, immobile PCE saturation by a water flood. Areal PCE recovery was studied using a double-triangle well pattern to simulate a remediation scheme consisting of an alcohol pre-flood using aqueous isobutanol ( approximately 10% vol.) followed by a co-solvent flood using a solution of ethylene glycol (65%) and 1-propanol (35%). Experiments were conducted with the 2D model oriented in the horizontal plane and compared to experiments at the 15 degrees and 30 degrees dip-angle orientations. Injection was applied either in the downward or upward direction of flow. Experimental results were compared to theoretical predictions for flood front stability and used to evaluate effects of gravity on areal PCE recovery. Sensitivity experiments were performed to evaluate effects of the alcohol pre-flood on PCE areal recovery. For experiments conducted with the alcohol pre-flood and the 2D model oriented in the horizontal plane, results indicate that 89-93% of source zone PCE was recovered. With injection oriented downward, results indicate that areal PCE recovery was 70-77% for a 15 degrees dip angle and 57-59% for a 30 degrees dip angle. With injection oriented upward, results indicate that areal PCE recovery was 57-60% at the 30

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CAV-OX ULTRAVIOLET OXIDATION PROCESS MAGNUM WATER TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CAV-OX® technology (see Fig- ure 1) destroys organic contaminants, including chlorinated hy- drocarbons, in water. The process uses hydrogen peroxide, hy- drodynamic cavitation, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to photolyze and oxidize organic compounds present in water at ...

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CAV-OX ULTRAVIOLET OXIDATION PROCESS MAGNUM WATER TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CAV-OX® technology (see Fig- ure 1) destroys organic contaminants, including chlorinated hy- drocarbons, in water. The process uses hydrogen peroxide, hy- drodynamic cavitation, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to photolyze and oxidize organic compounds present in water at ...

  8. Estimation of flash flood using surface water model and GIS technique in Wadi El Azariq, East Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Osta, Maged M.; Sabri, Mohamed Sh.; Masoud, Milad H.

    2016-01-01

    The study of flash flood hazard phenomenon and runoff potentialities are the major task of a hydrologists especially in arid and semi-arid regions. This paper presents a new approach to modeling flash floods in dryland catchments by the integration between physiographic features of the study basin, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Watershed Modelling System (WMS). Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data was used to prepare a digit...

  9. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.; Mustroph, A.; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that gro

  10. Assessing the environmental justice consequences of flood risk: a case study in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Marilyn C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Recent environmental justice (EJ) research has emphasized the need to analyze social inequities in the distribution of natural hazards such as hurricanes and floods, and examine intra-ethnic diversity in patterns of EJ. This study contributes to the emerging EJ scholarship on exposure to flooding and ethnic heterogeneity by analyzing the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population residing within coastal and inland flood risk zones in the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Florida—one of the most ethnically diverse MSAs in the U.S. and one of the most hurricane-prone areas in the world. We examine coastal and inland flood zones separately because of differences in amenities such as water views and beach access. Instead of treating the Hispanic population as a homogenous group, we disaggregate the Hispanic category into relevant country-of-origin subgroups. Inequities in flood risk exposure are statistically analyzed using socio-demographic variables derived from the 2010 U.S. Census and 2007-2011 American Community Survey estimates, and 100-year flood risk zones from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Social vulnerability is represented with two neighborhood deprivation indices called economic insecurity and instability. We also analyze the presence of seasonal/vacation homes and proximity to public beach access sites as water-related amenity variables. Logistic regression modeling is utilized to estimate the odds of neighborhood-level exposure to coastal and inland 100-year flood risks. Results indicate that neighborhoods with greater percentages of non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Hispanic subgroups of Colombians and Puerto Ricans are exposed to inland flood risks in areas without water-related amenities, while Mexicans are inequitably exposed to coastal flood risks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of treating coastal and inland flood risks separately while controlling for water-related amenities, and

  11. Water quality changes in floodplain lakes due to the Amazon River flood pulse: Lago Grande de Curuaí (Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Affonso

    Full Text Available Assurance of water quality for human consumption is essential for public health policies. In the Amazon floodplain, the seasonal water level variation causes periodic flooding of marginal areas that are usually used for settlements, agriculture and livestock. Therefore, the exchange of materials between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem affects the proportion of suspended and dissolved components in water and its physical-chemical characteristics, and consequently the quality of the water used by local people. Following this approach, the aim of this study is to evaluate changes in water quality in Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain, Óbidos, Pará in response to the flood pulse, during one hydrological year from 2003 to 2004, based on water use classes (according to National Water Agency 357/2005 resolution using chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentration as parameters and the eutrophication index. Ordinary kriging was applied to interpolate chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen and to predict values at non sampled locations. Each location was then classified according to water use acceptable parameters and to Carlson Trophic State Index modified by Toledo to map lake water classes and trophic status. The result showed that Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain is a supereutrophic system, with levels of dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a not suitable for human supply during the receding water phase. These areas are located near the riverine communities, which can cause health problems due to the presence of potentially toxic algae. Therefore, monitoring water quality in Amazon lakes is essential to ensure the availability has appropriate quality for human and animal supplies.

  12. Atmospheric Rivers, Floods, and Flash Floods in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Klint T.

    Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are long (>2000 km), narrow (<1000 km) corridors of enhanced vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) and enhanced IWV transport (IVT). The landfall of ARs along the U.S. West Coast have been linked to extreme precipitation and flooding/flash flooding in regions of complex topography. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between a 10 water-year (2005-2014) climatology of floods, flash floods, and landfalling ARs. The ARs in this study are defined using IVT following the Rutz et al. (2013) methodology, whereas floods and flash floods are identified by the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Storm Events Database. The results of this study indicate that landfalling ARs are present on a majority of days that there are floods in northern California. Landfalling ARs are predominantly present on a majority of days that there are flash flood reports during the cold-season (November-March); however, the North American monsoon is present on days that there are flash flood reports during the warm-season (April-October). Two exemplary case studies are provided to illustrate the hydrologic impact of landfalling ARs. The first case study illustrated a flood event that occurred in associated with three landfalling ARs that produced 800 mm in regions over the Russian River watershed in northern California and the second case study illustrated a flash flood event that occurred in association with a landfalling AR that produced ˜225 mm of precipitation in regions over the Santa Ynez xii watershed in which produced a flash flood over the southern portions of Santa Barbara County in southern California.

  13. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used

  14. Geochemistry, water dynamics and metals: Major, trace elements, Pb and Sr isotope constraints on their origins and movements in a small anthropized catchment over a flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, J.M.; Othman, D.B. [University Montpellier II, Laboratoire Geofluides, Bassins, Eaux, Montpellier (France)

    1997-10-01

    Major, trace elements and Sr-Pb isotope data on the dissolved and particulate phases are reported for water samples taken regularly over the September flood of a Mediterranean river (S France). This river drains runoff from a small, carbonate, karstified watershed with Miocene and Jurassic lithologies, and characterized by agricultural, urban and road network activities. The objective is to combine all the data into a dynamic model for constraining the origin(s) and movements of waters and of their loads. Furthermore, for metals, it becomes then feasible to know their fate and bioavailability downstream 18 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Hydrology and Glacier-Lake-Outburst Floods (1987-2004) and Water Quality (1998-2003) of the Taku River near Juneau, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Edward G.

    2007-01-01

    The Taku River Basin originates in British Columbia, Canada, and drains an area of 6,600 square miles at the U.S. Geological Survey's Taku River gaging station. Several mines operated within the basin prior to 1957, and mineral exploration has resumed signaling potential for future mining developments. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Douglas Indian Association, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a water-quality and flood-hydrology study of the Taku River. Water-quality sampling of the Taku River from 1998 through 2003 established a baseline for assessing potential effects of future mining operations on water quality. The annual mean discharge of the Taku River is 13,700 cubic feet per second. The monthly mean discharge ranges from a minimum of 1,940 cubic feet per second in February to a maximum of 34,400 cubic feet per second in June. Nearly 90 percent of the annual discharge is from May through November. The highest spring discharges are sourced primarily from snowmelt and moderate discharges are sustained throughout the summer by glacial meltwaters. An ice cover usually forms over the Taku River in December persisting through the winter into March and occasionally into April. Glacier-lake-outburst floods originating from two glacier-dammed lakes along the margin of the Tulsequah Glacier in British Columbia, Canada, are the source of the greatest peak discharges on the Taku River. The largest flood during the period of record was 128,000 cubic feet per second on June 25, 2004, resulting from an outburst of Lake No Lake. Lake No Lake is the larger of the two lakes. The outburst-flood contribution to peak discharge was 80,000 cubic feet per second. The volume discharged from Lake No Lake is relatively consistent indicating drainage may be triggered when the lake reaches a critical stage. This suggests prediction of the timing of these outburst floods might be possible if lake

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Flood Risk Assessments to Digital Elevation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bas van de Sande; Claartje Hoyng; Joost Lansen

    2012-01-01

    Most coastal flood risk studies make use of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in addition to a projected flood water level in order to estimate the flood inundation and associated damages to property and livelihoods. The resolution and accuracy of a DEM are critical in a flood risk assessment, as land elevation largely determines whether a location will be flooded or will remain dry during a flood event. Especially in low lying deltaic areas, the land elevation variation is usually in the order...

  17. Demonstration of a heat pump water heater. Volume 3. Design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloane, B.D.; Krise, R.C.; Kent, D.D.

    1979-12-01

    Work performed during the pilot run manufacturing and laboratory testing stages of a heat pump water heater for residential installations is described. A general description of the heat pump water heater is provided, as are detailed discussions of individual components. Also included is a description of the pilot run manufacturing facility and experience, laboratory operations, and laboratory test data.

  18. After the waters receded: a qualitative study of university officials' disaster experiences during the Great Iowa Flood of 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Erin P; Ramirez, Marizen; Roth, Lisa; Robertson, McKaylee; Atchison, Christopher G; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2011-04-01

    When the Great Flood of 2008 hit towns across Eastern Iowa, officials from the University of Iowa shut its operations for a week, relocated and evacuated students and community residents, and suffered damage to over a dozen buildings. This study is a qualitative assessment of the experiences and perceptions of twelve university officials involved in the response and management of the disaster. Major themes are presented according to phases of the Disaster Management Cycle. During the preparedness phase, an established all-hazards plan as well as specific annexes for flooding and pandemic influenza proved to enhance community response to the flood. However, training university clientele across a large organization to execute these plans and respond to future disasters is not an easy task. The content and effective means for delivering these trainings are areas for further research. During the response phase of the flood, officials swiftly expedited a business continuity plan to assure that personnel were paid during the university closure. However, enforcing a policy to avoid coming to work during the closure was challenging. Thus, future work must be done to determine and implement effective disaster communications that relay clear messages about roles and responsibilities. Now, in recovery, the university must rebuild its infrastructure and consider potential mental health issues. Lessons learned from the Great Flood of 2008 provide the opportunity to self-assess and prepare universities for disasters in the future.

  19. The role of Natural Flood Management in managing floods in large scale basins during extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; ODonnell, Greg; Nicholson, Alex; Hetherington, David

    2016-04-01

    There is a strong evidence database showing the negative impacts of land use intensification and soil degradation in NW European river basins on hydrological response and to flood impact downstream. However, the ability to target zones of high runoff production and the extent to which we can manage flood risk using nature-based flood management solution are less known. A move to planting more trees and having less intense farmed landscapes is part of natural flood management (NFM) solutions and these methods suggest that flood risk can be managed in alternative and more holistic ways. So what local NFM management methods should be used, where in large scale basin should they be deployed and how does flow is propagate to any point downstream? Generally, how much intervention is needed and will it compromise food production systems? If we are observing record levels of rainfall and flow, for example during Storm Desmond in Dec 2015 in the North West of England, what other flood management options are really needed to complement our traditional defences in large basins for the future? In this paper we will show examples of NFM interventions in the UK that have impacted at local scale sites. We will demonstrate the impact of interventions at local, sub-catchment (meso-scale) and finally at the large scale. These tools include observations, process based models and more generalised Flood Impact Models. Issues of synchronisation and the design level of protection will be debated. By reworking observed rainfall and discharge (runoff) for observed extreme events in the River Eden and River Tyne, during Storm Desmond, we will show how much flood protection is needed in large scale basins. The research will thus pose a number of key questions as to how floods may have to be managed in large scale basins in the future. We will seek to support a method of catchment systems engineering that holds water back across the whole landscape as a major opportunity to management water

  20. Demonstration of a Model-Based Technology for Monitoring Water Quality and Corrosion in Water-Distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Maintenance Division, Direc- torate of Public Works • Ed Rohr – Chief, Utilities Branch • John Field, Telemetry Systems Engineer The Commander of...about effects of the instal- lation’s dual water supplies on operation of the water-distribution system. 5.2 Recommendations 5.2.1 Applicability Model

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  2. Demonstration of a plasma mirror based on a laminar flow water film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22

    A plasma mirror based on a laminar water film with low flow speed 0.5-2 cm/s has been developed and characterized, for use as an ultrahigh intensity optical reflector. The use of flowing water as atarget surface automatically results in each laser pulse seeing a new interaction surface and avoids the need for mechanical scanning of the target surface. In addition, the breakdown of water does notproduce contaminating debris that can be deleterious to vacuum chamber conditions and optics, such as is the case when using conventional solid targets. The mirror exhibits 70percent reflectivity, whilemaintaining high-quality of the reflected spot.

  3. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... reservoirs and in many situations alternating injection of water and CO2 is required to stabilize the injection front. Both scenarios involve a large amount of water, making CO2 solubility in brine, which is around ten times higher than methane solubility, a non-negligible factor in the relevant reservoir...... simulations. In our previous study, a 1-D slimtube simulator, which rigorously accounts for both CO2 solubility in brine and water content in hydrocarbon phases using the Peng-Robinson EoS modified by Soreide and Whitson, has been used to investigate the influence of CO2 solubility on the simulation...

  4. Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  5. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf [University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf (Germany); Serrhini, Kamal [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Genie des Systemes Urbains, France, and Universite Francois Rabelais, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Tours (France); Fuchs, Sven [Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: karl.spachinger@fhd.edu

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  6. Investigation effect of wettability and heterogeneity in water flooding and on microscopic residual oil distribution in tight sandstone cores with NMR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Pufu; Leng, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Hanmin; Sun, Linghui; Zhang, Haiqin; Mei, Shisheng; Zhang, Hanyu

    2017-08-01

    In order to explore the effect of wettability and pore throat heterogeneity on oil recovery efficiency in porous media, physical simulation experiment and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were conducted to investigate how crude oil residing in different sized pores are recovered by water flooding. Experimental results indicate that the recovery factor of water flooding is governed by spontaneous imbibition and also pore throat heterogeneity. It is found that intermediate wetting cores lead to the highest final recovery factor in comparison with water wet cores and weak oil wet cores, and the recovery oil difference in clay micro pore is mainly because of the wettability, the difference in medium pore and large pore is affected by pore throat heterogeneity. Water wet core has a lower recovery factor in medium and large pore due to its poor heterogeneity, in spite of the spontaneous imbibition effect is very satisfying. Intermediate wetting cores has significant result in different sized pore and throat, the difference in medium pore and large pore is affected by pore throat heterogeneity.

  7. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    direction, although the direction of groundwater movement locally is influenced by water -supply wells and by groundwater extraction and treatment systems...Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device June 2011 i COST & PERFORMANCE REPORT Project: ER-200630 TABLE OF CONTENTS...range of analyte types. These included dissolved and total inorganics (including non-metal anions, metalloids , and metals) and four volatile organic

  8. Flash floods: forecasting and warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sene, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    .... Floods of this type are often characterised by fast flowing deep water and a high debris content which - combined with the short lead time available for warnings - add to the risk to people and property...

  9. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Prime

    Full Text Available Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  10. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Thomas; Brown, Jennifer M; Plater, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide) in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  11. Deterministic evaluation of collapse risk for a decomissioned flooded mine system: 3D numerical modelling of subsidence, roof collapse and impulse water flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanza, Riccardo; Fernandez Merodo, Josè Antonio; di Prisco, Claudio; Frigerio, Gabriele; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Orlandi, Gianmarco

    2013-04-01

    Aim of the study is the assessment of stability conditions for an abandoned gypsum mine (Bologna , Italy). Mining was carried out til the end of the 70s by the room and pillar method. During mining a karst cave was crossed karstic waters flowed into the mine. As a consequence, the lower level of the mining is completely flooded and portions of the mining levels show critical conditions and are structurally prone to instability. Buildings and infrastructures are located above the first and second level and a large portion of the area below the mine area, and just above of the Savena river, is urbanised. Gypsum geomechanical properties change over time; water, or even air humidity, dissolves or weaken gypsum pillars, leading progressively to collapse. The mine is located in macro-crystalline gypsum beds belonging to the Messinian Gessoso Solfifera Formation. Selenitic gypsum beds are interlayered with by centimetre to meter thick shales layers. In order to evaluate the risk related to the collapse of the flooded level (level 3) a deterministic approach based on 3D numerical analyses has been considered. The entire abandoned mine system up to the ground surface has been generated in 3D. The considered critical scenario implies the collapse of the pillars and roof of the flooded level 3. In a first step, a sequential collapse starting from the most critical pillar has been simulated by means of a 3D Finite Element code. This allowed the definition of the subsidence basin at the ground surface and the interaction with the buildings in terms of ground displacements. 3D numerical analyses have been performed with an elasto-perfectly plastic constitutive model. In a second step, the effect of a simultaneous collapse of the entire level 3 has been considered in order to evaluate the risk of a flooding due to the water outflow from the mine system. Using a 3D CFD (Continuum Fluid Dynamics) finite element code the collapse of the level 3 has been simulated and the volume of

  12. 76 FR 36919 - Proof of Concept Demonstration for Electronic Reporting of Clean Water Act Compliance Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... commercial products or services of any third-party software providers. Proof of Concept Demonstration for... software provider selected for participating in the technical proof of concept demonstration by EPA must... concept by the software provider are: Ability of the software provider's electronic reporting software...

  13. Concept of Flood Risk Map and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yuanchang

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 The concept of flood risk map and its mapping procedure Flood risk management is the process for analysis and assessment of flood risks as well as to form nd implement the disaster mitigation plans. Flood risk analysis is the basic work of flood risk assessment and management that can provide people with the possibilities of flood occurrence and its risk in specific areas and consequently raise the public awareness of flood help to form a reasonable flood prevention plan. However, flood risk mapping is a popular measure adopted by many countries and it provides possible flood areas and water levels as well as possible losses in a friendly way. To form a flood risk map, it is neccessary to allocate the historical information,compute the flood risk and analyze the data.

  14. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Tatano, H.

    2015-08-01

    Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  15. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  16. Groundwater flood hazards in lowland karst terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Owen; McCormack, Ted

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal complexity of flooding in karst terrains pose unique flood risk management challenges. Lowland karst landscapes can be particularly susceptible to groundwater flooding due to a combination of limited drainage capacity, shallow depth to groundwater and a high level of groundwater-surface water interactions. Historically the worst groundwater flooding to have occurred in the Rep. of Ireland has been centred on the Gort Lowlands, a karst catchment on the western coast of Ireland. Numerous notable flood events have been recorded throughout the 20th century, but flooding during the winters of 2009 and 2015 were the most severe on record, inundating an area in excess of 20km2 and causing widespread and prolonged disruption and damage to property and infrastructure. Effective flood risk management requires an understanding of the recharge, storage and transport mechanisms during flood conditions, but is often hampered by a lack of adequate data. Using information gathered from the 2009 and 2015 events, the main hydrological and geomorphological factors which influence flooding in this complex lowland karst groundwater system under are elucidated. Observed flood mechanisms included backwater flooding of sinks, overland flow caused by the overtopping of sink depressions, high water levels in turlough basins, and surface ponding in local epikarst watersheds. While targeted small-scale flood measures can locally reduce the flood risk associated with some mechanisms, they also have the potential to exacerbate flooding down-catchment and must be assessed in the context of overall catchment hydrology. This study addresses the need to improve our understanding of groundwater flooding in karst terrains, in order to ensure efficient flood prevention and mitigation in future and thus help achieve the aims of the EU Floods Directive.

  17. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  18. Quantifying Uncertainty in Flood Inundation Mapping Using Streamflow Ensembles and Multiple Hydraulic Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Zarzar, C.; Gomez, M.; Siddique, R.; Smith, V.; Mejia, A.; Demir, I.

    2016-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) provides a platform for operationalize nationwide flood inundation forecasting and mapping. The ability to model flood inundation on a national scale will provide invaluable information to decision makers and local emergency officials. Often, forecast products use deterministic model output to provide a visual representation of a single inundation scenario, which is subject to uncertainty from various sources. While this provides a straightforward representation of the potential inundation, the inherent uncertainty associated with the model output should be considered to optimize this tool for decision making support. The goal of this study is to produce ensembles of future flood inundation conditions (i.e. extent, depth, and velocity) to spatially quantify and visually assess uncertainties associated with the predicted flood inundation maps. The setting for this study is located in a highly urbanized watershed along the Darby Creek in Pennsylvania. A forecasting framework coupling the NWM with multiple hydraulic models was developed to produce a suite ensembles of future flood inundation predictions. Time lagged ensembles from the NWM short range forecasts were used to account for uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecasts. The forecasts from the NWM were input to iRIC and HEC-RAS two-dimensional software packages, from which water extent, depth, and flow velocity were output. Quantifying the agreement between output ensembles for each forecast grid provided the uncertainty metrics for predicted flood water inundation extent, depth, and flow velocity. For visualization, a series of flood maps that display flood extent, water depth, and flow velocity along with the underlying uncertainty associated with each of the forecasted variables were produced. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to incorporate and visualize model uncertainties in flood inundation maps in order to identify the high flood risk zones.

  19. Design, development, and field demonstration of a remotely deployable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. W.; Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype water quality monitoring system is described which offers almost continuous in situ monitoring. The two-man portable system features: (1) a microprocessor controlled central processing unit which allows preprogrammed sampling schedules and reprogramming in situ; (2) a subsurface unit for multiple depth capability and security from vandalism; (3) an acoustic data link for communications between the subsurface unit and the surface control unit; (4) eight water quality parameter sensors; (5) a nonvolatile magnetic bubble memory which prevents data loss in the event of power interruption; (6) a rechargeable power supply sufficient for 2 weeks of unattended operation; (7) a water sampler which can collect samples for laboratory analysis; (8) data output in direct engineering units on printed tape or through a computer compatible link; (9) internal electronic calibration eliminating external sensor adjustment; and (10) acoustic location and recovery systems. Data obtained in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron are tabulated.

  20. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Morse, D.; Raterman, K. [Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  1. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly.

  2. Raising awareness of the importance of engineering protections against floods with "Flood-o-poly" v.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the results of a survey focusing on the use of a new fit for purpose designed city in a sand-box model, namely "Flood-o-poly" version 2, which is building on the success of the previous model. "Flood-o-poly" has been successfully presented to thousands of students of all ages in the School of Engineering Open days (University of Glasgow), Widening Participation, Glasgow Science Festival, Glasgow Science Museum and Engineering Hydraulics classes and Design projects, over the last four years. The new design involves a new and extended 3D scaled model that accurately replicates the topography of a city along with its rivers, towards demonstrating the impacts of flooding (induced artificially in the scaled physical model via the use of small water pumps). "Flood-o-poly" is a highly visual and well popularized engineering outreach project (developed from the applicant at the University of Glasgow), which has already been extensively used to showcase the detrimental impacts of flooding, for both the natural ecosystems and the build infrastructure alike (see https://twitter.com/WaterEngLab/status/758270564561784832 on Twitter and https://youtu.be/H5oThT6QaTc on Youtube). This involves a highly interactive session where the students simulate the scenarios of "urbanization" (by placing more buildings on the flood-planes) and "climate change" where more extreme flow rates have to be routed through the river. The project demonstrates how this design can benefit the cohorts of the 3rd and 4rth year Civil Engineering undergraduate students, the students attending the School's Open days, Widening Participation Days, Glasgow Science Festival and Glasgow Science Museum events. "Flood-o-poly" focuses on personalizing the student experience with regard to flood impacts and promotes the need for resilient and sustainable flood protection designs. Further, using novel presentation and student-centered technologies, the students are given a truly unique experience

  3. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  4. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  5. Spattering and Crackle of Hot Cooking Oil with Water: A Classroom Demonstration and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel; Gauthier, Carmen V.

    2009-01-01

    Any student that has spent time in the kitchen knows that hot vegetable oil will pop and spatter violently after coming into contact with water such as that on the surface of foods (meat, fish, potatoes, etc.). This well-known effect can be used as an instructional resource to promote cooperative, active, and inquiry-based learning about central…

  6. Applications of ERTS-1 Data Collection System (DCS) in the Arizona Regional Ecological Test Site (ARETS). [water management, streamflow rates, flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, H. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The DCS water-stage data from the USGS streamflow gaging station on the Verde River near Camp Verde furnished information sufficient for the accurate computation of daily mean streamflow rates during the first 2 months of operation. Daily mean flow rates computed from the DCS data agreed with those computed from the digital recorder data within + or - 5% during periods of stable or slowly changing flow and within + or - 10% during periods of rapidly changing high flow. The SRP was furnished near-real time DCS information on snow moisture content and streamflow rates for use in the management and operation of the multiple-use reservoir system. The SRP, by prudent water management and the use of near-real time hydrologic data furnished by microwave and ERTS DCS telemetry, was successful in anticipating the amount of flow into the Salt and Verde Rivers and in the subsequent release of water at rates that did not create flooding in metropolitan Phoenix. Only minor flooding occurred along the Gila River west of Phoenix. According to the Maricopa County Civil Defense agency, wage and salary losses of about $11,400,000 resulted from closing of roads across the Salt River in the winter and spring of 1972-73; however, the number and duration of the closing were minimized by use of DCS data.

  7. Surface water, groundwater and unified 3D-crack network as a triple coupling dynamic system for a river watershed functioning - manifestation in catastrophic floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Tulenev, Nikita; Trifonov, Dmitriy; Arakelian, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    1. Surface water and groundwater interaction model under conditions of huge level of precipitation in catastrophic floods and mudflows for mountain river watershed is introduced. Seismic processes and volcanic activity impact on the formation of disastrous floods due to dramatic change of the pressure field in groundwater horizons, is under discussion for such a triple coupling system, i.e. surface water - groundwater - crack network. Under the conception we analyze recent (2013) catastrophic water events: the catastrophic floods in Western Europe (May-June, 2013), in the Amur river basin, Russia/China (Aug.-Sept, 2013) and in Colorado, USA (Sept. 12-15,2013). In addition, a separate analysis is carried out for debris event in the Krimsk-city, Caucasus (Krasnodar) region, Russia (July 06-07, 2012). 2. There is a group of problems determined by dramatic discrepancies in water mass balance and other vital parameters, on the one hand, by estimation for different types of atmospheric precipitation (both torrential rain and continuous precipitations) and, on the other hand, for observable natural water events (i.e. catastrophic floods and/or mudflows/debris) on concrete territory. Analysis of many facts result in conclusion that we have the hard comparable/coincidence parameters under traditional conception for discussed events as an isolated/closed (river + rain) runoff-system. In contrast, the reasonable point of view does exist if we take into account the contribution of extra water source, which should be localized in river channel, i.e. functioning of open [(river + rain) + groundwater] flow-system has a principal meaning to understand the events occurrence. 3. The analysis and modeling for the events are carried out by us taking into account the following databases: (i) groundwater map dislocation, it resources and flow balance in studied areas, especially near the land surface being unstable in hydrological sense by many reasons, as well due to heavy rain

  8. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  9. What is the Nondominated Formulation? A Demonstration of de Novo Water Supply Portfolio Planning Under Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.; Kirsch, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates a new interactive framework for sensitivity-informed de Novo programming, in which a learning approach to formulating decision problems can confront the deep uncertainty within water management problems. The framework couples global sensitivity analysis using Sobol’ variance decomposition with multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) to generate planning alternatives and test their robustness to new modeling assumptions and scenarios. We explore these issues within the context of a risk-based water supply management problem, where a city seeks the most efficient use of a water market. The case study examines a single city’s water supply in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas, using both a 10-year planning horizon and an extreme single-year drought scenario. The city’s water supply portfolio comprises a volume of permanent rights to reservoir inflows and use of a water market through anticipatory thresholds for acquiring transfers of water through optioning and spot leases. Diagnostic information from the Sobol’ variance decomposition is used to create a sensitivity-informed problem formulation testing different decision variable configurations, with tradeoffs for the formulation solved using a MOEA. Subsequent analysis uses the drought scenario to expose tradeoffs between long-term and short-term planning and illustrate the impact of deeply uncertain assumptions on water availability in droughts. The results demonstrate water supply portfolios’ efficiency, reliability, and utilization of transfers in the water supply market and show how to adaptively improve the value and robustness of our problem formulations by evolving our definition of optimality to discover key tradeoffs.

  10. The joint impact of storm surge, fluvial flood and operation of man-made structures on the high water level frequency in the Lower Rhine Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, H.

    2014-01-01

    Most deltas of the world and their highly urbanized environments, are vulnerable to flooding, and thus, the consequences in terms of human fatalities and economic losses are serious. Floods and the consequent damages have triggered significant developments of flood protection measures. Flood risk

  11. Water quality of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and Ocmulgee river basins related to flooding from Tropical Storm Alberto; pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds, and nitrate and pesticides in ground water, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippe, D.J.; Wangsness, D.J.; Frick, E.A.; Garrett, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents preliminary water-quality information from three studies that are part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basin and the adjacent Ocmulgee River basin. During the period July 3-7, 1994, heavy rainfall from tropical storm Alberto caused record flooding on the Ocmulgee and Flint Rivers and several of their tributaries. Much of the nitrogen load transported during the flooding was as organic nitrogen generally derived from organic detritus, rather than nitrate derived from other sources, such as fertilizer. More than half the mean annual loads of total phosphorus and organic nitrogen were trans- ported in the Flint and Ocmulgee Rivers during the flood. Fourteen herbicides, five insecticides, and one fungicide were detected in floodwaters of the Ocmulgee, Flint, and Apalachicola Rivers. In a second study, water samples were collected at nearly weekly intervals from March 1993 through April 1994 from one urban and two agricultural watersheds in the ACF River basin, and analyzed for 84 commonly used pesticides. More pesticides were detected and at generally higher concentrations in water from the urban watershed than the agricultural water- sheds, and a greater number of pesticides were persistent throughout much of the year in the urban watershed. Simazine exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking-water standards in one of 57 samples from the urban watershed. In a third study, 38 wells were installed in surficial aquifers adjacent to and downgradient of farm fields within agricultural areas in the southern ACF River basin. Even though regional aquifers are generally used for irrigation and domestic- and public-water supplies, degradation of water quality in the surficial aquifers serves as an early warning of potential contamination of regional aquifers. Nitrate concentrations were less than 3 mg/L as N (indicating minimal effect of human activities) in water

  12. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous

  13. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value set of equations for eight selected AEPs and for each region were constructed. Selected AEP statistics included the annual peak flows that equaled or exceeded 50, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.2 percent of the time equivalent to peak flows for peaks with a 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively. Annual precipitation and drainage area were the significant basin characteristics in the regression equations for all four regression regions in Washington and forest cover was significant for the two regression regions in eastern Washington. Average standard error of prediction for the regional regression equations ranged from 70.19 to 125.72 percent for

  14. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  15. Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in Arizona, developed with unregulated and rural peak-flow data through water year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretti, Nicholas V.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Turney, Lovina A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is among the worst natural disasters responsible for loss of life and property in Arizona, underscoring the importance of accurate estimation of flood magnitude for proper structural design and floodplain mapping. Twenty-four years of additional peak-flow data have been recorded since the last comprehensive regional flood frequency analysis conducted in Arizona. Periodically, flood frequency estimates and regional regression equations must be revised to maintain the accurate estimation of flood frequency and magnitude.

  16. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE LEAK DETECTION/LOCATION TECHNOLOGIES COUPLED WITH WALL-THICKNESS SCREENING FOR WATER MAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  17. Challenges of flood monitoring in the Senegal river valley using multi-temporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Laurent; Delbart, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, floodplains wetlands play an important role for livelihoods and economy, especially for agriculture and fishing. However, tropical rivers flows are increasingly modified by climate change and dam regulation. In the Senegal river valley, the annual flood, from August to November, is an important water resources creating ecosystems services for people. Senegal river basin face to hydrological changes, due to rainfall diminution during the 1970's and building of large dams during 1980's to secure water resources. Water management and development of irrigation have modified the floodplain functioning. Flood recession agriculture, grazing and fishing are now confronted to a high uncertainty about floods level, duration and extension. Thus, spatiotemporal information of flood extension and duration are important for local communities and stakeholders to ensure food security and ecosystems services. Multi-temporal satellite data demonstrates an important applicability for flood mapping. Aims of this work is to present potentiality of using multi-temporal data from MODIS and new satellite Sentinel-2 for flood monitoring in a Sahelian context. It will also discuss the potential of flood mapping for the analysis of the dynamics of riparian vegetation and flood recession agriculture. This study uses two datasets to explore flood monitoring in Senegal river valley. Firstly, MODIS 8-days data (MOD09A) are first used, because of its temporal resolution of 8 days covering the period from 2000 to 2016. However, MODIS data are limited due to a low spatial resolution, that's why we also use Sentinel-2 data, available since summer 2015. The data were processed by constructing NDWI time-series (NDWI threshold is empirically defined) and extracting NDWI values for each inundated pixel during flood. First results demonstrate that using MODIS on a large scale is enough for analyze interannual variability of the flooded surfaces. We present here maps of flood

  18. Dealing with Uncertainty in Flood Management Through Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows, through a numerical example, how to develop portfolios of flood management activities that generate the highest return under an acceptable risk for an area in the central part of the Netherlands. The paper shows a method based on Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT that contributes to developing flood management strategies. MPT aims at finding sets of investments that diversify risks thereby reducing the overall risk of the total portfolio of investments. This paper shows that through systematically combining four different flood protection measures in portfolios containing three or four measures; risk is reduced compared with portfolios that only contain one or two measures. Adding partly uncorrelated measures to the portfolio diversifies risk. We demonstrate how MPT encourages a systematic discussion of the relationship between the return and risk of individual flood mitigation activities and the return and risk of complete portfolios. It is also shown how important it is to understand the correlation of the returns of various flood management activities. The MPT approach, therefore, fits well with the notion of adaptive water management, which perceives the future as inherently uncertain. Through applying MPT on flood protection strategies current vulnerability will be reduced by diversifying risk.

  19. Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after controlled flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Roche, James W.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryWe present results of an observational and modeling study of the hydrologic response of a riparian wetland to controlled flooding. The study site is located in Poopenaut Valley, Yosemite National Park (USA), adjacent to the Tuolumne River. This area is flooded periodically by releases from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and was monitored during one flood sequence to assess the relative importance of inundation versus groundwater rise in establishing and maintaining riparian wetland conditions, defined on the basis of a minimum depth and duration of soil saturation, and to determine how restoration benefits might be achieved while reducing total flood discharge. Soil moisture data show how shallow soils were wetted by both inundation and a rising water table as the river hydrograph rose repeatedly during the controlled flood. The shallow groundwater aquifer under wetland areas responded quickly to conditions in the adjacent river, demonstrating a good connection between surface and subsurface regimes. The observed soil drainage response helped to calibrate a numerical model that was used to test scenarios for controlled flood releases. Modeling of this groundwater-wetland system suggests that inundation of surface soils is the most effective mechanism for developing wetland conditions, although an elevated water table helps to extend the duration of soil saturation. Achievement of wetland conditions can be achieved with a smaller total flood release, provided that repeated cycling of higher and lower river elevations is timed to benefit from the characteristic drainage behavior of wetland soils. These results are robust to modest variations in the initial water table elevation, as might result from wetter or dryer conditions prior to a flood. However, larger changes to initial water table elevation, as could be associated with long term climate change or drought conditions, would have a significant influence on wetland development. An ongoing controlled flooding

  20. Shoreline to Height (S2H): an algorithm to monitor reservoirs' water height from satellite images. A flood risk management application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Luca; Boni, Giorgio; Pulvirenti, Luca; Gabellani, Simone; Gardella, Fabio; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Benedetto, Catia

    2016-04-01

    In a reservoir, water level monitoring is important for emergency management purposes. This information can be used to estimate the degree of filling of the water body, thus helping decision makers in flood control operations. Furthermore, if assimilated in hydrological models and coupled with rainfall forecasts, this information can be used for flood forecast and early warning. In many cases, water level is not known (e.g. data-scarce environments), or not shared by operators. Remote sensing may allow overcoming these limitations, enabling its estimation. The objective of this work is to present the Shoreline to Height (S2H) algorithm, developed to retrieve the height of the water stored in reservoirs from satellite images. To this aim, some auxiliary data are needed: a DEM and the maximum/minimum height that can be reached by the water. In data-scarce environments, these information can be easily obtained on the Internet (e.g. free, worldwide DEM and design data for artificial reservoirs). S2H was tested with different satellite data, both optical and SAR (Landsat and Cosmo SkyMed®-CSK®) in order to assess the impact of different sensors on the final estimates. The study area was the Place-Moulin Lake (Valle d'Aosta-VdA, Italy), where it is present a monitoring network that can provide reliable ground-truths for validating the algorithm and assessing its accuracy. When the algorithm was developed, it was assumed to be in absence of any "official"-auxiliary data. Therefore, two DEMs (SRTM 1 arc-second and ASTER GDEM) were used to evaluate their performances. The maximum/minimum water height values were found on the website of VdA Region. The S2H is based on three steps: i) satellite data preprocessing (Landsat: atmospheric correction; CSK®: geocoding and speckle filtering); ii) water mask generation (using a thresholding and region growing algorithm) and shoreline extraction; iii) retrieval of the shoreline height according to the reference DEMs (adopting a

  1. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  2. Characterization of hydraulic connections between mine shaft and caprock based on time series analysis of water level changes for the flooded Asse I salt mine in northern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, Ralf; Mettier, Ralph; Schulte, Peter [AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland); Fuehrboeter, Jens Fred [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the context of safe enclosure of nuclear waste in salt formations, one of the main challenges is potential water inflow into the excavations. In this context, the hydraulic relationship between the abandoned Asse I salt mine and the salt dissolution network at the base of the caprock of the Asse salt structure in northern Germany is characterized by utilizing time series analysis of water level changes. The data base comprises a time series of water level measurements over eight years with a temporal resolution of 15 minutes (in general) and up to 2 minutes for specific intervals. The water level measurements were collected in the shaft of the flooded mine, which is filled with ground rock salt until a depth of 140 m, and a deep well, which is screened in 240 m depth at the salt dissolution zone at the base of the caprock. The distance between the well and the shaft is several hundred meters. Since the beginning of the continuous observations in the 1970s, the shaft has shown periodically abrupt declines of the water level of several meters occurring in intervals of approx. 8 to 10 years. The time series analysis consists of trend, Fourier-, autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis. The analysis showed that during times with small water level changes the measured water level in the well and the shaft are positively correlated whereas during the abrupt water level drops in the shaft, the measured water levels between the shaft and the well are negatively correlated. A potential explanation for this behavior is that during times with small changes, the measured water levels in the well and in the shaft are influenced by the same external events with similar response times. In contrast, during the abrupt water level decline events in the shaft, a negatively correlated pressure signal is induced in the well, which supports the assumption of a direct hydraulic connection between the shaft and the well via flooded excavations and the salt dissolution network

  3. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  4. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse.

  5. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  6. Comparison of bacterial community in aqueous and oil phases of water-flooded petroleum reservoirs using pyrosequencing and clone library approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ying; Ke, Wen-Ji; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial communities in both aqueous and oil phases of water-flooded petroleum reservoirs were characterized by molecular analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes obtained from Shengli Oil Field using DNA pyrosequencing and gene clone library approaches. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the aqueous and oil phases and subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The analysis by these two methods showed that there was a large difference in bacterial diversity between the aqueous and oil phases of the reservoir fluids, especially in the reservoirs with lower water cut. At a high phylogenetic level, the predominant bacteria detected by these two approaches were identical. However, pyrosequencing allowed the detection of more rare bacterial species than the clone library method. Statistical analysis showed that the diversity of the bacterial community of the aqueous phase was lower than that of the oil phase. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the vast majority of sequences detected in the water phase were from members of the genus Arcobacter within the Epsilonproteobacteria, which is capable of degrading the intermediates of hydrocarbon degradation such as acetate. The oil phase of reservoir fluid samples was dominated by members of the genus Pseudomonas within the Gammaproteobacteria and the genus Sphingomonas within the Alphaproteobacteria, which have the ability to degrade crude oil through adherence to hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions. In addition, many anaerobes that could degrade the component of crude oil were also found in the oil phase of reservoir fluids, mainly in the reservoir with lower water cut. These were represented by Desulfovibrio spp., Thermodesulfovibrio spp., Thermodesulforhabdus spp., Thermotoga spp., and Thermoanaerobacterium spp. This research suggested that simultaneous analysis of DNA extracted from both aqueous and oil phases can facilitate a better understanding of the

  7. Demonstration study of biofilm reactor based rapid biochemical oxygen demand determination of surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyu Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Application investigations of rapid biochemical oxygen demand (BOD online analyzer for surface water in Wuxi, China were carried out since 2013. The analyzer adopted a novel working principle, that is, the oxygen concentration of the sample to be tested was regarded as a reference, and the oxygen consumption by the biofilm reactor (BFR was calculated according to the difference between the reference and sample effluent from BFR. The BFR was fabricated via a cultivation process using naturally occurring microbial seeds from in site surface water. This analytical principle was first presented and clearly clarified, and the impact of microbial endogenous respiration to the measured values was also proposed and analyzed. The improved analyzers were equipped in three application sites with significant differences in BOD concentration, for the purpose of evaluating the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. This study revealed that the online analyzer could continually operate over 30 days without human intervention and additional chemical reagent consumption. The obtained rapid BOD trend line showed that this analyzer could track the fluctuation of the biodegradable organic compound level timely and accurately. The innovative analytical method, as well as the outstanding adaptation and well accuracy rating, provided the highlights for wide applications in the future.

  8. Application of Wavelet Fractal Dimension Estimation Method on Flood Season Staged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianjia; Dong Qianjin; Ai Xueshan; Zhang Yanmin

    2006-01-01

    Floodwater utilization is an important content in flood management. Controlling the limit water level of reservoir by stage is one of important contents in the management of multi-purpose reservoir's floodwater utilization for the sake of more benefits, and reasonable division of stage in flood season is precondition of controlling the limit water level by stage. On the background of Three Gorges Reservoir floodwater utilization management and on the foundation of self-similarity of hydrological series, determining the number of flood season staged in base of conventional statistical method, choosing the Db4 wavelet and Mallat algorithm, the computation mode of wavelet fractal dimension estimation method is proposed and each stage's fractal dimension is computed, then the final flood season staged is obtained. The results demonstrate