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Sample records for water flood demonstration

  1. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project: Final report. [October 21, 1992-April, 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D. [Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US); Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc., Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (US); Nielson, D.L.; Lutz, S.J. [Energy and Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. Comprehensive reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations of the Monument Butte, Travis and Boundary units were presented in the two published project yearly reports. The primary and the secondary production from the Monument Butte unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close to its bubble point. The water flood in the smaller Travis unit appeared affected by natural and possibly by large interconnecting hydraulic fractures. Water flooding the boundary unit was considered more complicated due to the presence of an oil water contact in one of the wells. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter c ore, Formation Micro Imaging logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir characterization efforts identified new reservoirs in the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2000 barrels per day.

  2. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project: Final report, October 21, 1992-April, 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, M.D.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D.; Nielson, D.L.; Lutz, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. Comprehensive reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations of the Monument Butte, Travis and Boundary units were presented in the two published project yearly reports. The primary and the secondary production from the Monument Butte unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close to its bubble point. The water flood in the smaller Travis unit appeared affected by natural and possibly by large interconnecting hydraulic fractures. Water flooding the boundary unit was considered more complicated due to the presence of an oil water contact in one of the wells. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter c ore, Formation Micro Imaging logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir characterization efforts identified new reservoirs in the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2000 barrels per day

  3. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  4. Flood impacts on a water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    Floods cause damage to people, buildings and infrastructures. Water distribution systems are particularly exposed, since water treatment plants are often located next to the rivers. Failure of the system leads to both direct losses, for instance damage to equipment and pipework contamination, and indirect impact, since it may lead to service disruption and thus affect populations far from the event through the functional dependencies of the network. In this work, we present an analysis of direct and indirect damages on a drinking water supply system, considering the hazard of riverine flooding as well as the exposure and vulnerability of active system components. The method is based on interweaving, through a semi-automated GIS procedure, a flood model and an EPANET-based pipe network model with a pressure-driven demand approach, which is needed when modelling water distribution networks in highly off-design conditions. Impact measures are defined and estimated so as to quantify service outage and potential pipe contamination. The method is applied to the water supply system of the city of Florence, Italy, serving approximately 380 000 inhabitants. The evaluation of flood impact on the water distribution network is carried out for different events with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to estimate their residual functionality and to simulate failure scenarios. Results show that in the worst failure scenario (no residual functionality of the lifting station and a 500-year flood), 420 km of pipework would require disinfection with an estimated cost of EUR 21 million, which is about 0.5 % of the direct flood losses evaluated for buildings and contents. Moreover, if flood impacts on the water distribution network are considered, the population affected by the flood is up to 3 times the population directly flooded.

  5. Water flooding criticality study for ZrH flight reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.V.

    1970-01-01

    Five analytical criticality calculations were performed to study the effects of: (1) water reflecting only (no core flooding), (2) water reflection with 10 percent core flooding, (3) water reflection with 35 percent flooding, (4) water reflection plus complete core flooding, and (5) the negative reactivity feedback associated with rapid core expansion induced by a destructive transient. (U.S.)

  6. iFLOOD: A Real Time Flood Forecast System for Total Water Modeling in the National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S. J.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme flood events are the costliest natural hazards impacting the US and frequently cause extensive damages to infrastructure, disruption to economy and loss of lives. In 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought severe damage to South Carolina and demonstrated the importance of accurate flood hazard predictions that requires the integration of riverine and coastal model forecasts for total water prediction in coastal and tidal areas. The National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Ocean Service (NOS) provide flood forecasts for almost the entire US, still there are service-gap areas in tidal regions where no official flood forecast is available. The National capital region is vulnerable to multi-flood hazards including high flows from annual inland precipitation events and surge driven coastal inundation along the tidal Potomac River. Predicting flood levels on such tidal areas in river-estuarine zone is extremely challenging. The main objective of this study is to develop the next generation of flood forecast systems capable of providing accurate and timely information to support emergency management and response in areas impacted by multi-flood hazards. This forecast system is capable of simulating flood levels in the Potomac and Anacostia River incorporating the effects of riverine flooding from the upstream basins, urban storm water and tidal oscillations from the Chesapeake Bay. Flood forecast models developed so far have been using riverine data to simulate water levels for Potomac River. Therefore, the idea is to use forecasted storm surge data from a coastal model as boundary condition of this system. Final output of this validated model will capture the water behavior in river-estuary transition zone far better than the one with riverine data only. The challenge for this iFLOOD forecast system is to understand the complex dynamics of multi-flood hazards caused by storm surges, riverine flow, tidal oscillation and urban storm water. Automated system

  7. Carbonated water flooding : Process overview in the frame of co2 flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peksa, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    The main scope of the work related to the physical and dynamical processes associated with the injection of carbonated water in porous media. Carbonated water flooding is an alternative for traditional CO2 flooding. Both methods have the potential to recover any oil left behind after primary and

  8. Water supply and tree growth. Part II. Flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T.T.

    1982-02-01

    Continuous or periodic flooding of soil with fresh or salt water is a common occurrence. Although flooding rapidly depletes soil oxygen the problem of poor soil aeration also exists in extensive areas of unflooded, fine-textured soils. Compounds that may be phytotoxic and accumulate in flooded soils include ethanol, acetaldehyde, cyanogenic compounds, sulphides, CO/sub 2/, iron, manganese, ethane, propylene, fatty acids, hydroxy and dicarboxylic acids, unsaturated acids, aldehydes, ketones, mercaptans, and ethylene. Flooding affects seed germination, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis, permeability of roots, mineral relations, and growth and survival of trees. Although growth of most trees is reduced by flooding it is sometimes increased in a few flood-tolerant species. Flood tolerance of trees varies widely with species, age of trees, and periodicity, duration, and season of occurrence of flooding. Standing water is much more harmful than moving water. Physiological dysfunctions associated with flooding are complex and variously involve the influence of oxygen deficiency, excess CO/sub 2/, a variety of toxic compounds, and altered hormone metabolism. Flood tolerance involves both morphological and physiological adaptations. Important morphological adaptations include formation of lenticels and root regeneration. Physiological adaptations may reflect avoidance of accumulation of ethanol as well as capacity to oxidize the rhizosphere and to tolerate high CO/sub 2/ concentrations in the soil. Adaptations to flooding by salt water include mechanisms for both salt tolerance and avoidance.

  9. Water NOT wanted - Coastal Floods and Flooding Protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    vulnerability towards coastal flooding, the country has experienced severe storm surges throughout history, and hitherto safe areas will become increasingly at risk this century as the climate changes. Historically a seafarers’ nation, Denmark has always been connected with the sea. From medieval time ports...

  10. Flood Water Segmentation from Crowdsourced Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, J. K.; Minsker, B. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the United States, 176 people were killed by flooding in 2015. Along with the loss of human lives is the economic cost which is estimated to be $4.5 billion per flood event. Urban flooding has become a recent concern due to the increase in population, urbanization, and global warming. As more and more people are moving into towns and cities with infrastructure incapable of coping with floods, there is a need for more scalable solutions for urban flood management.The proliferation of camera-equipped mobile devices have led to a new source of information for flood research. In-situ photographs captured by people provide information at the local level that remotely sensed images fail to capture. Applications of crowdsourced images to flood research required understanding the content of the image without the need for user input. This paper addresses the problem of how to automatically segment a flooded and non-flooded region in crowdsourced images. Previous works require two images taken at similar angle and perspective of the location when it is flooded and when it is not flooded. We examine three different algorithms from the computer vision literature that are able to perform segmentation using a single flood image without these assumptions. The performance of each algorithm is evaluated on a collection of labeled crowdsourced flood images. We show that it is possible to achieve a segmentation accuracy of 80% using just a single image.

  11. A Cloud-Based Global Flood Disaster Community Cyber-Infrastructure: Development and Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhanming; Hong, Yang; Khan, Sadiq; Gourley, Jonathan; Flamig, Zachary; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Flood disasters have significant impacts on the development of communities globally. This study describes a public cloud-based flood cyber-infrastructure (CyberFlood) that collects, organizes, visualizes, and manages several global flood databases for authorities and the public in real-time, providing location-based eventful visualization as well as statistical analysis and graphing capabilities. In order to expand and update the existing flood inventory, a crowdsourcing data collection methodology is employed for the public with smartphones or Internet to report new flood events, which is also intended to engage citizen-scientists so that they may become motivated and educated about the latest developments in satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modeling technologies. Our shared vision is to better serve the global water community with comprehensive flood information, aided by the state-of-the- art cloud computing and crowdsourcing technology. The CyberFlood presents an opportunity to eventually modernize the existing paradigm used to collect, manage, analyze, and visualize water-related disasters.

  12. The flood risk management plan: towards spatial water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Driessen, P.

    2017-01-01

    The flood risk management plan challenges both water engineers and spatial planners. It calls for a new mode of governance for flood risk management. This contribution analyses how this mode of governance distinguishes from prevalent approaches. Spatial planning and water management in Europe are

  13. Flood Water Crossing: Laboratory Model Investigations for Water Velocity Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasnon N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of floods may give a negative impact towards road traffic in terms of difficulties in mobilizing traffic as well as causing damage to the vehicles, which later cause them to be stuck in the traffic and trigger traffic problems. The high velocity of water flows occur when there is no existence of objects capable of diffusing the water velocity on the road surface. The shape, orientation and size of the object to be placed beside the road as a diffuser are important for the effective flow attenuation of water. In order to investigate the water flow, a laboratory experiment was set up and models were constructed to study the flow velocity reduction. The velocity of water before and after passing through the diffuser objects was investigated. This paper focuses on laboratory experiments to determine the flow velocity of the water using sensors before and after passing through two best diffuser objects chosen from a previous flow pattern experiment.

  14. Flood Finder: Mobile-based automated water level estimation and mapping during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongsiriyaporn, B; Jariyavajee, C; Laoharawee, N; Narkthong, N; Pitichat, T; Goldin, S E

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Southeast Asia faces numerous flooding disasters, resulting in very high human and economic loss. Responding to a sudden flood is difficult due to the lack of accurate and up-to- date information about the incoming water status. We have developed a mobile application called Flood Finder to solve this problem. Flood Finder allows smartphone users to measure, share and search for water level information at specified locations. The application uses image processing to compute the water level from a photo taken by users. The photo must be of a known reference object with a standard size. These water levels are more reliable and consistent than human estimates since they are derived from an algorithmic measuring function. Flood Finder uploads water level readings to the server, where they can be searched and mapped by other users via the mobile phone app or standard browsers. Given the widespread availability of smartphones in Asia, Flood Finder can provide more accurate and up-to-date information for better preparation for a flood disaster as well as life safety and property protection

  15. Modeling Wettability Variation during Long-Term Water Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface property of rock affects oil recovery during water flooding. Oil-wet polar substances adsorbed on the surface of the rock will gradually be desorbed during water flooding, and original reservoir wettability will change towards water-wet, and the change will reduce the residual oil saturation and improve the oil displacement efficiency. However there is a lack of an accurate description of wettability alternation model during long-term water flooding and it will lead to difficulties in history match and unreliable forecasts using reservoir simulators. This paper summarizes the mechanism of wettability variation and characterizes the adsorption of polar substance during long-term water flooding from injecting water or aquifer and relates the residual oil saturation and relative permeability to the polar substance adsorbed on clay and pore volumes of flooding water. A mathematical model is presented to simulate the long-term water flooding and the model is validated with experimental results. The simulation results of long-term water flooding are also discussed.

  16. Dynamics of flood water infiltration and ground water recharge in hyperarid desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer; Tatarsky, Boaz; Enzel, Yehouda; Kulls, Christoph; Seely, Mary; Benito, Gererdo

    2008-01-01

    A study on flood water infiltration and ground water recharge of a shallow alluvial aquifer was conducted in the hyperarid section of the Kuiseb River, Namibia. The study site was selected to represent a typical desert ephemeral river. An instrumental setup allowed, for the first time, continuous monitoring of infiltration during a flood event through the channel bed and the entire vadose zone. The monitoring system included flexible time domain reflectometry probes that were designed to measure the temporal variation in vadose zone water content and instruments to concurrently measure the levels of flood and ground water. A sequence of five individual floods was monitored during the rainy season in early summer 2006. These newly generated data served to elucidate the dynamics of flood water infiltration. Each flood initiated an infiltration event which was expressed in wetting of the vadose zone followed by a measurable rise in the water table. The data enabled a direct calculation of the infiltration fluxes by various independent methods. The floods varied in their stages, peaks, and initial water contents. However, all floods produced very similar flux rates, suggesting that the recharge rates are less affected by the flood stages but rather controlled by flow duration and available aquifer storage under it. Large floods flood the stream channel terraces and promote the larger transmission losses. These, however, make only a negligible contribution to the recharge of the ground water. It is the flood duration within the active streambed, which may increase with flood magnitude that is important to the recharge process.

  17. A Probabilistic Analysis of Surface Water Flood Risk in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Katie; Hall, Jim; Glenis, Vassilis; Kilsby, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall, often characterized by short duration and high-intensity events, is known as "surface water flooding." Analyzing surface water flood risk is complex as it requires understanding of biophysical and human factors, such as the localized scale and nature of heavy precipitation events, characteristics of the urban area affected (including detailed topography and drainage networks), and the spatial distribution of economic and social vulnerability. Climate change is recognized as having the potential to enhance the intensity and frequency of heavy rainfall events. This study develops a methodology to link high spatial resolution probabilistic projections of hourly precipitation with detailed surface water flood depth maps and characterization of urban vulnerability to estimate surface water flood risk. It incorporates probabilistic information on the range of uncertainties in future precipitation in a changing climate. The method is applied to a case study of Greater London and highlights that both the frequency and spatial extent of surface water flood events are set to increase under future climate change. The expected annual damage from surface water flooding is estimated to be to be £171 million, £343 million, and £390 million/year under the baseline, 2030 high, and 2050 high climate change scenarios, respectively. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Water Quality Dynamics of Urban Water Bodies during Flooding in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Quan Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution associated with flooding is one of the major problems in cities in the global South. However, studies of water quality dynamics during flood events are not often reported in literature, probably due to difficult conditions for sampling during flood events. Water quality parameters in open water (canals, rivers, and lakes, flood water on roads and water in sewers have been monitored during the extreme fluvial flood event on 7 October 2013 in the city of Can Tho, Vietnam. This is the pioneering study of urban flood water pollution in real time in Vietnam. The results showed that water quality is very dynamic during flooding, especially at the beginning of the event. In addition, it was observed that the pathogen and contaminant levels in the flood water are almost as high as in sewers. The findings show that population exposed to flood water runs a health risk that is nearly equal to that of being in contact with sewer water. Therefore, the people of Can Tho not only face physical risk due to flooding, but are also exposed to health risks.

  19. Slug flooding in air-water countercurrent vertical flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Raman, Roger; Chang, Jen-Shih

    2000-01-01

    This paper is to study slug flooding in the vertical air-water countercurrent flow loop with a porous liquid injector in the upper plenum. More water penetration into the bottom plenum in slug flooding is observed than the annular flooding because the flow regime changes from the slug flow regime or periodic slug/annular flow regime to annular flow regime due to the hysteresis between the onset of flooding and the bridging film. Experiments were made tubes of 0.995 cm, 2.07 cm, and 5.08 cm in diameter. A mechanistic model for the slug flooding with the solitary wave whose height is four time of the mean film thickness is developed to produce relations of the critical liquid flow rate and the mean film thickness. After fitting the critical liquid flow rate with the experimental data as a function of the Bond number, the gas flow rate for the slug flooding is obtained by substituting the critical liquid flow rate to the annular flooding criteria. The present experimental data evaluate the slug flooding condition developed here by substituting the correlations for mean film thickness models in the literature. The best prediction was made by the correlation for the mean film thickness of the present study which is same as Feind's correlation multiplied by 1.35. (author)

  20. Water mobility key to improved floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamenter, C B

    1967-03-01

    The use of polymer floods in the U.S. and Canada is discussed. A 2-yr laboratory study conducted by Dow Chemical Co. early in the life of polymer flooding showed that polymers improved the mobility ratio without damage to porosity or permeability of reservoir rock. A pilot test was made in the Niagara Field, Ky., and the results of this pilot compared to the performance of a waterflood that had been operating in this field for about 4 yr. The results showed that polymer flooding was superior to conventional waterflooding and had a distinct behavior. Another pilot flood conducted by Dow in the Albrecht Field, Starr County, Tex., showed similar results. Union Oil Co. of California also conducted pilot tests in 4 of their California reservoirs. Additional recoverable reserves resulting from polymer flooding for 2 of these reservoirs were estimated at 95,000 and 70,000 bbl. The other 2 tests were not as satisfactory, but this behavior is thought to be the result of not using enough polymer. Two other projects discussed are the NE. Hallsville Field unit in East Texas and the Squirrel sand reservoir in Woodson County, Kans., which were conducted by Hunt Oil Co. and Brazos Oil and Gas Co., respectively.

  1. Towards a better understanding of flood generation and surface water inundation mechanisms using NASA remote sensing data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, J.; Reager, J. T., II; Lopez, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Floods annually cause several weather-related fatalities and financial losses. According to NOAA and FEMA, there were 43 deaths and 18 billion dollars paid out in flood insurance policies during 2005. The goal of this work is to improve flood prediction and flood risk assessment by creating a general model of predictability of extreme runoff generation using various NASA products. Using satellite-based flood inundation observations, we can relate surface water formation processes to changes in other hydrological variables, such as precipitation, storage and soil moisture, and understand how runoff generation response to these forcings is modulated by local topography and land cover. Since it is known that a flood event would cause an abnormal increase in surface water, we examine these underlying physical relationships in comparison with the Dartmouth Flood Observatory archive of historic flood events globally. Using ground water storage observations (GRACE), precipitation (TRMM or GPCP), land use (MODIS), elevation (SRTM) and surface inundation levels (SWAMPS), an assessment of geological and climate conditions can be performed for any location around the world. This project utilizes multiple linear regression analysis evaluating the relationship between surface water inundation, total water storage anomalies and precipitation values, grouped by average slope or land use, to determine their statistical relationships and influences on inundation data. This research demonstrates the potential benefits of using global data products for early flood prediction and will improve our understanding of runoff generation processes.

  2. Demonstration of thermal water utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.W.; Miller, H.H. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A 5-yr demonstration project was conducted to determine benefits and identify harmful effects of using waste heat in condenser cooling water (90 0 F-110 0 F) for agricultural purposes. Initial phases emphasized use and evaluation of warm water for spring frost protection, irrigation, and plant cooling in summer. Row crops, and fruit and nut trees were used in the evaluation. Undersoil heating was demonstrated on a 1.2-acre soil plot. Two and one half inch plastic pipes were buried 26 in deep and 5 ft on center, connecting to 6-in. steel headers. Warm water was circulated through the grid, heating soil on which row crops were grown. Crop production was evaluated in a 22 x 55-ft plastic greenhouse constructed on a portion of the undersoil heat grid. The greatest potential benefit of waste heat use in agriculture is in the area of greenhouse soil heating. Monetary benefits from industrial waste heat appear achievable through proper management

  3. Assessing the value of the ATL13 inland water level product for the Global Flood Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Pappenberger, F.; Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports on the activities and first results of an our ICESat-2 Early Adopter (EA) project for inland water observations. Our team will assess the value of the ICESat-2 water level product using two flood model use cases, one over the California Bay Delta and one over the Niger Inland Delta. Application of the ALT13 product into routine operations will be ensured via an ALT13 database integrated into the pillar "Global Flood Service and Toolbox" (GFST) of the Global Flood Partnership (GFP). GFP is a cooperation framework between scientific organizations and flood disaster managers worldwide to develop flood observational and modelling infrastructure, leveraging on existing initiatives for better predicting and managing flood disaster impacts and flood risk globally. GFP is hosted as an Expert Working Group by the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS). The objective of this EA project is to make the ICESat-2 water level data available to the international GFP community. The EA team believes that the ALT13 product, after successful demonstration of its value in model calibration/validation and monitoring of large floodplain inundation dynamics, should be made easily accessible to the GFP. The GFST will host data outputs and tools from different flood models and for different applications and regions. All these models can benefit from ALT13 if made available to GFP through GFST. Here, we will introduce both test cases and their model setups and report on first preliminary "capabilities" test runs with the Niger model and ICESat-1 as well as radar altimeter data. Based on our results, we will also reflect on expected capabilities and potential of the ICESat-2 mission for river observations.

  4. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  5. The exchangeable cations in soils flooded with sea water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, van der W.H.

    1958-01-01

    The changes in the exchangeable cations of soils flooded with sea-water were extensively studied in the Netherlands after the inundations of 1940, 1945 and 1953. A synopsis of the results was given, both from a theoretical and a practical viewpoint.

    Current formulae for ion-exchange tested in the

  6. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  7. Impacts of a flash flood on drinking water quality: case study of areas most affected by the 2012 Beijing flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubao Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups. All of the samples showed different degrees of pollution, and most were unsuitable for drinking water as concentrations of various parameters exceeded recommended thresholds. Principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that two factors, the degree of mineralization and agricultural runoff, and flood entrainment, explained 82.50% of the total variance. The case study demonstrates that this method is useful for evaluating and interpreting large, complex water-quality data sets.

  8. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) 400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective riverbank filtration

  9. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Office and analyzed to describe spatial and temporal characteristics of rescues. Between 2005 and 2014, 3256 swift water rescues were reported from 136 of 254 (54% counties. Over half (54.6%, n = 1777 occurred in counties known as Flash Flood Alley, which includes Texas’ largest and fastest growing cities. Less than 1.0% (n = 18 were reported from 49 counties designated as completely rural, or with an urban population less than 2500. Increases in swift water rescues were seen between March and September and during major weather events such as tropical storms. Because county-level data was utilized and demographic data was missing in all but 2% (n = 47 of the incidents, our ability to identify populations at risk or target interventions in the future using this data is limited. Despite the frequency of flash flood events and swift water rescues in Texas, knowledge gaps persist that should be addressed through the conduct of interdisciplinary research by epidemiologists and climatologists and by disseminating evidence-based health education and safety programs, particularly in rapidly growing counties that make up Texas’ Flash Flood Alley.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF QUANTIFICATION OF FLOOD CONTROL AND WATER UTILIZATION EFFECT OF RAINFALL INFILTRATION FACILITY BY USING WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    文, 勇起; BUN, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many flood damage and drought attributed to urbanization has occurred. At present infiltration facility is suggested for the solution of these problems. Based on this background, the purpose of this study is investigation of quantification of flood control and water utilization effect of rainfall infiltration facility by using water balance analysis model. Key Words : flood control, water utilization , rainfall infiltration facility

  11. MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2013-06-01

    Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

  12. MSWT-01, flood disaster water treatment solution from common ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B; Darman M Z

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has a lot of potential flood disaster places with clean water problems faced. Various solution programs always initiated by Government, companies CSR, and people sporadical actions to provide clean water; with their advantages and disadvantages respectively. One solution is easy to operate for instance, but didn't provide adequate capacity, whereas the other had ideal performance but more costly. This situation inspired to develop a water treatment machine that could be an alternative favor. There are many methods could be choosed; whether in simple, middle or high technology, depends on water source input and output result quality. MSWT, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, is an idea for raw water in flood area, basically made for 1m 3 per hour. This water treatment design adopted from combined existing technologies and related literatures. Using common ideas, the highlight is how to make such modular process put in compact design elegantly, and would be equipped with mobile feature due to make easier in operational. Through prototype level experiment trials, the machine is capable for producing clean water that suitable for sanitation and cooking/drinking purposes although using contaminated water input source. From the investment point of view, such machine could be also treated as an asset that will be used from time to time when needed, instead of made for project approach only.

  13. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  14. From flood protection to flood risk management: condition-based and performance-based regulations in German water law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Albrecht, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many European countries, a paradigm shift from technically oriented flood protection to a holistic approach of flood risk management is taking place. In Germany, this approach is currently being implemented after several amendments of the Federal Water Act. The paradigm shift is also reflected in

  15. Effect of dyke construction on water dynamics in the flooding savannahs of Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.K.; Chacon Moreno, E.J.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Wenting, P.F.M.; Loedeman, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In the flooded savannahs water is the main factor determining the ecosystem and its change. During flooding, the level of water and the duration of flooding are highly dependent on the relative height position of the ecosystem unit. To understand the spatial processes in the ecosvstem one must know

  16. Flood monitoring and damage assessment using water indices: A case study of Pakistan flood-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali Memon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI of McFeeters (1996, Water Index (WI introduced by Rogers and Kearney (2004, referred to as Red and Short Wave Infra-Red (RSWIR and WI suggested as the best by Ji et al. (2009, referred to as Green and Short Wave Infra-Red (GSWIR for delineating and mapping of surface water using MODIS (Terra near real time images during 2012 floods in Pakistan. The results from above indices have been compared with Landsat ETM+ classified images aiming to assess the accuracy of the indices. Accuracy assessment has been performed using spatial statistical techniques and found NDWI, RSWIR and GSWIR with kappa coefficient (κ of 46.66%, 70.80% and 60.61% respectively. It has been observed using statistical analysis and visual interpretation (expert knowledge gained by past experience that the NDWI and GSWIR have tendencies to underestimate and overestimate respectively the inundated area. Keeping in view the above facts, RSWIR has proved to be the best of the three indices. In addition, assessment of the damages has been carried out considering accumulated flood extent obtained from RSWIR. The information derived proved to be essential and valuable for disaster management plan and rehabilitation.

  17. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  18. System of prediction and warning of floods in the water basin of Struma/ Strymonas River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimides, Theologos; Rizos, Spyros; Soulis, Kostas; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    Struma is collecting waters from four countries: Bulgaria, Serbia, FYROM and Greece. Most of its basin area is located in Bulgaria and Greece, while the upper part of its basin is in Bulgaria. There are important hydro technical structures just below the Bulgarian-Greek border, and the floods generated in the Bulgarian part of the basin could significantly affect the security of those structures and their operational rules. That is why several years ago a project related to flood warning at Struma/ Strymonas river basin was formulated and its first phase was completed in 2000. The main objective of the project was to demonstrate the principal possibility for issuing reliable warnings for hazardous flood events with sufficient lead-time to organize flood mitigation measures. The project implementation team included various scientists from the Agricultural University of Athens-Greece (leader), from the Center of Remote Sensing, Bristol University-UK, and from the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Sofia - Bulgaria. The work program of the first project phase included a range of activities implemented by the Bulgarian and Greek team members, coordinated by the Agricultural University of Athens. Among the activities of the Project are included: a) a preliminary model for peak flood hydrographs and specifications of an early warning system, b) a real time flood forecasting by routing flood hydrographs through the system of the river and Kerkini lake, c) thematic maps of vegetation and land cover derived by satellite remote sensing, d) satellite snow monitoring in the basin, e) an adaptation of the Alladin Weather Forecast Model at the hydrological basin and scaling of the Crocus Snow Model at a preliminary stage, and f) development of a geo environmental recording system.(Author)

  19. REMEDIATION OF LEON WATER FLOOD, BUTLER COUNTY, KANSAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Korphage; Kelly Kindscher; Bruce G. Langhus

    2001-11-26

    The Leon Water Flood site has undergone one season of soil amendments and growth of specialized plants meant to colonize and accelerate the remediation of the salt-impacted site. The researchers characterized the impacted soil as to chemistry, added soil amendments, and planted several species of seedlings, and seeded the scarred areas. After the first growing season, the surface soil was again characterized and groundcover was also characterized. While plant growth was quite meager across the area, soil chemistry did improve over most of the two scars.

  20. Experimental demonstration of water based tunable metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odit, Mikhail; Kapitanova, Polina; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A simple dynamically tunable metasurface (two-dimensional metamaterial) operating at microwave frequencies is developed and experimentally investigated. Conceptually, the simplicity of the approach is granted by reconfigurable properties of unit cells partially filled with distilled water...

  1. HDR flood-water storage-tank modal vibration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, V.W.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Modal vibration tests were conducted by EG and G Idaho on two vessels located at West Germany's Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) facility which is 25 kilometers east of Frankfurt. The tests were performed during May and June 1982 for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of their cooperative effort with Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) of West Germany. The primary purpose for performing this task was to determine modal properties (frequencies, mode shapes and associated damping ratios) in order to eventually provide guidelines for standards development by the NRC in modeling similar vessels. One of the vessels tested was a flood water storage tank (FWST) for empty, half full and full water conditions. The FWST was excited randomly with an electromagnetic shaker and by impulsive hammer blows. Excitation or input forces together with measured vessel responses were processed by a digital modal analyzer and stored on magnetic disks for subsequent evaluation

  2. Flood extent and water level estimation from SAR using data-model integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have long been recognized as a valuable data source for flood mapping. Compared to other sources, SAR's weather and illumination independence and large area coverage at high spatial resolution supports reliable, frequent, and detailed observations of developing flood events. Accordingly, SAR has the potential to greatly aid in the near real-time monitoring of natural hazards, such as flood detection, if combined with automated image processing. This research works towards increasing the reliability and temporal sampling of SAR-derived flood hazard information by integrating information from multiple SAR sensors and SAR modalities (images and Interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence) and by combining SAR-derived change detection information with hydrologic and hydraulic flood forecast models. First, the combination of multi-temporal SAR intensity images and coherence information for generating flood extent maps is introduced. The application of least-squares estimation integrates flood information from multiple SAR sensors, thus increasing the temporal sampling. SAR-based flood extent information will be combined with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to reduce false alarms and to estimate water depth and flood volume. The SAR-based flood extent map is assimilated into the Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (Hec-RAS) model to aid in hydraulic model calibration. The developed technology is improving the accuracy of flood information by exploiting information from data and models. It also provides enhanced flood information to decision-makers supporting the response to flood extent and improving emergency relief efforts.

  3. Effect of Flood Water Diffuser on Flow Pattern of Water during Road Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods to reduce the velocity of flood water flow across roads is to design obstacle objects as diffusers and place them alongside the road shoulder. The velocity reduction of water flow depends on the diffusion pattern of water. The pattern of diffused water depends on the design of the obstacle objects. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the design of obstacle objects and their water diffusing patterns and their capability to reduce the velocity of the flood water flow during road crossing. Variety of designs and orientation of the obstacle objects were tested in the environmental laboratory on a scale of 1:20. The results are classified into three distinguishable patterns of diffusion. Finally, two diffuser shapes and arrangements are recommended for further investigations in full scale or CFD model.

  4. Legal instruments of the protection from waters (floods and droughts and of the protection of waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyzes the Serbian law, the laws of several European countries (Germany, France, Austria, Hungary and Croatia and European Union rules in respect of the protection from harmful effects of waters, such as floods, erosion, torrents, icing on the surface of waters, just as well as the rules on diverting of water from a territory where it is in surplus, on the one hand, or directing it from the territory where it is in surplus to the one with water shortage (amelioration, on the other. The subject of analysis is the instruments of water management in the function of protection from high-water, too, such as the long and short term planning of protection from floods, measures necessary to prevent them and elimination of their effects. The maintenance of required water regime is also considered as an instrument of protection from high-water, especially the construction and upkeep of facilities for protection from floods. Facilities for utilization of water resources, such as roads and bridges, should be constructed in accordance with environmental permits, at the level well above the high water level measured in a longer period of time.

  5. Surface water flood risk and management strategies for London: An Agent-Based Model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Katie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is recognised as one of the most common and costliest natural disasters in England. Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall is known as ‘surface water flooding’, considered to be the most likely cause of flood events and one of the greatest short-term climate risks for London. In this paper we present results from a novel Agent-Based Model designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options, different agents, and the role of flood insurance and the flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change. The model illustrates how investment in adaptation options could reduce London’s surface water flood risk, today and in the future. However, benefits can be outweighed by continued development in high risk areas and the effects of climate change. Flood Re is beneficial in its function to provide affordable insurance, even under climate change. However, it offers no additional benefits in terms of overall risk reduction, and will face increasing pressure due to rising surface water flood risk in the future. The modelling approach and findings are highly relevant for reviewing the proposed Flood Re scheme, as well as for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes, and broader multi-sectoral partnerships, to incentivise flood risk management in the UK and internationally.

  6. Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

  7. Modeling Flood & Drought Scenario for Water Management in Porali River Basin, Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent history shows that floods have become a frequently occurring disaster in Balochistan, especially during monsoon season. Two rivers, river Porali and river Kud overflows, inundating its banks and causing destruction to cultivated land and property. This study is an attempt to identify flood prone areas of Porali river basin for future flood scenario and propose possible reservoir locations for excess flood water storage. Computer-based models Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF and HEC-river analysis system (HEC-RAS are used as tools to simulate existing and future flood and drought scenarios. Models are calibrated and validated using data from 3 weather stations, namely Wadh, Bela, and Uthal and stream flow data from two gauging stations. The highest and the lowest 10 years of precipitation data are extracted, from historic dataset of all stations, to attain future flooding and drought scenarios, respectively. Flood inundation map is generated highlighting agricultural prone land and settlements of the watershed. Using Digital Elevation Model (DEM and volume of water calculated from the flood scenario, possible locations for reservoirs are marked that can store excess water for the use in drought years. Flow and volume of water has also been simulated for drought scenario. Analyses show that 3 × 109 m3 of water available due to immense flooding that is sufficient for the survival for one drought year, as the volume of water for latter scenario is 2.9 × 108m3.

  8. An adaptive robust optimization scheme for water-flooding optimization in oil reservoirs using residual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siraj, M.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Model-based dynamic optimization of the water-flooding process in oil reservoirs is a computationally complex problem and suffers from high levels of uncertainty. A traditional way of quantifying uncertainty in robust water-flooding optimization is by considering an ensemble of uncertain model

  9. Controlling flooding and water pollution with upland and streamside vegetation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dosskey

    2003-01-01

    Substantial research and development effort in the U.S. is being spent on developing strategies that address flooding and water pollution problems in agricultural areas. Concerns have been raised about the costs of flood damage, degradation of productive farm land, and declining water quality that are now recognized as unintended consequences of intensive, high-yield...

  10. Comparative experiments on polymer degradation technique of produced water of polymer flooding oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Qi, Mei; Zhang, Guohui; Yi, Chenggao

    2018-02-01

    The application of polymer flooding technology in oilfields can result in polymer content increased in produced water. This increasing made produced water quality become poor. The efficiency of produced water processing decreased significantly. Processed water quality seriously exceeded criterion’s stipulation. The presence of the polymer in produced water is the main reason for more difficulties in processing of produced water, therefore the polymer degradation technology is a key coefficient in produced water processing for polymer flooding oilfields. We evaluated several physical and chemical polymer degradation methods with the solution of separated water from polymer flooding oilfields and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. The experiment results can provide a basis for produced water processing technologies application in polymer flooding oilfields.

  11. How frequently will the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) observe floods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, R. P. M.; Schumann, G.

    2017-12-01

    The SWOT mission will measure river width and water surface elevations of rivers wider than 100 m. As the data gathered by this mission will be freely available, it can be of great use for flood modeling, especially in areas where streamgage networks are exceedingly sparse, or when data sharing barriers prevent the timely access to information. Despite having world-wide coverage, SWOT's temporal sampling is limited, with most locations being revisited once or twice every 21 days. Our objective is to evaluate which fraction of world-wide floods SWOT will observe and how many observations per event the satellite will likely obtain. We take advantage of the extensive database of floods constructed by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory, who, since 1985, searches through news sources and governmental agencies, and more recently remote sensing imagery for flood information, including flood duration, location and affected area. We cross-referenced the flood locations in the DFO archive with the SWOT prototype prior database of river centerlines and the anticipated satellite's orbit to identify how many of the SWOT swaths were located within 10 km, 20 km, and 50 km from a flood centroid. Subsequently, we estimated the probability that SWOT would have at least one observation of a flood event per distance bin by multiplying the number of swaths in the distance bin by the flood duration divided by the SWOT orbit repeat period. Our analysis contemplated 132 world-wide floods recorded between May 2016 and May 2017. From these, 29, 52, and 86 floods had at least a 50% probability of having one overpass within 10 km, 20 km, and 50 km respectively. Moreover, after excluding flood events with no river centerlines within 10 km of its centroid, the average number of swaths within 10 km of a flood centroid was 1.79, indicating that in the 37 flood events that were likely caused by river flooding, at least one measurement was guaranteed to happen during the event.

  12. Introducing non-flooded crops in rice-dominated landscapes: Impact on carbon, nitrogen and water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauker, Frank; Wassmann, Reiner; Amelung, Wulf; Breuer, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Conrad, Ralf; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Goldbach, Heiner; He, Yao; John, Katharina; Kiese, Ralf; Kraus, David; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Siemens, Jan; Weller, Sebastian; Wolters, Volkmar

    2013-04-01

    Rice production consumes about 30% of all freshwater used worldwide and 45% in Asia. Turning away from permanently flooded rice cropping systems for mitigating future water scarcity and reducing methane emissions, however, will alter a variety of ecosystem services with potential adverse effects to both the environment and agricultural production. Moreover, implementing systems that alternate between flooded and non-flooded crops increases the risk of disruptive effects. The multi-disciplinary DFG research unit ICON aims at exploring and quantifying the ecological consequences of altered water regimes (flooded vs. non-flooded), crop diversification (irrigated rice vs. aerobic rice vs. maize), and different fertilization strategies (conventional, site-specific, and zero N fertilization). ICON particularly focuses on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen, green-house gas (GHG) emissions, water balance, soil biotic processes and other important ecosystem services. The overarching goal is to provide the basic process understanding that is necessary for balancing the revenues and environmental impacts of high-yield rice cropping systems while maintaining their vital ecosystem services. To this aim, a large-scale field experiment has been established at the experimental farm of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, Philippines). Ultimately, the experimental results are analyzed in the context of management scenarios by an integrated modeling of crop development (ORYZA), carbon and nitrogen cycling (MoBiLE-DNDC), and water fluxes (CMF), providing the basis for developing pathways to a conversion of rice-based systems towards higher yield potentials under minimized environmental impacts. In our presentation, we demonstrate the set-up of the controlled large-scale field experiment for simultaneous assessment of carbon and nitrogen fluxes and water budgets. We show and discuss first results for: - Quantification and assessment of the net-fluxes of CH4

  13. Study on the water flooding in the cathode of direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hun Suk; Kim, Sang-Kyung; Lim, Seongyop; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doohwan; Hong, Won Hi

    2011-07-01

    Water flooding phenomena in the cathode of direct methanol fuel cells were analyzed by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two kinds of commercial gas diffusion layers with different PTFE contents of 5 wt% (GDL A5) and 20 wt% (GDL B20) were used to investigate the water flooding under various operating conditions. Water flooding was divided into two types: catalyst flooding and backing flooding. The cathode impedance spectra of each gas diffusion layer was obtained and compared under the same conditions. The diameter of the capacitive semicircle became larger with increasing current density for both, and this increase was greater for GDL B20 than GDL A5. Catalyst flooding is dominant and backing flooding is negligible when the air flow rate is high and current density is low. An equivalent model was suggested and fitted to the experimental data. Parameters for catalyst flooding and backing flooding were individually obtained. The capacitance of the catalyst layer decreases as the air flow rate decreases when the catalyst flooding is dominant.

  14. Coupled modelling of subsurface water flux for an integrated flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sommer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Flood events cause significant damage not only on the surface but also underground. Infiltration of surface water into soil, flooding through the urban sewer system and, in consequence, rising groundwater are the main causes of subsurface damage. The modelling of flooding events is an important part of flood risk assessment. The processes of subsurface discharge of infiltrated water necessitate coupled modelling tools of both, surface and subsurface water fluxes. Therefore, codes for surface flooding, for discharge in the sewerage system and for groundwater flow were coupled with each other. A coupling software was used to amalgamate the individual programs in terms of mapping between the different model geometries, time synchronization and data exchange. The coupling of the models was realized on two scales in the Saxon capital of Dresden (Germany. As a result of the coupled modelling it could be shown that surface flooding dominates processes of any flood event. Compared to flood simulations without coupled modelling no substantial changes of the surface inundation area could be determined. Regarding sewerage, the comparison between the influx of groundwater into sewerage and the loading due to infiltration by flood water showed infiltration of surface flood water to be the main reason for sewerage overloading. Concurrent rainfalls can intensify the problem. The infiltration of the sewerage system by rising groundwater contributes only marginally to the loading of the sewerage and the distribution of water by sewerage has only local impacts on groundwater rise. However, the localization of risk areas due to rising groundwater requires the consideration of all components of the subsurface water fluxes. The coupled modelling has shown that high groundwater levels are the result of a multi-causal process that occurs before and during the flood event.

  15. Elasticity and electrical resistivity of chalk and greensand during water flooding with selective ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Alexeev, Artem

    2018-01-01

    is water-wet after flooding. Greensand remained mixed wet throughout the experiments. Electrical resistivity data are in agreement with this interpretation. The electrical resistivity data during flooding revealed that the formation brine is not fully replaced by the injected water in both chalk......Water flooding with selective ions has in some cases lead to increased oil recovery. We investigate the physical processes on a pore scale that are responsible for changes in petrophysical and mechanical properties of four oil-bearing chalk and four oil-bearing greensand samples caused by flooding...... with brines containing varying amounts of dissolved NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2 and MgSO4. Ultrasonic P-wave velocity and AC resistivity measurements were performed prior to, during and after flow through experiments in order to identify and quantify the processes related to water flooding with selective ions. Low...

  16. Flood-Fighting Structures Demonstration and Evaluation Program: Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    then it should be disposed of by recycling or land-filling. This material should not be burned due to the formation of carbon dioxide and carbon...and 2-192). A top spreader bar Chapter 2 Laboratory Testing and Evaluation of Expedient Flood-fighting Barriers 135 Figure 2-189

  17. Improved flooding tolerance and carbohydrate status of flood-tolerant plant Arundinella anomala at lower water temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qi Ye

    Full Text Available Operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China imposes a new water fluctuation regime, including a prolonged winter submergence in contrast to the natural short summer flooding of the rivers. The contrasting water temperature regimes may remarkably affect the survival of submerged plants in the TGR. Plant survival in such prolonged flooding might depend on the carbohydrate status of the plants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of water temperature on survival and carbohydrate status in a flood-tolerant plant species and predicted that both survival and carbohydrate status would be improved by lower water temperatures.A growth chamber experiment with controlled water temperature were performed with the flood-tolerant species Arundinella anomala from the TGR region. The plants were submerged (80 cm deep water above soil surface with a constant water temperature at 30°C, 20°C or 10°C. The water temperature effects on survival, plant biomass and carbohydrate content (glucose, fructose and sucrose and starch in the viable and dead tissues were investigated.The results showed that the survival percentage of A.anomala plants was greatly dependent on water temperature. The two-month submergence survival percentage was 100% at 10°C, 40% at 20°C and 0% at 30°C. Decreasing the water temperature led to both later leaf death and slower biomass loss. Temperature decrease also induced less reduction in glucose, fructose and sucrose in the roots and leaves (before decay, p 0.05. Different water temperatures did not alter the carbon pool size in the stems, leaves and whole plants (p > 0.05, but a clear difference was found in the roots (p < 0.05, with a larger pool size at a lower temperature.We concluded that (1 A. anomala is characterized by high flooding tolerance and sustained capability to mobilize carbohydrate pool. (2 The survival percentage and carbohydrate status of submerged A. anomala plants were remarkably improved by lower water

  18. Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

  19. Classification and assessment of water bodies as adaptive structural measures for flood risk management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, William R; Yang, Qinli; Scholz, Miklas

    2010-09-01

    Severe rainfall events have become increasingly common in Europe. Flood defence engineering works are highly capital intensive and can be limited by land availability, leaving land and communities exposed to repeated flooding. Any adaptive drainage structure must have engineered inlets and outlets that control the water level and the rate of release. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of drinking water reservoirs (operated by Scottish Water), which fall within this defined category and could contribute to flood management control. Reducing the rate of runoff from the upper reaches of a catchment will reduce the volume and peak flows of flood events downstream, thus allowing flood defences to be reduced in size, decreasing the corresponding capital costs. A database of retention basins with flood control potential has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could reduce the costs of complying with the EU Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of stratification on segregation in carbon dioxide miscible flooding in a water-flooded oil reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.A.; Mahmood, S.M.; Amjad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Oil reservoirs are subjected to tertiary recovery by deploying any enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique for the recovery of left over oil. Amongst many EOR methods one of the widely applied worldwide is CO/sub 2/ flooding through miscible, near miscible or immiscible displacement processes. CO/sub 2/ flooding process responds to a number of reservoir and fluid characteristics. These characteristics have strong effect on overall efficiency of the displacement process. Better understanding of the effect of different characteristics on displacement process is important to plan an efficient displacement process. In this work, the effect of stratification resulting in gravity segregation of the injected fluid is studied in an oil reservoir which is water-flooded during secondary phase of recovery. Sensitivity analysis is performed through successive simulation on Eclipse 300 (compositional) reservoir simulator. Process involves the continuous CO/sub 2/ injection in an oil reservoir with more than 1/3rd of original oil in place left after water flooding. Reservoir model with four different permeability layers is studied. Four patterns by changing the arrangement of the permeabilities of the layers are analysed. The effect of different arrangement or stratification on segregation of CO/sub 2/ and ultimately on the incremental oil recovery, is investigated. It has been observed that out of four arrangements, upward fining pattern relatively overcame the issue of the segregation of CO/sub 2/ and consequently 33% more oil with half injection volume is recovered when compared with the downward fining pattern. (author)

  1. Missoula flood dynamics and magnitudes inferred from sedimentology of slack-water deposits on the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Sedimentological study of late Wisconsin, Missoula-flood slack-water sediments deposited along the Columbia and Tucannon Rivers in southern Washington reveals important aspects of flood dynamics. Most flood facies were deposited by energetic flood surges (velocities>6 m/sec) entering protected areas along the flood tract, or flowing up and then directly out of tributary valleys. True still-water facies are less voluminous and restricted to elevations below 230 m. High flood stages attended the initial arrival of the flood wave and were not associated with subsequent hydraulic ponding upslope from channel constrictions. Among 186 flood beds studied in 12 sections, 57% have bioturbated tops, and about half of these bioturbated beds are separated from overlying flood beds by nonflood sediments. A single graded flood bed was deposited at most sites during most floods. Sequences in which 2-9 graded beds were deposited during a single flood are restricted to low elevations. These sequences imply complex, multi-peaked hydrographs in which the first flood surge was generally the largest, and subsequent surges were attenuated by water already present in slack-water areas. Slack-water - sediment stratigraphy suggests a wide range of flood discharges and volumes. Of >40 documented late Wisconsin floods that inundated the Pasco Basin, only about 20 crossed the Palouse-Snake divide. Floods younger than the set-S tephras from Mount St.Helens were generally smaller than earlier floods of late Wisconsin age, although most still crossed the Palouse-Snake divide. These late floods primarily traversed the Cheney-Palouse scabland because stratigraphy of slack-water sediment along the Columbia River implies that the largest flood volumes did not enter the Pasco Basin by way of the Columbia River. 47 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  2. The Effect Of Anisotropy In Formation Permeability On The Efficiency Of Cyclic Water Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi SH

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In oil industry one of the most worldwide used methods a among the hydrodynamic enhanced oil recovery methods is the water flooding including the cyclic water flooding. The efficiency of cyclic water flooding is affected by a number of geophysical and field technological factors. In this work and based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation it is shown that anisotropy of formation permeability has significant effect on justification of the half-cycle time and the technological effectiveness of the method.

  3. Household water insecurity after a historic flood: Diarrhea and dehydration in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher Y

    2018-01-01

    While 884 million people worldwide lack access to clean water, millions live in flood-prone regions. Unexpected flooding increases risk of diarrheal diseases and is expected to occur with increased frequency in the 21st century. Water insecurity is linked to mental distress in water scarce regions, yet this construct has not been examined closely among populations living in flood-prone regions. This paper examines how differences in water sources and lifestyle among Tsimane' forager-horticulturalists in lowland Bolivia are related to water insecurity after a historic flood in 2014, and in turn, how water insecurity is associated with diarrhea and dehydration. Pre-flood data come from qualitative interviews with 36 household heads, anthropometrics, participant observation, and water quality analysis between September 2013-January 2014 used to create a locally-adapted water insecurity questionnaire. Water insecurity was measured after the historic flood; no pre-flood water insecurity measures are available. Post-flood data were collected through surveys, water quality analysis, and health exams using near-exhaustive sampling in two villages, yielding 118 adults and 115 children (aged 2-12 years) in 62 households between March-April 2014. Overall, 89% of adults reported medium or high water insecurity. Only hand-pumps tested negative for pathogenic bacteria both pre- and post-flood. Tobit regressions suggest that hand-pumps (when available) and adult age were associated with lower water insecurity scores. Multiple logistic regressions suggest that adults with high water insecurity were more likely to report diarrhea than adults with low (Odds Ratio [OR] 9.2; 95% CI: 1.27-67.1). Children from households with medium (OR: 6.8; 95% CI: 1.41-32.5) or high (OR: 14.0; 95% CI: 2.40-81.5) water insecurity had significantly higher odds of dehydration than children in households with low water insecurity. Catastrophic flooding may systematically increase dimensions of household

  4. Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and soil contamination from burial. Typical methods of recycling and solid waste disposal in sanitary landfills often ... rid of standing water in rain gutters, old tires, buckets, plastic covers, toys, pools, or any other ...

  5. Flooding experiments with steam and water in a large diameter vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.N.; Solom, M.; Draznin, O.; Choutapalli, I.; Vierow, K.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study on flooding in a large diameter tube is being conducted. In a countercurrent, two-phase flow system, flooding can be defined as the onset of flow reversal of the liquid component which results in cocurrent flow. Flooding can be perceived as a limit to two-phase countercurrent flow, meaning that pairs of liquid and gas flow rates exist that define the envelope for stable countercurrent flow for a given system. Flooding in the AP600 pressurizer surge line can affect the vessel refill rate following a small break LOCA. Analysis of hypothetical severe accidents with current simplified flooding models show that these models represent the largest uncertainty in steam generator tube creep rupture. During a hypothetical station blackout scenario without auxiliary feedwater recovery, should the hot leg become voided, the pressurizer liquid will drain to the hot leg and flooding may occur in the surge line. Experiments have been conducted in a 3-inch (76.2 mm) diameter tube with subcooled water and superheated steam as the working fluids at atmospheric pressure. Water flows down the inside of the tube as an annulus while the steam flows upward in the middle. Water flow rates vary from 3.5 to 12 GPM (0.00022 to 0.00076 m 3 /s) and the water inlet temperature is about 70degC. The steam inlet temperature is about 110degC. It was found that a larger steam flow rate was needed to achieve flooding for a lower water flow rate and for a higher water flow rate. This unique data for flooding in steam-water systems in large diameter tubes will reduce uncertainty in flooding models currently utilized in reactor safety codes. (author)

  6. Flood frequency matters: Why climate change degrades deep-water quality of peri-alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Gabriel; Wessels, Martin; Wüest, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    Sediment-laden riverine floods transport large quantities of dissolved oxygen into the receiving deep layers of lakes. Hence, the water quality of deep lakes is strongly influenced by the frequency of riverine floods. Although flood frequency reflects climate conditions, the effects of climate variability on the water quality of deep lakes is largely unknown. We quantified the effects of climate variability on the potential shifts in the flood regime of the Alpine Rhine, the main catchment of Lake Constance, and determined the intrusion depths of riverine density-driven underflows and the subsequent effects on water exchange rates in the lake. A simplified hydrodynamic underflow model was developed and validated with observed river inflow and underflow events. The model was implemented to estimate underflow statistics for different river inflow scenarios. Using this approach, we integrated present and possible future flood frequencies to underflow occurrences and intrusion depths in Lake Constance. The results indicate that more floods will increase the number of underflows and the intensity of deep-water renewal - and consequently will cause higher deep-water dissolved oxygen concentrations. Vice versa, fewer floods weaken deep-water renewal and lead to lower deep-water dissolved oxygen concentrations. Meanwhile, a change from glacial nival regime (present) to a nival pluvial regime (future) is expected to decrease deep-water renewal. While flood frequencies are not expected to change noticeably for the next decades, it is most likely that increased winter discharge and decreased summer discharge will reduce the number of deep density-driven underflows by 10% and favour shallower riverine interflows in the upper hypolimnion. The renewal in the deepest layers is expected to be reduced by nearly 27%. This study underlines potential consequences of climate change on the occurrence of deep river underflows and water residence times in deep lakes.

  7. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  8. Public Assistance Worksheets for Damage from 2010 Floods to the East Valley Water District

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Valley Water District (EVWD) in San Bernardino, California had significant damage due to flooding in December 2010. There was a presidentially-declared disaster. EVWD applied to FEMA under the Public Assistance Grant Program.

  9. Networked environments for stakeholder participation in water resources and flood management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almoradie, A.D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Stakeholders’ awareness and participation is important in the planning and management of water resources and floods. Stakeholders’ spatial distribution and diverse stakeholders’ interest (even opposed) are some of the hindrances in stakeholder participation. This research developed and implemented

  10. Phytotoxicity induced in isolated zooxanthellae by herbicides extracted from Great Barrier Reef flood waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C M; Brodie, J; Mueller, J F

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been limited evidence anthropogenically sourced pollution from catchments reaching corals of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). In this study, freshly isolated zooxanthellae were exposed to polar chemicals (chiefly herbicides) extracted from water samples collected in a flood plume in the GBR lagoon. Photosynthetic potential of the isolated zooxanthellae declined after exposure to concentrated extracts (10 times) from all but one of the sampling sites. Photosynthetic potential demonstrated a significant positive relationship with the concentration of diuron in the concentrated extracts and a significant inverse relationship with salinity measured at the sampling site. This study demonstrates that runoff from land based application of herbicides may reduce photosynthetic efficiency in corals of inshore reefs in the GBR. The ecological impacts of the chemicals in combination with other potential stressors on corals remain unclear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water

  12. Urban Surface Water Quality, Flood Water Quality and Human Health Impacts in Chinese Cities. What Do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Rui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and urbanization have led to an increase in the frequency of extreme water related events such as flooding, which has negative impacts on the environment, economy and human health. With respect to the latter, our understanding of the interrelationship between flooding, urban surface water and human health is still very limited. More in-depth research in this area is needed to further strengthen the process of planning and implementation of responses to mitigate the negative health impacts of flooding in urban areas. The objective of this paper is to assess the state of the research on the interrelationship between surface water quality, flood water quality and human health in urban areas based on the published literature. These insights will be instrumental in identifying and prioritizing future research needs in this area. In this study, research publications in the domain of urban flooding, surface water quality and human health were collated using keyword searches. A detailed assessment of these publications substantiated the limited number of publications focusing on the link between flooding and human health. There was also an uneven geographical distribution of the study areas, as most of the studies focused on developed countries. A few studies have focused on developing countries, although the severity of water quality issues is higher in these countries. The study also revealed a disparity of research in this field across regions in China as most of the studies focused on the populous south-eastern region of China. The lack of studies in some regions has been attributed to the absence of flood water quality monitoring systems which allow the collection of real-time water quality monitoring data during flooding in urban areas. The widespread implementation of cost effective real-time water quality monitoring systems which are based on the latest remote or mobile phone based data acquisition techniques is recommended

  13. Integrated Flood Forecast and Virtual Dam Operation System for Water Resources and Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Ikoma, Eiji; Lawford, Peter; Oyanagi, Misa; Kanauchi, Shizu; Koudelova, Petra; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    While availability of hydrological- and hydrometeorological data shows growing tendency and advanced modeling techniques are emerging, such newly available data and advanced models may not always be applied in the field of decision-making. In this study we present an integrated system of ensemble streamflow forecast (ESP) and virtual dam simulator, which is designed to support river and dam manager's decision making. The system consists of three main functions: real time hydrological model, ESP model, and dam simulator model. In the real time model, the system simulates current condition of river basins, such as soil moisture and river discharges, using LSM coupled distributed hydrological model. The ESP model takes initial condition from the real time model's output and generates ESP, based on numerical weather prediction. The dam simulator model provides virtual dam operation and users can experience impact of dam control on remaining reservoir volume and downstream flood under the anticipated flood forecast. Thus the river and dam managers shall be able to evaluate benefit of priori dam release and flood risk reduction at the same time, on real time basis. Furthermore the system has been developed under the concept of data and models integration, and it is coupled with Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS) - a Japanese national project for integrating and analyzing massive amount of observational and model data. Therefore it has advantage in direct use of miscellaneous data from point/radar-derived observation, numerical weather prediction output, to satellite imagery stored in data archive. Output of the system is accessible over the web interface, making information available with relative ease, e.g. from ordinary PC to mobile devices. We have been applying the system to the Upper Tone region, located northwest from Tokyo metropolitan area, and we show application example of the system in recent flood events caused by typhoons.

  14. Quality of drinking water from rural water supply after the may flood 2014 in the area of Kraljevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Dragan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The May floods in 2014 affected a large number of rural households in the vicinity of the town of Kraljevo. The flood affected a large number of villages that are located along the river West Morava and villages along the river Godačica. It was necessary to analyze the microbiological and physical chemical quality of drinking water, in order to see the impact of the May floods on the quality of drinking water rural water flooded the city, for the protection of human health, water supply and the ecosystem in general. This paper presents the results of a project which was implemented by the city of Kraljevo and funded humanitarian organization ADRA (Adventist Development and humanitarian organizations. The results of microbiological and physical chemical analysis of drinking water are shown, whose maximum allowable values are given in Regulation on hygienic quality of drinking water Fig. FRY, No.42 / 98 and 44/99 [1]. Upon the approval of funds for drinking water samples, which were tested in the laboratories of the Institute of Public Health of Kraljevo, were sampled in September and October 2014 in eight flooded villages around the town of Kraljevo. The tests were based on the analysis of microbial load of the water system and the physical and chemical parameters and the preservation of water quality.

  15. Air-water flooding in multirod channels: effects of spacer grids and blockages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jong Hee; Jun, Hyung Gil

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results on flooding of countercurrent flow in vertical multirod channels, which consists of falling water film and upward air flow. In particular, the effects of spacer grids, with and without mixing vane, and of blockage in the multirod bundle on the behaviour of flooding were investigated. The 5 x 5 zircaloy tube bundle was used for the test section. The comparison of previous analytical models and empirical correlations with present data on flooding showed that the existing models and correlations predict much higher flooding curves. The spacer grid causes the lower flooding air flow rate to compare with the bare rod bundle. However, the mixing spacer grids need a higher flooding air flow rate for a constant liquid flow rate than the spacer grids without mixing vanes. The bundle containing blockages has the highest flooding air flow rate among the bundles with spacer grids and blokages. Empirical flooding correlations for the three types of test section have been made. (Author)

  16. Quantification of the recovered oil and water fractions during water flooding laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    the volume might be less than a few microliters. In this study, we approach the determination of the oil volumes in flooding effluents using predetermined amounts of the North Sea oil with synthetic seawater. The UV/visible spectroscopy method and low-field NMR spectrometry are compared...... for this determination, and an account of advantages and disadvantages of each method is given. Both methods are reproducible with high accuracy. The NMR method was capable of direct quantification of both oil and water fractions, while the UV/visible spectroscopy quantifies only the oil fraction using a standard curve....

  17. Experimental studies of low salinity water flooding in carbonate reservoirs: A new promising approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Skauge, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Low salinity water flooding is well studied for sandstone reservoirs, both laboratory and field tests have showed improvement in the oil recovery in many cases. Up to very recently, the low salinity effect has been indeterminated for carbonates. Most recently, Saudi Aramco reported that substantial...... additional oil recovery can be achieved when successively flooding composite carbonate core plugs with various diluted versions of seawater. The experimental data on carbonates is very limited, so more data and better understanding of the mechanisms involved is needed to utilize this method for carbonate...... reservoirs. In this paper, we have experimentally investigated the oil recovery potential of low salinity water flooding for carbonate rocks. We used both reservoir carbonate and outcrop chalk core plugs. The flooding experiments were carried out initially with the seawater, and afterwards additional oil...

  18. Assessing surface water flood risk and management strategies under future climate change: Insights from an Agent-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, K; Surminski, S; Hall, J; Crick, F

    2017-10-01

    Climate change and increasing urbanization are projected to result in an increase in surface water flooding and consequential damages in the future. In this paper, we present insights from a novel Agent Based Model (ABM), applied to a London case study of surface water flood risk, designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options; how risk reduction could be achieved by homeowners and government; and the role of flood insurance and the new flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change. The analysis highlights that while combined investment in property-level flood protection and sustainable urban drainage systems reduce surface water flood risk, the benefits can be outweighed by continued development in high risk areas and the effects of climate change. In our simulations, Flood Re is beneficial in its function to provide affordable insurance, even under climate change. However, the scheme does face increasing financial pressure due to rising surface water flood damages. If the intended transition to risk-based pricing is to take place then a determined and coordinated strategy will be needed to manage flood risk, which utilises insurance incentives, limits new development, and supports resilience measures. Our modelling approach and findings are highly relevant for the ongoing regulatory and political approval process for Flood Re as well as for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes to incentivise flood risk management and climate adaptation in the UK and internationally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  20. Impact of S fertilizers on pore-water Cu dynamics and transformation in a contaminated paddy soil with various flooding periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Zhu, Shenhai; Zheng, Cuiqing; Sun, Lijuan; Liu, Jin; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-04-09

    Impact of S fertilization on Cu mobility and transformation in contaminated paddy soils has been little reported. In this study, we investigated the dynamics and transformation of dissolved and colloidal Cu in the pore water of a contaminated paddy soil after applying ammonium sulphate (AS) and sulfur coated urea (SCU) with various flooding periods (1, 7 and 60 days). Compared to the control soil, the AS-treated soil released more colloidal and dissolved Cu over the entire flooding period, while the SCU-treated soil had lower colloidal Cu after 7-day flooding but higher colloidal and dissolved Cu after 60-day flooding. Microscopic X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis found a close relationship between Fe and Cu distribution on soil colloids after 60-day flooding, implying the formation of colloidal Fe/Cu sulphide coprecipitates. Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy directly revealed the transformation of outer-sphere complexed Cu(II) species to Cu(II) sulphide and reduced Cu2O in the colloids of S-treated soils after 60-day flooding. These results demonstrated the great influence of S fertilization on pore-water Cu mobility by forming Cu sulphide under flooding conditions, which facilitated our understanding and control of Cu loss in contaminated paddy soils under S fertilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Methane hydrate dissociation using inverted five-spot water flooding method in cubic hydrate simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gang; Li, Xiao-Sen; Li, Bo; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The combination forms of the hydrate dissociation methods in different well systems are divided into 6 main patterns. Dissociation processes of methane hydrate in porous media using the inverted five-spot water flooding method (Pattern 4) are investigated by the experimental observation and numerical simulation. In situ methane hydrate is synthesized in the Cubic Hydrate Simulator (CHS), a 5.832-L cubic reactor. A center vertical well is used as the hot water injection well, while the four vertical wells at the corner are the gas and water production wells. The gas production begins simultaneously with the hot water injection, while after approximately 20 min of compression, the water begins to be produced. One of the common characteristics of the inverted five-spot water flooding method is that both the gas and water production rates decrease with the reduction of the hydrate dissociation rate. The evaluation of the energy efficiency ratio might indicate the inverted five-spot water flooding as a promising gas producing method from the hydrate reservoir. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional 5.8-L cubic pressure vessel is developed. • Gas production of hydrate using inverted five-spot flooding method is studied. • Water/gas production rate and energy efficiency ratio are evaluated. • Temperature distributions of numerical simulation and experiment agree well. • Hydrate dissociation process is a moving boundary problem in this study

  2. A study of Water flooding modeling for DMFC at cathode channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Sang Keun; Yoo, Ki Soo; Lee, Dae Keun; Chung, Myung Kyoon

    2007-01-01

    The present paper addresses the water flooding model validation in cathode channel for DMFC. Water flooding not only reduces DMFC stack performance but also causes O 2 starve that damages membrane at cathode channel. Although the water flooding problem is critical in operating DMFC, it has not been resolved yet since the effect of temperature, H 2 O vapor and liquid partial pressure effects on the H 2 O vapor saturation is very complex. Therefore, the operating feasible range in the dynamic control of DMFC is inevitably narrow. In order to be able to dynamically control the DMFC to prevent water flooding problem at cathode channel, 3D numerical model was validated by comparison with experimental result. We performed numerical simulation for a wide range of Vcell - current density for 1 layer-1 cell DMFC and the results were compared with experimental data. It was found that the 3D simulation model for the DMFC can be used to accurately predict the water flooding at cathode channel

  3. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout Caused by External Flooding Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impact of these factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) project aims to provide insight to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This report focuses, in particular, on the application of a RISMC detailed demonstration case study for an emergent issue using the RAVEN and RELAP-7 tools. This case study looks at the impact of a couple of challenges to a hypothetical pressurized water reactor, including: (1) a power uprate, (2) a potential loss of off-site power followed by the possible loss of all diesel generators (i.e., a station black-out event), (3) and earthquake induces station-blackout, and (4) a potential earthquake induced tsunami flood. The analysis is performed by using a set of codes: a thermal-hydraulic code (RELAP-7), a flooding simulation tool (NEUTRINO) and a stochastic analysis tool (RAVEN) – these are currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  4. Decreasing flood risk perception in Porto Alegre - Brazil and its influence on water resource management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allasia, D. G.; Tassi, R.; Bemfica, D.; Goldenfum, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.

  5. 76 FR 39091 - San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender On October 27, 1981... \\1\\ to the San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District (District) for the Lopez... and Water Conservation District, 17 FERC ] 62,113 (1981). On October 24, 2005, the District filed an...

  6. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutoy, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated

  7. Flooding of a large, passive, pressure-tube light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, P.; Todreas, N.E.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A reactor concept has been developed which can survive loss of coolant accidents without scram and without replenishing primary coolant inventory, while maintaining safe temperature limits on the fuel and pressure tubes. The proposed concept is a pressure tube type reactor of similar design to CANDU reactors, but differing in three key aspects. First, a solid SiC-coated graphite fuel matrix is used in place of fuel pin bundles to enable the dissipation of decay heat from the fuel in the absence of primary coolant. Second, the heavy water coolant in the pressure tubes is replaced by light water, which also serves as the moderator. Finally, the calandria tank, surrounded by a graphite reflector, contains a low pressure gas instead of heavy water moderator, and this normally-voided calandria is connected to a light water heat sink. The cover gas displaces the light water from the calandria during normal operation, while during loss of coolant or loss of heat sink accidents it allows passive calandria flooding. Calandria flooding also provides redundant and diverse reactor shutdown. This paper describes the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the passively initiated, gravity driven calandria flooding process. Flooding the calandria space with light water is a unique and very important feature of the proposed pressure-tube light water reactor (PTLWR) concept. The flooding of the top row of fuel channels must be accomplished fast enough so that in the total loss of coolant, none of the critical components of the fuel channel, i.e. the pressure tube, the calandria tube, the matrix and the fuel, exceed their design limits. The flooding process has been modeled and shown to be rapid enough to maintain all components within their design limits. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation methodology for flood damage reduction by preliminary water release from hydroelectric dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, T.; Kawasaki, A.; Koike, T.

    2017-12-01

    IPCC AR5 (2014) reported that rainfall in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has been increasing since 1901, and it is claimed that warmer climate will increase the risk of floods. In contrast, world water demand is forecasted to exceed a sustainable supply by 40 percent by 2030. In order to avoid this expectable water shortage, securing new water resources has become an utmost challenge. However, flood risk prevention and the secure of water resources are contradictory. To solve this problem, we can use existing hydroelectric dams not only as energy resources but also for flood control. However, in case of Japan, hydroelectric dams take no responsibility for it, and benefits have not been discussed accrued by controlling flood by hydroelectric dams, namely by using preliminary water release from them. Therefore, our paper proposes methodology for assessing those benefits. This methodology has three stages as shown in Fig. 1. First, RRI model is used to model flood events, taking account of the probability of rainfall. Second, flood damage is calculated using assets in inundation areas multiplied by the inundation depths generated by that RRI model. Third, the losses stemming from preliminary water release are calculated, and adding them to flood damage, overall losses are calculated. We can evaluate the benefits by changing the volume of preliminary release. As a result, shown in Fig. 2, the use of hydroelectric dams to control flooding creates 20 billion Yen benefits, in the probability of three-day-ahead rainfall prediction of the assumed maximum rainfall in Oi River, in the Shizuoka Pref. of Japan. As the third priority in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, `investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience - public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures' was adopted. The accuracy of rainfall prediction is the key factor in maximizing the benefits

  9. Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This permit application has been prepared to obtain a research, development, and demonstration permit to perform pilot-scale treatability testing on the 242-A Evaporator process condensate waste water effluent stream. It provides the management framework, and controls all the testing conducted in the waste water pilot plant using dangerous waste. It also provides a waste acceptance envelope (upper limits for selected constituents) and details the safety and environmental protection requirements for waste water pilot plant testing. This permit application describes the overall approach to testing and the various components or requirements that are common to all tests. This permit application has been prepared at a sufficient level of detail to establish permit conditions for all waste water pilot plant tests to be conducted

  10. Use of NOAA-N satellites for land/water discrimination and flood monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappan, G.; Horvath, N. C.; Doraiswamy, P. C.; Engman, T.; Goss, D. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A tool for monitoring the extent of major floods was developed using data collected by the NOAA-6 advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). A basic understanding of the spectral returns in AVHRR channels 1 and 2 for water, soil, and vegetation was reached using a large number of NOAA-6 scenes from different seasons and geographic locations. A look-up table classifier was developed based on analysis of the reflective channel relationships for each surface feature. The classifier automatically separated land from water and produced classification maps which were registered for a number of acquisitions, including coverage of a major flood on the Parana River of Argentina.

  11. Flooding in Jakarta : Towards a blue city with improved water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J.M. Nas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunday, 27 January 2002, a large flood swept down on Jakarta and inundated several parts of the city. From the evening of 27 January to the morning of 28 January rain came streaming down, and the dike south of Jakarta broke. The pungent black water, with a hefty cargo of garbage, poured onto the main roads to Bogor, Kramat Jati and East Jakarta. In North Jakarta, in Kelurahan Pejagalan, Kecamatan Penjaringan, the flooding or banjir hit at midnight and continued until five o’clock in the morning, reaching levels as high as 20 cm. Even harder hit was Kelurahan Kapuk Muara, inundated with 70 cm of water.

  12. Microbiological evaluation of water during the 2011 flood crisis in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon; Keeratipibul, Suwimon

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a severe flood occurred in Thailand, covering nearly half the country in water for several months. The contamination of floodwater and subsequent contamination of water for human consumption could have potentially led to a widespread health crisis. However, to date, no study has been conducted to determine the safety of the waters used for human consumption in Thailand during the severe flood. Therefore, we conducted microbiological analysis of 4 kinds of water (floodwater, river water, tap water, and filtered tap water) collected from industrial and residential areas that were damaged due to flooding. Higher net levels of bacteria were found in water with a higher turbidity. No clear trend was observed in the pH value of all 4 water samples. The level of total bacterial contamination in the water samples was estimated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven of the 12 tap water samples and all of the filtered tap water samples had a total bacterial load that exceeded the Thai water quality standards. One of the tap water samples and one of the filtered tap water samples were found to be positive for Shigella sp., although none of the floodwater samples showed detectable levels of this pathogen as determined by PCR analysis. One of the samples of floodwater was also found to be positive for Leptospira sp., but none of the tap water or filtered tap water samples were positive. Most of the tap water samples and all filtered tap water samples were found to be contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Bacterial contamination in water samples was also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. These results revealed that several microorganisms were transferred via floodwater to different areas in the central part of Thailand and cross-contaminated between floodwater and water for human consumption. - Highlights: • We investigated the flood impact on the waters used for human consumption. • Higher net levels of

  13. Microbiological evaluation of water during the 2011 flood crisis in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Keeratipibul, Suwimon, E-mail: Suwimon.k@chula.ac.th [Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2013-10-01

    In 2011, a severe flood occurred in Thailand, covering nearly half the country in water for several months. The contamination of floodwater and subsequent contamination of water for human consumption could have potentially led to a widespread health crisis. However, to date, no study has been conducted to determine the safety of the waters used for human consumption in Thailand during the severe flood. Therefore, we conducted microbiological analysis of 4 kinds of water (floodwater, river water, tap water, and filtered tap water) collected from industrial and residential areas that were damaged due to flooding. Higher net levels of bacteria were found in water with a higher turbidity. No clear trend was observed in the pH value of all 4 water samples. The level of total bacterial contamination in the water samples was estimated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven of the 12 tap water samples and all of the filtered tap water samples had a total bacterial load that exceeded the Thai water quality standards. One of the tap water samples and one of the filtered tap water samples were found to be positive for Shigella sp., although none of the floodwater samples showed detectable levels of this pathogen as determined by PCR analysis. One of the samples of floodwater was also found to be positive for Leptospira sp., but none of the tap water or filtered tap water samples were positive. Most of the tap water samples and all filtered tap water samples were found to be contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Bacterial contamination in water samples was also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. These results revealed that several microorganisms were transferred via floodwater to different areas in the central part of Thailand and cross-contaminated between floodwater and water for human consumption. - Highlights: • We investigated the flood impact on the waters used for human consumption. • Higher net levels of

  14. Water, energy and CO2 exchange over a seasonally flooded forest in the Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergoat, L.; Le Dantec, V.; Timouk, F.; Hiernaux, P.; Mougin, E.; Manuela, G.; Diawara, M.

    2014-12-01

    In semi-arid areas like the Sahel, perennial water bodies and temporary-flooded lowlands are critical for a number of activities. In some cases, their existence is simply a necessary condition for human societies to establish. They also play an important role in the water and carbon cycle and have strong ecological values. As a result of the strong multi-decadal drought that impacted the Sahel in the 70' to 90', a paradoxical increase of ponds and surface runoff has been observed ("Less rain, more water in the ponds", Gardelle 2010). In spite of this, there are excessively few data documenting the consequence of such a paradox on the water and carbon cycle. Here we present 2 years of eddy covariance data collected over the Kelma flooded Acacia forest in the Sahel (15.50 °N), in the frame of the AMMA project. The flooded forest is compared to the other major component of this Sahelian landscape: a grassland and a rocky outcrop sites. All sites are involved in the ALMIP2 data/LSM model comparison. The seasonal cycle of the flooded forest strongly departs from the surroundings grassland and bare soil sites. Before the rain season, the forest displays the strongest net radiation and sensible heat flux. Air temperature within the canopy reaches extremely high values. During the flood, it turns to the lowest sensible heat flux. In fact, due to an oasis effect, this flux is negative during the late flood. Water fluxes turn from almost zero in the dry season to strong evaporation during the flood, since it uses additional energy provided by negative sensible heat flux. The eddy covariance fluxes are consistent with sap flow data, showing that the flood greatly increases the length of the growing season. CO2 fluxes over the forest were twice as large as over the grassland, and the growing season was also longer, giving a much larger annual photosynthesis. In view of these data and data over surroundings grasslands and bare soil, as well as data from a long-term ecological

  15. Combining hydraulic model, hydrogeomorphological observations and chemical analyses of surface waters to improve knowledge on karst flash floods genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raynaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During a flood event over a karst watershed, the connections between surface and ground waters appear to be complex ones. The karst may attenuate surface floods by absorbing water or contribute to the surface flood by direct contribution of karst waters in the rivers (perennial and overflowing springs and by diffuse resurgence along the hillslopes. If it is possible to monitor each known outlet of a karst system, the diffuse contribution is yet difficult to assess. Furthermore, all these connections vary over time according to several factors such as the water content of the soil and underground, the rainfall characteristics, the runoff pathways. Therefore, the contribution of each compartment is generally difficult to assess, and flood dynamics are not fully understood. To face these misunderstandings and difficulties, we analysed surface waters during six recent flood events in the Lirou watershed (a karst tributary of the Lez, in South of France. Because of the specific chemical signature of karst waters, chemical analyses can supply information about water pathways and flood dynamics. Then, we used the dilution law to combine chemical results, flow data and field observations to assess the dynamics of the karst component of the flood. To end, we discussed the surface or karst origin of the waters responsible for the apparent runoff coefficient rise during flash karst flood.

  16. National water summary 1988-89: Hydrologic events and floods and droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Richard W.; Chase, Edith B.; Roberts, Robert S.; Moody, David W.

    1991-01-01

    National Water Summary 1988-89 - Hydrologic Events and Floods and Droughts documents the occurrence in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands of two types of extreme hydrologic events floods and droughts on the basis of analysis of stream-discharge data. This report details, for the first time, the areal extent of the most notable floods and droughts in each State, portrays their severity in terms of annual peak discharge for floods and annual departure from long-term discharge for droughts for selected stream-gaging stations, and estimates how frequently floods and droughts of such severity can be expected to recur. These two types of extreme hydrologic events are very different in their duration, cause, areal extent, and effect on human activities. Floods are short-term phenomena that typically last only a few hours to a few days and are associated with weather systems that produce unusually large amounts of rain or that cause snow to melt quickly. The large amount of runoff produced causes rivers to overflow their banks and, thus, is highly dangerous to human life and property. In contrast, droughts are long-term phenomena that typically persist for months to a decade or more and are associated with the absence of precipitation producing weather. They affect large geographic areas that can be statewide, regional, or even nationwide in extent. Droughts can cause great economic hardship and even loss of life in developing countries, although the loss of life results almost wholly from diminished water supplies and catastrophic crop failures rather than from the direct and obvious peril to human life that is common to floods. The following discussion is an overview of the three parts of this 1988-89 National Water Summary "Hydrologic Conditions and Water-Related Events, Water Years 1988-89," "Hydrologic Perspectives on Water Issues," and "State Summaries of Floods and Droughts." Background information on sources of atmospheric moisture to the

  17. Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, I.H.; Farooq, M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Rafiq, M.; Din, U.G.; Gul, S.

    2002-03-01

    Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

  18. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  19. Dynamics of water and nutrients for potted plants induced by flooded bench fertigation : experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.

    1994-01-01

    Dynamics of water and nutrients as affected by physical and chemical characteristics of a substrate, fertigation method and schedule, and plant uptake were studied for a flooded bench fertigation system for potted plants, through a detailed experimental study of the root environment and a

  20. Risk management in oil reservoir water-flooding under economic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siraj, Muhammad; Van den Hof, Paul; Jansen, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Model-based economic optimization of the water-flooding process in oil reservoirs suffers from high levels of uncertainty. The achievable economic objective is highly uncertain due to the varying economic conditions and the limited knowledge of the reservoir model parameters. For improving

  1. Penetration of n-hexadecane and water into wood under conditions simulating catastrophic floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganna Baglayeva; Wayne S. Seames; Charles R. Frihart; Jane O' Dell; Evguenii I. Kozliak

    2017-01-01

    To simulate fuel oil spills occurring during catastrophic floods, short-term absorption of two chemicals, n-hexadecane (representative of semivolatile organic compounds in fuel oil) and water, into southern yellow pine was gravimetrically monitored as a function of time at ambient conditions. Different scenarios were run on the basis of (1) the...

  2. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  3. Criticality-safety analyses of compacted and water-flooded. SP-100 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, D.I.; Sapir, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Reactivity calculations were performed to determine the sensitivity of three liquid metal-cooled, fast reactor designs to various accident environments. The concepts, proposed for the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program, included one thermionic and two fuel-pin designs. Numerous models of each core were developed to analyze the effect of core compaction and of water-flooded lattice spreading. Results indicate that those designs incorporating in-core control are least affected by core compaction and that the thermonic concept can best withstand expansion of the flooded fuel element array

  4. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Boring, Ronald Laurids; Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie; Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis Lee

    2015-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS 'pathways,' or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  5. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  6. Impact of the Three-Gorges Dam and water transfer project on Changjiang floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu; Shankman, David

    2013-01-01

    Increasing frequency of severe floods on the middle and lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River during the past few decades can be attributed to both abnormal monsoon rainfall and landscape changes that include extensive deforestation affecting river sedimentation, and shrinking lakes and levee construction that reduced the areas available for floodwater storage. The Three-Gorges Dam (TGD) and the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) will also affect frequency and intensity of severe floods in the Poyang Lake region of the middle Changjiang. Process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model predicts that the TGD will increase flood risk during the early summer monsoon against the original justifications for building the dam, relating to complex river-lake-groundwater interactions. Several scenarios predict that morphological change will increase flood risk around the lake. This indicates the importance of managing both flood discharge and sediment deposition for the entire basin. Further, the authors assessed the impact of sand mining in the lake after its prohibition on the Changjiang, and clarified that alternative scenario of sand mining in lakes currently disconnected from the mainstream would reduce the flood risk to a greater extent than intensive dredging along junction channel. Because dry biomasses simulated by the model were linearly related to the Time-Integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TINDVI) estimated from satellite images, its decadal gradient during 1982-1999 showed a spatially heterogeneous distribution and generally decreasing trends beside the lakes, indicating that the increases in lake reclamation and the resultant decrease in rice productivity are closely related to the hydrologic changes. This integrated approach could help to minimize flood damage and promote better decisions addressing sustainable development.

  7. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  8. Active and Passive Remote Sensing Data Time Series for Flood Detection and Surface Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioresita, Filsa; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of environmental changes surface waters are undergoing changes in time and space. A better knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface waters resources becomes essential to support sustainable policies and development activities. Especially because surface waters, are not only a vital sweet water resource, but can also pose hazards to human settlements and infrastructures through flooding. Floods are a highly frequent disaster in the world and can caused huge material losses. Detecting and mapping their spatial distribution is fundamental to ascertain damages and for relief efforts. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an effective way to monitor surface waters bodies over large areas since it provides excellent temporal coverage and, all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. However, emergent vegetation, trees, wind or flow turbulence can increase radar back-scatter returns and pose problems for the delineation of inundated areas. In such areas, passive remote sensing data can be used to identify vegetated areas and support the interpretation of SAR data. The availability of new Earth Observation products, for example Sentinel-1 (active) and Sentinel-2 (passive) imageries, with both high spatial and temporal resolution, have the potential to facilitate flood detection and monitoring of surface waters changes which are very dynamic in space and time. In this context, the research consists of two parts. In the first part, the objective is to propose generic and reproducible methodologies for the analysis of Sentinel-1 time series data for floods detection and surface waters mapping. The processing chain comprises a series of pre-processing steps and the statistical modeling of the pixel value distribution to produce probabilistic maps for the presence of surface waters. Images pre-processing for all Sentinel-1 images comprise the reduction SAR effect like orbit errors, speckle noise, and geometric effects. A modified

  9. Effect of capillary number on the oil recovery using oil-water emulsion injection in core flooding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Nunez, Victor Raul; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msn@puc-rio.br; Basante, Vladimir Alvarado [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical/Petroleum Engineering], E-mail: valvard@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    The Water injection flooding is a common method to improve reservoir sweep and pressure maintenance. The heavy-oil-recovery efficiency is in part limited by the high water-to-oil mobility ratio. Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed as more efficient alternatives to water flooding. Dispersion injection, in particular oil-water emulsion injection, has been tried with relative success as an enhanced oil recovery method, but the technique is not fully developed or understood. If emulsion injection proves to be an effective EOR method, its use would bring the added benefit of disposing produced water with small oil content that could be modified to serve as the injected oil-water emulsion. The use of such methods requires a detailed analysis of the different flow regimes of emulsions through the porous space of a reservoir rock. If the drop size of the disperse phase is of the same order of magnitude as the pore size, the drops may agglomerate and partially block water flow through pores. This flow regime may be used to control the mobility of the injected liquid, leading to higher recovery factor. We have shown in recent experiments of oil displacement in a sandstone core that, the oil recovery factor could be raised from approximately 40 %, obtained with water injection only, up to approximately 75 % by alternating water and emulsion injection. Although these results clearly show the improvement in the recovery factor, the mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. In this work, two sandstone cores were used to demonstrate the effect of flow rate (capillary number) on the mobility control by emulsion injection. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the experiment set-up. The experiments show that raising the flow rate by a factor of 10 (0.03 ml/min to 0.3 ml/min), the oil recovered factor decreases considerably. (author)

  10. Mine waters of the flooded Příbram uranium deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Karel

    2010-01-01

    From the Příbram deposit, which was the largest exploited uranium deposit in the Czech Republic, mine water has been drained under controlled conditions, treated and discharged into the Kocába River since the flooding of the deposit in October 2005. The amount of water drained in this way is determined at any particular moment by the volume of seepage from precipitation and surface water into the underground mine cavities. The draining of overbalance mine waters is carried out at two points t...

  11. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J W; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-08-01

    Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant's life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow flooding among plants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  12. Demonstrating demand response from water distribution system through pump scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, Ruben; Abraham, Edo; Parpas, Panos; Stoianov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water distribution systems can profitably provide demand response energy. • STOR and FFR are financially viable under a wide range of operating conditions. • Viability depends on the pump utilisation and peak price of the electricity tariff. • Total GHG emissions caused by the provision of reserve energy are <300 gCO_2/kW h. • These are lower than those from the major reserve energy provision technologies. - Abstract: Significant changes in the power generation mix are posing new challenges for the balancing systems of the grid. Many of these challenges are in the secondary electricity grid regulation services and could be met through demand response (DR) services. We explore the opportunities for a water distribution system (WDS) to provide balancing services with demand response through pump scheduling and evaluate the associated benefits. Using a benchmark network and demand response mechanisms available in the UK, these benefits are assessed in terms of reduced green house gas (GHG) emissions from the grid due to the displacement of more polluting power sources and additional revenues for water utilities. The optimal pump scheduling problem is formulated as a mixed-integer optimisation problem and solved using a branch and bound algorithm. This new formulation finds the optimal level of power capacity to commit to the provision of demand response for a range of reserve energy provision and frequency response schemes offered in the UK. For the first time we show that DR from WDS can offer financial benefits to WDS operators while providing response energy to the grid with less greenhouse gas emissions than competing reserve energy technologies. Using a Monte Carlo simulation based on data from 2014, we demonstrate that the cost of providing the storage energy is less than the financial compensation available for the equivalent energy supply. The GHG emissions from the demand response provision from a WDS are also shown to be smaller than

  13. Impact of treated wastewater reuse and floods on water quality and fish health within a water reservoir in an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibel, Inbal; Zilberg, Dina; Groisman, Ludmila; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-15

    Treated wastewater (TWW) reuse for agricultural irrigation is a well-established approach to coping with water shortages in semi-arid and arid environments. Recently, additional uses of TWW have emerged, including streamflow augmentation and aquatic ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the water quality and fish health, in an artificial reservoir located in an arid climate (the Yeruham Reservoir, Israel), which regularly receives TWW and sporadic winter floods. The temporal distribution of water levels, nutrients and organic micropollutants (OMPs) were measured during the years 2013-2014. OMPs were also measured in sediment and fish tissues. Finally, the status of fish health was evaluated by histopathology. Water levels and quality were mainly influenced by seasonal processes such as floods and evaporation, and not by the discharge of TWW. Out of 16 tested OMPs, estrone, carbamazepine, diclofenac and bezafibrate were found in the reservoir water, but mostly at concentrations below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for fish. Concentrations of PCBs and dioxins in fish muscle and liver were much lower than the EU maximal permitted concentrations, and similar to concentrations that were found in food fish in Israel and Europe. In the histopathological analysis, there were no evident tissue abnormalities, and low to moderate infection levels of fish parasites were recorded. The results from the Yeruham Reservoir demonstrated a unique model for the mixture effect between TWW reuse and natural floods to support a unique stable and thriving ecosystem in a water reservoir located in an arid region. This type of reservoir can be widely used for recreation, education, and the social and economic development of a rural environment, such as has occurred in the Yeruham region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eHerrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during eight years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthetic rate (PN during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential ( suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  15. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during 8 years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (PN) during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential (ψ) suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  16. A Review on Applications of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS in Water Resources and Flood Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most critical natural resources that maintain the ecosystem and support people’s daily life. Pressures on water resources and disaster management are rising primarily due to the unequal spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and pollution, and also partially due to our poor knowledge about the distribution of water resources and poor management of their usage. Remote sensing provides critical data for mapping water resources, measuring hydrological fluxes, monitoring drought and flooding inundation, while geographic information systems (GIS provide the best tools for water resources, drought and flood risk management. This special issue presents the best practices, cutting-edge technologies and applications of remote sensing, GIS and hydrological models for water resource mapping, satellite rainfall measurements, runoff simulation, water body and flood inundation mapping, and risk management. The latest technologies applied include 3D surface model analysis and visualization of glaciers, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV video image classification for turfgrass mapping and irrigation planning, ground penetration radar for soil moisture estimation, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite rainfall measurements, storm hyetography analysis, rainfall runoff and urban flooding simulation, and satellite radar and optical image classification for urban water bodies and flooding inundation. The application of those technologies is expected to greatly relieve the pressures on water resources and allow better mitigation of and adaptation to the disastrous impact of droughts and flooding.

  17. Predicted high-water elevations for selected flood events at the Albert Pike Recreation Area, Ouachita National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.A. Marion

    2012-01-01

    The hydraulic characteristics are determined for the June 11, 2010, flood on the Little Missouri River at the Albert Pike Recreation Area in Arkansas. These characteristics are then used to predict the high-water elevations for the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood events in the Loop B, C, and D Campgrounds of the recreation area. The peak discharge and related...

  18. A theoretical parametric study of Water Flooding | Ohirhian | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multidimensional mathematical model derived by combining equation of continuity and Darcy's law and solved using the strongly implicit procedure (SIP) has been used to study the effects of permeability distribution, shape of the relative permeability and capillary pressure curves, ratio of water to oil viscosity, and amount ...

  19. Water quality restoration during and after flooding of the underground Banat mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuhas, T.; Bragadireanu, M.; Filip, D.; Dumitrescu, N.

    2001-01-01

    Closing out and flooding of the underground Banat mines are priority concerns of the Uranium National Company S.A during the period 2000-2007, the economical uranium ores being exhausted after some 45 years of underground exploitation. Water quality restoration during the flooding process and after its completion was a part of a pilot project undertaken in the frame of a PHARE programme. The mines have two water treatment plants in operation with four modules with 3 ion exchange columns each, being in exploitation. The long term plans for the remediation of uranium mines will stop the Ciudanovita water treatment facility, all the underground mine waters being further pumped and treated within a single plant located at Lisava. The exploitation of the treatment plant will be ensured as long as needed, with a first foreseen period of ten years after total flooding of the Banat mines, linked with a long term environment monitoring programme. Necessary measures to be taken for ensuring the foreseen both uranium and radium separation are presented within this paper. Proposals for radium removal are present as a decision should be taken in the nearest future. (orig.)

  20. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Enhance Flood Impact Products and Mitigation in the Lower Mekong Water Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, C.; Gao, M.; Spruce, J.; Bolten, J. D.; Weber, S.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses results of a project to develop a near real time flood monitoring capability for the Lower Mekong Water Basin (LMB), the largest river basin in Southeast Asia and home to more than sixty million people. The region has seen rapid population growth and socio-economic development, fueling unsustainable deforestation, agricultural expansion, and stream-flow regulation. The basin supports substantial rice farming and other agrarian activities, which heavily depend upon seasonal flooding. But, floods due to typhoons and other severe weather events can result in disasters that cost millions of dollars and cause hardships to millions of people. This study uses near real time and historical Aqua and Terra MODIS 250-m resolution Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products to map flood and drought impact within the LMB. In doing so, NDVI change products are derived by comparing from NDVI during the wet season to a baseline NDVI from the dry season. The method records flood events, which cause drastic decreases in NDVI compared to non-flooded conditions. NDVI change product computation was automated for updating a near real-time system, as part of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Disaster Risk Management Observation Strategy. The system is a web-based 'Flood Dashboard that will showcase MODIS flood monitoring products, along with other flood mapping and weather data products. This flood dashboard enables end-users to view and assess a variety of geospatial data to monitor floods and flood impacts in near real-time, as well provides a platform for further data aggregation for flood prediction modeling and post-event assessment.

  1. Interactions of fines with base fractions of oil and its implication in smart water flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Migration of fines, and formation of oil emulsion have been independently observed during smart water flooding both have been suggested to play a vital role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). But, the exact role of fines and the reason of emulsion formation are not well studied for carbonate...... reservoirs. This study shows that addition of water and crude oil on calcite fines leads to formation of soluble oil emulsions in the water phase. Formation of these emulsions and its implication in EOR has been experimentally analyzed....

  2. Towards an Australian ensemble streamflow forecasting system for flood prediction and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.; David, R. E.; Wang, Q.; Li, M.; Shrestha, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Flood forecasting in Australia has historically relied on deterministic forecasting models run only when floods are imminent, with considerable forecaster input and interpretation. These now co-existed with a continually available 7-day streamflow forecasting service (also deterministic) aimed at operational water management applications such as environmental flow releases. The 7-day service is not optimised for flood prediction. We describe progress on developing a system for ensemble streamflow forecasting that is suitable for both flood prediction and water management applications. Precipitation uncertainty is handled through post-processing of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) output with a Bayesian rainfall post-processor (RPP). The RPP corrects biases, downscales NWP output, and produces reliable ensemble spread. Ensemble precipitation forecasts are used to force a semi-distributed conceptual rainfall-runoff model. Uncertainty in precipitation forecasts is insufficient to reliably describe streamflow forecast uncertainty, particularly at shorter lead-times. We characterise hydrological prediction uncertainty separately with a 4-stage error model. The error model relies on data transformation to ensure residuals are homoscedastic and symmetrically distributed. To ensure streamflow forecasts are accurate and reliable, the residuals are modelled using a mixture-Gaussian distribution with distinct parameters for the rising and falling limbs of the forecast hydrograph. In a case study of the Murray River in south-eastern Australia, we show ensemble predictions of floods generally have lower errors than deterministic forecasting methods. We also discuss some of the challenges in operationalising short-term ensemble streamflow forecasts in Australia, including meeting the needs for accurate predictions across all flow ranges and comparing forecasts generated by event and continuous hydrological models.

  3. A flooding induced station blackout analysis for a pressurized water reactor using the RISMC toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelli, Diego; Prescott, Steven; Smith, Curtis; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: the RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., component/system activation) and to perform statistical analyses. In our case, the simulation of the flooding is performed by using an advanced smooth particle hydrodynamics code called NEUTRINO. The obtained results allow the user to investigate and quantify the impact of timing and sequencing of events on system safety. The impact of power uprate is determined in terms of both core damage probability and safety margins

  4. Monitoring the variability of precipitable water vapor over the Klang Valley, Malaysia during flash flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparta, W; Rahman, R; Singh, M S J

    2014-01-01

    Klang Valley is a focal area of Malaysian economic and business activities where the local weather condition is very important to maintain its reputation. Heavy rainfalls for more than an hour were reported up to 40 mm in September 2013 and 35 mm in October 2013. Both events are monitored as the first and second cases of flash flood, respectively. Based on these cases, we investigate the water vapor, rainfall, surface meteorological data (surface pressure, relative humidity, and temperature) and river water level. The precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) is used to indicate the impact of flash flood on the rainfall. We found that PWV was dropped 4 mm in 2 hours before rainfall reached to 40 mm and dropped 3 mm in 3 hours before 35 mm of rainfall in respective cases. Variation of PWV was higher in September case compared to October case of about 2 mm. We suggest the rainfall phenomena can disturb the GPS propagation and therefore, the impact of PWV before, during and after the flash flood event at three selected GPS stations in Klang Valley is investigated for possible mitigation in the future

  5. Poster abstract: Water level estimation in urban ultrasonic/passive infrared flash flood sensor networks using supervised learning

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    floods occur very rarely, we use a supervised learning approach to estimate the correction to the ultrasonic rangefinder caused by temperature fluctuations. Preliminary data shows that water level can be estimated with an absolute error of less than 2 cm

  6. Demonstration of anaerobic stabilization of black water in accumulation systems under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.; Sanders, W.; Lettinga, G.

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of "human waste" was studied at Mlalakuwa residential settlement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania at ambient tropical temperatures (24-31 degrees C). This settlement experiences a high water table with flooding during the rainy season, resulting in a very costly emptying of the

  7. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutov, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.; Chunyaev, E.I.; Marshall, A.C.; Sapir, J.L.; Pelowitz, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. Laser fluorosensor demonstration flights over Newfoundland coastal waters. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.E.; Marois, R.

    2007-01-01

    The development and application of advanced oil spill remote sensing equipment was discussed with particular reference to 9 laser fluorosensor demonstration flights undertaken in March 2007 in the coastal waters of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) provides a fluorescent spectrum of oil to accurately identify even small amounts of fresh crudes equally well during full daylight conditions as at night. They allow for airborne detection, classification, surveillance monitoring of oil spills, as well as the exploration of marine petroleum resources. With the advent of powerful processors in modern computers, the classification capabilities of laser fluorosensors have significantly improved. Fluorescence information can be quickly transferred to response personnel on the ground or at sea to help plan effective oil spill countermeasures and to mitigate the effects of an oil spill in marine and coastal environments. Laser fluorosensors can successfully discriminate between oiled and un-oiled weeds and detect oil in water, snow, ice and beaches. The SLEAF flights were the third series undertaken over a period of 4 years in later winter weather conditions. The flights were focused over shipping lanes south of Newfoundland and Labrador around the local petroleum handling facilities. In addition to laser data, they provided georeferenced infrared, ultraviolet, colour video and digital still imagery. During the flights, SLEAF did not indicate much evidence of petroleum oil on the surface of the marine environment. None of the flights over 17 marine tankers, container vessels, supply vessels and tugs indicated any signs of oily discharge. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  9. Understanding flood-induced water chemistry variability extracting temporal patterns with the LDA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, A. H.; Tavenard, R.; Emonet, R.; De Lavenne, A.; Malinowski, S.; Guyet, T.; Quiniou, R.; Odobez, J.; Merot, P.; Gascuel-odoux, C.

    2013-12-01

    Studying floods has been a major issue in hydrological research for years, both in quantitative and qualitative hydrology. Stream chemistry is a mix of solutes, often used as tracers, as they originate from various sources in the catchment and reach the stream by various flow pathways. Previous studies (for instance (1)) hypothesized that stream chemistry reaction to a rainfall event is not unique but varies seasonally, and according to the yearly meteorological conditions. Identifying a typology of flood temporal chemical patterns is a way to better understand catchment processes at the flood and seasonal time scale. We applied a probabilistic model (Latent Dirichlet Allocation or LDA (2)) mining recurrent sequential patterns from a dataset of floods. A set of 472 floods was automatically extracted from a daily 12-year long record of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, sulfate and chloride concentrations. Rainfall, discharge, water table depth and temperature are also considered. Data comes from a long-term hydrological observatory (AgrHys, western France) located at Kervidy-Naizin. From each flood, a document has been generated that is made of a set of "hydrological words". Each hydrological word corresponds to a measurement: it is a triplet made of the considered variable, the time at which the measurement is made (relative to the beginning of the flood), and its magnitude (that can be low, medium or high). The documents and the number of pattern to be mined are used as input data to the LDA algorithm. LDA relies on spotting co-occurrences (as an alternative to the more traditional study of correlation) between words that appear within the flood documents. It has two nice properties that are its ability to easily deal with missing data and its additive property that allows a document to be seen as a mixture of several flood patterns. The output of LDA is a set of patterns easily represented in graphics. These patterns correspond to typical reactions to rainfall

  10. Demonstrator Flood Control Room : Inventarisatie van de wensen van de verschillende Deltares onderdelen en een hierop gebaseerd ontwerp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjens, G.J.; Attema-van Waas, A.R.; Guikema, M.; Schilder, C.M.C.; Veen, M.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    Op basis van het uitgevoerde onderzoek trekt TNO de volgende conclusies: • De bestaande ruimte die Deltares op het oog heeft voor de realisatie van de trainingsruimte is klein. Een eerste fase van de gewenste Flood Control Room is realiseerbaar in deze ruimte, met inachtneming dat niet alle

  11. Comparison of Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation of Water Supply and Flood Control Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. L.; Yang, P.; Bhushan, R.

    2016-12-01

    With climate change, streamflows are expected to become more fluctuating, with more frequent and intense floods and droughts. This complicates reservoir operation, which is highly sensitive to inflow variability. We make a comparative evaluation of three strategies for adapting reservoirs to climate-induced shifts in streamflow patterns. Specifically, we examine the effectiveness of (i) expanding the capacities of reservoirs by way of new off-stream reservoirs, (ii) introducing wastewater reclamation to augment supplies, and (iii) improving real-time streamflow forecasts for more optimal decision-making. The first two are hard strategies involving major infrastructure modifications, while the third a soft strategy entailing adjusting the system operation. A comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the three strategies is as yet lacking in the literature despite the many past studies investigating the strategies individually. To this end, we developed an adaptive forward-looking linear program that solves to yield the optimal decisions for the current time as a function of an ensemble forecast of future streamflows. Solving the model repeatedly on a rolling basis with regular updating of the streamflow forecast simulates the system behavior over the entire operating horizon. Results are generated for two hypothetical water supply and flood control reservoirs of differing inflows and demands. Preliminary findings suggest that of the three strategies, improving streamflow forecasts to be most effective in mitigating the effects of climate change. We also found that, in average terms, both additional reservoir capacity and wastewater reclamation have potential to reduce water shortage and downstream flooding. However, in the worst case, the potential of the former to reduce water shortage is limited, and similarly so the potential of the latter to reduce downstream flooding.

  12. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

  13. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant's Critical Mass Laboratory

  14. Modeling of a Flooding Induced Station Blackout for a Pressurized Water Reactor Using the RISMC Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego; Prescott, Steven R; Smith, Curtis L; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua J; Kinoshita, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    In the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach we want to understand not just the frequency of an event like core damage, but how close we are (or are not) to key safety-related events and how might we increase our safety margins. The RISMC Pathway uses the probabilistic margin approach to quantify impacts to reliability and safety by coupling both probabilistic (via stochastic simulation) and mechanistic (via physics models) approaches. This coupling takes place through the interchange of physical parameters and operational or accident scenarios. In this paper we apply the RISMC approach to evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., system activation) and to perform statistical analyses (e.g., run multiple RELAP-7 simulations where sequencing/timing of events have been changed according to a set of stochastic distributions). By using the RISMC toolkit, we can evaluate how power uprate affects the system recovery measures needed to avoid core damage after the PWR lost all available AC power by a tsunami induced flooding. The simulation of the actual flooding is performed by using a smooth particle hydrodynamics code: NEUTRINO.

  15. Resolution Enhancement of MODIS-Derived Water Indices for Studying Persistent Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, L. W.; Kalcic, Maria; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring coastal marshes for persistent flooding and salinity stress is a high priority issue in Louisiana. Remote sensing can identify environmental variables that can be indicators of marsh habitat conditions, and offer timely and relatively accurate information for aiding wetland vegetation management. Monitoring activity accuracy is often limited by mixed pixels which occur when areas represented by the pixel encompasses more than one cover type. Mixtures of marsh grasses and open water in 250m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data can impede flood area estimation. Flood mapping of such mixtures requires finer spatial resolution data to better represent the cover type composition within 250m MODIS pixel. Fusion of MODIS and Landsat can improve both spectral and temporal resolution of time series products to resolve rapid changes from forcing mechanisms like hurricane winds and storm surge. For this study, using a method for estimating sub-pixel values from a MODIS time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), using temporal weighting, was implemented to map persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes. Ordinarily NDWI computed from daily 250m MODIS pixels represents a mixture of fragmented marshes and water. Here, sub-pixel NDWI values were derived for MODIS data using Landsat 30-m data. Each MODIS pixel was disaggregated into a mixture of the eight cover types according to the classified image pixels falling inside the MODIS pixel. The Landsat pixel means for each cover type inside a MODIS pixel were computed for the Landsat data preceding the MODIS image in time and for the Landsat data succeeding the MODIS image. The Landsat data were then weighted exponentially according to closeness in date to the MODIS data. The reconstructed MODIS data were produced by summing the product of fractional cover type with estimated NDWI values within each cover type. A new daily time series was produced using both the reconstructed 250

  16. Modelling of Salt Solubilities for Smart Water flooding in Carbonate Reservoirs using Extended UNIQUAC Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara

    recovery can increase that capture up to 25-30% of original oil in place (OOIP). But cost effective Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques if implemented correctly canbe used to produce another 10-15% of the initially available hydrocarbons. Advanced water flooding (i.e. altering injection brine...... compositions by varying concentration of selected ions) is an enhanced oil recovery method which in alow cost, non-toxic manner increases oil recovery from various carbonate reservoirs. Dan and Halfdan are chalk reservoirs from the Danish North Sea, which are matured oil fields that have been flooded......For most oil reservoirs which were drilled with conventional methods, the expected initial recovery of available hydrocarbons maybe as low as 15% – thusleaving 85+% of hydrocarbons in the reservoir. Implementation of mechanical methods including pump jacks and initial gas injection or thermal...

  17. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  18. Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Waste waters have been generated as result of operations conducted at the Hanford Facility for over 40 years. These waste waters were previously discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. Examples of such waste waters include steam condensates and cooling waters that have not been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste and process condensates that may have been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste. Many measures have been taken to reduce the amount of contamination being discharged in these effluents. However, some of these waste waters still require additional treatment before release to the environment. Systems are being designed and built to treat these waste waters along with any future waste waters resulting from remediation activities on the Hanford Facility

  19. Quantitative characterization of water transport and flooding in the diffusion layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Colombo, L.; Galbiati, S.; Marchesi, R. [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Optimization of water management in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is a very important factor for the achievement of high performances and long lifetime. A good hydration of the electrolyte membrane is essential for high proton conductivity; on the contrary water in excess may lead to electrode flooding and severe reduction in performances. Many studies on water transport across the gas diffusion layer (GDL) have been carried out to improve these components; anyway efforts in this field are affected by lack of effective experimental methods. The present work reports an experimental investigation with the purpose to determine the global coefficient of water transport across different diffusion layers under real operating conditions. An appropriate and accurate experimental apparatus has been designed and built to test the single GDL under a wide range of operating conditions. Data analysis has allowed quantification of both the water vapor transport across different diffusion layers, and the effects of micro-porous layers; furthermore flooding onset and its consequences on the mass transport coefficient have been characterized by means of suitably defined parameters. (author)

  20. Development of realtime, handheld and portable flood distribution and water quality sensor based android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmatika, Ratih; Adriyanto, Feri

    2017-09-01

    Current sensors to monitor water quality are made of manual sensors, which reported to have good performance. However, the major problems, which manual process to get the data. In addition, the data interpretation takes a long time. Due to these problems, a new approach needs to be introduced into the process to prevent a long data acquisition. Therefore, the SIAGA application was proposed. The application of SIAGA is divided into two main applications which are SIBA (Siaga Banjir) and SIAB (Siaga Air Bersih). We using WiFi system which is located at points along the flow of river.. The result can be monitored in the online application based on smartphone which is divided into the river water quality, potential sources of pollution and flood area. Each WiFi point is completed with the instruments which are divided into the sensors that can do the identification of parameters to determine the water quality such as temperature, pH, water level and turbidity. This instrument completed using GPS (Global Positioning System), Full Map menu. The instrument was succesfully monitoredthe flood distribution and water quality in Bengawan Solo river.

  1. Forecasting surface water flooding hazard and impact in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven J.; Moore, Robert J.; Wells, Steven C.

    2016-04-01

    Across the world, there is increasing demand for more robust and timely forecast and alert information on Surface Water Flooding (SWF). Within a UK context, the government Pitt Review into the Summer 2007 floods provided recommendations and impetus to improve the understanding of SWF risk for both off-line design and real-time forecasting and warning. Ongoing development and trial of an end-to-end real-time SWF system is being progressed through the recently formed Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP) with delivery to the Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC) providing coverage over England & Wales. The NHP is a unique forum that aims to deliver coordinated assessments, research and advice on natural hazards for governments and resilience communities across the UK. Within the NHP, a real-time Hazard Impact Model (HIM) framework has been developed that includes SWF as one of three hazards chosen for initial trialling. The trial SWF HIM system uses dynamic gridded surface-runoff estimates from the Grid-to-Grid (G2G) hydrological model to estimate the SWF hazard. National datasets on population, infrastructure, property and transport are available to assess impact severity for a given rarity of SWF hazard. Whilst the SWF hazard footprint is calculated in real-time using 1, 3 and 6 hour accumulations of G2G surface runoff on a 1 km grid, it has been possible to associate these with the effective rainfall design profiles (at 250m resolution) used as input to a detailed flood inundation model (JFlow+) run offline to produce hazard information resolved to 2m resolution. This information is contained in the updated Flood Map for Surface Water (uFMfSW) held by the Environment Agency. The national impact datasets can then be used with the uFMfSW SWF hazard dataset to assess impacts at this scale and severity levels of potential impact assigned at 1km and for aggregated county areas in real-time. The impact component is being led by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) within the NHP

  2. ADDRESSING WATER FOOTPRINT CONCEPT: A DEMONSTRABLE STRATEGY FOR PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the water footprint concept in 2002, in the context of humankind’s ever-increasing awareness of the valuable global freshwater resources, it has received more and more attention. The application of this relatively new concept has been expected to provide ecological and environmental benefits. For the water-intensive papermaking industry, it seems that water footprint needs to be addressed. The water footprint of cellulosic paper can be divided into three components, including its green water footprint, blue water footprint, and grey water footprint, which may be accounted for by considering the individual contributions of wood or non-wood materials, pulp production processes, effluent discharge to the receiving water bodies, process chemicals and additives, energy consumption, etc. In the literature, the accounting of water footprint during the whole production chain of cellulosic paper is already available, and relevant research findings can provide useful insights into the application of the concept; however, further development of the accounting methodologies is much needed, so that the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of water footprint can be internationally recognized, certified, and standardized. Although there are ongoing or upcoming debates and challenges associated with the concept, its application to papermaking industry may be expected to provide various encouraging possibilities and impacts.

  3. Experimental research on microscopic displacement mechanism of CO2-water alternative flooding in low permeability reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyan; Zhu, Weiyao; Long, Yunqian; Song, Hongqing; Huang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    This paper provides an experimental method to deal with the problems of low oil recovery ratio faced with water flooding utilizing the CO2/water alternate displacement technology. A series of CO2/water alternate flooding experiments were carried out under 60°C and 18.4MPa using high temperature / pressure microscopic visualization simulation system. Then, we used the image processing technique and software to analyze the proportion of remaining oil in the displacement process. The results show that CO2 can extract the lighter chemical components in the crude oil and make it easier to form miscible phase, which can reduce the viscosity and favorable mobility ratio of oil. What’s more, the displacement reduces the impact of gas channeling, which can achieve an enlarged sweeping efficiency to improve filtration ability. In addition, the CO2 dissolved in oil and water can greatly reduce the interfacial tension, which can increase the oil displacement efficiency in a large extent. Generally speaking, the recovery rate of residual oil in the micro - model can be elevated up to 15.89% ∼ 16.48% under formation condition by alternate displacement.

  4. Hydrogeochemical situation in the flooding water of a uranium mine - the Niederschlema/Alberoda deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkersdorfer, C.

    1996-01-01

    For reasons of economic viability and environmental considerations, the former uranium mine Niederschlema/Alberoda near Aue in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) has been flooded since 1991. In statistical and hydrogeochemical evaluation of analyses, each with up to 60 parameters, it is shown that the water in the mine can be classified into three types: drainage water, intermediary water and mine water. All three types show significant differentiation in their chemical characteristics, whereby drainage water has the least mineral content and mine water the most. During the period of examination from January 1991 to December 1994, drainage and intermediary waters revealed no statistically significant changes in their physiochemical parameters, whereas the value of most of the physicochemical parameters of the mine water have increased more or less constantly up to 1994. At the end of 1994 the rate of increases in many of the parameters had slowed down or come to a halt. This is either a result of saturation of the water or it is a balance reaction of limited duration. To determine the hydrodynamic situation of the mine water a tracer experiment was carried out together with numerous deepness dependent temperature, conductibility, pH and redox measurements. (orig./SR) [de

  5. Study of the adaptive refinement on an open source 2D shallow-water flow solver using quadtree grid for flash flood simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstetter, G.; Popinet, S.; Fullana, J. M.; Lagrée, P. Y.; Josserand, C.

    2015-12-01

    The full resolution of shallow-water equations for modeling flash floods may have a high computational cost, so that majority of flood simulation softwares used for flood forecasting uses a simplification of this model : 1D approximations, diffusive or kinematic wave approximations or exotic models using non-physical free parameters. These kind of approximations permit to save a lot of computational time by sacrificing in an unquantified way the precision of simulations. To reduce drastically the cost of such 2D simulations by quantifying the lost of precision, we propose a 2D shallow-water flow solver built with the open source code Basilisk1, which is using adaptive refinement on a quadtree grid. This solver uses a well-balanced central-upwind scheme, which is at second order in time and space, and treats the friction and rain terms implicitly in finite volume approach. We demonstrate the validity of our simulation on the case of the flood of Tewkesbury (UK) occurred in July 2007, as shown on Fig. 1. On this case, a systematic study of the impact of the chosen criterium for adaptive refinement is performed. The criterium which has the best computational time / precision ratio is proposed. Finally, we present the power law giving the computational time in respect to the maximum resolution and we show that this law for our 2D simulation is close to the one of 1D simulation, thanks to the fractal dimension of the topography. [1] http://basilisk.fr/

  6. A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackketter, Donald [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Executive Summary An innovative 50-ton ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system was installed to provide space heating and cooling for a 56,000 square foot (5,200 square meter) building in Butte Montana, in conjunction with its heating and chiller systems. Butte is a location with winter conditions much colder than the national average. The GSHP uses flooded mine waters at 78F (25C) as the heat source and heat sink. The heat transfer performance and efficiency of the system were analyzed using data from January through July 2014. This analysis indicated that for typical winter conditions in Butte, Montana, the GSHP could deliver about 88% of the building’s annual heating needs. Compared with a baseline natural-gas/electric system, the system demonstrated at least 69% site energy savings, 38% source energy savings, 39% carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a savings of $17,000 per year (40%) in utility costs. Assuming a $10,000 per ton cost for installing a production system, the payback period at natural gas costs of $9.63/MMBtu and electricity costs of $0.08/kWh would be in the range of 40 to 50 years. At higher utility prices, or lower installation costs, the payback period would obviously be reduced.

  7. Evaluation of a severe accident management strategy for boiling water reactors -- Drywell flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, D.; Xing, L.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D.

    1994-01-01

    Flooding of the drywell has been suggested as a strategy to prevent reactor vessel and containment failure in boiling water reactors. To evaluate the candidate strategy, this study considers accident management as a decision problem (''drywell flooding'' versus ''do nothing'') and develops a decision-oriented framework, namely, the influence diagram approach. This analysis chooses the long-term station blackout sequence for a Mark 1 nuclear power plant (Peach Bottom), and an influence diagram with a single decision node is constructed. The node probabilities in the influence diagram are obtained from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reports or estimated by probabilistic risk assessment methodology. In assessing potential benefits compared with adverse effects, this analysis uses two consequence measures, i.e., early and late fatalities, as decision criteria. The analysis concludes that even though potential adverse effects exist, such as ex-vessel steam explosions and containment isolation failure, the drywell flooding strategy is preferred to ''do nothing'' when evaluated in terms of these consequence measures

  8. Feasibility of using the water from the abandoned and flooded coal mines as an energy resource for space heating

    OpenAIRE

    Athresh, AP

    2017-01-01

    This research project aims to study the feasibility of using the water from the abandoned and flooded coal mines for space heating applications using a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in open loop configuration and take a conceptual idea to a commercial deployment level. The flooded coal mines are the legacy that has been left behind after the three centuries of continuous operations by the coal mining industry. The closure of all coal mines in the UK has led to the flooding of all those aband...

  9. Relationship of Rainfall Distribution and Water Level on Major Flood 2014 in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change gives impact on extreme hydrological events especially in extreme rainfall. This article discusses about the relationship of rainfall distribution and water level on major flood 2014 in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia in helping decision makers to flood management system. Based on DID Malaysia rainfall station, 56 stations have being use as point in this research and it is including Pahang, Terengganu, Kelantan and Perak. Data set for this study were analysed with GIS analysis using interpolation method to develop Isohyet map and XLstat statistical software for PCA and SPC analyses. The results that were obtained from the Isohyet Map for three months was mid-November, rainfall started to increase about in range of 800mm-1200mm and the intensity keep increased to 2200mm at mid-December 2014. The high rainfall intensity sense at highland that is upstream of Pahang River. The PCA and SPC analysis also indicates the high relationship between rainfall and water level of few places at Pahang River. The Sg. Yap station and Kg. Serambi station obtained the high relationship of rainfall and water level with factor loading value at 0.9330 and 0.9051 for each station. Hydrological pattern and trend are extremely affected by climate such as north east monsoon season that occurred in South China Sea and affected Pahang during November to March. The findings of this study are important to local authorities by providing basic data as guidelines to the integrated river management at Pahang River Basin.

  10. Contamination of water in Oliwski Stream after the flood in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej-Łukowicz Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article pollution of stream waters with surface runoff from an urbanized area caused by an extremely high rainfall is discussed. The analyzes were carried out after the rainfall of the depth 152 mm which took place in Gdańsk on 14th and 15th July 2016. This extreme rainfall caused urban flooding, damage of several retention ponds and pollution of surface waters. In the article the results of physical and chemical analyzes of the water samples from Oliwski Stream, inflowing to the Gulf of Gdańsk at the beach in Jelitkowo, are presented. The samples were collected at six points along the Stream in order to evaluate potential pollution sources. The results of the study indicated elevated concentrations of phosphorus compounds and nitrates (V. Additionally, the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS, solids granulometry and grain size distribution along the stream was investigated.

  11. Miniaturized Water Flow and Level Monitoring System for Flood Disaster Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifedapo Abdullahi, Salami; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed; Surya Gunawan, Teddy; Rafiqul Islam, MD

    2017-11-01

    This study presents the performance of a prototype miniaturised water flow and water level monitoring sensor designed towards supporting flood disaster early warning systems. The design involved selection of sensors, coding to control the system mechanism, and automatic data logging and storage. During the design phase, the apparatus was constructed where all the components were assembled using locally sourced items. Subsequently, under controlled laboratory environment, the system was tested by running water through the inlet during which the flow rate and rising water levels are automatically recorded and stored in a database via Microsoft Excel using Coolterm software. The system is simulated such that the water level readings measured in centimeters is output in meters using a multiplicative of 10. A total number of 80 readings were analyzed to evaluate the performance of the system. The result shows that the system is sensitive to water level rise and yielded accurate measurement of water level. But, the flow rate fluctuates due to the manual water supply that produced inconsistent flow. It was also observed that the flow sensor has a duty cycle of 50% of operating time under normal condition which implies that the performance of the flow sensor is optimal.

  12. The Use of Water Vapor for Detecting Environments that Lead to Convectively Produced Heavy Precipitation and Flash Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Rod; Vicente, Gilberto; Hodges, Mike

    2000-01-01

    This Tech Report summarizes years of study and experiences on using GOES Water vapor (6.7 micron and precipitable water) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/1) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) derived Precipitable Water (PNAI) for detecting environments favorable for convectively produced flash floods. An emphasis is on the moisture. upper air flow, and equivalent potential temperature (Theta(sub e)) patterns that lead to devastating flood events. The 15 minute 6.7 micron water vapor imagery is essential for tracking middle to upper tropospheric disturbances that produce upward vertical motion and initiate flash flood producing systems. Water vapor imagery at 6.7 micron is also used to detect surges of upper level moisture (called tropical water vapor plumes) that have been associated with extremely heavy rainfall. Since the water vapor readily depicts lifting mechanisms and upper level moisture, water vapor imagery is often an excellent source of data for recognizing patterns of heavy precipitation and flash floods. In order to analyze the depth of the moisture, the PW aspects of the troposphere must be measured. The collocation (or nearby location) of high values ofP\\V and instability are antecedent conditions prior to the flash flood or heavy rainfall events. Knowledge of PW magnitudes have been used as thresholds for impending flash flood events, PW trends are essential in flash flood prediction. Conceptual models and water vapor products are used to study some of the characteristics of convective systems that occurred over the United States of America (USA) during the summer of 1997 and the 1997-1998 El Nino. P\\V plumes were associated with most of the \\vest coast heavy precipitation events examined during the winter season of 1997 - 1998, In another study, conducted during the summer season of 1997. results showed that the collocation of water vapor (6.7 micron) and P\\N' plumes possessed higher correlations with predicted

  13. 2013 Flood Waters "Flush" Pharmaceuticals and other Contaminants of Emerging Concern into the Water and Sediment of the South Platte River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W. A.; Bradley, P. M.; Paschke, S.; Plumlee, G. S.; Kimbrough, R.

    2016-12-01

    In September 2013, heavy rainfall caused severe flooding in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) and environs extending downstream into the main stem of the South Platte River. In ROMO, flooding damaged infrastructure and local roads. In the tributary canyons, flooding damaged homes, septic systems, and roads. On the plains, flooding damaged several wastewater treatment plants. The occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in streams during flood conditions is poorly understood. We assessed the occurrence and fate of CECs in this flood by collecting water samples (post-peak flow) from 4 headwaters sites in ROMO, 7 sites on tributaries to the South Platte River, and 6 sites on the main stem of the South Platte; and by collecting flood sediment samples (post-flood depositional) from 14 sites on tributaries and 10 sites on the main stem. Water samples were analysed for 110 pharmaceuticals and 69 wastewater indicators. Sediment samples were analysed for 57 wastewater indicators. Concentrations and numbers of CECs detected in water increased markedly as floodwaters moved downstream and some were not diluted despite the large flow increases in downstream reaches of the affected rivers. For example, in the Cache la Poudre River in ROMO, no pharmaceuticals and 1 wastewater indicator compound (camphor) were detected. At Greeley, the Cache la Poudre was transporting 19 pharmaceuticals [total concentration of 0.69 parts-per-billion (ppb)] and 22 wastewater indicators (total concentration of 2.81 ppb). In the South Platte downstream from Greeley, 24 pharmaceuticals (total concentration of 1.47 ppb) and 24 wastewater indicators (total concentration of 2.35 ppb) were detected. Some CECs such as the combustion products pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene were detected only at sub-ppb concentrations in water, but were detected at concentrations in the hundreds of ppb in flood sediment samples.

  14. Parts-based geophysical inversion with application to water flooding interface detection and geological facies detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei

    I built parts-based and manifold based mathematical learning model for the geophysical inverse problem and I applied this approach to two problems. One is related to the detection of the oil-water encroachment front during the water flooding of an oil reservoir. In this application, I propose a new 4D inversion approach based on the Gauss-Newton approach to invert time-lapse cross-well resistance data. The goal of this study is to image the position of the oil-water encroachment front in a heterogeneous clayey sand reservoir. This approach is based on explicitly connecting the change of resistivity to the petrophysical properties controlling the position of the front (porosity and permeability) and to the saturation of the water phase through a petrophysical resistivity model accounting for bulk and surface conductivity contributions and saturation. The distributions of the permeability and porosity are also inverted using the time-lapse resistivity data in order to better reconstruct the position of the oil water encroachment front. In our synthetic test case, we get a better position of the front with the by-products of porosity and permeability inferences near the flow trajectory and close to the wells. The numerical simulations show that the position of the front is recovered well but the distribution of the recovered porosity and permeability is only fair. A comparison with a commercial code based on a classical Gauss-Newton approach with no information provided by the two-phase flow model fails to recover the position of the front. The new approach could be also used for the time-lapse monitoring of various processes in both geothermal fields and oil and gas reservoirs using a combination of geophysical methods. A paper has been published in Geophysical Journal International on this topic and I am the first author of this paper. The second application is related to the detection of geological facies boundaries and their deforation to satisfy to geophysica

  15. Decreasing flood risk perception in Porto Alegre – Brazil and its influence on water resource management decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Allasia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.

  16. On the reliable use of satellite-derived surface water products for global flood monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpa, F. A.; Revilla-Romero, B.; Thielen, J.; Salamon, P.; Brakenridge, R.; Pappenberger, F.; de Groeve, T.

    2015-12-01

    Early flood warning and real-time monitoring systems play a key role in flood risk reduction and disaster response management. To this end, real-time flood forecasting and satellite-based detection systems have been developed at global scale. However, due to the limited availability of up-to-date ground observations, the reliability of these systems for real-time applications have not been assessed in large parts of the globe. In this study, we performed comparative evaluations of the commonly used satellite-based global flood detections and operational flood forecasting system using 10 major flood cases reported over three years (2012-2014). Specially, we assessed the flood detection capabilities of the near real-time global flood maps from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS), and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the operational forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) for the major flood events recorded in global flood databases. We present the evaluation results of the global flood detection and forecasting systems in terms of correctly indicating the reported flood events and highlight the exiting limitations of each system. Finally, we propose possible ways forward to improve the reliability of large scale flood monitoring tools.

  17. Managing urban water crises: adaptive policy responses to drought and flood in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Head

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, I examine the quality of decision-making under conditions of rapidly evolving urban water crises, and the adaptive policy challenges of building regional resilience in response to both drought and flood. Like other regions of Australia, Southeast Queensland has been subject to substantial cycles of drought and flood. I draw on resilience literature concerning sustainability, together with governance literature on policy change, to explain the changing awareness of urban water crises and the strategic options available for addressing these crises in this case study. The problem of resilience thinking opens up a number of important questions about the efficacy and adaptability of the policy system. The case provides insights into the interplay between the ways in which problems are framed, the knowledge bases required for planning and decision-making, the collaborative governance processes required for managing complex and rapidly evolving issues, and the overall capacity for policy learning over time. Regional resilience was proclaimed as a policy goal by government, but the practices remained largely anchored in traditional technical frameworks. Centralized investment decisions and governance restructures provoked conflict between levels of government, undermining the capacity of stakeholders to create more consensual approaches to problem-solving and limiting the collective learning that could have emerged.

  18. The flooding incident at the Aagesta pressurized heavy water nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, C.

    1996-03-01

    This work is an independent investigation of the consequences of the flooding incident at the Aagesta HPWR, Stockholm in May 1969. The basis for the report is an incident in which, due to short circuits in the wiring because of flooding water, the ECCS is momentarily subjected to a pressure much higher than designed for. The hypothetical scenario analyzed here is the case in which the ECCS breaks due to the high pressure. As a consequence of the break, the pressure and the water level in the reactor vessel decrease. The report is divided into three parts; First the Aagesta HPWR is described as well as the chronology of the incident, an analysis of the effects of a hypothetical break in the ECCS is then developed. The second part is a scoping analysis of the incident, modeling the pressure decrease and mass flow rate out of the break. The heat-up of the core, and the core degradation was modeled as well. The third part is formed by a RELAP5/MOD3.1 modeling of the Aagesta HPWR. 18 refs

  19. Investigation of Flooding Water Depth Management on Yield and Quality Indices of Rice Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Salemi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water crisis as a majorlimitation factor for agriculture, like other arid and semiarid regions exists in Isfahan province which is located in the central part of the Zayandehrud River Basin (ZRB. Rice appears to be the far-most profitable crop but at the same time it has a major impact on basin scale water resources, especially affecting downstream farmers. In the study area (ShahidFozveh Research Station, the water resources for agricultural production face heightened competition from other sectors like industry and domestic use. This necessitates considering different crops, altered agricultural systems and innovative methods that can reduce the water requirements for the irrigation of rice. The Alternative Wetting and Drying (AWD seems to be an effective method reducing water use for rice crops and possibly save the water for downstream users. There have been no qualitative evaluations of rice production under deficit irrigation practices in Isfahan area. This study sought to determine, under study area conditions, the quantities of water irrigation used with AWD practices, the resulting water productivity (WP and the effects of alternative irrigation management on yield, quality indices and rice production performance. Materials and Methods: The ZRB (41,500 km2 is a closed basin with no outlet to the sea. The research was conducted in the Qahderijan region of Isfahan province, which is located in the central part of the ZRB. The ShahidFozveh Agricultural Research Station (32°, 36’ N, 51°, 36’ E is located at the altitude of 1612 m above the sea level. In order to improve WP and illustration of the impact of various levels of flooding depth on grain yield and quality indices at rice production, a field experiment (3000 m2 was conducted at ShahidFozveh Research Station for 2 years arranged in a split plot design with three replications. It will be necessary to use different scenario of water flooding depth management to

  20. Poster abstract: Water level estimation in urban ultrasonic/passive infrared flash flood sensor networks using supervised learning

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a machine learning approach to water level estimation in a dual ultrasonic/passive infrared urban flood sensor system. We first show that an ultrasonic rangefinder alone is unable to accurately measure the level of water on a road due to thermal effects. Using additional passive infrared sensors, we show that ground temperature and local sensor temperature measurements are sufficient to correct the rangefinder readings and improve the flood detection performance. Since floods occur very rarely, we use a supervised learning approach to estimate the correction to the ultrasonic rangefinder caused by temperature fluctuations. Preliminary data shows that water level can be estimated with an absolute error of less than 2 cm. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. A new approach of proration-injection allocation for water-flooding mature oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyong Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of injection-production allocation estimation for water-flooding mature oilfields. The suggested approach is based on logistic growth rate functions and several type-curve matching methods. Using the relationship between these equations, oil production and water injection rate as well as injection-production ratio can be easily forecasted. The calculation procedure developed and outlined in this paper requires very few production data and is easily implemented. Furthermore, an oilfield case has been analyzed. The synthetic and field cases validate the calculation procedure, so it can be accurately used in forecasting production data, and it is important to optimize the whole injection-production system.

  2. Analytical and experimental comparisons of modal properties of a flood water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thinnes, G.L.; Dooley, W.T.; Gorman, V.W.

    1986-01-01

    Comparisons of measured frequencies, mode shapes, and damping from experimental modal testing and analytical predictions have been performed on a vertically standing 90,000 liter flood water storage tank. The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of analytical calculations with experimentally obtained data. The need for this comparison arises because safety assessments of the integrity of such vessels are normally based upon analyses which have not usually been validated by experiments. The tank was excited using random input from an electromagnetic shaker. Data reduction was performed using frequency response functions. Analyses, including modal analysis calculations, were performed on the tank for three water level conditions using finite element methods. Results of the analyses are presented, comparisons to test data are shown, and conclusions and recommendations are made as a result of these studies. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Condensation of the steam in the horizontal steam line during cold water flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strubelj, L.; Tiselj, I.

    2006-01-01

    Direct contact condensation and condensation induced water-hammer in a horizontal pipe was experimentally investigated at PMK-2 test facility of the Hungarian Atomic Energy Research Institute KFKI. The experiment is preformed in the horizontal section of the steam line of the PMK-2 integral test facility. As liquid water floods the horizontal part of the pipeline, the counter current horizontally stratified flow is being observed. During the flooding of the steam line, the vapour-liquid interface area increases and therefore the vapour condensation rate and the vapour velocity also increase. Similar phenomena can occur in the cold/hot leg of the primary loop of PWR nuclear power plant during loss of coolant accident, when emergency core cooling system is activated. Water level at one cross-section and four local void fraction and temperature at the top of steam line was measured and compared with simulation. Condensed steam increases the water temperature that is why the local temperature measurements are the most important information, from which condensation rate can be estimated, since mass of condensed steam was not measured. Free surface simulation of the experiment with thermal phase change model is presented. Surface renewal concept with small eddies is used for calculation of heat transfer coefficient. With surface renewal theory we did not get results similar to experiment, that is why heat transfer coefficient was increased by factor 20. In simulation with heat transfer coefficient calculated with surface renewal concept bubble entrapment is due to reflection of the wave from the end of the pipe. When heat transfer coefficient is increased, condensation rate and steam velocity are also increased, bubble entrapment is due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the free surface, and the results become similar to the measurements. (author)

  4. The Flooding Water Source Analysis following the Feed Line Break at the Compartment outside Containment for Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Chan [ACT, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) has been performing for the operating nuclear power plant in Korea. One of the PSR evaluation items is environmental qualification. Flooding issue for nuclear power plants designed and built in 1970 is extremely severe for main steam header compartment and main feed water line region of intermediate building and lower floor. This study presents to analyze flood level of feed water line breaks for the Westinghouse nuclear power plant. This analyses provides the mass and energy releases using the developed methodology for a break outside containment. For the analyses RETRAN-3D computer program is used.

  5. Flooding and non-equilibrium in counter-current flows with reference to pressurised water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, M.M.M.

    1981-12-01

    During the refill stage of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) the effectiveness with which the emergency coolant penetrates to the lower plenum, and hence to the core, is of paramount importance. Results of experimental and theoretical work carried out at the University of Strathclyde on two 1/10 scale planar test sections of a PWR downcomer annulus are presented. The experiments involved the countercurrent flows of air and water and the data were compared with existing flooding correlations for tubes. It was found experimentally that, as the inlet air flowed upwards against two opposing waterfalls, an increase in air flowrate caused the waterfalls to mover closer together until a critical air flowrate was reached where the waterfalls collapsed. A theoretical model defined this collapse condition. It was shown to be analogous to the choked flow of air through a nozzle whose cross sectional area varied with pressure. Previous experimental results for steam-water mixtures on similar test sections and the present air-water data were used to study condensation effects. Non-equilibrium effects were isolated and correlated against the dependent parameters of inlet water flowrate, inlet subcooling and downcomer wall temperature. A theoretical model giving good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiment was developed. (author)

  6. The symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis drives root water transport in flooded tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Molina, Sonia; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    It is known that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the plant roots enhances the tolerance of the host plant to different environmental stresses, although the positive effect of the fungi in plants under waterlogged conditions has not been well studied. Tolerance of plants to flooding can be achieved through different molecular, physiological and anatomical adaptations, which will affect their water uptake capacity and therefore their root hydraulic properties. Here, we investigated the root hydraulic properties under non-flooded and flooded conditions in non-mycorrhizal tomato plants and plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Only flooded mycorrhizal plants increased their root hydraulic conductivity, and this effect was correlated with a higher expression of the plant aquaporin SlPIP1;7 and the fungal aquaporin GintAQP1. There was also a higher abundance of the PIP2 protein phoshorylated at Ser280 in mycorrhizal flooded plants. The role of plant hormones (ethylene, ABA and IAA) in root hydraulic properties was also taken into consideration, and it was concluded that, in mycorrhizal flooded plants, ethylene has a secondary role regulating root hydraulic conductivity whereas IAA may be the key hormone that allows the enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity in mycorrhizal plants under low oxygen conditions.

  7. Experimental investigation of flooding in air-water counter-current flow with a vertical adiabatic multi-rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Hho Jung; Cha, Jong Hee; Cho, Sung Jae; Chun, Moon Hyun

    1991-01-01

    The process of flooding phenomenon in a vertical adiabatic 3 x 3 tube bundle flow channel has been studied experimentally. A series of tests was performed, using three types of tube bundle differing only in the number of spacer grids attached, to investigate the effects of spacer grids and multi-flow channel interactions on the air-water counter-current flow limitations. Experimentally determined flooding points at various water film Reynolds numbers for three different test sections are presented in graphical form and compared with entrainment criterion for co-current flow and instability criteria. In addition, empirical flooding correlations of the Kutateladze type are obtained for each type of test section using liquid penetration data

  8. Preliminary assessment of water chemistry related to groundwater flooding in Wawarsing, New York, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig J.; Eckhardt, David A.; Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Water-quality samples collected in an area prone to groundwater flooding in Wawarsing, New York, were analyzed and assessed to better understand the hydrologic system and to aid in the assessment of contributing water sources. Above average rainfall over the past decade, and the presence of a pressurized water tunnel that passes about 700 feet beneath Wawarsing, could both contribute to groundwater flooding. Water samples were collected from surface-water bodies, springs, and wells and analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents, dissolved gases, age tracers, and stable isotopes. Distinct differences in chemistry exist between tunnel water and groundwater in unconsolidated deposits and in bedrock, and among groundwater samples collected from some bedrock wells during high head pressure and low head pressure of the Rondout-West Branch Tunnel. Samples from bedrock wells generally had relatively higher concentrations of sulfate (SO42-), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and lower concentrations of calcium (Ca) and bicarbonate (HCO3-), as compared to unconsolidated wells. Differences in stable-isotope ratios among oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 (δ18O), hydrogen-2 to hydrogen-1 (δ2H), sulfur-34 to sulfur-32(δ34S) of SO42-, Sr-87 to Sr-86 (87Sr/86Sr), and C-13 to C-12 (δ13C) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) indicate a potential for distinguishing water in the Delaware-West Branch Tunnel from native groundwater. For example, 87Sr/86Sr ratios were more depleted in groundwater samples from most bedrock wells, as compared to samples from surface-water sources, springs, and wells screened in unconsolidated deposits in the study area. Age-tracer data provided useful information on pathways of the groundwater-flow system, but were limited by inherent problems with dissolved gases in bedrock wells. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and (or) chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) apparent recharge years of most water samples from wells screened in unconsolidated deposits and springs ranged

  9. The role of water and sediment connectivity in integrated flood management: a case study on the island of Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Victor; van Westen, Cees; Ettema, Janneke; van den Bout, Bastian

    2016-04-01

    Disaster Risk Management combines the effects of natural hazards in time and space, with elements at risk, such as ourselves, infrastructure or other elements that have a value in our society. The risk in this case is defined as the sum of potential consequences of one or more hazards and can be expressed as potential damages. Generally, we attempt to reduce risk by better risk management, such as increase of resilience, protection and spatial planning. Caribbean islands are hit by hurricanes and tropical storms with a frequency of 1 to 2 every 10 years, with devastating consequences in terms of flash floods and landslides. The islands basically consist of a central (volcanic) mountain range, with medium and small sized catchments radiating outward towards the ocean. The coastal zone is inhabited, while the ring road network is essential for functioning of the island. An example of a case study is given for the island of Saint Lucia. Recorded rainfall intensities during tropical storms of 12 rainfall stations surpass 200 mm/h, causing immediate flash floods. Very often however, sediment is a forgotten variable in flash flood management: protection and mitigation measures as well as spatial planning all focus on the hydrology, the extent and depth of flood water, and sometimes of flood velocities. With recent developments, the opensource model LISEM includes hydrology and runoff, flooding, and erosion, transport and deposition both in runoff, channel flow and flood waters. We will discuss the practical solutions we implemented in connecting slopes, river channels and floodplains in terms of water and sediment, and the strength and weaknesses we have encountered so far. Catchment analysis shows two main effects: on the one hand in almost all cases upstream flooding serves as a temporary water storage that prevents further damage downstream, while on the other hand, erosion upstream often blocks bridges and decreases channel storage downstream, which increases the

  10. Flood simulation and verification with IoT sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Hao; Hsu, Chih-Tsung; Wu, Shiang-Jen; Huang, Sue-Wei

    2017-04-01

    2D flood dynamic simulation is a vivid tool to demonstrate the possible expose area that sustain impact of high rise of water level. Along with progress in high resolution digital terrain model, the simulation results are quite convinced yet not proved to be close to what is really happened. Due to the dynamic and uncertain essence, the expose area usually could not be well defined during a flood event. Recent development in IoT sensors bring a low power and long distance communication which help us to collect real time flood depths. With these time series of flood depths at different locations, we are capable of verifying the simulation results corresponding to the flood event. 16 flood gauges with IoT specification as well as two flood events in Annan district, Tainan city, Taiwan are examined in this study. During the event in 11, June, 2016, 12 flood gauges works well and 8 of them provide observation match to simulation.

  11. Virtual reality in urban water management: communicating urban flooding with particle-based CFD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Daniel; Zischg, Jonatan; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    For communicating urban flood risk to authorities and the public, a realistic three-dimensional visual display is frequently more suitable than detailed flood maps. Virtual reality could also serve to plan short-term flooding interventions. We introduce here an alternative approach for simulating three-dimensional flooding dynamics in large- and small-scale urban scenes by reaching out to computer graphics. This approach, denoted 'particle in cell', is a particle-based CFD method that is used to predict physically plausible results instead of accurate flow dynamics. We exemplify the approach for the real flooding event in July 2016 in Innsbruck.

  12. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  13. Scour hole ('wielen') sediments as historical archive of floods, vegetation, and air and water quality in lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, Holger; van Hoof, Thomas; Bunnik, Frans; Donders, Timme

    2010-01-01

    The sediment record from a maximum 18 m deep scour hole lake (Haarsteegse Wiel) near the embanked Meuse River in the Netherlands was studied for past changes in flooding frequency, water quality, and landscape change using a combined geochemical, geobiological and historical approach. The results

  14. Spatial and temporal dynamics of water in the root environment of potted plants on a flooded bench fertigation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; Raats, P.A.C.; Baas, R.; Challa, H.; Kabat, P.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between evapotranspiration of potted Ficus benjamina plants on a flooded bench fertigation system and the distribution of water in the root zone was studied in detail for a range of fertigation schedules. The physical characteristics of the peat-based potting medium were described

  15. Impacts of Extreme Flooding on Hydrologic Connectivity and Water Quality in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Implications for Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Moser, H. A.; Christenson, E. C.; Gray, J.; Hedgespeth, M. L.; Jass, T. L.; Lowry, D. S.; Martin, K.; Nichols, E. G.; Stewart, J. R.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought extreme flooding to eastern North Carolina, including record regional flooding along the Lumber River and its tributaries in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Situated in a region dominated by large-scale crop-cultivation and containing some of the highest densities of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and animal processing operations in the U.S., the Lumber River watershed is also home to the Lumbee Tribe of American Indians. Most of the tribe's 60,000+ members live within or immediately adjacent to the 3,000 km2 watershed where they maintain deep cultural and historical connections. The region, however, also suffers from high rates of poverty and large disparities in healthcare, education, and infrastructure, conditions exacerbated by Hurricane Matthew. We summarize ongoing efforts to characterize the short- and long-term impacts of extreme flooding on water quality in (1) low gradient streams and riverine wetlands of the watershed; (2) surficial aquifers, which provide water resources for the local communities, and (3) public drinking water supplies, which derive from deeper, confined aquifers but whose infrastructure suffered widespread damage following Hurricane Matthew. Our results provide mechanistic understanding of flood-related connectivity across multiple hydrologic compartments, and provide important implications for how hydrological natural hazards combine with land use to drive water quality impacts and affect vulnerable populations.

  16. Laboratory experiment demonstrating the way in which a steam barrier prevents the dissolution of salt buried in a flooded packed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.

    1977-01-01

    We have conducted a laboratory experiment to demonstrate a way in which a solid material can be prevented from dissolving in water. The differential solubility of salt (NaCl) in steam vs water is exploited. As long as the temperature of the area and water surrounding the salt is maintained above the boiling point of water, the salt cannot dissolve. This phenomenon, known as the thermal barrier, has far-reaching implications for preventing the dispersal of contaminants present near groundwater sources

  17. Economic impacts of urban flooding in South Florida: Potential consequences of managing groundwater to prevent salt water intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Engel, Vic; Martinez, Chris; Mirchi, Ali; Watkins, David; Sukop, Michael C; Hughes, Joseph D

    2018-04-15

    High-value urban zones in coastal South Florida are considered particularly vulnerable to salt water intrusion into the groundwater-based, public water supplies caused by sea level rise (SLR) in combination with the low topography, existing high water table, and permeable karst substrate. Managers in the region closely regulate water depths in the extensive South Florida canal network to control closely coupled groundwater levels and thereby reduce the risk of saltwater intrusion into the karst aquifer. Potential SLR adaptation strategies developed by local managers suggest canal and groundwater levels may have to be increased over time to prevent the increased salt water intrusion risk to groundwater resources. However, higher canal and groundwater levels cause the loss of unsaturated zone storage and lead to an increased risk of inland flooding when the recharge from rainfall exceeds the capacity of the unsaturated zone to absorb it and the water table reaches the surface. Consequently, higher canal and groundwater levels are also associated with increased risk of economic losses, especially during the annual wet seasons. To help water managers and urban planners in this region better understand this trade-off, this study models the relationships between flood insurance claims and groundwater levels in Miami-Dade County. Via regression analyses, we relate the incurred number of monthly flood claims in 16 Miami-Dade County watersheds to monthly groundwater levels over the period from 1996 to 2010. We utilize these estimated statistical relationships to further illustrate various monthly flood loss scenarios that could plausibly result, thereby providing an economic quantification of a "too much water" trade-off. Importantly, this understanding is the first of its kind in South Florida and is exceedingly useful for regional-scale hydro-economic optimization models analyzing trade-offs associated with high water levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... documentation related to flood control storage, provided the loss of flood control storage caused by the project... control storage. If this determination can be made, the applicant must then demonstrate how the loss of...

  19. Hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially-flooded, abandoned underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljoe, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially flooded, abandoned underground coal mine near Latrobe, PA, were studied to support the development of techniques for in situ abatement of its acidic discharge. A quantitative understanding of the conditions affecting discharge flow was considered to be very important in this regard. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data collected at the site shows that the flow rate of the main discharge (a borehole that penetrates the mine workings just behind a set of portal seals) is a linear function of the height of the mine pool above the borehole outlet. Seepage through or around the portal seals is collected by a set of french drains whose discharge rate is largely independent of the mine pool elevation. This seepage was enhanced after a breakthrough that occurred during a period of unusually high pool levels. The mine pool recharge rate during winter is about 2.5 times greater than that of any other season; recharge rates during spring, summer, and fall are approximately equal. Mine pool and discharge water quality information, along with bromide tracer tests, suggest that the original main entries discharge primarily to the french drains, while the borehole carries the discharge from an unmonitored set of entries northwest of the mains. The water quality of the east french drain discharge may have been improved substantially after seepage through the alkaline materials used to construct the portal seals

  20. Early hydrogen water chemistry in the boiling water reactor: industry-first demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Odell, Andrew D.; Giannelli, Joseph F.

    2012-09-01

    Hydrogen injection into the BWR feedwater during power operation has resulted in significant IGSCC reductions. Further, noble metal application (NMCA) during shutdown or On-line NobleChem TM (OLNC) during power operation has greatly reduced the required hydrogen injection rate by catalyzing the hydrogen-oxygen reaction on the metal surfaces, reducing the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) at operating temperature to well below the mitigation ECP of -230 mV (SHE) at reactor water hydrogen to oxidant (O 2 + H 2 O 2 ) molar ratios of ≥2. Since IGSCC rates increase markedly at reduced temperature, and the potential for crack initiation exists, additional crack mitigation was desired. To close this gap in mitigation, the EPRI BWR Startup ECP Reduction research and development program commenced in 2008 to undertake laboratory and feasibility studies for adding a reductant to the reactor water system during start-ups. Under this program, ECP reductions of noble metal treated stainless steel sufficient to mitigate IGSCC at startup temperatures were achieved in the laboratory in the absence of radiation at hydrogen, hydrazine and carbohydrazide to oxygen molar ratios of ≥ 2, ≥1.5 and ≥0.7, respectively. Based on the familiarity of operating BWRs with using hydrogen, a demonstration of hydrogen injection during the startup of an actual BWR using noble metals was planned. This process, named EHWC (Early Hydrogen Water Chemistry), differs from the HDS (Hydrogen During Startup) approach that has been successful in Japan in that HDS injects sufficient hydrogen for bulk oxidant reduction whereas EHWC injects a smaller amount of hydrogen, sufficient to achieve a hydrogen:oxidant molar ratio of at least two at noble metal treated surfaces. The industry-first EHWC demonstration was performed at Exelon's Peach Bottom 3 nuclear power plant in October 2011. Prior to EHWC, Peach Bottom 3 had one NMCA (October 1999) and five annual OLNC applications (starting in 2007

  1. Quantifying changes in flooding and habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) caused by water infrastructure development and climate change in the Mekong Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio E; Cochrane, Thomas A; Piman, Thanapon; Kummu, Matti; Caruso, Brian S; Killeen, Timothy J

    2012-12-15

    The economic value of the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain to Cambodia is arguably among the highest provided to a nation by a single ecosystem around the world. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the foreseeable future. This paper presents research conducted to determine how the historical flooding regime, together with human action, influenced landscape patterns of habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake, and how these habitats might shift as a result of hydrological changes. Maps of water depth, annual flood duration, and flood frequency were created for recent historical hydrological conditions and for simulated future scenarios of water infrastructure development and climate change. Relationships were then established between the historical flood maps and land cover, and these were subsequently applied to assess potential changes to habitat cover in future decades. Five habitat groups were clearly distinguishable based on flood regime, physiognomic patterns, and human activity: (1) Open water, flooded for 12 months in an average hydrological year; (2) Gallery forest, with flood duration of 9 months annually; (3) Seasonally flooded habitats, flooded 5-8 months and dominated by shrublands and grasslands; (4) transitional habitats, flooded 1-5 months and dominated by abandoned agricultural fields, receding rice/floating rice, and lowland grasslands; and (5) Rainfed habitats, flooded up to 1 month and consisting mainly of wet season rice fields and village crops. It was found that water infrastructure development could increase the area of open water (+18 to +21%) and the area of rainfed habitats (+10 to +14%), while reducing the area covered with seasonally flooded habitats (-13 to -22%) and gallery forest (-75 to -83%). Habitat cover shifts as a

  2. Tool to address green roof widespread implementation effect in flood characteristics for water management planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, new approaches were adopted to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible through technologies and devices that preserve and recreate natural landscape features. Green Roofs (GR are examples of these devices that are also incentivized by city's stormwater management plans. Several studies show that GR decreases on-site runoff from impervious surfaces, however, the analysis of the effect of widespread implementation of GR in the flood characteristics at the urban basin scale in subtropical areas are little discussed, mainly because of the absence of data. Thereby, this paper shows results related to the monitoring of an extensive modular GR under subtropical weather conditions, the development of a rainfall–runoff model based on the modified Curve Number (CN and SCS Triangular Unit Hydrograph (TUH methods and the analysis of large-scale impact of GR by modelling different basins. The model was calibrated against observed data and showed that GR absorbed almost all the smaller storms and reduced runoff even during the most intense rainfall. The overall CN was estimated in 83 (consistent with available literature with the shape of hydrographs well reproduced. Large-scale modelling (in basins ranging from 0.03 ha to several square kilometers showed that the widespread use of GRs reduced peak flows (volumes around 57% (48% at source and 38% (32% at the basin scale. Thus, this research validated a tool for the assessment of structural management measures (specifically GR to address changes in flood characteristics in the city's water management planning. From the application of this model it was concluded that even if the efficiency of GR decreases as the basin scale increase they still provide a good option to cope with urbanization impact.

  3. Cross-well 4-D resistivity tomography localizes the oil-water encroachment front during water flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Revil, A.

    2015-04-01

    The early detection of the oil-water encroachment front is of prime interest during the water flooding of an oil reservoir to maximize the production of oil and to avoid the oil-water encroachment front to come too close to production wells. We propose a new 4-D inversion approach based on the Gauss-Newton approach to invert cross-well resistance data. The goal of this study is to image the position of the oil-water encroachment front in a heterogeneous clayey sand reservoir. This approach is based on explicitly connecting the change of resistivity to the petrophysical properties controlling the position of the front (porosity and permeability) and to the saturation of the water phase through a petrophysical resistivity model accounting for bulk and surface conductivity contributions and saturation. The distributions of the permeability and porosity are also inverted using the time-lapse resistivity data in order to better reconstruct the position of the oil water encroachment front. In our synthetic test case, we get a better position of the front with the by-products of porosity and permeability inferences near the flow trajectory and close to the wells. The numerical simulations show that the position of the front is recovered well but the distribution of the recovered porosity and permeability is only fair. A comparison with a commercial code based on a classical Gauss-Newton approach with no information provided by the two-phase flow model fails to recover the position of the front. The new approach could be used for the time-lapse monitoring of various processes in both geothermal fields and oil and gas reservoirs using a combination of geophysical methods.

  4. Impact of fresh and saline water flooding on leaf gas exchange in two Italian provenances of Tamarix africana Poiret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Jaoudé, R; de Dato, G; Palmegiani, M; De Angelis, P

    2013-01-01

    In Mediterranean coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns and seawater levels are leading to increased frequency of flooding and to salinization of estuaries and freshwater systems. Tamarix spp. are often the only woody species growing in such environments. These species are known for their tolerance to moderate salinity; however, contrasting information exists regarding their tolerance to flooding, and the combination of the two stresses has never been studied in Tamarix spp. Here, we analyse the photosynthetic responses of T. africana Poiret to temporary flooding (45 days) with fresh or saline water (200 mm) in two Italian provenances (Simeto and Baratz). The measurements were conducted before and after the onset of flooding, to test the possible cumulative effects of the treatments and effects on twig aging, and to analyse the responses of twigs formed during the experimental period. Full tolerance was evident in T. africana with respect to flooding with fresh water, which did not affect photosynthetic performances in either provenance. Saline flooding was differently tolerated by the two provenances. Moreover, salinity tolerance differently affected the two twig generations. In particular, a reduction in net assimilation rate (-48.8%) was only observed in Baratz twigs formed during the experimental period, compared to pre-existing twigs. This reduction was a consequence of non-stomatal limitations (maximum carboxylation rate and electron transport), probably as a result of higher Na transport to the twigs, coupled with reduced Na storage in the roots. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Irrigation with oxygen-nanobubble water can reduce methane emission and arsenic dissolution in a flooded rice paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masayoshi; Makino, Tomoyuki; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2015-08-01

    A remarkable feature of nanobubbles (pot experiment and measuring redox-related variables. The NBs were introduced into control water (with properties similar to those of river water) using a commercially available generator. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth did not differ between plants irrigated with NB water and those irrigated with control water, but NB water significantly (p rice-growing season by 21%. The amounts of iron, manganese, and arsenic that leached into the drainage water before full rice heading were also reduced by the NB water. Regardless of the water type, weekly-measured CH4 flux was linearly correlated with the leached iron concentration during the rice-growing season (r = 0.74, p pots without rice plants, soil reduction was not enhanced, regardless of the water type. The results indicate that NB water reduced CH4 emission and arsenic dissolution through an oxidative shift of the redox conditions in the flooded soil. We propose the use of NB water as a tool for controlling redox conditions in flooded paddy soils.

  6. International approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff in mitigating flood and environmental risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballard Bridget Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts a number of international approaches to the hydraulic control of surface water runoff from new development and redevelopment, known as sustainable drainage systems (SuDS or low impact development (LID. The paper provides a commentary on the progress and current status of national standards for SuDS in the UK to control the frequency, flow rate and volume of runoff from both frequent and extreme rainfall events, and the best practice design criteria presented in the revised UK CIRIA SuDS Manual, published in November 2015. The paper then compares these design criteria and standards with those developed and applied in China, USA, France and Germany and also looks at the drivers behind their development. The benefits of these different approaches are assessed in the context of flood risk mitigation, climate resilience and wider environmental protection objectives, including water quality, morphology and ecology. The paper also reviews the design approaches promoted by the new SuDS Manual and internationally for delivering additional benefits for urban spaces (such as recreation, visual character, education and economic growth through multi-functional urban design.

  7. Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve

  8. Changes of physicochemical and microbiologicalparameters of infiltration water at Debina intake in Poznan, unique conditions - a flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaska, Sylwia; Jeż-Walkowiak, Joanna; Dymaczewski, Zbysław

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents characteristics of Debina infiltration intake which provides water for Poznan and neighbouring communes. The evaluation of effectiveness of infiltration process has been done based on the quality parameters of river water and infiltration water. The analysed water quality parameters are as follows: temperature, iron, manganese, DOCKMnO4, TOC, turbidity, colour, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, conductivity, total hardness, carbonate hardness, pH, heavy metals, detergents and microorganisms. The paper also includes an assessment of the impact of flood conditions on the quality of infiltration water and operation of infiltration intake. In this part of the paper the following parameters were taken into account: iron, manganese, DOCKMnO4, TOC, turbidity, colour, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, conductivity, total hardness, the total number of microorganisms in 36°C (mesophilic), the total number of microorganisms in 22°C (psychrophilic), coli bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Enterococci. Analysis of the effects of flood on infiltration process leads to the following conclusions: the deterioration of infiltration water quality was due to the deterioration of river water quality, substantial shortening of groundwater passage and partial disappearance of the aeration zone. The observed deterioration of infiltration water quality did not affect the treated water quality, produced at water treatment plant.

  9. Forests and water: effects of forest management on floods, sedimentation, and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry W. Anderson; Marvin D. Hoover; Kenneth G. Reinhart

    1976-01-01

    From the background of more than 100 years' collective experience in watershed research and from comprehensive review of the literature of forest hydrology, the authors summarize what is known about the forest's influence on the water resource, particularly the effects of current forestry practices. They first examine the fundamental hydrologic processes in...

  10. When high waters recede and the floodplain reemerges: Evaluating the lingering effects of extreme flooding on stream nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, J.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    In 2016 Hurricane Matthew brought immense flooding and devastation to the Lumbee (aka Lumber) River basin. Some impacts are obvious, such as deserted homes and businesses, but other impacts, including long-term environmental, are uncertain. Extreme flooding throughout the basin established temporary hydrologic connectivity between aquatic environments and upland sources of nutrients and other pollutants. Though 27% of the basin is covered by wetlands, hurricane-induced flooding was so intense that wetlands may have had no opportunity to mitigate delivery of nutrients into surface waters. As a result, how Hurricane Matthew impacted nitrate retention and uptake in the Lumbee River remains uncertain. The unknown magnitude of nitrate transported into the Lumbee River from surrounding sources may have lingering impacts on nitrogen cycling in this stream. With these potential impacts in mind, we conducted a Lagrangian water quality sampling campaign to assess the ability of the Lumbee River to retain and process nitrogen following Hurricane Matthew. We collected samples before and after flooding and compare first order nitrogen uptake kinetics of both periods. The analysis and comparisons allow us to evaluate the long-term impacts of Hurricane Matthew on nitrogen cycling after floodwaters recede.

  11. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR by Miscible CO2 and Water Flooding of Asphaltenic and Non-Asphaltenic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. Chukwudeme

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO2 flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane, model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO2 flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO2, after which (> 3 years oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO2 flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 °C/90 bar and 70 °C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1% compared to 80 °C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO2 flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure.

  12. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by miscible CO{sub 2} and water flooding of asphaltenic and non-asphaltenic oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukwudeme, E. A.; Hamouda, A. A. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO{sub 2} flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane), model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene) and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene) obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA) is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO{sub 2} flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years) it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO{sub 2}, after which (> 3 years) oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO{sub 2} flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 {sup o}C/90 bar and 70 {sup o}C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1%) compared to 80 {sup o}C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO{sub 2} flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure. (author)

  13. Evaluating Capability of Devils Lake Emergency Outlets in Lowering Lake Water Levels While Controlling flooding Damage to Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Devils Lake is an endorheic lake locate in the Red River of the North Basin with a natural outlet at a level of 444.7 meters above the sea level flowing into the Sheyenne River. Historical accumulation of salts has dramatically increased the concentration of salts in the lake, particularly of the sulfates, that are much greater than the surrounding water bodies. Since 1993, the lake water level has risen by nearly 10 meters and caused extensive flooding in the surrounding area, and greatly increased the chance of natural spillage to the Sheyenne River. To mitigate Devils Lake flooding and to prevent its natural spillage, two outlets were constructed at the west and east sides of the lake to drain the water to the Sheyenne River in a controlled fashion. However, pumping water from Devils Lake has degraded water quality of the Sheyenne River. In an earlier study, we coupled Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) and CE-QUAL-W2 models to investigate the changes of sulfate distribution as the lake water level rises. We found that, while operating the two outlets has lowered Devils Lake water level by 0.7 meter, it has also significantly impaired the Sheyenne River water quality, increasing the Sheyenne River average sulfate concentration from 105 to 585 mg l-1 from 2012 to 2014 In this study, we investigate the impact of the outlets on the Sheyenne River floodplain by coupling SWAT and HEC-RAS model. The SWAT model performed well in simulating daily streamflow in the Sheyenne River with R2>0.56 and ENS > 0.52. The simulated water depths and floodplain by HEC-RAS model for the Sheyenne River agreed well with observations. Operating the outlets from April to October can draw down the Devil Lake water level by 0.45 m, but the drained water would almost double the extension of the Sheyenne River floodplain and elevate the sulfate concentration in the Sheyenne River above the 450 mg l-1 North Dakota sulfate concentration standard for stream class I. Operating the outlets is

  14. Diversity of Metabolically Active Bacteria in Water-Flooded High-Temperature Heavy Oil Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara N. Nazina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study the overall genomic diversity of microorganisms of the Dagang high-temperature oilfield (PRC and to characterize the metabolically active fraction of these populations. At this water-flooded oilfield, the microbial community of formation water from the near-bottom zone of an injection well where the most active microbial processes of oil degradation occur was investigated using molecular, cultural, radiotracer, and physicochemical techniques. The samples of microbial DNA and RNA from back-flushed water were used to obtain the clone libraries for the 16S rRNA gene and cDNA of 16S rRNA, respectively. The DNA-derived clone libraries were found to contain bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the alkB genes encoding alkane monooxygenases similar to those encoded by alkB-geo1 and alkB-geo6 of geobacilli. The 16S rRNA genes of methanogens (Methanomethylovorans, Methanoculleus, Methanolinea, Methanothrix, and Methanocalculus were predominant in the DNA-derived library of Archaea cloned sequences; among the bacterial sequences, the 16S rRNA genes of members of the genus Geobacillus were the most numerous. The RNA-derived library contained only bacterial cDNA of the 16S rRNA sequences belonging to metabolically active aerobic organotrophic bacteria (Tepidimonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, as well as of denitrifying (Azoarcus, Tepidiphilus, Calditerrivibrio, fermenting (Bellilinea, iron-reducing (Geobacter, and sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria (Desulfomicrobium, Desulfuromonas. The presence of the microorganisms of the main functional groups revealed by molecular techniques was confirmed by the results of cultural, radioisotope, and geochemical research. Functioning of the mesophilic and thermophilic branches was shown for the microbial food chain of the near-bottom zone of the injection well, which included the microorganisms of the carbon, sulfur, iron, and nitrogen cycles.

  15. A method for emergency flooding of the gland in the main circulating pump of pressurized water reactors and the connection therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for the emergency flooding of the main circulating pumps of a pressurized water reactor such that in pressure drop in the flooded gland owing to pump suction, the pump head is connected by the pressure difference action to the flooding gland pipe, this via the heat sink and the filter of the emergency flooding circuit connected to the pump head. The emergency flooding circuit consisting of a pressure reducing valve, a check valve and a stop valve is connected to the pump head, behind the heat sink and the filter. The pressure reducing valve separates two pressure spaces. The former is connected to the pump head via the check valve and to the flooding pipe via the stop valve and the check valve. The latter is connected to the suction pump. (B.S.)

  16. The Effect of Temperature and Injection Rate during Water Flooding Using Carbonate Core Samples: An Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ahmadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many reservoirs, after water flooding, a large volume of oil is still left behind. Hot water injection is the most basic type of thermal recovery which increase recovery by improved sweep efficiency and thermal expansion of crude.In the present work, the effects of injection rate and the temperature of the injected water were surveyed by using core flooding apparatus. Water flooding was performed at different rates (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min and temperatures (20 and 90 °C, and the reservoir temperature was about 63 °C. Oil recovery during hot water injection was more than water injection. Moreover, it was concluded that at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min breakthrough time in hot water injection occurred 10 min later in comparison to water injection. The results showed that higher oil recovery and longer breakthrough time were obtained as a result of reducing injection rate. In the first 50 minutes, the oil recovery at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 cc/min was 27.5, 34, and 46% respectively. It was found that at the beginning of injection, thermal and non-thermal injection recovery factors are approximately equal. Moreover, according to the results, recovery factor at the lowest rate in hot water (T=90 °C and q=0.2 cc/min is the best condition to obtain the highest recovery.

  17. Flood inundation maps and water-surface profiles for tropical storm Irene and selected annual exceedance probability floods for Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River in Roxbury, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Lombard, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    for the 10-, 2-, 1, or 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities. The simulated water-surface elevations for August 2011 flood equal the elevations of State Route 12A about 500 ft downstream of Thurston Hill Road adjacent to the troughs between the rearing ponds. Four flood mitigation alternatives being considered by the Vermont Agency of Transportation to improve the hydraulic performance of Flint Brook and reduce the risk of flooding at the hatchery include: (A) no changes to the infrastructure or existing alignment of Flint Brook (existing conditions [2014]), (B) structural changes to the bridges and the existing retaining wall along Flint Brook, (C) realignment of Flint Brook to flow along the south side of Oxbow Road to accommodate larger stream discharges, and (D) a diversion channel for flows greater than 1-percent annual exceedance probability. Although the 10-, 2-, and 1-percent AEP floods do not flood the hatchery under alternative A (no changes to the infrastructure), the 0.2-percent AEP flow still poses a flooding threat to the hatchery because flow will continue to overtop the existing retaining wall and flood the hatchery. Under the other mitigation alternatives (B, C, and D) that include some variation of structural changes to bridges, a retaining wall, and (or) channel, the peak discharges for the 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities do not flood the hatchery. Water-surface profiles and flood inundation maps of the August 2011 flood and the 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent AEPs for four mitigation alternatives were developed for Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River in the vicinity of the hatchery and can be used by the Federal, State, and local agencies to better understand the potential for future flooding at the hatchery.

  18. On the predictability of high water level along the US East Coast: can the Florida Current measurement be an indicator for flooding caused by remote forcing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Atkinson, Larry P.

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies show that in addition to wind and air pressure effects, a significant portion of the variability of coastal sea level (CSL) along the US East Coast can be attributed to non-local factors such as variations in the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic circulation; these variations can cause unpredictable coastal flooding. The Florida Current transport (FCT) measurement across the Florida Straits monitors those variations, and thus, the study evaluated the potential of using the FCT as an indicator for anomalously high water level along the coast. Hourly water level data from 12 tide gauge stations over 12 years are used to construct records of maximum daily water levels (MDWL) that are compared with the daily FCT data. An empirical mode decomposition (EMD) approach is used to divide the data into high-frequency modes (periods T anti-correlated with MDWL in high-frequency modes but positively correlated with MDWL in low-frequency modes. FCC on the other hand is always anti-correlated with MDWL for all frequency bands, and the high water signal lags behind FCC for almost all stations, thus providing a potential predictive skill (i.e., whenever a weakening trend is detected in the FCT, anomalously high water is expected along the coast over the next few days). The MDWL-FCT correlation in the high-frequency modes is maximum in the lower Mid-Atlantic Bight, suggesting influence from the meandering Gulf Stream after it separates from the coast. However, the correlation in low-frequency modes is maximum in the South Atlantic Bight, suggesting impact from variations in the wind pattern over subtropical regions. The middle-frequency and low-frequency modes of the FCT seem to provide the best predictor for medium to large flooding events; it is estimated that ˜10-25% of the sea level variability in those modes can be attributed to variations in the FCT. An example from Hurricane Joaquin (September-October, 2015) demonstrates how an offshore storm that never made

  19. The blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs for hydroelectricity, irrigation, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeboom, Rick J.; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-03-01

    For centuries, humans have resorted to building dams to gain control over freshwater available for human consumption. Although dams and their reservoirs have made many important contributions to human development, they receive negative attention as well, because of the large amounts of water they can consume through evaporation. We estimate the blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs and attribute it to the purposes hydroelectricity generation, irrigation water supply, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation, based on their economic value. We estimate that economic benefits from 2235 reservoirs included in this study amount to 265 × 109 US a year, with residential and industrial water supply and hydroelectricity generation as major contributors. The water footprint associated with these benefits is the sum of the water footprint of dam construction (<1% contribution) and evaporation from the reservoir's surface area, and globally adds up to 66 × 109 m3 y-1. The largest share of this water footprint (57%) is located in non-water scarce basins and only 1% in year-round scarce basins. The primary purposes of a reservoir change with increasing water scarcity, from mainly hydroelectricity generation in non-scarce basins, to residential and industrial water supply, irrigation water supply and flood control in scarcer areas.

  20. Molecular analysis of the microbial community structures in water-flooding petroleum reservoirs with different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-Y.; Duan, R.-Y.; Liu, J.-F.; Yang, S.-Z.; Gu, J.-D.; Mu, B.-Z.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors regulating the activity and determining the composition of the microbial community. Analysis of microbial communities from six water-flooding petroleum reservoirs at temperatures from 20 to 63 °C by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicates the presence of physiologically diverse and temperature-dependent microorganisms in these subterrestrial ecosystems. In high-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences belong to the thermophilic archaea including the genera Thermococcus, Methanothermobacter and Thermoplasmatales, most of the bacterial sequences belong to the phyla Firmicutes, Thermotogae and Thermodesulfobacteria; in low-temperature petroleum reservoirs, most of the archaeal sequences are affiliated with the genera Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus and Methanocalculus, most of the bacterial sequences to the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that temperature, mineralization, ionic type as well as volatile fatty acids showed correlation with the microbial community structures. These organisms may be adapted to the environmental conditions of these petroleum reservoirs over geologic time by metabolizing buried organic matter from the original deep subsurface environment and became the common inhabitants in subsurface environments.

  1. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver; Tuttenuj, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Part I: Dr. Oliver Wetter. (Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) Part II: PhD student Daniel Tuttenuj (Oeschger Centre of Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet

  2. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttenuj, Daniel; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers in Switzerland. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet systematically analysed the period from 1446-1542 and could prove a large number of pre-instrumental flood events of river Rhine, Birs, Birsig and Wiese in Basel. All in all the weekly led account books

  3. Unjust waters. Climate change, flooding and the protection of poor urban communities. Experiences from six African cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    Floods are natural phenomena, but damage and losses from floods are the consequence of human action. The increasing climatic variability, storminess and more frequent flooding driven by climate change will affect poor urban communities far more than other people living in towns and cities. Although driven by human activities ranging from modernisation and development to land degradation by poor farmers and grazing flocks, climate change in Africa has uneven impacts, affecting the poor severely. Flooding in urban areas is not just related to heavy rainfall and extreme climatic events; it is also related to changes in the built-up areas themselves. Urbanisation aggravates flooding by restricting where floods waters can go, by covering large parts of the ground with roofs, roads and pavements, by obstructing sections of natural channels, and by building drains that ensure that water moves to rivers more rapidly than it did under natural conditions. As people crowd into African cities, these human impacts on urban land surfaces and drainage intensify. The proportions of small stream and river catchment areas that are urbanised will increase. As a result, even quite moderate storms now produce quite high flows in rivers because much more of the catchment area supplies direct surface runoff from its hard surfaces and drains. Where streams flow through a series of culverts and concrete channels, they cannot adjust to changes in the frequency of heavy rain as natural streams do. They often get obstructed by silt and urban debris, particularly when houses are built close to the channels. Such situations frequently arise where poor people build their shelters on low-lying flood plains, over swamps or above the tidewater on the coast. The effects of climate change are superimposed on these people-driven local land surface modifications. The links between changes in land use and in heavy rainfall patterns, the frequency and depth of flooding and the problems of the urban poor

  4. Predicting Coastal Flood Severity using Random Forest Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, J. M.; Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Spencer, K.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal floods have become more common recently and are predicted to further increase in frequency and severity due to sea level rise. Predicting floods in coastal cities can be difficult due to the number of environmental and geographic factors which can influence flooding events. Built stormwater infrastructure and irregular urban landscapes add further complexity. This paper demonstrates the use of machine learning algorithms in predicting street flood occurrence in an urban coastal setting. The model is trained and evaluated using data from Norfolk, Virginia USA from September 2010 - October 2016. Rainfall, tide levels, water table levels, and wind conditions are used as input variables. Street flooding reports made by city workers after named and unnamed storm events, ranging from 1-159 reports per event, are the model output. Results show that Random Forest provides predictive power in estimating the number of flood occurrences given a set of environmental conditions with an out-of-bag root mean squared error of 4.3 flood reports and a mean absolute error of 0.82 flood reports. The Random Forest algorithm performed much better than Poisson regression. From the Random Forest model, total daily rainfall was by far the most important factor in flood occurrence prediction, followed by daily low tide and daily higher high tide. The model demonstrated here could be used to predict flood severity based on forecast rainfall and tide conditions and could be further enhanced using more complete street flooding data for model training.

  5. In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

    2012-04-01

    Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvacık Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by

  6. Leveraging North Carolina's QL2 Lidar to Quantify Sensitivity of National Water Model Derived Flood Inundation Extent to DEM Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, J. P.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Blanton, B.; Duncan, J. M.; Stillwell, L.

    2017-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) has provided a novel framework for near real time flood inundation mapping across CONUS at a 10m resolution. In many regions, this spatial scale is quickly being surpassed through the collection of high resolution lidar (1 - 3m). As one of the leading states in data collection for flood inundation mapping, North Carolina is currently improving their previously available 20 ft statewide elevation product to a Quality Level 2 (QL2) product with a nominal point spacing of 0.7 meters. This QL2 elevation product increases the ground points by roughly ten times over the previous statewide lidar product, and by over 250 times when compared to the 10m NED elevation grid. When combining these new lidar data with the discharge estimates from the NWM, we can further improve statewide flood inundation maps and predictions of at-risk areas. In the context of flood risk management, these improved predictions with higher resolution elevation models consistently represent an improvement on coarser products. Additionally, the QL2 lidar also includes coarse land cover classification data for each point return, opening the possibility for expanding analysis beyond the use of only digital elevation models (e.g. improving estimates of surface roughness, identifying anthropogenic features in floodplains, characterizing riparian zones, etc.). Using the NWM Height Above Nearest Drainage approach, we compare flood inundation extents derived from multiple lidar-derived grid resolutions to assess the tradeoff between precision and computational load in North Carolina's coastal river basins. The elevation data distributed through the state's new lidar collection program provide spatial resolutions ranging from 5-50 feet, with most inland areas also including a 3 ft product. Data storage increases by almost two orders of magnitude across this range, as does processing load. In order to further assess the validity of the higher resolution elevation products on

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout caused by external flooding using the RISMC toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impacts of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization project aims to provide insights to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This paper focuses on the impacts of power uprate on the safety margin of a boiling water reactor for a flooding induced station black-out event. Analysis is performed by using a combination of thermal-hydraulic codes and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. RAVEN. We employed both classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. Results obtained give a detailed investigation of the issues associated with a plant power uprate including the effects of station black-out accident scenarios. We were able to quantify how the timing of specific events was impacted by a higher nominal reactor core power. Such safety insights can provide useful information to the decision makers to perform risk informed margins management.

  8. MARSOL: Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueth, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region are facing the challenge of managing its water resources under conditions of increasing scarcity and concerns about water quality. Already, the availability of fresh water in sufficient quality and quantity is one of the major factors limiting socio economic development. Innovative water management strategies such as the storage of reclaimed water or excess water from different sources in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes can greatly increase water availability and therefore improve water security. Main objective of the proposed project MARSOL is to demonstrate that MAR is a sound, safe and sustainable strategy that can be applied with great confidence and therefore offering a key approach for tackling water scarcity in Southern Europe. For this, eight field sites were selected that will demonstrate the applicability of MAR using various water sources, ranging from treated wastewater to desalinated seawater, and a variety of technical solutions. Targets are the alleviation of the effect of climate change on water resources, the mitigation of droughts, to countermeasure temporal and spatial misfit of water availability, to sustain agricultural water supply and rural socio-economic development, to combat agricultural related pollutants, to sustain future urban and industrial water supply and to limit seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Results of the demonstration sites will be used to develop guidelines for MAR site selection, technical realization, monitoring strategies, and modeling approaches, to offer stakeholders a comprehensive, state of the art and proven toolbox for MAR implementation. Further, the economic and legal aspects of MAR will be analyzed to enable and accelerate market penetration. The MARSOL consortium combines the expertise of consultancies, water suppliers, research institutions, and public authorities, ensuring high practical relevance and market intimacy.

  9. Irrigation with oxygen-nanobubble water can reduce methane emission and arsenic dissolution in a flooded rice paddy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamikawa, Kazunori; Makino, Tomoyuki; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Takahashi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable feature of nanobubbles (<10 –6 m in diameter) is their long lifetime in water. Supplying oxygen-nanobubbles (NBs) to continuously flooded paddy soil may retard the development of reductive conditions, thereby reducing the emission of methane (CH 4 ), a potent greenhouse gas, and dissolution of arsenic, an environmental load. We tested this hypothesis by performing a pot experiment and measuring redox-related variables. The NBs were introduced into control water (with properties similar to those of river water) using a commercially available generator. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth did not differ between plants irrigated with NB water and those irrigated with control water, but NB water significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cumulative CH 4 emission during the rice-growing season by 21%. The amounts of iron, manganese, and arsenic that leached into the drainage water before full rice heading were also reduced by the NB water. Regardless of the water type, weekly-measured CH 4 flux was linearly correlated with the leached iron concentration during the rice-growing season (r = 0.74, p < 0.001). At the end of the experiment, the NB water significantly lowered the soil pH in the 0–5 cm layer, probably because of the raised redox potential. The population of methanogenic Archaea (mcrA copy number) in the 0–5 cm layer was significantly increased by the NB water, but we found no correlation between the mcrA copy number and the cumulative CH 4 emission (r = –0.08, p = 0.85). In pots without rice plants, soil reduction was not enhanced, regardless of the water type. The results indicate that NB water reduced CH 4 emission and arsenic dissolution through an oxidative shift of the redox conditions in the flooded soil. We propose the use of NB water as a tool for controlling redox conditions in flooded paddy soils. (letter)

  10. Modelling of the steam-water-countercurrent flow in the rewetting and flooding phase after loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curca-Tivig, F.

    1990-01-01

    A new interphase momentum exchange model has been developed to simulate the Refill- Reflood Phase after LOCAs. Special phenomena of steam/water- countercurrent flow - like limitation or onset of downward-watee penetration - have been modelled and integrated into a flooding model. The interphase momentum exchange model interconnected with the flooding model has been implemented into the advanced system code RELAP5/MOD1. The new version of this code can now be utilized to predict the hot leg emergency-core-cooling (ECC) injection for German PWRs. The interfacial momentum transfer model developed includes the interphase frictional drag, the force due to virtual mass and the momenta due to interphase mass transfer. The modelling of the interfacial shear or drag accounts for the effects of phase and velocity profiles. The flooding model predicts countercurrent-flow limitation, onset of water penetration and partial delivery. The flooding correlation specifies the maximum down flow liquid velocity in case of countercurrent flow through flow restrictions for a given vapor velocity. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Transboundary river basin management in Europe
    Legal instruments to comply with European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Keessen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although modern European water policy follows a river basin approach where Member States have to cooperate in order to achieve a ‘good status’ of their water bodies, the obligations arising from the European water directives are to be achieved by each Member State individually. This situation creates problems when water pollution and water quantity problems cross borders. It is still unclear whether Member States can be held responsible for not achieving objectives due to causes (partly originating abroad. This article describes some of the legal instruments that water authorities have at their disposal to comply with the European water management obligations in case of transboundary water pollution and floods and thus shape transboundary river management. The article describes instruments to create, implement and enforce transboundary cooperation, and addresses the possibility of transboundary compensation if cooperation fails. Here, the focus is on a civil lawsuit before a domestic court.

  12. Large Scale Water Vapor Sources Relative to the October 2000 Piedmont Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turato, Barbara; Reale, Oreste; Siccardi, Franco

    2003-01-01

    Very intense mesoscale or synoptic-scale rainfall events can occasionally be observed in the Mediterranean region without any deep cyclone developing over the areas affected by precipitation. In these perplexing cases the synoptic situation can superficially look similar to cases in which very little precipitation occurs. These situations could possibly baffle the operational weather forecasters. In this article, the major precipitation event that affected Piedmont (Italy) between 13 and 16 October 2000 is investigated. This is one of the cases in which no intense cyclone was observed within the Mediterranean region at any time, only a moderate system was present, and yet exceptional rainfall and flooding occurred. The emphasis of this study is on the moisture origin and transport. Moisture and energy balances are computed on different space- and time-scales, revealing that precipitation exceeds evaporation over an area inclusive of Piedmont and the northwestern Mediterranean region, on a time-scale encompassing the event and about two weeks preceding it. This is suggestive of an important moisture contribution originating from outside the region. A synoptic and dynamic analysis is then performed to outline the potential mechanisms that could have contributed to the large-scale moisture transport. The central part of the work uses a quasi-isentropic water-vapor back trajectory technique. The moisture sources obtained by this technique are compared with the results of the balances and with the synoptic situation, to unveil possible dynamic mechanisms and physical processes involved. It is found that moisture sources on a variety of atmospheric scales contribute to this event. First, an important contribution is caused by the extratropical remnants of former tropical storm Leslie. The large-scale environment related to this system allows a significant amount of moisture to be carried towards Europe. This happens on a time- scale of about 5-15 days preceding the

  13. Demonstration of the Tilting of the Gas-Water Interface under Hydrodynamic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretener, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the construction of an apparatus to demonstrate the tilting of an oil-water, gas-water, or gas-oil interface when the subsurface reservoir is under hydrodynamic conditions (i.e., when conditions of lateral flow exist). The model can be constructed of readily-available materials. (RE)

  14. A Simple Approach for Demonstrating Soil Water Retention and Field Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A.; Heitman, J. L.; Bowman, D.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to demonstrate the soil water retention relationship and related concepts because the specialized equipment required for performing these measurements is unavailable in most classrooms. This article outlines a low-cost, easily visualized method by which these concepts can be demonstrated in most any classroom. Columns (62.5 cm…

  15. Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains: Leak Detection and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three leak detection/location technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition a...

  16. Pilot-scale demonstration of phytofiltration for treatment of arsenic in New Mexico drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elless, Mark P; Poynton, Charissa Y; Willms, Cari A; Doyle, Mike P; Lopez, Alisa C; Sokkary, Dale A; Ferguson, Bruce W; Blaylock, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water poses serious health risks to millions of people worldwide. To reduce such risks, the United States Environmental Protection Agency recently lowered the Maximum Contaminant Level for arsenic in drinking water from 50 to 10 microgL(-1). The majority of water systems requiring compliance are small systems that serve less than 10,000 people. Current technologies used to clean arsenic-contaminated water have significant drawbacks, particularly for small treatment systems. In this pilot-scale demonstration, we investigated the use of arsenic-hyperaccumulating ferns to remove arsenic from drinking water using a continuous flow phytofiltration system. Over the course of a 3-month demonstration period, the system consistently produced water having an arsenic concentration less than the detection limit of 2 microgL(-1), at flow rates as high as 1900 L day(-1) for a total treated water volume of approximately 60,000 L. Our results demonstrate that phytofiltration provides the basis for a solar-powered hydroponic technique to enable small-scale cleanup of arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

  17. Water Use Optimization Toolset Project: Development and Demonstration Phase Draft Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, John R. [Argonne National Laboratory; Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Laboratory; Mahalik, Matthew R. [Argonne National Laboratory; Hayse, John W. [Argonne National Laboratory; Saha, Samrat [Argonne National Laboratory; Wigmosta, Mark S. [PNNL; Voisin, Nathalie [PNNL; Rakowski, Cynthia [PNNL; Coleman, Andre [PNNL; Lowry, Thomas S. [SNL

    2014-05-19

    This report summarizes the results of the development and demonstration phase of the Water Use Optimization Toolset (WUOT) project. It identifies the objective and goals that guided the project, as well as demonstrating potential benefits that could be obtained by applying the WUOT in different geo-hydrologic systems across the United States. A major challenge facing conventional hydropower plants is to operate more efficiently while dealing with an increasingly uncertain water-constrained environment and complex electricity markets. The goal of this 3-year WUOT project, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is to improve water management, resulting in more energy, revenues, and grid services from available water, and to enhance environmental benefits from improved hydropower operations and planning while maintaining institutional water delivery requirements. The long-term goal is for the WUOT to be used by environmental analysts and deployed by hydropower schedulers and operators to assist in market, dispatch, and operational decisions.

  18. Unstructured mesh adaptivity for urban flooding modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, R.; Fang, F.; Salinas, P.; Pain, C. C.

    2018-05-01

    Over the past few decades, urban floods have been gaining more attention due to their increase in frequency. To provide reliable flooding predictions in urban areas, various numerical models have been developed to perform high-resolution flood simulations. However, the use of high-resolution meshes across the whole computational domain causes a high computational burden. In this paper, a 2D control-volume and finite-element flood model using adaptive unstructured mesh technology has been developed. This adaptive unstructured mesh technique enables meshes to be adapted optimally in time and space in response to the evolving flow features, thus providing sufficient mesh resolution where and when it is required. It has the advantage of capturing the details of local flows and wetting and drying front while reducing the computational cost. Complex topographic features are represented accurately during the flooding process. For example, the high-resolution meshes around the buildings and steep regions are placed when the flooding water reaches these regions. In this work a flooding event that happened in 2002 in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom has been simulated to demonstrate the capability of the adaptive unstructured mesh flooding model. The simulations have been performed using both fixed and adaptive unstructured meshes, and then results have been compared with those published 2D and 3D results. The presented method shows that the 2D adaptive mesh model provides accurate results while having a low computational cost.

  19. The water vapour flux above Switzerland and its role in the August 2005 extreme precipitation and flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Dri Koffi, Ernest; Maetzler, Christian [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; Graham, Edward [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; University of the Highlands and Islands, Stornoway, Scotland (United Kingdom). Lews Castle College

    2013-10-15

    The water budget approach is applied to an atmospheric box above Switzerland (hereafter referred to as the 'Swiss box') to quantify the atmospheric water vapour flux using ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses. The results confirm that the water vapour flux through the Swiss box is highly temporally variable, ranging from 1 to 5 x 10{sup 7} kg/s during settled anticyclonic weather, but increasing in size by a factor of ten or more during high speed currents of water vapour. Overall, Switzerland and the Swiss box 'import' more water vapour than it 'exports', but the amount gained remains only a small fraction (1% to 5%) of the total available water vapour passing by. High inward water vapour fluxes are not necessarily linked to high precipitation episodes. The water vapour flux during the August 2005 floods, which caused severe damage in central Switzerland, is examined and an assessment is made of the computed water vapour fluxes compared to high spatio-temporal rain gauge and radar observations. About 25% of the incoming water vapour flux was stored in Switzerland. The computed water vapour fluxes from ECMWF data compare well with the mean rain gauge observations and the combined rain-gauge radar precipitation products. (orig.)

  20. 2 Dimensional Hydrodynamic Flood Routing Analysis on Flood Forecasting Modelling for Kelantan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Wan Hazdy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood disaster occurs quite frequently in Malaysia and has been categorized as the most threatening natural disaster compared to landslides, hurricanes, tsunami, haze and others. A study by Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID show that 9% of land areas in Malaysia are prone to flood which may affect approximately 4.9 million of the population. 2 Dimensional floods routing modelling demonstrate is turning out to be broadly utilized for flood plain display and is an extremely viable device for evaluating flood. Flood propagations can be better understood by simulating the flow and water level by using hydrodynamic modelling. The hydrodynamic flood routing can be recognized by the spatial complexity of the schematization such as 1D model and 2D model. It was found that most of available hydrological models for flood forecasting are more focus on short duration as compared to long duration hydrological model using the Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM. The aim of this paper is to discuss preliminary findings on development of flood forecasting model using Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM for Kelantan river basin. Among the findings discuss in this paper includes preliminary calibrated PDM model, which performed reasonably for the Dec 2014, but underestimated the peak flows. Apart from that, this paper also discusses findings on Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD and flood plain analysis. Flood forecasting is the complex process that begins with an understanding of the geographical makeup of the catchment and knowledge of the preferential regions of heavy rainfall and flood behaviour for the area of responsibility. Therefore, to decreases the uncertainty in the model output, so it is important to increase the complexity of the model.

  1. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  2. H2Oh!: Classroom demonstrations and activities for improving student learning of water concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Hilton, A.; Neupauer, R. M.; Burian, S. J.; Lauer, J. W.; Mathisen, P. P.; Mays, D. C.; Olson, M. S.; Pomeroy, C. A.; Ruddell, B. L.; Sciortino, A.

    2012-12-01

    Research has shown that the use of demonstrations and hands-on activities in the classroom enhances student learning. Students learn more and enjoy classes more when visual and active learning are incorporated into the lecture. Most college-aged students prefer visual modes of learning, while most instruction is conducted in a lecture, or auditory, format. The use of classroom demonstrations provides opportunities for incorporating visual and active learning into the classroom environment. However, while most instructors acknowledge the benefits of these teaching methods, they typically do not have the time and resources to develop and test such activities and to develop plans to incorporate them into their lectures. Members of the Excellence in Water Resources Education Task Committee of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute (EWRI) of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) have produced a publication that contains a collection of activities aimed to foster excellence in water resources and hydrology education and improve student learning of principles. The book contains forty-five demonstrations and activities that can be used in water-related classes with topics in fluid mechanics, hydraulics, surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology, and water quality. We present examples of these activities, including topics such as conservation of momentum, buoyancy, Bernoulli's principle, drag force, pipe flow, watershed delineation, reservoir networks, head distribution in aquifers, and molecular diffusion in a porous medium. Unlike full laboratory exercises, these brief demonstrations and activities (most of which take less than fifteen minutes) can be easily incorporated into classroom lectures. For each demonstration, guidance for preparing and conducting the activity, along with a brief overview of the principles that are demonstrated, is provided. The target audience of the activities is undergraduate students, although the activities also may be

  3. Albemarle Sound demonstration study of the national monitoring network for US coastal waters and their tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Sharon Fitzgerald; Keith Loftin; Elizabeth Fensin

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) is implementing a demonstration project in the Albemarle Sound for the National Monitoring Network for U.S. coastal waters and their tributaries. The goal of the National Monitoring Network is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource...

  4. Signing strategies for low-water and flood-prone highway crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "In Texas, approximately eight flood-related fatalities occur each yearthe majority of these (78.6 percent) : involve motorists that are trapped in their vehicles or washed away. In many cases, victims, not wanting to : take a lengthy detour, igno...

  5. Hydrological analysis of high waters and flash floods occurred in September 2007 in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobold, M; Susnik, M; Robic, M; Ulaga, F; Lalic, B [Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Vojkova lb, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: mira.kobold@gov.si

    2008-11-01

    Heavy and intense precipitation which fell in just a few hours across the western, north-western and northern Slovenia on 18 September 2007, caused quick rise of river discharges especially in the region of Baska grapa, Davca, the Cerkljansko and Skofja Loka hills. In that area the streams caused huge destruction on infrastructure, homes, business buildings and other property. More than 300 mm of rain was recorded on some precipitation measurement stations. The return period of the highest precipitation was more than 100 years. The amount of precipitation decreased from the west to the east of the country where above 100 mm of precipitation was recorded and torrential streams and rivers flooded in the region of Karavanke and foothills of the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Kranj and Domzale fields, the Tuhinj valley and extensive Celje region. Observed discharges of streams and rivers on the most affected area exceeded periodical maximum discharges. The simulation of flood hydrograph for Zelezniki was done by HEC-1 model. The return period of floods was more than 100 years. Besides flooding many landslides were triggered. The result of this catastrophe was enormous economic damage and loss of six people's lives.

  6. Hydrological analysis of high waters and flash floods occurred in September 2007 in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobold, M; Susnik, M; Robic, M; Ulaga, F; Lalic, B

    2008-01-01

    Heavy and intense precipitation which fell in just a few hours across the western, north-western and northern Slovenia on 18 September 2007, caused quick rise of river discharges especially in the region of Baska grapa, Davca, the Cerkljansko and Skofja Loka hills. In that area the streams caused huge destruction on infrastructure, homes, business buildings and other property. More than 300 mm of rain was recorded on some precipitation measurement stations. The return period of the highest precipitation was more than 100 years. The amount of precipitation decreased from the west to the east of the country where above 100 mm of precipitation was recorded and torrential streams and rivers flooded in the region of Karavanke and foothills of the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Kranj and Domzale fields, the Tuhinj valley and extensive Celje region. Observed discharges of streams and rivers on the most affected area exceeded periodical maximum discharges. The simulation of flood hydrograph for Zelezniki was done by HEC-1 model. The return period of floods was more than 100 years. Besides flooding many landslides were triggered. The result of this catastrophe was enormous economic damage and loss of six people's lives.

  7. Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on the Water Balances and Flooding Conditions of Peninsular Malaysia watersheds by a Coupled Numerical Climate Model - Watershed Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, A.; Kavvas, M. L.; Ishida, K.; Chen, Z. Q.; Amin, M. Z. M.; Shaaban, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of climate change on the hydrologic processes under future climate change conditions were assessed over various watersheds of Peninsular Malaysia by means of a coupled regional climate and physically-based hydrology model that utilized an ensemble of future climate change projections. An ensemble of 15 different future climate realizations from coarse resolution global climate models' (GCMs) projections for the 21st century were dynamically downscaled to 6 km resolution over Peninsular Malaysia by a regional numerical climate model, which was then coupled with the watershed hydrology model WEHY through the atmospheric boundary layer over the selected watersheds of Peninsular Malaysia. Hydrologic simulations were carried out at hourly increments and at hillslope-scale in order to assess the impacts of climate change on the water balances and flooding conditions at the selected watersheds during the 21st century. The coupled regional climate and hydrology model was simulated for a duration of 90 years for each of the 15 realizations. It is demonstrated that the increase in mean monthly flows due to the impact of expected climate change during 2040-2100 is statistically significant at the selected watersheds. Furthermore, the flood frequency analyses for the selected watersheds indicate an overall increasing trend in the second half of the 21st century.

  8. Reactor safety under design basis flood condition for inland sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajela, S.; Bajaj, S.S.; Samota, A.; Verma, U.S.P.; Warudkar, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In June 1994, there was an incident of flooding at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) due to combination of heavy rains and mechanical failure in the operation of gates at the adjoining weir. An indepth review of the incident was carried out and a number of flood protection measures were recommended and were implemented at site. As part of this review, a safety analysis was also done to demonstrate reactor safety with a series of failures considered in the flood protection features. For each inland NPP site, as part of design, different flood scenarios are analysed to arrive at design basis flood (DBF) level. This level is estimated based on worst combination of heavy local precipitation, flooding in river, failure of upstream/downstream water control structures

  9. Predicting the impact of urban flooding using open data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Nataliya; Procter, Rob; Jarvis, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to explore whether there is a relationship between search patterns for flood risk information on the Web and how badly localities have been affected by flood events. We hypothesize that localities where people stay more actively informed about potential flooding experience less negative impact than localities where people make less effort to be informed. Being informed, of course, does not hold the waters back; however, it may stimulate (or serve as an indicator of) such resilient behaviours as timely use of sandbags, relocation of possessions from basements to upper floors and/or temporary evacuation from flooded homes to alternative accommodation. We make use of open data to test this relationship empirically. Our results demonstrate that although aggregated Web search reflects average rainfall patterns, its eigenvectors predominantly consist of locations with similar flood impacts during 2014-2015. These results are also consistent with statistically significant correlations of Web search eigenvectors with flood warning and incident reporting datasets.

  10. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of

  11. Biodegradation of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide by bacteria isolated from production water after polymer flooding in an oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Mutai; Chen Qingguo; Li Yiming; Jiang Guancheng

    2010-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in production water after polymer flooding in oil filed causes environmental problems, such as increases the difficulty in oil-water separation, degrades naturally to produce toxic acrylamide and endanger local ecosystem. Biodegradation of HPAM may be an efficient way to solve these problems. The biodegradability of HPAM in an aerobic environment was studied. Two HPAM-degrading bacterial strains, named PM-2 and PM-3, were isolated from the produced water of polymer flooding. They were subsequently identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sp., respectively. The utilization of HPAM by the two strains was explored. The amide group of HPAM could serve as a nitrogen source for the two microorganisms, the carbon backbone of these polymers could be partly utilized by microorganisms. The HPAM samples before and after bacterial biodegradation were analyzed by the infrared spectrum, high performance liquid chromatography and scanning electronic microscope. The results indicated that the amide group of HPAM in the biodegradation products had been converted to a carboxyl group, and no acrylamide monomer was found. The HPAM carbon backbone was metabolized by the bacteria during the course of its growth. Further more, the hypothesis about the biodegradation of HPAM in aerobic bacterial culture is proposed.

  12. Assessment of water quality in the elbe river at flood water conditions based on cluster analysis, principle components analysis, and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baborowski, Martina [Department of River Ecology, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Magdeburg (Germany); Simeonov, Vasil [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria); Einax, Juergen W. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    An assessment of water quality measurements during a spring flood in the Elbe River is presented. Daily samples were taken at a site in the middle Elbe, which is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River (IKSE/MKOL). Cluster analysis (CA), principal components analysis (PCA), and source apportionment (APCS apportioning) were used to assess the flood-dependent matter transport. As a result, three main components could be extracted as important to the matter transport in the Elbe River basin during flood events: (i) re-suspended contaminated sediments, which led to temporarily increased concentrations of suspended matter and of most of the investigated heavy metals; (ii) water discharge related concentrations of pedogenic dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as preliminary diluted concentrations of uranium and chloride, parameters with stable pollution background in the river basin; and (iii) abandoned mines, i.e., their dewatering systems, with particular influence on nickel, manganese, and zinc concentrations. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Assessment of water quality in the elbe river at flood water conditions based on cluster analysis, principle components analysis, and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baborowski, Martina; Simeonov, Vasil; Einax, Juergen W.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of water quality measurements during a spring flood in the Elbe River is presented. Daily samples were taken at a site in the middle Elbe, which is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River (IKSE/MKOL). Cluster analysis (CA), principal components analysis (PCA), and source apportionment (APCS apportioning) were used to assess the flood-dependent matter transport. As a result, three main components could be extracted as important to the matter transport in the Elbe River basin during flood events: (i) re-suspended contaminated sediments, which led to temporarily increased concentrations of suspended matter and of most of the investigated heavy metals; (ii) water discharge related concentrations of pedogenic dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as preliminary diluted concentrations of uranium and chloride, parameters with stable pollution background in the river basin; and (iii) abandoned mines, i.e., their dewatering systems, with particular influence on nickel, manganese, and zinc concentrations. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia; Storlazzi, Curt; Rosenberger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Many low-lying tropical islands are susceptible to sea level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, a 5 month deployment of wave gauges and a current meter was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had waves with maximum heights greater than 6 m with peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly skewed infragravity (0.04–0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004–0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, reached 3.7 m above the reef bed at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3 h time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results (1) demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash, and (2) lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of these extreme events, negatively impacting coastal resources and infrastructure.

  15. Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.

    2016-05-01

    Many low-lying tropical islands are susceptible to sea level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, a 5 month deployment of wave gauges and a current meter was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had waves with maximum heights greater than 6 m with peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly skewed infragravity (0.04-0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004-0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, reached 3.7 m above the reef bed at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3 h time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results (1) demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash, and (2) lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of these extreme events, negatively impacting coastal resources and infrastructure.

  16. Protection of base nuclear installations against external flooding - Guide nr 13, release of the 08/01/2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    As the French law requires the flooding risk to be taken into account in the demonstration of the nuclear safety of base nuclear installations (INB), this guide aims at defining situations to be taken into account when assessing the flooding risk for a site (identification of water sources and of flooding causes, definition of flooding situations), at proposing an acceptable method to quantify these situations (local rains, rise of water level, problems on hydraulic works, dam failure, ocean waves, and so on), and at listing recommendations to define the protection means which are adapted to the specificities of the flooding risk, and are implemented by the operator with respect to the installation lifetime

  17. USEPA'S SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN ECUADOR AND MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to support and help in the struggle to improve the quality of drinking water in the United States and abroad, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conducts research studies for the demonstration and evaluation of alternative and innovative drinking w...

  18. The water footprint of human-made reservoirs for hydropower, irrigation, water supply, flood prevention, fishing and recreation on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeboom, Rick; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    Increasing the availability of freshwater to meet growing and competing demands is on many policy agendas. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) prescribe sustainable management of water for human consumption. For centuries humans have resorted to building dams to store water in periods of excess for use in times of shortage. Although dams and their reservoirs have made important contributions to human development, it is increasingly acknowledged that reservoirs can be substantial water consumers as well. We estimated the water footprint of human-made reservoirs on a global scale and attributed it to the various reservoir purposes (hydropower generation, residential and industrial water supply, irrigation water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation) based on their economic value. We found that economic benefits from derived products and services from 2235 reservoirs globally, amount to 311 billion US dollar annually, with residential and industrial water supply and hydropower generation as major contributors. The water footprint associated with these benefits is the sum of the water footprint of dam construction (footprint of reservoirs globally adds up to ˜104 km3yr-1. Attribution per purpose shows that, with a global average water footprint of 21,5 m3GJ,-1 hydropower on average is a water intensive form of energy. We contextualized the water footprint of reservoirs and their purposes with regard to the water scarcity level of the river basin in which they occur. We found the lion's share (55%) of the water footprint is located in non-water scarce basins and only 1% in year-round scarce basins. The purpose for which the reservoir is primarily used changes with increasing water scarcity, from mainly hydropower generation in non-scarce basins, to the (more essential) purposes residential and industrial water supply, irrigation and flood control in scarcer areas. The quantitative explication of how the burden of water consumption from reservoirs is

  19. The use of water marks mapping to understand flood overflow events inside karstic cavities: Cueva Fría and Cueva Rosa (Asturias, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Lemos, Saúl; Stoll, Heather M.

    2014-05-01

    Several karst systems in Asturias (NW Spain) present evidence of fluvial deposits cemented in speleothems that may provide good chronology of past flood events inside the caves. This flood record is under research in two karstic caves of this region, Cueva Fría and Cueva Rosa, which have in common the presence of a perennial stream inside the cave and a low gradient of the cave passage. Immediately after a flood overflow event, water marks, foam and detritus are visible at different heights on the cave walls and correspond to heights of bottlenecks in overflow drainage through the cave passage. Flood events also deposit sand and gravel on terraces on the cave wall and move large volumes of sand in the cave bed. We have noted that detrital particles (like sand or silt particles) are preserved as inclusions inside the stalagmites and that their abundance inside coeval stalagmites decreases as altitude and distance from the perennial stream increase, supporting its fluvial affinity. However, not all the stalagmites that contain detrital particles are located close to the perennial streams. In this work, we have mapped the water marks preserved in the cave walls to reconstruct water levels associated to flood overflow events of different magnitude. We have found that water mark correlation along the cave passage is very useful to define the hydrological behaviour and flood model of the cave during these extreme events. The water mark mapping and correlation have been also useful to prove that during periods of high rainfall, the movement of the sand-bars inside the cave can cover partially or completely active stalagmites, facilitating the cementation process and trapping abundant detrital material inside the stalagmite carbonate. 14C and U/Th dating of the stalagmites can provide a chronology for the detrital rich layers, so that the abundance of fluvial material in the stalagmites can reveal periods of enhanced vs. reduced flooding in the cave over the past several

  20. The cumulative impacts of repeated heavy rainfall, flooding and altered water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, I R; Sommer, B; Zann, M; Zhao, J-X; Pandolfi, J M

    2015-07-15

    Terrestrial runoff and flooding have resulted in major impacts on coral communities worldwide, but we lack detailed understanding of flood plume conditions and their ecological effects. Over the course of repeated flooding between 2010 and 2013, we measured coral cover and water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia. In 2013, salinity, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were altered for up to six months post-flooding. Submarine groundwater caused hypo-saline conditions for a further four months. Despite the greater magnitude of flooding in 2013, declines in coral abundance (∼28%) from these floods were lower than the 2011 flood (∼40%), which occurred immediately after a decade of severe drought. There was an overall cumulative decrease of coral by ∼56% from 2010 to 2013. Our study highlights the need for local scale monitoring and research to facilitate informed management and conservation of catchments and marine environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Remote Sensing and Water Quality Indicators in the West Flood Canal Semarang City: Spatio-temporal Structures of Lansat-8 Derived Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiyanto, Sawitri

    2017-12-01

    One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters of West Flood Canal in Semarang City which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the Western City of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So, it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in the estuary of the West Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Lansat-8 Satellite images data from April, June, and August, 2017 and there are three selected algorithms. Based on the results of TSS and Chlorophyll-A processing, the TSS shows values greater than or equal to 100 which can be said that West Flood Canal is damaged (hypertrophic). While the chlorophyll-a shows a value less than 100 indicating Eutrophic status (threatened). This is caused by the number of suspended materials in the water surface and also because of the disturbance of water vegetation in the form of weeds that destroy the function of the actual West Canal Flood.

  3. A web-based Tamsui River flood early-warning system with correction of real-time water stage using monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, H. Y.; Lin, Y. J.; Chang, H. K.; Shang, R. K.; Kuo, H. C.; Lai, J. S.; Tan, Y. C.

    2017-12-01

    Taiwan encounters heavy rainfalls frequently. There are three to four typhoons striking Taiwan every year. To provide lead time for reducing flood damage, this study attempt to build a flood early-warning system (FEWS) in Tanshui River using time series correction techniques. The predicted rainfall is used as the input for the rainfall-runoff model. Then, the discharges calculated by the rainfall-runoff model is converted to the 1-D river routing model. The 1-D river routing model will output the simulating water stages in 487 cross sections for the future 48-hr. The downstream water stage at the estuary in 1-D river routing model is provided by storm surge simulation. Next, the water stages of 487 cross sections are corrected by time series model such as autoregressive (AR) model using real-time water stage measurements to improve the predicted accuracy. The results of simulated water stages are displayed on a web-based platform. In addition, the models can be performed remotely by any users with web browsers through a user interface. The on-line video surveillance images, real-time monitoring water stages, and rainfalls can also be shown on this platform. If the simulated water stage exceeds the embankments of Tanshui River, the alerting lights of FEWS will be flashing on the screen. This platform runs periodically and automatically to generate the simulation graphic data of flood water stages for flood disaster prevention and decision making.

  4. Simulating water and nitrogen loss from an irrigated paddy field under continuously flooded condition with Hydrus-1D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Tong, Juxiu; Hu, Bill X; Li, Jiayun; Wei, Wenshuo

    2017-06-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is a major factor in surface water and groundwater pollution, especially for nitrogen (N) pollution. In this paper, an experiment was conducted in a direct-seeded paddy field under traditional continuously flooded irrigation (CFI). The water movement and N transport and transformation were simulated via the Hydrus-1D model, and the model was calibrated using field measurements. The model had a total water balance error of 0.236 cm and a relative error (error/input total water) of 0.23%. For the solute transport model, the N balance error and relative error (error/input total N) were 0.36 kg ha -1 and 0.40%, respectively. The study results indicate that the plow pan plays a crucial role in vertical water movement in paddy fields. Water flow was mainly lost through surface runoff and underground drainage, with proportions to total input water of 32.33 and 42.58%, respectively. The water productivity in the study was 0.36 kg m -3 . The simulated N concentration results revealed that ammonia was the main form in rice uptake (95% of total N uptake), and its concentration was much larger than for nitrate under CFI. Denitrification and volatilization were the main losses, with proportions to total consumption of 23.18 and 14.49%, respectively. Leaching (10.28%) and surface runoff loss (2.05%) were the main losses of N pushed out of the system by water. Hydrus-1D simulation was an effective method to predict water flow and N concentrations in the three different forms. The study provides results that could be used to guide water and fertilization management and field results for numerical studies of water flow and N transport and transformation in the future.

  5. Hydrologic Modeling and Flood Frequency Analysis for Ordinary High Water Mark Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    variable ); X, Y, and Z are watershed or climatic characteristics used as independent varia - bles; and a, b, c, and d are regression coefficients. The number...use to characterize the variability of streamflow, and recur- rence intervals provide context for understanding the OHWM. This docu- ment tests...1.01-year to 32-year recurrence-interval floods. The variability in bankfull discharge recurrence intervals highlights the highly variable

  6. Passive pH adjustment of nuclear reactor containment flood water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlowski, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described of automatically and passively adjusting the pH of the recirculating liquid used to flood the containment structure of a nuclear reactor upon the occurence of an accident in order to cool the reactor core, wherein the containment structure has a concrete floor which is provided with at least one sump from which the liquid is withdrawn for recirculation via at least one outlet pipe. The method consists of: prior to flooding and during or prior to normal operation of the reactor, providing at least one perforated basket within at least one sump with the basket containing crystals of a pH adjusting chemical which is soluble in the liquid, and covering each basket with a plastic coating which is likewise soluble in the liquid, whereby upon flooding of the containment structure the liquid in the sump will reach the level of the baskets, causing the coating and the crystals to be dissolved and the chemical to mix with the recirculating liquid to adjust the pH

  7. Optical and Physical Methods for Mapping Flooding with Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayne, Jessica Fayne; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat; Ahamed, Aakash

    2016-01-01

    Flood and surface water mapping is becoming increasingly necessary, as extreme flooding events worldwide can damage crop yields and contribute to billions of dollars economic damages as well as social effects including fatalities and destroyed communities (Xaio et al. 2004; Kwak et al. 2015; Mueller et al. 2016).Utilizing earth observing satellite data to map standing water from space is indispensable to flood mapping for disaster response, mitigation, prevention, and warning (McFeeters 1996; Brakenridge and Anderson 2006). Since the early 1970s(Landsat, USGS 2013), researchers have been able to remotely sense surface processes such as extreme flood events to help offset some of these problems. Researchers have demonstrated countless methods and modifications of those methods to help increase knowledge of areas at risk and areas that are flooded using remote sensing data from optical and radar systems, as well as free publically available and costly commercial datasets.

  8. Demonstration test on decontamination of contaminated pool water using liquid-solid settling technology with flocculants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Tagawa, Akihiro; Hosobuchi, Shigeki; Takanashi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of supplying agricultural water, a stationary purification system for contaminated water had been developed on the basis of the liquid-solid settling technology using flocculants. Two kinds of flocculants had been developed on the basis of preliminary tests: one that compounds iron ferrocyanide and the other that does not. With the use of this system and flocculants, a demonstration test was conducted to apply the decontamination technology on contaminated water in two swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It is proved from the results that both the developed purification system and the flocculants can be established as a practicable decontamination technology for contaminated water: the treatment rate was 10 m 3 /hour and the elimination factor of radioactive materials was higher than 99%. (author)

  9. Constructing risks – Internalisation of flood risks in the flood risk management plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Matthijs; Hartmann, T.; Spit, T.J.M.; Johann, Georg

    Traditional flood protection methods have focused efforts on different measures to keep water out of floodplains. However, the European Flood Directive challenges this paradigm (Hartmann and Driessen, 2013). Accordingly, flood risk management plans should incorporate measures brought about by

  10. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  11. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  12. Subproject plan for demonstration of 3M technology for treatment of N Basin water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastino, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    A dissolved radionuclides removal demonstration is being conducted at the 105-N Basin as part of the 100-N Area Projects' policy of aggressively integrating innovative technologies to achieve more cost effective, faster, and/or safer deactivation operations. This subproject plan demonstrates new technology (marketed by the 3M trademark Company) that absorbs specific ions from water. The demonstration will take place at the spent fuel basin at the N Reactor facility. The 105-N Basin contains 1 million gal of water consisting of approximately 32 Ci of dissolved 90 Sr at a concentration of 8.4 uCi/L and 7.3 Ci of dissolved 137 Cs at a concentration of 1.92 uCi/L. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement [Ecology et al. 1990]) Milestone M-16-01E-T2 requires the initiation of pretreatment and removal of all N Reactor fuel storage basin waters by September 30, 1996, pursuant to the N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan (WHC 1993). 105-N Basin dewatering is on the critical path for overall deactivation of N Reactor by March 1997. The 105-N Basin Deactivation Program Plan (BHI 1995) includes removing debris, hardware, algae and sediment from the basin, followed by pretreatment (filtration) and removal of the 1005-N Basin water. Final water removal is currently scheduled for September 30, 1996. The recommended method of the 105-N Basin water is the treatment of the water at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) in the 200 East Area. The demonstration of the 3M technology could be a feasible treatment alternative to the ETF if the ETF is not available to meet the project schedule or if additional pretreatment is needed to reduce the inventory of radioactive species to be handled at the ETF. Demonstration of this technology could be of value for other fuel basins at the Hanford Site and possibly other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and non- DOE nuclear power plants

  13. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞENILĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals of drinking water of twenty-four wells and the presence of Escherichia coli in ten selected wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania, a rural area frequently affected by flood events. Water samples were collected in July 2014. Concerntrations of fluorides, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs for drinking water established by European legislation (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE in all the analysed samples. Concentration of nitrates exceeded MAC (50 mg L-1 in five samples, while concentration of sulphates exceeded MAC (250 mg L-1 in two samples. Among the analysed metals, Mn exceeded MAC (50 μg L-1 in two samples, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentrations did not exceeded the corresponding MACs. E. coli (over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1 was found in six water samples. The results show that majority of the studied parameters were below the threshold limits, however in some of the studied wells the water was found to be contaminated both by some chemical pollutants and by E. coli, which prepresent a risk for local population health.

  14. Remote-Sensing and Automated Water Resources Tracking: Near Real-Time Decision Support for Water Managers Facing Drought and Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M. E.; Elliott, N.; Veloz, S.; Love, F.; Moody, D.; Hickey, C.; Fitzgibbon, M.; Reynolds, M.; Esralew, R.

    2016-12-01

    Innovative approaches for tracking the Earth's natural resources, especially water which is essential for all living things, are essential during a time of rapid environmental change. The Central Valley is a nexus for water resources in California, draining the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. The distribution of water throughout California and the Central Valley, while dynamic, is highly managed through an extensive regional network of canals, levees, and pumps. Water allocation and delivery is determined through a complex set of rules based on water contracts, historic priority, and other California water policies. Furthermore, urban centers, agriculture, and the environment throughout the state are already competing for water, particularly during drought. Competition for water is likely to intensify as California is projected to experience continued increases in demand due to population growth and more arid growing conditions, while also having reduced or modified water supply due to climate change. As a result, it is difficult to understand or predict how water will be used to fulfill wildlife and wetland conservation needs. A better understanding of the spatial distribution of water in near real-time can facilitate adaptation of water resource management to changing conditions on the landscape, both over the near- and long-term. The Landsat satellite mission delivers imagery every 16-days from nearly every place on the earth at a high spatial resolution. We have integrated remote sensing of satellite data, classification modeling, bioinformatics, optimization, and ecological analyses to develop an automated near real-time water resources tracking and decision-support system for the Central Valley of California. Our innovative system has applications for coordinated water management in the Central Valley to support people, places, and wildlife and is being used to understand the factors that drive variation in the distribution and abundance of water

  15. Corps Water Management System (CWMS) Decision Support Modeling and Integration Use in the June 2007 Texas Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charley, W. J.; Luna, M.

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Corps Water Management System (CWMS) is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data dissemination. CWMS uses an Oracle database and Sun Solaris workstations for data processes, storage and the execution of models, with a client application (the Control and Visualization Interface, or CAVI) that can run on a Windows PC. CWMS was used by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) to make hydrologic forecasts of flows on the Lower Colorado River and operate reservoirs during the June 2007 event in Texas. The LCRA receives real-time observed gridded spatial rainfall data from OneRain, Inc. that which is a result of adjusting NexRad rainfall data with precipitation gages. This data is used, along with future precipitation estimates, for hydrologic forecasting by the rainfall-runoff modeling program HEC-HMS. Forecasted flows from HEC-HMS and combined with observed flows and reservoir information to simulate LCRA's reservoir operations and help engineers make release decisions based on the results. The river hydraulics program, HEC-RAS, computes river stages and water surface profiles for the computed flow. An inundation boundary and depth map of water in the flood plain can be calculated from the HEC-RAS results using ArcInfo. By varying future precipitation and releases, engineers can evaluate different "What if?" scenarios. What was described as an "extraordinary cluster of thunderstorms" that stalled over Burnet and Llano counties in Texas on June 27, 2007, dropped 17 to 19 inches of rainfall over a 6-hour period. The storm was classified over a 500-year event and the resulting flow over some of the smaller tributaries as a 100-year or better. CWMS was used by LCRA for flood forecasting and

  16. Stream Flow Prediction and Flood Mapping in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya with the ICIMOD Water Resources App Portal (IWRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Ames, D. P.; Jones, N.; Souffront, M.

    2016-12-01

    Earth observations of precipitation, temperature, moisture, and other atmospheric and land surface conditions form the foundation of global hydrologic forecasts that are increasingly available in native as well as other derived products. The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have developed such products for global flood awareness which can be downscaled to smaller regions and used for stream flow prediction in underserved areas such as the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Combined with digital elevation data, now available at 30 meters through the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) reconnaissance-level flood maps can be generated across wide regions that would otherwise not be possible and where increased information to drive higher resolution models are available the same forecasts can be used to provide forcing inflows for improved flood maps. Advances in cloud computing offer a unique opportunity to facilitate deployment of water resources models as decision-making tools in the cloud-based ICIMOD Water Resources App Portal or IWRAP. The interactive nature of web apps makes this an excellent medium for creating decision support tools that harness cutting edge modeling techniques. Thin client apps hosted in a cloud portal eliminates the need for the decision makers to procure and maintain the high performance hardware required by the models, deal with issues related to software installation and platform incompatibilities, or monitor and install software updates, a problem that is exacerbated in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya where both financial and technical capacity are limited. All that is needed to use the system is an Internet connection and a web browser. We will take advantage of these technologies to develop tools which can be centrally maintained but openly accessible. Advanced mapping and visualization will make results intuitive and information derived actionable. We will also take advantage of the emerging standards for sharing water

  17. Modeling of Flood Risk for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, D.; Li, S.; Katz, B.; Goteti, G.; Kaheil, Y. H.; Vojjala, R.

    2011-12-01

    The science of catastrophic risk modeling helps people to understand the physical and financial implications of natural catastrophes (hurricanes, flood, earthquakes, etc.), terrorism, and the risks associated with changes in life expectancy. As such it depends on simulation techniques that integrate multiple disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, structural engineering, statistics, computer science, financial engineering, actuarial science, and more in virtually every field of technology. In this talk we will explain the techniques and underlying assumptions of building the RMS US flood risk model. We especially will pay attention to correlation (spatial and temporal), simulation and uncertainty in each of the various components in the development process. Recent extreme floods (e.g. US Midwest flood 2008, US Northeast flood, 2010) have increased the concern of flood risk. Consequently, there are growing needs to adequately assess the flood risk. The RMS flood hazard model is mainly comprised of three major components. (1) Stochastic precipitation simulation module based on a Monte-Carlo analogue technique, which is capable of producing correlated rainfall events for the continental US. (2) Rainfall-runoff and routing module. A semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model was developed to properly assess the antecedent conditions, determine the saturation area and runoff. The runoff is further routed downstream along the rivers by a routing model. Combined with the precipitation model, it allows us to correlate the streamflow and hence flooding from different rivers, as well as low and high return-periods across the continental US. (3) Flood inundation module. It transforms the discharge (output from the flow routing) into water level, which is further combined with a two-dimensional off-floodplain inundation model to produce comprehensive flood hazard map. The performance of the model is demonstrated by comparing to the observation and published data. Output from

  18. Demonstration of acid and water recovery systems: Applicability and operational challenges in Indian metal finishing SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, M; Batra, R; Batra, V S; Chandramouli, G; Choudhury, D; Hälbig, T; Ivashechkin, P; Jain, J; Mandava, K; Mense, N; Nehra, V; Rögener, F; Sartor, M; Singh, V; Srinivasan, M R; Tewari, P K

    2018-07-01

    Diffusion dialysis, acid retardation and nanofiltration plants were acquired from Europe and demonstrated in several Indian metal finishing companies over a three year period. These companies are primarily small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Free acid recovery rate from spent pickling baths using diffusion dialysis and retardation was in the range of 78-86% and 30-70% respectively. With nanofiltration, 80% recovery rate of rinse water was obtained. The demonstrations created awareness among the metal finishing companies to reuse resources (acid/water) from the effluent streams. However, lack of efficient oil separators, reliable chemical analysis and trained personnel as well as high investment cost limit the application of these technologies. Local manufacturing, plant customization and centralized treatment are likely to encourage the uptake of such technologies in the Indian metal finishing sector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Biochar on the Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions under Continuous Flooding and Water-Saving Irrigation Conditions in Paddy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the greenhouse gas emission under different application of biochar in the conditions of continuous flooding and water-saving irrigation in paddy fields, whereas, plant and soil carbon sequestration were considered in the calculation of net greenhouse gas emissions. The emission rates of methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, and nitrous oxide (N2O gases were simultaneously monitored once every 7–10 days using the closed-chamber method. As a whole, the net greenhouse gas emission in the water-saving irrigation was more than that of the continuous flooding irrigation conditions. Compared with the water-saving irrigation, the continuous flooding irrigation significantly increased the CH4 in the control (CK and chemical fertilizer treatments (NPK. The CO2 emissions increased in each treatment of the water-saving irrigation condition, especially in the chemical fertilizer treatments (NPKFW. Similarly, the soil N2O emission was very sensitive to the water-saving irrigation condition. An interesting finding is that the biochar application in soils cut down the soil N2O emission more significantly than NPKFW in the water-saving irrigation condition while the effect of biochar increased under the continuous flooding irrigation condition.

  20. Coupling Modelling of Urban Development and Flood Risk – An Attempt for a Combined Software Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Sto Domingo, Nina; Urich, Christian

    2015-01-01

    to use the results of the hydraulic simulation to condition DANCE4WATER and to account for flood risk in the simulated urban development. In an Australian case study, we demonstrate that future flood risk can be significantly reduced while maintaining the overall speed of urban development.......We have developed a setup that couples the urban development model DANCE4WATER with the 1D-2D hydraulic model MIKE FLOOD. The setup makes it possible to assess the impact of urban development and infrastructural change scenarios on flood risk in an automated manner. In addition, it permits us...

  1. Assessment of the costs, risks and benefits of selected integrated policy options to adapt to flood and drought in the water and agricultural sectors of the Warta River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendzimir, Jan; Dubel, Anna; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Damurski, Jakub; Schroeter, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    Historically large reservoirs have been the dominant strategy to counter flood and drought risk in Europe. However, a number of smaller-scale approaches have emerged as alternative strategies. To compare the cost effectiveness of reservoirs and these alternatives, we calculated the Investment & maintenance costs in terms of (euros) /m3 water stored or annual runoff reduced for five different strategies: large reservoirs (1.68 euros), large on-farm ponds (5.88 euros), small on-farm ponds (558.00 euros), shelterbelts (6.86 euros), switching to conservation tillage (-9.20 euros). The most cost effective measure for reducing runoff is switching to conservation tillage practices because this switch reduces machinery and labor costs in addition to reducing water runoff. Although shelterbelts that reduce annual runoff cannot be directly compared to ponds and reservoirs that store water, our estimates show that they likely compare favorably as a natural water retention measure, especially when taking account of their co-benefits in terms of erosion control, biodiversity and pollination. Another useful result is our demonstration of the economies of scale among reservoirs and ponds for storing water. Small ponds are two orders of magnitude more costly to construct and maintain as a flood and drought prevention measure than large reservoirs. Here, again, there are large co-benefits that should be factored into the cost-benefit equation, including especially the value of small ponds in promoting corridors for migration. This analysis shows the importance of carrying out more extensive cost-benefit estimates across on-farm and off-farm measures for tackling drought and flood risk in the context of a changing climate. While concrete recommendations for supporting water retention measures will depend on a more detailed investigation of their costs and benefits, this research highlights the potential of natural water retention measures as a complement to conventional investments

  2. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  3. Water vapor pressure over molten KH_2PO_4 and demonstration of water electrolysis at ∼300 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.W.; Nikiforov, A.V.; Petrushina, I.M.; Bjerrum, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressure over molten KH_2PO_4 was measured by Raman spectroscopy to be about 8 bars at ∼300 °C. • Raman spectroscopy shows that molten KH_2PO_4 under its own vapor pressure contains much dissolved water. • It is demonstrated spectroscopically that water electrolysis is possible in KH_2PO_4 electrolyte forming H_2 and O_2 at 300 °C. • Molten KH_2PO_4 is a possible electrolyte for water electrolysis. - Abstract: A new potentially high-efficiency electrolyte for water electrolysis: molten monobasic potassium phosphate, KH_2PO_4 or KDP has been investigated at temperatures ∼275–325 °C. At these temperatures, KH_2PO_4 was found to dissociate into H_2O gas in equilibrium with a melt mixture of KH_2PO_4−K_2H_2P_2O_7−KPO_3−H_2O. The water vapor pressure above the melt, when contained in a closed ampoule, was determined quantitatively vs. temperature by use of Raman spectroscopy with methane or hydrogen gas as an internal calibration standard, using newly established relative ratios of Raman scattering cross sections of water and methane or hydrogen to be 0.40 ± 0.02 or 1.2 ± 0.03. At equilibrium the vapor pressure was much lower than the vapor pressure above liquid water at the same temperature. Electrolysis was realized by passing current through closed ampoules (vacuum sealed quartz glass electrolysis cells with platinum electrodes and the electrolyte melt). The formation of mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen gases as well as the water vapor was detected by Raman spectroscopy. In this way it was demonstrated that water is present in the new electrolyte: molten KH_2PO_4 can be split by electrolysis via the reaction 2H_2O → 2H_2 + O_2 at temperatures ∼275–325 °C. At these temperatures, before the start of the electrolysis, the KH_2PO_4 melt gives off H_2O gas that pressurizes the cell according to the following dissociations: 2KH_2PO_4 ↔ K_2H_2P_2O_7 + H_2O ↔ 2KPO_3 + 2H_2O. The spectra show however that the water by

  4. Heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater of Brahmaputra flood plain: an assessment of water quality in Barpeta District, Assam (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H P

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contamination status of groundwater in Brahmaputra flood plain Barpeta District, Assam, India. The Brahmaputra River flows from the southern part of the district and its many tributaries flow from north to south. Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn are estimated by using atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200. The quantity of heavy metals in drinking water should be checked time to time; as heavy metal accumulation will cause numerous problems to living being. Forty groundwater samples were collected mainly from tube wells from the flood plain area. As there is very little information available about the heavy metal contamination status in the heavily populated study area, the present work will help to be acquainted with the suitability of groundwater for drinking applications as well as it will enhance the database. The concentration of iron exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 0.3 mg/L in about 80% of the samples, manganese values exceed 0.4 mg/L in about 22.5% of the samples, and lead values also exceed limit in 22.5% of the samples. Cd is reported in only four sampling locations and three of them exceed the WHO permissible limit (0.003 mg/L). Zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. Therefore, pressing awareness is needed for the betterment of water quality; for the sake of safe drinking water. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).

  5. The principle of proportionality in water pollution control during mine flooding; Gewaesserguetewirtschaftliche Beurteilungskriterien bei der Grubenflutung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reincke, H. [WEG Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The Wismut remediation project comprised the sanitation of large surfaces of contaminated land in Saxony and Thuringia. About 1,400 km of underground mines and 56 shafts were flooded. The contribution presents a critical discussion of the potential and limits of the flooding process and its economic aspects in consideration of legal specifications. [German] Das Wismut-Sanierungsprojekt beinhaltet die Sanierung der grossflaechig radioaktiv kontaminierten Wismut-Altlasten in Sachsen und Thueringen mit dem Ziel die Uranerzbergbau- und -aufbereitungsbetriebe stillzulegen und die Betriebsflaechen zu sanieren, um sie wieder nutzbar zu machen. Ein wesentlicher Schwerpunkt besteht dabei in der Verwahrung und Flutung vorhandener Gruben, die fuer den untertaegigen Abbau der Erze genutzt wurden und aus rund 1.400 km offenen Grubenbauen und 56 Tagesschaechten bestehen. Dieses weitverzweigte untertaegige Netz von Stollen, Schaechten und Kammern sollte moeglichst rasch ausser Betrieb genommen und fuer die Flutung (Endverwahrung) vorbereitet werden. Dabei stellt die Flutung die umweltvertraeglichste, technisch sicherste und zugleich kostenguenstigste Sanierungsvariante dar. Die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen zur Beanspruchung der oeffentlichen Vorflut fuer die Grubenwaesser unter Wuerdigung oekonomisch vertretbarer Loesungen im wasserrechtlichen Vollzug werden im Folgenden einer kritischen Betrachtung unterzogen und zur Diskussion gestellt. (orig.)

  6. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  7. A new methodology for dynamic modelling of health risks arising from wastewater influenced urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Mark, Ole; Djordjevic, Slobodan; Hammond, Michael; Khan, David M.; Erichsen, Anders; Dorrit Enevoldsen, Ann; Heinicke, Gerald; Helwigh, Birgitte

    2015-04-01

    flood water, based on either measured waste water pathogen concentrations or on assumptions regarding the prevalence of infections in the population. The exposure (dosage) to pathogens was estimated by multiplying the concentration with literature values for the ingestion of water for different exposure groups (e.g. children, adults). The probability of infection was determined by applying dose response relations and MonteCarlo simulation. The methodology is demonstrated on two cases, i.e one case from a developing country with poor sanitation and one case from a developed country, where climate adaptation is the main issue: The risk of cholera in the City of Dhaka, Bangladesh during a flood event 2004, and the risk of bacterial and viral infections of during a flood event in Copenhagen, Denmark in 2011. Results PIC The historical flood events in Dhaka (2004) and Copenhagen (2011) were successfully modelled. The urban flood model was successfully coupled to QMRA. An example of the results of the quantitative microbial risk assessment given as the average estimated risk of cholera infection for children below 5 years living in slum areas in Dhaka is shown in the figure. Similarly, the risk of infection during the flood event in Copenhagen will be presented in the article. Conclusions We have developed a methodology for the dynamic modeling of the risk of infection during waste water influenced urban flooding. The outcome of the modelling exercise indicates that direct contact with polluted flood water is a likely route of transmission of cholera in Dhaka, and bacterial and viral infectious diseases in Copenhagen. It demonstrates the applicability and the potential for linking urban flood models with QMRA in order to identify interventions to reduce the burden of disease on the population in Dhaka City and Copenhagen.

  8. Water vapor pressure over molten KH2PO4 and demonstration of water electrolysis at ∼300ºC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Petrushina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    A new potentially high-efficiency electrolyte for water electrolysis: molten monobasic potassium phosphate, KH2PO4 or KDP has been investigated at temperatures ∼275–325 °C. At these temperatures, KH2PO4 was found to dissociate into H2O gas in equilibrium with a melt mixture of KH2PO4—K2H2P2O7—KPO3...... of water and methane or hydrogen to be 0.40 ± 0.02 or 1.2 ± 0.03. At equilibrium the vapor pressure was much lower than the vapor pressure above liquid water at the same temperature. Electrolysis was realized by passing current through closed ampoules (vacuum sealed quartz glass electrolysis cells...... with platinum electrodes and the electrolyte melt). The formation of mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen gases as well as the water vapor was detected by Raman spectroscopy. In this way it was demonstrated that water is present in the new electrolyte: molten KH2PO4 can be split by electrolysis via the reaction 2H2O...

  9. Towards Water Sensitive City: Lesson Learned From Bogor Flood Hazard in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhan, Muhammad; Arifin, Hadi Susilo; Suharnoto, Yuli; Tarigan, Suria Darma

    2018-02-01

    Bogor known as rain city and it's located at an altitude range of 190-330 meters above sea level. In February 2017 Bogor experienced a series of natural disasters related to heavy rainfall that fell during that time. The hazard in the form of flash floods that cause casualties was shocked, due to the location of Bogor city that located in the foothills with a fairly steep slope. There is a problem with the drainage system in the city of Bogor. Australia Indonesia Center in cooperation with Bogor city government held a focus group discussion to seek a permanent solution for the problems and so that similar incidents do not occur in the future.

  10. Exploitation of Documented Historical Floods for Achieving Better Flood Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Kolaković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Base Flood Elevation for a stream network corresponding to a big catchment is feasible by interdisciplinary approach, involving stochastic hydrology, river hydraulics, and computer aided simulations. A numerical model calibrated by historical floods has been exploited in this study. The short presentation of the catchment of the Tisza River in this paper is followed by the overview of historical floods which hit the region in the documented period of 130 years. Several well documented historical floods provided opportunity for the calibration of the chosen numerical model. Once established, the model could be used for investigation of different extreme flood scenarios and to establish the Base Flood Elevation. The calibration has shown that the coefficient of friction in case of the Tisza River is dependent both on the actual water level and on the preceding flood events. The effect of flood plain maintenance as well as the activation of six potential detention ponds on flood mitigation has been examined. Furthermore, the expected maximum water levels have also been determined for the case if the ever observed biggest 1888 flood hit the region again. The investigated cases of flood superposition highlighted the impact of tributary Maros on flood mitigation along the Tisza River.

  11. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  12. Channel Shallowing as Mitigation of Coastal Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Orton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate that reductions in the depth of inlets or estuary channels can be used to reduce or prevent coastal flooding. A validated hydrodynamic model of Jamaica Bay, New York City (NYC, is used to test nature-based adaptation measures in ameliorating flooding for NYC's two largest historical coastal flood events. In addition to control runs with modern bathymetry, three altered landscape scenarios are tested: (1 increasing the area of wetlands to their 1879 footprint and bathymetry, but leaving deep shipping channels unaltered; (2 shallowing all areas deeper than 2 m in the bay to be 2 m below Mean Low Water; (3 shallowing only the narrowest part of the inlet to the bay. These three scenarios are deliberately extreme and designed to evaluate the leverage each approach exerts on water levels. They result in peak water level reductions of 0.3%, 15%, and 6.8% for Hurricane Sandy, and 2.4%, 46% and 30% for the Category-3 hurricane of 1821, respectively (bay-wide averages. These results suggest that shallowing can provide greater flood protection than wetland restoration, and it is particularly effective at reducing "fast-pulse" storm surges that rise and fall quickly over several hours, like that of the 1821 storm. Nonetheless, the goal of flood mitigation must be weighed against economic, navigation, and ecological needs, and practical concerns such as the availability of sediment.

  13. A Location Intelligence System for the Assessment of Pluvial Flooding Risk and the Identification of Storm Water Pollutant Sources from Roads in Suburbanised Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Szewrański

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of an ever-growing number of inhabitants, sprawl development, soil sealing, changes in urban traffic characteristics, as well as observed climate trends gives rise to more frequent pluvial flooding in cities, a higher run-off of water, and an increasing pollution of surface water. The aim of this research is to develop a location intelligence system for the assessment of pluvial flooding risks and the identification of storm water pollutant sources from roads in newly-developed areas. The system combines geographic information systems and business intelligence software, and it is based on the original Pluvial Flood Risk Assessment tool. The location intelligence system effectively identifies the spatial and temporal distribution of pluvial flood risks, allows to preliminarily evaluate the total run-off from roads, and helps localise potential places for new water management infrastructure. Further improvements concern the modelling of a flow accumulation and drainage system, the application of weather radar precipitation data, and traffic monitoring and modelling.

  14. Investigation of water and CO2 (carbon dioxide) flooding using micro-CT (micro-computed tomography) images of Berea sandstone core using finite element simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunde, Akshay C.; Bera, Bijoyendra; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports a numerical investigation of water and CO 2 (carbon dioxide) flooding at the pore scale of a porous medium. We use high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images of Berea sandstone core to obtain the pore geometry. The numerical solution used for the simulation was carried out by a finite element based software package. Level Set method is used to determine the position of the interface between two immiscible fluids when oil is displaced by water and CO 2 , respectively. The present formulation is validated against single-phase flow through the porous structure. It is found that, fluid flow inside the pore space takes place through preferential inlet and outlet pores. For two-phase flow, it is observed that continuous displacement of oil occurs during water flooding but CO 2 is able to displace oil at certain locations in the pores. Also, the separation of flow front is observed in the case of CO 2 flooding. A quantitative comparison of the results obtained in two types of flooding simulations suggests that water displaces a higher volume of oil than CO 2 in the time period for which the simulations are performed.

  15. Interactive Web-based Floodplain Simulation System for Realistic Experiments of Flooding and Flood Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.

    2013-12-01

    Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage and visualize large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to create realistic environments, and interact with data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. The floodplain simulation system is a web-based 3D interactive flood simulation environment to create real world flooding scenarios. The simulation systems provides a visually striking platform with realistic terrain information, and water simulation. Students can create and modify predefined scenarios, control environmental parameters, and evaluate flood mitigation techniques. The web-based simulation system provides an environment to children and adults learn about the flooding, flood damage, and effects of development and human activity in the floodplain. The system provides various scenarios customized to fit the age and education level of the users. This presentation provides an overview of the web-based flood simulation system, and demonstrates the capabilities of the system for various flooding and land use scenarios.

  16. Effect of upper plenum water accumuration on reflooding phenomena under forced-feed flooding in SCTF Core-I tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Yukio; Sobajima, Makoto; Iwamura, Takamichi; Osakabe, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Akira; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi

    1983-07-01

    Large Scale Reflood Test Program has been performed under contract with the Atomic Energy Bureau of Science and Technology Agency of Japan since 1976. The Slab Core Test Program is a part of the Large Scale Reflood Test Program along with the Cylindrical Core Test Program. Major purpose of the Slab Core Test Program is to investigate two-dimensional, thermo-hydrodynamic behavior in the core and the effect of fluid communication between the core and the upper plenum on the reflood phenomena in a postulated loss-of-coolant accident of a PWR. A significant upper plenum water accumulation was observed in the Base Case Test Sl-01 which was carried out under forced-feed flooding condition. To investigate the effects of upper plenum water accumulation on reflooding phenomena, accumulated water is extracted out of the upper plenum in Test Sl-03 by full opening of valves for extraction lines located just above the upper core support plate. This report presents this effect of upper plenum water accumulation on reflooding phenomena through the comparison of Tests Sl-01 and Sl-03. In spite of full opening of valves for upper plenum water extraction in Test Sl-03, a little water accumulation was observed which is of the same magnitude as in Test Sl-01 for about 200 s after the beginning of reflood. From 200 s after the beginning of reflood, however, the upper plenum water accumulation is much less in Test Sl-03 than in Test Sl-01, showing the following effects of upper plenum water accumulation. In Test Sl-03, (1) the two-dimensionality of horizontal fluid distribution is much less both above and in the core, (2) water carryover through hot leg and water accumulation in the core are less, (3) quench time is rather delayed in the upper part of the core by less water fall back from the upper plenum, and (4) difference in the core thermal behavior and core heat transfer are not significant in the middle and lower part of the core. (author)

  17. A practical demonstration of water disinfection using TiO2 films and sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Silvia; Gómez, Luis A; Reyes, Karina; Teresa Leal, Ma

    2006-10-01

    The scope of this study is the assessment of the efficiency of solar disinfection by heterogeneous photocatalysis with sol-gel immobilized (titanium dioxide) TiO2 films over glass cylinders. The solar disinfection process known as SODIS was considered as a reference. Spring water naturally polluted with coliform bacteria was exposed to sunlight in plastic bottles with and without TiO2 over simple solar collectors and the disinfection effectiveness was measured. Total and fecal coliforms quantification was performed by means of the chromogenic substrate method in order to obtain the efficiency of each disinfection treatment. The disinfection with TiO2 was more efficient than the SODIS process, inactivating total coliforms as well as fecal coliforms. On a sunny day (more than 1000 W m(-2) irradiance), it took the disinfection with immobilized TiO2 15 min of irradiation to inactivate the fecal coliforms to make them undetectable. For inactivation of total coliforms, 30 min was required, so that in less than half the time it takes SODIS, the treated water complies with the microbial standards for drinking water in Mexico. Another important part of this study has been to determine the bacterial regrowth in water after the disinfection processes were tested. After SODIS, bacterial regrowth of coliforms was observed. In contrast, when using the TiO2 catalyst, coliforms regrowth was not detected, neither for total nor for fecal coliforms. The disinfection process using TiO2 kept treated water free of coliforms at least for seven days after sun irradiation. This demonstration opens the possibility of application of this simple method in rural areas of developing countries.

  18. Monitoring and Risk Identification Caused by High Water, Floods and Erosion Processes in Urban Part of Sava Riverbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoruš, D.; Miković, N.; Ljevar, I.

    2012-04-01

    Riverbed erosion and bottom deepening are part of natural fluvial processes in the upper stream of Sava River. The increasing gradient of those changes is interconnected with the level of human influence in the river basin and riverbed as well. In time period of last forty years the consequences of riverbed erosion are become serious as well as dangerous and they threaten the stability of hydro technical structures. The increasing value of flow velocity in riverbed in urban part of river section during high water level, mud and debris flow during the floods as well, is especially dangerous for old bridges. This paper contains result of velocity measurements during high waters taken by Hydrological Service of Republic Croatia, load transport monitoring during such events and cross sections in some vulnerable location. In this paper is given one example of Jakuševac railway bridge in Zagreb, heavily destroyed during high water event on the 30 March 2009., recently reconstructed by "Croatian Railways" company. Keywords: Riverbed erosion, flow velocity, mud and debris flow, risk identification, stability of bridges

  19. Using a Bayesian Probabilistic Forecasting Model to Analyze the Uncertainty in Real-Time Dynamic Control of the Flood Limiting Water Level for Reservoir Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dedi; Li, Xiang; Guo, Shenglian

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic control of the flood limiting water level (FLWL) is a valuable and effective way to maximize the benefits from reservoir operation without exceeding the design risk. In order to analyze the impacts of input uncertainty, a Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) is adopted. Applying quantile water...... inflow values and their uncertainties obtained from the BFS, the reservoir operation results from different schemes can be analyzed in terms of benefits, dam safety, and downstream impacts during the flood season. When the reservoir FLWL dynamic control operation is implemented, there are two fundamental......, also deterministic water inflow was tested. The proposed model in the paper emphasizes the importance of analyzing the uncertainties of the water inflow forecasting system for real-time dynamic control of the FLWL for reservoir operation. For the case study, the selected quantile inflow from...

  20. The impacts of urbanisation and climate change on urban flooding and urban water quality: A review of the evidence concerning the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Miller

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: There is a lack of nationally research focused on the dual impacts of climate change and urbanisation on flooding and water quality in UK urban areas. This is despite there being a clear acceptance that flood risk is increasing, water quality is generally not meeting desirable levels, and that combined population and climate change projections pose a pressing challenge. The available evidence has been found to be of medium-high confidence that both pressures will result in (i an increase in pluvial and fluvial flood risk, and (ii further reduction in water quality caused by point source pollution and altered flow regimes. Evidence concerning urban groundwater flooding, diffuse pollution and water temperature was found to be more sparse and was ascribed a low-medium confidence that both pressures will further exacerbate existing issues. The confidence ascribed to evidence was also found to reflect the utility of current science for setting policy and urban planning. Recurring factors that limit the utility of evidence for managing the urban environment includes: (i climate change projection uncertainty and suitability, (ii lack of sub-daily projections for storm rainfall, (iii the complexity of managing and modelling the urban environment, and (iv lack of probable national-scale future urban land-use projections. Suitable climate products are increasingly being developed and their application in applied urban research is critical in the wake of a series of extreme flooding events across the UK and timely for providing state-of-the-art evidence on which to base possible future water quality legislation in a post Brexit-WFD era.

  1. Numerical simulation of flood barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srb, Pavel; Petrů, Michal; Kulhavý, Petr

    This paper deals with testing and numerical simulating of flood barriers. The Czech Republic has been hit by several very devastating floods in past years. These floods caused several dozens of causalities and property damage reached billions of Euros. The development of flood measures is very important, especially for the reduction the number of casualties and the amount of property damage. The aim of flood control measures is the detention of water outside populated areas and drainage of water from populated areas as soon as possible. For new flood barrier design it is very important to know its behaviour in case of a real flood. During the development of the barrier several standardized tests have to be carried out. Based on the results from these tests numerical simulation was compiled using Abaqus software and some analyses were carried out. Based on these numerical simulations it will be possible to predict the behaviour of barriers and thus improve their design.

  2. Hydrological Impacts of Flood Storage and Management on Irrigation Water Abstraction in Upper Ewaso Ng’iro River Basin, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngigi, S.N.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gichuki, F.N.

    2008-01-01

    The upper Ewaso Ng’iro basin, which starts from the central highlands of Kenya and stretches northwards transcending different climatic zones, has experienced decreasing river flows for the last two decades. The Naro Moru sub-basin is used to demonstrate the looming water crisis in this water scarce

  3. Quality demonstration of analytica procedure for quantification of 134Cesium and 137Cesium in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.O.; Farias, E.E.G.; Filho, C.A.S.; França, E.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Intercomparison programs are extremely important in attesting the metrological quality of laboratories, contributing to the improvement of the quality of the analytical procedures adopted and the validation of new analytical methodologies. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the quality of the analyzes of radionuclides Cs-134 and Cs-137 by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry in water samples of the PNI (National Intercomparison Program). Prior to the start of the analyzes, the vials containing the concentrated samples are shaken for about 10 minutes to ensure homogeneity. A 500 ml aliquot of the concentrated solution is transferred to a beaker for dilution with 1% (v / v) HNO 3 to 4 liters. After being shaken for 30 minutes, 2 liters of this diluted solution are transferred to a Marinelli vessel and then analyzed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (EGAR) using germanium Hyperpure-HPGe detectors. The results obtained are reported to the IRD for analytical performance evaluation. Based on the intercomparison rounds as of year 2011, the SEAMB/CRCN/NE (Environmental Monitoring Service of the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast) participated in eight rounds of the PNI. All results were within the range of standard deviation evaluation parameter calculated by the IRD. The results obtained demonstrate the analytical capacity of the CRCN-NE for radiometric analyzes in water

  4. Results from the Big Spring basin water quality monitoring and demonstration projects, Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden, R.D.; Liu, H.; Libra, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural practices, hydrology, and water quality of the 267-km2 Big Spring groundwater drainage basin in Clayton County, Iowa, have been monitored since 1981. Land use is agricultural; nitrate-nitrogen (-N) and herbicides are the resulting contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Ordovician Galena Group carbonate rocks comprise the main aquifer in the basin. Recharge to this karstic aquifer is by infiltration, augmented by sinkhole-captured runoff. Groundwater is discharged at Big Spring, where quantity and quality of the discharge are monitored. Monitoring has shown a threefold increase in groundwater nitrate-N concentrations from the 1960s to the early 1980s. The nitrate-N discharged from the basin typically is equivalent to over one-third of the nitrogen fertilizer applied, with larger losses during wetter years. Atrazine is present in groundwater all year; however, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater respond directly to recharge events, and unique chemical signatures of infiltration versus runoff recharge are detectable in the discharge from Big Spring. Education and demonstration efforts have reduced nitrogen fertilizer application rates by one-third since 1981. Relating declines in nitrate and pesticide concentrations to inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides at Big Spring is problematic. Annual recharge has varied five-fold during monitoring, overshadowing any water-quality improvements resulting from incrementally decreased inputs. ?? Springer-Verlag 2001.

  5. Source and composition of surface water dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the effect of flood events on the organic matter cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Welti, Nina; Tritthart, Michael; Baker, Andrew; Pinay, Gilles; Hein, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Floodplains are often simultaneously affected by land use change, river regulation and loss of hydrological dynamics which alter the surface water connectivity between floodplain and river main channel. These alterations can have significant impacts on the sources of organic matter and their degradation and thus, the carbon cycling of riverine landscapes. Although floodplains are known to be important sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) within watersheds, reduced hydrological connectivity impair their role. The key questions of our research were to determine i) to what extent the degree of connection between the Danube River and its floodplain controlled the DOM composition with its backwater systems, and ii) what were the effects of the DOM changes on carbon cycling in floodplains during two flood events with different magnitude? In this study we report on the variations in DOM spectrophotometric properties of surface waters in different connected floodplain areas and during two flood events of different magnitude in a section of the Alluvial Zone National Park of the Danube River downstream Vienna, Austria. Two backwater floodplain systems were studied, one backwater system mostly disconnected from the fluvial dynamics except during high flood events (Lower Lobau) and the second one, recently restored and connected even during mean flow conditions (Orth). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrophotometry and water chemical analyses were applied to investigate the DOM dynamics. In both backwater systems 15 sites were sampled monthly for two years and every second day during a flood event.

  6. Global and regional aspects for genesis of catastrophic floods - the problems of forecasting and estimates for mass and water balance (surface and groundwater contribution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Arakelian, Sergei; Trifonov, Dmitriy; Abrakhin, Sergei

    2017-04-01

    1. The principal goal of present talk is, to discuss the existing uncertainty and discrepancy between water balance estimation for the area under heavy rain flood, on the one hand from the theoretical approach and reasonable data base due to rainfall going from atmosphere and, on the other hand the real practicle surface water flow parameters measured by some methods and/or fixed by some eye-witness (cf. [1]). The vital item for our discussion is that the last characteristics sometimes may be noticeably grater than the first ones. Our estimations show the grater water mass discharge observation during the events than it could be expected from the rainfall process estimation only [2]. The fact gives us the founding to take into account the groundwater possible contribution to the event. 2. We carried out such analysis, at least, for two catastrophic water events in 2015, i.e. (1) torrential rain and catastrophic floods in Lousiana (USA), June 16-20; (2) Assam flood (India), Aug. 22 - Sept. 8. 3. Groundwater flood of a river terrace discussed e.g. in [3] but in respect when rise of the water table above the land surface occurs coincided with intense rainfall and being as a relatively rare phenomenon. In our hypothesis the principal part of possible groundwater exit to surface is connected with a crack-net system state in earth-crust (including deep layers) as a water transportation system, first, being in variated pressure field for groundwater basin and, second, modified by different reasons ( both suddenly (the Krimsk-city flash flood event, July 2012, Russia) and/or smoothly (the Amur river flood event, Aug.-Sept. 2013, Russia) ). Such reconstruction of 3D crack-net under external reasons (resulting even in local variation of pressures in any crack-section) is a principal item for presented approach. 4. We believe that in some cases the interconnection of floods and preceding earthquakes may occur. The problem discuss by us for certain events ( e.g. in addition to

  7. Pittsfield Local Flood Protection, West Branch and Southwest Branch, Housatonic River, Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Detailed Project Report for Water Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    a bakery , a gas station, and the Linden Street bridge were flooded during the March 1977 storm. Flooding also occurred on the Southwest Branch...and service station, one bakery , and five other commercial establishments. Most of these structures are not suited to being elevated above the design...of a shopping plaza and a fast-food franchise in the flood plain on West Housatonic Street (Route 20). The following three alternate plans of

  8. Flood Risk Management in Iowa through an Integrated Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Krajewski, Witold

    2013-04-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 1100 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert

  9. Use of a dam break model to assess flooding at Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, J.S.; Chery, D.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Because of their proximity to necessary supplies of cooling water, nuclear power plants are susceptible to riverine flooding. Greater flood hazards exist where plants are located downstream of larger dams. The consequences of the Quabbin Reservoir dam failure on the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant situated on the Connecticut River were investigated using a dam break flood routing model. Reasons for selecting a particular model are presented and the input assumption for the modeling process are developed. Relevant information concerning the level of manpower involvement is presented. The findings of this analysis demonstrate that the plant is adequately protected from the consequences of the postulated flood event

  10. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  11. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  12. The Total Risk Analysis of Large Dams under Flood Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dams and reservoirs are useful systems in water conservancy projects; however, they also pose a high-risk potential for large downstream areas. Flood, as the driving force of dam overtopping, is the main cause of dam failure. Dam floods and their risks are of interest to researchers and managers. In hydraulic engineering, there is a growing tendency to evaluate dam flood risk based on statistical and probabilistic methods that are unsuitable for the situations with rare historical data or low flood probability, so a more reasonable dam flood risk analysis method with fewer application restrictions is needed. Therefore, different from previous studies, this study develops a flood risk analysis method for large dams based on the concept of total risk factor (TRF used initially in dam seismic risk analysis. The proposed method is not affected by the adequacy of historical data or the low probability of flood and is capable of analyzing the dam structure influence, the flood vulnerability of the dam site, and downstream risk as well as estimating the TRF of each dam and assigning corresponding risk classes to each dam. Application to large dams in the Dadu River Basin, Southwestern China, demonstrates that the proposed method provides quick risk estimation and comparison, which can help local management officials perform more detailed dam safety evaluations for useful risk management information.

  13. A new flooding correlation development and its critical heat flux predictions under low air-water flow conditions in Savannah River Site assembly channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The upper limit to countercurrent flow, namely, flooding, is important to analyze the reactor coolability during an emergency cooling system (ECS) phase as a result of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) such as a double-ended guillotine break in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor system. During normal operation, the reactor coolant system utilizes downward flow through concentric heated tubes with ribs, which subdivided each annular channel into four subchannels. In this paper, a new flooding correlation has been developed based on the analytical models and literature data for adiabatic, steady-state, one-dimensional, air-water flow to predict flooding phenomenon in the SRS reactor assembly channel, which may have a counter-current air-water flow pattern during the ECS phase. In addition, the correlation was benchmarked against the experimental data conducted under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory multislit channel, which is close to the SRS assembly geometry. Furthermore, the correlation has also been used as a constitutive relationship in a new two-component two-phase thermal-hydraulics code FLOWTRAN-TF, which has been developed for a detailed analysis of SRS reactor assembly behavior during LOCA scenarios. Finally, the flooding correlation was applied to the predictions of critical heat flux, and the results were compared with the data taken by the SRS heat transfer laboratory under a single annular channel with ribs and a multiannular prototypic test rig

  14. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of flood management measures based on the concept of "retaining water in the landscape" in different European hydro-climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the effectiveness of flood management measures based on the concept known as "retaining water in the landscape". The investigated measures include afforestation, micro-ponds and small-reservoirs. A comparative and model-based methodological approach has been developed and applied for three meso-scale catchments located in different European hydro-climatological regions: Poyo (184 km2 in the Spanish Mediterranean, Upper Iller (954 km2 in the German Alps and Kamp (621 km2 in Northeast-Austria representing the Continental hydro-climate. This comparative analysis has found general similarities in spite of the particular differences among studied areas. In general terms, the flood reduction through the concept of "retaining water in the landscape" depends on the following factors: the storage capacity increase in the catchment resulting from such measures, the characteristics of the rainfall event, the antecedent soil moisture condition and the spatial distribution of such flood management measures in the catchment. In general, our study has shown that, this concept is effective for small and medium events, but almost negligible for the largest and less frequent floods: this holds true for all different hydro-climatic regions, and with different land-use, soils and morphological settings.

  15. Efficient solar hydrogen production by photocatalytic water splitting: From fundamental study to pilot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dengwei; Guo, Liejin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Ximin; Liu, Huan; Li, Mingtao; Shen, Shaohua; Liu, Guanjie; Hu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Lijin; Guo, Penghui [State Key Lab of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Photocatalytic water splitting with solar light is one of the most promising technologies for solar hydrogen production. From a systematic point of view, whether it is photocatalyst and reaction system development or the reactor-related design, the essentials could be summarized as: photon transfer limitations and mass transfer limitations (in the case of liquid phase reactions). Optimization of these two issues are therefore given special attention throughout our study. In this review, the state of the art for the research of photocatalytic hydrogen production, both outcomes and challenges in this field, were briefly reviewed. Research progress of our lab, from fundamental study of photocatalyst preparation to reactor configuration and pilot level demonstration, were introduced, showing the complete process of our effort for this technology to be economic viable in the near future. Our systematic and continuous study in this field lead to the development of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) based photocatalytic hydrogen production solar rector for the first time. We have demonstrated the feasibility for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light. The exiting challenges and difficulties for this technology to proceed from successful laboratory photocatalysis set-up up to an industrially relevant scale are also proposed. These issues have been the object of our research and would also be the direction of our study in future. (author)

  16. Nogales flood detention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  17. The use of Natural Flood Management to mitigate local flooding in the rural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Quinn, Paul; Ghimire, Sohan; Nicholson, Alex; Addy, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The past decade has seen increases in the occurrence of flood events across Europe, putting a growing number of settlements of varying sizes at risk. The issue of flooding in smaller villages is usually not well publicised. In these small communities, the cost of constructing and maintaining traditional flood defences often outweigh the potential benefits, which has led to a growing quest for more cost effective and sustainable approaches. Here we aim to provide such an approach that alongside flood risk reduction, also has multipurpose benefits of sediment control, water quality amelioration, and habitat creation. Natural flood management (NFM) aims to reduce flooding by working with natural features and characteristics to slow down or temporarily store flood waters. NFM measures include dynamic water storage ponds and wetlands, interception bunds, channel restoration and instream wood placement, and increasing soil infiltration through soil management and tree planting. Based on integrated monitoring and modelling studies, we demonstrate the potential to manage runoff locally using NFM in rural systems by effectively managing flow pathways (hill slopes and small channels) and by exploiting floodplains and buffers strips. Case studies from across the UK show that temporary storage ponds (ranging from 300 to 3000m3) and other NFM measures can reduce peak flows in small catchments (5 to 10 km2) by up to 15 to 30 percent. In addition, increasing the overall effective storage capacity by a network of NFM measures was found to be most effective for total reduction of local flood peaks. Hydraulic modelling has shown that the positioning of such features within the catchment, and how they are connected to the main channel, may also affect their effectiveness. Field evidence has shown that these ponds can collect significant accumulations of fine sediment during flood events. On the other hand, measures such as wetlands could also play an important role during low flow

  18. Thickening agent for flood water in secondary recovery of oil and for other aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, H H

    1966-04-14

    Alkenyl-aromatic polymer sulfonates are good thickeners for some aqueous solutions, but addition of salts to such solutions reduces the desirable viscosity. High-molecular, water-soluble alkenyl-aromatic polymers which carry sulfonic acid or sulfonate groups substituted at the aromatic nuclei yield thickened solutions (e.g., for waterflooding) which are not influenced by the presence of water-soluble salts. Such polymers are derivatives of polyvinyltoluene, alone or in combination with about 5% acrylonitrile. It was also found that such thickening agents are less adsorbed on the rock matrix in a waterflood formation. (1 claim)

  19. A critical assessment of flux and source term closures in shallow water models with porosity for urban flood simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    The validity of flux and source term formulae used in shallow water models with porosity for urban flood simulations is assessed by solving the two-dimensional shallow water equations over computational domains representing periodic building layouts. The models under assessment are the Single Porosity (SP), the Integral Porosity (IP) and the Dual Integral Porosity (DIP) models. 9 different geometries are considered. 18 two-dimensional initial value problems and 6 two-dimensional boundary value problems are defined. This results in a set of 96 fine grid simulations. Analysing the simulation results leads to the following conclusions: (i) the DIP flux and source term models outperform those of the SP and IP models when the Riemann problem is aligned with the main street directions, (ii) all models give erroneous flux closures when is the Riemann problem is not aligned with one of the main street directions or when the main street directions are not orthogonal, (iii) the solution of the Riemann problem is self-similar in space-time when the street directions are orthogonal and the Riemann problem is aligned with one of them, (iv) a momentum balance confirms the existence of the transient momentum dissipation model presented in the DIP model, (v) none of the source term models presented so far in the literature allows all flow configurations to be accounted for(vi) future laboratory experiments aiming at the validation of flux and source term closures should focus on the high-resolution, two-dimensional monitoring of both water depth and flow velocity fields.

  20. Crop performance, nitrogen and water use in flooded and aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, P.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Peng, S.; Castañeda, A.R.; Visperas, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Irrigated aerobic rice is a new system being developed for lowland areas with water shortage and for favorable upland areas with access to supplementary irrigation. It entails the cultivation of nutrient-responsive cultivars in nonsaturated soil with sufficient external inputs to reach

  1. Climate-Determined Suitability of the Water Saving Technology "Alternate Wetting and Drying" in Rice Systems: A Scalable Methodology demonstrated for a Province in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    Full Text Available 70% of the world's freshwater is used for irrigated agriculture and demand is expected to increase to meet future food security requirements. In Asia, rice accounts for the largest proportion of irrigated water use and reducing or conserving water in rice systems has been a long standing goal in agricultural research. The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD technique has been developed to reduce water use by up to 30% compared to the continuously flooded conditions typically found in rice systems, while not impacting yield. AWD also reduces methane emissions produced by anaerobic archae and hence has applications for reducing water use and greenhouse gas emissions. Although AWD is being promoted across Asia, there have been no attempts to estimate the suitable area for this promising technology on a large scale. We present and demonstrate a spatial and temporal climate suitability assessment method for AWD that can be widely applied across rice systems in Asia. We use a simple water balance model and easily available spatial and temporal information on rice area, rice seasonality, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration and soil percolation rates to assess the suitable area per season. We apply the model to Cagayan province in the Philippines and conduct a sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainties in soil percolation and suitability classification. As expected, the entire dry season is climatically suitable for AWD for all scenarios. A further 60% of the wet season area is found suitable contradicting general perceptions that AWD would not be feasible in the wet season and showing that spatial and temporal assessments are necessary to explore the full potential of AWD.

  2. Enhanced oil recovery by nitrogen and carbon dioxide injection followed by low salinity water flooding for tight carbonate reservoir: experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges Lwisa, Essa; Abdulkhalek, Ashrakat R.

    2018-03-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques are one of the top priorities of technology development in petroleum industries nowadays due to the increase in demand for oil and gas which cannot be equalized by the primary production or secondary production methods. The main function of EOR process is to displace oil to the production wells by the injection of different fluids to supplement the natural energy present in the reservoir. Moreover, these injecting fluids can also help in the alterations of the properties of the reservoir like lowering the IFTs, wettability alteration, a change in pH value, emulsion formation, clay migration and oil viscosity reduction. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the residual oil recovery by combining the effects of gas injection followed by low salinity water injection for low permeability reservoirs. This is done by a series of flooding tests on selected tight carbonate core samples taken from Zakuum oil field in Abu Dhabi by using firstly low salinity water as the base case and nitrogen & CO2injection followed by low salinity water flooding at reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. The experimental results revealed that a significant improvement of the oil recovery is achieved by the nitrogen injection followed by the low salinity water flooding with a recovery factor of approximately 24% of the residual oil.

  3. The influence of walls and upper tie plate slots on the flooding mechanism in fuel elements with and without heat transfer between steam and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatz, R.; Mewes, D.

    1989-01-01

    The counter-current flow of steam and water was experimentally investigated for the upper part of a PWR fuel element. The actual geometrical shape of the nuclear equipment was simulated by various types of plates, in which bore holes and slots were arranged in different positions. The experiments were performed with and without an installed, unheated rod bundle below the plates. The water was injected at saturated and subcooled temperatures in order to observe the effects of heat transfer on counter-current flow. With increasing steam velocity the flooding occurs initially in the tie-plate area. If the rod bundle is installed in the flow duct, a part of the downwards flowing water is transported upwards from the region of the upper grid spacer to the plate. Heat transfer between the phases can cause in the counter-current flow region an instable transition from downward to near complete upward directed liquid flow. In comparison to experiments with saturated water injection, flooding occurs at larger steam velocities. Different flooding correlations, which are known from the literature, were compared with the experimental data to appraise their applicability to counter-current flow in the core of PWRs. (orig.)

  4. Paleoflood Data, Extreme Floods and Frequency: Data and Models for Dam Safety Risk Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J. F.; Godaire, J.; Klinger, R.

    2007-12-01

    Extreme floods and probability estimates are crucial components in dam safety risk analysis and scenarios for water-resources decision making. The field-based collection of paleoflood data provides needed information on the magnitude and probability of extreme floods at locations of interest in a watershed or region. The stratigraphic record present along streams in the form of terrace and floodplain deposits represent direct indicators of the magnitude of large floods on a river, and may provide 10 to 100 times longer records than conventional stream gaging records of large floods. Paleoflood data is combined with gage and historical streamflow estimates to gain insights to flood frequency scaling, model extrapolations and uncertainty, and provide input scenarios to risk analysis event trees. We illustrate current data collection and flood frequency modeling approaches via case studies in the western United States, including the American River in California and the Arkansas River in Colorado. These studies demonstrate the integration of applied field geology, hydraulics, and surface-water hydrology. Results from these studies illustrate the gains in information content on extreme floods, provide data- based means to separate flood generation processes, guide flood frequency model extrapolations, and reduce uncertainties. These data and scenarios strongly influence water resources management decisions.

  5. Integration of Remote Sensing Technology Using Sentinel-2A Satellite images For Fertilization and Water Pollution Analysis in Estuaries Inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto Sawitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters in estuaries inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the eastern city of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in Estuaries Inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Sentinel-2A Satellite images. In this research there are 3 algorithms that will be used in determining the content of chlorophyll a, and for determining TSS. Image accuracy test is done to find out how far the image can give information about Chlorophyll-a and TSS in the waters. The results of the image accuracy test will be compared with the value of chlorophyll-a and TSS that have been tested through laboratory analysis. The result of this research is the distribution map of chlorophyll-a and TSS content in the waters.

  6. Integration of Remote Sensing Technology Using Sentinel-2A Satellite images For Fertilization and Water Pollution Analysis in Estuaries Inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiyanto, Sawitri; Ramadhanis, Zainab; Baktiar, Aditya Hafidh

    2018-02-01

    One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters in estuaries inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the eastern city of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in Estuaries Inlet of Semarang Eastern Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Sentinel-2A Satellite images. In this research there are 3 algorithms that will be used in determining the content of chlorophyll a, and for determining TSS. Image accuracy test is done to find out how far the image can give information about Chlorophyll-a and TSS in the waters. The results of the image accuracy test will be compared with the value of chlorophyll-a and TSS that have been tested through laboratory analysis. The result of this research is the distribution map of chlorophyll-a and TSS content in the waters.

  7. Asymmetric membranes for destabilization of oil droplets in produced water from alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlee, Azierah; Chiam, Chel-Ken; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2018-05-01

    This work presents a study of destabilization of oil droplets in the produced water from alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding by using four types of laboratory-fabricated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. The PVDF membranes were fabricated via immersion precipitation method with ethanol (0 - 30 %, v/v) as the coagulant. The membranes with the effective area of 17.35 cm2 were tested with synthesized ASP solution as the feed in cross-flow microfiltration process. The ASP feed solution initially contained the oil droplets with radius ranged from 40 to 100 nm and the mean radius was 61 nm. Results have shown that the concentration of the ethanol in the coagulation bath affects the formation of the membrane structure and the corresponding porosity, while no significance influence on the membrane thickness. Coalescence of the oil droplets was occurred when the ASP solution permeated through the asymmetric PVDF membranes. Through the coalescence process, the oil droplets were destabilized where the radius of the oil droplets in the permeates increased to 1.5-4 µm with the corresponding mean radius ranged from 2.4 to 2.7 µm.

  8. Catchment scale multi-objective flood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Steve; Worrall, Peter; Rosolova, Zdenka; Hammond, Gene

    2010-05-01

    Rural land management is known to affect both the generation and propagation of flooding at the local scale, but there is still a general lack of good evidence that this impact is still significant at the larger catchment scale given the complexity of physical interactions and climatic variability taking place at this level. The National Trust, in partnership with the Environment Agency, are managing an innovative project on the Holnicote Estate in south west England to demonstrate the benefits of using good rural land management practices to reduce flood risk at the both the catchment and sub-catchment scales. The Holnicote Estate is owned by the National Trust and comprises about 5,000 hectares of land, from the uplands of Exmoor to the sea, incorporating most of the catchments of the river Horner and Aller Water. There are nearly 100 houses across three villages that are at risk from flooding which could potentially benefit from changes in land management practices in the surrounding catchment providing a more sustainable flood attenuation function. In addition to the contribution being made to flood risk management there are a range of other ecosystems services that will be enhanced through these targeted land management changes. Alterations in land management will create new opportunities for wildlife and habitats and help to improve the local surface water quality. Such improvements will not only create additional wildlife resources locally but also serve the landscape response to climate change effects by creating and enhancing wildlife networks within the region. Land management changes will also restore and sustain landscape heritage resources and provide opportunities for amenity, recreation and tourism. The project delivery team is working with the National Trust from source to sea across the entire Holnicote Estate, to identify and subsequently implement suitable land management techniques to manage local flood risk within the catchments. These

  9. Iowa Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities

  10. Demonstration of a Model-Based Technology for Monitoring Water Quality and Corrosion in Water-Distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    that Fort Drum uses water from two sources: (1) treated groundwater from its on-post wells and (2) treated surface water supplied by the Development...Complete replacement of distribution system piping $21 million Year 10 and Year 30 Leak repair $40,000 Annual Bottled water for drinking $20,000 per...about effects of the instal- lation’s dual water supplies on operation of the water -distribution system. 5.2 Recommendations 5.2.1 Applicability Model

  11. Analysis of flooding in urban areas, taking into account the residence time of the water on site case of study: Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino De Luna C

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the damage, shall take into account the hydrodynamic behaviour of the flows. Since houses remain flooded for several days, was the reason to use precipitation level for more than seven days. in the mathematical modelling of flows water with a regular grid made up of cells 10 m by side with the boundary condition downstream, corresponding to the predicted change in the average sea level.

  12. Changing climate in the Lake Superior region: a case study of the June 2012 flood and its effects on the western-lake water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, E. C.; Forsman, B.; Guildford, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    In Lake Superior, the world's largest freshwater lake by area, we are seeing annual surface-water temperature increases outpacing those of the overlying atmosphere. We are also seeing ever earlier onsets of water-column stratification (in data sets from the mid-1980s to the present). In Minnesota, including the Lake Superior watershed, precipitation patterns are also shifting toward fewer and more extreme storm events, such as the June 2012 solstice flood, which impacted the western Lake Superior basin. We are interested in how such climatological changes will affect nutrient and carbon biogeochemistry in Lake Superior. The lake is currently an oligotrophic system exhibiting light limitation of primary production in winter and spring, with summer primary production generally limited by phosphorus and sometimes co-limited by iron. Analyses in the western arm of Lake Superior showed that the June 2012 flood brought large amounts of sediment and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from the watershed into the lake. There was initially a ~50-fold spike in the total phosphorus concentrations (and a 5 fold spike in soluble reactive phosphorus) in flood-impacted waters. This disappeared rapidly, in large part due to sediment settling and did not lead to an increase in chlorophyll concentrations at monitored sampling sites. Instead, lake phytoplankton appeared light limited by a surface lens of warm water enriched in CDOM that persisted for over a month after the flood event itself. Our observations highlight the need for continuing research on these complex in-lake processes in order to make accurate predictions about longer term impacts of these large episodic inputs in CDOM, sediment, and nutrient loading.

  13. Influence of High Water Contents on Pavement Layers Stiffness Caused by Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokitowski Przemysław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture inside the construction of road pavements is the problem for road engineers all around the world. This issue is mentioned in many European or the US papers and studies, but still it needs to be developed. From the road engineers’ point of view, very important for solving above problems are the studies on the influence of water and moisture inside the construction of road pavement during deflection measurements using Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD. The paper raises this issue by showing a short review of Polish and foreign literature and presenting the first step of research work at the test site on Voivodeship Road 933 in Poland.

  14. Effectiveness of flood damage mitigation measures: Empirical evidence from French flood disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poussin, J.K.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent destructive flood events and projected increases in flood risks as a result of climate change in many regions around the world demonstrate the importance of improving flood risk management. Flood-proofing of buildings is often advocated as an effective strategy for limiting damage caused by

  15. An Observation Task Chain Representation Model for Disaster Process-Oriented Remote Sensing Satellite Sensor Planning: A Flood Water Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and comprehensive representation of an observation task is a prerequisite in disaster monitoring to achieve reliable sensor observation planning. However, the extant disaster event or task information models do not fully satisfy the observation requirements for the accurate and efficient planning of remote-sensing satellite sensors. By considering the modeling requirements for a disaster observation task, we propose an observation task chain (OTChain representation model that includes four basic OTChain segments and eight-tuple observation task metadata description structures. A prototype system, namely OTChainManager, is implemented to provide functions for modeling, managing, querying, and visualizing observation tasks. In the case of flood water monitoring, we use a flood remote-sensing satellite sensor observation task for the experiment. The results show that the proposed OTChain representation model can be used in modeling process-owned flood disaster observation tasks. By querying and visualizing the flood observation task instances in the Jinsha River Basin, the proposed model can effectively express observation task processes, represent personalized observation constraints, and plan global remote-sensing satellite sensor observations. Compared with typical observation task information models or engines, the proposed OTChain representation model satisfies the information demands of the OTChain and its processes as well as impels the development of a long time-series sensor observation scheme.

  16. The Decision Support Matrix (DSM) Approach to Reducing Risk of Flooding and Water Pollution in Farmed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Caspar J. M.; Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Intense farming plays a key role in contributing to problems such as increased flood risk, soil erosion and poor water quality. This means that there is great potential for agricultural practitioners to play a major part in reducing multiple risks through better land-use management. Greater understanding by farmers, land managers, practitioners and policy-makers of the ways in which farmed landscapes contribute to risks and the ways in which those risks might be mitigated can be an essential component in improving practice. The Decision Support Matrix (DSM) approach involves the development of a range of visualization and communication tools to help compare the risks associated with different farming practices and explore options to manage runoff. DSMs are simple decision support systems intended for use by the non-expert which combine expert hydrological evidence with local knowledge of runoff patterns. They are developed through direct engagement with stakeholders, ensuring that the examples and language used makes sense to end-users. A key element of the tools is that they show the current conditions of the land and describe extremes of land-use management within a hydrological and agricultural land-management context. The tools include conceptual models of a series of pre-determined runoff scenarios, providing the end-user with a variety of potential land management practices and runoff management options. Visual examples of different farming practices are used to illustrate the impact of good and bad practice on specific problems such as nutrient export or risk of flooding. These show both how current conditions cause problems downstream and how systems are vulnerable to changes in climate and land-use intensification. The level of risk associated with a particular land management option is represented by a mapping on a two- or three-dimensional matrix. Interactive spreadsheet-based tools are developed in which multiple questions allow the user to explore

  17. Effect of Flash Flood in the Distribution of Radionuclides of Ground Water and its Environmental Impacts, Wadi Naseib, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.A.; Talaat, S.M.; Abd El Maksoud, T.M.; ElAassy, I.E.; El Galy, M.M.; El Feky, M.G.; Ibrahim, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater can either be extracted from bedrock (drilled wells) or from soil aquifer (dug wells). This study was carried out on four dug wells in two successive years. Water samples were collected in April 2010 (after January 2010 flash flood) and April 2011 (with no flash flood). Samples were prepared for gamma spectrometry using hyper pure germanium detector. The results showed variations in the concentrations of 238 U and its decay series nuclides, 232 Th and 40 K. The activity concentration of 238 U was increased from 5 to 6 times after flash flood, while 232 Th was increased around 10 times. The activity concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi were 2 to 9 times higher in 2011 than in 2010 waters. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio is usually more than one. The analyzed groundwater samples recorded higher effective dose than the recommended reference for drinking water by WHO (0.1 mSv/y). ICRP recommendations set the limit for public exposure as an effective dose of 1.0 mSv/y. In this context, the effective dose of the samples collected in April 2010 were higher than the ICRP limit, while the samples of April 2011 were lower than this limit.

  18. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA - USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT DESERT SANDS MDWCA, NM SIX MONTH EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during, and the results obtained from, the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Desert Sands Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association (MDWCA) facility in Anthony, NM. The object...

  19. Suitability of second pass RO as a substitute for high quality MSF product water in Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, V.; Venkatesh, P.; Balasubramanian, C.; Nagaraj, R.; Yadav, Manoj Kumar; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant at Kalpakkam consists of both Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF) and Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) process to produce desalinated water. It supplies part of highly pure water from MSF to Madras Atomic Power Station for its boiler feed requirements and remaining water is blend with SWRO product water and sent to other common facilities located inside Kalpakkam campus. A critical techno-economic analysis is carried out to find out the suitability of second pass RO to sustain the availability of highly pure water in case of MSF plant shutdown. (author)

  20. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  1. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs

  2. Health impacts of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.

  3. Simulated and observed 2010 flood-water elevations in selected river reaches in the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket River Basins, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Straub, David E.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy persistent rains from late February through March 2010 caused severe flooding and set, or nearly set, peaks of record for streamflows and water levels at many long-term U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in Rhode Island. In response to this flood, hydraulic models were updated for selected reaches covering about 33 river miles in Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket River Basins from the most recent approved Federal Emergency Management Agency flood insurance study (FIS) to simulate water-surface elevations (WSEs) from specified flows and boundary conditions. Reaches modeled include the main stem of the Moshassuck River and its main tributary, the West River, and three tributaries to the West River—Upper Canada Brook, Lincoln Downs Brook, and East Branch West River; and the main stem of the Woonasquatucket River. All the hydraulic models were updated to Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) version 4.1.0 and incorporate new field-survey data at structures, high-resolution land-surface elevation data, and flood flows from a related study. The models were used to simulate steady-state WSEs at the 1- and 2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flows, which is the estimated AEP of the 2010 flood in the Moshassuck River Basin and the Woonasquatucket River, respectively. The simulated WSEs were compared to the high-water mark (HWM) elevation data obtained in these basins in a related study following the March–April 2010 flood, which included 18 HWMs along the Moshassuck River and 45 HWMs along the Woonasquatucket River. Differences between the 2010 HWMs and the simulated 2- and 1-percent AEP WSEs from the FISs and the updated models developed in this study varied along the reach. Most differences could be attributed to the magnitude of the 2- and 1-percent AEP flows used in the FIS and updated model flows. Overall, the updated model and the FIS WSEs were not appreciably different when compared to the observed 2010 HWMs along the

  4. High-resolution urban flood modelling - a joint probability approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Michael; Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    (Divoky et al., 2005). Nevertheless, such events occur and in Ireland alone there are several cases of serious damage due to flooding resulting from a combination of high sea water levels and river flows driven by the same meteorological conditions (e.g. Olbert et al. 2015). A November 2009 fluvial-coastal flooding of Cork City bringing €100m loss was one such incident. This event was used by Olbert et al. (2015) to determine processes controlling urban flooding and is further explored in this study to elaborate on coastal and fluvial flood mechanisms and their roles in controlling water levels. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology to assess combined effect of multiple source flooding on flood probability and severity in urban areas and to establish a set of conditions that dictate urban flooding due to extreme climatic events. These conditions broadly combine physical flood drivers (such as coastal and fluvial processes), their mechanisms and thresholds defining flood severity. The two main physical processes controlling urban flooding: high sea water levels (coastal flooding) and high river flows (fluvial flooding), and their threshold values for which flood is likely to occur, are considered in this study. Contribution of coastal and fluvial drivers to flooding and their impacts are assessed in a two-step process. The first step involves frequency analysis and extreme value statistical modelling of storm surges, tides and river flows and ultimately the application of joint probability method to estimate joint exceedence return periods for combination of surges, tide and river flows. In the second step, a numerical model of Cork Harbour MSN_Flood comprising a cascade of four nested high-resolution models is used to perform simulation of flood inundation under numerous hypothetical coastal and fluvial flood scenarios. The risk of flooding is quantified based on a range of physical aspects such as the extent and depth of inundation (Apel et al

  5. A bottom up approach to implementing multi-purpose mitigation measures for reducing flood risk and improving water quality in agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. E.; Quinn, P. F.; Jonczyk, J.; Burke, S.; Nicholson, A.; Barber, N.; Owen, G.; Palmer, M.

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have suggested that there is evidence that modern land-use management practices have increased surface runoff at the local scale. There is an urgent need for interventions to reduce the risk of flooding whilst also delivering multiple benefits (doing more for less). There are many settlements, which regularly suffer from flooding, which would benefit from upstream mitigation measures. Interventions at the source of runoff generation can have a positive impact on the flood hydrograph downstream. An integrated approach to managing runoff can also have multiple benefits on pollution and ecology, which could lead to beneficial impacts at the catchment scale. Belford, a small community in Northumberland, UK has suffered from an increased number of flood events over the past ten years. There is currently support within the English and Welsh Environment Agency for sustainable flood management solutions such as storage ponds, wetlands, beaver dams and willow riparian features which are being trialled at Belford. These runoff attenuation features (RAFs) also have benefits to water quality, capture sediment and create new ecological zones. Although the process by which numerous RAFs were deployed in Belford proved initially difficult to achieve within the existing regulatory framework, an efficient uptake process is now supported by local regulators including several branches of the Environment Agency. The Belford runoff management framework provides a step by step guide to implementing mitigation measures in the Belford burn catchment and could be easily applied to other catchments at a similar scale. The approach is based on implementing mitigation measures through engaging with catchment stakeholders and using solid field science and management protocols.

  6. Water quality changes in floodplain lakes due to the Amazon River flood pulse: Lago Grande de Curuaí (Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Affonso

    Full Text Available Assurance of water quality for human consumption is essential for public health policies. In the Amazon floodplain, the seasonal water level variation causes periodic flooding of marginal areas that are usually used for settlements, agriculture and livestock. Therefore, the exchange of materials between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem affects the proportion of suspended and dissolved components in water and its physical-chemical characteristics, and consequently the quality of the water used by local people. Following this approach, the aim of this study is to evaluate changes in water quality in Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain, Óbidos, Pará in response to the flood pulse, during one hydrological year from 2003 to 2004, based on water use classes (according to National Water Agency 357/2005 resolution using chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentration as parameters and the eutrophication index. Ordinary kriging was applied to interpolate chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen and to predict values at non sampled locations. Each location was then classified according to water use acceptable parameters and to Carlson Trophic State Index modified by Toledo to map lake water classes and trophic status. The result showed that Lago Grande de Curuaí floodplain is a supereutrophic system, with levels of dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a not suitable for human supply during the receding water phase. These areas are located near the riverine communities, which can cause health problems due to the presence of potentially toxic algae. Therefore, monitoring water quality in Amazon lakes is essential to ensure the availability has appropriate quality for human and animal supplies.

  7. The effect of floods on anemia among reproductive age women in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskorouchi, Hamid Reza; Nie, Peng; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2018-01-01

    This study uses biomarker information from the 2013 National Nutrition Survey Afghanistan and satellite precipitation driven modeling results from the Global Flood Monitoring System to analyze how floods affect the probability of anemia in Afghan women of reproductive age (15-49). In addition to establishing a causal relation between the two by exploiting the quasi-random variation of floods in different districts and periods, the analysis demonstrates that floods have a significant positive effect on the probability of anemia through two possible transmission mechanisms. The first is a significant effect on inflammation, probably related to water borne diseases carried by unsafe drinking water, and the second is a significant negative effect on retinol concentrations. Because the effect of floods on anemia remains significant even after we control for anemia's most common causes, we argue that the condition may also be affected by elevated levels of psychological stress.

  8. Time-lapse seismic attribute analysis for a water-flooded reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Long; Sen, M K; Stoffa, P L; Seif, R K

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of time-lapse seismic monitoring is the direct detection of the fluid front and two-phase contact area. However, several factors affect the quality of time-lapse seismic difference data and decrease detectability. One of these factors is random noise. In this paper, we propose five different methods aimed at improving the quality and detectability of noisy time-lapse seismic difference data. Common to these methods is the transform of the differences to a domain where the time-lapse signal and random noise are well separated. Our proposed methods include direct Fourier transform based spectral decomposition, bispectra, wavelet transform, singular value decomposition and hybrid methods. We also propose a method that combines multiple time-lapse difference data and gives a final difference which enhances the common part and attenuates the differences of the multiple difference images resulting in a better detectability than the original images. A synthetic time-lapse model is used to demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed methods

  9. Geochemistry, water dynamics and metals: Major, trace elements, Pb and Sr isotope constraints on their origins and movements in a small anthropized catchment over a flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, J.M.; Othman, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    Major, trace elements and Sr-Pb isotope data on the dissolved and particulate phases are reported for water samples taken regularly over the September flood of a Mediterranean river (S France). This river drains runoff from a small, carbonate, karstified watershed with Miocene and Jurassic lithologies, and characterized by agricultural, urban and road network activities. The objective is to combine all the data into a dynamic model for constraining the origin(s) and movements of waters and of their loads. Furthermore, for metals, it becomes then feasible to know their fate and bioavailability downstream

  10. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used

  11. Assessing the environmental justice consequences of flood risk: a case study in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Marilyn C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Recent environmental justice (EJ) research has emphasized the need to analyze social inequities in the distribution of natural hazards such as hurricanes and floods, and examine intra-ethnic diversity in patterns of EJ. This study contributes to the emerging EJ scholarship on exposure to flooding and ethnic heterogeneity by analyzing the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population residing within coastal and inland flood risk zones in the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Florida—one of the most ethnically diverse MSAs in the U.S. and one of the most hurricane-prone areas in the world. We examine coastal and inland flood zones separately because of differences in amenities such as water views and beach access. Instead of treating the Hispanic population as a homogenous group, we disaggregate the Hispanic category into relevant country-of-origin subgroups. Inequities in flood risk exposure are statistically analyzed using socio-demographic variables derived from the 2010 U.S. Census and 2007-2011 American Community Survey estimates, and 100-year flood risk zones from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Social vulnerability is represented with two neighborhood deprivation indices called economic insecurity and instability. We also analyze the presence of seasonal/vacation homes and proximity to public beach access sites as water-related amenity variables. Logistic regression modeling is utilized to estimate the odds of neighborhood-level exposure to coastal and inland 100-year flood risks. Results indicate that neighborhoods with greater percentages of non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Hispanic subgroups of Colombians and Puerto Ricans are exposed to inland flood risks in areas without water-related amenities, while Mexicans are inequitably exposed to coastal flood risks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of treating coastal and inland flood risks separately while controlling for water-related amenities, and

  12. Effects of Flood Control Strategies on Flood Resilience Under Sociohydrological Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyungmin; Jeong, Hanseok; Sangwan, Nikhil; Yu, David J.

    2018-04-01

    A community capacity to cope with flood hazards, or community flood resilience, emerges from the interplay of hydrological and social processes. This interplay can be significantly influenced by the flood control strategy adopted by a society, i.e., how a society sets its desired flood protection level and strives to achieve this goal. And this interplay can be further complicated by rising land-sea level differences, seasonal water level fluctuations, and economic change. But not much research has been done on how various forms of flood control strategies affect human-flood interactions under these disturbances and therefore flood resilience in the long run. The current study is an effort to address these issues by developing a conceptual model of human-flood interaction mediated by flood control strategies. Our model extends the existing model of Yu et al. (2017), who investigated the flood resilience of a community-based flood protection system in coastal Bangladesh. The major extensions made in this study are inclusions of various forms of flood control strategies (both adaptive and nonadaptive ones), the challenge of rising land-sea level differences, and various high tide level scenarios generated from modifying the statistical variances and averages. Our results show that adaptive forms of flood control strategies tend to outperform nonadaptive ones for maintaining the model community's flood protection system. Adaptive strategies that dynamically adjust target flood protection levels through close monitoring of flood damages and social memories of flood risk can help the model community deal with various disturbances.

  13. Flood Impacts on People: from Hazard to Risk Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, C.; Castelli, F.

    2017-12-01

    The mitigation of adverse consequences of floods on people is crucial for civil protection and public authorities. According to several studies, in the developed countries the majority of flood-related fatalities occurs due to inappropriate high risk behaviours such as driving and walking in floodwaters. In this work both the loss of stability of vehicles and pedestrians in floodwaters are analysed. Flood hazard is evaluated, based on (i) a 2D inundation model of an urban area, (ii) 3D hydrodynamic simulations of water flows around vehicles and human body and (iii) a dimensional analysis of experimental activity. Exposure and vulnerability of vehicles and population are assessed exploiting several sources of open GIS data in order to produce risk maps for a testing case study. The results show that a significant hazard to vehicles and pedestrians exists in the study area. Particularly high is the hazard to vehicles, which are likely to be swept away by flood flow, possibly aggravate damages to structures and infrastructures and locally alter the flood propagation. Exposure and vulnerability analysis identifies some structures such as schools and public facilities, which may attract several people. Moreover, some shopping facilities in the area, which attract both vehicular and pedestrians' circulation are located in the highest flood hazard zone.The application of the method demonstrates that, at municipal level, such risk maps can support civil defence strategies and education to active citizenship, thus contributing to flood impact reduction to population.

  14. Synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions associated with flash flooding in watersheds of the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teale, N. G.; Quiring, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding flash flooding is important in unfiltered watersheds, such as portions of the New York City water supply system (NYCWSS), as water quality is degraded by turbidity associated with flooding. To further understand flash flooding in watersheds of the NYCWSS, synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions most frequently associated with flash flooding between 1987 and 2013 were examined. Flash floods were identified during this time period using USGS 15-minute discharge data at the Esopus Creek near Allaben, NY and Neversink River at Claryville, NY gauges. Overall, 25 flash floods were detected, occurring over 17 separate flash flood days. These flash flood days were compared to the days on which flash flood warnings encompassing the study area was issued by the National Weather Service. The success rate for which the flash flood warnings for Ulster County coincided with flash flood in the study watershed was 0.09, demonstrating the highly localized nature of flash flooding in the Catskill Mountain region. The synoptic-scale atmospheric patterns influencing the study area were characterized by a principal component analysis and k-means clustering of NCEP/NCAR 500 mb geopotential height reanalysis data. This procedure was executed in Spatial Synoptic Typer Tools 4.0. While 17 unique synoptic patterns were identified, only 3 types were strongly associated with flash flooding events. A strong southwesterly flow suggesting advection of moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico is shown in composites of these 3 types. This multiscalar study thereby links flash flooding in the NYCWSS with synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation.Understanding flash flooding is important in unfiltered watersheds, such as portions of the New York City water supply system (NYCWSS), as water quality is degraded by turbidity associated with flooding. To further understand flash flooding in watersheds of the NYCWSS, synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions most frequently associated with

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A BIDIRECTIONAL ADVECTIVE FLUX METER FOR SEDIMENT-WATER INTERFACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bidirectional advective flux meter for measuring water transport across the sediment-water interface has been successfully developed and field tested. The flow sensor employs a heat-pulse technique combined with a flow collection funnel for the flow measurement. Because the dir...

  16. Remote Sensing of Water Quality, Demonstrating the Capabilities of Sentinel-2 for the Nile Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salama, M.S.; Farag, H.A.A.M.; Vekerdy, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a hydro-optical model for deriving water quality variables from satellite images, hereafter HydroSat. HydroSat corrects images for atmospheric interferences and simultaneously retrieves water quality variables. An application of HydroSat to Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM)

  17. Simulation of extreme ground water flow in the fractal crack structure of Earth's crust - impact on catastrophic floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharov, Dmitriy; Aleksey, Kucherik; Tatyana, Trifonova

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the contribution of groundwater in catastrophic floods is the question under discussion [1,2]. The principal problem in such an approach - to analyze the transportation ways for groundwater in dynamics, and especially - the reasons of exit it on land surface. The crackness, being a characteristic property for all rocks, should be associated with the process in respect of unified dynamic system as a river water basin is, taking into account fundamental phenomena of the 3D-crack network development/modification (up to faults) as a transport groundwater system [3]. 2. In the system of fractal cracks (connected with the main channel for groundwater) the formation of extreme flow is possible, i.e. a devastating case occurs by instantaneous flash mechanism. The development of such a process is related to two factors. First, within the main channel of propagation of the groundwater when a motion is turbulent. In accordance with the theory of Kolmogorov [4], we assume that such a turbulence is isotropic. The fact means that both velocity and pressure fields in the water flow have pulsations related to the non-linear energy transfer between the vortices. This approach allows us to determine both that a maximum possible size of the vortices defined by characteristic dimensions of the underground channel and another - a minimum size of their due to process of dissipation. Energy transfer in the eddies formed near a border, is a complex nonlinear process, which we described by using a modernized Prandtl semi-empirical model [5]. Second, the mechanism of groundwater propagation in the system of cracks extending from the main underground channel is described in the frames of the fractal geometry methods [6]. The approach allows to determine the degree of similarity in the crack system, i.e. the ratio of mean diameters and lengths of cracks/faults for each step of decomposition. The fact results in integrated quantitative characteristics of 3D-network in all, by fractal

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  19. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in soil, sediment and water samples of Niger Delta (Biseni) flood plain lakes, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbalagba, E.O., E-mail: ezek64@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun (Nigeria); Onoja, R.A. [Dept. of Radiation Biophysics, Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents the findings of a baseline study undertaken to evaluate the natural radioactivity levels in soil, sediment and water samples in four flood plain lakes of the Niger Delta using a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity profile of radionuclides shows low activity across the study area. The mean activity level of the natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K is 20 {+-} 3, 20 {+-} 3 and 180 {+-} 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. These values are well within values reported elsewhere in the country and in other countries with similar environments. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices. The mean values obtained are, 76 {+-} 14 Bq kg{sup -1}, 30 {+-} 5.5 {eta}Gy h{sup -1}, 37 {+-} 6.8 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}, 0.17 and 0.23 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Ra{sub eq}), Absorbed Dose Rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E{sub ff} Dose), External Hazard Index (H{sub ex}) and Internal Hazard Index (H{sub in}) respectively. All the health hazard indices are well below their recommended limits. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be used as construction materials without posing any significant radiological threat to the population. The water is radiologically safe for domestic and industrial use. The paper recommends further studies to estimate internal and external doses from other suspected radiological sources to the population of the Biseni kingdom. - Highlights: > The activity profile of the radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low activity in the study area. > The average activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K is 20 {+-} 3, 20 {+-} 3 and 185 {+-} 47 Bq kg{sup -1} DW (or L{sup -1}) respectively. > These values compared well with other values obtained within Nigeria and other countries of the world. > The soils and sediments of the area have no immediate health implication on the inhabitants. > This work has

  20. Development of high-resolution multi-scale modelling system for simulation of coastal-fluvial urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Joanne; Indiana Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen; Hartnett, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Urban developments in coastal zones are often exposed to natural hazards such as flooding. In this research, a state-of-the-art, multi-scale nested flood (MSN_Flood) model is applied to simulate complex coastal-fluvial urban flooding due to combined effects of tides, surges and river discharges. Cork city on Ireland's southwest coast is a study case. The flood modelling system comprises a cascade of four dynamically linked models that resolve the hydrodynamics of Cork Harbour and/or its sub-region at four scales: 90, 30, 6 and 2 m. Results demonstrate that the internalization of the nested boundary through the use of ghost cells combined with a tailored adaptive interpolation technique creates a highly dynamic moving boundary that permits flooding and drying of the nested boundary. This novel feature of MSN_Flood provides a high degree of choice regarding the location of the boundaries to the nested domain and therefore flexibility in model application. The nested MSN_Flood model through dynamic downscaling facilitates significant improvements in accuracy of model output without incurring the computational expense of high spatial resolution over the entire model domain. The urban flood model provides full characteristics of water levels and flow regimes necessary for flood hazard identification and flood risk assessment.

  1. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection of... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...

  2. Demonstration of Enhanced Filtration for Treatment of Shipyard Storm Water, Deliverable 1, Design Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Shipyards are among the first industries to be targeted by the states for heavier regulation because of their high-profile water front locations and their necessary use of toxic antifouling compounds in hull coatings...

  3. Dynamic Water Storage during Flash Flood Events in the Mountainous Area of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil - Case study: Piabanha River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, L.; Silva, F. P. D.; Moreira, D. M.; Vásquez P, I. L.; Justi da Silva, M. G. A.; Fernandes, N.; Rotunno Filho, O. C.

    2017-12-01

    Flash floods are characterized by a rapid rise in water levels, high flow rates and large amounts of debris. Several factors have relevance to the occurrence of these phenomena, including high precipitation rates, terrain slope, soil saturation degree, vegetation cover, soil type, among others. In general, the greater the precipitation intensity, the more likely is the occurrence of a significant increase in flow rate. Particularly on steep and rocky plains or heavily urbanized areas, relatively small rain rates can trigger a flash flood event. In addition, high rain rates in short time intervals can temporarily saturate the surface soil layer acting as waterproofing and favoring the occurrence of greater runoff rates due to non-infiltration of rainwater into the soil. Thus, although precipitation is considered the most important factor for flooding, the interaction between rainfall and the soil can sometimes be of greater importance. In this context, this work investigates the dynamic storage of water associated with flash flood events for Quitandinha river watershed, a tributary of Piabanha river, occurred between 2013 and 2014, by means of water balance analyses applied to three watersheds of varying magnitudes (9.25 km², 260 km² and 429 km²) along the rainy season under different time steps (hourly and daily) using remotely sensed and observational precipitation data. The research work is driven by the hypothesis of a hydrologically active bedrock layer, as the watershed is located in a humid region, having intemperate (fractured) rock layer, just below a shallow soil layer, in the higher part of the basin where steep slopes prevail. The results showed a delay of the variation of the dynamic storage in relation to rainfall peaks and water levels. Such behavior indicates that the surface soil layer, which is not very thick in the region, becomes rapidly saturated along rainfall events. Subsequently, the water infiltrates into the rocky layer and the water

  4. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  5. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  6. Design, development, and field demonstration of a remotely deployable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. W.; Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype water quality monitoring system is described which offers almost continuous in situ monitoring. The two-man portable system features: (1) a microprocessor controlled central processing unit which allows preprogrammed sampling schedules and reprogramming in situ; (2) a subsurface unit for multiple depth capability and security from vandalism; (3) an acoustic data link for communications between the subsurface unit and the surface control unit; (4) eight water quality parameter sensors; (5) a nonvolatile magnetic bubble memory which prevents data loss in the event of power interruption; (6) a rechargeable power supply sufficient for 2 weeks of unattended operation; (7) a water sampler which can collect samples for laboratory analysis; (8) data output in direct engineering units on printed tape or through a computer compatible link; (9) internal electronic calibration eliminating external sensor adjustment; and (10) acoustic location and recovery systems. Data obtained in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron are tabulated.

  7. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Morse, D.; Raterman, K. [Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  8. FLOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND MANAGEMENT ADAPTATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. ... people are estimated to be at such risk by 2080 .... SCS-CN method is based on the water balance .... and psychological burden of flood hazard often fall.

  9. Flood susceptibility analysis through remote sensing, GIS and frequency ratio model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sailesh; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Palsamanta, Babita

    2018-05-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) is saddled with frequent natural disasters like earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, drought, flood etc. Flood, as a hydrological disaster to humankind's niche brings about a powerful and often sudden, pernicious change in the surface distribution of water on land, while the benevolence of flood manifests in restoring the health of the thalweg from excessive siltation by redistributing the fertile sediments on the riverine floodplains. In respect to social, economic and environmental perspective, flood is one of the most devastating disasters in PNG. This research was conducted to investigate the usefulness of remote sensing, geographic information system and the frequency ratio (FR) for flood susceptibility mapping. FR model was used to handle different independent variables via weighted-based bivariate probability values to generate a plausible flood susceptibility map. This study was conducted in the Markham riverine precinct under Morobe province in PNG. A historical flood inventory database of PNG resource information system (PNGRIS) was used to generate 143 flood locations based on "create fishnet" analysis. 100 (70%) flood sample locations were selected randomly for model building. Ten independent variables, namely land use/land cover, elevation, slope, topographic wetness index, surface runoff, landform, lithology, distance from the main river, soil texture and soil drainage were used into the FR model for flood vulnerability analysis. Finally, the database was developed for areas vulnerable to flood. The result demonstrated a span of FR values ranging from 2.66 (least flood prone) to 19.02 (most flood prone) for the study area. The developed database was reclassified into five (5) flood vulnerability zones segmenting on the FR values, namely very low (less that 5.0), low (5.0-7.5), moderate (7.5-10.0), high (10.0-12.5) and very high susceptibility (more than 12.5). The result indicated that about 19.4% land area as `very high

  10. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Prime

    Full Text Available Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  11. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Thomas; Brown, Jennifer M; Plater, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide) in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  12. An Inexpensive and Simple Method to Demonstrate Soil Water and Nutrient Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K. A.; Samson-Liebig, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are concepts that are being widely used but are difficult to define and illustrate, especially to a non-technical audience. The objectives of this manuscript were to develop simple and inexpensive methodologies to both qualitatively and quantitatively estimate water infiltration rates (IR),…

  13. A Classroom Demonstration of Water-Induced Phase Separation of Alcohol-Gasoline Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sherry A.; Anderson, James E.; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant issue associated with ethanol-gasoline blends is the phase separation that occurs with the addition of small volumes of water, producing an ethanol-deficient gasoline layer and an ethanol-rich aqueous layer. The gasoline layer may have a lower-than-desired octane rating due to the decrease in ethanol content, resulting in engine…

  14. 76 FR 36919 - Proof of Concept Demonstration for Electronic Reporting of Clean Water Act Compliance Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... reporting services to the regulated community for the NPDES program (e.g., NPDES permitted facilities). This open platform model would likely be similar to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) model for electronic... Federal and state levels, to strengthen that performance, and to transform EPA's water quality and...

  15. Spattering and Crackle of Hot Cooking Oil with Water: A Classroom Demonstration and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel; Gauthier, Carmen V.

    2009-01-01

    Any student that has spent time in the kitchen knows that hot vegetable oil will pop and spatter violently after coming into contact with water such as that on the surface of foods (meat, fish, potatoes, etc.). This well-known effect can be used as an instructional resource to promote cooperative, active, and inquiry-based learning about central…

  16. Assessing the tree health impacts of salt water flooding in coastal cities: A case study in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Hallett; Michelle L. Johnson; Nancy F. Sonti

    2018-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the second costliest hurricane in United States (U.S.) history. The category 2 storm hit New York City (NYC) on the evening of October 29, 2012, causing major flooding, wind damage, and loss of life. The New York City Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) documented over 20,000 fallen street trees due to the physical impact of wind...

  17. What is the Nondominated Formulation? A Demonstration of de Novo Water Supply Portfolio Planning Under Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.; Kirsch, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates a new interactive framework for sensitivity-informed de Novo programming, in which a learning approach to formulating decision problems can confront the deep uncertainty within water management problems. The framework couples global sensitivity analysis using Sobol’ variance decomposition with multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) to generate planning alternatives and test their robustness to new modeling assumptions and scenarios. We explore these issues within the context of a risk-based water supply management problem, where a city seeks the most efficient use of a water market. The case study examines a single city’s water supply in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas, using both a 10-year planning horizon and an extreme single-year drought scenario. The city’s water supply portfolio comprises a volume of permanent rights to reservoir inflows and use of a water market through anticipatory thresholds for acquiring transfers of water through optioning and spot leases. Diagnostic information from the Sobol’ variance decomposition is used to create a sensitivity-informed problem formulation testing different decision variable configurations, with tradeoffs for the formulation solved using a MOEA. Subsequent analysis uses the drought scenario to expose tradeoffs between long-term and short-term planning and illustrate the impact of deeply uncertain assumptions on water availability in droughts. The results demonstrate water supply portfolios’ efficiency, reliability, and utilization of transfers in the water supply market and show how to adaptively improve the value and robustness of our problem formulations by evolving our definition of optimality to discover key tradeoffs.

  18. Quantifying Uncertainty in Flood Inundation Mapping Using Streamflow Ensembles and Multiple Hydraulic Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Zarzar, C.; Gomez, M.; Siddique, R.; Smith, V.; Mejia, A.; Demir, I.

    2016-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) provides a platform for operationalize nationwide flood inundation forecasting and mapping. The ability to model flood inundation on a national scale will provide invaluable information to decision makers and local emergency officials. Often, forecast products use deterministic model output to provide a visual representation of a single inundation scenario, which is subject to uncertainty from various sources. While this provides a straightforward representation of the potential inundation, the inherent uncertainty associated with the model output should be considered to optimize this tool for decision making support. The goal of this study is to produce ensembles of future flood inundation conditions (i.e. extent, depth, and velocity) to spatially quantify and visually assess uncertainties associated with the predicted flood inundation maps. The setting for this study is located in a highly urbanized watershed along the Darby Creek in Pennsylvania. A forecasting framework coupling the NWM with multiple hydraulic models was developed to produce a suite ensembles of future flood inundation predictions. Time lagged ensembles from the NWM short range forecasts were used to account for uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecasts. The forecasts from the NWM were input to iRIC and HEC-RAS two-dimensional software packages, from which water extent, depth, and flow velocity were output. Quantifying the agreement between output ensembles for each forecast grid provided the uncertainty metrics for predicted flood water inundation extent, depth, and flow velocity. For visualization, a series of flood maps that display flood extent, water depth, and flow velocity along with the underlying uncertainty associated with each of the forecasted variables were produced. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to incorporate and visualize model uncertainties in flood inundation maps in order to identify the high flood risk zones.

  19. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  20. The Influence of CO2 Solubility in Brine on Simulation of CO2 Injection into Water Flooded Reservoir and CO2 WAG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs is not only a traditional way to enhance oil recovery but also a relatively cheaper way to sequester CO2 underground since the increased oil production can offset some sequestration cost. CO2 injection process is often applied to water flooded...... simulations were made for seven oil samples within a wide range of temperature, pressure and salinity. The results were analyzed in terms of the change in oil recovery due to different phase equilibrium descriptions, the delay in breakthrough and the CO2 lost to the aqueous phase. The influence of different...

  1. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous

  2. Technical specification: Mixed-oxide pellets for the light-water reactor irradiation demonstration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, B.S.

    1997-06-01

    This technical specification is a Level 2 Document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. It is patterned after the pellet specification that was prepared by Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited, for use by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fabrication of the test fuel for the Parallex Project, adjusted as necessary to reflect the differences between the Canadian uranium-deuterium reactor and light-water reactor fuels. This specification and the associated engineering drawing are to be utilized only for preparation of test fuel as outlined in the accompanying Request for Quotation and for additional testing as directed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory or the Department of Energy

  3. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    purging and sampling protocol. Analytes that were measured at the Pease site included total and dissolved concentrations of arsenic (As), calcium ...samples remain in the original bottle in which they were collected, presumably losses of volatiles and changes in concentrations of dissolved gases or...because of excavation and removal. This has resulted in hydraulically interconnected bedrock and overburden water- bearing zones in much of this area

  4. Prototype CIRCE plant-industrial demonstration of heavy-water production from a reformed hydrogen source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, D.A.; Boniface, H.A.; Sadhankar, R.R.; Everatt, A.E.; Miller, A.I. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Blouin, J. [Air Liquide Canada, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-09-01

    Heavy-water (D{sub 2}0) production has been dominated by the Girdler-Sulphide (G-S) process, which suffers several intrinsic disadvantages that lead to high production costs. Processes based on hydrogen/water exchange have become more attractive with the development of proprietary wetproofed catalysts by AECL. One process that is synergistic with industrial hydrogen production by steam methane reforming (SMR), the combined industrial reforming and catalytic exchange (CIRCE) process, offers the best prospect for commercialization. SMRs are common globally in the oil upgrading and ammonia industries. To study the CIRCE process in detail, AECL, in collaboration with Air Liquide Canada, constructed a prototype CIRCE plant (PCP) in Hamilton, ON. The plant became fully operational in 2000 July and is expected to operate to at least the late fall of 2002. To date, plant operation has confirmed the adequacy of the design and the capability of enriching deuterium to produce heavy water without compromising hydrogen production. The proprietary wetproofed catalyst has performed as expected, both in activity and in robustness. (author)

  5. Prototype CIRCE plant-industrial demonstration of heavy-water production from a reformed hydrogen source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnolo, D.A.; Boniface, H.A.; Sadhankar, R.R.; Everatt, A.E.; Miller, A.I.; Blouin, J.

    2002-09-01

    Heavy-water (D 2 0) production has been dominated by the Girdler-Sulphide (G-S) process, which suffers several intrinsic disadvantages that lead to high production costs. Processes based on hydrogen/water exchange have become more attractive with the development of proprietary wetproofed catalysts by AECL. One process that is synergistic with industrial hydrogen production by steam methane reforming (SMR), the combined industrial reforming and catalytic exchange (CIRCE) process, offers the best prospect for commercialization. SMRs are common globally in the oil upgrading and ammonia industries. To study the CIRCE process in detail, AECL, in collaboration with Air Liquide Canada, constructed a prototype CIRCE plant (PCP) in Hamilton, ON. The plant became fully operational in 2000 July and is expected to operate to at least the late fall of 2002. To date, plant operation has confirmed the adequacy of the design and the capability of enriching deuterium to produce heavy water without compromising hydrogen production. The proprietary wetproofed catalyst has performed as expected, both in activity and in robustness. (author)

  6. Prototype CIRCE plant - industrial demonstration of heavy water production from reformed hydrogen source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnolo, D.A.; Boniface, H.A.; Sadhankar, R.R.; Everatt, A.E.; Miller, A.I.; Blouin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy water (D 2 0) production has been dominated by the Girdler-Sulphide (G-S) process, which suffers several intrinsic disadvantages that lead to high production costs. Processes based on hydrogen/water exchange have become more attractive with the development of proprietary wetproofed catalysts by AECL. One process that is synergistic with industrial hydrogen production by steam methane reforming (SMR), the Combined Industrial Reforming and Catalytic Exchange (CIRCE) process, offers the best prospect for commercialization. SMRs are common globally in the oil-upgrading and ammonia industries. To study the CIRCE process in detail, AECL, in collaboration with Air Liquide Canada, constructed a prototype CIRCE plant (PCP) in Hamilton, Ontario. The plant became fully operational in 2000 July and is expected to operate to at least late fall of 2002. To-date, plant operation has confirmed the adequacy of the design and the capability of enriching deuterium to produce heavy water without compromising hydrogen production. The proprietary wetproofed catalyst has performed as expected, both in activity and in robustness. (author)

  7. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

  8. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA -- USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT ROLLINSFORD, NH, SIX MONTH EVALUTION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Rollinsford Water and Sewer District facility in Rollinsford, NH. The objectives of the project are to...

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT VALLEY VISTA, AZ SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the EPA arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Arizona Water Company (AWC) facility in Sedona, AZ, commonly referred to as Valley Vista. The main objective of the...

  11. Costs of Arsenic Removal Technologies for Small Water Systems: U.S. EPA Arsenic Removal Technology Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Arsenic Rule Implementation Research Program, between July 2003 and July 2011, the U.S. environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 50 full-scale demonstration projects on treatment systems removing arsenic from drinking water in 26 states throughout the U.S. ...

  12. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF INNOVATIVE LEAK DETECTION/LOCATION TECHNOLOGIES COUPLED WITH WALL-THICKNESS SCREENING FOR WATER MAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  13. Field Demonstration of Innovative Leak Detection/Location in Conjunction with Pipe Wall Thickness Testing for Water Mains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,000-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Se...

  14. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value Multivariate regression analysis with measured basin characteristics and the AEP statistics at long-term, unregulated, and un-urbanized (defined as drainage basins with less than 5 percent impervious land cover for this investigation) streamgages within Washington and some in Idaho and Oregon that are near the Washington border was used to develop equations to estimate AEP statistics at ungaged basins. Washington was divided into four regions to improve the accuracy of the regression equations; a set of equations for eight selected AEPs and for each region were constructed. Selected AEP statistics included the annual peak flows that equaled or exceeded 50, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.2 percent

  15. Towards a Flood Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, A.; Chong, A.; Prades, L.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Muir, S.; Amparore, A.; Slayback, D. A.; Poungprom, R.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding is the most common natural hazard worldwide, affecting 21 million people every year. In the immediate moments following a flood event, humanitarian actors like the World Food Program need to make rapid decisions ( 72 hrs) on how to prioritize affected areas impacted by such an event. For other natural disasters like hurricanes/cyclones and earthquakes, there are industry-recognized standards on how the impacted areas are to be classified. Shake maps, quantifying peak ground motion, from for example the US Geological Survey are widely used for assessing earthquakes. Similarly, cyclones are tracked by Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) who release storm nodes and tracks (forecasted and actual), with wind buffers and classify the event according to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. For floods, the community is usually able to acquire unclassified data of the flood extent as identified from satellite imagery. Most often no water discharge hydrograph is available to classify the event into recurrence intervals simply because there is no gauging station, or the gauging station was unable to record the maximum discharge due to overtopping or flood damage. So, the question remains: How do we methodically turn a flooded area into classified areas of different gradations of impact? Here, we present a first approach towards developing a global applicable flood severity index. The flood severity index is set up such that it considers relatively easily obtainable physical parameters in a short period of time like: flood frequency (relating the current flood to historical events) and magnitude, as well as land cover, slope, and where available pre-event simulated flood depth. The scale includes categories ranging from very minor flooding to catastrophic flooding. We test and evaluate the postulated classification scheme against a set of past flood events. Once a severity category is determined, socio

  16. Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in Arizona, developed with unregulated and rural peak-flow data through water year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretti, Nicholas V.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Turney, Lovina A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is among the worst natural disasters responsible for loss of life and property in Arizona, underscoring the importance of accurate estimation of flood magnitude for proper structural design and floodplain mapping. Twenty-four years of additional peak-flow data have been recorded since the last comprehensive regional flood frequency analysis conducted in Arizona. Periodically, flood frequency estimates and regional regression equations must be revised to maintain the accurate estimation of flood frequency and magnitude.

  17. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  18. Numerical simulation of flood inundation using a well-balanced kinetic scheme for the shallow water equations with bulk recharge and discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Mehmet; Lakkis, Omar; Townsend, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The flow of water in rivers and oceans can, under general assumptions, be efficiently modelled using Saint-Venant's shallow water system of equations (SWE). SWE is a hyperbolic system of conservation laws (HSCL) which can be derived from a starting point of incompressible Navier-Stokes. A common difficulty in the numerical simulation of HSCLs is the conservation of physical entropy. Work by Audusse, Bristeau, Perthame (2000) and Perthame, Simeoni (2001), proposed numerical SWE solvers known as kinetic schemes (KSs), which can be shown to have desirable entropy-consistent properties, and are thus called well-balanced schemes. A KS is derived from kinetic equations that can be integrated into the SWE. In flood risk assessment models the SWE must be coupled with other equations describing interacting meteorological and hydrogeological phenomena such as rain and groundwater flows. The SWE must therefore be appropriately modified to accommodate source and sink terms, so kinetic schemes are no longer valid. While modifications of SWE in this direction have been recently proposed, e.g., Delestre (2010), we depart from the extant literature by proposing a novel model that is "entropy-consistent" and naturally extends the SWE by respecting its kinetic formulation connections. This allows us to derive a system of partial differential equations modelling flow of a one-dimensional river with both a precipitation term and a groundwater flow model to account for potential infiltration and recharge. We exhibit numerical simulations of the corresponding kinetic schemes. These simulations can be applied to both real world flood prediction and the tackling of wider issues on how climate and societal change are affecting flood risk.

  19. Geochemistry and flooding as determining factors of plant species composition in Dutch winter-flooded riverine grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, V.; Wirdum, G. van; Beltman, B.; Griffioen, J.; Grootjans, A.P.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch water policy aims for more frequent, controlled flooding of river valley floodplains to avoid unwanted flooding elsewhere; in anticipation of increased flooding risks resulting from climate changes. Controlled flooding usually takes place in winter in parts of the valleys which had not been

  20. Generalizable open source urban water portfolio simulation framework demonstrated using a multi-objective risk-based planning benchmark problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, B. C.; Reed, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    The growing access and reduced cost for computing power in recent years has promoted rapid development and application of multi-objective water supply portfolio planning. As this trend continues there is a pressing need for flexible risk-based simulation frameworks and improved algorithm benchmarking for emerging classes of water supply planning and management problems. This work contributes the Water Utilities Management and Planning (WUMP) model: a generalizable and open source simulation framework designed to capture how water utilities can minimize operational and financial risks by regionally coordinating planning and management choices, i.e. making more efficient and coordinated use of restrictions, water transfers and financial hedging combined with possible construction of new infrastructure. We introduce the WUMP simulation framework as part of a new multi-objective benchmark problem for planning and management of regionally integrated water utility companies. In this problem, a group of fictitious water utilities seek to balance the use of the mentioned reliability driven actions (e.g., restrictions, water transfers and infrastructure pathways) and their inherent financial risks. Several traits of this problem make it ideal for a benchmark problem, namely the presence of (1) strong non-linearities and discontinuities in the Pareto front caused by the step-wise nature of the decision making formulation and by the abrupt addition of storage through infrastructure construction, (2) noise due to the stochastic nature of the streamflows and water demands, and (3) non-separability resulting from the cooperative formulation of the problem, in which decisions made by stakeholder may substantially impact others. Both the open source WUMP simulation framework and its demonstration in a challenging benchmarking example hold value for promoting broader advances in urban water supply portfolio planning for regions confronting change.

  1. Floods in Serbia in the 1999-2009 period: Hydrological analysis and flood protection measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review on greatest floods recorded in Vojvodina and central Serbia within the period from 1999 to 2009 is given in this paper. For 13 hydrological stations, that recorded the greatest floods for the present period, probability of occurrence of these floods has been accomplished. Based on analysis of time series of discharge and water level maximum, performed by applying probability theory and mathematical statistics, and calculated theoretical probability distribution function of floods, probability of occurrence of flood has been obtained. Most often the best agreement with the empirical distribution function had a Log-Pearson III, Pearson III distribution. These results can be used for dimensioning of hydro-technical objects for flood protection. The most significant causes for floods recorded in this period were melting of snow and intensive rainfall. In this paper the current situation of flood protection and future development of flood protection measures were also presented. .

  2. Dealing with Uncertainty in Flood Management Through Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows, through a numerical example, how to develop portfolios of flood management activities that generate the highest return under an acceptable risk for an area in the central part of the Netherlands. The paper shows a method based on Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT that contributes to developing flood management strategies. MPT aims at finding sets of investments that diversify risks thereby reducing the overall risk of the total portfolio of investments. This paper shows that through systematically combining four different flood protection measures in portfolios containing three or four measures; risk is reduced compared with portfolios that only contain one or two measures. Adding partly uncorrelated measures to the portfolio diversifies risk. We demonstrate how MPT encourages a systematic discussion of the relationship between the return and risk of individual flood mitigation activities and the return and risk of complete portfolios. It is also shown how important it is to understand the correlation of the returns of various flood management activities. The MPT approach, therefore, fits well with the notion of adaptive water management, which perceives the future as inherently uncertain. Through applying MPT on flood protection strategies current vulnerability will be reduced by diversifying risk.

  3. Quantification of Uncertainty in the Flood Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiapillai Sudalaimuthu, K.; He, J.; Swami, D.

    2017-12-01

    Flood frequency analysis (FFA) is usually carried out for planning and designing of water resources and hydraulic structures. Owing to the existence of variability in sample representation, selection of distribution and estimation of distribution parameters, the estimation of flood quantile has been always uncertain. Hence, suitable approaches must be developed to quantify the uncertainty in the form of prediction interval as an alternate to deterministic approach. The developed framework in the present study to include uncertainty in the FFA discusses a multi-objective optimization approach to construct the prediction interval using ensemble of flood quantile. Through this approach, an optimal variability of distribution parameters is identified to carry out FFA. To demonstrate the proposed approach, annual maximum flow data from two gauge stations (Bow river at Calgary and Banff, Canada) are used. The major focus of the present study was to evaluate the changes in magnitude of flood quantiles due to the recent extreme flood event occurred during the year 2013. In addition, the efficacy of the proposed method was further verified using standard bootstrap based sampling approaches and found that the proposed method is reliable in modeling extreme floods as compared to the bootstrap methods.

  4. Characterization of hydraulic connections between mine shaft and caprock based on time series analysis of water level changes for the flooded Asse I salt mine in northern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauchler, Ralf; Mettier, Ralph; Schulte, Peter; Fuehrboeter, Jens Fred

    2015-01-01

    In the context of safe enclosure of nuclear waste in salt formations, one of the main challenges is potential water inflow into the excavations. In this context, the hydraulic relationship between the abandoned Asse I salt mine and the salt dissolution network at the base of the caprock of the Asse salt structure in northern Germany is characterized by utilizing time series analysis of water level changes. The data base comprises a time series of water level measurements over eight years with a temporal resolution of 15 minutes (in general) and up to 2 minutes for specific intervals. The water level measurements were collected in the shaft of the flooded mine, which is filled with ground rock salt until a depth of 140 m, and a deep well, which is screened in 240 m depth at the salt dissolution zone at the base of the caprock. The distance between the well and the shaft is several hundred meters. Since the beginning of the continuous observations in the 1970s, the shaft has shown periodically abrupt declines of the water level of several meters occurring in intervals of approx. 8 to 10 years. The time series analysis consists of trend, Fourier-, autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis. The analysis showed that during times with small water level changes the measured water level in the well and the shaft are positively correlated whereas during the abrupt water level drops in the shaft, the measured water levels between the shaft and the well are negatively correlated. A potential explanation for this behavior is that during times with small changes, the measured water levels in the well and in the shaft are influenced by the same external events with similar response times. In contrast, during the abrupt water level decline events in the shaft, a negatively correlated pressure signal is induced in the well, which supports the assumption of a direct hydraulic connection between the shaft and the well via flooded excavations and the salt dissolution network

  5. Characterization of hydraulic connections between mine shaft and caprock based on time series analysis of water level changes for the flooded Asse I salt mine in northern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, Ralf; Mettier, Ralph; Schulte, Peter [AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland); Fuehrboeter, Jens Fred [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the context of safe enclosure of nuclear waste in salt formations, one of the main challenges is potential water inflow into the excavations. In this context, the hydraulic relationship between the abandoned Asse I salt mine and the salt dissolution network at the base of the caprock of the Asse salt structure in northern Germany is characterized by utilizing time series analysis of water level changes. The data base comprises a time series of water level measurements over eight years with a temporal resolution of 15 minutes (in general) and up to 2 minutes for specific intervals. The water level measurements were collected in the shaft of the flooded mine, which is filled with ground rock salt until a depth of 140 m, and a deep well, which is screened in 240 m depth at the salt dissolution zone at the base of the caprock. The distance between the well and the shaft is several hundred meters. Since the beginning of the continuous observations in the 1970s, the shaft has shown periodically abrupt declines of the water level of several meters occurring in intervals of approx. 8 to 10 years. The time series analysis consists of trend, Fourier-, autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis. The analysis showed that during times with small water level changes the measured water level in the well and the shaft are positively correlated whereas during the abrupt water level drops in the shaft, the measured water levels between the shaft and the well are negatively correlated. A potential explanation for this behavior is that during times with small changes, the measured water levels in the well and in the shaft are influenced by the same external events with similar response times. In contrast, during the abrupt water level decline events in the shaft, a negatively correlated pressure signal is induced in the well, which supports the assumption of a direct hydraulic connection between the shaft and the well via flooded excavations and the salt dissolution network

  6. Pawtuxet River, Warwick, Rhode Island. Local Flood Damage Reduction Study. Detailed Project Report for Water Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Warwich (Belmont Park) Rhode Island. Cover Title Reads: Flood Damage Reduction IS. KEY WORDS (Ce൘.. asm towvee aide of mogoseem aid 1~110j IV MeMAw...cost of the premium paid by policy holders. The actual premium is less than the actuarial rate by the amount of the subsidy which represents one facet...coverage limits, therefore it was not necessary to calculate additional coverage premiums based on actuarial rates. The annual average subsidized

  7. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management in Cazenovia Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    Ulmus rubra slippery elm Ulmus thomasii rock elm Pinus strobus white pine Juglans cinerea. butternut Juglans nigra black walnut Carya ovata shagbark...West Seneca X : X : X Town of Elm : X X X Town of Aurora : X : Town of Boston X : Town of Colden : X : 5.i, Table 1 (cont’d) Flood Insurance Status for...grandidentata bigtooth aspen Populus deltoides eastern cottonwood Rhus typhina staghorn. sumc Betula alleghaniesis yellow birch Ulmus americana. American elm

  8. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  9. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, B.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Baldi, M.; Becker, A.; Bichet, A.; Blöschl, G.; Bouwer, L.M.; Brauer, A.; Cioffi, F.; Delgado, J.M.; Gocht, M.; Guzetti, F.; Harrigan, S.; Hirschboeck, K.; Kilsby, C.; Kron, W.; Kwon, H. -H.; Lall, U.; Merz, R.; Nissen, K.; Salvatti, P.; Swierczynski, T.; Ulbrich, U.; Viglione, A.; Ward, P.J.; Weiler, M.; Wilhelm, B.; Nied, M.

    2014-01-01

    Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction of

  10. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  11. Floods in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

    1948-01-01

    resulting from a cloudburst rises so quickly that it is usually described as a 'wall of water.' It has a peak duration of only a few minutes, followed by a rapid subsidence. Nearly 90 cloudburst floods in Colorado are described in varying detail in this report. The earliest recorded cloudburst--called at that time a waterspout--occurred in Golden Gate Gulch, July 14, 1872. The 'wall of water' was described as a 'perpendicular breast of 10 or 12 feet.' A cloudburst flood on Kiowa Creek in May 1878 caused the loss of a standard-gage locomotive, and although search was made by means of long metallic rods, the locomotive was never recovered, as bedrock was about 50 feet below the creek bed. All available information relative to floods in Colorado, beginning with the flood of 1826 on the Arkansas River, is presented in this report, although for many of the earlier floods estimates of discharge are lacking. Floods throughout a large part of the State have occurred in 1844, June 1864, June 1884, May 1894, and June 1921. The highest floods of record were on the larger streams and occurred as follows: South Platte River, June 1921; Rio Grande, June 1927; Colorado River, June and July 1884; San Juan River, October 1911. The greatest floods on the plains streams occurred during May and June 1935 and were caused by cloudbursts. Ranchers living in the vicinity noted rainfalls as high as 24 inches in a 13-hour period, measurements being made in a stock tank. The effect of settlement on channel capacities can be clearly traced. When settlement began, and with it the beginning of the livestock industry, the plains were thickly covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses. With the development of the livestock industry the grass cover was grazed so closely that it afforded little protection against erosion during the violent rains and resulting floods. The intensive grazing packed the soil so hard as to increase greatly the percentage of rainfall that entered the streams. This co

  12. Plan for Demonstration of Online Monitoring for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Online Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdy S. Tawfik; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2011-09-01

    Condition based online monitoring technologies and development of diagnostic and prognostic methodologies have drawn tremendous interest in the nuclear industry. It has become important to identify and resolve problems with structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to ensure plant safety, efficiency, and immunity to accidents in the aging fleet of reactors. The Machine Condition Monitoring (MCM) test bed at INL will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness to advancement in online monitoring, sensors, diagnostic and prognostic technologies on a pilot-scale plant that mimics the hydraulics of a nuclear plant. As part of this research project, INL will research available prognostics architectures and their suitability for deployment in a nuclear power plant. In addition, INL will provide recommendation to improve the existing diagnostic and prognostic architectures based on the experimental analysis performed on the MCM test bed.

  13. Demonstration on endurance of ion exchange membrane immersed in high-concentration tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Katsumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water was demonstrated. • Degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta was similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams at an equivalent dose. • Degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. -- Abstract: The Nafion{sup ®} ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated at room temperature for up to 2 years under the Broader Approach Activities. The curves of percent elongation at break vs. dose and tensile strength vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water were well consistent with those for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. This shows that the degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta is similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams. The results of ferric Fenton test indicated that the degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. The curve of ion exchange capacity vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water was also well consistent with that for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. These results showed irradiation tests with gamma rays and electron beams were alternative for predicting degradation of ion exchange membrane by tritium beta.

  14. Dynamic metabolism modelling of urban water services--demonstrating effectiveness as a decision-support tool for Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, G; Sægrov, Sveinung; Brattebø, Helge

    2014-09-15

    Urban water services are challenged from many perspectives and different stakeholders demand performance improvements along economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In response, urban water utilities systematically give more attention to criteria such as water safety, climate change adaptation and mitigation, environmental life cycle assessment (LCA), total cost efficiency, and on how to improve their operations within the water-energy-carbon nexus. The authors of this paper collaborated in the development of a 'Dynamic Metabolism Model' (DMM). The model is developed for generic use in the sustainability assessment of urban water services, and it has been initially tested for the city of Oslo, Norway. The purpose has been to adopt a holistic systemic perspective to the analysis of metabolism and environmental impacts of resource flows in urban water and wastewater systems, in order to offer a tool for the examination of future strategies and intervention options in such systems. This paper describes the model and its application to the city of Oslo for the analysis time period 2013-2040. The external factors impacting decision-making and interventions are introduced along with realistic scenarios developed for the testing, after consultation with officials at the Oslo Water and Wastewater Works (Norway). Possible interventions that the utility intends to set in motion are defined and numerically interpreted for incorporation into the model, and changes in the indicator values over the time period are determined. This paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the DMM, as a decision-support tool for water-wastewater utilities. The scenarios considered and interventions identified do not include all possible scenarios and interventions that can be relevant for water-wastewater utilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  16. Top flooding modeling with MAAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet-Thibault, E.; Marguet, S.

    2006-01-01

    An engineering top flooding model was developed in MAAP4.04d.4, the severe accident code used in EDF, to simulate the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that should take place if emergency core cooling (ECC) water was injected in hot leg during quenching. In the framework of the ISTC (International Science and Technology Centre), a top flooding test was proposed in the PARAMETER facility (Podolsk, Russia). The MAAP calculation of the PARAMETER top flooding test is presented in this paper. A comparison between top and bottom flooding was made on the bundle test geometry. According to this study, top flooding appears to cool quickly and effectively the upper plenum internals. (author)

  17. Quick Release of Internal Water Storage in a Glacier Leads to Underestimation of the Hazard Potential of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Lake Merzbacher in Central Tian Shan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Donghui; Ding, Yongjian; Liu, Shiyin; Xie, Zunyi; Pieczonka, Tino; Xu, Junli; Moldobekov, Bolot

    2017-10-01

    Glacial meltwater and ice calving contribute to the flood volume of glacial lakes such as Lake Merzbacher in the Tian Shan Mountains of central Asia. In this study, we simulated the lake's volume by constructing an empirical relationship between the area of Lake Merzbacher, determined from satellite images, and the lake's water storage, derived from digital elevation models. Results showed that the lake water supply rate before Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) generally agreed well with those during the GLOFs from 2009 to 2012 but not in 2008 and 2015. Furthermore, we found that the combination of glacial meltwater and ice calving is not enough to fully explain the supply rate during GLOFs in 1996 and 1999, suggesting other factors affect the supply rate during GLOFs as well. To examine this further, we compared the water supply rate before and during GLOF events in 1999 and 2008. We inferred that quickly released short-term and intermediate-term water storage by glaciers have likely contributed to both flood events in those years. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the supply component of outburst floods, such as irregularly released stored water may lead to GLOF events with generally three different types: case I (singular event-triggered englacial water release), case II (glacier melt due to temperature changes), and case III (englacial water release mixed with glacier melt).

  18. Improved recovery potential in mature heavy oil fields by Alkali-surfactant flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, J.; Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Primary and secondary alkali surfactant (AS) chemical flooding techniques were optimized in this study. Core flooding experiments were conducted in order to investigate the formation of emulsions in bulk liquid system due to flow through rock pores. Cores were dried and then saturated with water or brine in order to measure permeability. The floods were then performed at various injection rates followed by the AS solution. Solutions were also injected without previous waterflooding. Individual oil and water mobilities were then calculated using the experimental data. Individual phase mobilities were calculated using the total pressure gradient measured across the core. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were conducted in order to determine emulsion formation within porous media from in situ flooding tests at 4 different locations. Data from the NMR studies were used to calculate fluid distributions and measurements of in situ emulsification during the chemical floods. The study demonstrated that the use of the surfactants resulted in the in situ formation of oil-water and water-oil emulsions. Responses from de-ionized alkali and brine AS systems were similar. The recovery mechanism blocked off water channels and provided improved sweep efficiency in the core. It was concluded that injection rates and pressure gradients for chemical floods should be lowered in order to optimize their efficiency. 26 refs., 6 tabs., 15 figs.

  19. Flooding PSA with Plant Specific Operating Experiences of Korean PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joon Yull

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to update the flooding PSA with Korean plant specific operating experience data and the appropriate estimation method for the flooding frequency to improve the PSA quality. The existing flooding PSA used the NPE (Nuclear Power Experience) database up to 1985 for the flooding frequency. They are all USA plant operating experiences. So an upgraded flooding frequency with Korean specific plant operation experience is required. We also propose a method of only using the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) data for the flooding frequency estimation in the case of the flooding area in the primary building even though the existing flooding PSA used both PWR and BWR (Boiled Water Reactor) data for all kinds of plant areas. We evaluate the CDF (Core Damage Frequency) with the modified flooding frequency and compare the results with that of the existing flooding PSA method

  20. Evaluation and Application of Gridded Snow Water Equivalent Products for Improving Snowmelt Flood Predictions in the Red River Basin of the North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R.; Jacobs, J. M.; Vuyovich, C.; Cho, E.; Tuttle, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Each spring the Red River basin (RRB) of the North, located between the states of Minnesota and North Dakota and southern Manitoba, is vulnerable to dangerous spring snowmelt floods. Flat terrain, low permeability soils and a lack of satisfactory ground observations of snow pack conditions make accurate predictions of the onset and magnitude of major spring flood events in the RRB very challenging. This study investigated the potential benefit of using gridded snow water equivalent (SWE) products from passive microwave satellite missions and model output simulations to improve snowmelt flood predictions in the RRB using NOAA's operational Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS). Level-3 satellite SWE products from AMSR-E, AMSR2 and SSM/I, as well as SWE computed from Level-2 brightness temperatures (Tb) measurements, including model output simulations of SWE from SNODAS and GlobSnow-2 were chosen to support the snowmelt modeling exercises. SWE observations were aggregated spatially (i.e. to the NOAA North Central River Forecast Center forecast basins) and temporally (i.e. by obtaining daily screened and weekly unscreened maximum SWE composites) to assess the value of daily satellite SWE observations relative to weekly maximums. Data screening methods removed the impacts of snow melt and cloud contamination on SWE and consisted of diurnal SWE differences and a temperature-insensitive polarization difference ratio, respectively. We examined the ability of the satellite and model output simulations to capture peak SWE and investigated temporal accuracies of screened and unscreened satellite and model output SWE. The resulting SWE observations were employed to update the SNOW-17 snow accumulation and ablation model of CHPS to assess the benefit of using temporally and spatially consistent SWE observations for snow melt predictions in two test basins in the RRB.

  1. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.

  2. Rhizosphere dynamics of two riparian plant species from the water fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir, P.R. China - pH, oxygen and LMWOA monitoring during short flooding events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Christina M.; Schurr, Ulrich; Zeng, Bo; Höltkemeier, Agnes; Kuhn, Arnd J.

    2010-05-01

    Since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam at the Yangtze River in China, the reservoir management created a new 30m water fluctuation zone 45-75m above the original water level. Only species well adapted to long-time flooding (up to several months) will be able to vegetate the river banks and replace the original vegetation. To investigate how common species of the riverbanks cope with submergence, Alternanthera philoxeroides Mart. and Arundinella anomala Steud., two flooding resistant riparian species, have been examined in a rhizotron environment. Short-time (2 days waterlogging, 2 days flooding, 2 days recovery) flooding cycles in the original substrate and long time (14 days waterlogging, flooding, recovery) flooding cycles, in original substrate and sterile glass bead substrate, have been simulated in floodable two-way access rhizotrons. Oxygen- and pH-sensitive foils (planar optodes, PreSens) automatically monitored root reaction in a confined space (2cm2 each) on the backside of the rhizotron, while soil solution samples were taken 2 times a day from the other side of the rhizotron at the corresponding area through filter and steel capillaries. The samples were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis for low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA, i.e. oxalic, formic, succinic, malic, acetic, glyoxylic, lactic and citric acid). Results show diurnal rhythms of rhizospheric acidification for both species in high resolution, combined with oxygen entry into the root surrounding during waterlogged state. Flooding caused stronger acidification in the rhizosphere, that were however not accompanied by increased occurrence of LMWOA except for acetic and glyoxylic acid. First results from longer flooding periods show stable diurnal rhythms during waterlogging, but no strongly increased activity during the flooding event. Performance of the two species is not hampered by being waterlogged, and they follow a silencing strategy during a longer phase of anoxia without

  3. Interface condition for the Darcy velocity at the water-oil flood front in the porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaolong; Liu, Yong; Liang, Baosheng; Du, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    Flood front is the jump interface where fluids distribute discontinuously, whose interface condition is the theoretical basis of a mathematical model of the multiphase flow in porous medium. The conventional interface condition at the jump interface is expressed as the continuous Darcy velocity and fluid pressure (named CVCM). Our study has inspected this conclusion. First, it is revealed that the principle of mass conservation has no direct relation to the velocity conservation, and the former is not the true foundation of the later, because the former only reflects the kinetic characteristic of the fluid particles at one position(the interface), but not the different two parts of fluid on the different side of the interface which required by the interface conditions. Then the reasonableness of CVCM is queried from the following three aspects:(1)Using Mukat's two phase seepage equation and the mathematical method of apagoge, we have disproved the continuity of each fluid velocity;(2)Since the analytical solution of the equation of Buckley-Leveret equations is acquirable, its velocity jumps at the flood front presents an appropriate example to disprove the CVCM;(3) The numerical simulation model gives impractical result that flood front would stop moving if CVCM were used to calculate the velocities at the interface between two gridcells. Subsequently, a new one, termed as Jump Velocity Condition Model (JVCM), is deduced from Muskat's two phase seepage equations and Darcy's law without taking account of the capillary force and compressibility of rocks and fluids. Finally, several cases are presented. And the comparisons of the velocity, pressure difference and the front position, which are given by JVCM, CVCM and SPU, have shown that the result of JVCM is the closest to the exact solution.

  4. Interface condition for the Darcy velocity at the water-oil flood front in the porous medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Peng

    Full Text Available Flood front is the jump interface where fluids distribute discontinuously, whose interface condition is the theoretical basis of a mathematical model of the multiphase flow in porous medium. The conventional interface condition at the jump interface is expressed as the continuous Darcy velocity and fluid pressure (named CVCM. Our study has inspected this conclusion. First, it is revealed that the principle of mass conservation has no direct relation to the velocity conservation, and the former is not the true foundation of the later, because the former only reflects the kinetic characteristic of the fluid particles at one position(the interface, but not the different two parts of fluid on the different side of the interface which required by the interface conditions. Then the reasonableness of CVCM is queried from the following three aspects:(1Using Mukat's two phase seepage equation and the mathematical method of apagoge, we have disproved the continuity of each fluid velocity;(2Since the analytical solution of the equation of Buckley-Leveret equations is acquirable, its velocity jumps at the flood front presents an appropriate example to disprove the CVCM;(3 The numerical simulation model gives impractical result that flood front would stop moving if CVCM were used to calculate the velocities at the interface between two gridcells. Subsequently, a new one, termed as Jump Velocity Condition Model (JVCM, is deduced from Muskat's two phase seepage equations and Darcy's law without taking account of the capillary force and compressibility of rocks and fluids. Finally, several cases are presented. And the comparisons of the velocity, pressure difference and the front position, which are given by JVCM, CVCM and SPU, have shown that the result of JVCM is the closest to the exact solution.

  5. Investigating compound flooding in an estuary using hydrodynamic modelling: a case study from the Shoalhaven River, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbier, Kristian; Carvalho, Rafael C.; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2018-02-01

    Many previous modelling studies have considered storm-tide and riverine flooding independently, even though joint-probability analysis highlighted significant dependence between extreme rainfall and extreme storm surges in estuarine environments. This study investigates compound flooding by quantifying horizontal and vertical differences in coastal flood risk estimates resulting from a separation of storm-tide and riverine flooding processes. We used an open-source version of the Delft3D model to simulate flood extent and inundation depth due to a storm event that occurred in June 2016 in the Shoalhaven Estuary, south-eastern Australia. Time series of observed water levels and discharge measurements are used to force model boundaries, whereas observational data such as satellite imagery, aerial photographs, tidal gauges and water level logger measurements are used to validate modelling results. The comparison of simulation results including and excluding riverine discharge demonstrated large differences in modelled flood extents and inundation depths. A flood risk assessment accounting only for storm-tide flooding would have underestimated the flood extent of the June 2016 storm event by 30 % (20.5 km2). Furthermore, inundation depths would have been underestimated on average by 0.34 m and by up to 1.5 m locally. We recommend considering storm-tide and riverine flooding processes jointly in estuaries with large catchment areas, which are known to have a quick response time to extreme rainfall. In addition, comparison of different boundary set-ups at the intermittent entrance in Shoalhaven Heads indicated that a permanent opening, in order to reduce exposure to riverine flooding, would increase tidal range and exposure to both storm-tide flooding and wave action.

  6. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP. Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1 legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2 flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1 standing water depths following the flood, (2 the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3 pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating

  7. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Adam; Sanders, Brett F.; Goodrich, Kristen A.; Feldman, David L.; Boudreau, Danielle; Eguiarte, Ana; Serrano, Kimberly; Reyes, Abigail; Schubert, Jochen E.; AghaKouchak, Amir; Basolo, Victoria; Matthew, Richard A.

    2018-04-01

    Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US) is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM) such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1) legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2) flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1) standing water depths following the flood, (2) the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3) pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating pluvial flood hazards

  8. Changes in the quality of river water before, during and after a major flood event associated with a La Niña cycle and treatment for drinking purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Aslam, Zeeshan; Lewis, Rosmala; Chow, Christopher; Wang, Dongsheng; Drikas, Mary; van Leeuwen, John

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of organics present in the lower reaches of a major river system (the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia) before (March-July 2010), during (December 2010-May 2011) and after (April-December 2012) a major flood period was investigated. The flood period (over 6months) occurred during an intense La Niña cycle, leading to rapid and high increases in river flows and organic loads in the river water. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased (2-3 times) to high concentrations (up to 16mg/L) and was found to correlate with river flow rates. The treatability of organics was studied using conventional jar tests with alum and an enhanced coagulation model (mEnCo©). Predicted mean alum dose rates (per mg DOC) were higher before (9.1mg alum/mg DOC) and after (8.5mg alum/mg DOC) than during the flood event (8.0mg alum/mg DOC), indicating differences in the character of the organics in raw waters. To assess the character of natural organic matter present in raw and treated waters, high performance size exclusion chromatography with UV and fluorescence detectors were used. During the flood period, high molecular weight UV absorbing compounds (>2kDa) were mostly detected in waters collected, but were not evident in waters collected before and afterwards. The relative abundances of humic-like and protein-like compounds during and following the flood period were also investigated and found to be of a higher molecular weight during the flood period. The treatability of the organics was found to vary over the three climate conditions investigated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Predicting location-specific extreme coastal floods in the future climate by introducing a probabilistic method to calculate maximum elevation of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of water level variations and wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijala, Ulpu; Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Johansson, Milla M.; Pellikka, Havu

    2017-04-01

    Future coastal management continuously strives for more location-exact and precise methods to investigate possible extreme sea level events and to face flooding hazards in the most appropriate way. Evaluating future flooding risks by understanding the behaviour of the joint effect of sea level variations and wind waves is one of the means to make more comprehensive flooding hazard analysis, and may at first seem like a straightforward task to solve. Nevertheless, challenges and limitations such as availability of time series of the sea level and wave height components, the quality of data, significant locational variability of coastal wave height, as well as assumptions to be made depending on the study location, make the task more complicated. In this study, we present a statistical method for combining location-specific probability distributions of water level variations (including local sea level observations and global mean sea level rise) and wave run-up (based on wave buoy measurements). The goal of our method is to obtain a more accurate way to account for the waves when making flooding hazard analysis on the coast compared to the approach of adding a separate fixed wave action height on top of sea level -based flood risk estimates. As a result of our new method, we gain maximum elevation heights with different return periods of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of both phenomena, "the green water". We also introduce a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the properties and functioning of our method. The sensitivity test is based on using theoretical wave distributions representing different alternatives of wave behaviour in relation to sea level variations. As these wave distributions are merged with the sea level distribution, we get information on how the different wave height conditions and shape of the wave height distribution influence the joint results. Our method presented here can be used as an advanced tool to minimize over- and

  10. The Global Flood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  11. Assessment of hyporheic zone, flood-plain, soil-gas, soil, and surface-water contamination at the Old Incinerator Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface-water for contaminants at the Old Incinerator Area at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected above the method detection level in all 13 samplers deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of an unnamed tributary to Spirit Creek. The combined concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene were detected at 3 of the 13 samplers. Other organic compounds detected in one sampler included octane and trichloroethylene. In the passive soil-gas survey, 28 of the 60 samplers detected total petroleum hydrocarbons above the method detection level. Additionally, 11 of the 60 samplers detected the combined masses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene above the method detection level. Other compounds detected above the method detection level in the passive soil-gas survey included octane, trimethylbenzene, perchlorethylene, and chloroform. Subsequent to the passive soil-gas survey, six areas determined to have relatively high contaminant mass were selected, and soil-gas samplers were deployed, collected, and analyzed for explosives and chemical agents. No explosives or chemical agents were detected above

  12. NAA: metals in surface waters, margin sediments, forage and cattle hair in flood plains of the Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Maria Adelaide R.V., E-mail: madelaide@fumec.br [Universidade Fundacao Mineira de Educacao e Cultura (FUMEC), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mestrado em Construcao Civil, Meio Ambiente; Barbosa, Ana Flavia S.; Ruckert, Gabriela V., E-mail: mariavasc@unilestemg.br [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UnilesteMG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Mestrado em Engenharia Industrial; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: cida@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metals are toxic and can cause damage to human health when they accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in different samples: surface waters, margin sediments, forages and cattle hairs in the region of the Rio Doce basin. The metals were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis - NAA at the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CDTN / CNEN. The sampling sites were taken at two points: P1- (Pingo D'agua - city, Ponte Queimada, in a no industrial area) and P2 - (Santana do Paraiso city, industrial and pasture areas, subject to frequent floods). The samples were collected in different seasons: July 2009 (dry season - winter) and February 2010 (rainy season - summer). These points were strategically chosen because P1 is located into the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, considered a no industrial pollution region. Contrariwise, P2 is located in a region of high concentration of industries. In (P2) the Doce River receives its most polluted affluent upstream the Piracicaba River which is charged of several pollutants of industries of Steel Valley region, Brazil. In general, the results showed higher concentrations of the elements in P2 riverside area of livestock production and subject to flood. (author)

  13. NAA: metals in surface waters, margin sediments, forage and cattle hair in flood plains of the Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Metals are toxic and can cause damage to human health when they accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in different samples: surface waters, margin sediments, forages and cattle hairs in the region of the Rio Doce basin. The metals were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis - NAA at the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CDTN / CNEN. The sampling sites were taken at two points: P1- (Pingo D'agua - city, Ponte Queimada, in a no industrial area) and P2 - (Santana do Paraiso city, industrial and pasture areas, subject to frequent floods). The samples were collected in different seasons: July 2009 (dry season - winter) and February 2010 (rainy season - summer). These points were strategically chosen because P1 is located into the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, considered a no industrial pollution region. Contrariwise, P2 is located in a region of high concentration of industries. In (P2) the Doce River receives its most polluted affluent upstream the Piracicaba River which is charged of several pollutants of industries of Steel Valley region, Brazil. In general, the results showed higher concentrations of the elements in P2 riverside area of livestock production and subject to flood. (author)

  14. Hurricane coastal flood analysis using multispectral spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogashawara, I.; Ferreira, C.; Curtarelli, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    for the non-flooded area the NDWI increased after the hurricane landfall. The average value varied from 0.15 to 0.43 and the median value from 0.13 to 0.43. These results demonstrate that these differences can be explored for the mapping of flood areas. As NDWI was developed to quantify the amount of water in the leaf of the plants, the increase of the value is expected within the amount of water that the leaf will absorb. However in flooded areas the amount of water is so high that it is possible that the reflectance follows the water spectral behavior absorbing more than reflecting in the Near Infrared region. Thus, remote sensing techniques showed to be powerful tools since they could characterize flooded areas. However further studies are needed, applying and validating these techniques for other regions and different storms. Optical remote sensing is promising for many applications, since it will be an open door to studies of spatial and temporal analysis of the flood impacts mainly in areas with remote access and with a lack of in situ data.

  15. Benchmarking flood models from space in near real-time: accommodating SRTM height measurement errors with low resolution flood imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; di Baldassarre, G.; Alsdorf, D.; Bates, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) measured the elevation of most of the Earth's surface with spatially continuous sampling and an absolute vertical accuracy greater than 9 m. The vertical error has been shown to change with topographic complexity, being less important over flat terrain. This allows water surface slopes to be measured and associated discharge volumes to be estimated for open channels in large basins, such as the Amazon. Building on these capabilities, this paper demonstrates that near real-time coarse resolution radar imagery of a recent flood event on a 98 km reach of the River Po (Northern Italy) combined with SRTM terrain height data leads to a water slope remarkably similar to that derived by combining the radar image with highly accurate airborne laser altimetry. Moreover, it is shown that this space-borne flood wave approximation compares well to a hydraulic model and thus allows the performance of the latter, calibrated on a previous event, to be assessed when applied to an event of different magnitude in near real-time. These results are not only of great importance to real-time flood management and flood forecasting but also support the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission that will routinely provide water levels and slopes with higher precision around the globe.

  16. Flash Flood Detection in Urban Cities Using Ultrasonic and Infrared Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Zhang, Xiangliang; Claudel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster. Often leading to loss of lives and properties in the thousands yearly. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the population density of cities. Since most flood casualties are caused by a lack of information on the impending flood (type, location, severity), sensing these events is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings and short term forecasts. However, no dedicated flash flood sensing systems, that could monitor the propagation of flash floods, in real time, currently exist in cities. In the present paper, firstly a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and traffic congestion has been presented. This sensing device is based on the combination of ultrasonic range-finding with remote temperature sensing, and can sense both phenomena with a high degree of accuracy, using a combination of L1-regularized reconstruction and artificial neural networks to process measurement data. Secondly, corresponding algorithms have been implemented on a low-power wireless sensor platform, and their performance in water level estimation in a 6 months test involving four different sensors is illustrated. The results demonstrate that urban water levels can be reliably estimated with error less than 2 cm, and that the preprocessing and machine learning schemes can run in real-time on currently available wireless sensor platforms.

  17. Flash Flood Detection in Urban Cities Using Ultrasonic and Infrared Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2016-07-19

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster. Often leading to loss of lives and properties in the thousands yearly. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the population density of cities. Since most flood casualties are caused by a lack of information on the impending flood (type, location, severity), sensing these events is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings and short term forecasts. However, no dedicated flash flood sensing systems, that could monitor the propagation of flash floods, in real time, currently exist in cities. In the present paper, firstly a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and traffic congestion has been presented. This sensing device is based on the combination of ultrasonic range-finding with remote temperature sensing, and can sense both phenomena with a high degree of accuracy, using a combination of L1-regularized reconstruction and artificial neural networks to process measurement data. Secondly, corresponding algorithms have been implemented on a low-power wireless sensor platform, and their performance in water level estimation in a 6 months test involving four different sensors is illustrated. The results demonstrate that urban water levels can be reliably estimated with error less than 2 cm, and that the preprocessing and machine learning schemes can run in real-time on currently available wireless sensor platforms.

  18. Pilot demonstrations of arsenic treatment technologies in U.S. Department of Energy Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Randy L.; Aragon, Alicia R.; Siegal Malcolm D.; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program is a multi-year program funded by a congressional appropriation through the Department of Energy. The program is designed to move technologies from benchscale tests to field demonstrations. It will enable water utilities, particularly those serving small, rural communities and Indian tribes, to implement the most cost-effective solutions to their arsenic treatment needs. As part of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, Sandia National Laboratories is carrying out field demonstration testing of innovative technologies that have the potential to substantially reduce the costs associated with arsenic removal from drinking water. The scope for this work includes: (1) Selection of sites and identification of technologies for pilot demonstrations; (2) Laboratory studies to develop rapid small-scale test methods; and (3) Pilot-scale studies at community sites involving side-by-side tests of innovative technologies. The goal of site selection is to identify sites that allow examination of treatment processes and systems under conditions that are relevant to different geochemical settings throughout the country. A number of candidate sites have been identified through reviews of groundwater quality databases, conference proceedings and discussions with state and local officials. These include sites in New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Michigan, and California. Candidate technologies for the pilot tests are being reviewed through vendor forums, proof-of-principle benchscale studies managed by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and the WERC design contest. The review considers as many potential technologies as possible and screens out unsuitable ones by considering data from past performance testing, expected costs, complexity of operation and maturity of the technology. The pilot test configurations will depend on the site-specific conditions such as access, power availability

  19. Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah River Site: A Production-Scale Demonstration of a palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, K

    2004-01-01

    The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented

  20. Estimation of flood environmental effects using flood zone mapping techniques in Halilrood Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaghpour, Siamak; Bagheri, Majid; Bagheri, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    High flood occurrences with large environmental damages have a growing trend in Iran. Dynamic movements of water during a flood cause different environmental damages in geographical areas with different characteristics such as topographic conditions. In general, environmental effects and damages caused by a flood in an area can be investigated from different points of view. The current essay is aiming at detecting environmental effects of flood occurrences in Halilrood catchment area of Kerman province in Iran using flood zone mapping techniques. The intended flood zone map was introduced in four steps. Steps 1 to 3 pave the way to calculate and estimate flood zone map in the understudy area while step 4 determines the estimation of environmental effects of flood occurrence. Based on our studies, wide range of accuracy for estimating the environmental effects of flood occurrence was introduced by using of flood zone mapping techniques. Moreover, it was identified that the existence of Jiroft dam in the study area can decrease flood zone from 260 hectares to 225 hectares and also it can decrease 20% of flood peak intensity. As a result, 14% of flood zone in the study area can be saved environmentally.

  1. Flood of April 1975 at Williamston, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutilla, R.L.; Swallow, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    On April 18 between 5 p.m. and 12 p.m. the city of Williamston experienced an intense rain storm that caused the Red Cedar River and the many small streams in the area to overflow their banks and resulted in the most devastating flood since at least 1904. Local officials estimated a loss of \\$775,000 in property damage. Damage from flooding by the Red Cedar River was caused primarily by inundation, rather than by water moving at high velocity, as is common when many streams are flooded. During the flood of April 1975 many basements were flooded as well as the lower floors of some homes in the flood plain. Additional damage occurred in places when sewers backed up and flooded basements, and when ground water seeped through basement walls and floors—situations that affected many homes including those that were well outside of the flood plain.During the time of flooding the U.S. Geological Survey obtained aerial photography and data on a streamflow to document the disaster. This report shows on a photomosaic base map the extent of flooding along the Red Cedar River at Williamston, during the flood. It also presents data obtained at stream-gaging stations near Williamston, as well as the results of peak-flow discharge measurements made on the Red Cedar River at Michigan State Highway M-52 east of the city. Information on the magnitude of the flood can guide in making decisions pertaining to the use of flood-plains in the area. It is one of a series of reports on the April 1975 flood in the Lansing metropolitan area.

  2. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Poleo, Antonio B.S.; Voellestad, Leif Asbjoern; Bishop, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated. - High levels of complexed aluminum, at pH levels below 5.0, predisposes brown trout to sulfur-caused damage in the spring

  3. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudon, Hjalmar [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: hjalmar.laudon@sek.slu.se; Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Voellestad, Leif Asbjoern [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Bishop, Kevin [Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated. - High levels of complexed aluminum, at pH levels below 5.0, predisposes brown trout to sulfur-caused damage in the spring.

  4. Further demonstration of the VRLA-type UltraBattery under medium-HEV duty and development of the flooded-type UltraBattery for micro-HEV applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, J.; Takada, T.; Monma, D. [The Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., R and D Division, 23-6 Kuidesaku, Shimofunao-machi, Joban, Iwaki-city, 972-8501 (Japan); Lam, L.T. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Bayview Avenue, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The UltraBattery has been invented by the CSIRO Energy Technology in Australia and has been developed and produced by the Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan. This battery is a hybrid energy storage device which combines a super capacitor and a lead-acid battery in single unit cells, taking the best from both technologies without the need of extra, expensive electronic controls. The capacitor enhances the power and lifespan of the lead-acid battery as it acts as a buffer during high-rate discharging and charging, thus enabling it to provide and absorb charge rapidly during vehicle acceleration and braking. The laboratory results of the prototype valve-regulated UltraBatteries show that the capacity, power, available energy, cold cranking and self-discharge of these batteries have met, or exceeded, all the respective performance targets set for both minimum and maximum power-assist HEVs. The cycling performance of the UltraBatteries under micro-, mild- and full-HEV duties is at least four times longer than that of the state-of-the-art lead-acid batteries. Importantly, the cycling performance of UltraBatteries is proven to be comparable or even better than that of the Ni-MH cells. On the other hand, the field trial of UltraBatteries in the Honda Insight HEV shows that the vehicle has surpassed 170,000 km and the batteries are still in a healthy condition. Furthermore, the UltraBatteries demonstrate very good acceptance of the charge from regenerative braking even at high state-of-charge, e.g., 70% during driving. Therefore, no equalization charge is required for the UltraBatteries during field trial. The HEV powered by UltraBatteries gives slightly higher fuel consumption (cf., 4.16 with 4.05 L/100 km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (cf., 98.8 with 96 g km{sup -1}) compared with that by Ni-MH cells. There are no differences in driving experience between the Honda Insight powered by UltraBatteries and by Ni-MH cells. Given such comparable performance, the UltraBattery pack

  5. Using subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) extreme rainfall forecasts for extended-range flood prediction in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. J.; Franks, S. W.; McEvoy, D.

    2015-06-01

    Meteorological and hydrological centres around the world are looking at ways to improve their capacity to be able to produce and deliver skilful and reliable forecasts of high-impact extreme rainfall and flooding events on a range of prediction timescales (e.g. sub-daily, daily, multi-week, seasonal). Making improvements to extended-range rainfall and flood forecast models, assessing forecast skill and uncertainty, and exploring how to apply flood forecasts and communicate their benefits to decision-makers are significant challenges facing the forecasting and water resources management communities. This paper presents some of the latest science and initiatives from Australia on the development, application and communication of extreme rainfall and flood forecasts on the extended-range "subseasonal-to-seasonal" (S2S) forecasting timescale, with a focus on risk-based decision-making, increasing flood risk awareness and preparedness, capturing uncertainty, understanding human responses to flood forecasts and warnings, and the growing adoption of "climate services". The paper also demonstrates how forecasts of flood events across a range of prediction timescales could be beneficial to a range of sectors and society, most notably for disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities, emergency management and response, and strengthening community resilience. Extended-range S2S extreme flood forecasts, if presented as easily accessible, timely and relevant information are a valuable resource to help society better prepare for, and subsequently cope with, extreme flood events.

  6. Using subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S extreme rainfall forecasts for extended-range flood prediction in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. White

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological and hydrological centres around the world are looking at ways to improve their capacity to be able to produce and deliver skilful and reliable forecasts of high-impact extreme rainfall and flooding events on a range of prediction timescales (e.g. sub-daily, daily, multi-week, seasonal. Making improvements to extended-range rainfall and flood forecast models, assessing forecast skill and uncertainty, and exploring how to apply flood forecasts and communicate their benefits to decision-makers are significant challenges facing the forecasting and water resources management communities. This paper presents some of the latest science and initiatives from Australia on the development, application and communication of extreme rainfall and flood forecasts on the extended-range "subseasonal-to-seasonal" (S2S forecasting timescale, with a focus on risk-based decision-making, increasing flood risk awareness and preparedness, capturing uncertainty, understanding human responses to flood forecasts and warnings, and the growing adoption of "climate services". The paper also demonstrates how forecasts of flood events across a range of prediction timescales could be beneficial to a range of sectors and society, most notably for disaster risk reduction (DRR activities, emergency management and response, and strengthening community resilience. Extended-range S2S extreme flood forecasts, if presented as easily accessible, timely and relevant information are a valuable resource to help society better prepare for, and subsequently cope with, extreme flood events.

  7. Flood risk management in Flanders: from flood risk objectives to appropriate measures through state assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbeke Sven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In compliance with the EU Flood Directive to reduce flood risk, flood risk management objectives are indispensable for the delineation of necessary measures. In Flanders, flood risk management objectives are part of the environmental objectives which are judicially integrated by the Decree on Integrated Water Policy. Appropriate objectives were derived by supporting studies and extensive consultation on a local, regional and policy level. Under a general flood risk objective sub-objectives are formulated for different aspects: water management and safety, shipping, ecology, and water supply. By developing a risk matrix, it is possible to assess the current state of flood risk and to judge where action is needed to decrease the risk. Three different states of flood risk are distinguished: a acceptable risk, where no action is needed, b intermediate risk where the risk should be reduced by cost efficient actions, and c unacceptable risk, where action is necessary. For each particular aspect, the severity of the consequences of flooding is assessed by quantifiable indicators, such as economic risk, people at risk and ecological flood tolerance. The framework also allows evaluating the effects of the implemented measures and the autonomous development such as climate change and land use change. This approach gives a quantifiable assessment of state, and enables a prioritization of flood risk measures for the reduction of flood risk in a cost efficient and sustainable way.

  8. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  9. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; R. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala

    2003-02-14

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions would convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and will be installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  10. Investigation of liquid film behavior at the onset of flooding during adiabatic counter-current air-water two-phase flow in an inclined pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deendarlianto; Ousaka, Akiharu; Kariyasaki, Akira; Fukano, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    The liquid film characteristics at the onset of flooding in an inclined pipe (16 mm i.d. and 2.2 m in length) have been investigated experimentally. A constant electric current method and visual observation were utilized to elucidate the flow mechanisms at the onset of flooding. Two mechanisms are clarified to control the flooding in lower flooding and upper flooding, respectively. The lower flooding occurred at lower liquid flow rate and high pipe inclination angle. In this mechanism, the liquid film does not block the pipe cross-section. On the other hand, the upper flooding occurred at higher liquid flow rate and low pipe inclination angle. In this case, blocking of the pipe cross-section by large wave and entrainment plays an important role. The experimental data indicated that there was no reversal motion of liquid film at the onset of flooding during the operation of both lower flooding and upper flooding. The effects of pipe inclination angle on the onset of flooding are also discussed

  11. FORECAST OF THE DYNAMICS FLOODING OF THE CRIMEAN AREA DURING OF FLASH FLOODS IN 2012ON THE BASIS COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Agafonnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics features of the surface waters for the territory of the Crimea area of Krasnodar region in flash flood conditions have been studied. The parameters of flooding depending on the precipitation intensity have been defined.

  12. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  13. Flooding characteristics of Goodloe packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Watson, J.S.

    1976-08-01

    Experimental flooding data for the countercurrent flow of air and water in a 7.62-cm-diam glass column filled with Goodloe packing were compared with a correlation reported by the packing manufacturer. Flooding rates observed in this study were as low as one-half those predicted by the correlation. Rearranging the packing by inverting the column and removing some packing segments yielded results similar to the correlation for liquid-to-gas (L/G) mass flow rate ratios greater than 10, but the experimental flooding curve fell significantly below the correlation at lower L/G ratios. When the column was repacked with new packing, the results were essentially the same as those obtained in the inverted column. Thus, it is believed that a carefully packed column is more likely to yield flooding rates similar to those obtained in the new or inverted columns rather than rates predicted by the original correlation

  14. Aquatic chemistry of flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Rodinov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    During flood events a major discharge of water and dissolved substances happens. However flood waters very much differs from water composition during low-water events. Aquatic chemistry of flood waters also is of importance at the calculation of loadings as well as they might have major impact on water quality in receiving water bodies (lakes, coastal waters and seas). Further flood regime of rivers is subjected to changes due to climate change and growing impact of human activities. The aim of this study is to analyse water chemical composition changes during flood events in respect to low water periods, character of high-water events and characteristics of the corresponding basin. Within this study, the concentrations of major dissolved substances in the major rivers of Latvia have been studied using monitoring data as well as field studies during high water/ low water events. As territories of studies flows of substances in river basins/subbasins with different land-use character and different anthropogenic impacts has been studied to calculate export values depending on the land-use character. Impact of relations between dissolved substances and relations in respect to budgets has been calculated. The dynamics of DOC, nutrient and major dissolved substance flows depending on landuse pattern and soil properties in Latvia has been described, including emissions by industrial and agricultural production. In these changes evidently climate change signals can be identified. The water chemistry of a large number of rivers during flood events has been determined and the possible impact of water chemical composition on DOC and nutrient flows has been evaluated. Long-term changes (1977-2013) of concentrations of dissolved substances do not follow linear trends but rather show oscillating patterns, indicating impact of natural factors, e.g. changing hydrological and climatic conditions. There is a positive correlation between content of inert dissolved substances and

  15. A Decadal Historical Satellite Data and Rainfall Trend Analysis (2001–2016 for Flood Hazard Mapping in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranga Alahacoon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Critical information on a flood-affected area is needed in a short time frame to initiate rapid response operations and develop long-term flood management strategies. This study combined rainfall trend analysis using Asian Precipitation—Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE gridded rainfall data with flood maps derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and multispectral satellite to arrive at holistic spatio-temporal patterns of floods in Sri Lanka. Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR data were used to map flood extents for emergency relief operations while eight-day Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance data for the time period from 2001 to 2016 were used to map long term flood-affected areas. The inundation maps produced for rapid response were published within three hours upon the availability of satellite imagery in web platforms, with the aim of supporting a wide range of stakeholders in emergency response and flood relief operations. The aggregated time series of flood extents mapped using MODIS data were used to develop a flood occurrence map (2001–2016 for Sri Lanka. Flood hotpots identified using both optical and synthetic aperture average of 325 km2 for the years 2006–2015 and exceptional flooding in 2016 with inundation extent of approximately 1400 km2. The time series rainfall data explains increasing trend in the extreme rainfall indices with similar observation derived from satellite imagery. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using multi-sensor flood mapping approaches, which will aid Disaster Management Center (DMC and other multi-lateral agencies involved in managing rapid response operations and preparing mitigation measures.

  16. A relative permeability model to derive fractional-flow functions of water-alternating-gas and surfactant-alternating-gas foam core-floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mossawy, Mohammed Idrees; Demiral, Birol; Raja, D M Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Foam is used in enhanced oil recovery to improve the sweep efficiency by controlling the gas mobility. The surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) foam process is used as an alternative to the water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection. In the WAG technique, the high mobility and the low density of the gas lead the gas to flow in channels through the high permeability zones of the reservoir and to rise to the top of the reservoir by gravity segregation. As a result, the sweep efficiency decreases and there will be more residual oil in the reservoir. The foam can trap the gas in liquid films and reduces the gas mobility. The fractional-flow method describes the physics of immiscible displacements in porous media. Finding the water fractional flow theoretically or experimentally as a function of the water saturation represents the heart of this method. The relative permeability function is the conventional way to derive the fractional-flow function. This study presents an improved relative permeability model to derive the fractional-flow functions for WAG and SAG foam core-floods. The SAG flow regimes are characterized into weak foam, strong foam without a shock front and strong foam with a shock front. (paper)

  17. NRC Information No. 89-63: Possible submergence of electrical circuits located above the flood level because of water intrusion and lack of drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This information notice is being provided to alert addressees that electrical circuits located above the plant flood level within electrical enclosures may become submerged in water because appropriate drainage has not been provided. Failure of electrical circuits during service conditions, including postulated accidents, can occur due to submergence if water enters these enclosures and there is no provision for drainage. The electrical enclosures addressed by this notice include terminal boxes, junction boxes, pull boxes, conduits, Condulets, and other enclosures for end-use equipment (such as limit switches, motor operators, and electrical penetrations), the contents of which may include cables, terminal blocks, electrical splices and connectors. Information Notice 84-57, ''Operating Experience Related to Moisture Intrusion on Safety-Related Electrical Equipment at Commercial Power Plants,'' addressed watertight sealing of all electrical conduits to junction boxes and conduit-to-terminal box connection points for safety-related equipment located in areas of the reactor building as well as for areas that are potentially subject to high temperature steam or water impingement. This notice further addressed the importance of ensuring that box drain holes and equipment interfaces are in conformance with the test setup established during equipment qualification testing and with the vendor's recommendations

  18. Numerical study of Tallinn storm-water system flooding conditions using CFD simulations of multi-phase flow in a large-scale inverted siphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, K.; Laanearu, J.; Annus, I.

    2017-10-01

    The numerical experiments are carried out for qualitative and quantitative interpretation of a multi-phase flow processes associated with malfunctioning of the Tallinn storm-water system during rain storms. The investigations are focused on the single-line inverted siphon, which is used as under-road connection of pipes of the storm-water system under interest. A multi-phase flow solver of Computational Fluid Dynamics software OpenFOAM is used for simulating the three-phase flow dynamics in the hydraulic system. The CFD simulations are performed with different inflow rates under same initial conditions. The computational results are compared essentially in two cases 1) design flow rate and 2) larger flow rate, for emptying the initially filled inverted siphon from a slurry-fluid. The larger flow-rate situations are under particular interest to detected possible flooding. In this regard, it is anticipated that the CFD solutions provide an important insight to functioning of inverted siphon under a restricted water-flow conditions at simultaneous presence of air and slurry-fluid.

  19. Flood discharge measurement of a mountain river – Nanshih River in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-C. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a more efficient method of flood discharge measurement in mountain rivers that accounts for personal safety, accuracy, and reliability. Because it is based on the relationships between mean and maximum velocities and between cross-sectional area and gauge height, the proposed method utilizes a flood discharge measurement system composed of an acoustic Doppler profiler and crane system to measure velocity distributions, cross-sectional area, and water depths. The flood discharge measurement system can be used to accurately and quickly measure flood data that is difficult to be collected by the conventional instruments. The measured data is then used to calibrate the parameters of the proposed method for estimating mean velocity and cross-sectional area. Then these observed discharge and gauge height can be used to establish the water stage–discharge rating curve. Therefor continuous and real-time estimations of flood discharge of a mountain river can become possible. The measurement method and system is applied to the Nanshih River at the Lansheng Bridge. Once the method is established, flood discharge of the Nanshih River could be efficiently estimated using maximum velocity and the water stage. Results of measured and estimated discharges of the Nanshih River at the Lansheng Bridge differed only slightly from each other, demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  20. From Drought to Flood: An Analysis of the Water Balance of the Tuolumne River Basin During Extreme Conditions (2015 - 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, A. R.; Marks, D. G.; Havens, S.; Robertson, M.; Johnson, M.; Sandusky, M.; Bormann, K. J.; Painter, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Closing the water balance of a snow-dominated mountain basin has long been a focal point of the hydrologic sciences. This study attempts to more precisely quantify the solid precipitation inputs to a basin using the iSnobal energy balance snowmelt model and assimilated snow depth information from the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO). Throughout the ablation seasons of three highly dissimilar consecutive water years (2015 - 2017), the ASO captured high resolution snow depth snapshots over the Tuolumne River Basin in California's Central Sierra Nevada. These measurements were used to periodically update the snow depth state variable of iSnobal, thereby nudging the estimates of water storage (snow water equivalent, or SWE) and melt (surface water input, or SWI) toward a more accurate solution. Once precipitation inputs and streamflow outputs are better constrained, the additional loss terms of the water mass balance equation (i.e. groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration) can be estimated with less uncertainty.

  1. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such

  2. Natural Flood Management in context: evaluating and enhancing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Peter; Beven, Keith; Hankin, Barry; Lamb, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The series of flood events in the UK throughout December 2015 have led to calls for a reappraisal of the country's approach to flood management. In parts of Cumbria so-called "1 in 100" year floods have occurred three times in the last ten years, leading to significant infrastructure damage. Hard-engineered defences upgraded to cope with an anticipated 20% increase in peak flows and these 1% AEP events have been overwhelmed. It has become more widely acknowledged that unsympathetic agricultural and upland management practices, mainly since the Second World War, have led to a significant loss of storage in mid and upper catchments and their consequent ability to retain and slow storm run-off. Natural Flood Management (NFM) is a nature-based solution to restoring this storage and flood peak attenuation through a network of small-scale features exploiting natural topography and materials. Combined with other "soft" interventions such as restoring flood plain roughness and tree-planting, NFM offers the attractive prospect of an intervention that can target both the ecological and chemical objectives of the Water Framework Directive and the resilience demanded by the Floods Directive. We developed a simple computerised physical routing model that can account for the presence of in-channel and offline features such as would be found in a NFM scheme. These will add storage to the channel and floodplain and throttle the downstream discharge at storm flows. The model was applied to the heavily-modified channel network of an agricultural catchment in North Yorkshire using the run-off simulated for two storm events that caused flooding downstream in the autumn of 2012. Using up to 60 online features we demonstrated some gains in channel storage and a small impact on the flood hydrograph which would, however, have been insufficient to prevent the downstream floods in either of the storms. Complementary research at JBA has applied their hydrodynamic model JFLOW+ to identify

  3. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  4. Geology of the Roswell artesian basin, New Mexico, and its relation to the Hondo Reservoir and Effect on artesian aquifer storage of flood water in Hondo Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Robert T.; Theis, Charles V.

    1949-01-01

    In the Roswell Basin in southeastern New Mexico artesian water is produced from cavernous zones in the carbonate rocks of the San Andres formation and the lower part of the Chalk Bluff formation, both of Permian age. The Hondo Reservoir, 9 miles west-southwest of Roswell, was completed by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation in 1907, to store waters of the Rio Hondo for irrigation. The project was not successful, as the impounded water escaped rapidly through holes in the gypsum and limestone of the San Andres formation constituting its floor. Of 27,000 acre~feet that entered the reservoir between 1908 and 1913, only 1,100 acre-feet was drawn Ollt for use, the remainder escaping through the floor of the reservoir. Since 1939, plans have been drawn up by the State Engineer and by Federal agencies to utilize the reservoir to protect Roswell from floods. It has also been suggested that water from the Pecos River might be diverted into underground storage through the reservoir. Sinkholes in the Roswell Basin are largely clustered in areas where gypsum occurs in the bedrock. Collapse of strata is due to solution of underlying rock commonly containing gypsum. Domes occur in gypsiferous strata near Salt Creek. The Bottomless Lakes, sinkhole lakes in the escarpment on the east side of the Pecos, are believed to have developed in north-south hinge-line fractures opened when the westernmost beds in the escarpment collapsed. Collapse was due to solution and removal of gypsiferous rock by artesian water which now fills the lakes.

  5. Riparian plant community responses to increased flooding: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garssen, Annemarie G; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Soons, Merel B

    2015-08-01

    A future higher risk of severe flooding of streams and rivers has been projected to change riparian plant community composition and species richness, but the extent and direction of the expected change remain uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize globally available experimental evidence and assess the effects of increased flooding on (1) riparian adult plant and seedling survival, (2) riparian plant biomass and (3) riparian plant species composition and richness. We evaluated which plant traits are of key importance for the response of riparian plant species to flooding. We identified and analysed 53 papers from ISI Web of Knowledge which presented quantitative experimental results on flooding treatments and corresponding control situations. Our meta-analysis demonstrated how longer duration of flooding, greater depth of flooding and, particularly, their combination reduce seedling survival of most riparian species. Plant height above water level, ability to elongate shoots and plasticity in root porosity were decisive for adult plant survival and growth during longer periods of flooding. Both 'quiescence' and 'escape' proved to be successful strategies promoting riparian plant survival, which was reflected in the wide variation in survival (full range between 0 and 100%) under fully submerged conditions, while plants that protrude above the water level (>20 cm) almost all survive. Our survey confirmed that the projected increase in the duration and depth of flooding periods is sufficient to result in species shifts. These shifts may lead to increased or decreased riparian species richness depending on the nutrient, climatic and hydrological status of the catchment. Species richness was generally reduced at flooded sites in nutrient-rich catchments and sites that previously experienced relatively stable hydrographs (e.g. rain-fed lowland streams). Species richness usually increased at sites in desert and semi-arid climate regions (e.g. intermittent

  6. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional fields of Chernobyl's radionuclides in the Kiev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyak, M.I.; Margvelashvili, N.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    On the base of the three-dimensional numerical model of water circulation and radionuclide transport, the high flood water influence on the radionuclide dispersion in the Kiev water reservoir is studied. The model was verified on the base of data of the measurements of moderate flood phenomena in April-May 1987. Redistribution of the bottom sediment contamination is demonstrated. It is shown that even an extremely high flood water discharge does not change drastically the 137 Cs concentration in the water body of the Kiev water reservoir

  7. Flooding and its Effect on Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Bratkovich; Lisa Burban; Steven Katovich; Craig Locey; Jill Pokorny; Richard Wiest

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 floods along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers and their tributaries have caused tremendous losses in terms of human life, homes, businesses and crop production. Bottomland areas have been under water for many weeks. Landowners, homeowners, foresters, park managers, and others are concerned about the long-term effect of the flooding on the forests of the...

  8. Polders as active element of flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilavy, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with use of the polders as active element of flood control on the example Kysuca River and Podluzianka River (Slovakia). It was concluded that it is necessary: - dense network of rain gauge stations; - network of water level recorders; revision of design process for hydraulic objects - degree of safety; changes in legislation - permission for construction in flood-plains; maintenance of channel capacity; early flood forecasting - forecasting and warning service; river training works and maintenance; design of retention areas; preparation of retention areas prior to flood propagation

  9. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of....4340 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam inject