Sample records for water duzce turkey

  1. 1999 Duzce, Turkey Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 7.2 quake occurred at 6.57 pm local time (16:57 GMT). Duzce lies on the eastern fringe of the region hit by the August 17 quake. Some areas experienced...

  2. Duzce, Turkey Earthquake, November 12, 1999 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 7.2 quake occurred at 6.57 pm local time (16:57 GMT). Duzce lies on the eastern fringe of the region hit by the August 17 quake. Some areas experienced...

  3. Evaluation of The Data of Duzce Air Quality Monitoring Station Between 2007-2011

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    Atilla Senih Mayda


    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate air quality between the years 2007-2011 in the province of Duzce. Methods: Inthis cross-sectional study, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter levels, wind speed, air temperature, wind direction, relative humidity, air pressure values of Duzce city center obtained from the web page of Ministry of Envoriment and Planning between 2007-2011 were studied. Ontained measurements compared with the limit values of Air Quality Protection Regulation and the European Union. Results: Average PM10 was 90,5±1,9 (minimum 11,maximum 612 in Duzce Province from January 30, 2007 to December 2011. For PM10 long-term limit value for Turkey was 78 µg/mm3 and were exceeded all years. Winter seasons had higher average values of PM10 than summer seasons. The average SO2 was 12,5±0,3 (minimum 1, maximum 56. Long-term limit value and average annual values of Turkey for SO2 were not exceeded in any year. Conclusion:Duzce Directorate of Environment and Urban Planning should increase the controls in Duzce,especially due to higher values for PM10 parameter related to air pollution.In the days when warning theshold levels exceeded necessary measuress must be taken. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 11-18

  4. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

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    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  5. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor


    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  6. Husbandry and Sustainability of Water Buffaloes in Turkey

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    Orhan Ermetin


    Full Text Available Water buffaloes in Turkey originate from Mediterranean Water Buffaloes, a subgroup of river water buffaloes and are known as Anatolian Water Buffalo. During the 1970’s the number of water buffaloes in Turkey was one million, but in 2010 this figure dropped to about 85.000. Thanks to the incentives introduced for water buffalo husbandry in recent years, the water buffalo population has risen to 143.073 heads. Water buffalo husbandry in Turkey is performed in some provinces of the Black Sea, Marmara and Central Anatolian Regions. The provinces with the highest amount of water buffalo existence are listed as Samsun, Diyarbakır, Istanbul, Tokat, Bitlis, Muş, Afyon, Kayseri, Sivas and Amasya. Breeding style in Turkey is in the form small family business, with an average of 1-5 animals per enterprise. Family enterprises are keeping water buffaloes for their own consumption. Mostly breeding in modern enterprises formed for indoor barn breeding, the size of the herds is around 50 to 100 heads. Being done only at swamps or waterfronts in the past, water buffalo husbandry increasingly takes place in modern facilities nowadays. The colour of Anatolian Water Buffaloes is generally black and their horns curved backwards, are called arch horns in Turkey. The lactation milk yield and lactation length in Anatolian Water Buffaloes are between 800 and 1100 kg and about 180-280 days respectively. It is demonstrated that they varied according to effects of environmental factors, care and feeding. Adult water buffalo’s live weight is about 411-518 kg. The first insemination age of water buffalo is 32 to 43 months and during a lifespan the number of lactation periods is 5 to 10. For adult water buffalo at withers the height of females is being expressed as around 135 cm. Calves are generally breastfed for 3-4 months. Generally, water buffaloes are milked twice a day in the village farms by hand.

  7. The Prevalence of Injury in Permanent Residences of Duzce City

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    Atilla Senih Mayda


    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: Objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of injury and risk factors in permanent residences of Duzce. METHODS: The sample size of this study is calculated as 715 people when population of the region is 13565, injury prevalence is 20.9% taken from a study in Duzce, expected lowest frequency as 18% and in 95% confidence interval. Number of people could be reached was designed as 1170 when 300 house was visited as mean household was 3.9 people which was taken from a study carried out in this region. Data is collected in 15-30 April in the year 2006. Totally, reached sample is 767 people. Injury status, status after injury are dependant variables and age, gender, education status, profession, chronic illness, tobacco-alcohol consumption, marital status are independent variables. RESULTS: Distribution of the group as gender was male 352 (45.9%, female 415 (54. %1. Mean education year of male (4.5±1.5 year was higher than female (4.2±1.6 year (t= 2.97, p=0.03. Injury prevalence was 10.0% (n=767. Sort of injury was fall 31 people (40.2%, cut 11 (14. %3, burn 10 (13.0%. Place that injury take place was house 41 (55.4%, road 17 (23.0%, school 4 (5.4%. Lesions were; cut-wounded injury in 20 people (28.2%, rotten in 10 (14.1%, sprain in 8 (11.3%. Number of injured people was 77 and 28 (36.4% of them applied to hospital. CONCLUSION: Valid prevalance of injuries can be indicated by field studies as quarter of injured people applied to health departments. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 133-136

  8. Hydrogeological and geochemical studies of the Efteni and Derdin geothermal areas, Turkey

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    Karakus, Huseyin; Simsek, Sakir [Hacettepe University, Engineering Faculty, Geological (Hydrogeological) Engineering Department, Beytepe Campus, 06532 Beytepe (Turkey)


    The Efteni and Derdin geothermal areas are located in northwestern Turkey. Relatively low-temperature springs emerge from the Duzce Fault, a normal-component-dominated fault segment of the North Anatolian Fault System. The thermal waters of the Efteni and Derdin Springs show distinct geochemical and isotopic characteristics since they originate from different geothermal reservoirs and reflect the effects of different water-rock interaction processes. Geothermometry revealed higher reservoir temperatures for the Efteni system, however a strong {delta}{sup 18}O shift, interpreted as being the result of isotopic exchange at high temperatures, was observed in the Derdin system. Hydrogeological and geochemical techniques are applied to identify recharge mechanisms, water-rock interaction processes and to construct conceptual models of these geothermal systems. (author)

  9. Turkey. (United States)


    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  10. Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Kurzweil, M.


    This chapter provides an overview of the evolution of Turkey¿s agricultural policies in recent decades, examines the extent to which these policies may have distorted incentives, and attempts an explanation of the underlying forces that have driven the process and conditioned the results. The review

  11. Monitoring water quality and quantity of national watersheds in Turkey. (United States)

    Odemis, Berkant; Evrendilek, Fatih


    National data from the hydrological network for 38 rivers out of 25 watersheds were used to detect spatial and temporal trends in water quality and quantity characteristics between 1995 and 2002. Assessment of water quality and quantity included flow rate, water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption rate, Na, K, Ca+Mg, CO(3), HCO(3), Cl, SO(4), and boron. Among the major ions assessed on a watershed basis, Turkish river waters are relatively high in Ca+Mg, Na and HCO(3), and low in K and CO(3). The watersheds in Turkey experienced a general trend of 16% decrease in flow rates between 1995 and 2002 at a mean annual rate of about 4 m(3) s(-1), with a considerable spatial variation. Similarly, there appeared to be an increasing trend in river water temperature, at a mean annual rate of about 0.2 degrees C. A substantial proportion of watersheds experienced an increase in pH, in particular, after 1997, with a maximum increase from 8.1 to 8.4 observed in Euphrates (P Big Menderes watersheds where intensive agricultural activities take place. Such continued levels may threaten biotic integrity and both drinking and irrigation water quality of rivers. Best multiple linear regression (MLR) models constructed both annually and monthly differed in R (2) values in accounting for variations of pH and water temperature only. The findings of the study can provide a useful assessment of controls over water quality and quantity and assist in devising integrated and sustainable management practices for watersheds at the regional scale in Turkey.


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    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust and classified as a non-metal or a metalloid. Arsenic is toxic and carcinogen and in the environment occurs from both natural and anthropogenic sources. In the aqueous environment inorganic arsenic appears commonly in forms of arsenite (As(III and arsenate (As(V. pH, redox potential, and the presence of complexing ions such as ions of sulfur, iron, and calcium determine the arsenic valence and speciation. Because of the naturally occurring arsenic contamination in groundwater in many parts of the world many people have faced with risk of arsenic poisoning. In Turkey especially in the west regions, natural water sources contained much higher levels of arsenic than maximum contaminated level (MCL set (10 ?g/L were determined. In this study, arsenic problem and its reasons in Turkey were investigated. For this purpose, arsenic analyses were carried out and higher levels of arsenic than MCL was detected in some regions of Izmir. High levels of arsenic in these natural waters were considered to be associated with the dissolution of some minerals and rock formation.

  13. Metallic and Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water of Cankiri, Turkey

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    Emrah Caylak


    Full Text Available Safe and good quality drinking water is very important for human health. Water provides some heavy metals, such as As, B, Cd, Cn, Cr, Cu, F, Cl, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Sn. These are undesirable substances dangerous to human health and cause chronic diseases and various cancers. Coliform bacteria are a commonly used bacterial indicator of sanitary quality of water. E. coli, total coliform and enterococci have been used as indicators of possible sewage contamination might pose a health risk. In this study, water samples were taken from thirty different waterworks in Cankiri, Turkey and metallic and microbial contaminants were investigated. In the drinking tap water samples have been found at concentrations exceeding the Turkish regulations (As and free Cl and the WHO guidelines (As and B. Our results also indicate that significant microbiological contaminations were found above the guidelines for drinking waters given by the WHO, because of the fact that in the distribution of water is not appropriate.

  14. Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria from hospital waters in Turkey. (United States)

    Genc, Gonca Erkose; Richter, Elvira; Erturan, Zayre


    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in hot and cold water distribution systems. With molecular typing methods it was shown that water can be the source of colonization and infection with NTM. The aim of our study was the investigation of NTM in hot and cold water samples taken from various departments of two hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey. Totally, 160 water samples were examined. The temperature, pH, and free chlorine levels of water samples were measured between 10-41 °C, 6.78-7.98 and isolates were identified as Mycobacterium lentiflavum, Mycobacterium gordonae, and Mycobacterium peregrinum, respectively. M. lentiflavum, which was the most frequently isolated NTM, is characterized by multiple resistance to antimycobacterial drugs. Although no infections with this mycobacterium were reported from our country so far, preventive measures may be considered in patients under immunosuppression. Because no significant correlations were found among the presence of NTM or species distribution and water temperature, pH or free chlorine levels, other factors need to be investigated. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Water sources, mixing and evaporation in the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey (United States)

    Lécuyer, C.; Bodergat, A.-M.; Martineau, F.; Fourel, F.; Gürbüz, K.; Nazik, A.


    Akyatan lagoon, located southeast of Turkey along the Mediterranean coast, is a choked and hypersaline lagoon, and hosts a large and specific biodiversity including endangered sea turtles and migrating birds. Physicochemical properties of this lagoon were investigated by measuring temperature, salinity, and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of its waters at a seasonal scale during years 2006 and 2007. Winter and spring seasons were dominated by mixing processes between freshwaters and Mediterranean seawater. The majority of spring season waters are formed by evapoconcentration of brackish water at moderate temperatures of 22 ± 2 °C. During summer, hypersaline waters result from evaporation of seawater and brackish waters formed during spring. Evaporation over the Akyatan lagoon reaches up to 76 wt% based on salinity measurements and operated with a dry (relative humidity of 0.15-0.20) and hot (44 ± 6 °C) air. These residual waters were characterized by the maximal seasonal isotopic enrichment in both deuterium and 18O relative to VSMOW. During autumn, most lagoonal waters became hypersaline and were formed by evaporation of waters that had isotopic compositions and salinities close to that of seawater. These autumnal hypersaline waters result from an air humidity close to 0.45 and an atmospheric temperature of evaporation of 35 ± 5 °C, which are responsible for up to 71 wt% of evaporation, with restricted isotopic enrichments relative to VSMOW. During the warm seasons, the combination of air humidity, wind velocity and temperature were responsible for a large kinetic component in the total isotopic fractionation between water liquid and water vapour.

  16. A Possible Jeopardy of Water Resources in Terms of Turkey's Economic and Political Context: Water Conflicts

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    M. Levent YILMAZ


    Full Text Available Water is a resource that is a prominent requirement for human life, however, especially in recent years, availability decreases to dangerous levels due to the climate change. Certainly another factor that makes water vital is that water became an economical input for both industry and energy generation. While the World's rising population, increasing production potential and other factors raise the need for water constantly, climate change, global warming and other kinds of pollution reduce the level of availability of freshwater which makes water more important than ever. In our study, some information about the importance of water are given and then the possible risks for Turkey in Middle East are examined.

  17. Salt minerals and waters from soils in Konya [Turkey] and Kenya

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    Vergouwen, L.


    This study deals with the relation between the mineralogical composition of salt assemblages and the composition of groundwaters from which these salts precipitated. A comparison was made between salts and waters sampled in the Konya Basin in Turkey and waters sampled in three different regions in

  18. Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heating Systems inTurkey. (United States)

    Ertekin, Can; Kulcu, Recep; Evrendilek, Fatih


    In this study, solar water heater was investigated using meteorological and geographical data of 129 sites over Turkey. Three different collector types were compared in terms of absorber material (copper, galvanized sheet and selective absorber). Energy requirement for water heating, collector performances, and economical indicators were calculated with formulations using observed data. Results showed that selective absorbers were most appropriate in terms of coverage rate of energy requirement for water-heating all over Turkey. The prices of selective, copper and galvanized absorber type's heating systems in Turkey were 740.49, 615.69 and 490.89 USD, respectively. While payback periods (PBPs) of the galvanized absorber were lower, net present values (NPVs) of the selective absorber were higher than the rest. Copper absorber type collectors did not appear to be appropriate based on economical indicators.

  19. Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heating Systems inTurkey

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    Fatih Evrendilek


    Full Text Available In this study, solar water heater was investigated using meteorological and geographical data of 129 sites over Turkey. Three different collector types were compared in terms of absorber material (copper, galvanized sheet and selective absorber. Energy requirement for water heating, collector performances, and economical indicators were calculated with formulations using observed data. Results showed that selective absorbers were most appropriate in terms of coverage rate of energy requirement for water-heating all over Turkey. The prices of selective, copper and galvanized absorber type’s heating systems in Turkey were 740.49, 615.69 and 490.89 USD, respectively. While payback periods (PBPs of the galvanized absorber were lower, net present values (NPVs of the selective absorber were higher than the rest. Copper absorber type collectors did not appear to be appropriate based on economical indicators.

  20. Survival of turkey arthritis reovirus in poultry litter and drinking water. (United States)

    Mor, Sunil K; Verma, Harsha; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Ziegler, Andre F; Noll, Sally L; Goyal, Sagar M


    Turkey reoviruses (TRVs) can cause arthritis, tenosynovitis, and enteric diseases in turkeys, leading to huge economic losses. The TRVs are tentatively divided into turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs) and turkey enteric reoviruses (TERVs) depending on the type of disease they produce. This study was conducted to determine the survival of these viruses in autoclaved and nonautoclaved poultry litter and drinking water at room temperature (approx. 25°C). Three isolates of TARV (TARV-O'Neil, TARV-MN2, and TARV-MN4) and one each of TERV (TERV-MN1) and chicken arthritis reovirus (CARV) were used in this study. The viruses were propagated and titrated on QT-35 cells. In autoclaved dechlorinated tap water, all 5 viruses were able to survive for 9 to 13 wk. In nonautoclaved water, all 5 viruses survived for at least 2 wk. In autoclaved litter, the viruses survived for 6 to 8 wk, and in nonautoclaved litter, they survived for 6 to 8 d only. The implications of these results are discussed below. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Water quality in turkey farms in Khemisset (Morocco) and potential risk factors. (United States)

    El Allaoui, A; Rhazi Filali, F; Derouich, A


    The objectives of this study were to assess the microbiological and physical/chemical quality of water in broiler turkey farms in the province of Khemisset (north-western Morocco) and, based on a questionnaire, to ascertain potential risk factors for contamination of drinking water with faecal coliforms. A total of 80 samples were collected and analysed in 20 farms (four from each farm). At the main inlet to the water line at the entrance to each turkey house, 100% of the samples were of unacceptable quality in terms of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci, sulphitereducing anaerobes and enterococci. A significant reduction in microbiological contamination of the water line (p hardness and only 20% met quality standards for ammonium content. The factors affecting levels of contamination with faecal coliforms were water chlorination (p = 0.065; odds ratio = 14; 90% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-71), cleaning and disinfection (p = 0.028; odds ratio = 14; 95% CI = 1.25-156.6) and antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001; odds ratio = 6; 95% CI = 2.1-35.2). To improve water quality in poultry farms, farmers are advised to protect wells from contamination and to install water purification units (pre-oxidation, coagulation, flocculation, disinfection). In addition, turkey houses and rearing equipment should be rigorously cleaned and disinfected between each batch of birds. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  2. Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heating Systems inTurkey


    Fatih Evrendilek; Recep Kulcu; Can Ertekin


    In this study, solar water heater was investigated using meteorological and geographical data of 129 sites over Turkey. Three different collector types were compared in terms of absorber material (copper, galvanized sheet and selective absorber). Energy requirement for water heating, collector performances, and economical indicators were calculated with formulations using observed data. Results showed that selective absorbers were most appropriate in terms of coverage rate of energy requireme...

  3. Use of olive oil-in-water gelled emulsions in model turkey breast emulsions (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Öztürk, B.


    Today, gelled emulsion systems offer a novel possibility in lipid modification of meat products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of model turkey emulsions that were prepared with olive oil-in-water gelled emulsion (GE) as partial or total beef fat replacer. The results indicated that while most of the GE treatments showed equivalent emulsion characteristics in terms of emulsion stability, water-holding capacity and cook yield, utilization of 100% GE as the lipid source could increase total expressible fluid of the model turkey emulsion and thus negatively affect the quality. Utilization of GE was effective in total fat reduction, as the model turkey emulsions formulated with more than 50% GE had significantly lower fat content compared to full-beef fat control model emulsion. However, beef fat replacement with GE produced considerable changes in colour parameters. Finally, it was concluded that utilization of GE as a partial beef fat replacer has good potential to enhance stability and reduce total fat in turkey meat emulsion products.

  4. Water Data Analysis 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393937093090901 SITE NAME: Turkey Creek nr Sumner MO, Fulbright Rd COOPERATION: Swan Lake...

  5. Water Data Analysis 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016 (United States)

    Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393937093090901 SITE NAME: Turkey Creek nr Sumner MO, Fulbright Rd COOPERATION: Swan Lake...



    Zeki Gökalp; Belgin Çakmak


    Water is an essential element in ensuring food safety. It is not possible to obtain food without water. The importance of water is gradually increased and nowadays raised to the top ranks among strategic resources. The use and increasing environmental threats by different sectors are increasingly limited available water resources. In the past years water was seen as an abundant and unlimited resource, and was used randomly. However today, global warming and drought have brought the importanc...

  7. Exploring the Legionella pneumophila positivity rate in hotel water samples from Antalya, Turkey. (United States)

    Sepin Özen, Nevgün; Tuğlu Ataman, Şenay; Emek, Mestan


    The genus Legionella is a fastidious Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in natural waters and man made water supply systems. Legionella pneumophila is the aetiological agent of approximately 90% of reported Legionellosis cases, and serogroup 1 is the most frequent cause of infections. Legionnaires' disease is often associated with travel and continues to be a public health concern at present. The correct water management quality practices and rapid methods for analyzing Legionella species in environmental water is a key point for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity rates and serotyping of Legionella species from water samples in the region of Antalya, Turkey, which is an important tourism center. During January-December 2010, a total of 1403 samples of water that were collected from various hotels (n = 56) located in Antalya were investigated for Legionella pneumophila. All samples were screened for L. pneumophila by culture method according to "ISO 11731-2" criteria. The culture positive Legionella strains were serologically identified by latex agglutination test. A total of 142 Legionella pneumophila isolates were recovered from 21 (37.5%) of 56 hotels. The total frequency of L. pneumophila isolation from water samples was found as 10.1%. Serological typing of 142 Legionella isolates by latex agglutination test revealed that strains belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 predominated in the examined samples (85%), while strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were less numerous (15%). According to our knowledge, our study with the greatest number of water samples from Turkey demonstrates that L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 is the most common isolate. Rapid isolation of L. pneumophila from environmental water samples is essential for the investigation of travel related outbreaks and the possible resources. Further studies are needed to have epidemiological data and to determine the types of L

  8. Attitudes Towards Smoking and Frequency of Smoking Among Students of Duzce Medical School

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    Atilla Senih Mayda


    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study; to determine smoking prevalence in the students of Duzce Medical School and to learn attitudes of students towards smoking was aimed and questionnaires applied under supervision to 230 students (96.0% who accepted to participated to the study of all 242 students of the Medical School in the term of 2005-2006. The prevalence of smoking was found 31.3%. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher in the students who have smokers among their friends, the students who had been graduated from Science High School, the students who deal with an art such as painting, music, theatre and the students who have lived alone. Almost all the students declined that they had supported the legal regulations and sanctions against smoking and 43.0 % of the students thought that to persuade community not to smoke has been the mission of doctors. The reasons to begin to smoke were declined as; the affects of friends, (54.4%, affectation (28.0%, curiosity (28.8% and being alone (20.6%. Of the students who have been smoking currently 42 students (65.6% have wanted to quit smoking, 20 (31.3% haven’t want to quit and 2 (%3.1 has been undecided. Of smokers, 47 students (74.6% had been tried to quit smoking. The students of Medical School have known that smoking was harmful to health. Because friends’ affects are important to begin smoking; campaigns to quit smoking has to be planned towards friend groups not to individuals. Considering that behaviors of physicians have effected to community physicians have to be ensured to quit smoking and not to begin smoking with campaigns against smoking. It’s important to support students who want to quit smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 364-370

  9. Attitudes Towards Smoking and Frequency of Smoking Among Students of Duzce Medical School

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    Atilla Senih Mayda


    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study; to determine smoking prevalence in the students of Duzce Medical School and to learn attitudes of students towards smoking was aimed and questionnaires applied under supervision to 230 students (96.0% who accepted to participated to the study of all 242 students of the Medical School in the term of 2005-2006. The prevalence of smoking was found 31.3%. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher in the students who have smokers among their friends, the students who had been graduated from Science High School, the students who deal with an art such as painting, music, theatre and the students who have lived alone. Almost all the students declined that they had supported the legal regulations and sanctions against smoking and 43.0 % of the students thought that to persuade community not to smoke has been the mission of doctors. The reasons to begin to smoke were declined as; the affects of friends, (54.4%, affectation (28.0%, curiosity (28.8% and being alone (20.6%. Of the students who have been smoking currently 42 students (65.6% have wanted to quit smoking, 20 (31.3% haven’t want to quit and 2 (%3.1 has been undecided. Of smokers, 47 students (74.6% had been tried to quit smoking. The students of Medical School have known that smoking was harmful to health. Because friends’ affects are important to begin smoking; campaigns to quit smoking has to be planned towards friend groups not to individuals. Considering that behaviors of physicians have effected to community physicians have to be ensured to quit smoking and not to begin smoking with campaigns against smoking. It’s important to support students who want to quit smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 364-370

  10. Technical NoteEarthquake dates and water level changes in wells in the Eskisehir region, Turkey

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    G. Yuce


    Full Text Available Although satisfactory results have yet to be obtained in earthquake prediction, one of the most common indicators of an anomalous precursor is a change in groundwater level in existing wells. Further wells should thus be drilled in unconfined aquifers since these are more susceptible to seismic waves. The Eskisehir region lies in the transition zone between the Aegean extensional domain and the compressible northern Anatolian block. Limnigraphs, installed in 19 exploration wells in the Eskisehir region, recorded pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic level changes during the earthquakes of 17 August Izmit (Mw= 7.4 and 12 November Duzce (Mw= 7.2 1999 that occurred along the North Anatolian Fault Zone. The Izmit and Duzce earthquakes affected groundwater levels, especially in confined aquifers. The aquifer characteristics before and after the earthquakes were unchanged so the aquifer is elastic in its behaviour. Further detailed geo-mechanical investigation of the confined aquifer in the Eskisehir region may improve understanding of earthquake prediction. Keywords: earthquake prediction, Eskisehir, hydrological warning, monitoring groundwater levels

  11. Occurency of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in river water sources of Black Sea, Turkey. (United States)

    Koloren, Zeynep; Seferoğlu, Onuralp; Karanis, Panagiotis


    A total of 420 environmental water samples and 120 drinking water samples from 45 different sampling sites of the Black Sea in Turkey were collected between 2012 and 2014. Genomic DNA was isolated from all the investigated water samples and comparativelly analyzed by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the elongation factor 1 Alfa (EF1α) gene, and by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA and semi-nested PCR (snPCR) of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GDH). 141 (58.7%), 125 (52.1%) and 120 (50%) samples respectivelly were positive by each method. Out of 240 environmental samples collected from 25 sites of Samsun Province have been found positive for G. duodenalis by LAMP, nPCR and snPCR, respectively. 55 (30.5%), 50 (27.8%) and 47 (26.1%) of 180 environmental samples collected from 20 other sampling sites of Giresun Province were positive for Giardia by LAMP, nPCR and snPCR, respectively. Five PCR products from different samples of the Giresun Province and 10 other samples from the Samsun Province were found positive for G. duodenalis assemblage B. Five PCR products from Giresun Province and 5 samples from Samsun Province were found positive for G. duodenalis assemblage A. This is the first report about G. duodenalis assemblages A and B from water samples investigations in Black Sea of Turkey. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment and fish from Izmit Bay, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taymaz, K.; Yigit, V.; Ozbal, H.; Ceritoglu, A.; Mueftuegil, N.


    Mercury, cadmium and lead levels in water, sediment and fish samples from Izmit Bay, Turkey have been determined. Sampling and analysis methods are described. Variations of heavy metal concentrations from different sampling stations are discussed. Results indicate that the levels of mercury and cadmium were highest in the vicinity of a chlor-alkali plant while the highest concentration of lead was near a metallic pipe factory. The amounts of heavy metals found in the shoreline sediment samples were similar to those found in fish species from the bay.

  13. Solar radiation and precipitable water modeling for Turkey using artificial neural networks (United States)

    Şenkal, Ozan


    Artificial neural network (ANN) method was applied for modeling and prediction of mean precipitable water and solar radiation in a given location and given date (month), given altitude, temperature, pressure and humidity in Turkey (26-45ºE and 36-42ºN) during the period of 2000-2002. Resilient Propagation (RP) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. To train the network, meteorological measurements taken by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS) and Wyoming University for the period from 2000 to 2002 from five stations distributed in Turkey were used as training data. Data from years (2000 and 2001) were used for training, while the year 2002 was used for testing and validating the model. The RP algorithm were first used for determination of the precipitable water and subsequently, computation of the solar radiation, in these stations Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the estimated and measured values for monthly mean daily sum for precipitable water and solar radiation values have been found as 0.0062 gr/cm2 and 0.0603 MJ/m2 (training cities), 0.5652 gr/cm2 and 3.2810 MJ/m2 (testing cities), respectively.

  14. Comparison of water-based foam and carbon dioxide gas emergency depopulation methods of turkeys. (United States)

    Rankin, M K; Alphin, R L; Benson, E R; Johnson, A L; Hougentogler, D P; Mohankumar, P


    Recommended response strategies for outbreaks of avian influenza and other highly contagious poultry diseases include surveillance, quarantine, depopulation, disposal, and decontamination. The best methods of emergency mass depopulation should maximize human health and safety while minimizing disease spread and animal welfare concerns. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 mass depopulation methods on adult tom turkeys. The methods tested were carbon dioxide gassing and water-based foam. The time to unconsciousness, motion cessation, brain death, and altered terminal cardiac activity were recorded for each bird through the use of an electroencephalogram, accelerometer, and electrocardiogram. Critical times for physiological events were extracted from sensor data and compiled in a spreadsheet for statistical analysis. A statistically significant difference was observed in time to brain death, with water-based foam resulting in faster brain death (µ = 190 s) than CO2 gas (µ = 242 s). Though not statistically significant, differences were found comparing the time to unconsciousness (foam: µ = 64 s; CO2 gas: µ = 90 s), motion cessation (foam: µ = 182 s; CO2 gas: µ = 153 s), and altered terminal cardiac activity (foam: µ = 208 s; CO2 gas µ = 242 s) between foam and CO2 depopulation treatments. The results of this study demonstrate that water-based foam can be used to effectively depopulate market size male turkeys.

  15. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.


    As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement

  16. The effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake in turkeys. (United States)

    Vizcarra, J A; Wright, H; Vizcarra, A


    Five-week-old turkeys were used to evaluate the effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake and animal behavior. In experiment 1, females were reared using normal feeding and lighting management recommended by the industry. At 5 wk of age (d 0 of experiment 1), birds (n = 40) were individually caged (0.65 × 0.4 × 0.4 m) with free access to feed and water. Feed and water intake were measured 3 times a day (0800, 1200, and 1700 h) by recording the weight of feed or water offered minus any unconsumed feed or water remaining. After 3 d of adaptation to the cages (d 3), birds were stratified by BW and feed consumption and randomly assigned to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatment. Starting on d 3, turkeys were given intravenous (iv) injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma obtained from pigs that were previously actively immunized against ghrelin or iv injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma, obtained from nonimmunized pigs (control). In experiment 2, the 2 highest doses (i.e., 4.0 and 8.0 mL; n = 4/treatment) were repeated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement as described in experiment 1. A laptop computer with a built-in color camera and appropriate software was used to record birds for 9 consecutive hours, starting 4 h before treatments were applied. Video clips were saved and a human observer watched and annotated bird behavior associated with feeding, drinking, and standing. Passively immunized birds increased feed consumption (P = 0.04) compared with control animals. Water intake was not affected by treatments. There was a tendency for immunized birds to increase the number of pecks per hour and the amount of time devoted for feeding. Our data suggest that in turkeys, the effect of immunization against ghrelin on feed intake is the opposite of that observed in mammalian species.

  17. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey. (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H


    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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    M. Öztürk ، G. Özözen ، O. Minareci ، E. Minareci


    Full Text Available In the present study, some heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb were seasonally determined in water, sediment and some tissues of Cyprinus carpio from Avsar Dam Lake, which is an important water source for irrigation and drinking in Turkey. Heavy metal levels in water, sediment and fish samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP/AES. The obtained results showed that the average values of Fe in water samples were higher than the respective reference values for fresh water. Results for levels in water were compared with national and international water quality guidelines, as well as literature data reported for the lakes. The analysis of heavy metals in sediments indicated that among the six heavy metals tested, Fe was maximally accumulated, followed by Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd. Heavy metal concentrations were found to decrease in sequence of the Cyprinus carpio samples, in the muscle and stomach-intestine as Fe > Cu > Pb> Ni > Cr > Cd; in the gill, heart and liver as Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Cd and in the air sac as Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd >Cr. In the fish samples, cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead concentrations exceeded the tolerable values provided by international institutions.

  19. Status of hydropower and water resources in the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP of Turkey

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    Murat Kankal


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the water resources development of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP in Turkey. The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, located in the GAP, have the largest flow volume of 16.9% and 11.4% of Turkey’s average annually runoff (186 billion m3, respectively. While the Euphrates represents over 19.4% of the national gross hydropower potential (433 GWh/year, the Tigris correspond to 11.2% of this potential. 20,523 GWh/year of hydropower potential in the GAP is in operation. When all projects of the GAP in planning are completed, the total hydropower potential reaches a level of 27,419 GWh/year. This value corresponds to 10.9% of the annual electric energy production of Turkey in 2014 (251.96 GWh. There is also irrigable land of 1.06 million ha in the GAP, and now roughly 33.7%, 357,241 ha, of which have been irrigated.

  20. Radioactivity measurements and risk assessments of spa waters in some areas in Turkey. (United States)

    Duran, Selcen Uzun; Kucukomeroglu, Belgin; Damla, Nevzat; Taskin, Halim; Celik, Necati; Cevik, Uğur; Ersoy, Hakan


    The current study presents the results of the activity of radionuclides in spa waters, and evaluates their radiological influences on the population consuming these waters in the Central and Eastern Black Sea regions of Turkey. Since these waters are used for therapy and consumption purposes unconsciously, their radiological impact on the people was computed by taking into consideration the annual intake through ingestion of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 137 Cs and 222 Rn. The mean activities were estimated to be 11.35 for gross alpha, 6.23 for gross beta, 2.96 for 226 Ra, 0.42 for 232 Th, 0.069 for 137 Cs, 0.19 for 40 K, and 267 Bq L -1 for 222 Rn, respectively. The estimated effective doses from spa water were found to be 49.77 µSv a -1 ( 226 Ra), 5.95 µSv a -1 ( 232 Th), 0.07 µSv a -1 ( 137 Cs), 0.83 µSv a -1 ( 40 K) and 56.03 µSv a -1 ( 222 Rn). These values were evaluated and compared with related verified values from literature. Also, physico-chemical characterizations of spa water samples considered in the current study were investigated. This study would be useful for consumers and official authorities for the assessment of radiation exposure risk due to usage of the considered spa waters.

  1. (238)U and total radioactivity in drinking waters in Van province, Turkey. (United States)

    Selçuk Zorer, Özlem; Dağ, Beşir


    As part of the national survey to evaluate natural radioactivity in the environment, concentration levels of total radioactivity and natural uranium have been analysed in drinking water samples. A survey to study natural radioactivity in drinking waters was carried out in the Van province, East Turkey. Twenty-three samples of drinking water were collected in the Van province and analysed for total α, total β and (238)U activity. The total α and total β activities were counted by using the α/β counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC MPC-9604), and the (238)U concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Thermo Scientific Element 2). The samples were categorised according to origin: tap, spring or mineral supply. The activity concentrations for total α were found to range from 0.002 to 0.030 Bq L(-1) and for total β from 0.023 to 1.351 Bq L(-1). Uranium concentrations ranging from 0.562 to 14.710 μg L(-1) were observed in drinking waters. Following the World Health Organisation rules, all investigated waters can be used as drinking water.

  2. Utilization of statistics based classification approach to investigate water supply profile of Turkey. (United States)

    Boyacioglu, Hayal; Boyacioglu, Hülya


    In the paper water supply profile of Turkey was examined. In this scope, the questionnaire survey conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute in 2004 to investigate annual amount of water abstracted to drinking water networks by type of resources in 81 provinces was evaluated. In the questionnaire, sources were grouped under five categories as spring, (artificial) lake, river, reservoir and well. Due to the complex and multivariate characteristics of the data sets, to replace a large collection of variables with a smaller number of factors the statistical method "factor analysis" was performed. Results revealed that, water supply systems in the country were mainly governed by groundwater sources (well and/or spring). However, in the northeastern part of the country, rivers were allocated for drinking water supply. On the other hand, reservoir dependent cities were densely located in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Southeast Anatolia Regions. This study showed that statistics based classification methods assist decision makers to extract information from multidimensional complex data sets representing environmental conditions.

  3. Evaluation of genotoxicity from Nilufer Stream (Bursa/Turkey) water using piscine micronucleus test. (United States)

    Summak, Senay; Aydemir, Nilufer Cinkilic; Vatan, Ozgür; Yilmaz, Dilek; Zorlu, Tolga; Bilaloğlu, Rahmi


    In the present study, the in vivo micronucleus (MN) test in fish erythrocytes was used to evaluate the genotoxic potentials of water samples collected from four different sites along the Nilufer Stream which empties into the Marmara Sea on the north-west of Turkey. Nilufer Stream receives discharges of industrial and domestic wastes resulting from industrialization and urbanization activities in Bursa city. Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to collected water samples under laboratory conditions for 3 and 6 days. Micronuclei analyses were carried out in peripheral blood erythrocytes. In addition to micronuclei, other nuclear abnormalities (NAs) such as bi-nucleated cells and binuclei with nucleoplasmic bridge and cells with blebbed, notched and lobbed nuclei, were assessed in the erythrocytes. Chemical analyses were also carried out in the water samples to assess the presence of major pollutants. MN and NA frequencies were significantly elevated in fishes exposed to water from polluted areas compared to those exposed to clean water sample. The results of this study indicate that Nilufer Stream is contaminated with potential genotoxic chemicals and the genotoxicity is possibly related with the industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling surface water-groundwater interactions at the Palas Basin (Turkey using FREEWAT

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    Filiz Dadaser-Celik


    Full Text Available Palas Basin is a semi-arid closed basin located in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. The major economic activity in the basin is agriculture; therefore, both surface water and groundwater are used for irrigation. However, intensive use of water resources threatens the hydrologic sustainability of a lake ecosystem (Tuzla Lake located in the basin. In this study, we analyzed the relationships between agricultural water uses in the Palas Basin and water flows to the Tuzla Lake using groundwater flow model developed with the FREEWAT platform. The model grid with 250 m x 250 m resolution was created based on the entire watershed. Two hydrostratigraphic units were identified. The source terms defined in the model were rainfall recharge and the sink terms were evapotranspiration and wells. The model was run for one year at steady state conditions. Three scenarios were simulated to understand the effect of groundwater use on the lake hydrology. The first scenario assumed that there was no groundwater abstraction. As the second and third water management scenario, the model was run with 50% less and %50 more groundwater abstraction than that of the reference conditions. The model successfully simulated the direction of groundwater flow and groundwater levels in the basin. Annual groundwater recharge was simulated as 5.27 million m3. Groundwater losses were due to pumping (1.49 million m3/yr, leakance to Değirmen River (2.25 million m3/yr and seepage to Tuzla Lake (1.53 million m3/yr. Water flows to Tuzla Lake were significantly related to pumping rates. Increasing groundwater pumping rates reduces groundwater flows to Tuzla Lake and lowers lake water levels. No groundwater abstraction and reduction in groundwater pumping rates increase water flows to Tuzla Lake and cause higher water levels. This analysis showed that protection of hydrologic characteristics of Tuzla Lake is only possible with more control on groundwater abstraction.

  5. Assessment of stream water chemistry and impact of geothermal fluid in the up-Buyuk Menderes Basin, Turkey. (United States)

    Davraz, Aysen; Aksever, Fatma; Afsin, Mustafa


    The discharge of geothermal fluid into the natural water environment may lead to serious damages. In this study, the impact of geothermal waste water on surface water has been investigated in the up-Buyuk Menderes River, Turkey. Thermal return water from district heating and from thermal bath in the Sandıklı region were the most important source of major solutes and trace elements to the up-Buyuk Menderes River and tributaries. The thermal contribution causes a drastic increase in Na, SO4 ions, EC, and temperature of surface waters. The concentrations of As, Al, B, Fe, Cr, Li, S, P, Pb, U, Mn, and Zn are increasing dramatically downstream of thermal water inputs in the Kufi Creek tributary. In addition to natural thermal water inputs, water quality was impacted by anthropogenic trace and major element inputs from surface waters. The increased of some trace elements (Al, As, B, Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn, P, U) in surface water are related to anthropogenic activities such as agricultural activities, sewage effluents, and stockyards in the study area. Additionally, surface water quality of the up-Buyuk Menderes River and tributaries was evaluated according to standards given by the Environmental Protection Agency of both Turkey and USA. Our study demonstrates the influence of thermal water inputs on water quality of surface waters.

  6. Heavy metals in water, sediment and tissues of Leuciscus cephalus from a stream in southwestern Turkey. (United States)

    Demirak, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Tuna, A Levent; Ozdemir, Nedim


    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were measured in water, bottom sediment and tissues (muscle and gills) of Leuciscus cephalus from the Dipsiz stream in the Yatagan basin (southwestern Turkey), the site of a thermal power plant. Results for levels in water were compared with national and international water quality guidelines, as well as literature values were reported for streams and rivers. Comparisons were made of metal concentrations in water and sediment with those in the muscle and gills of L. cephalus caught from the Dipsiz stream. We found that there was metal accumulation in the gills compared to the muscle. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cr in the gills were higher than that in the muscle; however, Cu levels were higher in muscle than that in gills. Concentrations of heavy metals in L. cephalus muscle were below the legal limits for human consumption, although Cr, Pb and Zn levels in the gills were above the limits in the fish taken from the Dipsiz stream. On the other hand, no correlation was found between metal concentrations in water and sediment or between metal concentrations in water and muscle and gills of L. cephalus. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of Cu and Zn in the sediment and in fish tissue, whereas there was no relationship between other metal concentrations in the sediment and water, and muscle and gills of L. cephalus. As with water, Pb and Cd concentrations in particular were higher in sediment than that in background levels. The results show that the pollutants from the thermal power plant may be a source of these elements.


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    Full Text Available In order to investigate and find out the bacterial community of hot spring waters in Eskişehir, Turkey, 7 hot spring water samples were collected from 7 different hot springs. All samples were inoculated using four different media (nutrient agar, water yeast extract agar, trypticase soy agar, starch casein agar. After incubation at 50 ºC for 14 days, all bacterial colonies were counted and purified. Gram reaction, catalase and oxidase properties of all isolates were determined and investigated by BIOLOG, VITEK and automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter. The resistance of these bacteriawas examined against ampiciline, gentamisine, trimethoprime-sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline. As a result, heat resistant pathogenic microorganisms in addition to human normal flora were determined in hot spring waters (43-50 ºC in investigated area. Ten different species belong to 6 genera were identified as Alysiella filiformis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. pertussis, Molexalla caprae, M. caviae, M. cuniculi, M. phenylpyruvica, Roseomonas fauriae, Delftia acidovorans and Pseudomonas taetrolens.

  8. Isolation and Identification of Free-Living Amoebae from Tap Water in Sivas, Turkey

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    Kübra Açıkalın Coşkun


    Full Text Available The present work focuses on a local survey of free-living amoebae (FLA that cause opportunistic and nonopportunistic infections in humans. Determining the prevalence of FLA in water sources can shine a light on the need to prevent FLA related illnesses. A total of 150 samples of tap water were collected from six districts of Sivas province. The samples were filtered and seeded on nonnutrient agar containing Escherichia coli spread. Thirty-three (22% out of 150 samples were found to be positive for FLA. The FLA were identified by morphology and by PCR using 18S rDNA gene. The morphological analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene revealed the presence of three different species, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Hartmannella vermiformis. Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, or Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study. All A. castellanii and A. polyphaga sequence types were found to be genotype T4 that contains most of the pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains. The results indicated the occurrence and distribution of FLA species in tap water in these localities of Sivas, Turkey. Furthermore, the presence of temperature tolerant Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in tap water in the region must be taken into account for health risks.

  9. Phosphorus speciation in the surface sediment and river water from the Orontes (Asi) River, Turkey. (United States)

    Aydin, Isil; Aydin, Firat; Hamamci, Candan


    The paper presents the results of the distribution of phosphorus bioavailability (total, organic, and inorganic phosphorus) in surface sediment and river water from the Orontes (Asi) River (Samandag, Antakya, Turkey) in March 2008. Speciation of inorganic phosphorus was carried out using a method on sequential extractions, with each releasing four forms of inorganic phosphorus-loosely sorbed phosphorus, phosphorus bound to aluminum (P-AL), phosphorus bound to iron (P-Fe), and phosphorus bound to calcium (P-Ca). Total phosphorus concentrations are, on average, 3.724 mg/L and 312.30 mg/kg dry weight in the river water and surface sediment, respectively. The interstitial water of the surface sediment contains less than 1% of the surface sediment's total phosphorus pool. The most abundant form of inorganic phosphorus is P-Ca. Relative abundances of the remaining phosphorus forms both in surface sediment and river water follow the order P-Al > loosely bound-P > P-Fe.

  10. Heavy metals in water and in tissues of himri (Carasobarbus luteus) from Orontes (Asi) River, Turkey. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ayşe Bahar; Doğan, Mustafa


    Concentrations of heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb ve Zn) were measured in running water and in tissues (muscle, liver, gill, skin and gonads) of one commercially valuable fish species (Carasobarbus luteus) from the Orontes (Asi) River (Güzelburç region) in Hatay (Southeastern Turkey). Results for levels in water compared with national and international water quality guidelines were found at the highest concentrations in international criteria's WHO, EC and EPA, but Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb were found to exceed permissible level of drinking water in national criteria TSE-266 whereas Fe, Zn and Cr concentrations were within the permissible levels for drinking. The present study showed a significant seasonal variation (p 0.05), which showed seasonal variation of only Zn (p < 0.05). Maximum concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr and Pb were detected in gonads followed by liver, gill, skin and muscle while maximum concentrations of Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn were detected in liver followed by other tissues. Concentrations of heavy metals in the muscle of C. luteus were below the permissible limit for human consumption, level of Cu being very close to the permissible limit. Consequently, continuous monitoring of heavy metal concentration in edible freshwater fish will be needed in Orontes River.

  11. Water and counter-hegemony: Kurdish struggle in the Tigris and Euphrates in Turkey

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    Gilberto Conde


    Full Text Available Water issues are often related to general questions of justice. This article discusses Tigris and Euphrates water issues from the point of view of Kurds in Turkey. The goal here is not to discuss the entire landscape of power relations and interests in the recent history of these rivers inside the country or across borders, but to understand how opposition Kurds view the way in which Turkish authorities manage water resources, policies and politics within the basins, affecting local society and the environment. It has been found that beyond establishing hydro-hegemony over co-riparian states along the Tigris and Euphrates (Syria and Iraq, the Turkish state has sought to deploy its soft and hard power over Kurds. The opposition Kurdish movement has responded by developing its own counter-hegemonic measures. Their proposals seem to aim at winning over Kurds, but also Turks and other peoples. Their framing of a different type of stakeholder participation in decision-making calls for a model of direct democracy covering different aspects of life, including water management and environmental soundness. The research is based on academic and government literature and a number of semi-structured interviews with Kurdish municipal officials, faculty and activists.

  12. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey. (United States)

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan


    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  13. Q Conversion Factor Models for Estimating Precipitable Water Vapor for Turkey (United States)

    Deniz, Ilke; Mekik, Cetin; Gurbuz, Gokhan


    precipitable water vapor is the conversion factor Q which is shown in Emardson and Derks' studies and also Jade and Vijayan's. Developing a regional model using either Tm-Ts equation or the conversion factor Q will provide a basis for GNSS Meteorology in Turkey which depends on the analysis of the radiosonde profile data. For this purpose, the radiosonde profiles from Istanbul, Ankara, Diyarbaki r, Samsun, Erzurum, Izmir, Isparta and Adana stations are analyzed with the radiosonde analysis algorithm in the context of the 'The Estimation of Atmospheric Water Vapour with GPS' Project which is funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). The Project is also in the COST Action ES1206: Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate (GNSS4SWEC). In this study, regional models using the conversion factor Q are used for the determination of precipitable water vapor, and applied to the GNSS derived wet tropospheric zenith delays. Henceforth, the estimated precipitable water vapor and the precipitable water vapor obtained from the radiosonde station are compared. The average of the differences between RS and models for Istanbul and Ankara stations are obtained as 2.0±1.6 mm, 1.6±1.6 mm, respectively.

  14. Occurrence and Assessment of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water in Tunceli, Turkey

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    Veysel Demir


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze drinking water samples from 21 sites in the city center and seven municipalities of Tunceli, Turkey, in order to determine the presence of nitrate, nitrite, fluoride, bromate, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, trihalomethanes (THMs, and some other chemicals. In all locations, the concentrations of chemicals investigated were below the permissible limits set by local and international organizations for drinking water. Low levels of nitrate (4.79 ± 4.20 mg/L, fluoride (0.11 ± 0.08 mg/L, and THMs (6.63 ± 5.14 μg/L were detected in all locations. A low level of tetra, chloroethane, which is suspected to be a human carcinogen, was also detected in 8 locations in the range of 0.26–0.43 μg/L. These contaminants may pose adverse health effects or minimum hazard due to long-term exposure. In all locations, bromate, benzene, total PAH, 1-2 dichloroethane, vinyl chloride, acrylamide, and epichloridine levels in drinking water samples were under detection limits.


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    Merih KIVANC


    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of bottled natural spring and mineral water, purchased at different markets in Eskişehir (Turkey markets, was investigated. Applying the membrane filtration method, the aliquots of water samples were analyzed for the presence and enumeration of total coliforms, Es- cherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Aeromonas hydrophila. Aerobic bacteria were counted as Heterotrophic Bacteria Count (HPC ml-¹ by incubation at 22 and 37 ⁰C. While Bacillus species in bottled mineral water samples have also been determined, any bacteria or contamination in bottled drinking water samples have not found.

  16. Chemical characteristics of rain water at an urban site of south western Turkey. (United States)

    Demirak, Ahmet; Balci, Ahmet; Karaoğlu, Hamdi; Tosmur, Berrin


    In this study, chemical composition of the rain water in Mugla was investigated from February to April 2002. Rain water samples were obtained from Mugla, a small city in south western Turkey. The Yatagan Power Plant is located 30 km northwest of Mugla city. The values of pH and the concentrations of major ions (Ca2+, Na+, K+, SO4(2-), NO3-, NH4+) in the rainwater samples were analyzed. The pH varied from 4.5 to 7.7 with an average of 6.9 which was in alkaline range considering 5.6 as the neutral pH of cloud water with atmospheric CO2 equilibrium. In the total 30 rain events, only two events were observed in acidic range ( SO4(2-) > NH4 + > NO3- > Na+ > K+ > H+. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) of the measured ionic sum is 371.62 microeq/l. The ratio of between sum cations and sum anions (Sigma cations /Sigma anions) is 1.52 microeq/l. The alkaline components (Ca2+, Na+, K+) contribute 52%, NH4 + 8%, whereas, the contribution from the acidic components is relatively small (40%). The low concentrations of H+ found in rainwater samples from Mugla suggest that an important portion of H2SO4 and HNO3 have been neutralized by alkaline particles in the atmosphere. The dust-rich local and surrounding limestone environment might have caused the high concentration of Ca2+ in Mugla area. The relatively high concentration of NH4+ observed at Mugla is suspected to be due to surrounding agricultural. The results obtained in this study are compared with those other studies conducted at various places in the world.

  17. Soil and water pollution derived from anthropogenic activities in the Porsuk River Basin, Turkey (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Pinarbasi, Arzu; Ozcelik, Sakir; Ugurluoglu, Didem


    This study aims to investigate the degree of the influence of contaminant sources on both the surface (Porsuk River) and groundwater in the Eskisehir plain, (Turkey) and to determine the changes in groundwater quality after the sewage system was started in 1998. For this purpose surface and groundwater samples were collected from various locations in the Eskisehir plain between May and October, 2001. The Porsuk River is already polluted in the upstream wastewater and by industries such as Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory, Sugar-beet Factory, and Magnesite Factory located around the city of Kutahya. This high-contaminated water forms an eutrophic environment which generates high phosphorus and nitrogen in downstream flow. Agricultural and industrial activities in the Eskisehir plain are an additional source of the pollution of the Porsuk River. The study revealed that some trace elements, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Cd, are present in high concentrations both in the surface and groundwater besides extremely high quantities of phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfide compounds. In addition, analyses of samples also indicated that there are no considerable contaminations in terms of local pesticides. High concentration of Cd, N and S are found in the groundwater. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the groundwater in the Eskisehir plain, it is concluded that groundwater is not suitable for drinking according to Turkish standards, European Union Standards (EU) and World Health Organization (WHO).

  18. Evaluation of potential human health risk and investigation of drinking water quality in Isparta city center (Turkey). (United States)

    Varol, Simge; Davraz, Aysen


    Isparta city center is selected as a work area in this study because the public believes that the tap water is dirty and harmful. In this study, the city's drinking water in the distribution system and other spring waters which are used as drinking water in this region were investigated from the point of water quality and health risk assessment. Water samples were collected from major drinking water springs, tap waters, treatment plants and dam pond in the Isparta province center. Ca-Mg-HCO3, Mg-Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, Ca-HCO3-SO4 and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 are dominant water types. When compared to drinking water guidelines established by World Health Organization and Turkey, much greater attention should be paid to As, Br, Fe, F, NH4, PO4 through varied chemicals above the critical values. The increases of As, Fe, F, NH4 and PO4 are related to water-rock interaction. In tap waters, the increases of As and Fe are due to corrosion of pipes in drinking water distribution systems. The major toxic and carcinogenic chemicals within drinking water are As and Br for both tap water and spring water. Also, F is the non-carcinogenic chemical for only spring waters in the study area.

  19. Discovery of the water scavenger beetle genus Brownephilus Mouchamps in Turkey (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Hydrophilini

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    Mustafa Darilmaz


    Full Text Available The recently described Hydrochara major İncekara, Mart, Polat, & Karaca, 2009 from Turkey is transferred to the genus Brownephilus Mouchamps. New records and habitat information are given for the species, as well as diagnostic features for separating it from the only other described member of the genus, Brownephilus levantinus Balfour-Browne. The discovery of Brownephilus in Turkey marks the first time the lineage has been found since its original description more than seventy years ago.



    Atilla Senih MAYDA; Tugba ARSLAN; Hakan Bahadir BOZKURT; Ilker DEDELI; Meryem Ozlem OZKAN


    The aim of this cross-sectional and descriptive study is to learn the level of knowledge and source of knowledge about family planing, the rate of women using family planning methods and the causes of prefering the used methods of 15-49 years old women living in Duzce Permanent Residences. The population of the study ise 4394 women 15-49 years old. Cluster sampling is used and 280 women included to the study. A questionnaire containg 41 questions about family planning methods usage and the ca...

  1. Human health risk assessment of dissolved metals in groundwater and surface waters in the Melen watershed, Turkey. (United States)

    Çelebi, Ahmet; Sengörür, Bülent; Kløve, Bjørn


    Determination of metal risk levels in potable water and their effects on human health are vital in assessment of water resources. Risk assessment of metals to human health in a watershed, which has not been studied before, is the main objective of the present study. Surface and groundwater sampling was carried out between September 2010 and August 2011 in the Melen Watershed, Turkey, an important drinking water resource for millions of people. Metals were analyzed in the laboratory using inductively coupled plasma. Of the 26 different metals monitored, Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and V were found in surface water and As, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, V and Zn in groundwater. In groundwater, unitless hazard quotient (HQ) values were 6 for As, 2.7 for Mn and 1 for Zn, while in surface water all metals were below the risk level (HQ health and that potential carcinogenic impacts should receive more attention.

  2. A short report regarding the physicochemical properties of surface water quality in Karaçomak stream, Turkey (United States)

    Şuţan, Nicoleta Anca; Mutlu, Ekrem; Yanik, Telat; Dobre, Raluca


    Within the scope of present study, the water quality of stream Karaçomak in Kastamonu-Turkey was investigated. Water samples were collected from 9 stations selected on Karaçomak stream, considering the pollution points and the points, where the entrance of water into stream is high. The samples taken were analyzed in terms of water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, saltiness, electrical conductivity, chemical composition and heavy metal content, and for their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had heterogeneous intensity of environmental influence, but the considerable impact was noticed for the third and seventh stations. The present study highlights the need for continuous evaluation of water pollution level, and is intended to help in mitigating the environmental impacts and improve environmental performance.

  3. Water Balance of the Eğirdir Lake and the Influence of Budget Components, Isparta,Turkey

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    Ayşen DAVRAZ


    Full Text Available Water budget of lakes must be determined regarding to their sustainable usage as for all water resources. One of the major problems in the management of lakes is the estimation of water budget components. The lack of regularly measured data is the biggest problem in calculation of hydrological balance of a lake. A lake water budget is computed by measuring or estimating all of the lake’s water gains and losses and measuring the corresponding changes in the lake volume over the same time period. Eğirdir Lake is one of the most important freshwater lakes in Turkey and is the most important surface water resources in the region due to different usages. Recharge of the Eğirdir Lake is supplied from especially precipitation, surface and subsurface water inflow. The discharge components of the lake are evaporation and water intake for irrigation, drinking and energy purposes. The difference between recharge and discharge of the lake was calculated as 7.78 hm3 for 1970-2010 period. According to rainfall, evaporation and the lake water level relations, rainfall is dominantly effective on the lake water level such as direct recharge to the lake and indirect recharge with groundwater flow

  4. The Prosobranchia (Gastropoda: Mollusca) Species of Turkey and Their Zoogeographic Distribution 1. Fresh and Brackish Water


    YILDIRIM, M. Zeki


    Of the Prosobranchia species found in Turkey, 60 species and 12 subspecies were determined to be present in the study area according to our results and the results of foreign malacologists. The species and their genera are: 8 species, 2 subspecies belonging to Theodoxus; 1 species, 1 subspecies belonging to Viviparus; 4 species belonging to Valvata; 3 species belonging to Hydrobia; 1 species belonging to Semisalsa; 6 species belonging to Graecoanatolica; 2 species belonging to Kirelia; 2 s...

  5. Hydrogeological, Hydrogeochemical and Isotope Geochemical Features of the Geothermal Waters in Seferihisar and Environs, Western Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Özgür, Nevzat; Aras Pala, Ebru; Degirmenci, Saliha


    The study area of Seferihisar is located within the Izmir-Ankara suture in the NW of the Menderes Massif in western Anatolia, Turkey. The Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif form the basement rocks in the area which are overlain by 760 m thick Izmir-flysch series consisting of metamorphic rocks, limestones and ultrabasic rocks tectonically. The Pliocene Bahçecik formation which consists of an alternation of conglomerates, sandstones, claystones, lignite and limestones and shows a thickness of 300 m overlies the (İzmir) flysch series discordantly. This is overlain by 430 m thick Yeniköy formation composed of conglomerates, sandstones, claystones and clayey limestones discordantly. The Miocene volcanic rocks of Cumaovası overlie the Yeniköy formation concordantly which are overlain by alluvium and travertine deposits. Geothermal waters which are observed in the localities of Tuzla, Cumalı, Doğanbey and Karakoç are associated with NE-SW trending faults in the area. The geothermal waters in the area are considered as Na-Cl or Na-Cl-HCO3 type waters. The geothermal waters of Seferihisar and environs are identified to be Na+K>Ca>Mg dominant cations and Cl>HCO3>SO4 dominant anions. According to the diagram of Na/100-K/100-√Mg, a certainly part of the thermal waters can be considered as equilibrated thermal waters during some waters are of immature waters. According to the results of geochemical thermometers, the reservoir temperatures of thermal waters range from 150 to 240°C. The δ2H values of thermal waters are between -13,3 to -31,9, while δ18O values range from -2,55 to -5,70. The tritium contents of thermal waters are between 13 to 64±10 TU.

  6. Biological condition and trophic ecology of the deep-water shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea in the Levantine Sea (SW Turkey

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    K. Y. BAYHAN


    Full Text Available The trophic ecology (diets, stable isotope composition and life cycle (gonado-somatic, GSI, and hepato-somatic, HSI, indices of Aristaeomorpha foliacea were analysed seasonally (in May, June, and November 2012 and January 2013 off southeast Turkey (Levantine Basin, over the slope at 442-600 m depth. A. foliacea females were mature in June, suggesting gonad maturity was somewhat delayed off southeast Turkey compared to other areas in the Eastern Mediterranean. The HSI of A. foliacea was highest in May and June (8.2% of body weight for males and both immature and mature females, sharply lower in November (3.5% and then increasing again in winter (7.1%. Stomach fullness (F showed a tendency similar to HSI in both females and males, increasing from May to June. A. foliacea had rather low d15N (6.68‰ to 8.26‰ off southeast Turkey, with females having higher d15N with increasing size. The δ13C signal (-14.85 to -14.68‰ indicated that diet was mainly though not exclusively based on zooplankton (pelagic shrimps and small myctophids of 1.3-4.5 mm TL, cnidarians, hyperiids and pteropods. The increase of A. foliacea remains in A. foliacea guts and of some benthic prey (polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods after the reproductive period would explain the moderate depletion of δ13C in spring-summer. The greatest changes in the diet occurred between periods of water mass stratification (June and November and periods of water mass homogeneity (May and January, with greater consumption of zooplankton in the latter season. A. foliacea seems to have lower reproductive capacity (GSI 5.6% than other deep-water species of penaeidae that live shallower (Parapenaues longirostris and deeper (Aristeus antennatus than it does. The species has a more specialized zooplankton diet, exploiting short, more efficient trophic chains, which could be an advantage explaining its dominance in oligotrophic areas of the Central-Eastern Mediterranean, including the Turkish slope.

  7. An Assessment of the Water Development Project (GAP) of Turkey: Meeting Its Objectives and EU Criteria for Turkey’s Accession (United States)


    106 a. The Keban Dam Case (Year of Completion: 1974) .............109 b. The Ataturk Dam Case...and their adverse impact on the GAP project. This thesis takes the Ataturk and Ilisu Dams as case studies to support its argument.58Neither thesis...Union: An Unprecedented Shift in the Kemalist Paradigm?” Mediterranean Quarterly 16, no. 14 (2005), 85–87. 67 Kemal Kirisci, “Turkey and the

  8. Vibrio alginolyticus Associated Chronic Myringitis Acquired in Mediterranean Waters of Turkey

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    Burak Ekrem Citil


    Full Text Available Vibrio alginolyticus was originally classified as biotype 2 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Most clinical isolates are recovered from superficial wounds or the external ear infections. V. alginolyticus is acknowledged to be nearly nonpathogenic in humans. The reason for presence of V. alginolyticus’s virulence is uncertain. We describe a chronic myringitis case in a 47-year-old female due to V. alginolyticus. According to her anamnesis, it was detected that she had sea bathing history in Mugla Coast in Turkey. Pure isolation of V. alginolyticus was obtained from external auditory canal’s culture. Investigation and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolate were performed by the automatized BD Phoenix system and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, respectively. The bacteria were sensitive to all antibiotics. This case was presented to pay attention to Vibrio alginolyticus infections.

  9. [Investigation on Toxoplasma gondii by polymerase chain reaction and loop-mediated isothermal amplification in water samples from Giresun, Turkey]. (United States)

    Demirel, Elif; Kolören, Zeynep; Karaman, Ulkü; Ayaz, Emine


    .gondii infections were detected in Giresun province of Black Sea region, Turkey. Thus this study will aid to the literature related to water-borne T.gondii infections. The results of this study emphasizes the essential need for appropriate disinfection procedures and purification processes before the discharge of waste water to prevent the cases of water-borne toxoplasmosis.

  10. The genetic basis of novel water utilisation and drinking behaviour traits and their relationship with biological performance in turkeys. (United States)

    Rusakovica, Julija; Kremer, Valentin D; Plötz, Thomas; Rohlf, Paige; Kyriazakis, Ilias


    There is increasing interest in the definition, measurement and use of traits associated with water use and drinking behaviour, mainly because water is a finite resource and its intake is an important part of animal health and well-being. Analysis of such traits has received little attention, due in part to the lack of appropriate technology to measure drinking behaviour. We exploited novel equipment to collect water intake data in two lines of turkey (A: 27,415 and B: 12,956 birds). The equipment allowed continuous recording of individual visits to the water station in a group environment. Our aim was to identify drinking behaviour traits of biological relevance, to estimate their genetic parameters and their genetic relationships with performance traits, and to identify drinking behaviour strategies among individuals. Visits to the drinkers were clustered into bouts, i.e. time intervals spent in drinking-related activity. Based on this, biologically relevant traits were defined: (1) number of visits per bout, (2) water intake per bout, (3) drinking time per bout, (4) drinking rate, (5) daily bout frequency, (6) daily bout duration, (7) daily drinking time and (8) daily water intake. Heritability estimates for most drinking behaviour traits were moderate to high and the most highly heritable traits were drinking rate (0.49 and 0.50) and daily drinking time (0.35 and 0.46 in lines A and B, respectively). Genetic correlations between drinking behaviour and performance traits were low except for moderate correlations between daily water intake and weight gain (0.46 and 0.47 in lines A and B, respectively). High estimates of breeding values for weight gain were found across the whole range of estimated breeding values for daily water intake, daily drinking time and water intake per bout. We show for the first time that drinking behaviour traits are moderately to highly heritable. Low genetic and phenotypic correlations with performance traits suggest that current

  11. Water quality assessment and meta model development in Melen watershed - Turkey. (United States)

    Erturk, Ali; Gurel, Melike; Ekdal, Alpaslan; Tavsan, Cigdem; Ugurluoglu, Aysegul; Seker, Dursun Zafer; Tanik, Aysegul; Ozturk, Izzet


    Istanbul, being one of the highly populated metropolitan areas of the world, has been facing water scarcity since the past decade. Water transfer from Melen Watershed was considered as the most feasible option to supply water to Istanbul due to its high water potential and relatively less degraded water quality. This study consists of two parts. In the first part, water quality data covering 26 parameters from 5 monitoring stations were analyzed and assessed due to the requirements of the "Quality Required of Surface Water Intended for the Abstraction of Drinking Water" regulation. In the second part, a one-dimensional stream water quality model with simple water quality kinetics was developed. It formed a basic design for more advanced water quality models for the watershed. The reason for assessing the water quality data and developing a model was to provide information for decision making on preliminary actions to prevent any further deterioration of existing water quality. According to the water quality assessment at the water abstraction point, Melen River has relatively poor water quality with regard to NH(4)(+), BOD(5), faecal streptococcus, manganese and phenol parameters, and is unsuitable for drinking water abstraction in terms of COD, PO(4)(3-), total coliform, total suspended solids, mercury and total chromium parameters. The results derived from the model were found to be consistent with the water quality assessment. It also showed that relatively high inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations along the streams are related to diffuse nutrient loads that should be managed together with municipal and industrial wastewaters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Arsenic Speciation of Waters from the Aegean Region, Turkey by Hydride Generation: Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. (United States)

    Çiftçi, Tülin Deniz; Henden, Emur


    Arsenic in drinking water is a serious problem for human health. Since the toxicity of arsenic species As(III) and As(V) is different, it is important to determine the concentrations separately. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an accurate and sensitive method for the speciation of arsenic. It was intended with this work to determine the concentrations of arsenic species in water samples collected from Izmir, Manisa and nearby areas. A batch type hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer was used. As(V) gave no signal under the optimal measurement conditions of As(III). A certified reference drinking water was analyzed by the method and the results showed excellent agreement with the reported values. The procedure was applied to 34 water samples. Eleven tap water, two spring water, 19 artesian well water and two thermal water samples were analyzed under the optimal conditions.

  13. Biochemical responses of filamentous algae in different aquatic ecosystems in South East Turkey and associated water quality parameters. (United States)

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Arslanargun, Hamdullah; Soysal, Çiğdem; Gültekin, Emine; Bozkurt, Hüseyin


    To the best of our knowledge, any study about biochemical response of filamentous algae in the complex freshwater ecosystems has not been found in the literature. This study was designed to explore biochemical response of filamentous algae in different water bodies from May 2013 to October 2014, using multivariate approach in the South East of Turkey. Environmental variables were measured in situ: water temperature, oxygen concentration, saturation, conductivity, salinity, pH, redox potential, and total dissolved solid. Chemical variables of aqueous samples and biochemical compounds of filamentous algae were also measured. It was found that geographic position and anthropogenic activities had strong effect on physico-chemical variables of water bodies. Variation in environmental conditions caused change in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species, also indicated by FTIR analysis. Biochemical responses not only changed from species to species, but also varied for the same species at different sampling time and sampling stations. Multivariate analyses showed that heavy metals, nutrients, and water hardness were found as the important variables governing the temporal and spatial succession and biochemical compounds. Nutrients, especially nitrate, could stimulate pigment and total protein production, whereas high metal content had adverse effects. Amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, total thiol groups, total phenolic compounds, proline, total carbohydrate, and metal bioaccumulation by filamentous algae could be closely related with heavy metals in the ecosystems. Significant increase in MDA, H2O2, total thiol group, total phenolic compounds, and proline productions by filamentous algae and chlorosis phenomenon seemed to be an important strategy for alleviating environmental factors-induced oxidative stress as biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular detection of hepatotoxic cyanobacteria in inland water bodies of the Marmara Region, Turkey

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    Latife Köker


    Full Text Available Blooms of cyanobacteria are an increasingly frequent phenomenon in freshwater ecosystems worldwide as a result of eutrophication. Many species can produce hepatotoxins that cause severe health hazards to humans. The aim of this study was to identify the bloom forming cyanobacteria species by molecular methods and to amplify genes responsible for hepatotoxin biosynthesis from the environmental samples and isolated strains of cyanobacteria from Küçükçekmece Lagoon, Sapanca, İznik, Manyas and Taşkısı Lakes. A total of 10 bloom samples and 11 isolated strains were examined and Microcystis spp., Planktothrix spp., Nodularia spumigena, Anabaenopsis elenkinii, Sphaerospermopsis aphanizomenoides, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were identified. Hepatotoxin genes were detected in 60% of the bloom samples and 45% of the strains. Two Microcystis strains were obtained from Küçükçekmece Lagoon. While the strain assigned to Microcystis flosaquae was non-toxic, Microcystis aeruginosa strain produced microcystin. According to PCR results, the M. aeruginosa and Planktothrix agardhii bloom samples of Küçükçekmece Lagoon contained the microcystin synthetase gene E (mcyE indicative of microcystin production, however, no microcystin was detected by HPLC. The mcyE gene was also found in Microcystis wesenbergii isolated from Taşkısı Lake, and in all Planktothrix rubescens bloom samples from Sapanca Lake. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed study for identifiying different toxic cyanobacteria species and their hepatotoxin production from several waterbodies in Turkey using molecular methods.

  15. Thermus anatoliensis sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium from geothermal waters of Buharkent, Turkey. (United States)

    Kacagan, Murat; Inan, Kadriye; Canakci, Sabriye; Guler, Halil Ibrahim; Belduz, Ali Osman


    A Gram-stain-negative, lack of motility, catalase- and oxidase- positive bacterium (strain MT1(T)) was isolated from Buharkent hot spring in Aydin, Turkey. Its taxonomy was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The strain was able to grow at 45-80 °C, pH 5.5-10.5 and with a NaCI tolerance up to 2.0% (w/v). Strain MT1(T) was able to utilize d-mannitol and l-arabinose, not able to utilize d-cellobiose as sole carbon source. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Thermus; strain MT1(T) detected low-level similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences (below 97%) compared with all other species in this genus. The predominant fatty acids of strain MT1(T) were iso-C(15:0) (43.0%) and iso-C(17:0) (27.4%). Polar lipid analysis revealed a major phospholipid, one major glycolipid, one major aminophospholipid, two minor aminolipids, one minor phospholipid, and several minor glycolipids. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C content of MT1(T) was 69.6 mol%. On the basis of a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain MT1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus anatoliensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MT1(T) (=NCCB 100425(T) =LMG 26880(T)). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Tracing organic and inorganic pollution sources of soils and water resources in Güzelhisar Basin of Aegean Region, Turkey (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Kurucu, Yusuf; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander


    This study was carried out to determine the residue level of major concern organic and inorganic pollutants in Güzelhisar Basin of Aegean Region in Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel mills, but also areas of agriculture. Soil samples were collected from GPS determined points at 0-30 and 30-60 cm depth of a grid system of 2.5 km to the east and 2.5 km to the west of the Güzelhisar stream. The area was grouped into three main areas as West, Middle, and East region. Water and sediment samples were collected from the Güzelhisar stream and from Güzelhisar dam every 30 kilometers which is already contaminated due to industrial facilities in Aliaga, is used to irrigate the agricultural land. Soil pH of the research area was determined within the range from 5.87 to 6.61. Topsoil contamination was examined for all investigated elements with the exception of Cd. An increase in pseudo total metal contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn was observed with increasing distance from the coast with a simultaneous decrease in pH. Due to the analysis of the organic pollutants, a continuous load with the herbicide trifluralin was determined with a few clearly raised points to a possible load of the stream water. Although HCH-Isomers were not found, DDT (DDT and transformation products) residues were ascertained in the soil samples. With regard to the analysis of the water samples of the Güzelhisar stream and dam, a background load with trifluralin was found which is to be explained with transport processes with regard to utilization of trifluralin in the agricultural areas.

  17. Scalar alignment and sustainable water governance: The case of irrigated agriculture in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül; Bressers, Johannes T.A.


    Irrigated agriculture plays a significant role in global food security and poverty reduction. At the same time its negative impacts on water and land resources threaten environmental sustainability. With the objective of improving the understanding on the complexity of governing water resources for

  18. Surface and Ground Water Quality in Köprüören Basin (Kütahya), Turkey (United States)

    Arslan, Şebnem; Çelik, Mehmet; Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Abadi Berhe, Berihu


    In this study, quality of the water resources in Köprüören Basin, located to the west of Kütahya city in western Anatolia, were investigated. The total catchment area of the basin is 275 km2 and it is located upstream of Kütahya and Eskişehir plains. Therefore, besides 6,000 people residing in the basin, a much larger population will be impacted by the quality of surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. Groundwater flow is from north to south and south to north towards Kocasu stream, which flows to Enne Dam. The surface and ground water quality in this area are negatively affected by the mining activities. In the northern part of the area, there are coal deposits present in Miocene Tunçbilek formation. Ground waters in contact with the coal deposits contain low concentrations of arsenic (up to 30 µg/l). In the southern part, the only silver deposit of Turkey is present, which is developed in metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gümüşköy (Gümüş means silver, köy means village in Turkish). The amount of silver manufactured annually in this silver plant is huge and comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The wastes, enriched in cyanide, arsenic, stibnite, lead and zinc, are stored in waste pools and there is extensive leakage of these heavy metals from these pools. Therefore, surface waters, soils and plants in the affected areas contain high concentrations of arsenic, stibnite and lead. The As, Sb, Pb and Zn concentrations are up to 733 µg/l, 158 µg/l, 48 µg/l, and 286 µg/l in surface waters (in dry season), 6180 ppm, 410 ppm, 4180 ppm, 9950 ppm in soils and 809 ppm, 399 ppm, 800 ppm, 2217 ppm in plants, respectively. Today, most of the As, Sb, Pb and Zn are absorbed by the soils and only a small part are dissolved in water. However, conditions might change in future leading to desorption of these contaminants. Therefore

  19. Biological condition and trophic ecology of the deep-water shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea in the Levantine Sea (SW Turkey)


    BAYHAN, K. Y.; CARTES, J. E.; Fanelli, E


    The trophic ecology (diets, stable isotope composition) and life cycle (gonado-somatic, GSI, and hepato-somatic, HSI, indices) of Aristaeomorpha foliacea were analysed seasonally (in May, June, and November 2012 and January 2013) off southeast Turkey (Levantine Basin), over the slope at 442-600 m depth. Aristaeomorpha foliacea females were mature in June, suggesting gonad maturity was somewhat delayed off southeast Turkey compared to other areas in the Eastern Mediterranean. The HSI of A. fol...

  20. Constraints on Water Reservoir Lifetimes From Catchment-Wide 10Be Erosion Rates—A Case Study From Western Turkey (United States)

    Heineke, Caroline; Hetzel, Ralf; Akal, Cüneyt; Christl, Marcus


    The functionality and retention capacity of water reservoirs is generally impaired by upstream erosion and reservoir sedimentation, making a reliable assessment of erosion indispensable to estimate reservoir lifetimes. Widely used river gauging methods may underestimate sediment yield, because they do not record rare, high-magnitude events and may underestimate bed load transport. Hence, reservoir lifetimes calculated from short-term erosion rates should be regarded as maximum values. We propose that erosion rates from cosmogenic 10Be, which commonly integrate over hundreds to thousands of years, are useful to complement short-term sediment yield estimates and should be employed to estimate minimum reservoir lifetimes. Here we present 10Be erosion rates for the drainage basins of six water reservoirs in Western Turkey, which are located in a tectonically active region with easily erodible bedrock. Our 10Be erosion rates for these catchments are high, ranging from ˜170 to ˜1,040 t/km2/yr. When linked to reservoir volumes, they yield minimum reservoir lifetimes between 25 ± 5 and 1,650 ± 360 years until complete filling, with four reservoirs having minimum lifespans of ≤110 years. In a neighboring region with more resistant bedrock and less tectonic activity, we obtain much lower catchment-wide 10Be erosion rates of ˜33 to ˜95 t/km2/yr, illustrating that differences in lithology and tectonic boundary conditions can cause substantial variations in erosion even at a spatial scale of only ˜50 km. In conclusion, we suggest that both short-term sediment yield estimates and 10Be erosion rates should be employed to predict the lifetimes of reservoirs.

  1. Evaluation of water quality using water quality index (WQI) method and GIS in Aksu River (SW-Turkey). (United States)

    Şener, Şehnaz; Şener, Erhan; Davraz, Ayşen


    The aim of this study is evaluate water quality of the Aksu River, the main river recharging the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake and flowing approximately 145km from Isparta province to Mediterranean. Due to plan for obtaining drinking water from the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake for Antalya Province, this study has great importance. In this study, physical and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 21 locations (in October 2011 and May 2012, two periods) through flow path of the river were investigated. The analysis results were compared with maximum permissible limit values recommended by World Health Organization and Turkish drinking water standards. The water quality for drinking purpose was evaluated using the water quality index (WQI) method. The computed WQI values are between 35.6133 and 337.5198 in the study. The prepared WQI map shows that Karacaören-1 Dam Lake generally has good water quality. However, water quality is poor and very poor in the north and south of the river basin. The effects of punctual and diffuse pollutants dominate the water quality in these regions. Furthermore, the most effective water quality parameters are COD and Mg on the determination of WQI for the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Water Resources Management in Turkey as a Case Study Southeastern Anatolia Project (gap) (United States)

    Ačma, Bülent


    The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), one of the most important projects for develop remarkable natural resources of the world, is accepted as a change for getting benefit from rich water and agricultural resources of the Southeastern Anatolia Region. The GAP Project has been considered as a regional development projects through years, but the dimensions of sustainability, protection of environment and participatory have been attached to the master of the project in recent years. When the GAP Project is completed, the Upper Mesopotomia, the centers of many civilisation, will re-again its importance as it had in the ancient times, and will be alive a center of civilisation. Moreover, when the problem of water shortage and water supplies in the world for the future is kept in mind, the importance of Southeastern Anatolia's water supplies will be doubled. For this reason, the GAP Project, developed by depending on water and natural resources of the region, will have an important place in the world. The aim of this study is to introduce the region with rich natural resources and the GAP Project. For this reason, firstly, the natural potential of the region will be introduced. Second, The GAP Project will be presented in detailes. In the third stage, the projects being processed for protecting the natural sources and environment will be analyzed. In the last stage, strategies and policies to develop and to protect the natural resources of the region in short, mid, and long terms will be proposed.

  3. Fungal biodiversity and mycotoxigenic fungi in cooling-tower water systems in Istanbul, Turkey. (United States)

    Kadaifciler, Duygu Göksay; Demirel, Rasime


    This is the first study to assess fungal diversity and mycotoxigenic fungi in open recirculating cooling-tower (CT) water systems (biofilm and water phase). The production capability of mycotoxin from fungal isolates was also examined. The mean fungal count in 21 different water and biofilm samples was determined as 234 CFU/100 mL and 4 CFU/cm(2). A total of 32 species were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. The most common isolated fungi belonged to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, of which the most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium dipodomyicola. From 42% of the surveyed CTs, aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates were identified. The detection of opportunistic pathogens and/or allergen species suggests that open recirculating CTs are a possible source of fungal infection for both the public and for occupational workers via the inhalation of aerosols and/or skin contact.

  4. Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management types. ... The assessment used the International Water Management Institute (IWMI)'s six performance indicators for the year 2001. ... Key Words: Comparative indicators, irrigation project, management types, irrigation management, performance, Turkey.

  5. Water Mite (Acari, Hydrachnellae) Fauna of Lake Çapalı, Afyon, Turkey


    (Acari, Water Mite; Çapalı, Hydrachnellae) Fauna of Lake


    Through 10 monthly sampling, a total of 7434 water mites belonging to 24 species and 9 families from Lake Çapalı were caught and identified. Of these, Piona variabilis and Arrenurus batillifer are new records for the Turkish fauna. Besides the index of species diversity, frequency analysis and the ecological characters of the study area, constant, associated, euconstant, influent and accidental species were determined.

  6. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides and Heavy Metals in Surface Waters of Konya Closed Basin, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Aydin


    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDT, methoxychlor, chlordane I, chlordane II, and heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni in surface water samples from the Konya closed basin were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. Among all HCH isomers, β-HCH is the main isomer with a concentration range of 0.015–0.065 μg/L. DDE, DDD, and DDT were almost determined in all samples, in which DDE isomer had the highest concentration ranged from not detected to 0.037 μg/L. In all studied OCPs, aldrin showed the highest concentration at 0.220 μg/L. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples were observed with order: Mn < Cu < Ni < As < Cr < Fe. In some samples, As, Fe, and Cr concentrations exceeded the drinking water quality recommended by EU, US EPA, WHO, and Turkish Regulation, while Cu, Ni, and Mn concentrations are below the guideline values. The levels of both OCPs and heavy metals were also compared with other previously published data.

  7. Effects of land-based sources on water quality in the Omerli reservoir (Istanbul, Turkey) (United States)

    Morkoç, Enis; Tüfekçi, Vildan; Tüfekçi, Huseyin; Tolun, Leyla; Karakoç, Fatma Telli; Güvensel, Tuğba


    The Omerli reservoir is located on the northeastern side of the Istanbul City. It is one of the most important sources of drinking water with a surface area of 23.1 km2 and a volume of 220 × 106 m3 in the Marmara Region. Water quality characteristics of the lake investigated from May 2002 to April 2003 enabled us to identify the effect of waste loads on water quality of Omerli Lake. The following parameters were measured in the lake water: temperature (16.1°C), conductivity (250 μS/cm), secchi disk depth (1.9 m), dissolved oxygen (DO) (9.36 mg/L), nutrients [ortho-phosphate (78.9 μg/L), nitrate + nitrite (707.5 μg/L) and ammonia-nitrogen (264 μg/L)], chlorophyll a (9.43 μg/L), total organic carbon (3.33 mg/L), total suspended solids (4.54 mg/L), total poly aromatic hydrocarbon (t-PAH) (0.69 μg/L) and copper (24.5 μg/L). T-PAH (16.5 mg/g-dry-w), Cu (96.5 μg/g-dry-w), organic carbon (org-C) (2.0%) and N (0.44%) were determined in the surface sediment. The values of chlorophyll a and DO in the upper layer were relatively high and low secchi disk depths indicates eutrophic state. There are five channels discharging water, including waste water, into the lake. All channels were sampled during six occasions in order to cover variations between seasons. The following parameters were measured: total organic carbon, total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia and total suspended solids with the flow rates. The Göçbeyli stream has the highest flow into the lake (1.5 × 108 m3/year) but most of the nutrients were discharged from the Paşaköy channel. It is accounting for 81% of ammonia and 80% of total phosphorus into the lake. Three scenarios were run using AQUATOX model: (1) all existing inflows are discharging into the lake (present situation); (2) none is discharging; (3) all are discharging except the Paşaköy channel. The first scenario produced concentrations consistent with measurements in the lake. In all stations, a phytoplankton peak value was


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih MAYDA


    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional and descriptive study is to learn the level of knowledge and source of knowledge about family planing, the rate of women using family planning methods and the causes of prefering the used methods of 15-49 years old women living in Duzce Permanent Residences. The population of the study ise 4394 women 15-49 years old. Cluster sampling is used and 280 women included to the study. A questionnaire containg 41 questions about family planning methods usage and the causes of prefer them was applied to women with face to face interview. The rate of 232 married women using effective planning method is 53.4%, traditional methods 24.6%and not using any method 22%. The rate of effective method usage of all 280 women included to the study is 45.7%, traditional 21.1% and not using any method 33.2%. The causes to prefer the methods are 72 women (25.7% ?reliable?, 33 women (11.8% ?side effects are less?, and 19 women (6.4% ?cheap?. All the women who began to use family planing methot by consulting with Health Center has used effective methods. Considering ?cheap? as a cause of prefer the method make us to think that the family planning methods could not be supported to the population unpaid. Using effective methods of all the women who began to use family planing methods by consulting with Health Center puts forward that Health Centers have an effective role in family planning activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(5.000: 265-279

  9. Investigation of Water Quality and Pollution Level of Lower Melet River, Ordu, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret USTAOĞLU


    Full Text Available Some water quality parameters of the Lower Melet River were determined by taking monthly samples, starting in October 2013 and end up in September 2014. The means obtained data were given as (min–max mean as follow; pH;(6.93 – 8.8 7.96, dissolved oxygen (DO;(5.4-15.4 11.4 mgL-1, saturation (%;(59-201 117, temperature;(4.6-27.2 14°C, total dissolved solid (TDS;(106-320 161 mgL-1, conductivity (EC;(124-520 216 µScm-1, salinity;(0-0.4 0.11 ppt, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5;(0.6-4.8 2.3 mgL-1, total alkalinity (TA;(55-100 79 mgL-1 CaCO3, total hardness (TH; (70-125 97 mgL-1 CaCO3, chlorophyll-a;(1.6-10.4 3.78 µgL-1, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN; (0.33-1.27 0.53 mgL-1, total phosphate (TP;(0.08-0.85 0.40 mgL-1 soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP; (0.01-0.12 0.04 mgL-1, chlorine;(0.04-0.75 0.19 mgL-1, silica;(2.37-6.08 4.51 mgL-1, phenol; (0.04-1.77 0.43 mgL-1, nitrite; (0.01-0.12 0.04 mgL-1, nitrate;(0.29-3.39 1.22 mgL-1, sulphite;(1.93-3.65 2.34 mgL-1, sulphate;(1.62-13.29 10.42 mgL-1, surfactant (anionic;(0.33-1.62 0.97 mgL-1, potassium;(2.75-15.4 7.2 mgL-1, total suspended solids (TSS;(8.45-147.7 49.75 mgL-1 , and redox potential ;(-156 / -28 -86.78 mV. Sediment organic matter % and pH were averaged as (2.9-9.1 5.77 and (6.71-8.3 7.53, respectively. Obtained data showed that the water quality of Melet River may suitable for irrigation but may not be a suitable living habitat for the living beings. According to the class of surface water quality regulation getting into the category of mild contaminated according it’s average total phosphate rate of 0.40 mgL-1, TAN level of 0.53 mgL-1, nitrite rate of 0.04 mgL-1 and severely contaminated according it’s average surfactant (anionic level of 0.97 mgL-1 and phenol level of 0.43 mgL-1.

  10. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali


    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  11. Offshore Seismic Observation in the Western Marmara Sea, Turkey (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Citak, S.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Gurbuz, C.; Kaneda, Y.


    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk and the Duzce earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake, the only un-ruptured segments left behind NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To clarify the detailed fault geometry beneath the western Marmara Sea, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18thof June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. Only 8 earthquakes were reported near the OBS network in 3 months periods according to the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute catalogue. Thus, we first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data. We could identify about 50 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and half of them located near the NAF. We also tested the hypocenter relocation by combining the land and OBS seismic data for the 8 earthquakes, and found that these earthquakes are located in between 12-24 km depths. Next, we are planning to deploy 10 OBSs from September 2014 to June 2015 as a second step for our observation. At the AGU fall meeting, we will be able to

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals with water quality parameters in Kızılırmak River Basin (Delice River) in Turkey. (United States)

    Akbulut, Nuray Emir; Tuncer, A Murat


    Kızılırmak River has been used as Ankara's drinking water source for approximately 1.5 years. Therefore, this region's water, sediment, and fish samples are measured for detecting the heavy metals. This is important for the current situation as well as the future in terms of potential impact. The amount of heavy metals in drinking water should be within the limited values; otherwise, the accumulation of heavy metals will cause many problems to living organisms. Especially high levels of arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury, etc. are very dangerous to freshwater ecosystems as for human if the water is being use as drinking water. In this study, water, sediment samples, muscle, and gills of three fish species (Capoeta tinca, Capoeta capoeta, Leuciscus cephalus) were analyzed for the presence of heavy metals such as (Al, Fe, As, Cd, Ni, Mn, Se, Si) to determine present accumulation levels and possible toxic effect. The accumulation pattern of heavy metals in the water, sediment, and fish tissue follows the sequence: Si>Fe>Al>Mn>As>Ni>Se>Cd, Fe>Al>Mn>Ni>As>Se>Cd, and Fe>Al>Mn>As>Ni>Si>Cd. In addition, the detected concentrations of heavy metals in the Kızılırmak and Delice Rivers are compared with other heavy metal studies in the other main rivers and lakes in Turkey.

  13. Impact of mine and natural sources of mercury on water, sediment, and biota in Harley Gulch adjacent to the Abbott-Turkey Run mine, Lake County, California (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel N.


    Executive Summary Stable-isotope data indicate that there are three sources of water that effect the composition and Hg concentration of waters in Harley Gulch: (1) meteoric water that dominates water chemistry during the wet season; (2) thermal water effluent from the Turkey Run mine that effects the chemistry at sample site HG1; and (3) cold connate groundwater that dominates water chemistry during the dry season as it upwells and reaches the surface. The results from sampling executed for this study suggest four distinct areas in Harley Gulch: (1) the contaminated West Fork of Harley Gulch, consisting of the stream immediately downstream from the mine area and the wetlands upstream from Harley Gulch canyon (sample sites HG1-HG2, (2) the East Fork of Harley Gulch, where no mining has occurred (sample site HG3), (3) sample sites HG4-HG7, where a seasonal influx of saline groundwater alters stream chemistry, and (4) sample sites HG7-HG10, downstream in Harley Gulch towards the confluence with Cache Creek.

  14. Turkey`s energy insecurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunali, O.


    The economic boom underway throughout much of the developing world today is spurring a surge in energy markets the likes of which have not been seen since the 1960s. The International Energy Agency projects that developing countries` energy use will nearly double by 2010, and that their share of the world total will grow from the current 27 percent to 40 percent. While such figures can be seen as signs of progress, they bear seeds of danger as well. If the new demand is met mainly by fossil fuels, rising oil prices and spreading environmental damage could undermine the economic development that extended energy use is intended to trigger. Turkey is a country that epitomizes the dilemma. A cultural bridge between East and West, and a geographic one between oil producers and consumers, Turkey lies at the crossroads of the industrial and developing worlds. Occupying a territory more than twice the size of Germany or Japan, it has a population of 60 million - projected to reach 80 million by 2010 - and a rapidly industrializing economy. Yet, in its per capita income and energy use, it is closer to Brazil or Thailand than to its industrialized fellow members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This article looks both at the present energy supplies and needs of Turkey and its future energy supplies in terms of alternative energy resources such as sunlight and wind and increasing natural gas imports. Emphasis on the less expensive and technology intense energy would decrease the need to plan for the huge burdens of nuclear energy.

  15. Evaluation of water quality parameters for the Mamasin dam in Aksaray City in the central Anatolian part of Turkey by means of artificial neural networks (United States)

    Elhatip, Hatim; Kömür, M. Aydin


    Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. The municipality of Aksaray city plays a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection in the central Anatolian part of Turkey. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. The present approach discusses the main sources of contamination and the result of direct wastewater discharges into the Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamasın dam sites by the use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques. The present study illustrates the ability to predict and/or approve the output values of previously measured water quality parameters of the recharge and discharge areas at the Mamasin dam site by means of ANN techniques. Using the ANN model is appreciated in such environmental research. Here, the ANN is used for estimating if the field parameters are agreeable to the results of this model or not. The present study simulates a situation in the past by means of ANN. But in case any field measurements of some relative parameters at the outlet point “discharge area” have been missed, it could be possible to predict the approximate output values from the detailed periodical water quality parameters. Because of the high variance and the inherent non-linear relationship of the water quality parameters in time series, it is difficult to produce a reliable model with conventional modeling approaches. In this paper, the ANN modeling technique is used to establish a model for evaluating the change in electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values in recharge (input) and discharge (output) areas of the dam water under pollution risks. A general ANN modeling scheme is also recommended for the water parameters. The modeling

  16. Genotoxic and histopathological effects of water pollution on two fish species, Barbus capito pectoralis and Chondrostoma nasus in the Büyük Menderes River, Turkey. (United States)

    Koca, Serdar; Koca, Yücel Basimoglu; Yildiz, Sükran; Gürcü, Beyhan


    The genotoxic and histopathological effects of water pollution were investigated on two fish species caught from the Buyuk Menderes River and from its tributary, the Cine Stream. The Buyuk Menderes basin is an important agricultural area in Turkey. The levels of copper, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, and lead were measured at the surface of the water and in gills, liver, and muscle tissue of Chondrostoma nasus and Barbus capito pectoralis. In some tissues, the concentrations of some of these metals exceeded acceptable levels for human consumption. Zinc was found to be the most abundant metal in water and tissues. Maximal metal accumulation was observed in the liver. To detect the genotoxic potential of contaminants, the formation of micronucleus in erythrocytes was used as indicator of chromosomal damage. The frequency of micronucleus formation did not show significant differences between locations and controls in B. capito pectoralis caught from three locations and C. nasus from two locations. The histological changes included significant decreases of the mean lengths of primary and secondary lamellae. In gills epithelia, we observed cellular proliferation that developed Because of secondary lamellae fusion, ballooning degenerations, or club deformation of secondary lamellae and cystic structures in secondary lamellae. In the liver, the changes included swollen and ruptured parenchymal cells, loss of cord structure, vacuoles filled with cellular debris, focal necrosis, and a significant increase in Kupffer cells.

  17. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption. (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan


    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  18. Influence of sodium chloride and pH during acidic marination on water retention and mechanical properties of turkey breast meat. (United States)

    Goli, T; Ricci, J; Bohuon, P; Marchesseau, S; Collignan, A


    Turkey breast cubes underwent acidic marination in the presence of salt. The transfer of water, salt and acid was measured, and texture was assessed on the cooked meat. While significant mass gains were observed during marination, from 20 minutes of immersion onwards, only long durations produced an overall matter balance greater than that of non-marinated meat. From the first minutes of immersion, these transfers caused hardening, regardless of the presence of salt in the marinade. For longer durations, only in the absence of salt was significant tenderizing seen in comparison to the non-marinated control. This effect appears to be due on the one hand to passing the isoelectric pH of the meat during acidification, and on the other hand to setting up antagonistic mechanisms breaking down or reinforcing connective tissues by acid and salt respectively. The high degree of tenderization observed in a water-acid solution can be explained partly by dilution of the fiber load per section unit due to protein solubilization. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracing organic and inorganic pollution sources of agricultural crops and water resources in Güzelhisar Basin of the Aegean Region - Turkey (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander


    The study area Güzelhisar Basin is 6 km far from the city Aliaga, Aegean Region in Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel factories, but also areas of agriculture. Steel industry in Aliaga is causing metal pollution. Around Güzelhisar Basin and nearby, the dominant crop fields are cotton, maize, vegetables, olive trees and vineyards. Güzelhisar stream and dam water is used for irrigation of the agricultural land. Due to contamination from metal industry in Aliaga, organic farming is not allowed in this region. Industrial activities in the region present a threat on sustainable agriculture. The region is a multi-impacted area in terms of several pollutant sources affecting soil and water quality. The overall objective of the project is to trace back plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B), hazardous substances (i. e. persistent organic pollutants), radionuclides (40K, 232Th, 226Ra/238U), and metal contents (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by examining the soils, agricultural crops and natural plants from Güzelhisar Basin and water and sediments from Güzelhisar stream and dam. Spatial distribution of pollution will be evaluated by regionalization methods. For this, an advanced analytical methodology will be applied which provides an understanding of sources and occurrence of the respective substances of concern. An innovative multi-tracer approach comprising organic and inorganic marker substances, will identify and quantitatively assess sources and their impact on water pollution and the pollutant pathways in this agricultural crop production system.

  20. Investigation of some disinfection chemicals and water quality parameters in swimming pools in the city center and districts of Canakkale, Turkey. (United States)

    Uysal, Tolga; Yilmaz, Selehattin; Turkoglu, Muhammet; Sadikoglu, Murat


    In this study, the variations in concentrations of some disinfection chemicals such as cyanuric acid (CyA), free chlorine (FC), and residual chlorine (RC), which affect human health, were investigated in the water of swimming pools. In addition, quality parameters such as temperature, pH, and total alkalinity (TA) in 44 swimming pools located in the city center and districts of Canakkale, Turkey, were examined in the summer period. While FC and RC amounts were analyzed using tablet tests with N-N-diethyl phenylenediamine (DPD 1) and potassium iodine (DPD 3) using the colorimetric method in the comparator, TA and CyA levels were measured with a photometric method. Temperature and pH were measured using YSI 556 MPS. Levels of CyA, FC, RC, pH, temperature, and TA varied between 0.00 and 725.0 mg L-1 (108.0 ± 111.4 mg L-1), 0.00 and 5.00 mg L-1 (1.60 ± 0.962 mg L-1), 0 and 0.55 mg L-1 (0.087 ± 0.059), 6.40 and 8.20 mg L-1 (7.30 ± 0.038 mg L-1), 22.0 and 32.0 °C (27.6 ± 1.45 °C), and 0.00 and 391.0 mg L-1 (129.3 ± 89.0), respectively. The findings were compared to standard limit values of the Ministry of Health of the Turkish Republic and other countries. Not only maximum concentrations of CyA but also the average concentrations exceeded the standard limit values of different countries in July and August with high tourism activity in Turkey. Although there is no problem in view of average values of other quality parameters, there are some problems in view of the maximum values in pool waters compared to standard limit values.

  1. Hydrogeological Modelling of the Geothermal Waters of Alaşehir in the Continental Rift Zone of the Gediz, Western Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Ӧzgür, Nevzat; Bostancı, Yesim; Anilır Yürük, Ezgi


    In western Anatolia, Turkey, the continental rift zones of the Büyük Menderes, Küçük Menderes and Gediz were formed by extensional tectonic features striking E-W generally and representing a great number of active geothermal systems, epithermal mineralizations and volcanic rocks from Middle Miocene to recent. The geothermal waters are associated with the faults which strike preferentially NW-SE and NE-SW and locate diagonal to general strike of the rift zones of the Menderes Massif. These NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults were probably generated by compressional tectonic regimes which leads to the deformation of uplift between two extensional rift zones in the Menderes Massif. The one of these rift zones is Gediz which is distinguished by a great number of geothermal waters such as Alaşehir, Kurşunlu, Çamurlu, Pamukkale and Urganlı. The geothermal waters of Alaşehir form the biggest potential in the rift zone of Gediz with a capacity of about 100 to 200 MWe. Geologically, the gneisses from the basement rocks in the study area which are overlain by an Paleozoic to Mesozoic intercalation of mica schists, quartzites and marbles, a Miocene intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones and Plio-Quaternary intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones discordantly. In the study area, Paleozoic to Mesozoic quartzites and marbles form the reservoir rocks hydrogeologically. The geothermal waters anions with Na+K>Ca>Mg dominant cations and HCO3>Cl> dominant anions are of Na-HCO3 type and can be considered as partial equilibrated waters. According to the results of geochemical thermometers, the reservoir temperatures area of about 185°C in accordance with measured reservoir temperatures. Stabile isotopes of δ18O versus δ2H of geothermal waters of Alaşehir deviate from the meteoric water line showing an intensive water-rock interaction under high temperature conditions. These data are well correlated with the results of the

  2. Hydrogeological features and environmental impacts of geothermal waters in the Yıldız River Basin (Sivas, Turkey). (United States)

    Keskin, Tülay Ekemen; Kaçaroğlu, Fikret


    The study area, located in the Yıldız River Basin (Sivas), has eight geothermal waters, which are used for balneotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the natural and/or anthropogenic water pollution in terms of drinking and irrigation water in the Sıcak Çermik, Uyuz Çermiği, and Hamzaşeyh Çermiği geothermal areas. Na+, Cl-, SO4(-2), B, Mn, Fe, As, and Se concentrations of the geothermal waters generally exceed the upper limits stated in the Turkish Standards for Water Intended for Human Consumption and World Health Organization regulations. Based on the irrigation water classification by the U.S. Salinity Laboratory Diagram, it is concluded that these waters may have hazardous levels of salinity and sodium when used as irrigation water. Wastewater from these health and tourism centers is discharged into the Yıldız River and to agricultural land. This procedure causes increase in the concentrations of major and minor elements and negatively affects the river water quality.

  3. Water Quality Determination of Küçükçekmece Lake, Turkey by Using Multispectral Satellite Data

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    Erhan Alparslan


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the Landsat-5 TM + SPOT-Pan (1992, IRS-1C/D LISS + Pan (2000, and Landsat-5 TM (2006 satellite images that reflect the drastic land use/land cover changes in the Küçükçekmece Lake region, Istanbul. Landsat-5 TM satellite data dated 2006 was used for mapping water quality. A multiple regression analysis was carried out between the unitless planetary reflectance values derived from the satellite image and in situ water quality parameters chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, turbidity, and biological and chemical oxygen demand measured at a number of stations homogenously distributed over the lake surface. The results of this study provided valuable information to local administrators on the water quality of Küçükçekmece Lake, which is a large water resource of the Istanbul Metropolitan Area. Results also show that such a methodology structured by use of reflectance values provided from satellite imagery, in situ water quality measurements, and basin land use/land cover characteristics obtained from images can serve as a powerful and rapid monitoring tool for the drinking water basins that suffer from rapid urbanization and pollution, all around the world.

  4. Hydrogeological Modelling of Some Geothermal Waters of Ivrindi, Havran and Gönen in the Province Capital of Balikesir, Western Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Özgür, Nevzat; Ugurlu, Zehra; Memis, Ümit; Aydemir, Eda


    In this study, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and isotope geochemical features of Havran, Gönen and Ivrindi within the province capital of Balıkesir, Turkey were investigated in detail. The Early Triassic Karakaya formation in the study area of Havran forms the oldest rocks consisting of spilitic basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites. There are limestone blocks in this formation with intercalations with sandstones and with feldspar contents, quartzite, conglomerates and siltstones. Oligocene to Miocene granodiorite intrusions were generated in association with intensively volcanic events in the area. Between Upper Oligocene and Early Miocene, andesitic and dacitic pyroclastic rocks cropped out due to intensively volcanism. Later, conglomerates, sandstones, claystones, marls and limestones as lacustrine sediments formed from Middle to Upper Miocene in the study area. In the study area of Gönen, the Lower Triassic Karakaya formation consists of basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites and forms the basement rocks overlain by Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sandy limestones. Upper and Middle Miocene volcanics which can be considered intensive Biga Peninsula volcanos outcrop in the area. These andesitic lava flows are of black, gray and red color with intensive fissures. Neogene lacustrine sediments consist of conglomerates, sandstones, marl, claystone and clayey limestones. Upper Miocene to Pliocene rhyolitic pyroclastics and dacitic lava flows are the volcanic rocks which are overlain by Pliocene conglomerates, sandstones and claystones. In the study area of Ivrindi, the Çaldağ limestones are the oldest formation in Permian age. Çavdartepe metamorphic rocks are of Lower Triassic in which can be observed marbles sporadically. The Kınık formation consisting of conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones and limestones are of Lower Triassic age and display a lateral Stratigraphic progress with volcanic rocks. Upper

  5. Evaluation of spatial and temporal water quality in the Akkaya dam watershed (Niğde, Turkey) and management implications (United States)

    Yaşar Korkanç, Selma; Kayıkçı, Sedef; Korkanç, Mustafa


    The aim of this study is to investigate the water pollution in the Akkaya Dam watershed spatially and temporally and put forward management suggestions in a watershed scale. For this purpose, monthly water sampling was performed from 11 sampling stations on streams that fed the dam. According to land surveys they have a potential to inflict pollution to the dam. Thus the physical and chemical parameters (i.e. pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, temperature, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and suspended solids) were monitored monthly for 1-year period. Chloride, sulfate, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate were monitored for a 6-month period, and the results were evaluated in accordance with the Turkish Regulation of Surface Water Quality Management. Results of the study show that the most important reasons for the pollution in the dam are caused by domestic and industrial wastewaters, which were released to the system without being treated, or without being sufficiently treated, and also of agricultural activities. It was determined that electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrite, nitrate, total nitrogen, sulfate, and chloride parameters which were high at the sampling stations where domestic and industrial wastewaters discharge were present. pH and temperature demonstrate a difference at a significant level by seasons. As a result of the study, it was determined that the water was of IVth quality in terms of nitrate, chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen, and it was of IIIrd quality water with respect to ammonium, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. It was observed that the dam outflow water was of IVth quality with respect to nitrate, chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen, and of IIIrd quality with respect to dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity. It is considered that the pollution problem in the Akkaya Dam can only be resolved with prevention studies on

  6. Health Risk Assessment for Trace Metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water of Cankiri, Turkey

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    Emrah Caylak


    Full Text Available Lifetime exposure to trace metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, trihalomethanes (THMs, and the other chemicals in drinking water through ingestion, and dermal contact may pose risks to human health. In this study, drinking water samples were collected from 50 sampling sites from Cankiri and its towns during 2010. The concentrations of all pollutants were analyzed, and then compared with permissible limits set by Turkish and WHO. For health risk assessment of trace metals, chronic daily intakes (CDIs via ingestion and dermal contact, hazard quotient (HQ, and hazard index (HI were calculated by using statistical formulas. For ingestion pathway, the maximum HQ values of As-non cancer in central Cankiri and Kursunlu town were higher than one. Considering dermal adsorption pathway, the mean and maximum HQ values were below one. HI values of As-non cancer in central Cankiri and Kursunlu town were also higher than one. Each trace metal (As-non cancer, B, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Sb of the mean HI values were slightly below unity. Risks of As, PAHs, THMs, and benzene on human health were then evaluated using carcinogenic risk (CR. It is indicated that CRs of As and THMs were also found >10−5 in drinking water of Cankiri might exert potential carcinogenic risk for people. These assessments would point out required drinking water treatment strategy to ensure safety of consumers.

  7. Metal contents in water, sediment, and Oligochaeta-Chironomidae of Lake Uluabat, a Ramsar site of Turkey. (United States)

    Arslan, Naime; Koç, Burcu; Ciçek, Arzu


    Samples of lake water and sediment, and sediment and two dominant zoobenthic taxa (Oligochaeta: Potamothrix hammoniensis and Chironomidae: Chironomus [Camptochironomus] tentans larvae), were collected from 12 stations in Lake Uluabat and examined from the metal level point of view (cadmium, chromium, lead, copper, nickel, and zinc). Our results showed that the occurrence of metals in water, sediment, and the two zoobenthic taxa are relatively high. The opinion that supports the results of Lake Uluabat shows that certain species of oligochaetes and chironomids accumulate examined metals several times over compared to their surroundings. Therefore, it is concluded that the oligochaetes and the chironomids are suitable candidates to be used in biomonitoring surveys of Lake Uluabat.

  8. Metal Contents in Water, Sediment, and Oligochaeta-Chironomidae of Lake Uluabat, a Ramsar Site of Turkey*

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    Naime Arslan


    Full Text Available Samples of lake water and sediment, and sediment and two dominant zoobenthic taxa (Oligochaeta: Potamothrix hammoniensis and Chironomidae: Chironomus [Camptochironomus] tentans larvae, were collected from 12 stations in Lake Uluabat and examined from the metal level point of view (cadmium, chromium, lead, copper, nickel, and zinc. Our results showed that the occurence of metals in water, sediment, and the two zoobenthic taxa are relatively high. The opinion that supports the results of Lake Uluabat shows that certain species of oligochaetes and chironomids accumulate examined metals several times over compared to their surroundings. Therefore, it is concluded that the oligochaetes and the chironomids are suitable candidates to be used in biomonitoring surveys of Lake Uluabat.

  9. Assessment of phytoplankton and environmental variables for water quality and trophic state classification in the Gemlik Gulf, Marmara Sea (Turkey). (United States)

    Balci, Muharrem; Balkis, Neslihan


    Phytoplankton assemblages related to environmental factors and ecological status of the Gemlik Gulf were investigated between June 2010 and May 2011. A total 155 phytoplankton species were detected and 6 taxa (Amphisolenia laticincta, Archaeperidinium minutum, Cochlodinium sp., Gynogonadinium aequatoriale, Heterocapsa rotundata and Metaphalacroma sp.) were new records for the Turkish Seas. The lowest and highest total phytoplankton abundance among the sampling units (depths) was recorded in April 2011 (7.4×103cellsL-1) and July 2010 (251.8×103cellsL-1). Local small patches of visible red tide events were detected especially in the gulf, although a phytoplankton bloom was not observed. The water column was well stratified in the early autumn and well mixed in the early spring according to stratification index values. Surface nutrient concentrations increased especially at stations located inside of the gulf. The limiting effect of silicate was observed in early, mid-summer and early winter periods while the nitrogen was the limiting nutrient in the gulf during the whole sampling period. In the Gulf, low water quality-high mesotrophic and bad water quality-eutrophic status, high quality and low trophic level were generally detected according to Chl a, dissolved oxygen and trophic index. However, indices developed to determine the trophic level and water quality of the Mediterranean Sea can give unexpected results about the current environmental quality status when it is applied to the Marmara Sea which has limited photic zone by the halocline-pycnocline and thermocline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring and Control of Human Effects on the Water Quality in Special Environment Protection Areas (SEPA), Fethiye-Gocek Measurements in Turkey (United States)

    Cizmeli, Ahmet; Alp, Emre; Duzgun, Sebnem; Orek, Hasan; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet


    Fethiye-Göcek region, the unique marine area having numerous calm bays for safe and enjoyable navigation, sailing and yachting is one of those Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Göcek Bay, which has a remarkable tourism potential has became one of the most important destinations of the both Turkish and International blue voyagers. The bays of Göcek are used by significant number of yachts during summer season (May-September). Göcek Bay is the nearest bay having marinas for serving those yachts using the nearby bays. The increase in tourism capacity resulted in increase in economical activities as well as environmental problems. The pollution level of the area is affected by the uncontrolled waste disposals from the yachts, the circulation pattern and ecological characteristics of the area. In a previously conducted study, in order to develop proper management strategies, the number of yachts using Göcek Bay area has been determined. The research project involves the development of state-of-the-art remote sensing tools that will be used in the operational monitoring of the ecosystem and was funded by the Turkish Governmental Agency EPASA and the Middle East Technical University, Ankara. There are two general objectives of the project; (i) the development of an operational environmental surveillance system that makes regular use of optical remote sensing images backed with regularly collected in-situ ground truth data (ii) to characterize the chemical nature of the pollutants through in-situ measurements and design and build a water collection, treatment and discharge system for the domestic and bilge waters of the boats. Seawater samples were collected at 3 locations representing different pollution levels in Göcek Bay. One of the locations is in open sea which represents low pollution level (almost clean water). The concentrations of the measured parameters in seawater are below the limit values indicated in Water Pollution and Control Regulation and

  11. Adult Education in Turkey (United States)

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem


    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  12. Concentrations of Arsenic and Boron in Water, Sediment and the Tissues of Fish in Emet Stream (Turkey). (United States)

    Benzer, Semra


    In this study, the concentrations of arsenic and boron were determined in the water and the sediment, as well as in the muscle tissues of Squalius cephalus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Barbus plebejus and Capoeta tinca from Emet Stream. The fish samples were caught in May 2011 and September 2012. The metal concentrations in the water samples were as follows: arsenic was 137.1-1002 µg L-1, and boron was 2421-14490 µg L-1. The metal concentrations in the sediment samples were as follows: arsenic was 14.51-3317.1 mg kg-1, and boron was 14.22-1014.01 mg kg-1. The mean tissue concentration of arsenic was lower than the TFC and WHO limits. Boron has been identified in fish tissues at concentrations between 0.26 and 2.96 mg kg-1. The bioaccumulation in the muscle tissues of all fish species caught from Emet Stream did not exceed the limit values.

  13. Assessment of the origin and geothermal potential of the thermal waters by hydro-isotope geochemistry: Eskisehir province, Turkey. (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Italiano, Francesco; Yasin, Didem; Taskiran, Lutfi; Gulbay, Ahmet Hilmi


    The thermal fluids vented over Eskisehir province have been investigated for their origin and to estimate the geothermal potential of the area. Thermal waters as well as bubbling and dissolved gases were collected and analysed for their chemical and isotopic features. Their isotopic composition varies in the range from -11.5 to -7.7 ‰ for δ18O, -84 and -57 ‰ for δ2H, and 0-7.2 TU for tritium. The gases (bubbling and dissolved) are mostly N2-dominated with a significant amount of CO2. The helium isotopic ratios are in the range of 0.2-0.66 R/Rac, indicate remarkable mantle-He contribution ranging between 2 and 10 % in the whole study area. Considering the estimated geothermal gradient about three times higher than the normal gradient, and the reservoir temperatures estimated to be between 50 and 100 °C using quartz and chalcedony geothermometers, a circulation model was built where possible mixing with shallow waters cool down the uprising geothermal fluids.

  14. Event studies in Turkey

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    Ulkem Basdas


    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to review the event studies conducted for Turkey to in order to identify the common components in their designs. This paper contributes to the existing literature by reviewing all event studies for Turkey for the first time, but more importantly; this review leads to the upcoming event studies on Turkey by highlighting main components of a proper design. Based on the review of 75 studies, it is observed that event studies generally choose BIST-100 (formerly, ISE-100 market index and market adjusted returns with the parametric tests. In general, the studies prefer to rely on one type of model to calculate abnormal returns without discussing the selection of the underlying model. Especially for the event studies focusing on the impact of political events or macroeconomic announcements in Turkey, there is a risk of clustering due to the application of same event date for all observations.

  15. Turkey: A Strategic Ally. (United States)


    in education. This will con- tinue to enhance Turkey’s modernization efforts. It is estimated that over 55 percent of the people can read and write .10... writing a new constitution which is expected to strengthen the presi- dency and make provisions for a strong two party political system which...Turkey guards the European land aproach of the eastern Mediterranean and presents a formidable obstacle in the path of any Soviet expansion designs

  16. Energy Security and Turkey (United States)


    92 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk , 1923. 93 “Turkish-U.S. Political Relations,” Republic of Turkey Ministry of...gas and oil on the world market, without any interruption or mandate by established producers. Guided by the enduring legacy of Mustafa Kemal ...enduring legacy of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Turkey has been pursuing a policy of “Peace at Home and Peace Abroad” since the very establishment of the

  17. Energy Diplomacy of Turkey

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    Volkan Ozdemir


    Full Text Available The article deals with current issues of energy diplomacy of Turkey. The authors describe the main positive and negative results of Turkey's foreign energy policy in terms of the implementation of major energy projects. Geopolitical processes in the world, the conflict of interests of various countries in the political arena are important factors that affect the crude oil and natural gas pipeline projects. Particular attention is paid to the problems and prospects of cooperation between the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation in the fuel and energy complex. The authors describe the interaction betweeen Russia and Turkey in the energy sector, including geo-economic interests of the countries in the Russian-Turkish gas dialogue. Turkey made efforts to position as an alternative gas supply route, taking advantage of concern about increasing Europe's dependence on Russian exports. Last years Turkey has set itself the important task - to turn from transit country into a regional gas hub. Ukrainian crisis increased the geostrategic importance of the Black Sea region to Russia, as well as strengthened the ambition of the Turkish side. The authors also highlight the prospects of the natural gas pipeline project from Russia via the Black Sea to Turkey and to the Turkish-Greek border, which named "Turkish stream". This project was frozen in terms of military and political processes at the end of 2015 in Syria.

  18. Pediatric oncology in Turkey. (United States)

    Kebudi, Rejin


    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  19. Use of EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral image data and real-time field sampling for water quality mapping in the Hirfanlı Dam Lake, Turkey. (United States)

    Kavurmacı, Murat; Ekercin, Semih; Altaş, Levent; Kurmaç, Yakup


    This paper focuses on the evaluation of water quality variations in Hirfanlı Water Reservoir, which is one of the most important water resources in Turkey, through EO-1 (Earth Observing-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral data and real-time field sampling. The study was materialized in 20 different sampling points during the overpass of the EO-1 ALI sensor over the study area. A multi-linear regression technique was used to explore the relationships between radiometrically corrected EO-1 ALI image data and water quality parameters: chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids. The retrieved and verified results show that the measured and estimated values of water quality parameters are in good agreement (R (2) >0.93). The resulting thematic maps derived from EO-1 multispectral data for chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids show the spatial distribution of the water quality parameters. The results indicate that the reservoir has average nutrient values. Furthermore, chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids values increased at the upstream reservoir and shallow coast of the Hirfanlı Water Reservoir.

  20. The fate of turkey #88 (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Todd Mills


    On January 9, 1990, 32 turkeys were captured in the Black Hills of South Dakota using the drug alpha-chloralose. One of these turkeys had a unique tag attached to it's wing that indicated it had been trapped previously Let's look back in time and see what made the events in the life of this turkey deviate slightly from "The Events in the Turkey Year...

  1. Cutting and Preserving Whole Turkey


    Brennand, Charlotte P.


    There are more uses for a turkey than roasting it whole for holiday occasions. The least expensive way to have turkey pieces, especially if the turkey is purchased on sale, is to cut it up yourself. The following is to serve as a butchering and processing guide.

  2. Aksehir Lake Ecological Property and Problems in Lake Strict (Konya Closed Basin of Turkey)


    , Fatma Kunt; , Sukru Dursun


    Turkey has many water sources more than other Middle East countries, but less than European countries. Water sources information, determination of potential and management are important for future water production plan. Water sources in Turkey were reduced with uncontrolled usage, as it will not be come to an end of the source. Aksehir Lake was an important water source in Lake Strict and many investigations were performed on biologic feature of the region, but were not on environmental probl...

  3. Turkey`s Harmless Tango Between East and West

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    Selma Mujanovic


    Full Text Available Turkey got actively involved in world politics and international relations after AKP came to power in early 2000s. Turkey`s foreign policy since AKP came to power, has the theoretical basis in Davutoglu`s Strategic Depth. New doctrines rely on historical right inherited from the Ottoman Empire, which contributed towards Turkish pro-active and multi-dimensional foreign policy. Without forgetting traditional Western allies, Turkey has established itself as a regional power in the Balkans, Middle East and Central Asia with significant success. This paper attempts to analyze how Turkey has been playing a harmless tango between its traditional allies in the West and regions in the near abroad which had made Turkey a global player in the international relations. Then, it is important to analyze Turkey's transformation and its approved role by the Western powers as a strong Islamic country with secular governance in the Middle East and Central Asia.

  4. The influence of transportation on turkey meat quality. (United States)

    Owens, C M; Sams, A R


    Previous research has indicated that antemortem stress factors can influence the development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat in swine as well as in turkeys. Such antemortem factors can include environmental temperatures, relative humidity, preslaughter handling practices, and transportation. However, the effect of transportation on meat quality of turkeys has not been extensively studied. Eighty Nicholas male turkeys (21 wk of age) were divided into two groups and were either transported in coops on a flatbed trailer for 3 h immediately prior to processing or processed without transportation. Breast muscle samples were collected for pH (0, 2, 24 h), L* value (2, 24 h), drip loss, and cook loss. Additionally, breast fillets were marinated and cooked to determine marination uptake, retention, and cook loss. The breast muscles from transported turkeys had significantly higher muscle pH at 0, 2, and 24 h; significantly lower L* values at 2 and 24 h; significantly higher marination retention (i.e., lower drip loss after marination); and significantly lower cook loss in the marinated fillets compared with fillets of the nontransported turkeys. There were no significant differences in drip loss and cook loss of the nonmarinated fillets or the marination uptake percentage between the transported and nontransported turkeys. These results suggest that transporting turkeys immediately before processing does not induce PSE meat and may actually improve water-holding properties.

  5. Motor fuel prices in Turkey


    Erdogdu, Erkan


    The world’s most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsi...

  6. Response of lake water quality to wastewater inputs from land-based fish farm located on Yuvarlakçay Creek in Köyceğiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area, Turkey. (United States)

    Taşeli, B K


    Köyceğiz Lake is located in the south-western part of Turkey. The area between the Köyceğiz Lake and the Mediterranean Sea is covered with four small lakes and several canals. The surroundings of the lake, canals and forests have a great potential as a reproduction areas for Mediterranean Sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and sheltering place for various animals. In the vicinity of this system there are agricultural areas and small settlements. In this region the most important economic activities are tourism and fisheries. However, the lake is currently threatened by pollution because of (1) non-point source pollution (agriculture); (2) point sources (land-based fish farms); (3) inefficient sewerage systems; (4) uncontrolled soil erosion in its drainage basin; (5) inappropriate flood control measures; and (6) channel traffic. This study evaluates the influence of its influent creeks namely Namnam and Yuvarlakçay Creek on the water quality of Köyceğiz Lake, mainly because the creeks are believed to be responsible for the major pollutant load reaching the lake. Accordingly, this study demonstrates (1) change in the water quality of Köyceğiz Lake from 2006 to 2007; (2) the water quality classification of the major influent creeks feeding Köyceğiz Lake; and (3) how land-based fish farm influences Yuvarlakçay Creek water quality in a Köyceğiz-Dalyan Specially Protected Area.

  7. Axiom turkey genotyping array (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  8. 1975 Lice, Turkey Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  9. Terrorism in Turkey. (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan


    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support.

  10. Distance Education in Turkey

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    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,


    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  11. Insects for turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Veldkamp, T.


    In a trial with 14 pens with in each 20 turkey pullets (males, not treated) research has been conducted to the effect of feeding 12% insect larvae (Black Soldier Fly) on technical results and behaviour. The birds were kept until 5 weeks of age. The larvae fed groups ate less, had a higher growth

  12. Wind energy and Turkey. (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan


    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  13. Cloning Creationism in Turkey. (United States)

    Edis, Taner


    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  14. Country Profiles, Turkey. (United States)

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  15. The impact of cancer and its treatment on sexual desire, satisfaction and functioning: findings from an exploratory study in rural Turkey. (United States)

    Eker, F; Acikgoz, F


    As a result of improvements in biomedical science and health care in general, the life expectancy of cancer patients is significantly prolonged. However, as a result, new and enduring problems may of this period be experienced more frequently. This descriptive study was carried out to determine changes in the sexual functioning of cancer patients in the city of Duzce, Turkey and their psychosexual counselling needs. The study sample consists of 40 patients (24 men, 16 women) with various cancers and disease stages. To assess patients' sexual functioning, changes in four parameters related sexuality (desire, attractiveness, satisfaction and frequency) were measured, with patients comparing their conditions before and after the diagnosis of cancer. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews. In evaluating the data, mean, percentage and Fisher exact chi-squared tests were used. The importance of sexuality declined for the majority of patients following their illness. It was found that cancer patients with Stage III-IV and over 50 years of age experienced decrease in the frequency of their sexual relationships and sexual desire. Our study shows that 85% of patients were not provided with information concerning sexual activity during their illness, and needed counselling about changes in sexual functioning caused by the illness. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Turkey-EU Migration: The Road Ahead

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip Martin


    .... Turkey is a net immigration country, and net migration between Turkey and Germany has been negative in recent years, meaning that more German residents move to Turkey than Turkish residents to Germany...

  17. Effects of high and low environmental temperatures on clinical course of fowl cholera in turkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.


    Turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water were maintained t high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers to determine the influence environmental temperature had on the pathogenesis of fowl cholera. In inoculated turkeys maintained at high temperatures, there was a delay in the onset of depression and, in most instances, in mortality in relation to those at low or moderate temperatures. In turkeys inoculated via drinking water and maintained at low temperatures, there was a higher mortality than in those at high or moderate temperatures. In turkeys maintained at low temperatures during the preinoculation period, the onset of depression was accelerated more after inoculation than in those maintained at moderate temperatures before inoculation. The percentage of leukocytes in the hematocrit was higher in turkeys inoculated int he palatine air spaces and maintained at low temperatures than in turkeys similarly inoculated but maintained at high or moderate temperatures. Cloacal temperatures were higher in all inoculated turkeys maintained at high temperatures than in those at low or moderate temperatures, and decreased markedly when turkeys became moribund. In turkeys inoculated in the palatine air spaces, deaths from pneumonia occurred more frequently at low temperatures and torticollis occurred more frequently at high temperatures than at the other temperatures.

  18. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter


    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  19. Nursing in Turkey. (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L


    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  20. Pododermatitis in turkeys. (United States)

    Clark, Steven; Hansen, Greg; McLean, Peter; Bond, Paul; Wakeman, Wendy; Meadows, Roger; Buda, Silke


    Severe pododermatitis is a common lesion in turkeys, unlike in broiler chickens. Both dietary factors (soybean meal, biotin, methionine) and poor litter conditions (wet litter) are documented etiologies of footpad lesions. In the United States and United Kingdom both farm managers and processors monitor lesions. The United Kingdom reports an average footpad relative score higher than that of the United States. In both countries, incidence in toms is higher than in hens. There is no significant difference by country. Data support no consistent association with other lesions (i.e., breast blisters or condemnations), breed, or performance parameters (i.e., weight gain or age). The litter type used in the United Kingdom is either straw or wood shavings, whereas in the United States producers predominantly use wood shavings. In the United Kingdom, diets are formulated with a higher protein, which affects the excreta and subsequent litter conditions. British United Turkey is the predominate breed in the United Kingdom. In the United States, three breeds, British United Turkey of America, hybrid, and Nicholas, are common. Recent research has demonstrated the association between biotin levels and pododermatitis. Factors associated with pododermatitis (such as production systems, wet litter, and stocking density) are discussed. There are some indications that increased stocking density is associated with pododermatitis lesions. Further research is needed to identify what management factors are associated with pododermatitis.

  1. Offshore seismicity in the western Marmara Sea, Turkey, revealed by ocean bottom observation (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doǧan; Pinar, Ali; Gürbüz, Cemil; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki


    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.7) and the Duzce (Ms=7.4) earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake (Mw=6.9), the only un-ruptured segments left behind the 1600 km long NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To consider the earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation, the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea is very important. Thus, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations to estimate the fault geometry from microearthquake distribution. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18th of June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. We first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data, i.e., using all the temporary OBS stations. Although there are only 3 earthquakes listed on the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) catalogue, we could identify 41 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and two-third of them located within the OBS network. We found the earthquake cluster along the main NAF and whose depth interval is 12

  2. Immunoprotectivity of attenuated turkey poxvirus in turkey poults and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, fowl pox vaccine is used in all categories of poultry. However there has been reports of outbreak of turkey pox virus in poults previously vaccinated with fowl pox vaccine. Pox Lesion from poults was excised for isolation of virus and viral propagation in chorioallantoid membrane. Turkey pox virus were isolated ...

  3. Refugee movements and Turkey. (United States)

    Kirisci, K


    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  4. The Effects of Servant Leadership Behaviours of School Principals on Teachers' Job Satisfaction (United States)

    Cerit, Yusuf


    This article examines the effects of servant leadership behaviours of primary school principals on teacher job satisfaction. The population of this study is 29 primary schools in Duzce, Turkey. Data were collected from 595 teachers working in primary schools in Duzce province of Turkey. Servant leadership behaviours of principals were determined…

  5. The effect of air dried conditions on mechanical and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 20, 2009 ... 2Duzce University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Duzce, 81620, Turkey. Accepted 10 April, 2009 ... cutting for curved form of diagonal timber of the wood causes strength loss (Topal, 2001). ... was used for the production of chair in Istanbul, Turkey in. 1987 by a private firm.

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypophosphatemia in Young Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumali Özkan*, Abdullah Kaya, Loğman Aslan1 and Yakup Akgül


    Full Text Available This study was aimed to diagnose and to treat the disease of young turkeys showing hypophosphatemia symptoms in a farm. The material of this study was consisted of turkeys in both sexes, aged between 13-15 weeks. In the clinical examinations of the turkeys; weight loss, weakness, unwilling to walk, lameness and extremity fractures in some animals were determined. Blood samples were collected from 20 turkeys chosen randomly for biochemical analyses and mineral assays. Serum Ca, P, ALP, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Co levels were analyzed. Phosphorus and Zn levels were found to decrease significantly whereas Ca, ALP, Mn levels and Ca/P ratio found to increase before treatment. For treatment purpose, phosphoric acid and vitamin D3 were added to their drinking water. Clinical findings improved after treatment and biochemical parameters which were abnormal before treatment returned to normal values after treatment. As a result, hypophosphatemia was one of the most important reasons of foot problems and bone fractures during the growth period of the turkeys. It was also observed that adding phosphorus and vitamin D3 in the drinking water for the purpose of treatment was considered to be beneficial.

  7. Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in the Term of Social Geograpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BENEK


    Full Text Available Historical process between Syria and Turkey has always high tension. According to Turkey, Syria is the country,which has hosted the Turkish enemies, which causes problems in the sharing of water resources and geographically it is seen as ‘’enemy country’’ because of interfering in Turkey's territorial integrity; According to Syria, Turkey is "enemy" is because it doesn’t share water resources in a fair way and as supporters of western countries, claiming rights over their territory (Hatay. In short, for many years strained relations with Syria-Turkey relations , by signing of the Treaty of Adana in 1998, good relations has been established with unpredictable speed in a short time . Escalating positive relations between Turkey and Syria in the years 1998-2011, and relations has again strained the outbreak of the Syria Civil War in 2011, and was even worse off period before 1998. Therefore the main goal of this study "Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in terms of Social Geography" is to examine the dynamics of it. For this purpose, treaties defining the Turkey-Syria relationship, the protocols, briefings given by officials were examined. Historical background of the two countries' relations in terms of social geography has been tried to put forward in chronological order

  8. Evaluation of the water quality related to the acid mine drainage of an abandoned mercury mine (Alaşehir, Turkey). (United States)

    Gemici, Unsal


    Mobility of metals in water, mine wastes, and stream sediments around the abandoned Alaşehir mercury mine was investigated to evaluate the environmental effects around the area. Mine waters are dominantly acidic with pH values of 2.55 in arid season and 2.70 in wet season and are sulfate rich. Acidity is caused mainly by the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Pyrite is the main acid-producing mineral in the Alaşehir area. Of the major ions, SO(4) shows a notable increase reaching 3981 mg/l, which exceeds the WHO (WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information, 1993) and TS (Sular-Içme ve kullanma sulari. Ankara: Türk Standartlari Enstitüsü, 1997) drinking water standard of 250 mg/L. Mine waters have As, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Al with concentrations higher than drinking water standards. Hg concentrations of adit water samples and surface waters draining the mine area are between 0.25 and 0.274 microg/L and are below the WHO (WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information, 1993) drinking water standard of 1.0 microg/L. However, the concentrations are above the 0.012 microg/L standard (EPA, Water quality standards. Establishment of numeric criteria for priority toxic pollutants, states' compliance, final rule. Fed. Reg., 40 CFR, Part 131, 57/246, 60847-60916, 1992) used to protect aquatic life. Stream sediment samples have abnormally high values of especially Hg, As, Ni, and Cr metals. Geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution index (PI) values are significantly high and denote heavy contamination in stream sediments. The stream sediments derived from the mining area with the surface waters are potentially hazardous to the environment adjacent to the abandoned Hg mine and are in need of remediation.

  9. Pernicious anemia in Turkey. (United States)

    Kocak, R; Paydas, S


    Pernicious anemia patients who were diagnosed during a 5-year period in Cukurova University Hospital, Adana, Turkey were reviewed. Of approximately 200 new patients per year accepted by the Hematology Unit 44 were diagnosed as having pernicious anemia. There were 30 males and 14 females. The mean age for men was 49.14 +/- 18.11 and that for women was 40.00 +/- 14.05. Both values and the mean age overall were lower than the reported mean age for Whites, Blacks and Latin Americans living in the United States.

  10. Internal contamination with leech in a turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani


    Full Text Available Leech enters to mouth and nose through water. Nose and nasopharynx mucosa are the most preferred places for leech attachment with epistaxis and respiratory distress symptoms. But the leeches may rarely stick deeper to trachea or esophagus which could cause hematemesis, hemoptysis and severe respiratory distress. Leech infestation can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory and genital bleeding in rare cases. Various animals such as ruminants, single-toed and carnivores, are easily infected with leeches. In May 2014, a 2-year-old turkey infected with leeches through the contaminated drinking water was referred to a veterinarian with respiratory distress symptoms, anxiety, bleeding from the mouth in Maze-Abdali Village located at 17 km from Dehloran City of Ilam Province in the west of Iran. After physical observations, a moving dark green particle was seen. Limnatis nilotica were detected after separation from the oral cavity of turkey. Respiratory distress and oral cavity bleeding should be regarded in the areas where spring and flooded water were infested with leeches. Untreated and contaminated waters consumption should be prohibited.

  11. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül


    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger,, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  12. CSAMT investigations of the Caferbeyli (Manisa/Turkey) geothermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Caferbeyli geothermal area is on the southern side of the Gediz Graben just west of Salihli, Manisa,. Turkey. According to rising demand on thermal water around Salihli, geophysical studies were performed using the Controlled Source Audio Magnetotellurics (CSAMT) measurements near the area of Cafer- beyli, and ...

  13. A negotiation support system for disputes between Iraq and Turkey over the Tigris-Euphrates basin (United States)

    Zagonari, Fabio; Rossi, Claudio


    This paper describes a flexible prototype negotiation support system (NSS), to be used in a participatory context, based on the negotiation setting that was suggested by Turkey: bilateral negotiations between Turkey and Iraq, annual analysis, the assumption that Iraq and Syria have no inherent water rights, differences in water entitlements or needs are neglected, analysis restricted to the Tigris-Euphrates basin, current irrigation technologies in Turkey and Iraq, and negotiations on water quantity and quality that account for national dam construction plans. The analysis is based on all principles of the 1997 UN Convention that are recognised by Turkey: net benefits defined at a basin level, equitable use, non-significant harm, maintenance of water quality. The goal is to achieve a balance of interests among the parties that combines analysis of the quantity and quality of water and the net benefits. The negotiation outcomes arise from simulated dynamic interactions between the parties. We demonstrate an application of the NSS based on plausible and reasonable, but tentative, data to provide insights into water allocation rules, side-payments, water requirements of the two parties, and cooperation. Allocations should meet Iraqi non-significant harm and equitable use constraints and allocate the remaining water to Turkey for agricultural use in the feasible negotiation scenario, whereas allocations should meet Turkish maximum agricultural water demands and allocate the remaining water to Iraq for agricultural use in the unlikely cooperation scenario.

  14. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Canatan


    ...), Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies...

  15. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.

  17. Turkey and European Security Institutions (United States)


    relationships between Turkey, the United States, the Kurds, and Europe. As a source often critical of Turkey and the United States ( Noam Chomsky ...2008, pdf . 129 Ibid. 130 Ibid. 131 Ibid. 132 The Council of the European Union...Factsheet, “EU Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUPM),” March 2006, pdf . 48

  18. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkey]. (United States)

    Gürel, Mehmet Salih; Yeşilova, Yavuz; Olgen, M Kirami; Ozbel, Yusuf


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania protozoon parasites is a disease which is characterized by long-term nodulo-ulcerative lesions healing spontaneously with scarring. The disease has been well-known in Anatolia for centuries and has different names such as; Urfa boil, Antep boil, year boil, Halep boil, oriental sore and beauty scar. The causative agents are Leishmania tropica and Leishmania tropica/Leishmania infantum in Southeastern Anatolia and East Mediterranean, respectively. CL is a notifiable disease in Turkey and, according to the Ministry of Health official records, 46.003 new cases were reported between 1990 and 2010. Among those cases, 96% of them were reported from the Şanlıurfa, Adana, Osmaniye, Hatay, Diyarbakır, İçel and Kahramanmaraş provinces. Although 45% of cases were notified from Şanlıurfa in the past 20 years, its ratio is currently decreasing while other regions' ratios have been showing an increasing trend. Easier transportation between cities, increased travel migration of the population from rural areas to the peripheral suburbs with inadequate infrastructure and unhealthy housing are thought to be the main factors for spreading the disease from Southeastern Anatolia to other regions of Turkey. Lack of treatment of patients as reservoir hosts because of different reasons and ineffective and inadequate use of insecticides against vector sand flies have also played an important role in spreading the disease. Neglect of this disease by patients and health institutions can also be considered as other factors for the spreading. We believe that, after the strategic plan for leishmaniasis prepared by the Turkish Ministry of Health with the contribution of scientists in 2011 is put into practice, the control of the disease will be more effective.

  19. A Proposal of Branding Water - Based Recreational Activities Within The Destination Management Project in The Dalaman Basin, Muğla, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali TÜRKER


    Full Text Available "Arrival place" (TDK, 2012 or "a place that has different natural features or attractions where visitors are interested in visiting" (Coltman, 1989: 48 were defined as destination. Nowadays this is one of the topics that attention is paid to in tourism literature. However, destination is drawn in a reg ional boundaries rather than political boundaries where tourist resources in a geographic area are clustered. This in turn necessitates the different local government units and non - governmental organizations (NGOs in acting management and marketing togeth er. Dalaman basin boundaries cover Dalaman, Ortaca and Koycegiz municipalities in the province of Mugla. Dalaman international airport is located in the area that tourists have an easy access to reach accommodation establishments soon after they land and t ourists further benefit from the region's historical and touristic values. This study has primarily presented the findings regarding Dalaman Basin Destination Management Project involving these three municipalities, the tourism business representatives, NG Os and Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University lecturers. Through this consecutive meetings among these parties involved, a main conclusion has drawn upon water - based recreational activities should be focused and these activities should be used in marketing the regi on. Further to this conclusion, these water - based activities should be branded. Within this destination management project, "Turkish Water Land" was proposed as a brand name to describe the region‟s water - based activities. The three local authorities of th e Dalaman basin unanimously agreed upon a protocol stating the roles and allocation of investments and expenditures required. Water based recreation activities are located in the region as follows: Dalaman river, Koycegiz lake, Iztuzu and Sarigerme beaches , Ekin and Sarsala bays and Dalyan canal.

  20. The Effects of Servant Leadership on Teachers' Organizational Commitment in Primary Schools in Turkey (United States)

    Cerit, Yusuf


    This study examines the effects of servant leadership behaviours of primary school principals on teachers' school commitment. The research data were collected from 563 teachers working in primary schools in Duzce. Servant leadership behaviours of principals were measured with a servent organizational leadership assessment scale, and the teachers'…

  1. The Effect of Language Teaching Methods on Academic Success in Turkey (United States)

    Ökmen, Burcu; Kilic, Abdurrahman


    The aim of this research is to observe the effect of language teaching methods on students' TEOG foreign language exams, the exam which is necessary to pass from secondary school to high school, administered by the Ministry of Education. The research sample consisted of 95 English teachers who taught in secondary schools in Duzce in 2013-2014, and…

  2. Implementation of the eu nitrates directive in Turkey


    BİLGİN YILDIRIM, Hatice; DEMİR, Süleyman


    The EU Nitrates Directive is of a prime importance in respect of sustaining the natural resources for the reduction and prevention of nitrate pollution resulting from agricultural activities, and it constitutes an integral part of the EU Water Framework Directive. Accepted by the European Council in 1991, the directive entered into force being published in Official Gazette in 2004 in Turkey as “Regulation on the Protection of Waters against Pollution Caused by Nitrates from Agricultural Sourc...

  3. Determination of the relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes in well waters on the Akşehir-Simav Fault System in Afyonkarahisar province, Turkey. (United States)

    Ali Yalım, Hüseyin; Sandıkcıoğlu, Ayla; Ertuğrul, Oğuz; Yıldız, Ahmet


    Radon concentrations were measured in water of 4 wells on the Akşehir-Simav Fault System (ASFS) in Afyonkarahisar province from August 2009 to September 2010 and the relationship between radon anomalies and earthquake magnitudes was examined. Anomalous decreases in radon concentrations in the wells were observed to precede the earthquakes of magnitudes ranging from 2.6 M to 3.9 M. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) were 0.79, 0.93, 0.98 and 0.90 for the wells from 1 to 4, respectively, indicating that radon minima and earthquake magnitude were well correlated and suggesting that the groundwater radon, when observed at suitable sites, can be a sensitive tracer for strain changes in crust associated with earthquake occurrences. The relationship between the two parameters can be further improved as additional radon anomalies precursor to possible large earthquakes are recorded in the wells located on the ASFS in the future. This study strongly suggests that the continuous observations of radon concentrations in well water, especially at well 3, should be carried forward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Turkey. Health system review. (United States)

    Tatar, Mehtap; Mollahaliloğlu, Salih; Sahin, Bayram; Aydin, Sabahattin; Maresso, Anna; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina


    Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and different parts of the country, although these have been diminishing over the years. The higher infant mortality rates in rural areas can be attributed to low socioeconomic conditions, low female education levels and the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main causes of death are diseases of the circulatory system followed by malignant neoplasms. Turkeys health care system has been undergoing a far-reaching reform process (HTP) since 2003 and radical changes have occurred both in the provision and the financing of health care services. Health services are now financed through a social security scheme covering the majority of the population, the General Health Insurance Scheme (GHIS (Genel Saglik Sigortasi)), and services are provided both by public and private sector facilities. The Social Security Institution (SSI (Sosyal Guvenlik Kurumu)), financed through payments by employers and employees and government contributions in cases of budget deficit, has become a monopsonic (single buyer) power on the purchasing side of health care services. On the provision side, the Ministry of Health (Saglik Bakenligi) is the main actor and provides primary, secondary and tertiary care through its facilities across the country. Universities are also major providers of tertiary care. The private sector has increased its range over recent years, particularly after arrangements paved the way for private sector provision of services to the SSI. The most important reforms since

  5. Utilization of turkey manure as granular activated carbon: physical, chemical and adsorptive properties. (United States)

    Lima, Isabel; Marshall, Wayne E


    The high availability of large quantities of turkey manure generated from turkey production makes it an attractive feedstock for carbon production. Pelletized samples of turkey litter and cake were converted to granular activated carbons (GACs) by steam activation. Water flow rate and activation time were changed to produce a range of activation conditions. The GACs were characterized for select physical (yield, surface area, bulk density, attrition), chemical (pH, surface charge) and adsorptive properties (copper ion uptake). Carbon physical and adsorptive properties were dependent on activation time and quantity of steam used as activant. Yields varied from 23% to 37%, surface area varied from 248 to 472 m(2)/g and copper ion adsorption varied from 0.72 to 1.86 mmol Cu(2+)/g carbon. Copper ion adsorption greatly exceeded the values for two commercial GACs. GACs from turkey litter and cake show considerable potential to remove metal ions from water.

  6. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida and maintained at high and low environmental temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Ryan, M.P.; Vanjonack, W.J.; Johnson, H.D.


    Radioimmunoassay was used to determine plasma corticosterone concentration (PCC) in turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida via either the palatine air spaces or the drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C) and moderate )19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. In uninoculated turkeys maintained at high temperatures, the PCC was generally lower than in turkeys maintained at moderate temperatures, whereas the opposite occurred in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. After inoculation with P. multocida, all groups of inoculated turkeys showed an increase in the average PCC, which attained a level in some turkeys of over 40 ng/ml, in relation to the average in the uninoculated turkeys, which ranged from 1.8 to 27.3 ng/ml. This increase was proportional to the severity of the infection that developed. The PCC was found to be a sensitive indicator of an incubating infection of P. multocida, since it was markedly increased in turkeys that were bled one day before the onset of depression. In turkeys that were inoculated via the palatine air spaces and maintained at 20 C, the PCC on the day of inoculation was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in the turkeys that later died than in those that survived. Generally, the PCC was higher in the turkeys that either died between 5 and 10 days after inoculation or were depressed aa the end of the experiment on day 10, relative to the turkeys that were alert at the end of the experiment.

  7. Crop drying programme in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oztekin, S.; Bascetincelik, A.; Soysal, Y. [Cukurova Univ., Agricultural Machinery Dept., Adana (Turkey)


    The present status of agricultural crop drying practices in Turkey is investigated in this study. The emphasis of drying on market value, annual production and export values of some commercially important crops is given in a broad perspective. In the recent years, developing international market conditions in Europe, Middles East, and Central Asia has been encouraging to Turkey`s fresh and dry agricultural crop export due to the rapidly increasing internal and external market demands. Grapes, apricots, black tea, figs, red pepper, and medicinal and aromatic plants are the major exported agricultural crops, contributing annually 35 to 40 millions of USD$ to Turkey`s economics. From the view point of dried crop quality, drying of special crops are still an important topic for the agricultural sector. Traditionally used drying methods have many drawbacks. High air temperatures and relative humidity during the drying season promote the inset and mold development in harvested crops. Furthermore, the intensive solar radiation causes several quality reductions like vitamin losses of color changes in dried crops. Thus, the conventional drying methods do not meet the particular requirements of the related standards. To overcome these problems, producers should be made aware of the fact that the high quality of dried products can be sold to three of four fold prices and directed to the dryer investments. Moreover, the introduction of low cost and locally manufactured dryer offers a promising alternative to reduce the excessive postharvest losses and also improve the economical situation of the farmers. (Author)

  8. Maternal filicide in Turkey. (United States)

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan


    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in White Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan ATASEVER


    Full Text Available In this study, forming of experimental toxoplasmosis in white turkeys; clinical, pathological and serological determination of tissue lesions, aimed to compare them and determine pathogenesis. For these purposes, a total of 120 two months old white turkeys were divided into groups as oral and parenteral infections and also their controls. The oral group was infected with 0.5 mL of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain inoculum suspension contains 106 tachyzoites while its control group was given 0.5 mL of saline. The parenteral group were divided into four groups as intraperitoneal (IP, intramuscular (IM, intravenous (IV and cloacal (C. Each parenteral route was divided into two groups and one control group for inoculums given 105 and 104 tachyzoites in 0.5 mL. These two control groups were also given 0.5 mL saline as indicated above. Due to acute toxoplasmosis, death occurred in three white turkeys given tachyzoites IP 105 showed neurological clinical symptoms as torticollis, ataxia, and tremor. In the histopahologic examination of these three turkeys, T. gondii tissue cysts were detected in the brain. Also, one of given 105 tachyzoites IP group in the brain and one given 104 tachyzoites IV group in the liver were observed tissue cysts associated with toxoplasmosis. The turkeys in all infection groups were found seropositive in both Sabin-Feldman Dye Test (SFDT and Indirect Hemagglutination Test (IHA. The statistical difference between SFDT and IHA was insignificantly for the both parenteral infection groups (P>0.05 while the difference was found significantly for the orally infected group (P<0.05. In conclusion in the present study, the tissue cysts of T. gondii were microscopically seen in brain and liver of the experimental infected white turkeys.

  10. Textural characteristics of fresh and frozen meat chicken and turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Momchilovа


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the structural characteristics of the texture of chilled and frozen meat of chickens and turkeys. The object of the study were chicken and turkey breast and legs frozen and refrigerated. Research was carried out using two methods - the analysis of the profile of texture (TPA and shear Warner-Bratzler (WB. The total chemical composition determined by methods: total protein - Kjeldahl, carbohydrates, fats and total ash down in the relevant known methods. Samples have similar protein containing identical anatomical sites, have some differences in the content of fat and minerals. The results show that the water content of the turkey breasts and legs lower than with the chicken at about equal protein content. According to analysis of variance (ANOVA, a statistical difference was observed between the shear forces of refrigerated and frozen chicken legs, but no significant differences in the results of the shear characteristics of the refrigerated and frozen chicken breast samples were detected. Parameters produced by Warner-Bratzler correlates well with the characteristics of strength, hardness and wiry, obtained by texture profile analysis. The results indicate that the test samples have different textural characteristics depending on the type of meat and the thermal state. Methods of Warner-Bratzler and ATP method in combination with others, may be used to determine in which the thermal state (chilled or frozen were meat turkey and chicken.

  11. Antibacterial and antitumour activities of some plants grown in Turkey


    Usta, Canan; Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Turker, Arzu Ucar


    Screening of antibacterial and antitumour activities of 33 different extracts prepared with three types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was conducted. The extracts were obtained from 11 different plant species grown in Turkey: Eryngium campestre L., Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm., Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Coronilla varia L., Onobrychis oxyodonta Boiss., Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb., Asarum europaeum L., Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmelin, Doronicum orientale Hoffm., Campan...

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil


    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 10, 2003 ... DISSEMINATED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN TURKEY: CASE REPORT. D. DIRIM, H. DAGCI and N. TURGAY. SUMMARY. Cryptosporidium sp is a protozoan that displays an intracellular settlement primarily in the intestinal systems of humans and can result in diarrhoea. Undernourished children.

  14. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey. (United States)

    Canatan, Duran


    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  15. Foraging sites of Turkey Vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turkey Vultures Cathartes aura are probably the most abundant avian scavengers in semi- arid shrublands and woodlands in central. Mexico, about two times more frequently seen than the next most common scavenger,. Common Raven Corvus corax. The questions arise of what sustains this large number of scavenging ...

  16. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi


    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  17. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)


    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  18. Influence of Pasteurella multocida and high and low environmental temperatures on adrenals and bursa of Fabricius in turkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.


    The morphologic changes in the adrenals and bursa of Fabricius were evaluated from turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. There was a slight hyperplasia of the adrenal cortical cells and a hypertrophy of the nuclei in the uninoculated turkeys maintained at both high and low temperatures, but these changes were more marked in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. Regardless of the temperature to which the turkeys were exposed, there was an increase in adrenal weight, hyperplasia of the cortical cells, hypertrophy of the nuclei of the cortical cells, and depletion of lipid in the cortical cells in the turkeys that became depressed after inoculation with P. multocida. In the uninoculated turkeys exposed to high temperatures there was a reduction in the weight of the bursa of Fabricius, atrophy of the follicles, and a reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicle, which did not occur in the bursae from uninoculated turkeys maintained at low temperatures. In the turkeys inoculated with P. multocida, there was a marked reduction in bursal weight, atrophy of the follicles, and reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicles.

  19. 3D Thermal Stratification of Koycegiz Lake, Turkey. (United States)

    Gurcan, Tugba; Kurtulus, Bedri; Avsar, Ozgur; Avsar, Ulas


    Water temperature in lakes, streams and coastal areas is an important indicator for several purposes (water quality, aquatic organism, land use, etc..). There are over a hundred lakes in Turkey. Most of them locates in the area known as the Lake District in southwestern Turkey. The Study area is located at the south and southwest part of Turkey in Muǧla region. The present study focuses on determining possible thermocline changes in Lake Koyceǧiz by in-situ measurements. The measurement were done by two snapshot campaign at July and August 2013. Using Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University geological engineering floating platform, temperature, specific conductance, salinity and depth values were measured with the YSI 6600 and Horiba U2 devices in surface and depth of Lake Köyceǧiz at specific grid. When the depth of the water and the coordinates were measured by GPS. Scattered data interpolation is used to perform interpolation on a scattered dataset that resides in 3D space. The 3D temperature color mesh grid were generated by using Delaunay triangulation and Natural neighbor interpolation methodology. At the end of the study a 3D conceptual lake temperature dynamics model was reconstructed using MATLAB functions. The results show that Koycegiz Lake is a meromictic lake and has a significance decrease of Temperature at 7m of depth.In this regard, we would like also to thank TUBITAK project (112Y137), French Embassy in Turkey and Sıtkı Kocman Foundation for their financial support.

  20. Post-deportation risks under the EU-Turkey statement: what happens after readmission to Turkey?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpes, M.J.; Tunaboylu, Sevda; Ulusoy, Orcun; Hassan, Saima


    This policy brief examines whether asylum seekers readmitted from Greece to Turkey after the EU-Turkey Statement as of April 2016 were able to access effective protection in Turkey thereafter (see graph, return trend, p. 2). The EU has long collaborated with countries of origin and transit in the

  1. Estimating slip deficit of the North Anatolian Fault beneath the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, using on- and off-shore geodetic data (United States)

    Yamamoto, R.; Kido, M.; Ohta, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Ozener, H.; Ozeren, M. S.; Yoshiyuki, K.


    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in the northern Turkey regionally has right-lateral strike-slip motion. In the last decade, seismic activities have been migrating from east to west along the fault. In 1999, Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes were respectively occurred at 100 km and 200 km east of Istanbul, while it remains un-ruptured in the vicinity of Istanbul beneath the Sea of Marmara. In this region, onshore geodetic tools cannot be used and we instead used "seafloor acoustic extensometers" to detect slip deficit rate across the western part of the NAF (around 27.7 °E). A pair of extensometers can periodically measure precise range (about 3-4 mm precision per 1 km baseline) by observing round-trip time of acoustic signal between the two. We installed four instruments in September 2014 and an additional one in March 2015 across the NAF. We have recovered data for about 600-days through acoustic modem. By correcting travel-times for sound velocity using concurrently measured temperature, pressure and tilt change of instruments, we obtained 8-10 ±1 mm/yr of right-lateral movement at the site. Combing the result with on-shore GNSS data across the Sea of Marmara, we constructed a possible fault model. According to the model in Kaneko et al. (2013), we simply assume a bimodal slip condition on the fault plane that infinitely continues to the E-W direction; full-creep (25 mm/yr as is given at infinite distant from the fault plane) deeper than 15 km and applied an overriding partially locked layer (17 mm/yr slip deficit as is obtained by extensometers). We calculated 2-D displacement field in a homogeneous elastic half-space medium. With this model, N-S variation of on-shore GNSS data across the Sea of Marmara can be reasonably explained. However, due to the lack of GNSS site near the fault plane, constraint on the depth of the partially locked layer is not sufficient. We have newly installed GNSS sites, one of which is closer to the fault plane ( 10 km) than before and

  2. Flood of August 24–25, 2016, Upper Iowa River and Turkey River, northeastern Iowa (United States)

    Linhart, S. Mike; O'Shea, Padraic S.


    Major flooding occurred August 24–25, 2016, in the Upper Iowa River Basin and Turkey River Basin in northeastern Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region. About 8 inches of rain were recorded for the 24-hour period ending at 4 p.m., August 24, at Decorah, Iowa, and about 6 inches of rain were recorded for the 24-hour period ending at 7 a.m., August 24, at Cresco, Iowa, about 14 miles northwest of Spillville, Iowa. A maximum peak-of-record discharge of 38,000 cubic feet per second in the Upper Iowa River at streamgage 05388250 Upper Iowa River near Dorchester, Iowa, occurred on August 24, 2016, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 0.2–1 percent. High-water marks were measured at six locations along the Upper Iowa River between State Highway 26 near the mouth at the Mississippi River and State Highway 76 about 3.5 miles south of Dorchester, Iowa, a distance of 15 river miles. Along the profiled reach of the Turkey River, a maximum peak-of-record discharge of 15,300 cubic feet per second at streamgage 05411600 Turkey River at Spillville, Iowa, occurred on August 24, 2016, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 1–2 percent. A maximum peak discharge of 35,700 cubic feet per second occurred on August 25, 2016, along the profiled reach of the Turkey River at streamgage 05411850 Turkey River near Eldorado, Iowa, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 0.2–1 percent. High-water marks were measured at 11 locations along the Turkey River between County Road B64 in Elgin and 220th Street, located about 4.5 miles northwest of Spillville, Iowa, a distance of 58 river miles. The high-water marks were used to develop flood profiles for the Upper Iowa River and Turkey River.

  3. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis. (United States)

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E


    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection.

  4. Parasitic zoonotic diseases in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Altintas


    Full Text Available Zoonoses and zoonotic diseases are becoming more common and they are now receiving increased attention across the world. Zoonotic parasites are found in a wide variety of protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods worldwide and many zoonotic parasites have assumed an important role. The importance of some parasitic zoonoses has increased in recent years due to the fact that they can be agents of opportunistic infections. Although a number of zoonotic parasites are often found and do cause serious illnesses in Turkey, some are more common and these diseases are more important as they cause serious public health problems, such as leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxocariasis. Information on these zoonotic diseases is provided here as these are the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in Turkey.

  5. Development of hydropower energy in Turkey: The case of Coruh river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, Adem [Guemueshane University, Civil Engineering Department, 29000 Guemueshane (Turkey); Koemuercue, Murat ihsan; Kankal, Murat [Karadeniz Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)


    The main objective in doing the present study is to investigate the sustainable development of hydropower plants in the Coruh river basin of Turkey, which is least problem river of Turkey in respect to international cooperation as compared with Turkey's other trans-boundary waters. Initial studies concerning the hydropower production potential in Coruh basin had been carried out by Turkish authorities in the late 1960s. Total installed power capacity and annual average energy generation of 37 dams and run of river (without storage) hydropower plants developed at various project stages by The Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EiE) in Coruh basin are 3132.70 MW and 10.55 TWh/yr, respectively. Today, this generation value corresponds 6.45% of Turkey's energy consumption in 2006 while it meets 6.3% of total electricity energy production of Turkey which is equal to 167.9 TWh/yr in 2006. Besides, this potential developed at various project stages in Coruh basin will provide 24.1% of Turkey's hydroelectric energy generation being equal to 43.8 TWh/yr in 2006. (author)

  6. Tissue Papers in Turkey and Some Physical and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet TUTUŞ


    Full Text Available The objective of study was to determine some properties of tissue papers and identify the position in Turkey. Napkins, toilet papers and paper towels used in this study were supplied from 5 different companies. Physical and optical properties of these papers were investigated and compared them to each other. Grammage, moisture content, crepe, bulk, density, tensile strength, thickness, water retention value and water absorption time were determined as physical properties and brightness and whiteness values were measured as optical properties. According to obtained results, the best results in physical and optical properties of napkins, toilet papers and paper towels belong to C, E and A Company, respectively.

  7. First record of the red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816 (Decapoda: Aristeidae from the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. OZCAN


    Full Text Available A female specimen of the deep-water red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus(Risso, 1816 was caught at depths of between 550 m and 670 m during 2005 by trawling off the Marmaris coast. A. antennatus is a species known to inhabit only the Levantine Sea coast of Turkey. This paper is on the first record of the species along the southern Aegean Sea coast of Turkey

  8. Dietary supplementation of mannanoligosaccharides to turkey hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research focused on the effect of a prebiotic additive, mannanoligosaccharides (Bio-Mos), in the diet of turkey hens on their growth performance and measurements of pro-oxidation and antioxidation systems in their blood. The investigation was performed on 240 six-week-old turkey hens of the heavy Big-6 breed, ...

  9. Higher Education Policies and Overeducation in Turkey (United States)

    Habibi, Nader


    In the past two decades Turkey has experienced a rapid increase in higher education student enrollment. This sharp increase in access to higher education has satisfied a strong social demand for university education but it has led to a growing surplus of university graduates who cannot find adequate jobs. As a result Turkey has entered an…

  10. Omgevingsverrijking voor vleeskalkoenen = Environmental enrichment for turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.


    A desk study has been conducted to study the possible environmental enrichments in order to reduce injurious pecking behaviour in intact turkeys. Free hanging materials are attractive to turkeys and are technically and economically feasible. Perches and elevated platforms are less feasible.

  11. New Records of Aphid Fauna in Turkey


    Kaygin, Azize Toper; Gorur, Gazi; Cota, Figen


    Three aphid species were identified as new records for Turkey aphid fauna from Bartin province. These species are Ceruraphis viburnicola (Gillette) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Dysaphis apiifolia (Theobald) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Macrosiphum mordvilkoi Miyazaki (Hemiptera: Aphididae). These records increase the recorded aphid-fauna of Turkey to 433 species.

  12. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara


    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  13. Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia Policy: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А V Suleimanov


    Full Text Available Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia modern foreign policy is analyzed. As is known, Turkey and Iran historically were the competing parties for spheres of influence in Transcaucasia, as well as Russia, the USA and the Great Britain. Regional relations between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia are discussed in context of Nagorno-Karabakh and Georgia-South Ossetia conflicts and Caspian problem.

  14. EFL Policy of Turkey: Past and Present (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan


    The language policy of Turkey regarding the evaluation phase of English language education issue was investigated following the comments on the issue from a diverse point of view. Nowadays, Turkey's language policy seems to have been much more improved since the education reform in 1997 bringing a rise in the curriculum development, course book…

  15. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.


    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  16. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim


    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  17. Establishing a Critical Zone Observatory site in Turkey (United States)

    Demir, Gokben; Akyurek, Zuhal; Binley, Andrew; Yucel, Ismail; Kentel, Elcin; Merzi, Nuri; Yilmaz, Tugrul; Yanmaz, Melih


    The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the planetary veneer that extends from the air above our treetops to the layers of rocks below, which supports human activity. This includes life-sustaining resources for energy, food, and water. The CZ also includes places where we dispose and store toxic materials, and expose to other contaminants. The fate of change in the CZ is important to the government and business planners to help respond to effects of disease, drought, and land degradation in agricultural and urban settings. Critical Zone Observatory's are outdoor laboratories that are highly instrumented and becoming integrated into a global network. Turkey has a diversified landscape, representing most terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. Turkey is unique because some regions have been subject to high-impact human influence for thousands of years. This millennial-scale anthropogenic affect on the CZ does not exist at most other CZO's. In this study the establishment of a CZO at a basin located in the south part of Turkey which the instrumentation that has been already completed is presented. The mean altitude of the basin is 1601 m and it has 526km2 area. The cherry trees along the river, agricultural areas and the natural vegetation composed of pasture and shrub are the main land cover in the basin. The brown forest and brown soil are the main soil types. The basin has a complex geology. There are two main tributaries of the stream: one of them is fed by gypsum ground waters and mine drainage and the other one is fed by shallow fresh ground water. Three meteorological stations were established within this project at 1246 m, 1580m and 1790m. At these stations besides the meteorological variables, soil water content are measured. The discharge observations are carried out at three discharge observation stations where the water stage, temperature and electrical conductivity values are measured. A CRS200B soil moisture probe is installed at 1459 m and the soil water content is

  18. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey. (United States)

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet


    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  19. Multimedia and children in Turkey. (United States)

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S


    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  20. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Cevik, U [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N [Department of Physics, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre, Altinsehir Yolu, Halkali, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail:


    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using {gamma}-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and a fission product {sup 137}Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations of gross {alpha} and {beta} radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross {alpha} and {beta} activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq l{sup -1} gross {alpha} and {beta} radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m{sup -3} and the average value was 56 Bq m{sup -3}. The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country.

  1. Water (United States)

    ... Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  2. A Macroanatomic Study on Larynx Cranialis of Turkeys in Thrace Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the differences and similarities between larynx cranialis of turkey and other species of poultry. For this purpose, 8 female and 8 male adult turkeys were used for the anatomical measurements. Furthermore, histological examinations were performed on larynx cranialis of 2 turkeys. Cartilago thyroidea and epiglottis were not observed in the larynx cranialis, in our study. Besides, larynx cranialis were found to constitute from paired cartilago arytneoidea and unpaired cartilago cricoidea and cartilago procricoidea. Crista ventralis was detected on larynx cranialis of turkeys. According to our results, it has been determined that in turkey; the width of glottis in female turkeys were larger than males. Cartilago procricoidea were observed bigger than cartilago arytenoidea and crista ventralis were found to be more prominent than in other birds.

  3. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir


    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  4. [Current malaria situation in Turkey]. (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S


    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  5. New table grapes in turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atak A.


    Full Text Available Table grape consumption is increasing day by day all around the world. New varieties are derived from breeding programs in different countries around the world. Breeding programs in particular are shaped in accordance with the demands of consumers. Especially in recent years, the demands increased for cultivars of table grapes with large berry and maturation at different times, in Turkey as well as in the world market. Also, new cultivars which are tolerant to fungal diseases, late-season and can be stored for a long time had much demand in recent years. For this purpose, new table grapes with these characteristics have been developed by Yalova Atatürk from Central Horticultural Research Institute. Especially in the last few years, the numbers of new cultivars of a total of 12 varieties have been registered. Atak 77, Pembe 77, İsmetbey, Arifbey, Samancı çekirdeksizi, and Yalova Beyazıtable grapes cultivars have been registered in the last few years among the new cultivars. Each one of them is different from the standard cultivars and has been registered with superior properties. Most of these cultivars need less pesticide application in high humidity areas and can be grown successfully. These new cultivars were tested in different ecology and determined suitable regions. These new table grape varieties started to be grown in different part of Turkey nowadays.

  6. Globalization, English Language Teaching & Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zülküf ALTAN


    Full Text Available Globalization as a concept has been used both positively and negatively by many different people and in many different situations. Depending on the point of view, all definitions on globalization state that it has the power of creating a world without boundaries where people communicate, share, and do business with the help of information, communication and transportation technologies. And the medium of all these activities is English language. Therefore, English language curriculum and teachers should be able to help learners to function as successful members in globalized digital-age World. Technological advancements open new areas to use English language as the main medium for communication both for personal and advanced academic needs and these new uses create new challenges for English language teachers to introduce, use, analyze and teach these areas to EFL (English as a Foreign Language students. Where does Turkey stand as a country in this picture? This paper focuses on the effect of globalization on ELT, 21st century skills and English language and current practice of ELT along with the recent curriculum revision of EFL in Turkey.

  7. Chemical composition of Achillea schischkinii Sosn., an endemic species from Turkey (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of an endemic species of Achillea schischkinii Sosn. (Asteraceae) collected from an eastern part of Turkey (Van). Air-dried aerial parts were subjected to water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. The essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS...



    Ulusoy, Şafak; Özden, Özkan


    Turkey is a rich country in terms of seasand inland wa­ter sources. The aquatic ecosystems in Turkey are threatened bythe agricultural activities and pesticide contamination.  In parallel to the world, the use of pes­ticidesbegan in the 1940s in Turkey. In the beginning of 1970’s some pesticides haveprohibited by reason of their accumulation to environment and food chains,toxic effects on non-target organisms. Pesticides can easily be included to thefood chain in the aquatic envi­ronment whic...

  9. Alien fish species in reservoir systems in Turkey: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Innal


    Full Text Available Turkey’s natural river systems have been anthropogenically altered in the past century. Native fish communities of river systems have comeunder increasing pressure from water engineering projects, pollution, overfishing and the movements of alien fish species. Introduction ofalien fishes is one of the main threats to the survival and genetic integrity of native fishes around the world. In Turkey, alien freshwater fish are continuing to increase in number of species, abundance, and distribution. The present paper reviews fish stocking studies in Turkey’s reservoirs.

  10. Geophysical investigation of a mineral groundwater resource in Turkey (United States)

    Boiero, Daniele; Godio, Alberto; Naldi, Mario; Yigit, Ercan


    The hydrogeological conditions in Uludag (Nilufer River catchment, Bursa, Turkey) were assessed, using time-domain electromagnetic soundings, electrical resistivity and induced polarisation tomography, to detect the most promising zones for new water-well siting, in order to increase the quantity of water for bottling. The hydrogeological model is quite complex: deep mineral and thermal water rises from a main vertical fault which separates two lithological complexes. The highly mineralised (deep) water is naturally mixed with low mineralised water at a shallow depth, 30-40 m; the mixed mineral water is found in some surface springs and shallow wells, while the highly mineralised water is found at depth in some unused deep wells located close to the main fault. All the water points (springs and wells) are located inside a “mineral water belt” on the north side of the Nilufer River. The geophysical survey confirmed the hydrogeological model and highlighted four promising zones for well siting (zones with very low electrical resistivity and high induced polarisation anomalies, corresponding to the main water-bearing faults). One of the geophysical anomalies, the furthest from the exploited sources, was verified by means of a test well; the drilling results have confirmed the water mixing model.

  11. The Extreme Results of Climate Changes in Turkey: Sinkholes (United States)

    Onursal Denli, G.; Denli, H. H.


    During the past few years a strange phenomenon has been increasingly observed all over the world. Residents of various places around the world have been taken aback to find sinkholes suddenly come up in their locality - sometimes involving fatalities. A sinkhole is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. The ground caves in all of a sudden, creating large holes in the ground and sometimes devouring whole buildings. Geologists have offered various theories for the natural causes of sinkholes such as the type of soil / rock giving way to rainwater and underground water. Other natural causes submitted by experts include heavy rainfall, global warming, underground gas explosions, etc. They can also occur from the over-pumping and extraction of groundwater and subsurface fluids. In Turkey, especially mid and south-east Anatolian regions have very arid soils. There is not sufficient rain and irrigation in these regions. Despite of using 75% of the fresh water for agriculture, old methods of irrigation causes wastefulness of water. Planless and randomly used water causes difficulties in agriculture. These regions are known as granary in the country. Because of drought, farmers use underground water with draw well unconsciously. At the result of underground water movement and withdrawal of water to surface, depression and very huge holes are occurred in the ground with tremendous noise. During the last two years dozens of sinkholes occurred in these regions in Turkey. Most of them are in the rural area, the others are also in center of the cities. Various sizes of holes scare the people living in these regions. In this study, sinkholes, which are occurred in different dimensions in central Anatolia region in the last years, are observed and the causes of these formations are examined. According to the reasons, suggestions to avoid these formations will be given respectively.

  12. Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw-Swiatek Dorota


    Full Text Available Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. In this study effects of cypress knees as vegetation resistance factor on Turkey Creek watershed discharge calculation were analyzed. The Turkey Creek watershed is a 3rd order stream system draining an approximate area of 5,240 ha. It is located at 33°08' N latitude and 79°47' W longitude, approximately 60 km north-west of City of Charleston in South Carolina (USA. Turkey Creek (WS 78 is typical of other watersheds in the south Atlantic coastal plain. In the case of Turkey Creek watershed, one of the main channels and riparian floodplain vegetation contains cypress trees. Cypress trees live in moist or swampy regions along the Atlantic coastal plain. The cypress trees are characterized by the unique root system called knees that appear just above the water line, up to 1.2 m above water surface. This study is conducted to examine the effects of roughness of cypress knee as related to its shape (diameter and height on discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. Hydraulic characteristics of the cypress knees were determined by field inventory in selected cross-section along the main stream channel. The Pasche method was used to calculate the total Darcy–Weisbach friction factor in discharge capacity calculation of the study watershed. The results of this study show that the effect of vegetation shape in the Pasche approach is significant. If the variability of vegetation stem diameter is taken into consideration in the calculations, an increase by 10–32% in the values of friction coefficients occurs.

  13. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül


    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda

  14. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin


    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  15. Femicide in Turkey between 2000 and 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadik Toprak; Gokhan Ersoy


    .... The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of femicide cases in Turkey and to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, and criminological characteristics of femicide...

  16. Turkey and Israel Back Together Again

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan Gorvett


      SOME SIX YEARS after Israeli commandos stormed aboard the Turkish vessel Mavi Marmara, shooting dead nine of its peace-activist crew and sending already frayed relations between Turkey and Israel...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aslan


    Full Text Available This aim of this paper is to use asymmetric causality tests to examine the coal consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP relationship in Turkey based on data from 1980 to 2006. To investigate this relationship, a multivariate system is employed by including fixed capital formation and labor force variables into the model. The empirical results obtained from asymmetric causality tests show no causality for coal consumption and GDP relationship in Turkey. The results indicate that coal consumption does not affect growth; hence, energy conservation policies may be pursued without adversely affecting growth in Turkey. Thus, neutrality hypothesis is confirmed for Turkey. This means that a decrease in coal consumption does not affect economic growth and vice versa. In this case, policymakers should explore the feasibility of either decreasing the coal consumption or increasing the efficiency of coal consumption.

  18. Thermal-Electricity Power Plants in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustafa Balat; Havva Balat; Neslihan Acici


    .... In 2003, its share is about 74.78% (104,898 GWh/year) of total production (140,283 GWh) of the country. Turkey is mainly focused on increased natural gas use for Thermal Electric Power Plant production...

  19. The determination of the most applicable PWV model for Turkey (United States)

    Deniz, Ilke; Gurbuz, Gokhan; Mekik, Cetin


    Water vapor is a key component for modelling atmosphere and climate studies. Moreover, long-term water vapor changes can be an independent source for detecting climate changes. Since Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) use microwaves passing through the atmosphere, atmospheric effects are modeled with high accuracy. Tropospheric effects on GNSS signals are estimated with total zenith delay parameter (ZTD) which is the sum of hydrostatic (ZHD) and wet zenith delay (ZWD). The first component can be obtained from meteorological observations with high accuracy; the second component, however, can be computed by subtracting ZHD from ZTD (ZWD=ZTD-ZHD). Afterwards, the weighted mean temperature (Tm) or the conversion factor (Q) is used for the conversion between the precipitable water vapor (PWV) and ZWD. The parameters Tm and Q are derived from the analysis of radiosonde stations' profile observations. Numerous Q and Tm models have been developed for each radiosonde station, radiosonde station group, countries and global fields such as Bevis Tm model and Emardson and Derks' Q models. So, PWV models (Tm and Q models) applied for Turkey have been developed using a year of radiosonde data (2011) from 8 radiosonde stations. In this study the models developed are tested by comparing PWVGNSS computed applying Tm and Q models to the ZTD estimates derived by Bernese and GAMIT/GLOBK software at GNSS stations established at Istanbul and Ankara with those from the collocated radiosonde stations (PWVRS) from October 2013 to December 2014 with the data obtained from a project (no 112Y350) supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). The comparison results show that PWVGNSS and PWVRS are in high correlation (86 % for Ankara and 90% for Istanbul). Thus, the most applicable model for Turkey and the accuracy of GNSS meteorology are investigated. In addition, Tm model was applied to the ZTD estimates of 20 TUSAGA-Active (CORS-TR) stations in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA


    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  1. Bacterial and Viral Fish Diseases in Turkey


    Öztürk, Rafet Çagrı; Altınok, İlhan


    This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the major bacterial and viral pathogens of fish found in Turkey. It also considers diseases prevention and treatment. In this study, peer reviewed scientific articles, theses and dissertations, symposium proceedings, government records as well as recent books, which published between 1976 and 2013 were used as a source to compile dispersed literature. Bacterial and viral disease problems were investigated during this period in Turkey. Total ...

  2. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaz, A., E-mail: [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kucukomeroglu, B. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N. [Batman University, Department of Physics, 72060 Batman (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)


    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and {sup 137}Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h{sup -1} and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}. In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: {yields} {yields}The study highlights activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil. {yields} The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. {yields} The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. {yields} Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. {yields} The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  3. Environmental pollution with soil-transmitted helminths in Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulukanligil Mustafa


    Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infection are endemic in developing countries. A study was carried out of sewage farms, streams and vegetables to determine the sources and routes of STH infection in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Stool samples from farmhouse inhabitants as well as soil and vegetable samples from the gardens were collected and examined. In addition, water samples from streams and vegetable samples from the city market were collected and examined. One hundred and eighty-seven (59.5% of a total of 314 samples, including 88.4% of the stool samples, 60.8% of the water samples, 84.4% of the soil samples and 14% of the vegetable samples, were found to be positive for STH eggs. These results indicate that the water, soil and vegetables are heavily contaminated, and suggest a vicious circle between humans and the environment. Improving environmental sanitation is imperative for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sanliurfa.

  4. National Soil Information System in Turkey (United States)

    Emrah Erdogan, Hakki; Sahin, Mehmet; Sahin, Yuksel


    Land consolidation (LC) represents complexity if management, legal, economic and technical procedures realized in order to adjust the land structure according to actual human preferences and needs. It includes changes in ownership rights to land and other real estate property, exchange of parcels among owners, changes in parcel borders, parcel size and shape, joining and dividing of parcels, changes in land use, construction works as roads, bridges, water changes etc.. Since the subject of LC is agricultural lands, the quality of consolidation depends on the quality of soil data. General Directorate of Agrarian Reform (GDAR) is the responsible institution on land consolidation whole of Turkey. Under GDAR, National Soil Information System (NSIS) has been build up with base soil data in relevant scale (1:5000). NSIS contain detailed information on soil chemical and physical properties, current land use, parent material, land capability class, Storie Index Values. SI were used on land consolidation, land use planning and farm development services. LCC was used for land distribution, rental land; define of village settlement, consolidation, expropriation, reconstruction, reclamation, non-agricultural usage. LCC were also specified to subclasses in four different limited factors as i) flow and erosion risk ii) requirement of drainage and soil moisture iii) Limits of soil tillage and root (shallow soils, low water retention capacity, stony, salty .etc) iv) climatic limits. In this study, digital soil survey and mapping project located in Yumurtalik, Adana is presented as an example of NSIS data structure. The project cover an area of 45709 ha that include crop lands as an area of 28528 ha and other land use (urban, roads..etc) as an area of 17181 ha. Soil profiles were described in 45 different points and totally 1279 soil samples were collected in field study and the check bore hole were made in 3170 points.

  5. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey (United States)

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek


    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  6. Implementation of the eu nitrates directive in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The EU Nitrates Directive is of a prime importance in respect of sustaining the natural resources for the reduction and prevention of nitrate pollution resulting from agricultural activities, and it constitutes an integral part of the EU Water Framework Directive. Accepted by the European Council in 1991, the directive entered into force being published in Official Gazette in 2004 in Turkey as “Regulation on the Protection of Waters against Pollution Caused by Nitrates from Agricultural Sources.” As of this date, works on harmonization have been intensely continued. The works brought together multiple organizations that are notable in terms of waterworks and ensured informatory exchange through the contributions of the EU member states. Approaching to the finalization of its harmonization process, Turkey will proclaim its country either a “border to border nitrate-sensitive zone” or “nitrate vulnerable zone” in order to issue the secondary legislations required by the Nitrates Directive in accordance with these approaches. This paper covers the current works conducted with regard to the implementation of the Nitrates Directive and it has been prepared aiming at inviting attentions to the current and possible complications in the implementation process.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of poultry bone and meat trimmings hydrolyzates in low-sodium turkey food. (United States)

    Zanello, Pier Paolo; Sforza, Stefano; Dossena, Arnaldo; Lambertini, Francesca; Bottesini, Chiara; Nikolaev, Ilya V; Koroleva, Olga; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano


    This research was aimed at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity exerted by poultry protein hydrolyzates derived from industrial leftovers added to minced turkey meat, intended for the production of burgers for human consumption. Hydrolyzates were obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis from poultry bone and meat trimmings, as by-products from the poultry industry. Colony forming unit assays, under both laboratory and industrial conditions, were performed to assess microbial growth. Poultry protein hydrolyzates inhibited microbial growth occurring in semi-finished turkey meat during the normal retention period because of their water holding capacity resulting in a decreased water activity. Overall, the findings demonstrated that poultry protein hydrolyzates could decrease mesophilic, psychrophilic, and thermophilic bacterial growth for the entire product shelf-life. Bacterial growth inhibition obtained in minced turkey meat by addition of poultry protein hydrolyzates (1.5%), hygroscopic amino acids mixture (1.5%) or sodium chloride (1%) was similar. It is suggested that the use of hydrolyzates could allow the reduction of salt content in poultry meat based products leading to the production of low-sodium turkey food still maintaining acceptable sensory characteristics.

  8. Quince Market in the World and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Sıtkı Şirikçi


    Full Text Available In this study, the quince market was examined in the world and Turkey. The primary data in the study were obtained by questionnaire method with 28 middleman in different marketing levels in Sakarya, Antalya, Bursa, Bilecik and Denizli where quince production is concentrated. Secondary data were obtained from the FAO and TURKSTAT. The world quince production, which is 324465 tons compared to 1981-1985 which is the beginning of the period, increased by 94.3% to 630325 tons in 2013. Major countries in world quince production are Turkey, China, Uzbekistan, Morocco and Iran. Quince production in Turkey increased by 1.60 times compared to the average of 1981-1985. In this increase in the quince production in Turkey, the increase in the per-tree yield has been considerably effective (an increase of 40%. 5.3% of quince fruit produced in the world is exported. World quince exports amount increased 8.32 times and the value increased 38.42 times. The highest share in quince export values is in the Netherlands (33.6%. The Netherlands is followed by Turkey, Austria and Iran respectively. The share of Turkey in the world export value is 31.1%. Russia ranks first in the world quince import with 23.3% share. Austria and Germany are followed by Russia.9.4% of the quince production in Turkey is exported. The major quince producers are Sakarya, Bursa, Antalya, Bilecik and Denizli. The 15 of the interviewed intermediaries, reported that the most important problem that there is no quince at the desired time, quantity, quality and price (54.

  9. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan


    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  10. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on...

  11. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief (United States)


    78 See, e.g., Nick Danforth, “Forget Sykes - Picot . It’s the Treaty of Sèvres That Explains the Modern...seeker will be sent back to Turkey under the EU-Turkey agreement if, in their individual case, Turkey cannot be considered a safe third country or safe first country of asylum.” Ibid.

  12. Turkey - Improving Conditions for SME Growth Finance and Innovation


    World Bank


    Facilitating the growth of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is central to creating jobs for an underutilized and growing labor force in Turkey as SMEs account for 79 percent of jobs in Turkey. Creating jobs for Turkey's unemployed and for the rapidly growing labor force, though partly a social challenge, is an important economic opportunity. Turkish SME growth performance and pro...

  13. Analyses of Small-Scale Turkey Production in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse small scale turkey production in Imo State of Nigeria. Owerri agricultural zone of Imo State harbours most of the urban cities with large population thus providing greatest market for turkey in the area. Fifty farmers in turkey production constituted sample size for this study. The data ...

  14. Supplementary heat requirements when brooding tom turkey poults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    naturally ventilated house with a capacity of 6500 tom turkey poults. In the calculation of heat and humidity balance, temperature values, sensible heat and moisture production of tom turkey poults were taken from the. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) standards for corresponding turkey poult weights, and.

  15. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens (United States)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  16. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin


    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  17. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)


    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Migration Crisis and New Opportunities for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Miheev


    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the relationship of the European Union and Turkey. Against the backdrop of the immigration crisis, that has gripped almost all countries in Europe, the EU states were forced to appeal to the Turkish Government for assistance. Europe requested to withhold part of the f refugees on the territory of Turkey. The EU promised financial support. The Government of RecepTayyip Erdogan linked problems with the issue of refugees entering the country in the EU. The author analyzes the possibility of positive promotion of the negotiation process on Turkey's EU membership. Focuses on the settlement of the Cyprus problem, as one of the three major political obstacles to Turkey in Europe. We are seeing a situation in which EU political circles are willing to exert pressure on the Cyprus conflict and to push for the signing of a formal treaty on the settlement of problem. Some progress in the negotiation process between the communities of Cyprus EU starts to participate in the negotiations on Cyprus, together with the United Nations. Creates good conditions for the settlement of the conflict. Such a way of resolving the long-standing territorial-community conflict creates much more new problems on the island. Obstacles to the integration of Turkey into the EU will become even more.

  19. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey! (United States)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan


    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  20. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. Sharafeldin


    Full Text Available Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O’Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon’s tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P<0.05 tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys.

  1. Experimentally induced lameness in turkeys inoculated with a newly emergent turkey reovirus. (United States)

    Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Mor, Sunil K; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Verma, Harsha; Noll, Sally L; Goyal, Sagar M; Porter, Robert E


    Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs) have been isolated from cases of lameness in male turkeys over 10 weeks of age. In a previous study, experimental inoculation of TARV in one-week-old turkey poults produced lymphocytic tenosynovitis at four weeks post inoculation but without causing clinical lameness. This study was undertaken to determine if TARV infection at an early age can lead to clinical lameness in birds as they age. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with a TARV (strain TARV-O'Neil) and monitored for the development of gait defects until 16 weeks of age. At 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, a subset of birds was euthanized followed by the collection of gastrocnemius tendon, digital flexor tendon, and intestines for virus detection by rRT-PCR and for histologic inflammation scoring. Clinical lameness was first displayed in TARV-infected turkeys at 8 weeks of age and ruptured gastrocnemius tendons with progressive lameness were also seen at 12-16 weeks of age. The virus was detected in gastrocnemius tendon of 4- 8- and 12-week-old turkeys but not in 16-week-old turkeys. Histologic inflammation scores of tendons at each of the four time points were significantly higher in the virus-inoculated group than in the control group (p < 0.01). Lesions began as lymphocytic tenosynovitis with mild synoviocyte hyperplasia at four weeks of age and progressed to fibrosis as the birds aged. These results demonstrate the potential of TARV to infect young turkeys and to produce subclinical tenosynovitis that becomes clinically demonstrable as the turkeys age.

  2. Water (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  3. Institutional Services for Dementia Care in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok


    Full Text Available The total older population is growing due to the increase in expected average life expectancy at birth all over the world. The risk factors for dementia reported by the studies in Turkey include low level of education, older age, being female, living in a rural area, having a physical disorder, multiple drug use, accompaniment of another chronic disease (especially diabetes, and having a history of smoking and alcohol use. Seeking care from a healthcare institution because of dementia symptoms is usually delayed in Turkey. In this review, information on the status of dementia in Turkey, services provided for the illness and nursing care will be provided. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 464-473

  4. Astronomical site selection for Turkey using GIS techniques (United States)

    Aksaker, N.; Yerli, S. K.; Erdoğan, M. A.; Erdi, E.; Kaba, K.; Ak, T.; Aslan, Z.; Bakış, V.; Demircan, O.; Evren, S.; Keskin, V.; Küçük, İ.; Özdemir, T.; Özışık, T.; Selam, S. O.


    A site selection of potential observatory locations in Turkey have been carried out by using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery which in turn reduced cost and time and increased the accuracy of the final outcome. The layers of cloud cover, digital elevation model, artificial lights, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical thickness and wind speed were studied in the GIS system. In conclusion of MCDA, the most suitable regions were found to be located in a strip crossing from southwest to northeast including also a diverted region in southeast of Turkey. These regions are thus our prime candidate locations for future on-site testing. In addition to this major outcome, this study has also been applied to locations of major observatories sites. Since no goal is set for the best, the results of this study is limited with a list of positions. Therefore, the list has to be further confirmed with on-site tests. A national funding has been awarded to produce a prototype of an on-site test unit (to measure both astronomical and meteorological parameters) which might be used in this list of locations.

  5. Caecal coccidiosis in commercial male turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sironi


    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis with high mortality is reported in 30-day-old commercial turkeys. Grossly, a severe typhlitis with a large fibrino-necrotic core was present. Large numbers of oocysts were observed in caecal smears. The location and the severity of the lesions and the oocyst morphology were strongly suggestive of Eimeria adenoeides infection. This species has already been reported in turkey flocks in Italy, but it is rarely responsible for clinical coccidiosis and severe lesions with high mortality. Other caecal parasitic infections are considered in differential diagnosis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  7. Caecal coccidiosis in commercial male turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Rampin


    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis with high mortality is reported in 30-day-old commercial turkeys. Grossly, a severe typhlitis with a large fibrino-necrotic core was present. Large numbers of oocysts were observed in caecal smears. The location and the severity of the lesions and the oocyst morphology were strongly suggestive of Eimeria adenoeides infection. This species has already been reported in turkey flocks in Italy, but it is rarely responsible for clinical coccidiosis and severe lesions with high mortality. Other caecal parasitic infections are considered in differential diagnosis.

  8. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey. (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut


    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Reoccurrence of histomonosis in turkey breeder farm]. (United States)

    Aka, Johannes; Hauck, Rüdiger; Blankenstein, Petra; Balczulat, Stefanie; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed


    Histomonosis is a severe disease caused by the protozoan parasite Histomonas (H.) meleagridis, which can lead to high losses in turkeys. The present report describes the reoccurrence of histomonosis in a turkey breeder farm. The first outbreak occurred in 2005 in 17 weeks old hens, the second in 2009 in 8 weeks old hens. The disease remained restricted in one house and one compartment, respectively. Mortality rose to 26 and 65% respectively within few days in spite of therapy with various compounds. Both flocks had to be euthanized. In both cases H. meleagridis belonging to genotype A was detected. The source of infection remained unclear in both cases.

  10. Elective Tracheotomy Practices in Turkey. (United States)

    Gucyetmez, Bulent; Atalan, Hakan Korkut; Cakar, Nahit


    Elective tracheotomy (ET) procedures in intensive care units (ICU) might be different in accordance with countries and ICUs' features. The aim of the present study was to search the epidemiology of ET procedures in Turkey. A questionnaire which consists of 43 questions was sent by e-mail to 238 ICUs which were officially recognized by The Turkish Ministry of Health. All answers were obtained between August 1, 2015 and August 31, 2015. Two hundred and three ICUs (85.3%) participated in this study. 177 (87.2%) and 169 (83.4%) of ICU's were level III and mixed ICUs respectively. Anesthesiologists were the director of 189 (93.0%) ICUs. Estimated total count of admitted, mechanically ventilated and tracheotomized patients in 2014 were 126282, 80569 (63.8%) and 8989 (7.1%) respectively. Most common indication for ET was prolonged mechanical ventilation (76.9%). The first choice for ET procedure was percutaneous in 162 (79.8%) ICUs. Griggs guide wire dilatational forceps (GWDF) technique was used as the first choice for elective percutaneous tracheotomy (EPT) by 143 (70.4%) ICUs. Most common early EPT complication was bleeding (68.0%) and late EPT complication was stenosis (35.0%). While facilitation of weaning was most important advantage (26.1%), bleeding and tracheal complications were most important disadvantages for EPT (29.1%). Most common indications for ET are prolonged MV and coma in Turkish ICUs. EPT is the preferred procedure for ET and GWDF is the most common technique. Bronchoscopy and USG are rarely used as a guide.

  11. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Kallio, H.


    Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial pathogen, especially in poultry, where it can lead to both subclinical and clinical disease. The aim of this study was to present data on pathological findings at outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) in turkey production in Finland during the period...... from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial...... turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48...

  12. Wet litter as a cause of plantar pododermatitis, leading to foot ulceration and lameness in fattening turkeys. (United States)

    Martland, M F


    Spraying water to produce wet litter increased the severity and incidence of plantar pododermatitis in two commercial strains of fattening turkeys. A clinical syndrome resembling "shaky leg" was also produced. In one experiment breast blisters, scabby hocks and a depression of final body weight were seen.

  13. Water (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.


    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  14. Are soil and waterborne parasitic infections health risk for worker populations in southeast Turkey?


    Sibel Ak; Fadime Eroğlu; Ali İhsan Nergiz; Furkan Hıyamlı


    Objective: The soil and waterborne parasitic infections rate is high degree in developed and developing countries. Migratory workers have greater exposure to these parasitic infections and a lot of morbidity due to these infections in workers. For this reason, we aimed to investigate the presence of soil and waterborne parasites in the Gaziantep Organized Industrial Zone of southeast Turkey. Methods: A total of 25 environmental samples (18 soil samples and 7 water samples) were...

  15. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities and Chemical Composition of Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Collected from Kastamonu Province of Turkey


    Onbaşılı, Dilşad; Çelik, Gökçen; Katırcıoğlu, Hikmet; Narin, İbrahim


    SUMMARY Lactarius deliciosus (L.) is a well known mushroom which is widely used as a food in Kastamonu province of Turkey. In this sudy, the antimicrobial properties of acetone, ethanol, DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) and water extracts from  L. deliciosus (L.) were evaluated the effect against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi. The highest inhibitory activity was determined against P. aeruginosa (30±0.0 mm, zone diameter) with acetone and ethanol extracts. On the other hand, the w...

  16. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.


    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  17. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian


    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  18. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda


    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  19. Future of Social Studies Education in Turkey (United States)

    Acikalin, Mehmet


    Social studies education [Sosyal Bilgiler] in Turkey has been defined as an integrated field of study after the curriculum reform over the last decade. This interdisciplinary notion of social studies education is established in the curriculum as a result of modeling NCSS (National Council for the Social Studies) standards. This new social studies…

  20. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz


    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  1. Multigrade Schooling in Turkey: An Overview (United States)

    Aksoy, Naciye


    This paper reviews multigrade schooling in Turkey, with an emphasis on its status in the education system, as well as the curriculum practices, teacher training and problems associated with it. It is viewed by the State as an "inevitable" practice that arises through limited number of pupils and classrooms in small and scattered…

  2. Teacher Perspective on Internet Censorship in Turkey (United States)

    Aktay, Sayim


    There has been a rapid increase both in the number of users and the number of websites providing data since the invention of Internet; it has become the richest and most used source of information. However, several countries, including Turkey, resort to censorship owing to the fact that anybody can publish on the Internet with sometimes…

  3. Global attention to Turkey due to desertification. (United States)

    Camci Cetin, S; Karaca, A; Haktanir, K; Yildiz, H


    Desertification has recognized as an environmental problem by many international organizations such as UN, NATO and FAO. Desertification in Turkey is generally caused by incorrect land use, excessive grazing, forest fires, urbanization, industry, genetic erosion, soil erosion, salinization, and uncontrolled wild type plants picking. Due to anthropogenic destruction of forest, steppe flora gradually became dominant in Anatolia. In terms of biodiversity, Turkey has a significant importance in Europe and Middle East. Nine thousands plant species naturally grown in Turkey, one third of them are endemic. Also, endemic species of vertebrates, thrive in the lakes and marshy areas. The studies of modelling simulation of vegetation on the effects of Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical period by using vegetation history showed that, in 2000 years BP, Mediterranean countries were more humid than today. Turkey is a special place on the global concern in terms of desertification because of biodiversity, agricultural potential, high population, social and economical structure, topographical factors and strategic regional location. Communication among scientists, decision makers and international non-profit organizations must be improved.

  4. Anthropometric and performance characteristics of Turkey National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to determine the anthropometric, somatotype and performance characteristics of the Turkish National U-14 Female Volleyball Team that participated in the national team selection session. Fifty- eight (58) female volleyball players from various towns in Turkey camped to compete in ...

  5. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)


    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing

  6. living in Kapulukaya Dam Lake (Kirikkale, Turkey)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 23, 2010 ... This study involves the investigation of the breeding properties of Esox lucius (L., 1758) living in. Kapulukaya Dam Lake in Turkey. It was observed that the fish reaches sexual maturity at the age of 3, and the breeding period starts in February and ends in March. The highest and lowest gonadosomatic.

  7. Regional Diffusion of Divorce in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.; de Valk, H.A.G.


    While demographic change has been well documented for many Western countries, much less is known about demographic transitions in other countries, including Turkey. Demographic change in European societies can be characterized by, amongst others, increased prevalence of divorce. Although it is often


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    statements of various senior politicians, including the current President and former Prime Minister ..... rhetorical and policy shift. By attaching great .... Presidents of. Somalia and Somaliland met in Ankara (27 May 2016). 37 A. Özerdem, “How Turkey is emerging as a development partner in Africa”. (2014). The Guardian ...

  9. Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion in Turkey (United States)

    Rakap, Salih; Kaczmarek, Louise


    This study investigated the opinions of general education teachers working in public elementary schools in Turkey regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities into their classrooms and their willingness also to include students with more severe learning disabilities. One hundred and ninety-four general education teachers completed the…

  10. Turkey Psoriasis Treatment Guide-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Akyol


    used for biologic therapy for treatment of psoriasis. In this guideline severity of psoriasis has been determined, treatment phases and treatment goals have been identified and consensus recommendations have been proposed about appropiate treatment modalities in the light of recent guidelines, meta-analytic studies and experiences in Turkey. This guideline, published in 2012, have been updated in 2016 by adding new information.

  11. Water (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  12. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat. (United States)

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G


    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  13. Geogenic Groundwater Contamination: A Case Study Of Canakkale - Western Turkey (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Çalık, Ayten


    Study area is located NW of Turkey. Total area of the drainage basin is 465 square kilometers and mostly covered by volcanic rocks. Majority of these rocks have highly altered and lost their primary properties because of alteration processes. Especially argillic alteration is common. Tectonic movements and cooling fractures were created suitable circulation environment of groundwater in the rocks (secondary porosity). Alteration affects the composition of groundwater and some rock elements pass into groundwater during the movement of water in the cavities of rocks. High concentration of natural contaminants related to water-rock interaction in spring water has been studied in this research. Field measurements such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and salinity carried out in 500 water points (spring, drilling, well and stream). 150 water samples taken from the water points and 50 rock samples taken from the source of springs has been investigated in point of major anion-cations, heavy metals and trace elements. Some components in the water such as pH (3.5-9.1), specific electrical conductivity (84-6400 microS/cm), aluminum (27-44902 ppb), iron (10-8048 ppb), manganese (0.13-8740 ppb), nickel (0.2-627 ppb), lead (0.1-42.5 ppb) and sulphate (10 to 1940 ppm) extremely high or low in the springs sourced from especially highly altered Miocene aged volcanic rocks. Some measured parameters highly above according to European Communities Drinking Water Regulations (2007) and TS266 (2015-Intended for Human Consumption Water Regulations of Turkey) drinking water standards. The most common element which is found in the groundwater is aluminum that is higher than to the drinking water standards (200 microg/L). The highest levels of the Al values measured in acidic waters with very low pH (3.4) emerging from altered volcanic rocks because of acid mine drainage in Obakoy district, north of the study area. The abundance of this element in

  14. Effect of a plant preparation Citrosept on selected immunity indices in blood of slaughter turkey hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Rusinek-Prystupa


    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of per os administration of 3 various dosages of a Citrosept preparation (a grapefruit extractto growing turkey hens on changes in their selected haematological and immunological blood indices. An attempt was also undertaken to select the most efficient dose of the preparation with respect to the mentioned indices in turkey hens. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. The experiment was conducted on 180 turkey hens allocated at random to 4 groups, 45 birds in each group. Samples of their full blood were analyzed for haematological indices, such as red blood cell count (RBS, haemoglobin content (Hb, haematocrit value (Ht, and white blood cell count (WBC. Samples of blood plasma were assayed to determine the activity of lysozyme (chamber-diffusive method and heterophils capability to reduce nitro blue tetrazolium (stimulated and spontaneous NBT test. Phagocytic activity of leucocytes against Staphylococcus aureus 209P strain was assessed and expressed as the percentage of phagocytic cells (% PC and phagocytic index (PI. [b]Results[/b]. The administration of the grapefruit extract to turkey hens with drinking water caused a significant increase in haemoglobin content in blood, as well as an increase in non-specific humoral immunity marker (activity of lysozyme and non-specific cellular immunity marker (percentage of phagocytic cells; P ≤ 0.05. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The results obtained enabled the positive evaluation of the advisability of applying the Citrosept preparation in the feeding of turkey hens at the age of 6–9 weeks. Among the doses examined, the most efficient with respect to the stimulation of the non-specific humoral and cellular immunity was the dose of 0.021 ml/kg of body weight.

  15. Prevention of hemoglobinopathies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çürük


    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders in Turkey. The incidence of beta thalassemia and sickle cell trait (HbAS is 2.0% and 0.3% respectively. In addition to HbS, 51 abnormal hemoglobins and 42 different beta thalassemia mutations have been detected by DNA analysis. In Turkey, beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia cause major health problems. For thirty years, screening programs for carriers, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have sought to prevent hemoglobinopathies. In 1983, the first prenatal diagnosis center was established for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia at Hacettepe University, Ankara. After many populationscreening studies, a law was passed in 1993 by the Turkish Parliament for the eradication of hemoglobinopathies. Forty-one premarital screening centers were set up by the Ministry of Health in the 33 provinces where most of the transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients live. The mothers at risk for hemoglobinopathies were given genetic counseling and directed to prenatal diagnosis centers. Since 1990, four prenatal diagnosis centers have been established at university hospitals in Adana, Antalya, Istanbul and Izmir. A total of 5255 prenatal diagnoses have been made for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia in 5 centers; 1338 fetuses have been diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygotes for hemoglobinopathies. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on families who had decided to terminate the pregnancy if it were to be found that the fetus was affected. 血红蛋白病是土耳其最为常见的遗传性疾病。乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性状(HbAS)的发病率分别为2.0%和0.3%。除HbS外,已通过NDA分析检测出51种异常血红蛋白和42种乙型地中海贫血突变基因。在土耳其,乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性贫血会导致严重的健康问题。30年来,一直在为病原携带者提供筛选项目,以及遗传咨询和产前诊断服务,

  16. Living with an Alzheimer patient in Turkey. (United States)

    Taşc, Sultan; Tekinsoy Kartn, Pnar; Ceyhan, Ozlem; Sungur, Gönül; Göriş, Songül


    The research was performed to determine the problems that caregivers experience with patients with Alzheimer disease. The research was carried out qualitatively with those who were responsible for the care of eight Alzheimer patients who were being treated at the Neurology Polyclinics of Gevher Nesibe Hospital at Erciyes University in Kayseri, Turkey. Research data were collected through questionnaires designed to understand the characteristics of the individuals who provided care and focus group interviews. A written consent from the institution and an oral as well as written consent of the individuals were obtained. Focus groups were interviewed in the same setting at different times with two different groups, including four people who agreed to participate in the research. Each interview was conducted by three personnel: a moderator, a reporter, and an observer. Interviews were structured under four main titles: "The changes seen in the individual with Alzheimer disease"; "Physical, social, psychological, and socioeconomical problems that caregivers experienced"; "Precautions taken against the problems"; and "Patients' expectations of the care". The interviews lasted for approximately 2 hours. A voice recorder and a written registration form were also used to collect information. Six women and two men constituted the research group. The caregivers stated that the patients had such difficulties as forgetfulness, nervousness, jealousy, childish behavior, deterioration in speech, fear of water, hallucinations, and difficulty in carrying out daily life activities. Caregivers emphasized the fact that they perceived the changes in the patients as deliberate behaviors and thus became annoyed and quarreled with them before diagnosis; however, after diagnosis, they felt remorse and experienced guilt because of their ill-treatment of them. In addition, the caregivers hid the patients and their disease from social surroundings. Caregivers mentioned that they had felt as

  17. A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Sunflower Market in Turkey


    B. Miran; G. Unakitan


    Sunflower oil is the most preferred vegetable oil in Turkey. 35% of total consumption of vegetable oil issunflower oil. Sunflower seed import is approximately 500-650 thousand tons while sunflower seedproduction is 800-850 thousand tons in the last years. The main objective of this study is to determine thereasons of deficiency of vegetable oil in Turkey and to suggest some solutions. For this objective, theprospective situation and the market structure of sunflower seed in Turkey has estimat...

  18. Groundwater contamination and its effect on health in Turkey


    Baba, Alper; Tayfur, Gökmen


    The sources of groundwater pollution in Turkey are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are first described. Then, the effects of groundwater quality on health in Turkey are evaluated. In general, sources of groundwater contamination fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution in Turkey include geological formations, seawater intrusion, and geothermal fluid(s). The major sources of anthropogenic ground...



    KONONOVA, Alexandra; KORNİLOV, Alexander


    AbstractThe article deals with peculiarities of contemporary United Kingdom-Turkey relations. The authors consider strategic (conceptual) dimension of the bilateral relations, do research on the most important joint projects of the two states and pay a special attention to the EU accession of Turkey process influence on the relations between Britain under Prime Minister David Cameron and the Republic of Turkey under Prime Minister Recep Erdogan.Keywords: Strategic partnership, bilateral relat...



    YÜKSEL, Sinem


    This article aims at analyzing “securitization of migration” in Turkey-European Union (EU) relations. The Copenhagen School’s theory of securitization, multisectoral security approach and speech act are given special emphasis in this regard. The major argument of this article is that the EU has securitized migration from Turkey mainly for political reasons; thus, securitization of migration in Turkey-EU relations is a political choice. Firstly, it is aimed to set theoretical foundation of the...

  1. Implementation of National Satellite Based Data Archive (NASABADA) in Turkey (United States)

    Gökdemir, Orhan; Beşer, Özgür; Sürer, Serdar


    NASABADA is a unique platform aiming to develop main geographical information system and remote sensing layers that are often used in areas such as: agriculture, forest, climate, hydrology, transportation, meteorology, and energy. Its establishment has started at the second half of the year 2009 in Turkey by Beray Engineering Company, and focused on especially Turkey domain as an individual study area. In general, examples of the satellite-based data-oriented production are usually on global scale and and focuses on a specific satellite. However, the products in NASABADA are consistent with Turkey's geographical conditions, and they are supported by ground information and a time series evaluation as well. Moreover, while developing those algorithms priority is using the national resources and providing a know-how for national information infrastructure. Using different features of satellite data and blending them with ground data to develop and provide the results to the end users of these products is one of the main goals of NASABADA Project. In the first stage of NASABADA, development of 7 products is planned, but the number of products is aimed to be around 20 in the future. The explanation of the pioneering 7 products which their preliminary versions would be published in the near future are as follows: albedo, snow cover, snow water equivalent, cloud, surface temperature, vegetation indices, and daily sun radiation maps. Unique architectural design, algorithms including fuzzy logic and ANN methods have been used for image processing and automatic analysis of large amounts of data on a high-tec file and web servers hardware infrastructure. The final aim of NASABADA is developing a data infrastructure for optimal access to those huge amounts of observational data by end users with tools available to make online processing of data and only gathering required images other than raw data. We discuss the development of the NASABADA data infrastructure, its current

  2. Centre‐Periphery Conflict and Ideological Distance in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Röth, Leonce; Kaiser, André; Varol, Çağan; Sadioğlu, Uğur


    ... largely neglected by scholars of territorial politics. Turkey is such a ‘negative case’. We argue that ideological distance prevents national parties from accommodating peripheral authority claims...

  3. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey. (United States)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice


    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  4. Internet censorship in Turkey: University students' opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ozkan, Arda Arikan


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study university students’ opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio‐political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey,the opinions of university students (n=138 are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire aimed to collect dataon some chosen aspects of censorship which are internet access regulation by legal authorities, online pornographiccontent, websites distributing illegal and crime related information and the political and religious aspects of the internetcensorship. The findings about these four basic aspects toward the online censorship revealed that despite the highproportion of approval, participants have a confused and inconsistent attitude towards the issue especially within theapplication and the idea of censorship. In a broader aspect, the findings can be interpreted as a sign of university students’insufficient knowledge and understanding towards the current situation and the possible future of online censorship inTurkey

  5. A Case of Familial Polydactyly From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billur Sezgin


    Full Text Available Polydactyly is among the most frequently encountered congenital anomalies of the extremities. Although it is usually presented in an isolated and sporadic manner, familial cases can also be rarely encountered. Such familial polydactyly cases usually follow an autosomal dominant inheritance with variable genetic penetration and are usually bilateral and symmetric. A case of rare familial polydactyly from Turkey is presented. Four siblings, two girls and two boys, presented with bilateral, symmetric preaxial polydactyly affecting both hands and feet. These siblings also had four other unaffected siblings along with an affected father and grandmother (the father’s mother. Although the cases portrayed duplication at different levels, the general definition of familial polydactyly with bilateral, symmetric inheritance is observed in these cases. Other rare familial polydactyly cases have been reported in the literature as well, and this case serves as a typical example of this rare entity from Turkey.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali


    Full Text Available ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways. In addition, there are some factors which contribute the problem including legal gaps, education level of the family and the daughter, economical conditions, stereotypes, traditional practices and sexism level. Finally, it is suggested that the reasons for the problem of ‘child brides’ are multi-dimensional and therefore it requires a similar approach.

  7. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Zehra [Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Durak, Hatice [Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)


    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  8. Chemical and textural attributes of Hellim (Halloumi cheese marketed in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Ergönül


    Full Text Available Chemical and textural properties of Hellim (Halloumi cheese marketed in Turkey were determined in this research. Cheese samples were collected from manufacturers in Turkey and according to data obtained, water amounts of samples were changing in a wide range of 34.07-55.92 %, whereas the average pH values of the samples was 5.91±0.36. Cholesterol contents of the samples were low and changing among 7.54-14.79 mg/100 g. Average fat and protein amounts of samples were 25.43±1.7 (%, and 22.81±5.62 (% respectively, and 30.31±1.15 (% of the fat fraction was composed of unsaturated fatty acids. Main organic acids determined in samples were citric, lactic and propionic acids. Also, hardness, chewiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and gumminess scores of thesamples were determined by TPA analysis and Hunter color scores were evaluated.

  9. Single directional migration of Salmonella into marinated whole muscle turkey breast. (United States)

    Warsow, C R; Orta-Ramirez, A; Marks, B P; Ryser, E T; Booren, A M


    Irradiated, whole muscle turkey breasts were cut into blocks measuring 10 by 10 by 6 cm and exposed on one side to a marinade inoculated to contain a cocktail of eight Salmonella serovars at 10(8) CFU/ml. After exposure for 5, 10, or 20 min with or without vacuum (101.3 kPa), cylindrical cores perpendicular to the exposed surface were removed from the blocks with a hand-coring device and subdivided into 1-cm segments. Each segment was macerated, serially diluted in sterile peptone water, and plated to quantify Salmonella. Bacterial migration was greater under vacuum, compared with nonvacuum marination, at 20 min (P migration into turkey breast (P migrate into the intact muscle with or without the aid of vacuum.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Savings are one of the important determinants beyond the theories of economic growth. Therefore remittances and foreign direct investment inflows have importance for the countries having insufficient savings. This study examines the relationship between economic growth, remittances, foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic savings in Turkey during the period 1974-2013 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. We found that remittances, foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings had positive impact on economic growth.

  11. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    will be like ‘rain from hell ,’” CNN, June 29, 2016; Nick Ashdown, “Turkey’s Tourism Plummets amid Bombings and Crisis with Russia,” Jerusalem Post...Refugee Deal Crumbles, There Will Be Hell to Pay,” Foreign Policy, June 7, 2016. Around the time of the March 2016 deal, the closure of various migration...economic and political rights, particularly through barriers to trade with and travel to countries other than Turkey

  12. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences


    Ceylan Engin


    While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind intern...

  13. Microbiology of Fresh Comminuted Turkey Meat (United States)


    37). On several . occasions, meat from turkeys has been implicated in LJ, The amount of poultry consumed per capita in this outbreaks of...abattoirs and processing plants. be involved in outbreaks of staphylococcal intoxication. Cooked red meat products with their natural enteric However, if...incriminated sources in foodborne containing large numbers of enterotoxin producing outbreaks of Salmonella infections (31). staphylococci, This product would

  14. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.


    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  15. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  16. Regional Inequality of Sport Facilities in Turkey


    Murat Çiftçi


    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of social utility of distribution of intercity sport facilities in Turkey for people. Atkinson indices were used in the study. Statistical data of TUIK was used for the application. The index coefficients revealed an imbalance in the regional distribution of sport facilities for the people, and a substantial loss of social utility for the people. According to the values calculated for people, the levels of social utility of total sport facili...

  17. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey. (United States)

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E


    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  18. Filicide cases in Turkey, 1995-2000. (United States)

    Karakus, Mustafa; Ince, Haluk; Ince, Nurhan; Arican, Nadir; Sozen, Sevki


    To determine socio-demographic features and criminal liability of individuals who committed filicide in Turkey. The study involved 85 cases of filicide evaluated by the 4th Specialized Board of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul in the 1995-2000 period. We assessed the characteristics of parents who committed filicide (age, sex, education level, employment status, and criminal liability) and children victims (age, sex, own or stepchild), as well as the causes of death. There were 85 parents who committed filicide (41 fathers and 44 mothers) and 96 children victims. The mean age of mothers who committed filicide (52% of filicides) was 26.5-/+7.7 years, and the mean age of fathers (48% of filicides) was 36.1-/+10.0 years (t=-5.00, pfilicide were unemployed and illiterate. Filicide in Turkey was equally committed by mothers and fathers. More than half of the parents were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and came from disadvantageous socioeconomic environments, where unemployment and illiteracy rates are highly above the average of Turkey.

  19. Occurrence of Helicobacter pullorum in turkeys. (United States)

    Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Piva, Silvia; Rossi, Mirko; Pasquali, Frédérique; Lucchi, Alex; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo


    In order to investigate the occurrence of Helicobacter pullorum in turkeys, caecum contents collected at the slaughterhouse from 55 animals intensively reared in 11 farms were sampled. Gram-negative curved rod bacteria were isolated by a modified Steele and McDermott filter technique and further identified as H. pullorum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven and 31 isolates, randomly selected from each positive farm, underwent phenotypic (biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests) and genotypic characterization (PFGE and AFLP analysis), respectively. Forty-two out of 55 animals (76.4%) and all the 11 farms sampled were positive for H. pullorum. Isolates showed similar biochemical characteristics and whole cell protein profiles but showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity. Ten out of 11 isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics with erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance being the most frequently detected. This is the first description of H. pullorum in turkeys. H. pullorum is a frequent intestinal colonizer in turkeys; therefore, attention should be given to clarify the food-borne risk linked to carcass contamination. Antibiotic resistance is a concern since high values of resistance rates were observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip


    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 {yields} 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely.

  1. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, Adnan; Ozalp, Mehmet [Gazi Univ., Mechanical Education Dept., Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kirikkale (Turkey); Kanit, E. Galip [Turkish State Meteorological Office, Ankara (Turkey)


    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000-2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingol, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkopru, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koycegiz, Manavgat, Dortyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely (Author)

  2. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey. (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin


    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  3. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan


    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  4. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa


    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  5. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey. (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet


    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  6. History of forensic medicine in Turkey. (United States)

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal


    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.

  7. Metal Accumulations in Water, Sediment, Crab (Callinectes sapidus) and Two Fish Species (Mugil cephalus and Anguilla anguilla) from the Köyceğiz Lagoon System-Turkey: An Index Analysis Approach. (United States)

    Genç, Tuncer Okan; Yilmaz, Fevzi


    The concentrations of six metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn) individual total metal load (IMBI) values and its relation to condition index were determined in water, sediment and tissues of crab (Callinectes sapidus) and two fish species (Mugil cephalus and Anguilla anguilla) inhabiting Köyceğiz Lagoon System. The average distribution of the IMBI values ranged from 0.033 to 0.265. Distribution patterns of IMBI in species follow the sequence: A. anguilla > M. cephalus > C. sapidus. Results showed that there are positive relationships between species sizes and metal levels in most cases. The concentrations of Pb in muscle in the three studied species were in all cases considerably higher than the maximum levels set by law. Average Cd, Cu and Zn values in M. cephalus were also higher than the limits proposed for fish by FAO/WHO, EC and TFC. Therefore, the human consumption of all analysed species is not recommended.

  8. The role of energy systems on hydropower in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, global electricity production has more than doubled and electricity demand is rising rapidly around the world as economic development spreads to emerging economies. Not only has electricity demand increased significantly, it is the fastest growing end-use of energy. Therefore, technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. On the other hand, the hydropower industry is closely linked to both water management and renewable energy production, and so has a unique role to play in contributing to sustainable development in a world where billions of people lack access to safe drinking water and adequate energy supplies. In addition to, approximately 1.6 billion people have no access to electricity and about 1.1 billion are without adequate water supply. However, resources for hydropower development are widely spread around the world. Potential exists in about 150 countries, and about 70% of the economically feasible potential remains to be developed-mostly in developing countries where the needs are most urgent. This paper deals with renewable energy systems and the role of hydropower in Turkey.

  9. The role of energy systems on hydropower in Turkey (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim


    Over the last two decades, global electricity production has more than doubled and electricity demand is rising rapidly around the world as economic development spreads to emerging economies. Not only has electricity demand increased significantly, it is the fastest growing end-use of energy. Therefore, technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. On the other hand, the hydropower industry is closely linked to both water management and renewable energy production, and so has a unique role to play in contributing to sustainable development in a world where billions of people lack access to safe drinking water and adequate energy supplies. In addition to, approximately 1.6 billion people have no access to electricity and about 1.1 billion are without adequate water supply. However, resources for hydropower development are widely spread around the world. Potential exists in about 150 countries, and about 70% of the economically feasible potential remains to be developed-mostly in developing countries where the needs are most urgent. This paper deals with renewable energy systems and the role of hydropower in Turkey.

  10. Effect of Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP) to Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Turkey Nuggets Derived from White and Dark Turkey Meats


    Surjoseputro, Sutarjo; Naryanto, Petrus Sri; Fatoni, Meliawati


    Turkey meat is a well-known foodstuff and source of protein in the United States, while in Indonesia turkey meat has not yet optimally processed as a foodstuff. The advantages of turkey meat are: has low calorie, high protein than other poultry meats, and good source of vitamin and mineral. Contrary to chicken meat, turkey meat has low fat content and high collagen, and therefore makes the meat very tough. This research was using two kinds of meat, the white meat (the breast) and the dark mea...

  11. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  12. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya


    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  13. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems. (United States)

    Watters, Gregor


    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  14. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun


    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  15. Socioscientific Issues in Science Education: The Case of Turkey (United States)

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami; Mugaloglu, Ebru Zeynep; Guven, Devrim


    The purpose of this study is to identify the foci and results of studies on socioscientific issues (SSI) conducted in Turkey. Additionally, the study aimed to compare the results of this study with ones conducted internationally. For this aim, a literary review of empirical studies related to SSI conducted in Turkey was carried out. Four criteria…

  16. Evaluation of Soybean Hulls in Grower Turkey Diets | Etuk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 42 day study was carried out to evaluate the effect of soybean hulls (SBH) in diets of grower turkeys. Four experimental turkey grower diets were formulated such that soybean hulls made up of 0.0 (control diet), 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0% of the diets respectively replacing maize and soybean meal. These diets were offered ...

  17. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur


    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  18. Sustainable tourism development: the case study of Antalya, Turkey (United States)

    Latif Gurkan Kaya; Richard Smardon


    This paper discuss ideas about how tourism can be made base for sustainable tourism development in Antalya, Turkey. The introduction is a general overview of sustainable tourism development in coastal areas. The paper also addresses the role of NGOs in the course of development. Information is given about coastal tourism facilities in Turkey. Finally, sustainable...

  19. Addressing wild turkey population declines using structured decision making (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swift, Bryan L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Siemer, William F.; Decker, Daniel J.


    We present a case study from New York, USA, of the use of structured decision making (SDM) to identify fall turkey harvest regulations that best meet stakeholder objectives, in light of recent apparent declines in abundance of wild turkeys in the northeastern United States. We used the SDM framework to incorporate the multiple objectives associated with turkey hunting, stakeholder desires, and region-specific ecological and environmental factors that could influence fall harvest. We identified a set of 4 fall harvest regulations, composed of different season lengths and bag limits, and evaluated their relative achievement of the objectives. We used a stochastic turkey population model, statistical modeling, and expert elicitation to evaluate the consequences of each harvest regulation on each of the objectives. We conducted a statewide mail survey of fall turkey hunters in New York to gather the necessary information to evaluate tradeoffs among multiple objectives associated with hunter satisfaction. The optimal fall harvest regulation was a 2-week season and allowed for the harvest of 1 bird/hunter. This regulation was the most conservative of those evaluated, reflecting the concerns about recent declines in turkey abundance among agency wildlife biologists and the hunting public. Depending on the region of the state, the 2-week, 1-bird regulation was predicted to result in 7–32% more turkeys on the landscape after 5 years. The SDM process provided a transparent framework for setting fall turkey harvest regulations and reduced potential stakeholder conflict by explicitly taking the multiple objectives of different stakeholder groups into account.

  20. Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 14, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management types. Cagatay Tanriverdi*, Hasan Degirmenci and Sertan Sesveren. Department of Biosystem Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kahramanmaraş Sutcu Imam 46060. Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

  1. Interpreter Training Curriculum in Turkey: The Case of Sakarya University (United States)

    Okuyan, Sibel


    In our globalizing and rapidly changing world thanks to the communication technologies, Turkey has a significant strategic position in terms of socio-cultural and economical aspects. Therefore, Turkey has a different commercial and political relationship with many countries comprising various cultures and languages. In order to maintain these…

  2. Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) from southern Turkey | Avgın | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A checklist of Curculionoidea is given from southern Turkey (Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay provinces). The known localities and ecological notes on each of them were reported based on literature records and on recently collected material. Lixus farinifer Reitter is newly recorded from Turkey, and 35 species (2 Rhynchitidae, ...

  3. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya


    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  4. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...

  5. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan


    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  6. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey (United States)

    Sanal, Mustafa


    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  7. Photographing Turkey Run: A Guide to Nature Photography


    Shepardson, Daniel P.


    Photographing Turkey Run: A Guide to Nature Photography was written to be used in conjunction with Daniel P. Shepardson’s A Place Called Turkey Run: A Celebration of Indiana’s Second State Park in Photographs and Words. This guide contains tips and techniques designed to provide a basic understanding of how to photograph nature and improve one’s photography skills.

  8. Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey (United States)

    Toker, Boran


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

  9. The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education (United States)

    Cekerol, Kamil


    Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

  10. The Winds of Change: Turkeys Evolution Toward Authoritarianism (United States)


    and still affects Turkish politics from his self- imposed exile in the US. 7 Why Turkey is Important Today: Historically, Turkey is known...the region, which is currently experiencing significant turbulence in neighboring Iraq 8 and Syria as well as nearby Libya, Ukraine , and Egypt

  11. Cytotaxonomical studies on some Crocus L. taxa in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 15, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Cytotaxonomical studies on some Crocus L. taxa in. Turkey. F. Candan1, L. Şik1* and T. Kesercioğlu2. 1Department of Biology, Science and Art Faculty, Celal Bayar University, Muradiye-Manisa, Turkey. 2Department of Science Educations, Buca Education Faculty, Dokuz Eylul ...

  12. The “Soft Power” policy of Turkey towards Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Mgerovna Aleksanyan


    Full Text Available South Caucasus throughout history was at the epicenter of clashes of different religions, civilizations, nations and states. At present moment the interests of both regional (Turkey, Iran and global actors (the United States, NATO, the EU, Russia and others. intersect in the region. Global transformations, changing power relations in international relations have their direct influence on the political processes taking place in the region. These processes are also linked with the activities of Turkey, which aspire to regional leadership. It is Georgia, which serves as a corridor between Turkey and states of Central Asia and the South Caucasus. Turkey spreads its influence in Georgia in almost all areas using economic, military and political tools, as well as the Russian-Georgian deteriorated relations. To achieve its goals, Turkey is actively pursuing a strategy of "soft power", which further strengthens its influence in the country. Public diplomacy is a part of soft power, which also ensures the formation of a positive and attractive image of Turkey in Georgia. This article investigates the contemporary policy of "soft power" of Turkey towards Georgia. It analyses the basic tools, institutions and the direction of this policy, actively implemented by the Republic of Turkey. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Gulen Movement in Georgia. The author makes general conclusions regarding the effectiveness of this policy.

  13. Vocational Education in Turkey: The Past, Changes and the Future (United States)

    Demirbilek, Muhammet


    This study explores the present conditions and emerging issues about the future of vocational teacher education in Turkey. The paper discusses the background and historic legacies that have led to the restructuring of Faculties of Teacher Education in Turkey. The influence of the reforms from the foundation of the Turkish Republic are discussed as…

  14. Turkey’s 2007 Elections: Crisis of Identity and Power (United States)


    scarf as a symbol both of Islamism and of retrogression to a time before Mustafa Kemal Ataturk , the father of modern Turkey, imposed Westernizing reforms...on the country in the 1920s and 1930s. As one of those reforms, Ataturk imported to Turkey the French concept of laicism, a CRS-2 2 At Ataturk’s

  15. Productivity losses from road traffic deaths in Turkey. (United States)

    Naci, Huseyin; Baker, Timothy D


    The importance of road traffic injuries in Turkey is not generally appreciated, in part due to lack of knowledge of its economic burden and in part due to major underestimation in official statistics. The total years of potential life lost and potentially productive years of life lost from mortality were calculated in order to estimate the cost of productivity losses from road traffic deaths in Turkey. More years of potentially productive life are lost due to road traffic deaths than to respiratory tract illnesses or diabetes mellitus, two other serious health problems in Turkey. Road traffic deaths cost Turkey an estimated USD 2.6 billion every year in productivity losses alone, more than the World Bank estimate of the indirect costs from the 1999 Marmara earthquake (USD 1.2-2 billion), Turkey's worst earthquake since 1939 (World Bank Turkey Country Office, 1999). This study highlights the importance of accurate information in ameliorating the burden of road traffic safety in Turkey. Turkey has great opportunities to implement cost-effective interventions to reduce the economic burden of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries.

  16. Supplementary heat requirements when brooding tom turkey poults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the calculation of heat and humidity balance, temperature values, sensible heat and moisture production of tom turkey poults were taken from the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) standards for corresponding turkey poult weights, and outside long term (1980 - 2005) monthly average temperatures were ...

  17. Image acts and visual communities: everyday nationalism in contemporary Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuryel, A.


    In the dissertation entitled "Image Acts and Visual Communities: Contemporary Nationalism in Turkey", I investigate the image politics of nationalist practices in everyday life by focusing on contemporary Turkey and tracking the way images of the nation travel through a variety of fields. I depart

  18. Characterization of the Nigerian local turkey based on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement for local turkey in Nigeria could be made using the markers RT, PCV, Hb, WBC and RBC for Marker-assisted selection. In view of the results obtained in this study, it is recommended that the black phenotype be selected by breeders to achieve improved production. Keyword: Nigerian, local turkey, colour type, ...

  19. Islamist Parties and Democratization : Lessons from Turkey's Justice ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Experts from various Muslim countries will come together in a workshop to discuss Turkey's experience in a comparative light. ... theory and evidence from Turkey : paper to be presented at the Annual Convention of the Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA), November 16-20, 2007, Montreal, Canada ...

  20. Migration and Psychological Status of Adolescents in Turkey (United States)

    Aksel, Seyda; Gun, Zubeyit; Irmak, Turkan Yilmaz; Cengelci, Banu


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of involuntary migration on an adolescent population that had moved with their families to either one of two culturally different locations in Turkey. One of these groups had moved from a village in Eastern Turkey to a nearby town, while the other had moved a considerable distance to a large…

  1. Instructional Technologies in the World and Turkey (A Comparative Review) (United States)

    Usun, Salih


    The aim of this study is to review, comparatively, the applications on the instructional technologies (methods and media) in the World and Turkey; The study, first, introduces the instructional technologies such as distance education, Internet, and Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in the World and Turkey; then determines and discusses the…

  2. Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey (United States)

    Usun, Salih


    This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

  3. Genetic Diversity and Relationships in the Turkey species of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 16, 2011 ... The samples were collected from Aegean region and East Anatolia, Turkey. 16. AFLP selective ... The similarity index coefficients were calculated according to simple matching coefficient. .... The species of Aegilops L. collected from Turkey: sample numbers, locations, species and genomes. S/N Location ...

  4. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf


    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for

  5. "Try a taste of Turkey": an analysis of Turkey's representation in British newspapers' travel sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; Kuipers, G.M.M.; van Zoonen, L.


    This article explores the cultural representation of Turkey as a travel destination for British tourists. Drawing on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 99 travel features published in three British broadsheet and three tabloid papers over a five-year period, we investigate the content

  6. Space-time kriging of precipitation variability in Turkey for the period 1976-2010 (United States)

    Raja, Nussaïbah B.; Aydin, Olgu; Türkoğlu, Necla; Çiçek, Ihsan


    The purpose of this study is to revaluate the changing spatial and temporal trends of precipitation in Turkey. Turkey is located in one of the regions at greatest risk from the potential effects of climate change. Since the 1970s, a decreasing trend in annual precipitation has been observed, in addition to an increasing number of precipitation-related natural hazards such as floods, extreme precipitation, and droughts. An understanding of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation is therefore crucial to hazard management as well as planning and managing water resources, which depend heavily on precipitation. The ordinary kriging method was employed to interpolate precipitation estimates using precipitation records from 228 meteorological stations across the country for the period 1976-2010. A decreasing trend was observed across the Central Anatolian region, except for 1996-2000 which saw an increase in precipitation. However, this same period is identified as the driest year in Eastern and South Eastern Anatolia. The Eastern Black Sea region has the highest precipitation in the country; after 1996, an increase in annual precipitation in this region is observed. An overall reduction is also seen in southwest Turkey, with less variation in precipitation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Increasing the amount of research on renewable wave energy in Turkey has been getting crucial recently to reduce its energy dependence on exhaustible natural energy resources. The purpose of this study is to determine the electrical energy potential obtainable from the wave energy converters in Turkey. Firstly, different type of wave energy conversion systems have been investigated and as a result of the review, the Oscillating Water Column (OWC is considered to be most effective energy converter due to a suitable power generation system. The scope of the study is to evaluate and compare the wave energy potential between different regions of Turkey by using available wind and wave data. Five different coastal regions selected along the coastline of Black and Mediterranean Sea and Iğneada is considered to be most effective region because of their highest wavelength. In addition, OWC is modeled as a system using the pressed air in a column and it is mathematically described as a difference in pressure and expressed by the Bernoulli equation. General equations of motion of a system subject to forced oscillation are derived, and then, the components of the damping coefficient are investigated by using the optimization theory. After that, the theory developed in the previous part has been applied to Iğneada Region in Black Sea. It is finally shown that how much electricity needs to be met by using OWC system.

  8. First report of Caulerpa taxifolia (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) on the Levantine coast (Turkey, Eastern Mediterranean) (United States)

    Cevik, Cem; Yokes, Mehmet Baki; Cavas, Levent; Erkol, Levent Itri; Derici, Osman Baris; Verlaque, Marc


    Since its first accidental introduction into the Mediterranean Sea, Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh has spread to six Mediterranean countries and has become a major ecological problem. On the basis of morphological and molecular studies (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)), we report for the first time C. taxifolia on the Levantine coast (Gulf of Iskenderun, SE Turkey). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Iskenderun isolate differs from the invasive aquarium strain first observed in Monaco, and falls in another SW Pacific clade (NE Australia, New Caledonia). The introduction in Turkey by shipping (ballast waters or anchor gears of oil tankers) is possible because C. taxifolia was found in the Gulf of Iskenderun, which is a major Eastern Mediterranean petrochemical region. On the other hand, C. taxifolia strains are available in aquarium shops in Turkey, suggesting aquarium dumping as another possible cause. As far as the intense maritime traffic of the region is concerned, further dispersals of this exotic C. taxifolia strain in the Mediterranean Sea are to be expected.

  9. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. (United States)


    ...-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have met...

  10. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative... (United States)


    ... countervailable subsidies are being provided to the production or exportation of the subject merchandise in Turkey... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary... tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1, 2012...

  11. Energy efficiency assessment for the Antalya Region hotels in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenuet, S.; Soner, S. [Yildiz Technical University, Mechanical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)


    The hotels in the Antalya Region of Turkey have become a major consumer of energy, water and other resources. However, at present, there are no existing guidelines for the efficient use and management of these resources. Energy management includes increasing in profitability due to the reduced operational costs and it is also a potential for improved market share. Many different evaluation models have been published in energy management literature. However there have been not so many systematic approaches to compare the relative efficiency of the systems. Data envelopment analysis is a special linear programming model for deriving the comparative efficiency of multiple-input multiple-output decision-making units. An evaluation of energy efficiency in 32 five-star hotels in the Antalya Region has been carried out and the results are discussed in this paper. According to this study eight hotels are efficient and twenty-four hotels are inefficient. Also for these 24 inefficient hotels, ideal energy consumptions (electricity, water and liquefied petroleum gas consumptions) are proposed to become efficient these hotels. In this study data envelopment analysis models are evaluated by using a linear programming package LINGO 5.0. (author)

  12. Energy efficiency assessment for the Antalya Region hotels in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onut, S.; Soner, S. [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Faculty


    The hotels in the Antalya Region of Turkey have become a major consumer of energy, water and other resources. However, at present, there are no existing guidelines for the efficient use and management of these resources. Energy management includes increasing in profitability due to the reduced operational costs and it is also a potential for improved market share. Many different evaluation models have been published in energy management literature. However there have been not so many systematic approaches to compare the relative efficiency of the systems. Data envelopment analysis is a special linear programming model for deriving the comparative efficiency of multiple-input multiple-output decision-making units. An evaluation of energy efficiency in 32 five-star hotels in the Antalya Region has been carried out and the results are discussed in this paper. According to this study eight hotels are efficient and twenty-four hotels are inefficient. Also for these 24 inefficient hotels, ideal energy consumptions (electricity, water and liquefied petroleum gas consumptions) are proposed to make these hotels efficient. In this study data envelopment analysis models are evaluated by using a linear programming package LINGO 5.0. (author)

  13. Soil liquefaction potential in Eskişehir, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tosun


    Full Text Available Liquefaction is one of the critical problems in geotechnical engineering. High ground water levels and alluvial soils have a high potential risk for damage due to liquefaction, especially in seismically active regions. Eskişehir urban area, studied in this article, is situated within the second degree earthquake region on the seismic hazard zonation map of Turkey and is surrounded by Eskişehir, North Anatolian, Kütahya and Simav Fault Zones. Geotechnical investigations are carried out in two stages: field and laboratory. In the first stage, 232 boreholes in different locations were drilled and Standard Penetration Test (SPT was performed. Test pits at 106 different locations were also excavated to support geotechnical data obtained from field tests. In the second stage, experimental studies were performed to determine the Atterberg limits and physical properties of soils. Liquefaction potential was investigated by a simplified method based on SPT. A scenario earthquake of magnitude M=6.4, produced by Eskişehir Fault Zone, was used in the calculations. Analyses were carried out for PGA levels at 0.19, 0.30 and 0.47 g. The results of the analyses indicate that presence of high ground water level and alluvial soil increase the liquefaction potential with the seismic features of the region. Following the analyses, liquefaction potential maps were produced for different depth intervals and can be used effectively for development plans and risk management practices in Eskişehir.

  14. Soil liquefaction potential in Eskişehir, NW Turkey (United States)

    Tosun, H.; Seyrek, E.; Orhan, A.; Savaş, H.; Türköz, M.


    Liquefaction is one of the critical problems in geotechnical engineering. High ground water levels and alluvial soils have a high potential risk for damage due to liquefaction, especially in seismically active regions. Eskişehir urban area, studied in this article, is situated within the second degree earthquake region on the seismic hazard zonation map of Turkey and is surrounded by Eskişehir, North Anatolian, Kütahya and Simav Fault Zones. Geotechnical investigations are carried out in two stages: field and laboratory. In the first stage, 232 boreholes in different locations were drilled and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) was performed. Test pits at 106 different locations were also excavated to support geotechnical data obtained from field tests. In the second stage, experimental studies were performed to determine the Atterberg limits and physical properties of soils. Liquefaction potential was investigated by a simplified method based on SPT. A scenario earthquake of magnitude M=6.4, produced by Eskişehir Fault Zone, was used in the calculations. Analyses were carried out for PGA levels at 0.19, 0.30 and 0.47 g. The results of the analyses indicate that presence of high ground water level and alluvial soil increase the liquefaction potential with the seismic features of the region. Following the analyses, liquefaction potential maps were produced for different depth intervals and can be used effectively for development plans and risk management practices in Eskişehir.

  15. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) in Turkey. (United States)

    Ecder, Tevfik; Utas, Cengiz; Ates, Kenan; Bieber, Brian; Robinson, Bruce M; Pisoni, Ronald L; Süleymanlar, Gültekin


    Turkey has one of the largest treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient populations in Europe (N = 66,711). In 2013, the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), a prospective study of hemodialysis (HD) practices and outcomes, initiated data collection in Turkey. Here we provide comparisons of HD patients in DOPPS-Turkey with other international regions and with patients in the Registry of Turkish Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation. DOPPS-Turkey study sites were randomly selected from all Turkish HD units treating ≥25 in-center chronic HD patients. Detailed patient- and facility-level data were collected for 20-30 randomly selected prevalent HD patients per facility. Demographic and comorbidity profiles for DOPPS-Turkey patients were similar to HD patients overall in the 2013 Turkish Registry Report. In Turkey: diabetes was the most common ESRD cause (37%); arteriovenous fistula use was 83%; mean single pool Kt/V was 1.61. Compared with other international regions, Turkey had the highest mean hemoglobin (11.5 g/dL), ferritin (771 ng/mL), and interdialytic weight gain (3.28%), while Turkey had the lowest mean systolic blood pressure (127 mmHg) and erythropoiesis stimulating agent prescription (57%). Turkish patients also reported the highest depression scores. In this first DOPPS-Turkey report, the DOPPS sample agrees well with national Turkish Registry data. Treatment and laboratory data, and patient-reported outcomes, demonstrate similarities and previously unrecognized contrasts to DOPPS findings in Europe, Japan, and North America. Long-term follow-up of these patients will describe how these differences relate to clinical outcomes within Turkey. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA


    Full Text Available The topic of article is bilateral economical and foreign trade relations between Turkey, which has started to apply outward-oriented economic policies since globalization and Moldova, which has done market transition after breaking up with the Soviet Union. Within this frame, the subject of article has been searched in depth as follows: general overview of Turkey’s economic relations, overall picture of Moldovan-Turkish relations, short exposition of Moldovan economy and bilateral economic and foreign trade relations of Moldova and Turkey. The topic of article is a current issue. Because Moldova, which is closed to Turkey in terms of geography, culture and history always has been an attractive country politico-economically for Turkey since its independence. Bilateral economic relations starting with shuttle trade have formalized and further developed and Turkey became as one of top ten biggest economic and trade partner of Moldova. On this basis, the aim of study is to elucidate foreign trade of Turkey with Moldova and to compare performances of Turkey by years and by other countries, which have remarkable domination in Moldovan market. Within this scope, bilateral trade volume of Moldova and Turkey has increased year by year considering the past decade, which makes Turkey as the 7th largest import and 8th export partner of Moldova. Turkey aims to be one of the first three biggest economic partner of Moldova after entry into force of Free Trade Agreement (FTA, which was signed by both countries in 2014 to increase foreign trade volume up to 1 billion US dollars.

  17. Refugees of the Syrian Civil War: Impact on Reemerging Infections, Health Services, and Biosecurity in Turkey. (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati


    After the Arab Spring uprising, Syria descended into a civil war in 2011. By March 2016, the United Nations reported that 13.5 million Syrians required humanitarian assistance, including 6.6 million internally displaced persons and more than 4.8 million refugees outside of Syria. Turkey is currently hosting the largest number of Syrian refugees-more than 2.7 million. A limited number of refugees are living in camps settled around the border, and others are spread throughout Turkey. This explosive and unexpected increase in the Syrian population in Turkey has had several negative impacts on health and social determinants. The overload of healthcare facilities has led to shortages in childhood immunization programs, drugs, and access to clean water and food supplies. According to Ministry of Health data, more than 7.5 million Syrians were examined at outpatient clinics, and 299,240 were hospitalized; most of those hospitalized were injured and wounded victims who require and have been occupying intensive care units. The refugees generally live in crowded and unsanitary conditions, which may lead to the spread of respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal, and genital system infections. Currently, measles, poliomyelitis, leishmaniasis, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are the reemerging infections being most frequently recorded. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections seem to be an increasing problem in gunshot or surgical wounds. Hepatitis A, malaria, and varicella have been seen with a high incidence among the refugees. There are many problems waiting to be resolved for health and living standards in Turkey.

  18. Femicide in Turkey between 2000 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Toprak

    Full Text Available Although intimate partner violence (IPV is an important problem that threatens women's health, very few studies focus on the victim-perpetrator relationship or examine this relationship across Turkey. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of femicide cases in Turkey and to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, and criminological characteristics of femicide victims and offenders. This study analysed 162 femicide cases that occurred in 12 cities in Turkey from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. Eighty women were killed by their partners (classified as intimate partner femicide, IPF, and 81 women were killed by one of their relatives, friends, or strangers (classified as non-intimate partner femicide, non-IPF. According to our results, the typical IPF victim is of child-bearing age, does not have a paid job, is married or divorced, is killed in a domestic setting due to injuries to the thorax or abdomen produced by an edged/pointed weapon or firearm, and is possibly a victim of overkill. The typical IPF perpetrator is close to his victim's age, has a paid job, has no mental disability, owns a gun, and has threatened his partner or ex-partner previously because of jealousy/infidelity/honour or separation. The typical non-IPF victim is very similar to the IPF victim; however, her marital status can be single, married or divorced, and she is commonly killed by a relative. The surveillance and screening of femicide and IPV is an important step when analysing and attempting to prevent femicide. Second, the training and sensitization of health professionals are important. Moreover, health staff should be encouraged to participate in advocacy interventions. Third, gun ownership must be brought under control.

  19. Femicide in Turkey between 2000 and 2010. (United States)

    Toprak, Sadik; Ersoy, Gokhan


    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important problem that threatens women's health, very few studies focus on the victim-perpetrator relationship or examine this relationship across Turkey. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of femicide cases in Turkey and to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, and criminological characteristics of femicide victims and offenders. This study analysed 162 femicide cases that occurred in 12 cities in Turkey from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. Eighty women were killed by their partners (classified as intimate partner femicide, IPF), and 81 women were killed by one of their relatives, friends, or strangers (classified as non-intimate partner femicide, non-IPF). According to our results, the typical IPF victim is of child-bearing age, does not have a paid job, is married or divorced, is killed in a domestic setting due to injuries to the thorax or abdomen produced by an edged/pointed weapon or firearm, and is possibly a victim of overkill. The typical IPF perpetrator is close to his victim's age, has a paid job, has no mental disability, owns a gun, and has threatened his partner or ex-partner previously because of jealousy/infidelity/honour or separation. The typical non-IPF victim is very similar to the IPF victim; however, her marital status can be single, married or divorced, and she is commonly killed by a relative. The surveillance and screening of femicide and IPV is an important step when analysing and attempting to prevent femicide. Second, the training and sensitization of health professionals are important. Moreover, health staff should be encouraged to participate in advocacy interventions. Third, gun ownership must be brought under control.

  20. General aspects of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in Turkey. (United States)

    Cımrın, Arif Hikmet; Göksel, Ozlem; Demirel, Yavuz Selim


    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis prevalence rates are between 5 and 15% of the overall population exposed to known inciting antigens but a small number of cases have been reported from Turkey until now. We aimed to present a broad picture of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in Turkey, thus promoting interest in this relatively common disease in developing countries. Search engines were utilized to retrieve the cases reported from Turkey. Other published journals and meeting abstracts which have not been registered into electronic databases were manually reviewed. Twenty-two cases from 13 reports were characterized by demographics, clinical features, occupational and environmental exposures, diagnostic tools and prognostic data. The majority of the group consisted of women (68.2%) and had a positive history for contact with an avian (59%). Mean exposure period was 69 ± 77.6 months. The most common reported clinical form was chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (58.8%). Reticulonodular pattern was the basic pathological finding (45%). Restrictive impairments of the forced vital capacity (FVC) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) of the lungs were the basic pathologies observed in pulmonary function tests. Interstitial fibrosis was the most common pathological finding (61.5%). Few cases reported with preponderance of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis with avian exposure from 70 million populations suggest that many hypersensitivity pneumonitis cases, especially acute forms, have been ignored. Also, hypersensitivity pneumonitis somehow appears to be a neglected occupational disease. The present situation should be considered as a common problem currently faced by developing countries and occupational groups under risk must be investigated promptly.

  1. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey. (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer


    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor


    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  3. Homosexuality in Turkey: strategies for managing heterosexism. (United States)

    Bakacak, Ayça Gelgeç; Oktem, Pinar


    The goal of this study was to identify the strategies used by young homosexuals to manage their sexual minority status in Turkey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 self-identified homosexual university students. The data on the strategies employed by homosexuals suggested a categorization of these strategies into four interrelated areas: strategies employed in the process of self-acceptance; strategies to manage sexual stigma and prejudice; strategies specific to the coming-out process; and the strategies used while openly expressing their sexual identities.

  4. Transportation of Dangerous Goods: Turkey Model

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    Murat Şencan


    Full Text Available The shortcomings in the implementation of hazardous substances transport in the world and in our country lead to very serious hazards. These problems lead to life, property and very serious environmental disasters. This is not only a matter of transportation, but also of the chemistry, textile and fuel industries. This study provides information on the legislation on dangerous goods transport in Turkey. It also contains technical information on hazardous substances, following the search of the relevant literature for the province of hazardous goods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Ethnic Tourism: An Example from Istanbul, Turkey. Globalization has not only produced a trend towards economic integration and cultural homogenization but has also encouraged the preservation of local diversity and of multiculturalism. Whereas in the past ethnic or religious minorities were seen as a threat to the territorial unity of the country, today, increasingly countries are promoting ethnicities to attract tourists. Ethnic tourism is an alternative form of tourism that relies on attracting tourists to see sites connected to the cultural and historical heritage of ethnic minorities. This study explores the potential for ethnic tourism development in Istanbul, a city with a multicultural past and great heritage attractions.

  6. Basic design in architectural education in Turkey

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    Makaklı Elif Süyük


    Full Text Available Creative activity is one of the most significant parts of architectural education. In the architectural curriculum organisation ‘design studio’ is the unique and preeminent subject. Freshman students encounter ‘design’ first in basic design course, before they know what designing incorporates. The Basic Design is the starting point of initiating creativity in architecture education. It helps each student to understand architecture as a creative and innovative practice in the first year of education. This study analyzes the characteristics of basic design course, the topics of the course contents and its significance in the architectural curriculum in Turkey as well.

  7. Fisheries And Aquaculture Resources And Their Interactions With Environment in Turkey (United States)

    Deniz, H.


    Turkey, with 8333 km of coast line, 151 080 sq. km economic sea area, many rivers with 177 714 total length, nearly, 1 million ha of natural lakes, 500 000 ha of dam reservoirs has rich marine and inland aquatic resource potential. Despite of these large resources, Turkish fisheries has the characteristics of small-scale fisheries and in general it can be considered as coastal fisheries. There is also great potential for inland fisheries and aquaculture. Being in half closed position, these seas have different characteristics in respect of biological, physical, chemical and ecological points. In addition; Turkey has favourable geographic position between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, this potential seems not to be fully utilised and therefore fisheries is not a major sector in the economy. According to the statistics of the fisheries for 2000 published by the Turkish government, Turkey's total fisheries production was 582.376 tons. Total catch consists sea fish (441 690 tons, crustaceans and molluscs (18 831 tons), freshwater fish (42.824 tons) and aquaculture (79. 031 tons). The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) is the Ministry responsible for the overall fisheries and aquaculture development, administration, regulation, promotion and technical assistance. In the past two decades, marine fish farming using net cages has developed in the coastal waters throughout Turkey. Such fish farming has allowed the production of large amounts of valuable fish and their supply to the internal and external markets on a regular basis. However, fish farming is sometimes fallowed by organic pollution of the water and bottom sediment in the vicinity of the cages. A comprehensive land and coastal planning survey of almost the whole coast of Turkey is currently being conducted. This master plan designates areas to be developed for forestry, agriculture, industry, urbanisation, environmentally protected areas, etc. The plan was undertaken before the

  8. The effects of egg albumin incorporation on quality attributes of pale, soft, exudative (PSE-like) turkey rolls. (United States)

    Öztürk, Burcu; Serdaroğlu, Meltem


    Pale, soft, exudative (PSE-like) poultry phenomenon has been a growing problem in meat industry in terms of quality and economic losses, thus data is required to evaluate PSE raw material in product formulations. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of egg albumin (EA) utilization on quality characteristics of PSE-like turkey rolls. Turkey Pectoralis major muscles were exposed to either 40 °C to stimulate typical processing causing PSE or 0 °C to reduce PSE and keep the muscles "normal". Turkey rolls were prepared in nine different formulations; using 100% normal (N), 50% normal + 50% PSE (NP) or 100% PSE meat (P). Treatments also included 0, 1 or 2% EA. Addition of EA increased protein content of all samples. L*, a* and b* values were affected by PSE level. Increased levels of PSE caused decreased processing yields, while EA incorporation increased processing yield of the samples. Addition of 1% EA increased water-holding capacity (WHC) of the samples, while higher level of EA (2%) caused decrement in the same. Addition of either 1% or 2% EA was effective in reducing purge loss in P samples. Texture profile analysis showed that EA addition rather had considerable effects on N samples. Sensory scores showed that 1% EA utilization has the potential to increase mostly the mouthfeel of PSE-like products. Results showed that EA could be used as a promising ingredient that improved overall quality of PSE-like turkey rolls.

  9. Research Trends of Agricultural Faculties in Turkey and the World: Bibliometric Analysis of Web of Science, 1996-2011

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    Can Besimoğlu


    Full Text Available In this research, agricultural information structure and emerging trends are visualised with social network analysis from 1996 to 2011; similarities and differences between the researches of agricultural research institutions (universities abroad and in Turkey are detected. Moreover, whether agricultural research policies determined by these institutions, councils and scholars had effects on the researches carried out in agricultural researches were determined. Comparing the agricultural policies in Turkey through the subjects of the publications in Web of Science (WoS, some priorities in agricultural research policies have increased in time. Especially, the water resources (2-3% increase out of natural resources, biotechnology (4% increase and environmental sciences (4% increase more often take place in agricultural policies and alike, number of publications on these subjects has gradually increased. While there is a significant percentage of publication on biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics and heredity, microbiology and cell biology in agricultural faculties in other countries, the percentage of the publications in these fields is much lower in Turkey. According to the subject category, while the researches on agriculture, plant and food science in Turkey gradually decreased, the ones on chemistry, environmental sciences, biochemistry, biotechnology and molecular biology increased. This shows that more special and different subjects on agricultural researches started to be carried out.

  10. Climate Change Assessments for Lakes Region of Turkey

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    Ayten Erol


    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges for forestry. Forests are known to be most efficient natural tools to ensure availability and quality of water in many regions. Besides, planning of forest resources towards water quality and quantity is essential in countries that are expected to face with more frequent drought periods in the next decades due to climate change. Watershed management concept has been supposed as the primary tool to plan natural resources in a more efficient and sustainable way by both academicians and practitioners to mitigate and adapt climate change. Forest cover among other land use types provides the best regulating mechanism to mitigate erosion, sedimentation, desertification, and pollution. In addition, climate change can potentially affect forest stand dynamics by influencing the availability of water resources. Therefore, the amount of forest cover in a watershed is an indicator of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Climate change is a concern and risk for the sustainability of water resources in Lakes Region of Turkey. The objective of this study is to make a comprehensive assessment in lake watersheds of the Lakes region considering the forest cover. For this purpose, the study gives a general view of trends in climatic parameters using Mann Kendall trend test. The results showed that Mann Kendall trend test for temperature and precipitation data is not enough to evaluate the magnitude of potential changes of climate in terms of forest cover. Understanding impacts of changes in temperature and precipitation on forest cover, runoff data should be evaluated with temperature and precipitation for watersheds of forest areas in Lakes Region.

  11. Estimating domestic water saving potential | Martin | Journal de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic water saving potential in the case of Manisa, Turkey has been investigated. The water conservation measures for each water practice are examined and some easy-to-apply measures have been proposed. An experimental study was then conducted to determine if the domestic water conservation measures ...

  12. Mapping the tobacco retailers in edirne, Turkey. (United States)

    Karlıkaya, Celal; Ince, Hüseyin; Ozkan, Nurcan


    The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment.


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    Full Text Available While the financial world is still dominated by conventional banks, based on western economic principles, the number of Islamic banks is on the rise. Islamic banks have originated from colonial India as a response of the Muslims to the British who attempted to westernize their society. Other similar financial operations based on Islamic Law (Shari’a were established in Pakistan, Malaysia and Egypt to facilitate access of rural poor to interest-free loans. However, being unprofitable, these operations did not survive for very long. Islamic banks, unlike conventional banks, are not based on interest and conduct their business in accordance with a wide array of ethical and moral issues. The modern phase of Islamic banking started in the 1970s when the Islamic Development Bank was founded in Saudi Arabia. Soon after, a number of commercial banks were established in the neighboring countries. From this core, over the last four decades, Islamic finance and banking has spread across the entire Muslim world and beyond to become a global phenomenon. This study examines the development of Islamic banking in Turkey in the wider context of global expansion. Turkey is an interesting case study because, although its population is nearly 100% Muslim, it is a secular state built on the model of Western European countries. However, lately, the moderate Islamic party in power since 2002 has shown some signs of openness towards a parallel banking system based on Islamic principles.

  14. Hygiene behaviour in university students in Turkey. (United States)

    Altun, Insaf; Cinar, Nursan Dede; Dede, Cemile


    To identify university students' hygiene behaviour using a hygiene behaviour inventory in a Turkish sample. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 353 randomly selected university students aged 17-24 years in Kocaeli, Turkey. Data were collected in December 2009 using a socio-demographic form and the Turkish version of the Hygiene Behaviour Inventory-23. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. The mean score was 3.08 +/- 0.94; ranging from 1.91 +/- 0.85 to 3.77 +/- 0.52. Of the students, 290 (82.2%) always washed their hands when soap was available; 266 (75.4%) had cleaned their toilets three times or more in the preceding month; 260 (73.7%) always washed their hands after touching a pet or some animal; 260 (73.7%) always washed their hand before preparing food; 256 (72.5%) always washed fruits and vegetables before eating them; 227 (64.3%) always covered the seat with paper while using a public toilet; 244 (69.1%) had always cleaned their bathroom at home three times or more in the preceding month; and 183 (51.8%) of the students always washed their hands before eating food with their hands. Community-based awareness and education plans must initiated to improve regular hygiene practices at the level of university students in Turkey.

  15. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures (United States)

    Mandel, J. T.; Bildstein, K. L.; Bohrer, G.; Winkler, D. W.


    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195


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    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  17. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures. (United States)

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W


    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.

  18. Food loss and waste management in Turkey. (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Ucaroglu, Selnur; Banar, Mufide


    Food waste can be an environmental and economic problem if not managed properly but it can meet various demands of a country if it is considered as a resource. The purpose of this report is to review the existing state of the field in Turkey and identify the potential of food waste as a resource. Food loss and waste (FLW) was examined throughout the food supply chain (FSC) and quantified using the FAO model. Edible FLW was estimated to be approximately 26milliontons/year. The amount of biodegradable waste was estimated based on waste statistics and research conducted on household food waste in Turkey. The total amount of biodegradable waste was found to be approximately 20milliontons/year, where more than 8.6milliontons/year of this waste is FLW from distribution and consumption in the FSC. Options for the end-of-life management of biodegradable wastes are also discussed in this review article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep characteristics in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo. (United States)

    Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Mexicano, G; Ramos, J I


    Electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of the states of vigilance were analyzed in chronically implanted specimens of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo (M. gallopavo). Five different states of vigilance were observed throughout the nyctohemeral period: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), drowsiness (D), slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These states exhibit characteristics similar to those described in other bird species. Sleep periods displayed a polyphasic distribution; however, they showed the tendency to concentrate between 2100 and 0900 h in spite of the fact that the recordings were carried out under constant illumination. Sleep period occupied 45.71% of the nyctohemeral cycle, 43.33% corresponded to SWS, while 2.38% to REM sleep. The average duration of the REM sleep phase was very short, lasting 7.7+/-0.55 s (mean+/-S.D.). In contrast, its frequency was very high with an average recurrence of 268+/-63 phases throughout the nyctohemeral cycle. The short duration of REM sleep phase presented by the turkey as by other bird species studied up to now may be dependent upon genetic factors shared by this group of vertebrates.

  20. The effect of time gaining on chemical composition and technological characteristics of mechanically separated turkey meat (MSM)


    Aneta Cegiełka; Urszula Zakrzewska; Elżbieta Hać-Szymańczuk


    Mechanically separated meat (MSM) of poultry is a raw material widely used in the meat industry in Poland and most European Union countries. The manner and conditions for the production of this raw material cause, however, that it has limited technological usefulness. In this study the effect of time of obtaining turkey MSM produced by pressure separation on selected quality characteristics of this raw material: basic chemical composition, pH, thermal loss, water binding capacity and colour w...

  1. A Social Studies Education Lesson from Turkey: Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Acikalin


    Therefore, an example of a social studies lesson from Turkish educational context is provided for the special issue of Journal of Social Science Education. This may be the first recorded and transcribed social studies lesson from Turkey.  To my knowledge there is no other example to date of a completely recorded and transcribed social studies lesson from Turkey. Thus, this study provides an example of a social studies lesson from Turkey in order to facilitate comparison with examples of social studies lessons from other parts of the world.

  2. Nuclear Energy in Turkey, Do We Need It Indeed?


    Serdar Erdurmaz


    Two main events happened in 2007’s forced Turkey to reconsider of nuclear power plant building which has been postponed in several occasions. On the one hand Turkey aware that energy dependency to another states causing the negative effects to its developing economy, on the other hand she should take into consideration the threat coming by the Iran’s ongoing nuclear program. If Iran succeeds to produce a nuclear weapon, for Turkey the threat is indirect, and more tied to concerns about the ba...

  3. Spatial and seasonal distribution of macroinvertebrates in high altitude reservoir (Beyler Reservoir, Turkey) (United States)

    Findik, Özlem


    A highland reservoir in the West Black Sea region of Turkey which belongs to the Mediterranean climatic zone was examined. Both littoral and profundal zones were sampled from October 2009 to September 2010, to determine taxonomic composition, biodiversity and abundance of benthic invertebrates as well as the seasonal variation of these measures. A total of 35 taxa were identified, of which 12 belong to Chironomidae and 10 to Oligochaeta groups. The highest diversity and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were found at the littoral stations. Macroinvertebrates showed significant positive correlations with water temperature and NO2 and NO3 concentrations, and negative correlation with dissolved oxygen.

  4. The Significance of 2010 Iran-Turkey-Brazil Nuclear Deal for Turkey and Brazil (United States)


    formed a legacy which had both positive and negative impacts on Turkish foreign policy. Although Mustafa Kemal Ataturk attempted to completely...established in 1923 on the ruins of the Ottoman Empire and Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and his friends attempted to found a new nation on the basis of completely...Dünyada Uluslararası İlişkiler, 650‒660. 81 “Mustafa Kemal Ataturk ,” Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs, September 13, 2014, http

  5. Assessment of turkey vehicle container microclimate on transit during summer season conditions (United States)

    Carvalho, Rafael H.; Honorato, Danielle C. B.; Guarnieri, Paulo D.; Soares, Adriana L.; Pedrão, Mayka R.; Oba, Alexandre; Paião, Fernanda G.; Ida, Elza I.; Shimokomaki, Massami


    This study evaluated the formed microclimate commercial truck transport practices effects on the turkeys' welfare by measuring Dead on Arrival (DOA) index and pale, soft, and exudative (PSE-like) meat occurrence. The experimental design was entirely randomized in a 6 × 2 factorial arrangements (two truck container compartments × six water shower groups) with birds positioned at superior front (SF), inferior front (IF), superior middle (SM), inferior middle (IM), superior rear (SR), and inferior rear (IR) and two bath treatments: with water shower (WiS) and without water shower (WoS) with eight replications for each treatment. The animals were transported for 95 min' journey from the farm to the slaughterhouse under hot-humidity conditions. The results shown herein indicated the formation of a thermal core at the inferior middle and rear truck container regions, because the heat produced by the birds and the influence of developed microclimate consisting of temperature, relative humidity, and air ventilation. The IM and IR container compartments under the WoS treatment presented the highest (P turkey meat qualities.

  6. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains from different sources in Izmir region, Turkey. (United States)

    Bozcal, Elif; Uzel, Atac; Aydemir, Sohret; Skurnik, Mikael


    Yersinia enterocolitica is a foodborne pathogen that is very rarely encountered in Turkey. In this work, several human, porcine, and environmental samples collected from Izmir region in Turkey were examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica using different cultivation and enrichment methods. A total of nine pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated; five strains from pig stool and manure samples and four strains from waste water samples. On the other hand, no Y. enterocolitica was isolated from human diarrheal stool samples (n = 102) and from 12 gulf, canal, municipal pool, and well water samples. Biochemical and serological characterization of the nine Y. enterocolitica strains revealed that they belonged to three different bioserotypes: 4/O:3, 2/O:9, and 2/O:5,27. All the strains were deemed pathogenic based on virulence factor-specific PCR analysis. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains from the pig and waste water samples from the Izmir region indicates that Y. enterocolitica is a potential risk for public health.

  7. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 16, 2006 ... In this study, the factor analysis technique is applied to surface water quality data sets obtained from the Buyuk Menderes. River Basin, Turkey, during two different hydrological periods. Results show that the indices which changed the quality of water in two seasons and locations differed. During low-flow ...

  8. Homogeneity revisited: analysis of updated precipitation series in Turkey (United States)

    Bickici Arikan, Bugrayhan; Kahya, Ercan


    Homogeneous time series of meteorological variables are necessary for hydrologic and climate studies. Dependability of historical precipitation data is subjected to keen evaluation prior to every study in water resources, hydrology, and climate change fields. This study aims to characterize the homogeneity of long-term Turkish precipitation data in order to ensure that they can be reliably used. The homogeneity of monthly precipitation data set was tested using the standard normal homogeneity test, Buishand test, Von Neumann ratio test, and Pettitt test at the 5% significance level across Turkey. Our precipitation records including the most updated observations, extracted from 160 meteorological stations, for the periods 1974-2014 were analyzed by all the four homogeneity tests. According to the results of all tests, five out of 160 stations have an inhomogeneity. With regard to our strict confirmation rule, 44 out of 160 stations are said to be inhomogeneous since they failed from at least one of the four tests. The breaks captured by the Buishand and Pettitt tests usually tend to appear in the middle of the precipitation series, whereas the ability of standard normal homogeneity test is in favor of identifying inhomogeneities mostly at the beginning or at the end of the records. Our results showed that 42 out of 44 inhomogeneous stations passed all the four tests after applying a correction procedure based on the double mass curve analysis. Available metadata was used to interpret the detected inhomogeneity.

  9. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of Hüsamlar coal seam, SW Turkey (United States)

    Büçkün, Zeynep; İnaner, Hülya; Oskay, Riza Görkem; Christanis, Kimon


    The Ören and Yatağan Basins in SW Turkey host several Miocene coal deposits currently under exploitation for power generation. The present study aims to provide insight into the palaeoenvironmental conditions, which controlled the formation of the Hüsamlar coal seam located in Ören Basin. The coal seam displays many sharp alternations of matrix lignite beds and inorganic, lacustrine sediment layers. The coal is a medium-to-high ash lignite (10.47-31.16 wt%, on dry basis) with high total sulphur content (up to 10 wt%, on dry, ash-free basis), which makes it prone to self-combustion. The maceral composition indicates that the peat-forming vegetation consisted of both arboreal and herbaceous plants, with the latter being predominant in the upper part of the seam. Mica and feldspars contribute to the low part of the seam; carbonates are dominant in the upper part, whereas quartz and pyrite are present along the entire coal profile. The sudden transitions of the telmatic to the lacustrine regime and reverse is attributed to tectonic movements that controlled water table levels in the palaeomire, which affected surface runoff and hence, clastic deposition.

  10. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey. (United States)

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz


    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  11. Antibacterial and antitumour activities of some plants grown in Turkey. (United States)

    Usta, Canan; Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Turker, Arzu Ucar


    Screening of antibacterial and antitumour activities of 33 different extracts prepared with three types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) was conducted. The extracts were obtained from 11 different plant species grown in Turkey: Eryngium campestre L., Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm., Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Coronilla varia L., Onobrychis oxyodonta Boiss., Fritillaria pontica Wahlenb., Asarum europaeum L., Rhinanthus angustifolius C. C. Gmelin, Doronicum orientale Hoffm., Campanula glomerata L. and Campanula olympica Boiss. Antibacterial activity against six bacteria was evaluated: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by using disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were most sensitive to the methanolic extract from A. europaeum. S. pyogenes was vulnerable to all used extracts of D. orientale. In addition, ethanolic or methanolic extracts of E. campestre, A. mollis, D. pentaphyllum, C. varia, R. angustifolius, C. glomerata and C. olympica displayed strong antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested gram-negative bacteria. The methanolic extract from R. angustifolius showed a broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antitumour activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium-tumefaciens-induced potato disc tumour assay. Best antitumour activity was obtained with the aqueous extract from A. europaeum and methanolic extract from E. campestre (100% and 86% tumour inhibition, respectively).

  12. Commercial antioxidants control lipid oxidation in mechanically deboned turkey meat. (United States)

    Mielnik, Maria B; Aaby, Kjersti; Skrede, Grete


    Effects of commercial rosemary antioxidants on oxidative stability of mechanically deboned turkey meat (MDTM) compared with Trolox C (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and control without antioxidant were investigated. Antioxidants were added to meat at three levels. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay and dynamic headspace gas chromatography were used to assess the effects of commercial antioxidants on lipid stability of MDTM during 7 months of frozen storage. Increased levels of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile carbonyl compounds were noticed in all meat samples during storage, however most distinctly in meat without antioxidants. Retarding effect of antioxidants on the development of oxidation depended on the level and type antioxidants. Trolox C-a water soluble, synthetic derivative of vitamin E possessed the greatest antioxidative activity reflected by the lowest values of TBARS and volatile compounds. Ascorbic acid was less efficient than Trolox C and Biolox HT-W (rosemary), but more potent than most rosemary extracts in suppressing lipid oxidation especially in the long term frozen storage MDTM. The DPPH() method confirmed that antioxidant activity depends on the concentration of active compounds present in the samples available to scavenge the free radicals formed during the storage period. Supplementation of MDTM with antioxidants could be an alternative method to prevent oxidative degradation of the meat during frozen storage when vacuum packaging is not practical.

  13. New records of truffle fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Turkey (United States)

    Aziz Turkoglu; Michael Angelo. Castellano


    We report the first records of 5 truffle taxa in Turkey: Gymnomyces xanthosporus (Hawker) A.H.Sm., Hymenogaster griseus Vittad., Hymenogaster olivaceous Vittad., Hymenogaster thwaitesii Berk. & Broome, and Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. & C.Tul. We also report a new...

  14. Natural gas transits and market power. The case of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, Florian; Schulte, Simon


    Turkey is a key country in order to realize the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) due to its geographical location. However, as the main transit country within the SGC, Turkey could potentially exert market power with gas transits. Whether Turkey exerts market power or not, is crucial for an economic assessment of the SGC. Hence, the article investigates this issue quantitatively using a global partial equilibrium gas market model. An oligopolistic and a competitive supply structure in Europe in 2030 are considered in the model. If the European gas market in 2030 is characterized by an oligopolistic supply, Turkey is able to exert market power resulting in higher prices compared to competitive transits, in particular in South Eastern Europe. In a competitive market structure, however, the importance of the SGC and thus the potential of Turkish transit market power is limited.

  15. Diphtheria seroprevalence in children living in the eastern Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -6 years and to identify the relationship between diphtheria seroprevalence and several sociodemographic characteristics of the study subjects in the Erzurum, Erzincan and Kars cities situated in Eastern Turkey. Design: A cross sectional study ...

  16. The Moss Flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Canli


    Full Text Available The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér. W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab. M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp., Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb. Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey.

  17. The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey). (United States)

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros


    The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey.

  18. Sandfly Fever with Skin Lesions: A Case Series from Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatih Temocin; Tugba Sari; Necla Tulek


    .... We present first cases in a different district of Turkey with the clinical findings of fever, myalgia-arthralgia, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhoea and nausea-vomiting and skin lesions (in two of them...

  19. Tandheelkunde in Turkije en Marokko [Dentistry in Turkey and Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurs, A.H.B.; Verrips, G.H.


    Some information is given on the number of dentists in Turkey and Morocco and the dental condition of the inhabitants. This information concerns prevention, caries, periodontic diseases as well as other dental diseases and diseases of the mouth.

  20. Quail, pheasant, & turkey brood survey 2012 : performance report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 quail, ring-necked pheasant, and wild turkey statewide survey. This survey provides Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks, and Tourism...

  1. The situation of consultation practice in pathology in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usubütün, Alp; Balci, Serdar; Yörükoğlu, Kutsal


    .... There are no standards for consultations in Turkey. The standardization committee of the Federation of Turkish Pathology Societies has conducted a survey to detect the current situation, determine the problematic aspects, compare the situation...

  2. Turkey and the Muslim Brotherhood: Crossing Roads in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Gurpinar


    Full Text Available Relations between Turkey and the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood (SMB have gained momentum in the light of post-Arab revolt developments. This study aims to present the historical background of the relationship between SMB and AKP and effects of this relationship on foreign policy. For the analytical discussion on the relationship between AKP and SMB integration to ‘particular’ recent foreign policies of Turkey, first of all, it will be examined how the SMB is perceived in Turkey in social and political arenas. Thus, the socio-political dimensions of the process in which the SMB came to the fore and began to be known in Turkey will be explored along with its position in foreign policy during the Justice and Development Party (JDP government and the Syrian crisis.

  3. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  4. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 15, 2010 ... Department of Forest Construction and Transportation, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, 34473 ... even the smallest crumbs of wood as raw material in .... The mechanical park amount differences as years of Turkey.

  5. Strategic Analysis of Medical Tourism in Turkey and Strategy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Barca


    Full Text Available This study is to identify the current state of health tourism in Turkey, to assess the developments, and to advise on strategic studies future developments in the assessment and aims to advice on strategic studies to be done in the future. An annual picture of Turkey in terms of health tourism is put forward by analyzing data (public-private rate, the separation of health tourists, health-tourists, the service industry, country of origin, etc. for 2011 collected offial channels from Provincial Health Directorates of the Ministry of Health (about public and private hospitals. Furthermore, strategic assessments and recommendations on the need for the future regarding medical tourism in Turkey are made in the light of developments in the World and Turkey.

  6. The Cultural Translation of Ginsberg's Howl in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mortenson, Erik


    In his article "The Cultural Translation of Ginsberg's Howl in Turkey" Erik Mortenson examines three Turkish translations of Allen Ginsberg's poem Howl in order to explore the ways in which Ginsberg's...

  7. Turkey's East Asian Policy: From Security Concerns to Trade Partnerships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selçuk Çolakoglu


      Turkey's Asian policy entered a new period after the Second World War as Ankara began to establish relations with East Asian countries,1 based upon its own foreign policy vision and economic capacity...

  8. Cultural Tourism Tours and Main Routes Towards Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysi GÜNAL


    Full Text Available Today, the tourism has become a important industry. Certainly, the most important international actors af this industry are tour operators. The tour operators which realize about 75 percent of the total tourism activity to Turkey have taken a very important mission from the point of Turkey tourism. The, Germany, Netherlands, England and USA tour operators, which have made the important part of the tours to our country, have also an important position in organizating cultural tour. When the cultural tours, which have been planned to Turkey by this countries, have been studied it is seen that these tours have containied more mass tourism areas or near areas of these region. It can be said that Turkey’s not marketing its tourism correctly has be effective in this subject. With this research, it has been studied how the cultural attractions in Turkey have been perceived, consumed and marketed by abroad tour operators.

  9. The Effect of Land Use (Deforestation) on Global Changing and its consequences in Turkey (United States)

    Onursal Denli, G.; Denli, H. H.


    Land use has generally been considered as a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Global changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, water and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Especially the forests influence climate through physical, chemical and biological processes that affect planetary energetics, the hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric composition. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality. Global Warming and Climate Change are the two main fundamental problems facing Turkey as well as the World. The expedition and size of this change is becoming noticeably conspicuous now. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the global temperature has been increased of about 0.74 degree Celsius since the Industrial Revolution. Interdisciplinary science that integrates knowledge of the many interacting climate services of forests with the impacts of global change is necessary to identify and understand as yet unexplored feedbacks in the Earth system and the potential of forests to mitigate climate change. The general scientific opinions on the climate change states that in the past 50 years, global warming has effected the human life resulting with very obvious influences. High rates of deforestation within a country are most commonly linked to population growth and poverty. In Turkey, the forests are destroyed for various reasons resulting to a change in the climate. This study examines the causes of

  10. Turkey between two worlds: a demographic view. (United States)

    Gallagher, C F


    A demographic view of Turkey is presented in this discussion. Turkey provides another example of a country, ravaged by war losses between 1914-1922, which took 4 decades, from the mid1920s to the mid1960s, to move from a pronatalist policy to an understanding of the social, economic, and most recently the political dangers of rampant population growth. The 1st census, taken in Turkey in 1927, showed a population of 13,648,270 living in an area of 299,294 square miles, substantially equal to its present dimensions. In mid1977 the population surpassed 42 million, and it reached 45.6 million in mid1980 estimates. The population grew by only 5.4% in the 1940-1945 intercensal period. With the return to normalcy following the war, Turkey's high wartime death rate (almost 40/1000 between 1940 and 1945) declined rapidly and population growth began to accelerate. It was toward the end of the 1950s that concern began to be expressed about the rapid population growth the country was experiencing. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the State Planning Organization began to study the implications of the increase for future social and economic development. This reconsideration of the previous pronatalist policy, which had forbidden the dissemination of birth control supplies or information, received a stimulus following the coup of 1960 that brought the military to power. Under military rule from May 1960 to November 1961 an antinatalist position emerged and was incorporated in the 1963-1967 5 year plan and later in the Population Planning Law, No. 557, enacted in 1965. Law 557 was permissive yet essentially neutral. It did not interfere with the private decisions of couples to plan family size but it offered them contraceptive supplies and information free or at low cost as well as education in population matters. Abortion was legalized if the mother's health were endangered, but it was not allowed otherwise. Sterilization was prohibited. The implementation of these

  11. Predisposing factors in childhood masturbation in Turkey. (United States)

    Unal, F


    The aim of this prospective, referral-based study was to assess demographical and developmental features associated with childhood masturbation in Turkey. A total of 61 children with childhood masturbation who were referred for the first time to the Department of Child Psychiatry were examined from demographical, psychosocial and medical aspects and compared with two control groups consisting of 61 age and gender matched children who were brought to the paediatric outpatient clinics and 43 children and adolescents who were the biological siblings of the study group. In children with masturbation, sleep difficulties were more frequent (P masturbation was often associated with a genito-urinary disorder or a stressful life event like weaning, the birth of a sibling, or separation from the parents. This is the first controlled study investigating the clinical and the developmental features of childhood masturbation. These findings may help identify children who could be at risk for this condition.

  12. Bullying within the forestry organizations of Turkey. (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet


    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations.

  13. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devlet Toksoy


    Full Text Available Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N=835. Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Gulsen


    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed contains very valuable nutrients and may have some beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to overview status of pumpkin seed production in Turkey. The production has sharply risen from 11.500 tons in 2015 to 42.181 tons in 2016. The area has also indicated sharp increase from 172.580 da to 628.441 tons in the same period. The first section provides introduction of topics, and later nutrition value of pumpkin seed, taxonomy, production, bottlenecks and breeding efforts are summarized. They have several advantages such as their short vegetation time that just fits the Central Anatolia conditions where vegetation time available is too short for many other crop plants, net profit per de compared to the other crop plants, extended storability, etc.

  15. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet


    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  16. [Problems in cardiology specialty training in Turkey]. (United States)

    Altun, Armağan


    Cardiology Specialty Training in our country should be made in accordance with the law numbered 1219 on the Practice of Medicine and Related Arts, and according to the Medical and Dental Specialist Training Regulation which is published according to the 9th article of this law. The duration of Cardiology Specialist Training has been defined as 4 years in our country. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC), European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), and the European Cardiology Section Foundation (ECSF) define the duration of Cardiology Specialist Training as 6 years. Therefore, insufficient Cardiology residency training occurs in our country due to the shortened length of time. In this report, the problems of the Cardiology Specialist Training in Turkey will be addressed under different headings.

  17. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Erem


    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem affecting an important proportion of the Turkish population. The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased among adult Turkish population over the past 20 years. In 1990, 18.8% of the adult population was obese (28.5% among women and 9% among men, and the prevalence increased to 36% in 2010 (44% among women and 27% among men. From the data, we found that the prevalence of obesity in Turkey has increased steadily from 1990 to 2010 in both genders. Adult obesity-associated risk factors are age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption, high household income, low education level and physical activity, occupation, marital status and a family of selected medical conditions (e.g. obesity, diabetes and hypertension. To control obesity, necessary precautions should urgently be taken. The precautions include serious public health education encouraging a well-balanced diet and increasing physical activity.

  18. For or against the EU: discourses around Turkey's Kurdish conflict


    Baş, Pelin; Bas, Pelin


    There is a broad literature on Turkey's Kurdish Question and its European Union (EU) accession process. However, these studies mostly do not speak to each other nor do they link international actors with those of the domestic. To fill this gap, in particular, this study focuses on the impact of the European Union accession process on Turkey's Kurdish Conflict during the Justice and Development Party (AKP) government and the discourses of the domestic political actors to the requests and disco...

  19. The Economic Costs of Separatist Terrorism in Turkey


    Firat Bilgel; Burhan Can Karahasan


    Turkey has been suffering from separatist terrorism and the political conflict it implies since the mid-1980s, both of which are believed to have a negative impact on economic welfare. This article investigates the economic costs of PKK (Kurdistan Workers’ Party) terrorism, particularly in the Eastern and Southeastern provinces of Turkey by invoking the synthetic control method. We create a synthetic control group that mimics the socioeconomic characteristics of the provinces exposed to terro...



    V. T. Shilpa; B. C Girish; Ambujakshi T.P.; Manjunatha, K.P.


    Avian Pasteurellosis is a contagious disease of domestic and wild birds caused by Pasteurella mutocida. A turkey farm with a flock size of 500 recorded an acute death of about 102 turkeys with the history of clinical symptoms such as respiratory distress, anorexia, mucoid discharge from mouth and the nostrils, diarrhea were presented to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College. On thorough postmortem examination, a salient finding of petechial haemorrhages with pinpoint necr...

  1. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey


    NARDALI, Sinan


    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...

  2. Transcriptional regulation of the prolactin gene in turkeys


    Kurima, Kiyoto


    Poor reproductive performance by turkey hens compared with chickens is partially due to the early cessation of egg production associated with the onset of incubation behavior. Prolactin (Prl) is involved in the induction and maintenance of incubation behavior in birds, and understanding the regulatory mechanism(s) of Prl gene expression will provide fundamental information to manipulate Prl production for better reproductive performance in turkey hens.

  3. A Political Economy Analysis of Turkey's Health Transformation Program


    Bump, Jesse B; Powers Sparkes, Susan


    Beginning in 2003, Turkey initiated a series of reforms under the Health Transformation Program (HTP) that over the past decade have reshaped the health system. Understanding the political economy of this process is important for the future of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in Turkey, and also for many other countries and the development agencies that assist them. This report analyzes the historical context and complex political economy challenges of the reform. Our findings are ...

  4. Seafloor geodetic survey revealed partial creep of North Anatolian Fault at the western part of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey (United States)

    Kido, Motoyuki; Yamamoto, Ryusuke; Ohta, Yusaku; Takahashi, Narumi; Yamamoto, Yujiro; Kalafat, Dogan; Pinar, Ali; Ozener, Haluk; Ozeren, Sinan; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki


    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is known to sequentially ruptured from the east to the west crossing the Turkish mainland in the past century, which periodically wreaked severe destruction. The latest failures are Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes (1999) just at the east bound of the Sea of Marmara. Thus, the Marmara region remains un-ruptured and is expected high seismic risk. The coupling condition of the fault plane controls the rate of stress accumulation and is critical for the risk assessment. Therefore, we applied seafloor geodetic technique to relevel the coupling condition of NAF beneath the Sea of Marmara, where space geodetic technique, such as GNSS or InSAR, cannot be applicable. Seafloor acoustic extensometers were employed to directly measure changes in a baseline length between a pair of instruments as roundtrip time. Applying appropriate correction for temperature of sea water on sound speed and for instrumental attitude on exact position of the acoustic element, the technique has a potential to resolve sub-centimeter movement. The Western High is selected as a target area for the reasons that: no major branch fault is found to avoid dispersion of creep partitioning; fault trace on the seafloor is well identified to minimize the baseline length for installation; developed topographic trough suited for clearance of acoustic paths across NAF. We deployed five instruments, which alternately locate northern and southern side of NAF, just like a figure 'W'. Baseline lengths of the neighboring paths are roughly 1 km. Currently, ranging data of four baselines for 20 months since Sept. 2014 were recovered through acoustic data transfer and the measurement still continues. Although the depth of the Western High is only 700 m, temperature change is quite modest because of the dichotomy of density stratification in the water column. Temperature change among the instruments were nearly coherent and showed slight increase throughout the period. Attitude changes showed

  5. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiryol Tolga


    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  6. Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Kopruoren Basin (Kutahya), Turkey (United States)

    Arslan, S.; Dokuz, U.; Celik, M.; Cheng, Z.


    Groundwater quality in the Kopruoren Basin located to the west of Kutahya city in western Anatolia was investigated. Kopruoren Basin is about 275 km2 with about 6,000 residents, but the surface and ground-water quality in this basin impacts a much larger population since the area is located upstream of Kutahya and Eskisehir plains. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. The only silver deposit of Turkey is developed in the metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gumuskoy. The amount of silver manufactured annually comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The cyanide-rich wastes of the Eti Gumus silver plant is stored in waste pools. There have been debates about the safety of this facility after a major collapse occurred in one of the pools in May 2011. In this study samples from 31 wells and 21 springs were collected in July and October 2011 and May 2012. The groundwaters are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, with arsenic, zinc and antimony occurring at high concentrations. Dissolved arsenic concentrations are as high as 48 ug/L in springs and 734 ug/L in well water. Arsenic in 57% of the springs and 68% of the wells exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 ug/L). Natural sources of arsenic in the area include the dissolution of arsenic-rich minerals such as realgar and orpiment associated with the mineral deposits in the southern part of the study area. In the northern part, arsenic is enriched due to the dissolution of arsenic-bearing coal deposits. Besides these natural sources of contamination, the silver mining activity could be an important anthropogenic source. The leakage of cyanide and arsenic, together with other trace elements to the environment from the waste pools, will continue to poison the environment if necessary precautions are not taken immediately.

  7. Turkey model for flexor tendon research: in vitro comparison of human, canine, turkey, and chicken tendons. (United States)

    Kadar, Assaf; Thoreson, Andrew R; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Amadio, Peter C; Moran, Steven L; Zhao, Chunfeng


    Flexor tendon injuries are one of the most common hand injuries and remain clinically challenging for functional restoration. Canine and chicken have been the most commonly used animal models for flexor tendon-related research but possess several disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to explore a potential turkey model for flexor tendon research. The third digit from human cadaveric hands, canine forepaws, turkey foot, and chicken foot were used for this study. Six digits in each of four species were studied in detail, comparing anatomy of the flexor apparatus, joint range of motioņ tendon excursion, tendon cross-sectional area, work of flexion, gliding resistance at the level of the A2 pulley, modulus of elasticity, suture retention strength, and histology across species. Anatomically, the third digit in the four species displayed structural similarities; however, the tendon cross-sectional area of the turkey and human were similar and larger than canine and chicken. Furthermore, the turkey digit resembles the human's finger with the lack of webbing between digits, similar vascularization, tendon excursion, work of flexion, gliding resistance, mechanical properties, and suture holding strength. More importantly, human and turkey tendons were most similar in histological appearance. Turkey flexor tendons have many properties that are comparable to human flexor tendons which would provide a clinically relevant, economical, nonhuman companion large animal model for flexor tendon research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of ante- and peri-mortem factors on biochemical and physical characteristics of turkey breast muscle. (United States)

    van Hoof, J


    The course of post-mortem breakdown of glycogen and ATP in turkey pectoralis major muscle was markedly influenced by several ante- and peri-mortem variables. Application of a proper stunning procedure was highly effective in preventing peri- and post-mortem muscle stress reactions. The physiological level of glycogen and ATP was not significantly affected by road transportation covering 260 km. Birds which rested for 24 hrs following transportation had lower glycogen and ATP levels at the moment of slaughter than non-rested birds. According to the changes in the rate and extent of post-mortem biochemical reactions, several meat characteristics such as water-holding capacity, colour, and tenderness were significantly changed. Furthermore, the results also indicate that turkey breast muscle is susceptible to a PSE-like condition as described in pork.

  9. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis | Boyacioglu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the factor analysis technique is applied to surface water quality data sets obtained from the Buyuk Menderes River Basin, Turkey, during two different hydrological periods. Results show that the indices which changed the quality of water in two seasons and locations differed. During low-flow conditions, water ...

  10. Balancing a cline by influx of migrants: a genetic transition in water frogs of eastern Greece

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hotz, Hansjürg; Beerli, Peter; Uzzell, Thomas; Guex, Gaston-Denis; Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Schreiber, Robert; Plötner, Jörg


    Variation patterns of allozymes and of ND3 haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA reveal a zone of genetic transition among western Palearctic water frogs extending across northeastern Greece and European Turkey...

  11. Insurance in Turkey and main problems of the sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaattin Firat


    Full Text Available In this study, by handling private insurance sector in Turkey and the problems of the sector as a whole, the last stage that the insurance business in Turkey has reached has been evaluated. Basically, because of the fact that the most of the people had fatalistic understanding, religious leaders approached the concept of insurance negatively and adequate information hadn’t been gotten about insurance, the settlement of the idea of insurance in Turkey came true after 150 years later, at the end of 19. Century compared with Europe. As a result of changing conditions, Turkey is in 63rd in accordance with the insurance density on the world countries’ rank, and is in 39th rank in accordance with the primary production. In spite of this, when we examine the studies according to per person criteria, it is seen that the premium rate per person in Turkey is fortieth level among developed countries. The top reason of the fact that insurance business in Turkey hasn’t risen to the requested level is that there is still fatalistic society understanding; and also, the fact that insurance understanding hasn’t been settled, and hitching and late payment on damage payments of insurance firms, and not having an effective promotion and marketing understanding are seen as the primary reasons. Despite of these negative factors, in Turkey being an developing country, the insurance sector has a potential to show at least a threefold improvement from todays’ position in a short time in case of precautions to be taken by state and applying these precautions by seriousness.

  12. Proteomic identification of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma proteins. (United States)

    Slowinska, M; Nynca, J; Arnold, G J; Fröhlich, T; Jankowski, J; Kozlowski, K; Mostek, A; Ciereszko, A


    SDS-PAGE combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF) were applied to characterize the turkey seminal plasma proteome. LC-MS/MS led to the identification of 175 proteins, which were classified according to their function and to corresponding biochemical pathways. Using 2DE and MALDI TOF/TOF, 34 different turkey seminal plasma proteins could be identified, of which 20 were found in more than one spot, indicating different proteoforms of these proteins. For validation, antibodies against turkey albumin and ovoinhibitor as well as sperm acrosin were used in 2DE Western blots experiments. The bioinformatic analysis of the results indicates that turkey seminal plasma proteins may be involved in regulation of lipid metabolism [liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation and farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor (FXR/RXR) activation pathways)], endocytic entry of proteins and lipids at the plasma membrane (clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway), and defense against pathogens (acute phase response signaling pathway) and energy production (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis). Moreover, a comparative meta-analysis of seminal plasma proteomes from other species indicated the presence of proteins specific for avian reproduction, but distinct differences between turkey and chicken seminal plasma proteomes were detected. The results of our study provide basic knowledge of the protein composition of turkey seminal plasma highlighting important physiological pathways which may play crucial roles in the sperm environment after ejaculation. This knowledge can be the basis to further develop procedures improving the reproduction of farmed turkeys. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Development potential of wind energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Akova


    Full Text Available L’énergie en Turquie est aujourd’hui fournie par l’énergie fossile. De plus, la Turquie est dépendante de l’extérieur en matière d’énergie pour son économie et les secteurs divers qui en ont besoin. En Turquie, parallèlement aux informations ci-dessus, 83% de l’électricité de l’an 2008 provient des sources d’énergie fossile. Les perspectives d'avenir prévoient que la demande d’énergie de la Turquie augmentera et l’effet naturel de cette croissance sera l’augmentation du taux de dépendance énergétique à l'égard des autres pays. Les travaux effectués démontrent que, parmi les sources d’énergies renouvelables de la Turquie, le pouvoir hydraulique et le potentiel d’énergie éolienne sont les plus importants et que chacune de ces deux sources ont des potentiels techniques pour la production de l’électricité. La multiplication des centrales éoliennes au cours de ces dernières années est à relier à des facteurs comme la préparation de l’Atlas d’Energie Eolienne Turc, la disposition des lois afin d’aider les entrepreneurs du secteur privé et l’augmentation des prix du pétrole. Les centrales éoliennes fonctionneront dans la région de Marmara, la région d’Egée et dans la partie de méditerranée orientale de la Turquie où se manifestent plus souvent les vents violents. Il est probable que quelques autres centrales seront construites dans d'autres régions que celles citées précédemment.Covering its energy requirement from fossil energy sources for the most part, Turkey relies on outside sources to procure energy required for its economy and different sectors. Similarly, Turkey had produced 83 pct of the overall electricity in 2008 out of fossil energy sources. Future projectors indicate that the energy requirement of our country would augment and foreign-dependency in energy would thus increase accordingly.  The on-going studies state that especially hydraulic power and wind

  14. A Re-Run in Turkey: A Coup in the Near Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foust, Shawn J


    ... of coup activity in the near future, as has been seen in Turkey's history. Turkey has a proven status of importance to the United States by virtue of its strategic location, democratic pursuits, cultural status, and economic potential...

  15. Amendment #2 to the Hunting and Fishing Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge : Spring Firearm Turkey Hunting (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the Mingo NWR Hunting and Fishing Plan expands the turkey hunting program to include the Missouri Spring Firearm turkey season.

  16. 50 Years and Beyond: The 'Mirror' of Migration - German Citizens in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bianca Kaiser


      There are an estimated 90,000 - 120,000 German citizens living in Turkey. While laws and regulations pertaining to Turkey's immigration regime mainly stem from the early years of the Republic, they have increasingly come under scrutiny...

  17. Tetrasomy 18p in a male dysmorphic child in southeast Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... Mahmut Balkan1 Hatun Duran2 Turgay Budak1. Department of Medical Biology and Genetic, Dicle University Medical Faculty, TR-21280 Diyarbakir, Turkey; Department of Pediatric Surgery, Diyarbakir Children's Hospital, TR-21280 Diyarbakir, Turkey ...

  18. [Hepatitis E virus epidemiology in adult population in Edirne province, Turkey]. (United States)

    Eker, Alper; Tansel, Ozlem; Kunduracilar, Hakan; Tokuç, Burcu; Yuluğkural, Zerrin; Yüksel, Pelin


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) clinical presentations range from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis which is frequently seen in pregnant women. Epidemics due to HEV mostly originate from contaminated water and the virus is transmitted by fecal oral way. Its frequency is closely related to the socioeconomical status of the community. The aim of this first community-based study performed in Edirne province (located at Trace region of Turkey) was to determine the seroprevalence of HEV and the risk factors in the city center. Five hundred eighty two people (273 men, 309 women) over age 15 years, representing the population of Edirne city center were included in the study. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were investigated in the serum samples by ELISA method. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in a total of 14 cases (11 women, 3 men) and HEV infection prevalence was found to be 2.4%. The mean age of seropositive people was 50.86 +/- 16.76 years while it was 40.7 +/- 16.9 years in seronegative people (p = 0.027). This result was attributed to the better water supply and sanitation conditions in Edirne province in comparison to other parts of Turkey and shift of HEV seropositivity in older ages. No statistically significant difference was detected between seropositive and seronegative cases in terms of socioeconomical conditions, both groups being in high socioeconomical level. The analysis of the risk factors revealed that the rate of people living in houses built with materials other than reinforced concrete (p = 0.044), dealing with stockbreeding (p = 0.046) and consuming fruits and vegetables without proper washing (p = 0.015) were significantly higher in the seropositive group. No statistically significant difference was detected for the other risk factors such as the number of household, presence of city water supply and sewage system in the house, location of the water closet outside house, lack of hand-washing habits, sharing utensils, consumption of raw vegetables

  19. Sports Culture and Sports in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz KAPLAN


    Full Text Available Sports culture indicates all kinds of morals, products, and behavior. This study aims to argue sports as a cultural element and its appearence in Turkey. This is a descriptive study based on theoretical argument. It is periodic since it is limited to a given term and it is also relied upon literature review. People's adaptations to living conditions are related to culture. We can specify this, “all the patt erns of living and behavior which are special to small units within a large and structurally developed society.” ( Erdemli , 2002In Turkey; it’s more accurate to say that, it’s understood football when you think about sports and sport culture is football culture. This condition can not only induce cultural diversity and wealth but it also leads to a transformation into a society who likes watching sports, talking about sports (saying more precisely football rather than doing sports. Sport magazine has sur passed the sport itself. Representation of sport in media does not make a favorable contribution. Sport media invites violence with its manner of representation of news by acting with the concerns of rating and curcilation although they, at every turn, dec lare that they are against violence. Discourses which include violence, nationalism, sexism, and slang has increased in media as an extensive research also suggested ( Talimciler , 2003.Culture, is a phenomenon which is considerably about quality and accumu lation. Processes are as important as results; sometimes even more. In this sense sport is much more than the score. In a country, a sport branch can be attracting more attention than the other ones; however, Limiting sports to football, also limiting fo otball to several football clubs, and ignoring many of sports branches, those who are interested in them, and who are amateurs is an unfair and reductive approach. On the other hand; sports opportunities could not be created for millions of young and adul t people in our country

  20. Rigor mortis development at elevated temperatures induces pale exudative turkey meat characteristics. (United States)

    McKee, S R; Sams, A R


    Development of rigor mortis at elevated post-mortem temperatures may contribute to turkey meat characteristics that are similar to those found in pale, soft, exudative pork. To evaluate this effect, 36 Nicholas tom turkeys were processed at 19 wk of age and placed in water at 40, 20, and 0 C immediately after evisceration. Pectoralis muscle samples were taken at 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h post-mortem and analyzed for R-value (an indirect measure of adenosine triphosphate), glycogen, pH, color, and sarcomere length. At 4 h, the remaining intact Pectoralis muscle was harvested, and aged on ice 23 h, and analyzed for drip loss, cook loss, shear values, and sarcomere length. By 15 min post-mortem, the 40 C treatment had higher R-values, which persisted through 4 h. By 1 h, the 40 C treatment pH and glycogen levels were lower than the 0 C treatment; however, they did not differ from those of the 20 C treatment. Increased L* values indicated that color became more pale by 2 h post-mortem in the 40 C treatment when compared to the 20 and 0 C treatments. Drip loss, cook loss, and shear value were increased whereas sarcomere lengths were decreased as a result of the 40 C treatment. These findings suggested that elevated post-mortem temperatures during processing resulted in acceleration of rigor mortis and biochemical changes in the muscle that produced pale, exudative meat characteristics in turkey.

  1. Body of Cultural Tourism in Turkey and Need of Product Differentiation Based On Tangible Cultural Assets


    Bilgehan Gülcan


    Although Turkey has started its tourism journey with cultural tourism, after 1980’s sea, sand, sun based and entertainment dominant torism approach has developed. Nowadays, more than half of the foreign tourists come to Turkey for the above purpose. Keeping in mind the cultural assets of Turkey, cultural tourism is often pronounced to be the best candidate to diversify the tourism, but only 6% of the overall foreign tourists visit Turkey for cultural purposes. On the other hand, this ratio ha...

  2. Turkey's Progress toward Meeting Refugee Education Needs the Example of Syrian Refugees (United States)

    Beltekin, Nurettin


    Problem Statement: Historically, Turkey is an immigrant country. It has experienced various migration waves from Asia, Awrupa and Africa. Recently, Turkey has confronted a huge wave of migration. Turkey tries to meet many needs besides the educational needs of refugees, but there is not enough study on refugees in the field of educational sciences…

  3. 78 FR 18318 - U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Turkey (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Turkey AGENCY: International Trade....--Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission to Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir on May 4-8, 2014. The trade mission to.../Defense trade missions in December 2011 and December 2012 respectively. Turkey has a compelling economic...

  4. 78 FR 68090 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from Mexico and Turkey (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from Mexico and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Mexico and Turkey of steel concrete reinforcing bar, provided for in... reinforcing bar that are allegedly subsidized by the government of Turkey.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec...

  5. Teaching Human Rights in Turkey: Commentaries on a Single Lesson from Multiple Perspectives (United States)

    Kesten, Alper; Schur, Joan Brodsky; Gürsoy, Kudret


    This group of commentaries on teaching human rights in Turkey includes: (1) Reflection on Turkish Human Rights Lesson from Turkey (Alper Kesten)--A lesson on human rights in Turkey is analyzed for its representativity and methodology within the Turkish teaching culture from the viewpoint of a Turkish researcher; (2) Commentary on a Turkish Lesson…

  6. Progressive Education in Turkey: Reports of John Dewey and His Successors (United States)

    Keskin, Yusuf


    John Dewey, the well-known figure in progressive education, visited Turkey in 1924. Through his visit, Turkey was introduced to progressive education. Although his visit was short, the reports he prepared influenced the shape of the Turkish education system. After Dewey's visit, many foreign educators were invited to Turkey, particularly through…

  7. 76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

  8. Flock Size and System of Turkey Management by Farmers in Zuru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It could be concluded that turkey producers in the study area used local breed of turkey and practiced semi-intensive system of management. It is therefore recommended that interventions are necessary on better management practices and easy access to loans in order to boost turkey production through the introduction of ...

  9. 76 FR 537 - Eurasian Oil and Gas Suppliers Mission to Almaty, Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey (United States)


    ... gas exploration and production in Turkey. As of today, only 20% of onshore prospects and 1% of... exploration and production can also find a market in the geothermal sector: Turkey ranks No.1 in Europe and 7..., Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce...

  10. 78 FR 34340 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary Results of... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Preliminary... Turkey.\\2\\ The period of review is May 1, 2011, to April 30, 2012. This review covers four respondents... Order; Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products from Turkey, 51 FR 17784 (May 15, 1986). The...

  11. 75 FR 27925 - Use of Turkey Shackle in Bar-Type Cut Operations; Correcting Amendment (United States)


    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 381 Use of Turkey Shackle in Bar-Type Cut Operations... regulations to correct an inadvertent error in the required shackle width for Bar-type cut turkey operations... 10-inch shackle width for Bar-type cut turkey operations that use J-type cut maximum line speeds...

  12. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. (United States)


    ... for Bar-type cut turkey lines using a shackle with a 4-inch by 4-inch selector (or kickout), a 45... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates...

  13. Effect of dexamethasone on bactericidal activity of turkey monocytes and implications for food safety (United States)

    Stress has been shown to affect the immune system of turkeys making them more susceptible to bacterial infections that may compromise food safety. Female turkeys are more resistant to stress-induced opportunistic bacterial infections than are male turkeys. In order to determine the mechanism of this...

  14. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M


    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... antibody and by the ability to recombine with the chicken MHC class I heavy chain. The purity was estimated by SDS-PAGE and IEF. The pI was between 5.1 and 5.3 for chicken beta 2-m and 4.7 and 4.8 for turkey beta 2-m, which fact is reflected in their different electrophoretic mobilities in agarose gel...... (turkey migrates in the alpha and chicken migrates in the beta region). The mol. wt of both chicken and turkey beta 2-m was 14,500 estimated by SDS-PAGE whereas calculations based on the amino acid compositions gave mol. wts of 11,000. EM280 was 15.9 for chicken beta 2-m and 16.4 for turkey beta 2-m...

  15. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

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    Raşit Ata


    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  16. Some forest trees for honeydew honey production in Turkey

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    S. Ünal


    Full Text Available Honey is an important source of nutrients and energy and an effective remedy against various human diseases. Honeydew honey is produced from honeydew of phloem-feeders that honeybees gather. In this study, we focused on honeydew producers and diversity of host tree species which are involved in honeydew production in Turkey. A total of 24 honeydew producers by host tree species are identified in Turkey. Of these, 13 coniferous trees and 11 deciduous trees. The main honeydew producer in Turkey is a scale insect, Marchalina hellenica Gennadius (Hemiptera: Margarodidae living mainly on pines (Turkish red pine, Aleppo pine, and rarely on stone pine, Anatolian black pine and Scots pine. Honeydew producer insects can be treated as serious pests of conifer and broadleaf trees. The aphids and the scale insects such as Ceroplastes floridensis, Cinara cedri, C. laportei, Eulachnus rileyi, Icerya purchase, Kermes vermilio, Lichtensia viburni and Saissetia oleae are known as pests in several European, Asian and African countries. Despite their potential harm to their host plants, insect species producing honeydew play an important role in honey production in Turkey. Turkish honey production is exported to EU countries and, furthermore beekeeping is an important part of agricultural sector in Turkey.

  17. Discrete choice modeling of season choice for Minnesota turkey hunters (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Merchant, Steven S.


    Recreational turkey hunting exemplifies the interdisciplinary nature of modern wildlife management. Turkey populations in Minnesota have reached social or biological carrying capacities in many areas, and changes to turkey hunting regulations have been proposed by stakeholders and wildlife managers. This study employed discrete stated choice modeling to enhance understanding of turkey hunter preferences about regulatory alternatives. We distributed mail surveys to 2,500 resident turkey hunters. Results suggest that, compared to season structure and lotteries, additional permits and level of potential interference from other hunters most influenced hunter preferences for regulatory alternatives. Low hunter interference was preferred to moderate or high interference. A second permit issued only to unsuccessful hunters was preferred to no second permit or permits for all hunters. Results suggest that utility is not strictly defined by harvest or an individual's material gain but can involve preference for other outcomes that on the surface do not materially benefit an individual. Discrete stated choice modeling offers wildlife managers an effective way to assess constituent preferences related to new regulations before implementing them. 

  18. Anatomical evidence for scent guided foraging in the turkey vulture. (United States)

    Grigg, Nathan P; Krilow, Justin M; Gutierrez-Ibanez, Cristian; Wylie, Douglas R; Graves, Gary R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N


    The turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) is a widespread, scavenging species in the Western Hemisphere that locates carrion by smell. Scent guided foraging is associated with an expansion of the olfactory bulbs of the brain in vertebrates, but no such neuroanatomical data exists for vultures. We provide the first measurements of turkey vulture brains, including the size of their olfactory bulbs and numbers of mitral cells, which provide the primary output of the olfactory bulbs. Comparative analyses show that the turkey vulture has olfactory bulbs that are 4× larger and contain twice as many mitral cells as those of the sympatric black vulture (Coragyps atratus), despite having brains that are 20% smaller. The turkey vulture has the largest olfactory bulbs in absolute terms and adjusted for brain size among birds, but the number of mitral cells is proportional to the size of their olfactory bulbs. The combination of large olfactory bulbs, high mitral cell counts and a greatly enlarged nasal cavity likely reflects a highly sensitive olfactory system. We suggest that this sensitive sense of smell allowed the turkey vulture to colonize biomes that are suboptimal for scavenging birds and become the most widespread vulture species in the world.

  19. Metagenomic analysis of the turkey gut RNA virus community

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    Scheffler Brian E


    Full Text Available Abstract Viral enteric disease is an ongoing economic burden to poultry producers worldwide, and despite considerable research, no single virus has emerged as a likely causative agent and target for prevention and control efforts. Historically, electron microscopy has been used to identify suspect viruses, with many small, round viruses eluding classification based solely on morphology. National and regional surveys using molecular diagnostics have revealed that suspect viruses continuously circulate in United States poultry, with many viruses appearing concomitantly and in healthy birds. High-throughput nucleic acid pyrosequencing is a powerful diagnostic technology capable of determining the full genomic repertoire present in a complex environmental sample. We utilized the Roche/454 Life Sciences GS-FLX platform to compile an RNA virus metagenome from turkey flocks experiencing enteric disease. This approach yielded numerous sequences homologous to viruses in the BLAST nr protein database, many of which have not been described in turkeys. Our analysis of this turkey gut RNA metagenome focuses in particular on the turkey-origin members of the Picornavirales, the Caliciviridae, and the turkey Picobirnaviruses.

  20. Crustal thickness of Turkey determined by receiver function (United States)

    Tezel, Timur; Shibutani, Takuo; Kaypak, Bülent


    Two-hundred and sixty-seven teleseismic events with a moment magnitude greater than 5.5 which occurred between January 2005 and October 2010 were analyzed to determine the Moho depth variation beneath Turkey by using the Receiver Function (RF) technique. The RF technique was applied to 120 broadband seismic stations, which were already deployed in the area permanently by the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD). The RFs were stacked considering back-azimuth, slowness and waveform similarities to enhance the signal/noise ratio. The genetic algorithm (GA) was used to obtain both 1-D shear-wave speed model and the Moho depth beneath each seismic station. A data set consisting of 112 shear-speed models derived from RFs revealed the crustal structure of Turkey. For imaging, several 2-D profiles of depth-migrated RFs were constructed to delineate the fine crustal structure. The Moho discontinuity is clearly seen on all profiles and the mid-crustal velocity discontinuity within the crust is observed in some profiles. The depth of the Moho varies between 24 and 48 km. The thinnest crustal thickness is located on the coast of Western Turkey, and the deepest Moho boundary is observed in Eastern Turkey. The shear wave velocities vary between 4.0 km/s and 4.5 km/s in the uppermost mantle beneath Turkey.

  1. Food allergy knowledge and attitude of restaurant personnel in Turkey. (United States)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Kavut, Ayşe Baççıoğlu; Kartal, İbrahim; Beyhun, Ercument Nazim; Çayır, Atilla; Mutlu, Mehmet; Özkan, Behzat


    The incidence of food-induced allergic reactions is gradually increasing. Most of these allergic reactions occur in restaurants. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the awareness of restaurant personnel about food allergy. The training, knowledge levels on food allergy, and comfort level in providing safe food of 351 restaurant personnel in Erzurum Province, Turkey, were assessed through a face-to-face survey. Among the participants, 81.5% were male (mean age 28.5 ± 8.5 years). Among them, 17.1% were chefs, 11.1% managers, 5.7% owners, and 66.1% waiters. Food allergy training was reported by 17.1% of the participants. The rates of restaurant personnel who gave the correct answers to the 4 questionnaire items, "Customers with food allergies can safely consume a small amount of that food/Food allergic reaction can cause death/If a customer is having an allergic reaction, it is appropriate to immediately serve them water to 'dilute' the allergen/Removing an allergen from a finished meal (eg, taking off nuts) may be all that is necessary to provide a safe meal for an allergic customer," which measure food allergy knowledge levels, were 46.4%, 65.7%, 55.0%, and 65.7%, respectively. According to our study, there are gaps in the food allergy knowledge of restaurant personnel. Because preparing and serving safe meals to patients with food allergy in restaurants is important, the training of restaurant personnel in food allergy is necessary. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. Breeding barley for quality in Turkey

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    Kaya Yuksel


    Full Text Available We evaluated a total of 411 genotypes, including 334 breeding lines with 77 checks from Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Breeding Program of Turkey (BBPT, based upon their grain yield (GY and quality traits (namely protein content-PC, acid detergent fiber-ADF, thousand kernel weight-TKW, kernel size-KS and test weight-TW, during the 5 consecutive cropping seasons, from 2007-2008 to 2011-2012. Broad-sense heritability (H values for quality traits were moderate (0.57-0.65, while it was low (0.43 for grain yield. Accordingly, grain physical features (namely TW, KS and TKW were positively significantly correlated with GY, but negatively significantly correlated with PC. Results of our study showed that selection for GY and quality traits was less efficient than we expected, due to undesirable multi-variate correlations such as GY vs PC and low to moderate H values. Therefore, we tried to put suggestions forward to the BBPT, by following discussing about our ability to select for high GY and acceptable quality in barley.

  3. Continuing medical education in Turkey: Recent developments

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    Yaman Hakan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Turkish Association of Medicine founded a Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Committee in 1993 to evaluate and accredit scientific meetings and publications. The aims of this project were to raise the standards of meetings and to introduce compulsory revalidation and re-certification for physicians in Turkey. Discussion Since the year 1994, 2348 applications to the Continuing Medical Education board have been made (mostly for scientific meetings, and 95% of these applications have been accepted. Physicians received 139.014 credits during this time. This number is increasing every year. Meeting organisers' demand for such a kind of evaluation is increasing, because participants increasingly request it. Summary Efforts for revalidation and re-certification of physicians have not been completely successful yet. In the near future the Co-ordination Council of Medical Speciality Societies is going to oblige member associations to establish speciality boards. This will be the first step to the conventional use of Continuing Medical Education credits in occupational evaluation. Time-limited re-certification of physicians is the principal goal of Turkish Medical Association. Efforts to implement this change in legislation are being made.

  4. Prospects of Cooperation between Russia and Turkey

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    Elvin Aghayev


    Full Text Available Russian – Turkish relations go deep into the past. From the Cold War and the relations between the Soviet Union and the United States certainly there has not been a more complicated relationship in international relations. Both countries have different strategic positions, a different dominant religion, a different past, but their relationship largely depends on the future of Eurasia. This paper will deal with relations between the two countries since the establishment of the first diplomatic contacts in the 15th century, through the relationship during the time of Peter the Great, and will mention the periods of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Cold War era. Special attention will be focused on the current relations between the two countries, especially after the conflict in 2015, when Turkey shot down a Russian plane over Syria. Special attention will be focused on energy policy and the potential for building a nuclear power plant in Mersin, and the continuation of Turkish stream. The paper will deal with economics and trade exchange, which have almost disappeared following the 2015 incident, security cooperation and Turkey’s plans to buy the defense system S-400 from Russia, as well as relations between the two countries towards NATO. The paper will end with the projection of the prospects for the economic relations between the two countries.

  5. An evaluation of inflation expectations in Turkey

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    Barış Soybilgen


    Full Text Available Expectations of inflation play a critical role in the process of price setting in the market. Central banks closely follow developments in inflation expectations to implement a successful monetary policy. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (CBRT conducts a survey of experts and decision makers in the financial and real sectors to reveal market expectations and predictions of current and future inflation. The survey is conducted every month. This paper examines the accuracy of these survey predictions using forecast evaluation techniques. We focus on both point and sign accuracy of the predictions. Although point predictions from CBRT surveys are compared with those of autoregressive models, sign predictions are evaluated on their value to a user. We also test the predictions for bias. Unlike the empirical evidence from other economies, our results show that autoregressive models outperform most of inflation expectations in forecasting inflation. This indicates that inflation expectations have poor point forecast accuracies. However, we show that sign predictions for all inflation expectations have value to a user.

  6. Mobbing Exposure of Anaesthesiology Residents in Turkey. (United States)

    Aykut, Gülnihal; Efe, Esra Mercanoğlu; Bayraktar, Selcan; Şentürk, Sinem; Başeğmez, İrem; Özkumit, Özlem; Kabak, Elmas; Yavaşçaoğlu, Belgin; Bilgin, Hülya


    In recent years, psychological problems that are caused by working conditions, like burn out syndrome, are more commonly observed. In our study, we aimed to evaluate mobbing exposure, factors causing mobbing and precautions for mobbing in residency students who are educated in anaesthesiology and reanimation clinics in Turkey. After obtaining consent from the ethics committee, we sent our questionnaires to the secretariats of the departments by postal mail. Completed questionnaires were collected in our department's secretariat blindly and randomly mixed. One hundred and one participants were returned the questionnaires. Data was statistically analysed in SPSS 21.0 software programme. During residency programme, sated to have experienced mobbing one or more time. Interestingly, 5.9% participants complained of physical mobbing. Mobbing exposure was more common in females. The most serious new onset psychosomatic symptoms stated during residency were committing suicide (2%), addiction (16%), severe depression (18%), panic attack (8%), more accidents (7%) and tendency of violence (15%). In mobbing group there was statistically significant dissatisfaction rate. In professions where mobbing is common, incidences of psychiatric diseases and suicide attempts are high are increased. Who are under risk for experiencing mobbing should be noticed carefully to ensure good judgement and problems should be inspected objectively in a detailed manner. Anesthesiology societies and other medical professional societies should establish mobbing committees. Thus, mobbing problems can be resolved and healthy career oppurtunities can be presented to residents.


    Ankara, Hasan Giray


    This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated. The inequalities and their first difference (difference in inequalities between 2003 and 2008) were decomposed using the approaches of Wagstaff et al. (2003). Higher socioeconomic characteristics (such as higher levels of wealth and education and better neighbourhood) were found to be associated with higher rates of abortion. Inequality analyses indicated that although deprived women become more familiar with abortion over time, abortion was still more concentrated among affluent women in the 2008 survey. The decomposition analyses suggested that wealth, age, education and level of regional development were the most important contributors to income-related inequality in abortion. Therefore policies that (i) increase the level of wealth and education of deprived women, (ii) develop deprived regions of Turkey, (iii) improve knowledge about family planning and, especially (iv) enhance the accessibility of family planning services for deprived and/or rural women, may be beneficial for reducing socioeconomic variations in abortion in the country.

  8. History of Spine Deformity in Turkey. (United States)

    Naderi, Sait; Dinc, Gulten


    Spine deformities are among the most important spinal disorders, affecting health-related life quality. Although there are some studies in past centuries, most spine deformity-related studies and research has started in the last century. Many surgical techniques, performed between 1960 and 1990, made scoliosis a touchable pathology. These techniques started with Harrington"s system, wiring techniques, pedicle screw techniques, and all other universal techniques. Anterior and 360 degree techniques contributed to this process. The use of spinal osteotomies, and recent technologies such as magnetic rods, intraoperative neuromonitoring added much to the body of knowledge of literature and improved the outcome. Advancement has not been limited to surgery only and diagnostic advancements had also impact to this process. Surgical techniques performed in the west have been performed soon in our countries. Currently almost all surgical techniques for treatment of spine deformities can be performed in our country. This article reviews historical aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of spine deformities in Turkey.

  9. Attitudes of oncologists toward euthanasia in Turkey. (United States)

    Mayda, Atilla Senih; Ozkara, Erdem; Corapçioğlu, Funda


    There have been intensive debates about euthanasia and attempts to change laws on euthanasia in all countries. What doctors and particularly oncologists think about euthanasia must be taken into consideration, as their voices are crucial in this dialogue. The aim of this study was to find out how Turkish doctors approach euthanasia in the context of cancer. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 85 oncologists out of a total 800 in active oncology practice. Of the oncologists surveyed, 43.8% did not object to euthanasia. Some 33.7% had been asked to perform euthanasia and 41.5% believed that euthanasia was performed secretly although it is against the law in Turkey. Forty-two doctors (50.6%) noted that they had withdrawn treatment in patients. Doctors who encounter terminally ill patients with cancer should update their knowledge about patients' rights and euthanasia. Doctors, who are often asked to perform euthanasia, especially in the cancer setting, can help to illuminate the debates about euthanasia.

  10. Art of Wrought Copper in Turkey

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    Nuran KAYABAŞI


    Full Text Available Among the handicraft, art of being a coppersmith has been occurred intensively in the past. The fast developing socio - economic structure diminished the value and the place of the copper vessels. Heavy and beautiful vessels made by beating left their places to thin, light aluminum, pl astic, glass and steel vessels made by machinery. The demand for copper is diminished. Therefore being a coppersmith has become less and less important every day. However, in the last few years, copper vessels becoming a touristic souvenir became a source of hope for the traditional coppersmith art to live on. Copperworking is applied in our country in some regions and there are people who live off it. Souvenirs, daily used vessels, and requirements of the rural areas are produced in centers such as İstanb ul, Ankara, Tokat, Çorum, Erzincan, Diyarbakır, Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep, Bursa, Kastamonu, Çankırı, Giresun and Trabzon. The situation of being a coppersmith in Turkey is explained, examples are given from souvenir copper items produced in Ankara, and sug gestions are made to keep this craft alive.

  11. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

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    Yimaz Sinem


    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  12. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey (United States)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.


    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89 %) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14 %). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86 %) occurred in rural areas, with only 14 % in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  13. Electric power generation and environment in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzuner, S. [Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Corporation, Ankara (Turkey)


    The paper, submitted by the Government of Turkey to the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Coal and Thermal Power, 5-6 October 1998, outlines the Government`s current energy policy for power generation which gives priority to the utilization of domestic resources. Electricity demand is met by hydroelectric and fossil fuel sources. In 1997, hydro installed capacity was 10102.6 MW and thermal 11786.8 (from lignite, natural gas and oil). Domestic low quality lignite contributes 48.2% of the thermal power generated, but its share has decreased over the period 1985 to 1997 from 64.6% as a consequence of installation of natural gas combined cycle power plants. FGD plants will be retrofitted to existing coal-fired plants to meet environmental requirements. One such plant is in operation at Cayirhan Power Station and FGD plants are being built at Yatagan, Kemerkoy and Yenikoy. New units at Cayirhan, Kangal and Elbistan-B incorporated FGD plants. Almost all plants have electofilters operating at 99.4-99.8% efficiency. A new plant, Can Thermal Power Station will be based on circulating fluidized bed technology. 3 tabs.

  14. Forensic nursing in Bolu, Turkey: a survey. (United States)

    Gökdoğan, M R; Erkol, Zerrin


    Forensic nursing is generally considered to be the application of the forensic aspect of health care combined with the bio-psychosocial education of the registered nurse in the scientific investigation and treatment of trauma and violence. In 1990 the term forensic nursing was established in the USA and has been developing in many countries as a subdivision of forensic sciences a nursing since. The first masters thesis with the subject of forensic nursing was written in 1997 at Istanbul University, Institute of Forensic Sciences. The aim of this survey is to outline the approach to forensic nursing by nurses in the province of Bolu, Turkey, and to determine the influence of education at undergraduate level and continuing education programs lectured in Istanbul. In this study, a questionnaire has been applied at random to clinical nurses and nursing educators, a total of 101 participants. 11 out of 18 questions, has also been compared with results acquired from Istanbul in 2002. The results were defined using SPSS and Primer statistics software. The results of this research revealed, that no formal training/education in clinical forensics has been received. It is suggested that formal education programs have to be developed at both, undergraduate and postgraduate levels, providing initial and continuing education.

  15. Human-induced environmental degradation during Anthropocene in Turkey (United States)

    Efe, Recep; Curebal, Isa; Soykan, Abdullah; Sönmez, Suleyman


    affected by humans (Sanderson et al., 2002; Braje&Erlandson, 2014). The area left in its natural state corresponds to only 15%. Due to population increase, agricultural areas shrinked, forests were destroyed, and pastures declined in size. More chemical fertilizers and agricultural pesticides were used in order to obtain more products. A greater number of machines were employed in agriculture, which led to a rise in the number of products. The human pressure on the environment in Anatolia dates back to thousands of years. Nomadic peoples on these lands have settled in the last 200 years due to settlement policies (Cürebal et al., 2015). This process saw the establishment of villages in higher and inclined areas as a result of the effects of the nomadic culture of Turkomans and other people in Anatolia. Forests in the inclined areas around these villages were destroyed and turned into agricultural areas. Machines, fertilizers, and pesticides were utilized in agricultural activities in order to produce more crops. This transformation led to an increased erosion effect, deterioration of soil, agricultural and environmental pollution (Chin et al., 2013; Hoang et al., 2014; Matteo et al., 2014). The change caused by industrialization gained ground in the 1950s in Turkey. In particular, migration from rural areas to cities gaining pace after the World War II brought about an increased human pressure in and around big cities. Areas around the cities became centers of attraction for many people. Plains around settlement areas were opened to settlement, and most industrial facilities were established there. As a consequence, first class agricultural areas were lost. Settlements and industrial areas generated large amounts of solid and liquid waste. Uncontrolled discharge of liquid waste and intensely stored solid waste caused the physical and chemical pollution of rivers, lakes, and seas to increase in Turkey and other parts of the world (Andersson et al., 2006; Steffen et al

  16. Metabolism of lipid labeled very low density lipoprotein from laying turkey hens in laying turkey hens and immature turkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, W.L.


    Labeled very low density lipoprotein of laying turkey hens (VLDL-L) was prepared by injecting 1-/sup 14/C-palmitate abd subsequently isolating the VLDL-L by ultracentrifugation at d.1.006. The isolated VLDL-L then was injected into recipient laying hens, immature males, or immature females. Size exclusion chromatography of recipient laying hen plasma showed no remnant particles of smaller size or greater density than the injected VLDL-L up to 400 min postinjection. In the immature birds of either sex, remnant particles of greater density and smaller size than the injected VLDL-L were present when blood samples were withdrawn at 5 (males) or 1 (females) min postinjection. In laying females, both VLDL-L-triglyceride (VLDL-L-TG) and phospholipids (VLDL-L-PL) had identical fractional clearance rates of .00253 min-1 and had parallel rates of disappearance. The irreversible loss of VLDL-L-TG was 12.8 g/day while it was 4.8 g/day for VLDL-L-PL. Thirty-one percent of the injected radioactivity was isolated in ovarian follicles undergoing rapid development. VLDL-L-TG decayed with a single exponential decay component in both immature males and females, but decayed more rapidly in the males; it also decayed more rapidly in the immature birds of both sexes than in laying females. There was also an increase in triglyceride (TG) radioactivity in lipoproteins of d greater than 1.006. The VLDL-L-PL decayed in a more complex pattern in the immature birds, showing more than a single exponential decay component. There was also an increase in phospholipid (PL) radioactivity in lipoproteins of d greater than 1.006. THe VLDL-TG and PL radioactivities did not decay in a parallel pattern in immature birds where remnant particles of d greater than 1.006 were present soon after lipid labeled VLDL-L injection.

  17. Comparison of genetic characteristics of canine papillomaviruses in Turkey. (United States)

    Oğuzoğlu, Tuba Çiğdem; Timurkan, Mehmet Özkan; Koç, Bahattin Taylan; Alkan, Feray


    Papillomavirus (PV) infections often cause benign and malignant skin neoplasia in dogs. To date, twenty types of canine papillomaviruses (CPVs) have been described worldwide. A detailed molecular characterization of CPVs in Turkey is lacking. In the present study, oral and mucosal lesions from 13 dogs with suspected CPV infection from the Mediterranean and central Anatolian regions of Turkey were analyzed. The partial gene sequences of the L1, E6, and E7 regions were compared with those of CPV types in the GenBank database. The results showed that CPV-1 infection was the dominant type of canine papillomatosis in Turkey. In addition, there was no statistically significant association between the frequency of the disease and the age or gender of the dog (p>0.05). However, all the dogs were pedigree breeds, suggesting that the disease may be more prevalent among pure-bred dogs than mixed breeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Social and legal dimensions discussion of conscientious refusal in Turkey

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    Full Text Available Even though the discussion of conscientious objection, the refusal of military service due to individual’s moral values or religious beliefs, is new in Turkey, the subject has become the focus of intense interest. The discussion of conscientious objection in Turkey has come the to the fore with the heated debates between the glorification of the dynamics of Turkish social structure towards military service and the critique of militarism and conscientious objection’s legal dimensions, as well. Since the reduction of discussions in this context in Turkey to the legal dimension is the ignorance of social reality constituting basis to the legal dimension, the subject is examined with reference to the social and historical outlook on this issue and the study is built on dimensions.

  19. Scientific Relations Between Turkey and Germany: Turkish-German Universities

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    Fahri Türk


    Full Text Available Turkey and Germany are two countries which have well advanced relations in the fields of politics, economy, military, education and science for many years. These relations contribute to both sides in different aspects. However, when two countries are compared with each other, Germany transfers massive amounts of science and especially technology to Turkey. The present study deals with the transferring scientific experience from Germany to Turkey within the framework of universities, especially focusing on the Turkish-German University. Following a brief history of Turkish-German relations, the importance of the republican period as well as Turkish-German universities regarding the relations between both countries will be analysed through expert opinions and empirical data.

  20. Type Localities of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) from Turkey. (United States)

    Dursun, Ahmet; Fent, Meral


    The Heteroptera (Hemiptera) fauna of the Palaearctic Region is represented by 9365 species belonging to 1632 genera of which 1349 species belonging to 469 genera are also recorded from Turkey. Type localities of 237 species are in Turkey of which 108 species and 4 subspecies are endemic for the Heteroptera fauna of Turkey, indicating the importance of the country as a refugium, genetic hotspot and dispersal centre during pleistocene glaciation. Some heteroptera are important in agriculture as predators used in biological control or as ectoparasits and pests on plants. Most heteropteran species are phytophagous feeding on leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and shoots and cause economic damage. The suborder Heteroptera comprises aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial species.

  1. Beyond convergence: Poland and Turkey en route to high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Raiser


    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the policy reform experiences of Poland and Turkey en route to high income. For both countries, globalization has presented unprecedented opportunities to catch up, unleased by integration into European and global markets and the establishment of macroeconomic discipline. These opportunities were reinforced by the creation of economic institutions to strengthen competition and support private entrepreneurship, catalyzed by the convergence process with the European Union. Both Poland and Turkey have shown resilience following the 2008 global crisis, but continued success will require renewed structural reform measures. Dealing with the challenging of aging while at the same time finding a way to sustain productivity growth through greater domestic innovation is shaping Poland’s policy agenda. Turkey's structural and demographic potential as well as its strategic location between the markets of Europe and Asia offers attractive value proposition to investors, which could be further enhanced with improvements in business regulations and economic governance.

  2. Avian chlamydiosis in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šatrović E.


    Full Text Available Chlamydiosis is a contagious disease of birds, mammals, reptiles and humans. So far it was demonstrated in 469 species of birds and among them, turkeys are the most susceptible domestic poultry species. The disease appears in epizootic form in intensive turkey farming. Since commercial poultry rearing is under-developed in Bosnia and Herzegovina, our investigation was based on extensively reared turkeys. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 26 birds and infection was proven by common chlamydial LPS antigen detection tests (IDEIA and CW. We have used rRT-PCR technique targeting chlamydial ompA gene region in order to prove Chlamydia species. Five birds, (19.2% were found positive as judged by IDEIA and CW tests. Among them one was positive Cp. psittaci speciesspecific rRT-PCR, ompA gene.

  3. Syrian Refugees, Health and Migration Legislation in Turkey. (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif


    This paper discusses the crucial effects of Turkish health and migration laws on Syrian refugees' access to public health services and social determinants of health. Key aspects of current Turkish laws affect the health of both refugees and Turkish citizens in many ways. The huge influx of refugees is increasing communicable disease risks, overcrowding hospitals, and more generally straining financial and health resources. Turkey's United Nations membership and its candidacy for European Union (EU) have led to increased alignment of Turkey's refugee and migration policies with international law. Major differences remain, however, and Turkey's remaining noncompliance with international refugee laws is a major force driving Syrian refugee's flight to EU countries, as refugees desperately seek the right to better health and social services.

  4. Turkey's EU Quest and Political Cleavages under AKP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali


    This article analyses the extent to which the rise of political Islam (Note 1) in Turkey has triggered an intense and polarized debate about the principle eligibility of Turkey to be a full European Union (EU) member state. The Justice and Development Party’s (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi......-AKP) election victories in 2002 and 2007 have been considered to be a serious obstacle to Turkish EU accession. This article argues that even if the AKP government were able to meet the objective criteria of the EU acquis, European opposition to Turkish accession would persist for two main reasons: (1......) The overall political targets of political Islam in Turkey seems less compatible with the traditional Turkish EU quest than formerly (2) The Turkish political Islamic turnaround is contributing to a climate of increasing scepticism in Europe, and presents significant obstacles to EU accession. As a result...

  5. 75 FR 36358 - Notice of Establishment of the United States-Turkey Business Council and Request for Applicants... (United States)


    ... economic development. --The ability to offer a broad perspective on the business environment in Turkey... International Trade Administration Notice of Establishment of the United States-Turkey Business Council and... States and ] Turkey agreed to establish a U.S.-Turkey Business Council. This notice announces the...

  6. An investigation on nuclear energy policy in Turkey and public perception (United States)

    Coskun, Mehmet Burhanettin; Tanriover, Banu


    Turkey, which meets nearly 70 per cent of its energy demands with import, is facing the problems of energy security and current account deficit as a result of its dependence on foreign sources in terms of energy input. It is also known that Turkey is having environmental problems due to the increases in CO2 emission. Considering these problems in Turkish economy, where energy input is commonly used, it is necessary to use energy sources efficiently and provide alternative energy sources. Due to the dependency of renewable sources on meteorological conditions (the absence of enough sun, wind, and water sources), the energy generation could not be provided efficiently and permanently from these sources. At this point, nuclear energy as analternative energy source maintains its importance as a sustainable energy source that providing energy in 7 days and 24 hours. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the nuclear energy subject within the context of negative public perceptions emerged after Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) disasters and to investigate in the economic framework.

  7. An investigation on nuclear energy policy in Turkey and public perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Mehmet Burhanettin


    Full Text Available Turkey, which meets nearly 70 per cent of its energy demands with import, is facing the problems of energy security and current account deficit as a result of its dependence on foreign sources in terms of energy input. It is also known that Turkey is having environmental problems due to the increases in CO2 emission. Considering these problems in Turkish economy, where energy input is commonly used, it is necessary to use energy sources efficiently and provide alternative energy sources. Due to the dependency of renewable sources on meteorological conditions (the absence of enough sun, wind, and water sources, the energy generation could not be provided efficiently and permanently from these sources. At this point, nuclear energy as analternative energy source maintains its importance as a sustainable energy source that providing energy in 7 days and 24 hours. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the nuclear energy subject within the context of negative public perceptions emerged after Chernobyl (1986 and Fukushima (2011 disasters and to investigate in the economic framework.

  8. Natural and Non-natural distribution of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda TURAN


    Full Text Available African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 is a widespread freshwater species found in the Middle East, and throughout Central and South Africa. C. gariepinus, inhabits natural lakes, fishponds, streams, and natural ponds in both deep and shallow waters. C. gariepinus is naturally found in the Asi, Seyhan, Ceyhan, Goksu Rivers. It was reported that C. gariepinus was translocated to the Aksu River by General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. African catfish has increasing commercial importance in fisheries and aquaculture in Turkey. A recently introduced population of C. gariepinus has established in the Sakarya River (Eskişehir due to aquaculture purposes in the north part of the Turkey. C. gariepinus introduction has negative effects on macro invertebrate community that was reflected by decrease in diversity, richness and biomass. There is also community-level impact of introduction that results variation in macro invertebrate composition in the rivers. Stomach contents of C. gariepinus basically rely on Pisces, Arthropod, Mollusca and plant materials to a considerable extent. Therefore, introduction of C. gariepinus in dams, rivers and lakes can cause food competitions with native fish and make irreversible changes in the fish community and cause loses of native fish. The present paper reviews published literature, reports and working papers about distribution and management of C. gariepinus in Turkey’s reservoirs.

  9. Liver transplantation in Turkey: historical review and future perspectives. (United States)

    Akbulut, Sami; Yilmaz, Sezai


    Since the first successful liver transplantation by Starzl et al. in 1967, liver transplantation has become the standard therapy for many liver diseases, mainly chronic liver disease. Most liver transplantations performed in Europe and North America utilize deceased donors while a considerable portion of organ requirements is supplied by living donors in Asian countries including Turkey. The actual history of solid organ transplantation in Turkey began with the pioneering work of Dr. Haberal in collaboration with Thomaz E. Starzl in 1974 in Colorado University at Denver. The first successful solid organ transplantation in Turkey was accomplished by Haberal in 1975 with a living donor renal transplantation. Subsequently, legislations no 2238 and 2594 dated 1979 and 1982, respectively, were passed, paving the way for cadaveric tissue/organ utilization and preservation in Turkey. The first deceased donor liver transplantation and the first living donor liver transplantation were performed in 1988 and 1990, respectively. There are currently 45 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. Of these, 25 are state universities, 8 are private (foundation) universities, 9 are private hospitals, and 3 are training and research hospitals belonging to the Ministry of Health. A total of 7152 liver transplantations were performed in Turkey between January 2002 and May 2014. Of these, 4848 (67.8%) used living donors and 2304 (32.2%) used deceased donors. These figures indicate that, despite widespread organ donation campaigns and media-sponsored propaganda, desired targets have not been met yet in providing deceased organ donation. Despite unsatisfactory levels attained in supplying deceased donors, both the number of annual liver transplantations and improvements in overall survival rates of organ transplanted patients continues to increase. Actually, the one-year patient survival rate after liver transplantation in 2013 was 80.5%. This rate is getting better with each passing year


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA


    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  11. Open Access in Turkey and Comparison with Other Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Karasözen


    Full Text Available The number of open access journals and institutional repositories, as a product of open access movement has grown rapidly in recent years. Open access research articles remove the barriers in accessing scientific research results and accelerate the communication among the scientist worldwide. In many countries the number of institutional archives and open access journal are increasing. In this article, the recent developments in open access journals, institutional repositories and open courseware in Turkey are summarized and compared with some countries. A sample mandatory institutional repository policy document is given with some suggestion for establishing open access in Turkey.

  12. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka


    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  13. BOOST H2O - Field Training Activities for Hydrologic Science near Lake Iznik, Turkey (United States)

    Derin, Y.; Hatipoglu, E.; Sunnetci, M. O.; Tanyas, H.; Unal Ercan, H.; Aktuna, Z.; Agouridis, C.; Fryar, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Schroeder, P.; Ece, O. I.; Yilmaz, K. K.


    Field activities are often the best pedagogy for reinforcing principles learned in the classroom. As part of the 'Building Opportunity Out of Science and Technology: Helping Hydrologic Outreach (BOOST H2O)' project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of State, six graduate students from three Turkish universities, four U.S. professors, and two Turkish professors participated in a week of training activities during May-June 2013. Field activities took place in the Lake Iznik region in western Turkey. The lake basin is geologically complex, with fault-controlled hydrogeology, and land use is dominated by agriculture, particularly olive cultivation. Professors trained the students (four females and two males) on concepts and techniques in surface-water and groundwater hydrology, water quality, and related computer software. Activities included stream gauging (using top-setting rods and a current meter), geomorphic assessment of streams (slope, cross-sections, and bed-clast size), measuring depth to water in wells, and collection of water samples from springs, wells, and the lake. Measurements of pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and alkalinity were performed along with sampling for stable isotope (oxygen and hydrogen) analysis. The students visited local villages, farms, surface-water intakes, and recreational springs for a holistic approach towards integrated water resource management. Results were discussed in the context of lithology, tectonics, land use, and other human impacts.

  14. First-aid home treatment of burns among children and some implications at Milas, Turkey. (United States)

    Karaoz, Banu


    This descriptive study was conducted among 130 families in Milas, Turkey, who have children ages 0 to 14 years. Among the 130 families, a total of 53 children (40.8%) experienced a burn event. Twenty-seven subjects (51%) had treated the burn with inappropriate remedies including yogurt, toothpaste, tomato paste, ice, raw egg whites, or sliced potato. Of the 28 subjects (52.8%) who had applied cold water to the burn site, 21 patients (39.6%) applied only cold water and 7 patients (13.2%) used another substance along with cold water. In addition, 13 subjects (24.5%) applied ice directly on the skin at the time of the burn. Excluding the subjects who had treated their burns with only cold water or with only ice, raw egg whites were the most commonly used agent, both alone (n = 3) or accompanied by cold water or ice (n = 6) in a total of 11 subjects (21%) who applied eggs. Based on these observations, it is suggested that educational programs emphasizing first-aid application of only cold water to burn injuries would be helpful in reducing morbidity and mortality rates. A nationwide educational program is needed to ensure that young burn victims receive appropriate first aid and to reduce the use of inappropriate home remedies and burn morbidity. Copyright (c) 2010 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A waterborne outbreak of epidemic diarrhea due to group A rotavirus in Malatya, Turkey. (United States)

    Koroglu, Mehmet; Yakupogullari, Yusuf; Otlu, Baris; Ozturk, Serhat; Ozden, Mehmet; Ozer, Ali; Sener, Kemal; Durmaz, Riza


    We characterized an outbreak of acute diarrheal disease caused by group A rotavirus that occurred during the Autumn of 2005 in Malatya City, Turkey. A total 9907 patients between 0 to 91 years old (mean age: 25.05�19.67) were included in the epidemic. The patients� data were prospectively collected and statistically analyzed. Microbiologic analyses were performed to determine the etiologic agent. Rapid onset diarrhea (98.36%), abdominal cramps (69%), fever (44.4%) and vomiting (69.6%) were the most common symptoms observed in patients. Rotavirus antigen was detected in 52.7% of the studied patients. RT-PCR analysis led to identification of Group A rotavirus as the causative agent of this epidemic. Simultaneous measurements of the drinking water samples yielded very low chlorine levels; as low as 0 to 0.05 mg/L. The outbreak investigation team indicated possible contamination of a large water depository from a water well, which supplies drinking water to two major districts of the city. Effective chlorination and blockage of the passage between the well and the water depository stopped the outbreak. This outbreak shows the high epidemic potency of rotavirus in large human populations, including all age groups, and underlines the importance of water safety in pipeline systems.

  16. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay (United States)


    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features. Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural processElevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  17. Stress-induced colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex in turkeys selected for increased body weight. (United States)

    Huff, G; Huff, W; Rath, N; Balog, J; Anthony, N B; Nestor, K


    Two stress models were used to induce colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC): Escherichia coli challenge following dexamethasone injection (Dex) and E. coli challenge preceding transport stress (Transport). A total of 160 birds from 3 lines of turkeys: a slow-growing line selected for egg production (Egg), a line selected for 16-wk BW (F line), and a Commercial line (Comm), were studied in a 3 x 3 x 2 (line x treatment x sex) factorial design. At 14 wk, the Dex group was treated with 3 injections of 2 mg of Dex/kg of BW followed by airsac challenge with 100 cfu of E. coli. The Transport group was given 5,000 cfu of the same E. coli and 8 d later was transported for 3 h and held for an additional 9 h in the transport vehicle. Controls of each line were neither stressed nor challenged with E. coli. Birds were necropsied 2 wk postchallenge. All birds were sexed, scored for airsacculitis (AS) and TOC, and knee synovia were cultured for E. coli. Percent mortality was unaffected by sex, was increased by the Dex treatment, and was higher in Dex-treated male Comm-line birds and Dex-treated female F-line birds compared with their respective nonchallenged controls. Both treatments increased AS scores, and scores of Dex-treated male Comm-line birds and female F-line birds were also higher compared with their respective controls. Male Comm birds under Transport had higher AS scores as compared with nonchallenged males and challenged females. The TOC incidence was increased by Dex only. There was no TOC in Egg-line birds, whereas TOC incidence approached significance in both Comm and F lines compared with the Egg line (P = 0.06). Males had twice as much TOC as females, and this approached significance in the F line (P = 0.06). There was a low level of TOC in male Transport birds of both large-bodied lines, whereas no female Transport birds had TOC lesions. Dex-treated male birds of both the F line and Comm line had significantly higher incidence of TOC compared

  18. Evaporitic minibasins of the Sivas Basin (Turkey) (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kavak, Kaan


    The Oligo-Miocene Sivas basin (Turkey) was strongly affected by salt tectonics, best expressed in its central part. Halokinesis initiated from a main evaporite layer deposited during the Upper Eocene. Such evaporitic accumulations led to two generations of mini basins filled with continental to marine deposits, and nowadays separated by diapiric gypsum walls or welds. Some mini-basins developed above depleting diapirs, filled by more than 50 % of lacustrine to sebkhaic gypsiferous facies. These evaporitic mini-basins (EMB) developed during periods of limited fluvial input, when diapiric stems were outcropping with insignificant topographic reliefs. Chemical analyses (S, O and Sr) suggest that such evaporites were sourced from the recycling of adjacent salt structures. EMB development above diapirs can be explained by (i) high regional accommodation (Ribes et al., 2016), (ii) erosion of the diapiric crests by the fluvial system preceding evaporite deposition, (iii) deflation of some diapirs in a transtensive setting (Kergaravat, 2015), and (iv) fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites. EMB stand out from other siliciclastic mini-basins of the Sivas Basin by (i) their small dimension (< 1km), (ii) their teardrop encased shape and (iii) exacerbated internal halokinetic deformations. The latter specifically include large halokinetic wedges, mega-slumps or inverted mega-flaps. Comparison with siliciclastic mini-basins suggests that strong halokinesis of EMB was triggered by the ductile rheology of their evaporitic infilling. Additional filling and subsequent withdrawal of EMB may have been also increased by (i) the large amount of solutes provided by leaching of the outcropping diapiric structure together with the fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites and (iii) the high density of the gypsum and anhydrite compared to halite. The Great Kavir in Iran could display present day analogues relevant of early-stage EMB. Finally, although EMB have never been identified in

  19. Prevalence of bruxism awareness in Istanbul, Turkey. (United States)

    Nekora-Azak, Aysen; Yengin, Esengun; Evlioglu, Gulumser; Ceyhan, Arzu; Ocak, Ozlem; Issever, Halim


    The reported prevalence of symptoms related to bruxism varies in the general population because of different investigative methodologies, operational definitions, clinical criteria, and samples of population. Awareness of bruxism in the general population is 15% to 23%, however, this rate increases to 50% to 90% in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported symptoms associated with bruxism in Istanbul, Turkey and to analyze the correlation between bruxism and factors such as age, gender, marital status, and occupation. Seven-hundred-ninety-five (795) adult subjects who resided in the city of Istanbul were interviewed by telephone about their age, gender, marital status, occupation, and description of the prevalence of bruxism awareness. The overall prevalence of clenching teeth was 45.7% and that of grinding teeth was 21.6%. Women responded positively to the questions more often than men. The data showed significant differences between males and females, regarding clenching teeth OR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.05-1.87), difficulty opening OR: 2.64 (95% CI: 1.63-4.26), headache on awakening OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.58-3.27) joint sounds OR: 1.72 (95% CI: 1.24-2.38), sore on awakening OR: 2.97 (95% CI: 1.91-4.61), influence in daily activity (OR: 2.26 CI: 1.38-3.67). Tooth wear in the married group was higher than the single group. Age distribution showed significant differences related to grinding teeth, tooth wear and joint sounds. There were statistically significant differences between bruxism and job categories. As a conclusion, this study suggest an association between bruxism and stressful events such as marital status and job problems.

  20. The effect of sage, sodium erythorbate and a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate on the quality of turkey meatballs stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions. (United States)

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, M


    1. The combined effect of sage (S), sodium erythorbate (SE), a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate (MIX) and vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of cooked turkey meatballs stored at 4°C was investigated. The physicochemical properties (colour, MDA, AV, pH, water activity), microbiological quality characteristics (counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, fungi, coliforms and Clostridium sp.) and flavour attributes of meatballs were determined. 2. The values of the colour parameters L*, a* and b* were affected by the additives and packaging method. The colour of meatballs was better protected by sodium erythorbate than by sage or a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate. The additives effectively stabilised lipids against oxidation and slowed down hydrolytic changes in turkey meatballs. Sage and a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate showed stronger antioxidant properties than sodium erythorbate added alone. Products with additives were characterised by better sensory quality than control samples. Sage and MIX prevented the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. All additives inhibited the growth of coliforms. 3. MAP was more effective than VP in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality stability of cooked turkey meatballs. However, VP appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in turkey meatballs.