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Sample records for water displacement leg

  1. Water displacement leg volumetry in clinical studies - A discussion of error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Water displacement leg volumetry is a highly reproducible method, allowing the confirmation of efficacy of vasoactive substances. Nevertheless errors of its execution and the selection of unsuitable patients are likely to negatively affect the outcome of clinical studies in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Discussion Placebo controlled double-blind drug studies in CVI were searched (Cochrane Review 2005, MedLine Search until December 2007) and assessed with regard to efficacy (volume reduction of the leg), patient characteristics, and potential methodological error sources. Almost every second study reported only small drug effects (≤ 30 mL volume reduction). As the most relevant error source the conduct of volumetry was identified. Because the practical use of available equipment varies, volume differences of more than 300 mL - which is a multifold of a potential treatment effect - have been reported between consecutive measurements. Other potential error sources were insufficient patient guidance or difficulties with the transition from the Widmer CVI classification to the CEAP (Clinical Etiological Anatomical Pathophysiological) grading. Summary Patients should be properly diagnosed with CVI and selected for stable oedema and further clinical symptoms relevant for the specific study. Centres require a thorough training on the use of the volumeter and on patient guidance. Volumetry should be performed under constant conditions. The reproducibility of short term repeat measurements has to be ensured. PMID:20070899

  2. Direct and indirect methods for the quantification of leg volume: Comparison between water displacement volumetry, the disk model method and the frustum sign model method, using the correlation coefficient and the limits of agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.K.S. Kaulesar Sukul (D. M K S); P.Th. den Hoed (Pieter); T. Johannes (Tanja); R. van Dolder (R.); E. Benda (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractVolume changes can be measured either directly by water-displacement volumetry or by various indirect methods in which calculation of the volume is based on circumference measurements. The aim of the present study was to determine the most appropriate indirect method for lower leg volume

  3. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  4. Comparação entre as medidas inferenciais de edema de membros inferiores utilizando o Leg-O-Meter e o deslocador de água Comparison between inferential measurements of lower limb edema utilizing the Leg-O-Meter and water displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABC Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A quantificação precisa da severidade e extensão de edema periférico é necessária antes e após a intervenção fisioterapêutica para avaliar a eficiência do tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar as medidas de volume em membros inferiores (MMII obtidas com dois instrumentos o Leg-O-Meter (LM e o deslocador de água (DA em um período de 2 semanas. Materiais e métodos: Trinta e uma mulheres portadoras de edema de MMII com idade entre 20 e 70 anos participaram deste estudo. O edema foi inicialmente avaliado pela perimetria (LM dos MMII ao nível do tornozelo e pelo volume de água deslocada após imersão do membro (DA. Após 2 semanas as medidas foram repetidas sem que houvesse alteração na medicação ou na rotina diária. Resultado: O percentual de alteração de edema no membro inferior direito (MID com o LM e com o DA foi 0,3±4,18% e 0,9±3,31% (p=0,21, respectivamente. Para o membro inferior esquerdo o percentual de alteração foi de 0,7±3,44% e 0,5±3,84% (p=0,29, com o LM e o DA, respectivamente. A magnitude da correlação entre as medidas obtidas com o LM e o DL foi alta e significativa, variando de r=0,73 a r=0,83 (pBackground: Precise quantification of the severity and extent of edema is necessary before and after physiotherapeutic intervention, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. The objective of this study was to compare lower limb (LL volume measurements from two methods: Leg-O-Meter (LM and water displacement (WD, over a two-week interval. Method: Thirty-one women with LL edema, aged between 20 and 70 years, participated in this study. Edema was initially evaluated by circumference measurement (LM at the ankle level, and by means of the volume of water displaced upon immersion of the limb (WD. After 2 weeks, these measurements were repeated without there having been any change in daily routines or medication intake. Results: the percent changes in edema in the right lower

  5. A Comparison of Vertical Stiffness Values Calculated from Different Measures of Center of Mass Displacement in Single-Leg Hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Kurt L; Gupta, Amitabh; Green, Simon; Hobara, Hiroaki; Clothier, Peter J

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the agreement between K vert calculated from 4 different methods of estimating vertical displacement of the center of mass (COM) during single-leg hopping. Healthy participants (N = 38) completed a 10-s single-leg hopping effort on a force plate, with 3D motion of the lower limb, pelvis, and trunk captured. Derived variables were calculated for a total of 753 hop cycles using 4 methods, including: double integration of the vertical ground reaction force, law of falling bodies, a marker cluster on the sacrum, and a segmental analysis method. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that K vert calculated using segmental analysis and double integration methods have a relatively small bias (0.93 kN⋅m -1 ) and 95% limits of agreement (-1.89 to 3.75 kN⋅m -1 ). In contrast, a greater bias was revealed between sacral marker cluster and segmental analysis (-2.32 kN⋅m -1 ), sacral marker cluster and double integration (-3.25 kN⋅m -1 ), and the law of falling bodies compared with all methods (17.26-20.52 kN⋅m -1 ). These findings suggest the segmental analysis and double integration methods can be used interchangeably for the calculation of K vert during single-leg hopping. The authors propose the segmental analysis method to be considered the gold standard for the calculation of K vert during single-leg, on-the-spot hopping.

  6. Cold leg condensation tests. Task C. Steam--water interaction tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Loiselle, V.

    1974-03-01

    A report is presented of tests to determine the condensation efficiency of ECC water injected into a quality fluid mixture flowing through the cold leg. In particular, a specific objective was to determine if the mixture of ECC water and quality fluid reached thermodynamic equilibrium before exiting the cold leg. Further, the stability of the ECC water/quality fluid interaction would be assessed by interpretation of thermocouple records and utilization of a section of cold leg piping with view ports to film the interaction whenever possible. The cold leg condensation tests showed complete condensation of the 5 lbm/sec steam quality mixtures in the cold leg by the ECC water flows of the test matrix. The cold leg exit fluid temperature remained below the saturation temperature and had good agreement with the predicted cold leg outlet temperature, calculated assuming total condensation. (U.S.)

  7. The study of dynamic force acted on water strider leg departing from water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peiyuan; Zhao, Meirong; Jiang, Jile; Zheng, Yelong

    2018-01-01

    Water-walking insects such as water striders can skate on the water surface easily with the help of the hierarchical structure on legs. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies show that the hierarchical structure would help water strider in quasi-static case such as load-bearing capacity. However, the advantage of the hierarchical structure in the dynamic stage has not been reported yet. In this paper, the function of super hydrophobicity and the hierarchical structure was investigated by measuring the adhesion force of legs departing from the water surface at different lifting speed by a dynamic force sensor. The results show that the adhesion force decreased with the increase of lifting speed from 0.02 m/s to 0.4 m/s, whose mechanic is investigated by Energy analysis. In addition, it can be found that the needle shape setae on water strider leg can help them depart from water surface easily. Thus, it can serve as a starting point to understand how the hierarchical structure on the legs help water-walking insects to jump upward rapidly to avoid preying by other insects.

  8. The study of dynamic force acted on water strider leg departing from water surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyuan Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-walking insects such as water striders can skate on the water surface easily with the help of the hierarchical structure on legs. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies show that the hierarchical structure would help water strider in quasi-static case such as load-bearing capacity. However, the advantage of the hierarchical structure in the dynamic stage has not been reported yet. In this paper, the function of super hydrophobicity and the hierarchical structure was investigated by measuring the adhesion force of legs departing from the water surface at different lifting speed by a dynamic force sensor. The results show that the adhesion force decreased with the increase of lifting speed from 0.02 m/s to 0.4 m/s, whose mechanic is investigated by Energy analysis. In addition, it can be found that the needle shape setae on water strider leg can help them depart from water surface easily. Thus, it can serve as a starting point to understand how the hierarchical structure on the legs help water-walking insects to jump upward rapidly to avoid preying by other insects.

  9. Abdominal Hollowing Reduces Lateral Trunk Displacement During Single-Leg Squats in Healthy Females But Does Not Affect Peak Hip Abduction Angle or Knee Abductio Angle/Moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Lukas D; Archibald, Jessica; Lampert, Eve C; Srbely, John Z

    2017-07-17

    Females suffer 4-6 times more non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than males due to neuromuscular control deficits of the hip musculature leading to increases in hip adduction angle, knee abduction angle, and knee abduction moment during dynamic tasks such as single-leg squats. Lateral trunk displacement has been further related to ACL injury risk in females, leading to the incorporation of core strength/stability exercises in ACL preventative training programs. However, the direct mechanism relating lateral trunk displacement and lower limb ACL risk factors is not well established. To assess the relationship between lateral trunk displacement and lower limb measures of ACL injury risk by altering trunk control through abdominal activation techniques during single-leg squats in healthy females. Interventional Study Setting: Movement and Posture Laboratory Participants: 13 healthy females (21.3±0.88y, 1.68±0.07m, 58.27±5.46kg) Intervention: Trunk position and lower limb kinematics were recorded using an optoelectric motion capture system during single-leg squats under differing conditions of abdominal muscle activation (abdominal hollowing, abdominal bracing, control), confirmed via surface electromyography. Lateral trunk displacement, peak hip adduction angle, peak knee abduction angle/moment, and average muscle activity from bilateral internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae muscles. No differences were observed for peak lateral trunk displacement, peak hip adduction angle or peak knee abduction angle/moment. Abdominal hollowing and bracing elicited greater muscle activation than the control condition, and bracing was greater than hollowing in four of six muscles recorded. The lack of reduction in trunk, hip, and knee measures of ACL injury risk during abdominal hollowing and bracing suggests that these techniques alone may provide minimal benefit in ACL injury prevention training.

  10. Water striders adjust leg movement speed to optimize takeoff velocity for their morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunjin; Son, Jae Hak; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G.; Kim, Ho-Young

    2016-12-01

    Water striders are water-walking insects that can jump upwards from the water surface. Quick jumps allow striders to avoid sudden dangers such as predators' attacks, and therefore their jumping is expected to be shaped by natural selection for optimal performance. Related species with different morphological constraints could require different jumping mechanics to successfully avoid predation. Here we show that jumping striders tune their leg rotation speed to reach the maximum jumping speed that water surface allows. We find that the leg stroke speeds of water strider species with different leg morphologies correspond to mathematically calculated morphology-specific optima that maximize vertical takeoff velocity by fully exploiting the capillary force of water. These results improve the understanding of correlated evolution between morphology and leg movements in small jumping insects, and provide a theoretical basis to develop biomimetic technology in semi-aquatic environments.

  11. Contribution of Leg-Muscle Forces to Paddle Force and Kayak Speed During Maximal-Effort Flat-Water Paddling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johnny E; Rosdahl, Hans G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the contribution of leg-muscle-generated forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximal-effort flat-water paddling. Five elite male kayakers at national and international level participated. The participants warmed up at progressively increasing speeds and then performed a maximal-effort, nonrestricted paddling sequence. This was followed after 5 min rest by a maximal-effort paddling sequence with the leg action restricted--the knee joints "locked." Left- and right-side foot-bar and paddle forces were recorded with specially designed force devices. In addition, knee angular displacement of the right and left knees was recorded with electrogoniometric technique, and the kayak speed was calculated from GPS signals sampled at 5 Hz. The results showed that reduction in both push and pull foot-bar forces resulted in a reduction of 21% and 16% in mean paddle-stroke force and mean kayak speed, respectively. Thus, the contribution of foot-bar force from lower-limb action significantly contributes to kayakers' paddling performance.

  12. Oxygen uptake during Wingate tests for arms and legs in swimmers and water polo players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Emilson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to compare the values of the maximal oxygen uptake (O2 max during two consecutive bouts in Wingate tests for arms and legs in swimmers (S and water polo players (WP. METHODS: Sample - seven national level athletes (4 S and 3 WP, age 17,90 ± 2,14 years, body mass 71,41 ± 6,84 kg, height 176,65 ± 7,02 cm, % body fat 13,23 ± 4,18. Two Wingate bouts with 30 sec each with 3 min interval between them, for arms and legs in alternated days. Oxygen uptake: breath-by-breath using the gas analysis system K4 b² Cosmed. Statistical analysis: Wilcoxon test for dependent variables and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for independent variables. RESULTS: The mean values found at the O2 peak (PO2, mean power (MP and peak power (PP for each bout of the Wingate test, for arms and legs. For Arms: PO2 = 55.16 ± 5.72 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 5.28 ± 0.59 watts.kg-1 and PP = 6.71 ± 0.88 watts.kg-1 got in the first bout (1st Arms and PO2 = 60.12 ± 6.10 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 5.03 ± 0.40 watts.kg-1 and PP = 6.25 ± 0.51 watts.kg-1, got in the second bout (2nd Arms. For legs: PO2 = 55.66 ± 6.85 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 4.75 ± 1.79 watts.kg-1 and PP = 7.44 ± 1.96 watts.kg-1 got in the first bout (1st Legs and PO2 = 62.09 ± 5.99 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 4.28 ± 1.47 watts.kg-1 and PP = 6.68 ± 1.63 watts.kg-1 got in the second bout (2nd Legs. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: All variables studied did not present significant difference among arms and legs, as much the first as the second bout for arms for PO2 (p < 0.05. There was no difference between the PM mean values of the first and the second bout. But the mean of the second bout of legs was significant smaller than the first bout (p < 0.05. For the PP variable there was no difference among the mean values to the first and second bout as much for arms as for legs. It looks like to exist larger magnitude to O2 adjustment for arms than legs, that could be associated to specific demands to which S

  13. Oil/water displacement in microfluidic packed beds under weakly water-wetting conditions: competition between precursor film flow and piston-like displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanino, Yukie; Zacarias-Hernandez, Xanat; Christensen, Magali

    2018-02-01

    Optical microscopy was used to measure depth-averaged oil distribution in a quasi-monolayer of crushed marble packed in a microfluidic channel as it was displaced by water. By calibrating the transmitted light intensity to oil thickness, we account for depth variation in the fluid distribution. Experiments reveal that oil saturation at water breakthrough decreases with increasing Darcy velocity, U_{ {w}}, between capillary numbers {Ca} = μ _{ {w}} U_{ {w}}/σ = 9× 10^{-7} and 9× 10^{-6}, where μ _{ {w}} is the dynamic viscosity of water and σ is the oil/water interfacial tension, under the conditions considered presently. In contrast, end-point (long-time) remaining oil saturation depends only weakly on U_{ {w}}. This transient dependence on velocity is attributed to the competition between precursor film flow, which controls early time invasion dynamics but is inefficient at displacing oil, and piston-like displacement, which controls ultimate oil recovery. These results demonstrate that microfluidic experiments using translucent grains and fluids are a convenient tool for quantitative investigation of sub-resolution liquid/liquid displacement in porous media.

  14. Human thermal responses during leg-only exercise in cold water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, F S; Tipton, M J

    1987-10-01

    1. Exercise during immersion in cold water has been reported by several authors to accelerate the rate of fall of core temperature when compared with rates seen during static immersion. The nature of the exercise performed, however, has always been whole-body in nature. 2. In the present investigation fifteen subjects performed leg exercise throughout a 40 min head-out immersion in water at 15 degrees C. The responses obtained were compared with those seen when the subjects performed an identical static immersion. 3. Aural and rectal temperatures were found to fall by greater amounts during static immersion. 4. It is concluded that 'the type of exercise performed' should be included in the list of factors which affect core temperature during cold water immersion.

  15. Comparison of total body water determinations in lactating women by anthropometry, water displacement, and deuterium isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Butte, N.; Lee, L.; Garza, C.; Klein, P.

    1986-01-01

    To expand the limited data on the total body water in lactating women, the authors have determined total body water contents, in eight subjects from anthropometric measurements, water displacement, and isotope dilution of deuterium oxide. On the day of the study, their skinfold thicknesses were measured over the biceps and triceps muscles and at the suprailiac and subscapular areas. Their body densities were measured by water displacement. Deuterium oxide was administered orally at 100 mg/kg of body weight. One predose milk sample was collected from each subject. The milk samples were defatted by centrifugation and the milk water was reduced to hydrogen gas for hydrogen isotope ratio measurements by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The results indicated that total body water in lactating women estimated from anthropometric measurements was 49.7 +/- 3.3% of body weight, by water displacement was 54.9 +/- 7.2%, and by isotope dilution was 50.8 +/- 3.7%

  16. Limb symmetry during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in adults with long-standing unilateral anterior knee pain; a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Severin, Anna C.; Burkett, Brendan J.; McKean, Mark R.; Wiegand, Aaron N.; Sayers, Mark G. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The presence of pain during movement typically results in changes in technique. However, the physical properties of water, such as flotation, means that water-based exercise may not only reduce compensatory movement patterns but also allow pain sufferers to complete exercises that they are unable to perform on land. The purpose of this study was to assess bilateral kinematics during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in individuals with unilateral anterior...

  17. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Chan, K.M.; Sayles, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    Leg 5 samples fall into two categories with respect to interstitial water composition: 1) rapidly deposited terrigenous or appreciably terrigenous deposits, such as in Hole 35 (western Escanaba trough, off Cape Mendocino, California); and, 2) slowly deposited pelagic clays and biogenic muds and oozes. Interstitial waters in the former show modest to slight variations in chloride and sodium, but drastic changes in non-conservative ions such as magnesium and sulfate. The pelagic deposits show only relatively minor changes in both conservative and non-conservative pore fluid constituents. As was pointed out in earlier Leg Reports, it is believed that much of the variation in chloride in pore fluids within individual holes is attributable to the manipulation of samples on board ship and in the laboratory. On the other hand, the scatter in sodium is due in part to analytical error (on the order of 2 to 3 per cent, in terms of a standard deviation), and it probably accounts for most of the discrepancies in total anion and cation balance. All constituents reported here, with the exception of bulk water content, were analyzed on water samples which were sealed in plastic tubes aboard ship and were subsequently opened and divided into weighed aliquots in the laboratory. Analytical methods follow the atomic absorption, wet chemical and emission spectrochemical techniques briefly summarized in previous reports, e.g. Manheim et al., 1969, and Chan and Manheim, 1970. The authors acknowledge assistance from W. Sunda, D. Kerr, C. Lawson and H. Richards, and thank D. Spencer, P. Brewer and E. Degens for allowing the use of equipment and laboratory facilities.

  18. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs

  19. UPTF/TEST10B/RUN081, Steam/Water Flow Phenomena Reflood PWR Cold Leg Break LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) is a geometrical full-scale simulation of the primary system of the four-loop 1300 MWe Siemens/KWU pressurized water reactor (PWR) at Grafenrheinfeld. The test vessel, upper plenum and its internals, downcomer, primary loops, pressurizer and surge line are replicas of the reference plant. The core, coolant pumps, steam generators and containment of a PWR are replaced by simulators which simulate the boundary and initial conditions during end-of-blowdown, refill and reflood phase following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with a hot or cold leg break. The break size and location can be simulated in the broken loop. The emergency core coolant (ECC) injection systems at the UPTF are designed to simulate the various ECC injection modes, such as hot leg, upper plenum, cold leg, downcomer or combined hot and cold leg injection of different ECC systems of German and US/Japan PWRs. Moreover, eight vent valves are mounted in the core barrel above the hot leg nozzle elevation for simulation of ABB and B and W PWRs. The UPTF primary system is divided into the investigation and simulation areas. The investigation areas, which are the exact replicas of a GPWR, consist of the upper plenum with internals, hot legs, cold legs and downcomer. The realistic thermal-hydraulic behavior in the investigation areas is assured by appropriate initial and boundary conditions of the area interface. The boundary conditions are realized by above mentioned simulators, the setup and the operation of which are based on small-scale data and mathematical models. The simulation areas include core simulator, steam generator simulators, pump simulators and containment simulator. The steam production and entrainment in a real core during a LOCA are simulated by steam and water injection through the core simulator. 2 - Description of test: Investigation of steam/water flow phenomena at the upper tie plate and in the upper plenum and

  20. Experimental research on microscopic displacement mechanism of CO2-water alternative flooding in low permeability reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyan; Zhu, Weiyao; Long, Yunqian; Song, Hongqing; Huang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    This paper provides an experimental method to deal with the problems of low oil recovery ratio faced with water flooding utilizing the CO2/water alternate displacement technology. A series of CO2/water alternate flooding experiments were carried out under 60°C and 18.4MPa using high temperature / pressure microscopic visualization simulation system. Then, we used the image processing technique and software to analyze the proportion of remaining oil in the displacement process. The results show that CO2 can extract the lighter chemical components in the crude oil and make it easier to form miscible phase, which can reduce the viscosity and favorable mobility ratio of oil. What’s more, the displacement reduces the impact of gas channeling, which can achieve an enlarged sweeping efficiency to improve filtration ability. In addition, the CO2 dissolved in oil and water can greatly reduce the interfacial tension, which can increase the oil displacement efficiency in a large extent. Generally speaking, the recovery rate of residual oil in the micro - model can be elevated up to 15.89% ∼ 16.48% under formation condition by alternate displacement.

  1. Water in orthopyroxene from abyssal spinel peridotites of the East Pacific Rise (ODP Leg 147: Hess Deep)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Kirsten T.; Gose, Jürgen; Stalder, Roland; Schmädicke, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Abyssal spinel peridotites from Hess Deep, East Pacific Rise (ODP Leg 147) were investigated concerning their major, minor, and trace element mineral chemistry and the incorporation of structural water in orthopyroxene. The rocks are partially serpentinized harzburgites containing primary minerals of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel. Orthopyroxene is enstatitic with Mg# (Mg/(Mg + Fe)) between 0.90 and 0.92 and Al2O3 from 0.5 to 2.9 wt.%. The residual harzburgite experienced high degrees of melt removal in the spinel peridotite stability field. The average degree of partial melting was calculated to be 17.5% (range: 16.4-17.8%). Trace element data of ortho- and clinopyroxenes reflect this strong depletion, characteristic for the restitic nature of abyssal peridotites. Mantle re-equilibration temperatures around 1000 °C indicate that, after melt extraction and before exhumation to the ocean floor, the rocks experienced significant cooling in the spinel peridotite facies. Water contents of orthopyroxene range from 86 to 233 wt. ppm H2O with an average concentration of 142 wt. ppm H2O. These results represent the first data on water contents in the sub-pacific mantle obtained by direct measurements of sub-oceanic peridotite. The water contents are not related to mineral chemistry, stratigraphy, melting degree, mantle equilibrium conditions or oxidation state. Calculated post-melt peridotite water contents vary between 40 and 100 wt. ppm H2O. Compared to Mid-Atlantic Ridge peridotites, the East Pacific Rise samples of Leg 147 contain somewhat lower water concentrations than samples from Leg 153 and considerably higher contents than those of Leg 209 (Gose et al., 2009; Schmädicke et al., 2011). In Leg 147, the strongest OH absorbtion band occurs at 3420 cm- 1, wheras orthopyroxene from MAR peridotite (Legs 153 and 209) has its strongest absorbtion band at 3566 and 3522 cm- 1. The mantle equilibrium temperature of Leg 147 peridotites is lower than that

  2. Limb symmetry during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in adults with long-standing unilateral anterior knee pain; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anna C; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R; Wiegand, Aaron N; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    The presence of pain during movement typically results in changes in technique. However, the physical properties of water, such as flotation, means that water-based exercise may not only reduce compensatory movement patterns but also allow pain sufferers to complete exercises that they are unable to perform on land. The purpose of this study was to assess bilateral kinematics during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in individuals with unilateral anterior knee pain. A secondary aim was to quantify bilateral asymmetry in both environments in affected and unaffected individuals using a symmetry index. Twenty individuals with unilateral knee pain and twenty healthy, matched controls performed body weight double- and single-leg squats in both environments while inertial sensors (100 Hz) recorded trunk and lower body kinematics. Repeated-measures statistics tested for environmental effects on movement depths and peak angles within the anterior knee pain group. Differences in their inter-limb symmetry in each environments was compared to the control group using analysis of variance tests. Water immersion allowed for greater movement depths during both exercises (double-leg squat: +7 cm, p  = 0.032, single-leg squat: +9 cm, p  = 0.002) for the knee pain group. The double-leg squat was symmetrical on land but water immersion revealed asymmetries in the lower body frontal plane movements. The single-leg squat revealed decreased hip flexion and frontal plane shank motions on the affected limb in both environments. Water immersion also affected the degree of lower limb asymmetry in both groups, with differences also showing between groups. Individuals with anterior knee pain achieved increased squat depth during both exercises whilst in water. Kinematic differences between the affected and unaffected limbs were often increased in water. Individuals with unilateral anterior knee pain appear to utilise different kinematics in the affected

  3. Numerical study of hot-leg ECC injection into the upper plenum of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, B.J.; Torrey, M.D.; Rivard, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    In certain pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, emergency core coolant (ECC) is injected through the hot legs into the upper plenum. The condensation of steam on this subcooled liquid stream reduces the pressure in the hot legs and upper plenum and thereby affects flow conditions throughout the reactor. In the present study, we examine countercurrent steam-water flow in the hot leg to determine the deceleration of the ECC flow that results from an adverse pressure gradient and from momentum exchange from the steam by interfacial drag and condensation. For the parameters examined in the study, water flow reversal is observed for a pressure drop of 22 to 32 mBar over the 1.5 m hot leg. We have also performed a three-dimensional study of subcooled water injection into air and steam environments of the upper plenum. The ECC water is deflected by an array of cylindrical guide tubes in its passage through the upper plenum. Comparisons of the air-water results with data obtained in a full scale experiment shows reasonable agreement, but indicates that there may be too much resistance to horizontal flow about the columns because of the use of a stair-step representation of the cylindrical guide tube cross section. Calculations of flow past single columns of stair-step, square and circular cross section do indicate excessive water deeentrainment by the noncircular column. This has prompted the use of an arbitrary mesh computational procedure to more accuratey represent the circular cross-section guide tubes. 15 figures

  4. In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects with Unilateral and Sham Straight Leg Raise Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rade

    Full Text Available Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described.Explore whether previously recorded movements of conus medullaris with SLRs are i primarily due to transmission of tensile forces transmitted through the neural tissues during SLR or ii the result of reciprocal movements between vertebrae and nerves.Controlled radiologic study.Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR scanner using T2 weighted spc 3D scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and sham SLR was quantified reliably with a randomized procedure. Conus displacement in response to unilateral and sham SLRs was quantified and the results compared.The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54±0.87 mm (mean±SD with unilateral (p≤.001 and proximally by 0.32±1.6 mm with sham SLR (p≤.542. Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability and the observed power was 1 for unilateral SLRs and 0.054 and 0.149 for left and right sham SLR respectively.Four relevant points emerge from the presented data: i reciprocal movements between the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebrae are likely to occur during SLR in asymptomatic subjects, ii conus medullaris displacement in the vertebral canal with SLR is primarily due to transmission of tensile forces through the neural tissues, iii when tensile forces are transmitted through the neural system as in the clinical SLR, the magnitude of conus medullaris displacement prevails over the amount of bone adjustment.

  5. Constant load and constant displacement stress corrosion in simulated water reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.J.

    1987-02-01

    The stress corrosion behaviour of selected water reactor constructional materials, as determined by constant load or constant displacement test techniques, is reviewed. Experimental results obtained using a very wide range of conditions have been collected in a form for easy reference. A discussion is given of some apparent trends in these data. The possible reasons for these trends are considered together with a discussion of how the observed discrepancies may be resolved. (author)

  6. Nocturnal Foraging by Red-Legged Kittiwakes, a Surface Feeding Seabird That Relies on Deep Water Prey During Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kikuchi, Dale M; Kitaysky, Alexander; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    Narrow foraging specialization may increase the vulnerability of marine predators to climate change. The red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) is endemic to the Bering Sea and has experienced drastic population fluctuations in recent decades, presumably due to climate-driven changes in food resources. Red-legged kittiwakes are presumed to be a nocturnal surface-foraging seabird that feed almost entirely on deep water Myctophidae fishes. However, there is little empirical evidence confirming their nocturnal foraging activity during the breeding season. This study investigated the foraging behavior of red-legged kittiwakes by combining GPS tracking, accelerometry, and dietary analyses at the world's largest breeding colony of red-legged kittiwakes on St. George I. GPS tracking of 5 individuals revealed that 82.5% of non-flight behavior (including foraging and resting) occurred over the ocean basin (bottom depth >1,000 m). Acceleration data from 4 birds showed three types of behaviors during foraging trips: (1) flight, characterized by regular wing flapping, (2) resting on water, characterized by non-active behavior, and (3) foraging, when wing flapping was irregular. The proportions of both foraging and resting behaviors were higher at night (14.1 ± 7.1% and 20.8 ± 14.3%) compared to those during the day (6.5 ± 3.0% and 1.7 ± 2.7%). The mean duration of foraging (2.4 ± 2.9 min) was shorter than that of flight between prey patches (24.2 ± 53.1 min). Dietary analyses confirmed myctophids as the dominant prey (100% by occurrence and 98.4 ± 2.4% by wet-weight). Although the sample size was limited, these results suggest that breeding red-legged kittiwakes concentrated their foraging on myctophids available at the surface during nighttime in deep water regions. We propose that the diel patterns and ephemeral nature of their foraging activity reflected the availability of myctophids. Such foraging specialization may exacerbate the vulnerability of red-legged

  7. Nocturnal Foraging by Red-Legged Kittiwakes, a Surface Feeding Seabird That Relies on Deep Water Prey During Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Kokubun

    Full Text Available Narrow foraging specialization may increase the vulnerability of marine predators to climate change. The red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris is endemic to the Bering Sea and has experienced drastic population fluctuations in recent decades, presumably due to climate-driven changes in food resources. Red-legged kittiwakes are presumed to be a nocturnal surface-foraging seabird that feed almost entirely on deep water Myctophidae fishes. However, there is little empirical evidence confirming their nocturnal foraging activity during the breeding season. This study investigated the foraging behavior of red-legged kittiwakes by combining GPS tracking, accelerometry, and dietary analyses at the world's largest breeding colony of red-legged kittiwakes on St. George I. GPS tracking of 5 individuals revealed that 82.5% of non-flight behavior (including foraging and resting occurred over the ocean basin (bottom depth >1,000 m. Acceleration data from 4 birds showed three types of behaviors during foraging trips: (1 flight, characterized by regular wing flapping, (2 resting on water, characterized by non-active behavior, and (3 foraging, when wing flapping was irregular. The proportions of both foraging and resting behaviors were higher at night (14.1 ± 7.1% and 20.8 ± 14.3% compared to those during the day (6.5 ± 3.0% and 1.7 ± 2.7%. The mean duration of foraging (2.4 ± 2.9 min was shorter than that of flight between prey patches (24.2 ± 53.1 min. Dietary analyses confirmed myctophids as the dominant prey (100% by occurrence and 98.4 ± 2.4% by wet-weight. Although the sample size was limited, these results suggest that breeding red-legged kittiwakes concentrated their foraging on myctophids available at the surface during nighttime in deep water regions. We propose that the diel patterns and ephemeral nature of their foraging activity reflected the availability of myctophids. Such foraging specialization may exacerbate the vulnerability of red-legged

  8. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerini, Francesco Fuso; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish

    2015-01-01

    The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators...... and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water...

  9. Two-phase flow experiments in a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Tobias; Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Deendarlianto

    2011-09-15

    In order to investigate the two-phase flow behaviour in a complex reactor-typical geometry and to supply suitable data for CFD code validation, a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor was built at FZD. The hot leg model is operated in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform high-pressure experiments under pressure equilibrium with the inside atmosphere of the chamber. This technique makes it possible to visualise the two-phase flow through large windows, also at reactor-typical pressure levels. In order to optimise the optical observation possibilities, the test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section. Experiments were performed with air and water at 1.5 and 3.0 bar at room temperature as well as with steam and water at 15, 30 and 50 bar and the corresponding saturation temperature (i.e. up to 264 C). The total of 194 runs are divided into 4 types of experiments covering stationary co-current flow, counter-current flow, flow without water circulation and transient counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments. This report provides a detailed documentation of the experiments including information on the experimental setup, experimental procedure, test matrix and on the calibration of the measuring devices. The available data is described and data sheets were arranged for each experiment in order to give an overview of the most important parameters. For the cocurrent flow experiments, water level histograms were arranged and used to characterise the flow in the hot leg. In fact, the form of the probability distribution was found to be sensitive to the boundary conditions and, therefore, is useful for the CFD comparison. Furthermore, the flooding characteristics of the hot leg model plotted in terms of the classical Wallis parameter or Kutateladze number were found to fail to properly correlate the data of the air/water and steam/water series. Therefore, a modified Wallis parameter is proposed, which

  10. Two-phase flow experiments in a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Tobias; Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Deendarlianto

    2011-09-01

    In order to investigate the two-phase flow behaviour in a complex reactor-typical geometry and to supply suitable data for CFD code validation, a model of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor was built at FZD. The hot leg model is operated in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform high-pressure experiments under pressure equilibrium with the inside atmosphere of the chamber. This technique makes it possible to visualise the two-phase flow through large windows, also at reactor-typical pressure levels. In order to optimise the optical observation possibilities, the test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section. Experiments were performed with air and water at 1.5 and 3.0 bar at room temperature as well as with steam and water at 15, 30 and 50 bar and the corresponding saturation temperature (i.e. up to 264 C). The total of 194 runs are divided into 4 types of experiments covering stationary co-current flow, counter-current flow, flow without water circulation and transient counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) experiments. This report provides a detailed documentation of the experiments including information on the experimental setup, experimental procedure, test matrix and on the calibration of the measuring devices. The available data is described and data sheets were arranged for each experiment in order to give an overview of the most important parameters. For the cocurrent flow experiments, water level histograms were arranged and used to characterise the flow in the hot leg. In fact, the form of the probability distribution was found to be sensitive to the boundary conditions and, therefore, is useful for the CFD comparison. Furthermore, the flooding characteristics of the hot leg model plotted in terms of the classical Wallis parameter or Kutateladze number were found to fail to properly correlate the data of the air/water and steam/water series. Therefore, a modified Wallis parameter is proposed, which

  11. Quantifying kinematic differences between land and water during squats, split squats, and single-leg squats in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anna C; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R; Wiegand, Aaron N; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic exercises can be used in clinical and sporting disciplines for both rehabilitation and sports training. However, there is limited knowledge on the influence of water immersion on the kinematics of exercises commonly used in rehabilitation and fitness programs. The aim of this study was to use inertial sensors to quantify differences in kinematics and movement variability of bodyweight squats, split squats, and single-leg squats performed on dry land and whilst immersed to the level of the greater trochanter. During two separate testing sessions, 25 active healthy university students (22.3±2.9 yr.) performed ten repetitions of each exercise, whilst tri-axial inertial sensors (100 Hz) recorded their trunk and lower body kinematics. Repeated-measures statistics tested for differences in segment orientation and speed, movement variability, and waveform patterns between environments, while coefficient of variance was used to assess differences in movement variability. Between-environment differences in segment orientation and speed were portrayed by plotting the mean difference ±95% confidence intervals (CI) throughout the tasks. The results showed that the depth of the squat and split squat were unaffected by the changed environment while water immersion allowed for a deeper single leg squat. The different environments had significant effects on the sagittal plane orientations and speeds for all segments. Water immersion increased the degree of movement variability of the segments in all exercises, except for the shank in the frontal plane, which showed more variability on land. Without compromising movement depth, the aquatic environment induces more upright trunk and shank postures during squats and split squats. The aquatic environment allows for increased squat depth during the single-leg squat, and increased shank motions in the frontal plane. Our observations therefore support the use of water-based squat tasks for rehabilitation as they appear to

  12. Quantifying kinematic differences between land and water during squats, split squats, and single-leg squats in a healthy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Severin

    Full Text Available Aquatic exercises can be used in clinical and sporting disciplines for both rehabilitation and sports training. However, there is limited knowledge on the influence of water immersion on the kinematics of exercises commonly used in rehabilitation and fitness programs. The aim of this study was to use inertial sensors to quantify differences in kinematics and movement variability of bodyweight squats, split squats, and single-leg squats performed on dry land and whilst immersed to the level of the greater trochanter. During two separate testing sessions, 25 active healthy university students (22.3±2.9 yr. performed ten repetitions of each exercise, whilst tri-axial inertial sensors (100 Hz recorded their trunk and lower body kinematics. Repeated-measures statistics tested for differences in segment orientation and speed, movement variability, and waveform patterns between environments, while coefficient of variance was used to assess differences in movement variability. Between-environment differences in segment orientation and speed were portrayed by plotting the mean difference ±95% confidence intervals (CI throughout the tasks. The results showed that the depth of the squat and split squat were unaffected by the changed environment while water immersion allowed for a deeper single leg squat. The different environments had significant effects on the sagittal plane orientations and speeds for all segments. Water immersion increased the degree of movement variability of the segments in all exercises, except for the shank in the frontal plane, which showed more variability on land. Without compromising movement depth, the aquatic environment induces more upright trunk and shank postures during squats and split squats. The aquatic environment allows for increased squat depth during the single-leg squat, and increased shank motions in the frontal plane. Our observations therefore support the use of water-based squat tasks for rehabilitation as

  13. The Energy and Water Emergency Module; A containerized solution for meeting the energy and water needs in protracted displacement situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Valentini, Francesco; Modi, Anish; Upadhyay, Govinda; Abeysekera, Muditha; Salehin, Sayedus; Appleyard, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and water services are a key need in long-term displacement situations. • At present electricity is supplied mostly with diesel generators and water is imported. • On-site electricity and clean water production can decrease costs and increase security. • The proposed containerized solution produces electricity and purifies water locally. • Model results show the cost-competitiveness and technical potential of the solution. - Abstract: The world has faced many natural and man-made disasters in the past few years, resulting in millions of people living in temporary camps across the globe. The energy and clean water needs of the relief operators in such emergency situations are primarily satisfied by diesel engine based generators and importing clean water to the site, in certain cases even for several years after the emergency. This approach results in problems such as low security of supply and high costs. Especially targeting the prolonged displacement situations, this paper presents an alternative solution – the Energy and Water Emergency Module. The proposed solution aims towards reducing the dependency on fossil fuel in prolonged emergency situations to a minimum while including local energy sources in the energy supply in a flexible and reliable way. The proposed module is built in a standard 20 ft container, and encompasses hybrid generation from solar, wind and biomass, with the possibility of using fossil sources too thanks to a dual fuel gas engine. The module can work both in grid connected and stand-alone mode. In addition the module includes a water purification unit to meet the water needs of displaced population. A demonstration unit was assembled at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm during the year 2012 as a ‘concept proof’, and is now being tested and optimized for future deployment on the field. Preliminary testing and modelling shows that the proposed solution can reliably support emergency

  14. Possibilities of crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) measurement under boiling and pressurized water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehling, W.

    1984-01-01

    Fracture mechanics investigations carried out so far in laboratory conditions cover only part of the material stresses, as effects which occur in nuclear powerstations, in particular, such as corrosion and radioactive radiation are largely left out of account. Therefore experiments including these effects were recently carried out in autoclaves, test rigs simulating reactors (HRD experimental plant) and in experimental reactors. An important parameter of experimental fracture mechanics is the measurement of crack opening displacement (COD). The crack opening is measured with socalled clip gauges (transmitters based on strain gauges, which convert mechanical deformation of springs into electrical signals) on standard samples in the laboratory. It was therefore sensible to use these high temperature strain gauges (HTD) for the development of a measuring system for travel for pressurized water and boiling water reactor conditions. (orig.) [de

  15. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    2006-01-01

    and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  16. Theoretical study of hydraulic jump during circular horizontal hot leg injection in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hawary, Shehab; Abu-Elyazeed, Osayed S.M.; Fahmy, Adel Alyan; Meglaa, Khairy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The model is developed to predict the occurrence of onset hydraulic jump in a circular pipe. • Theoretical results are in agreement with experimental results and theory. • Effects of diameter of the injection pipe, Froude number and injected coolant mass are studied. - Abstract: One important phenomenon occurring during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL). The incidence of such CCFL is introduced by the onset of hydraulic jump. In the present work, a one dimensional model was modified to fit circular hot channel. The model was used to study the factors affecting the initial Froude number, the location of the occurrence of the hydraulic jump, and the critical coolant flow depth during circular horizontal hot leg injection in US-APWR Mitsubishi Reactor. The results showed good agreement with published experimental data of the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) at Mannheim, Germany. It was found that higher injected coolant mass flow rate increases the initial Froude number, the location of the occurrence of the hydraulic jump, and the critical injection depth divided by the diameter of the injection pipe. Such behavior is thought to be due to the increase of the inertia force by increasing of the injected coolant mass flow rate and the inverse of the diameter of the injection pipe. It was found also that, the location of the occurrence of hydraulic jump increases with decreasing load effect. Therefore, these results reveal that the avoidance of CCFL as well as hydraulic jump through hot leg at maximum load can be achieved by decreasing the distance between the injection point and the pressure vessel to below 0.3 m, and with diameter of 4 in (10.16 cm) as the design diameter of the injection pipe in US-APWR Mitsubishi Reactor. Moreover, the maximum critical depth (56 cm) is less than the diameter of the hot leg (78.74 cm) at an injected coolant mass flow of 400 kg/s, and with diameter of 4 in (10.16 cm) as the

  17. Comparison of the orogenic displacement of sodium caseinate with the caseins from the air-water interface by nonionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, N C; Gunning, A P; Mackie, A R; Wilde, P J; Morris, V J

    2009-06-16

    Displacement of sodium caseinate from the air-water interface by nonionic surfactants Tween 20 and Tween 60 was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interfacial structure was sampled by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition onto freshly cleaved mica substrates. Protein displacement occurred through an orogenic mechanism: it involved the nucleation and growth of surfactant domains within the protein network, followed by failure of the protein network. The surface pressure at which failure of the protein network occurred was essentially independent of the type of surfactant. The major component of sodium caseinate is beta-casein, and previous studies at the air-water interface have shown that beta-casein networks are weak, failing at surface pressures below that observed for sodium caseinate. The other components of sodium caseinate are alpha(s)- and kappa-caseins. Studies of the displacement of alpha(s)-caseins from air-water interfaces show that these proteins also form weak networks that fail at surface pressures below that observed for sodium caseinate. However, kappa-casein was found to form strong networks that resisted displacement and failed at surface pressures comparable to those observed for sodium caseinate. The AFM images of the displacement suggest that, despite kappa-casein being a minor component, it dominates the failure of sodium caseinate networks: alpha(s)-casein and beta-casein are preferentially desorbed at lower surface pressures, allowing the residual kappa-casein to control the breakdown of the sodium caseinate network at higher surface pressures.

  18. Formation of intercalation compound of kaolinite-glycine via displacing guest water by glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wan; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Zhenqian; Chen, Likun; Zhang, Zhongfei; Li, Yong; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

    2014-10-15

    The kaolinite-glycine intercalation compound was successfully formed by displacing intercalated guest water molecules in kaolinite hydrate as a precursor. The microstructure of the compound was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope. Results show that glycine can only be intercalated into hydrated kaolinite to form glycine-kaolinite by utilizing water molecules as a transition phase. The intercalated glycine molecules were squeezed partially into the ditrigonal holes in the silicate layer, resulting in the interlayer distance of kaolinite reaching 1.03nm. The proper intercalation temperature range was between 20°C and 80°C. An intercalation time of 24h or above was necessary to ensure the complete formation of kaolinite-glycine. The highest intercalation degree of about 84% appeared when the system was reacted at the temperature of 80°C for 48h. There were two activation energies for the intercalation of glycine into kaolinite, one being 21kJ/mol within the temperature range of 20-65°C and the other 5.8kJ/mol between 65°C and 80°C. The intercalation degree (N) and intercalation velocity (v) of as a function of intercalation time (t) can be empirically expressed as N=-79.35e(-)(t)(/14.8)+80.1 and v=5.37e(-)(t)(/14.8), respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parametric study on the behavior of an innovative subsurface tension leg platform in ultra-deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xing-wei; Huang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    This study focuses on a new technology of Subsurface Tension Leg Platform (STLP), which utilizes the shallowwater rated well completion equipment and technology for the development of large oil and gas fields in ultra-deep water (UDW). Thus, the STLP concept offers attractive advantages over conventional field development concepts. STLP is basically a pre-installed Subsurface Sea-star Platform (SSP), which supports rigid risers and shallow-water rated well completion equipment. The paper details the results of the parametric study on the behavior of STLP at a water depth of 3000 m. At first, a general description of the STLP configuration and working principle is introduced. Then, the numerical models for the global analysis of the STLP in waves and current are presented. After that, extensive parametric studies are carried out with regarding to SSP/tethers system analysis, global dynamic analysis and riser interference analysis. Critical points are addressed on the mooring pattern and riser arrangement under the influence of ocean current, to ensure that the requirements on SSP stability and riser interference are well satisfied. Finally, conclusions and discussions are made. The results indicate that STLP is a competitive well and riser solution in up to 3000 m water depth for offshore petroleum production.

  20. Passive heat exposure induced by hot water leg immersion increased oxyhemoglobin in pre-frontal cortex to preserve oxygenation and did not contribute to impaired cognitive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanto, Titis; Toramoto, Sayo; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of passive heat exposure on pre-frontal cortex oxygenation and cognitive functioning, specifically to examine whether the change in pre-frontal cortex oxygenation coincided with cognitive functioning during heat exposure. Eleven male students who participated in this study immersed their lower legs to the knees in three different water temperatures, 38 °C, 40 °C, and 42 °C water in an air temperature of 28 º C and 50 % relative humidity for 60 min. After 45 min of leg immersion they performed cognitive functioning tasks assessing their short-term memory while immersing their lower legs. There were higher rectal temperature ( P 0.05). No statistical difference in cognitive functioning among the three conditions was observed with a higher increase of oxyhemoglobin during the cognitive functioning in the 42 °C condition for the left ( P = 0.05) and right ( P thermally comfortable.

  1. Leg pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the blood Medicines (such as diuretics and statins) Muscle fatigue or strain from overuse, too much exercise, or holding a muscle in the same position for a long time An injury can also cause leg pain from: A torn or overstretched muscle ( strain ) Hairline ...

  2. Broken Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the leg, which can result in a fracture. Stress fractures outside of sport situations are more common in people who have: ... shoes. Choose the appropriate shoe for your favorite sports or activities. And ... can prevent stress fractures. Rotate running with swimming or biking. If ...

  3. New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Friday, March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC, Japan was struck by an 8.9-magnitude earthquake near its Northeastern coast. This is one of the largest earthquakes that Japan has ever experienced. Tsunami waves swept away houses and cars and caused massive human losses. To predict tsunami wave parameters better and faster, we propose to improve data inversion scheme and achieve the performance gain of data processing. One of the reasons of inaccurate predictions of tsunami parameters is that very little information is available about the initial disturbance of the sea bed at tsunami source. In this paper, we suggest a new way of improving the quality of tsunami source parameters prediction. Modern computational technologies can accurately calculate tsunami wave propagation over the deep ocean provided that the initial displacement (perturbation of the sea bed at tsunami source) is known [4]. Direct geophysical measurements provide the location of an earthquake hypocenter and its magnitude (the released energy evaluation). Among the methods of determination of initial displacement the following ones should be considered. Calculation through the known fault structure and available seismic information. This method is widely used and provides useful information. However, even if the exact knowledge about rock blocks shifts is given, recalculation in terms of sea bed displacement is needed. This results in a certain number of errors. GPS data analysis. This method was developed after the December 2004 event in the Indian Ocean. A good correlation between dry land based GPS sensors and tsunami wave parameters was observed in the particular case of the West coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This approach is very unique and can hardly been used in other geo locations. Satellite image analysis. The resolution of modern satellite images has dramatically improved. In the future, correct data of sea surface displacement will probably be available in real time, right after a tsunamigenic

  4. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  5. Approach to leg edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Pomero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Edema is defined as a palpable swelling caused by an increase in interstitial fluid volume. Leg edema is a common problem with a wide range of possible causes and is the result of an imbalance in the filtration system between the capillary and interstitial spaces. Major causes of edema include venous obstruction, increased capillary permeability and increased plasma volume secondary to sodium and water retention. In both hospital and general practice, the patient with a swollen leg presents a common dilemma in diagnosis and treatment. The cause may be trivial or life-threatening and it is often difficult to determine the clinical pathway. The diagnosis can be narrowed by categorizing the edema according to its duration, distribution (unilateral or bilateral and accompanying symptoms. This work provides clinically oriented recommendations for the management of leg edema in adults.

  6. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Colorado Agriculture Using an Equilibrium Displacement Mathematical Programming Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fathelrahman, Eihab; Davies, Amalia; Davies, Stephen; Pritchett, James

    2014-01-01

    This research models selected impacts of climate change on Colorado agriculture several decades in the future, using an Economic Displacement Mathematical Programming model. The agricultural economy in Colorado is dominated by livestock, which accounts for 67% of total receipts. Crops, including feed grains and forages, account for the remainder. Most agriculture is based on irrigated production, which depends on both groundwater, especially from the Ogallala aquifer, and surface water that c...

  7. Evaluation of Serum for Pathophysiological Effects of Prolonged Low Salinity Water Exposure in Displaced Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Y. Ewing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment. In addition, significant differences were found in other serum chemistry variables, although none were outside of normal reference ranges for non-controlled free-ranging animals. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated the degree of salinity had a greater pathophysiologic response than the duration of fresh water exposure. The Na/Cl ratio and bicarbonate were the only variables that were significantly modulated by exposure duration. These findings suggest that the degree of salinity is a critical factor when assessing and managing care for dolphins chronically exposed to low salinity water. Results from this study indicate that changes in various biochemical parameters can be used to determine fresh water exposure and aid in determining the treatment for animals recovered from low salinity waters.

  8. Age-related differences in the response of leg muscle cross-sectional area and water diffusivity measures to a period of supine rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbergs, Amanda L; Noseworthy, Michael D; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2015-06-01

    The object was to assess whether cross-sectional area (CSA) and water diffusion properties of leg muscles in young and older women change with increased time spent in supine rest. Healthy young (n = 9, aged 20-30 years) and older (n = 9, aged 65-75 years) women underwent MRI scanning of the right leg at baseline, 30 and 60 min of supine rest. Muscle CSA was derived from proton density images. Water diffusion properties [apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA)] of the tibialis anterior and posterior, soleus, and medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius were derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Repeated measures ANOVAs and Bonferroni post hoc tests determined the effects of time and group on each muscle outcome. In both groups, muscle CSA and FA did not significantly change over time, whereas ADC significantly decreased. A greater decline at 30 min for young women was only observed for ADC in the medial gastrocnemius. Regardless of age, ADC values decreased with fluid shift associated with time spent supine, whereas CSA and FA were not affected. For leg muscle assessment in young and older women, DTI scanning protocols should consider the amount of time spent in a recumbent position.

  9. Water velocity tolerance in tadpoles of the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii): Swimming performance, growth, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kupferberg; A. Lind; V. Thill; S. Yarnell

    2011-01-01

    We explored the effects of large magnitude flow fluctuations in rivers with dams, commonly referred to as pulsed flows, on tadpoles of the lotic-breeding Foothill Yellow-legged Frog, Rana boylii. We quantified the velocity conditions in habitats occupied by tadpoles and then conducted experiments to assess the tolerance to values at the upper limit...

  10. Two-phase flow experiments on Counter-Current Flow Limitation in a model of the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor (2015 test series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Matthias; Lucas, Dirk; Pietruske, Heiko; Szalinski, Lutz

    2016-12-01

    Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) is of importance for PWR safety analyses in several accident scenarios connected with loss of coolant. Basing on the experiences obtained during a first series of hot leg tests now new experiments on counter-current flow limitation were conducted in the TOPFLOW pressure vessel. The test series comprises air-water tests at 1 and 2 bar as well as steam-water tests at 10, 25 and 50 bar. During the experiments the flow structure was observed along the hot leg model using a high-speed camera and web-cams. In addition pressure was measured at several positions along the horizontal part and the water levels in the reactor-simulator and steam-generator-simulator tanks were determined. This report documents the experimental setup including the description of operational and special measuring techniques, the experimental procedure and the data obtained. From these data flooding curves were obtained basing on the Wallis parameter. The results show a slight shift of the curves in dependency of the pressure. In addition a slight decrease of the slope was found with increasing pressure. Additional investigations concern the effects of hysteresis and the frequencies of liquid slugs. The latter ones show a dependency on pressure and the mass flow rate of the injected water. The data are available for CFD-model development and validation.

  11. Two-phase flow experiments on Counter-Current Flow Limitation in a model of the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor (2015 test series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Matthias; Lucas, Dirk; Pietruske, Heiko; Szalinski, Lutz

    2016-12-15

    Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) is of importance for PWR safety analyses in several accident scenarios connected with loss of coolant. Basing on the experiences obtained during a first series of hot leg tests now new experiments on counter-current flow limitation were conducted in the TOPFLOW pressure vessel. The test series comprises air-water tests at 1 and 2 bar as well as steam-water tests at 10, 25 and 50 bar. During the experiments the flow structure was observed along the hot leg model using a high-speed camera and web-cams. In addition pressure was measured at several positions along the horizontal part and the water levels in the reactor-simulator and steam-generator-simulator tanks were determined. This report documents the experimental setup including the description of operational and special measuring techniques, the experimental procedure and the data obtained. From these data flooding curves were obtained basing on the Wallis parameter. The results show a slight shift of the curves in dependency of the pressure. In addition a slight decrease of the slope was found with increasing pressure. Additional investigations concern the effects of hysteresis and the frequencies of liquid slugs. The latter ones show a dependency on pressure and the mass flow rate of the injected water. The data are available for CFD-model development and validation.

  12. Laser-heating-induced displacement of surfactants on the water surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backus, E.H.G.; Bonn, D.; Cantin, S.; Roke, S.; Bonn, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a combined vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and ellipsometry study of different surfactants on water as a function of surfactant density. Vibrational SFG spectra of surfactants on the water surface in a Langmuir trough have been

  13. Emerging organic pollutants in the vadose zone of a soil aquifer treatment system: Pore water extraction using positive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopilniak, Alexander; Elkayam, Roy; Rossin, Anna Voloshenko; Lev, Ovadia

    2018-01-01

    Trace organic compounds in effluents, water streams and aquifers are amply reported. However, the mobile pool of Emerging Organic Contaminants (EOCs) in the deep parts of the vadose zone is hard to estimate, due to difficulties in extraction of sufficient quantity of pore water. Here, we present a new methodology for depth profiling of EOCs in pore water by Positive Displacement Extraction (PDE): Pore water extraction from unsaturated soil samples is carried out by withdrawal of soil cores by direct-push drilling and infiltrating the core by organics free water. We show that EOC concentrations in the water eluted in the plateau region of the inverse breakthrough curve is equal to their pore water concentrations. The method was previously validated for DOC extraction, and here the scope of the methodology is extended to pore water extraction for organic pollutants analysis. Method characteristics and validation were carried out with atrazine, simazine, carbamazepine, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine and caffeine in the concentration range of several ng to several μg/liter. Validation was carried out by laboratory experiments on three different soils (sandy, sandy-clayey and clayey). Field studies in the vadose zone of a SAT system provided 27 m deep EOC profiles with less than 1.5 m spatial resolution. During the percolation treatment, carbamazepine remained persistent, while the other studied EOCs were attenuated to the extent of 50-99%.The highest degradation rate of all studied EOCs was in the aerobic zone. EOC levels based on PDE and extraction by centrifugation were compared, showing a positive bias for centrifugation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Xueying; Zhang, Xiufeng; Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and...

  15. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  16. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and 15 N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D 2 O, bromide and [ 15 N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers [de

  17. A large outbreak of hepatitis E among a displaced population in Darfur, Sudan, 2004: the role of water treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Klovstad, Hilde; Boccia, Delia; Hamid, Nuha; Pinoges, Loretxu; Nizou, Jacques-Yves; Tatay, Mercedes; Diaz, Francisco; Moren, Alain; Grais, Rebecca Freeman; Ciglenecki, Iza; Nicand, Elisabeth; Guerin, Philippe Jean

    2006-06-15

    The conflict in Darfur, Sudan, was responsible for the displacement of 1.8 million civilians. We investigated a large outbreak of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Mornay camp (78,800 inhabitants) in western Darfur. To describe the outbreak, we used clinical and demographic information from cases recorded at the camp between 26 July and 31 December 2004. We conducted a case-cohort study and a retrospective cohort study to identify risk factors for clinical and asymptomatic hepatitis E, respectively. We collected stool and serum samples from animals and performed a bacteriological analysis of water samples. Human samples were tested for immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibody to HEV (for serum samples) and for amplification of the HEV genome (for serum and stool samples). In 6 months, 2621 hepatitis E cases were recorded (attack rate, 3.3%), with a case-fatality rate of 1.7% (45 deaths, 19 of which involved were pregnant women). Risk factors for clinical HEV infection included age of 15-45 years (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.46) and drinking chlorinated surface water (odds ratio, 2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-5.08). Both factors were also suggestive of increased risk for asymptomatic HEV infection, although this was not found to be statistically significant. HEV RNA was positively identified in serum samples obtained from 2 donkeys. No bacteria were identified from any sample of chlorinated water tested. Current recommendations to ensure a safe water supply may have been insufficient to inactivate HEV and control this epidemic. This research highlights the need to evaluate current water treatment methods and to identify alternative solutions adapted to complex emergencies.

  18. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  19. Selective and Sensitive Detection of Cyanide Based on the Displacement Strategy Using a Water-Soluble Fluorescent Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Ming; Hao, Yuanqiang; Wang, Zhaoyang; Han, Guo-Cheng; Qu, Lingbo

    2016-01-01

    A water-soluble fluorescent probe (C-GGH) was used for the highly sensitive and selective detection of cyanide (CN−) in aqueous media based on the displacement strategy. Due to the presence of the recognition unit GGH (Gly-Gly-His), the probe C-GGH can coordinate with Cu2+ and consequently display ON-OFF type fluorescence response. Furthermore, the in situ formed nonfluorescent C-GGH-Cu2+ complex can act as an effective OFF-ON type fluorescent probe for sensing CN− anion. Due to the strong binding affinity of CN− to Cu2+, CN− can extract Cu2+ from C-GGH-Cu2+ complex, leading to the release of C-GGH and the recovery of fluorescent emission of the system. The probe C-GGH-Cu2+ allowed detection of CN− in aqueous solution with a LOD (limit of detection) of 0.017 μmol/L which is much lower than the maximum contaminant level (1.9 μmol/L) for CN− in drinking water set by the WHO (World Health Organization). The probe also displayed excellent specificity for CN− towards other anions, including F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, SCN−, PO4 3−, N3 −, NO3 −, AcO−, SO4 2−, and CO3 2−. PMID:26881185

  20. Selective and Sensitive Detection of Cyanide Based on the Displacement Strategy Using a Water-Soluble Fluorescent Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming La

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble fluorescent probe (C-GGH was used for the highly sensitive and selective detection of cyanide (CN− in aqueous media based on the displacement strategy. Due to the presence of the recognition unit GGH (Gly-Gly-His, the probe C-GGH can coordinate with Cu2+ and consequently display ON-OFF type fluorescence response. Furthermore, the in situ formed nonfluorescent C-GGH-Cu2+ complex can act as an effective OFF-ON type fluorescent probe for sensing CN− anion. Due to the strong binding affinity of CN− to Cu2+, CN− can extract Cu2+ from C-GGH-Cu2+ complex, leading to the release of C-GGH and the recovery of fluorescent emission of the system. The probe C-GGH-Cu2+ allowed detection of CN− in aqueous solution with a LOD (limit of detection of 0.017 μmol/L which is much lower than the maximum contaminant level (1.9 μmol/L for CN− in drinking water set by the WHO (World Health Organization. The probe also displayed excellent specificity for CN− towards other anions, including F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, SCN−, PO43-, N3-, NO3-, AcO−, SO42-, and CO32-.

  1. Tests of dielectric model descriptions of chemical charge displacements in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawa, G.J.; Pratt, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    A dielectric model of electrostatic solvation is applied to describe potentials of mean force in water along reaction paths for (a) pairing of sodium and/or chloride ions; (b) the symmetric S N 2 exchange of chloride in methylchloride; (c) nucleophilic attack of formaldehyde by hydroxide anion. For these cases simulation and XRISM results are available for comparison. The accuracy of model predictions varies from spectacular to poor. It is argued that: (a) dielectric models are physical models, even though simplistic and empirical; (b) their successes suggest that second-order perturbation theory is a physically sound description of free energies of electrostatic solvation; and (c) the most serious deficiency of the dielectric models lies in the definition of cavity volumes. Second-order perturbation theory should therefore be used to refine the dielectric models. These dielectric models make no attempt to assess the role of packing effects but for salvation of classical electrostatic interactions the dielectric models appear to perform as well as the more detailed XRISM theory

  2. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  3. Probabilitic analysis for fatigue failure of leg-supported liquid containers under random earthquake-type excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi

    1981-01-01

    Leg-supported cylindrical containers frequently used for nuclear power plants and chemical plants and leg-supported rectangular containers such as water and fuel tanks are the structures, of which the reliability is feared at the time of earthquakes. In this study, about such leg-supported liquid containers, the structural reliability of the system at the time of earthquakes was analyzed from the viewpoint of fatigue failure at the joints of tanks and supporting legs and the fixing parts of legs. The second order unsteady coupled probability density of response displacement and response velocity and the first and second order unsteady probability density of response displacement envelope were determined, then using the results, the expected value, variance and unsteady probability density of cumulative damage were obtained on the basis of Miner's law, thus the structural reliability of the system was analyzed. The result of analysis was verified with the results of vibration tests using many simulated earthquake waves, and the experiment of the fatigue failure of a model with sine wave vibration was carried out. The mechanical model for the analysis, the unsteady probability density described above, the analysis of structural reliability and the experiment are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  5. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...

  6. Microflow Mechanism of Oil Displacement by Viscoelastic Hydrophobically Associating Water-Soluble Polymers in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Zhong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymer flooding plays an important role in enhanced oil recovery (EOR, particularly in China, where partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM and hydrophobically associating water-soluble polymers (HAWP are used in onshore and offshore reservoirs, respectively. Many researchers have highlighted the elasticity of HPAM, which can be used to improve the sweep efficiency, i.e., the ratio of the area swept by an injected fluid to the oil area. On the other hand, fewer studies exist on the elasticity of HAWP. In this study, we investigate the flow of HAWP and Xanthan solutions with identical viscosities in core experiments in terms of elasticity; results reveal that the HAWP can produce shear thickening in the core. The constitutive equation for the HAWP can be obtained using the simulation results matched with the experimental data. On the basis of these experiments, we established a two-phase flow model of a polymer and oil, including the continuity, momentum, constitutive, and phase equations. The volume-of-fluid (VOF method was used to track the interface between the two phases. A complex pore model was established based on the glass-etched model used in the experiment. We used the OpenFOAM platform to solve the mathematical model. The saturation, pressure, and stress tensor distributions were obtained. The results show that the displacement efficiency increased as the elasticity of the polymer increased; accordingly, the elasticity can enlarge the sweep area and decrease the residual oil saturation. As the elasticity increases, the stresses (the first normal stress, second normal stress, and shear stress increase. Finally, the results obtained in this study can be used as a guideline in polymer design, screening, and optimization in the polymer flooding oilfields.

  7. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  8. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    -centred design process. We identified alternative design-relevant relationships between people and devices that are not specifically tied to the functions/uses of the devices, e.g. relationships between the healthcare professional and the device, between doctors and patients, and between patients and their own......This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...

  9. War, forced displacement and growth in Laotian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, Patrick F

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from several populations suggests that war negatively impacts civilian nutrition, physical growth and overall health. This effect is often enduring or permanent, particularly if experienced early in life. To assess whether the number of lifetime displacement experiences and being displaced in infancy were associated with adult height, sitting height, leg length and the sitting height ratio. Retrospective questionnaires on displacement and resettlement experiences and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of Laotian adult refugees (ethnic Hmong and Lao; n = 365). All were born in Laos or Thailand and had resettled in French Guiana or the US. Many had been displaced several times by military conflict in Laos. In bivariate analyses, being displaced in infancy and the number of lifetime displacement experiences one had were negatively associated with final adult height and leg length in both sexes. The association was stronger in females, particularly Hmong females. There was no significant association between total displacement experiences and the sitting height ratio. In multiple regression analyses, linear growth in males was negatively associated with being displaced in infancy; in females, the number of lifetime displacement experiences was a significant predictor. Forced displacement from war appears to have a lasting effect on final adult height, sitting height and leg length, although not necessarily on the sitting height ratio in this sample.

  10. Potential-Flow Predictions of a Semi-Displacement Vessel Including Applications to Calm-Water Broaching

    OpenAIRE

    Ommani, Babak

    2013-01-01

    As a marine vehicle’s operational speed increases, hydrodynamic pressure plays an increasingly significant role in carrying the vessel’s weight. The shift of importance from hydrostatic to hydrodynamic pressure may cause a vessel, which is stable at rest or low speeds, to become dynamically unstable at high speeds. The nature of the dynamic instability depends mainly on the vessel’s type and speed. Among high speed vessels, semi-displacement mono-hulls are particularly susceptible to a nonosc...

  11. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Mei

    Full Text Available Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM, quagga mussels alone (QM, or an equal number of both species (ZQ reduced total phosphorus (TP and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3- levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment.

  12. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xueying; Zhang, Xiufeng; Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM), quagga mussels alone (QM), or an equal number of both species (ZQ) reduced total phosphorus (TP) and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3-) levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment.

  13. Effect of the walking speed to the lower limb joint angular displacements, joint moments and ground reaction forces during walking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Shirota, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2004-06-17

    The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in ground reaction forces (GRF), joint angular displacements (JAD), joint moments (JM) and electromyographic (EMG) activities that occur during walking at various speeds in water and on land. Fifteen healthy adults participated in this study. In the water experiments, the water depth was adjusted so that body weight was reduced by 80%. A video-motion analysis system and waterproof force platform was used to obtain kinematics and kinetics data and to calculate the JMs. Results revealed that (1) the anterior-posterior GRF patterns differed between walking in water and walking on land, whereas the medio-lateral GRF patterns were similar, (2) the JAD patterns of the hip and ankle were similar between water- and land-walking, whereas the range of motion at the knee joint was lower in water than on land, (3) the JMs in all three joints were lower in water than on land throughout the stance phase, and (4) the hip joint extension moment and hip extensor muscle EMG activity were increased as walking speed increase during walking in water. Rehabilitative water-walking exercise could be designed to incorporate large-muscle activities, especially of the lower-limb extensor muscles, through full joint range of motion and minimization of joint moments.

  14. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  15. Study of the fluid dynamic and the efficiency of displacement in oil-water systems; Estudo da fluidodinamica e da eficiencia de deslocamento em sistemas agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorese, Eliana K.; Quadri, Marintho B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Nogueira, Andre L.; Lopes, Toni J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e de Alimentos; Baptista, Renan M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Several operations and procedures in the oil industry are related to immiscible displacement of a fluid by another one. Some examples can be listed: the natural and artificial oil elevation from wells, the pumping of high viscosity oils through pipelines using water injection and secondary oil recovery. The performance of the last one is a direct consequence of the interfacial phenomena inherent to oil/water systems. As occur in oil leakages from submarine pipelines, the phase inversion phenomenon can also be considered in this context. Therefore, it is of major importance to realize experimental analysis of the oil/water interface stability and the facts that leads to the fingering phenomenon appearance. This phenomenon is represented into the other one like one or more fingers. The mathematical model used to describe the immiscible displacement of another one is initially developed to Hele-Shaw cells. Experimental observations with a Hele-Shaw cell enable the evaluation of the proposed model and its capability to adequately describe the viscous fingering phenomenon related to physical (density, viscosity and interfacial tension) and geometric properties of the system. (author)

  16. Spring-like leg behaviour, musculoskeletal mechanics and control in maximum and submaximum height human hopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how humans regulate their 'leg stiffness' in hopping, and to determine whether this regulation is intended to minimize energy expenditure. 'Leg stiffness' is the slope of the relationship between ground reaction force and displacement of the centre of mass

  17. The influence of water disposal method on the property of chemical oil-displacement agent--taking Guan 109-1 area of Dagang oilfield as example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwang Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the actual demand of Guan 109-1 block in Dagang oilfield, by means of instrumental analysis, chemical analysis, modern physical simulation, viewing polymer viscosity and seepage characteristic as evaluation index, the experimental research on the influence of water disposal method on the property of chemical oil-displacement agent was carried out. Results showed that through adding scaling agent, scale was formed because of the reaction between scaling agent and Ca2+, Mg2+ in the flooding water, which could enhance the viscosity of polymer solution. Through comparing the resistance factor and residual resistance factor of polymer solution which was respectively prepared with flooding water, softened water and scale, the resistance factor and residual resistance factor of polymer solution with scale was the largest, that of polymer solution prepared with softened water was second and that of polymer solution prepared with flooding water came last. Furthermore, scaling agent weakened the gelling effect between cross-linking agent Cr3+ and polymer molecule chains. The earlier the cross-linking agent Cr3+ was added, the larger the polymer viscosity, resistance factor and residual resistance factor of Cr3+ polymer were.

  18. Analysis of the UPTF Separate Effects Test 11 (steam-water counter-current flow in the broken loop hot leg) using RELAP5/MOD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillistone, M.J.

    1989-08-01

    RELAP5/MOD2 predictions of countercurrent flow limitation in the UPTF hot leg separate effects Test (test 11) are compared with the experimental data. The code underestimates, by a factor of more than three, the gas flow necessary to prevent liquid runback from the steam generator, and this is shown to be due to an oversimplified flow-regime map which does not allow the possibility of stratified flow in the hot leg riser. The predicted countercurrent flow is also shown to depend, wrongly, on the depth of liquid in the steam generator plenum. The same test is also modelled using a version of the code in which stratified flow in the riser is made possible. The gas flow needed to prevent liquid runback is then predicted quite well, but at all lower gas flows the code predicts that the flow is completely unrestricted - i.e. liquid flows between full flow and zero flow are not predicted. This is shown to happen because the code cannot calculate correctly the liquid level in the hot leg, mainly because of a numerical effect of upwind donoring in the momentum flux terms of the code's basic equations. It is also shown that the code cannot model the considerable effect of the ECCS injection pipe (which runs inside the hot leg) on the liquid level. (author)

  19. Leg som ustyrlig deltagelseskultur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    2017-01-01

    - og spilteoretikere Johan Huizinga og Roger Caillois. Deres teorier og begrebsdannelser har været brugt til at påpege leg dels som et æstetisk baseret betydningssystem, dels som et affektivt og stemningsbaseret oplevelsessystem samt endelig som et socialt baseret relationssystem. I artiklen vælger vi...... at fokusere på leg som et socialt baseret relationssystem og yderligere zoome ind på et af legens systemiske væsenstræk, nemlig brugen af regulerbare regelsæt, som legerne uden ’politi’ forhandler sig frem til før, under og efter legen. Fælles for Huizinga og Caillois er, at de knytter leg uløseligt sammen...

  20. Leg og dannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    lederen i det pædagogiske tidskrift Asterisk: ”Leg i skolen, leg i klasserummet, ja legende læring i skolen udgør derimod en enorm, seriøs og ubrugt læringsressource – ikke alene med effekter på kreativiteten, men også på den faglige læring” (Holm, 2015, p. 2). Legens værdi gøres altså først og fremmest...

  1. Venous leg ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri

  2. Charge-transfer energy in the water-hydrogen molecular aggregate revealed by molecular-beam scattering experiments, charge displacement analysis, and ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belpassi, Leonardo; Reca, Michael L; Tarantelli, Francesco; Roncaratti, Luiz F; Pirani, Fernando; Cappelletti, David; Faure, Alexandre; Scribano, Yohann

    2010-09-22

    Integral cross-section measurements for the system water-H(2) in molecular-beam scattering experiments are reported. Their analysis demonstrates that the average attractive component of the water-H(2) intermolecular potential in the well region is about 30% stronger than dispersion and induction forces would imply. An extensive and detailed theoretical analysis of the electron charge displacement accompanying the interaction, over several crucial sections of the potential energy surface (PES), shows that water-H(2) interaction is accompanied by charge transfer (CT) and that the observed stabilization energy correlates quantitatively with CT magnitude at all distances. Based on the experimentally determined potential and the calculated CT, a general theoretical model is devised which reproduces very accurately PES sections obtained at the CCSD(T) level with large basis sets. The energy stabilization associated with CT is calculated to be 2.5 eV per electron transferred. Thus, CT is shown to be a significant, strongly stereospecific component of the interaction, with water functioning as electron donor or acceptor in different orientations. The general relevance of these findings for water's chemistry is discussed.

  3. A Biological Micro Actuator: Graded and Closed-Loop Control of Insect Leg Motion by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Li, Yao; Sangi, Daniyal Haider; Koh, Jie Sheng; Huynh, Ngoc Anh; Aziz, Mohamed Fareez Bin; Choo, Hao Yu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Abbeel, Pieter; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Sato, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle) and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect–machine hybrid legged robot). PMID:25140875

  4. A biological micro actuator: graded and closed-loop control of insect leg motion by electrical stimulation of muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Cao

    Full Text Available In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect-machine hybrid legged robot.

  5. Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder, particularly if they experience onset at an early age; many years may pass before symptoms occur regularly. top What causes restless legs syndrome? In most cases, the cause of RLS is unknown (called primary RLS). However, RLS has a genetic component and ...

  6. The mangled lower leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Jochem Maarten

    2002-01-01

    A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg. Until late in the nineteenth century the

  7. Maillard Conjugation of Sodium Alginate to Whey Protein for Enhanced Resistance to Surfactant-Induced Competitive Displacement from Air-Water Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingqing; Saito, Anna; Ikeda, Shinya

    2018-01-24

    Whey protein adsorbed to an interface forms a viscoelastic interfacial film but is displaced competitively from the interface by a small-molecule surfactant added afterward. The present study evaluated the impact of the covalent conjugation of high- or low-molecular-weight sodium alginate (HA or LA) to whey protein isolate (WPI) via the Maillard reaction on the ability of whey protein to resist surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface. Surfactant added after the pre-adsorption of conjugate to the interface increased surface pressure. At a given surface pressure, the WPI-LA conjugate showed a significantly higher interfacial area coverage and lower interfacial film thickness compared to those of the WPI-HA conjugate or unconjugated WPI. The addition of LA to the aqueous phase had little effect on the interfacial area and thickness of pre-adsorbed WPI. These results suggest the importance of the molecular weight of the polysaccharide moiety in determining interfacial properties of whey protein-alginate conjugates.

  8. Study of oxide film formed in a pre cracked CT specimen of AISI 304L during a rising displacement test in 288 C water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz S, A.; Castano M, V.

    2007-01-01

    A study of oxide film formed inside pre cracked CT specimens during a rising displacement test in high temperature water (288 C) was performed in this study, The environmental conditions used during the experiments were similar to these found in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR): Normal Water Condition (NWC - 200 ppb O 2 ) and Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC - 125 ppb H2). The oxide films formed were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In both cases the oxide film consisted of two layers identified as magnetite. In the case of HWC the results agree with previous reports that mention magnetite as a stable phase in reducing conditions. However the stable phase in oxidant conditions is hematite and this work shows the presence of magnetite crystals in the narrow crack of CT specimens in spite of the oxidant environmental condition. This situation confirms that inside the pre-cracked CT specimens the environmental conditions were different from the oxidant bulk, and probably a poor oxygen access and stagnant conditions within the narrow crack promoted a localized reducing environment that permitted the magnetite formation. Is evident that the crack growth studies should consider the conditions inside crack because they are significantly different. (Author)

  9. Performance Calculation of Floating Wind Turbine Tension Leg Platform in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Feng Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The harvesting of wind energy is expected to increase greatly in the future because of its stability, abundance, and renewability in large coastal states such as China. The floating support structure will likely become the major structural form for wind turbines in the future due to its cost advantages when the water depth reaches 50 m. The 5MW wind turbine model from National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL and the modified tension leg platform model proposed by Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT were applied to certain sea conditions in the South China Sea in order to consider the effects of external load coupling actions. In this study, the internal force, mooring system force, as well as the acceleration, displacement and velocity of the floating structure of the modified HIT Tension Leg Platform (HIT-TLP were calculated. During this process, the physical parameters of its tension leg structure at a specific frequency domain were obtained to find the technical reserves for its practical application in the future.

  10. Effects of the conjugation of whey proteins with gellan polysaccharides on surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, B; Ikeda, S

    2016-08-01

    Whey proteins can be used to stabilize foams and emulsions against coalescence because of their ability to form viscoelastic films at the interface that resist film rupture on collision between colloidal particles. However, whey proteins are competitively displaced from the interface if small-molecule surfactants are added, leading to destabilization of the entire system. This is because surfactants are more effective in molecular packing at the interface, and they lower interfacial tension to a greater degree than whey proteins do, but their interfacial films are poor in viscoelasticity. We hypothesized that whey proteins would become more resistant to surfactant-induced competitive displacement if they were conjugated with network-forming polysaccharides. The protein moiety of the conjugate would be expected to enable its adsorption to the interface, and the polysaccharide moiety would be expected to form self-assembled networks, strengthening the interfacial film as a whole. In this study, whey proteins were conjugated with gellan polysaccharides using the Maillard reaction. Atomic force microscopy images of interfacial films formed by the whey protein-gellan conjugate at the air-water interface and transferred onto mica sheets using the Langmuir-Blodgett method revealed that gellan did form self-assembled networks at the interface and that interfacial films also contained a large number of unconjugated whey protein molecules. Following the addition of a small-molecule surfactant (Tween 20) to the sub-phase, surface pressure increased, indicating spontaneous adsorption of surfactants to the interface. Atomic force microscopy images showed decreases in interfacial area coverage by whey proteins as surface pressure increased. At a given surface pressure, the interfacial area coverage by whey protein-gellan conjugates was greater than coverage by unconjugated whey proteins, confirming that whey proteins became more resistant to surfactant-induced displacement after

  11. [Physical treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemond, J

    2010-05-01

    An increasing numbers of physical treatment options are available for chronic leg ulcer. In this review article, compression therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, negative pressure therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrostimulation therapy, electromagnetic therapy, photodynamic therapy, water-filtered infrared-A-radiation and hydrotherapy are discussed in terms of their practical applications and the underlying evidence. With the exception of compression therapy for most of these treatments, good scientific data are not available. However this is a widespread problem in the treatment of chronic wounds. Nevertheless, several of the described methods such as negative pressure therapy represent one of the gold standards in practical treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. Although the use of physical treatment modalities may improve healing in patients with chronic leg ulcers, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes are essential for long-lasting success.

  12. Analysis of large break loss of coolant accident with simultaneous injection into cold leg and hot leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Bangqi

    1997-01-01

    When a large break loss of coolant accident occurs, the most part of the safety injection water injected into the cold leg by the safety injection system will flow through the channel between the pressure vessel and the barrel out of the break into the containment, only a little part of the safety injection water can flow into the reactor core. If the safety injection can inject into both the cold leg and the hot leg simultaneously, the safety injection water injected from the cold leg will flow into the core more easily, because the safety injection water injected from the hot leg will carry out more heat from the upper plenum and the core, so the upper plenum and the core is depressed. In addition, a small part of the safety injection water injected from the hot leg will flow down in the core after impinging the guide tubes in the upper plenum, so the core will get more safety injection water than only cold leg injection, and the core will be much safer

  13. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-27

    digitai~y thro)ugh a ribbon cable. lhe dcsign effort required to mount power sources and computing u(m board would hive distracted us fiorn our main...angular momentum. "The model used in this paper, shown in Fig. 6-1, has 3 single springy leg that articular •s ,ith respect to a body about a simple hince

  14. Two Legged Walking Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a two-legged wirelessly controlled walking robot. This paper describes the construction of the robot, its control electronics, and the solution of the wireless control. The article also includes a description of the application to control the robot. The control electronics of the walking robot are built using the development kit Arduino Mega, which is enhanced with WiFi module allowing the wireless control, a set of ultrasonic sensors for detecting obstacl...

  15. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    the laboratory. Harry Asada, Wayne Book, Nancy Cornelius, Sesh Murthy and Ivan Sutherland read various drafts of this report, for which we are...particularly helpful in providing an atmosphere where things could get started. Craig Fields and Clint Kelly deserve special credit for letting the idea of...legged technology capture their imaginations, even before we could show them tangible results. We are especially indebted to Ivan Sutherland for his

  16. Legāti

    OpenAIRE

    Segliņa, Aiga

    2010-01-01

    Autore teorētiski analizē legāta jēdzienu testamentārās mantošanas ietvaros un atspoguļo praktiska pētījuma rezultātus. Teorētiskā daļa apskata legāta nodibināšanas formu un spēkā esamību, tā iegūšanu un atraidīšanu, izpildi un zaudēšanu, novēlējuma robežas un aprobežojumus. Pētījums veikts aptaujas veidā ar mērķi noskaidrot, cik liela Latvijas iedzīvotāju daļa apzinās legāta nodrošinātās priekšrocības testamentārajā mantošanā. Apskatīts notāra neitralitātes jautājums attiecībā pret mantošana...

  17. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  18. Water Scarcity, Food Insecurity and Drought Induced Displacement in an Arid Ecosystem: A Case Study in Indian Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman Siddiqui, Azizur

    2017-04-01

    Indian Arid Ecosystem is characterised by scare as well as seasonal precipitation that have led to long term stress in a fragile ecosystem. In addition to this, over the years, Indian desert has experienced varying magnitude of drought, which have considerably influenced food and fodder production and led to the depletion of surface and ground water table. All these factors mean that the production potential of land is hardly sufficient to feed human as well as livestock population of the desert and this has led to extensive rural to urban migration in Indian Desert. In the present study, satellite data from Landsat TM, AWiFS, NOAA AVHRR have been used to detect the intensity and severity of drought condition, and data collected through primary survey has been used to measure the impact of water scarcity on food insecurity and drought induced migration. Rainfall trend analysis of the study area has been done with the help of Man Kendall Method to assess the meteorological vulnerability. In addition to these, NDVI, VCI, TCI, and VHI have also been used to find out the long term vegetation health in the study area. With the help of these scientific techniques, the paper focuses on the moisture deficiency during growing period and its effect on human population and livestock population. Keywords: Arid Ecosystem, Indian Desert, Drought, Migration

  19. Melting and evaporation analysis of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket module under vertical displacement event by using the MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Material phase change of first wall was simulated for vertical displacement event. • An in-house first wall module was developed to simulate melting and evaporation. • Effective heat capacity method and evaporation model were proposed. • MARS code was proposed to predict two-phase phenomena in coolant channel. • Phase change simulation was performed by coupling MARS and in-house module. - Abstract: Plasma facing components of tokamak reactors such as ITER or the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) can be subjected to damage by plasma instabilities. Plasma disruptions like vertical displacement event (VDE) with high heat flux, can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials and burnout of coolant channels. In this study, to simulate melting and vaporization of the first wall in a water-cooled breeding blanket under VDE, one-dimensional heat equations were solved numerically by using an in-house first wall module, including phase change models, effective heat capacity method, and evaporation model. For thermal-hydraulics, the in-house first wall analysis module was coupled with the nuclear reactor safety analysis code, MARS, to take advantage of its prediction capability for two-phase flow and critical heat flux (CHF) occurrence. The first wall was proposed for simulation according to the conceptual design of the K-DEMO, and the heat flux of plasma disruption with a value of 600 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.1 s was applied. The phase change simulation results were analyzed in terms of the melting and evaporation thicknesses and the occurrence of CHF. The thermal integrity of the blanket first wall is discussed to confirm whether the structural material melts for the given conditions.

  20. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.817 Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform (Morpeth...

  1. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position 28°10′10.29...

  2. Time-Lapse Photography of the Edge-of-Water Line Displacements of a Sandbar as a Proxy of Riverine Morphodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nones

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple methodology to track the displacements of a sandbar from a fixed video camera, extracting its morphological features and deriving the associated fluvial morphology is presented, using a small reach of the Po River in Italy as a case study. A camera fixed on a bridge pier acquired images every twelve hours while hourly water levels are derived from a radar hydrometer located upstream of the study area. The quantification of the fluvial bathymetry is achieved by mapping multiple edge-of-water lines of a sandbar before and after high flow conditions in December 2017. Both from video information and 2-D numerical simulations, it is evident that flooding waves can easily remove sediments that accumulated on bars during low flow conditions in this area, redistributing them across the river channel. This video-based methodology—which confirms to be economically attractive if compared to more traditional monitoring systems—proves to be a valuable system to monitor long-term fluvial processes providing detailed indications on how to better plan river management activities.

  3. Leg deformation during imaginal ecdysis in the downy emerald, Cordulia aenea (Odonata, Corduliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Frantsevich, Ludmilla

    2018-04-01

    A dragonfly larva migrates from the water to the shore, perches on a plant stem and grasps it with strongly flexed legs. Adult legs inside the larval exoskeleton fit to the larval legs joint-to-joint. The adult emerges with stretched legs. During the molt, an imaginal leg must follow all the angles in exuvial joints. In turn, larval apodemes are withdrawn from imaginal legs. We visualized transient shapes of the imaginal legs by the instant fixation of insects at different moments of the molt, photographed isolated exuvial legs with the imaginal legs inside and then removed the exuvial sheath. Instant shapes of the imaginal tibia show sharp intrapodomere bends copying the angle in the larval femoro-tibial joint. The site of bending shifts distad during the molt. This is possible if the imaginal leg is pliable. The same problem of leg squeezing is also common in hemimetabolous insects as well as in other arthropods, whereas holometabolous insects overcome problems of a tight confinement either by using leg pliability in other ways but not squeezing (cyclorrhaphan flies, mosquitoes) or by pulling hardened legs out without change of their pupal zigzag configuration (moths, ants, honey bees). The pupal legs are not intended to grasp any external substrate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. LEGS data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVine, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The data acquisition facility for the LEGS medium energy photonuclear beam line is composed of an auxiliary crate controller (ACC) acting as a front-end processor, loosely coupled to a time-sharing host computer based on a UNIX-like environment. The ACC services all real-time demands in the CAMAC crate: it responds to LAMs generated by data acquisition modules, to keyboard commands, and it refreshes the graphics display at frequent intervals. The host processor is needed only for printing histograms and recording event buffers on magnetic tape. The host also provides the environment for software development. The CAMAC crate is interfaced by a VERSAbus CAMAC branch driver

  5. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  6. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  7. Validation of lower limb segmental volumetry with hand-held, self-positioning three-dimensional laser scanner against water displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Sandrine; Veye, Florent; Perez-Martin, Antonia; Behar, Thomas; Triboulet, Jean; Berron, Nicolas; Demattei, Christophe; Quéré, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of limb volume is helpful for the evaluation and follow-up of edema, especially in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) or lymphedema. Water displacement (WD) is the reference method for limb volumetry but is not really suitable for clinical routine. Indirect volumetry based on circumference measurements as well as the more expansive but automatic optoelectronic techniques do not allow detailed measurement at the extremity of the limb. We used a self-positioning laser scanner with dynamic referencing for acquisition and real-time three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the lower limb volume in 30 patients with CVI, 30 patients with lymphedema, and 30 healthy controls. Two independent observers performed either one or two laser scans, whose results were tested for intra- and interobserver reproducibility and compared with WD volumetry by Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland and Altman graphic analysis. Automatic volume calculation from 3D laser scanning data failed in one patient with major lymphedema. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.99 and 0.98, respectively, for intraobserver no. 1 and no. 2, 0.98 for interobserver reproducibility, and 0.98 and 0.96, respectively, for observer no. 1 and observer no. 2 vs WD comparison. The 3D laser scanning yielded 1.99% precision. Accuracy was 3.12% for observer no. 1 and 2.71% for observer no. 2, laser scanning values being 90 mL higher than WD, which could be attributed to the different posture during measurement. Three-dimensional laser scanning is accurate and reproducible, and appears suitable for the evaluation of limb volume in patients with CVI or lymphedema. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Water-displacement plethysmography: a technique for the simultaneous thermal manipulation and measurement of whole-hand and whole-foot blood flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and validate water-displacement plethysmographs for the forearm, hand and foot that could clamp segmental skin temperature whilst simultaneously measuring cutaneous blood flow. Two experiments were performed. In the first, the forearm plethysmograph was validated against a mercury-in-silastic plethysmograph under thermoneutral conditions, with and without forearm heating. Cutaneous vascular conductance was elevated almost three-fold by this treatment, however, there were no significant differences between the two forms of plethysmography in either state (P > 0.05). In study two, hand and foot blood flows were measured under clamped thermoneutral conditions, but with three local skin temperature treatments (5, 25, 40 °C). The hand had significantly higher blood flows than the foot at both 25 °C (4.07 versus 2.20 mL.100 mL  − 1 .min  − 1 ; P < 0.05) and 40 °C (8.20 versus 4.47 mL.100 mL  − 1 .min  − 1 ; P < 0.05). The foot was maximally constricted during the two lower temperatures, yet the cutaneous thermal sensitivity of the hand was almost two-fold greater (P < 0.05). This evidence supports the significant role played by these appendages in heat loss and conservation, and these plethysmographs will now be used to map cutaneous vascular responses (forearm, hand, calf, foot) across combinations of core and local skin temperatures. (paper)

  9. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  10. Muscle Activity in Single- vs. Double-Leg Squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFOREST, Bradley A; Cantrell, Gregory S; Schilling, Brian K

    Muscular activity, vertical displacement and ground reaction forces of back squats (BS), rear-leg elevated split squats (RLESS) and split squats (SS) were examined. Nine resistance-trained men reported for two sessions. The first session consisted of the consent process, practice, and BS 1-repetition maximum testing. In the second session, participants performed the three exercises while EMG, displacment and ground reaction force data (one leg on plate) were collected. EMG data were collected from the gluteus maximus (GMX), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas) of the left leg (non-dominant, front leg for unilateral squats). Load for BS was 85% one repetition maximum, and RLESS and SS were performed at 50% of BS load. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare all variables for the three exercises, with Bonferroni adjustments for post hoc multiple comparisons, in addition to calculation of standardized mean differences (ES). Muscle activity was similar between exercises except for biceps femoris, which was significantly higher during RLESS than SS during both concentric and eccentric phases (ES = 2.11; p=0.012 and ES= 2.19; p=0.008), and significantly higher during BS than the SS during the concentric phase (ES = 1.78; p=0.029). Vertical displacement was similar between all exercises. Peak vertical force was similar between BS and RLESS and significantly greater during RLESS than SS (ES = 3.03; p=0.001). These findings may be helpful in designing resistance training programs by using RLESS if greater biceps femoris activity is desired.

  11. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  12. Assessing Children's Legs and Feet

    OpenAIRE

    Wedge, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Shoes are necessary for protection and warmth. Normal children do not require shoes for support. There is no scientific evidence that shoes—‘orthopedic’ or otherwise—influence or alter the growth or shape of the normal child's foot except, perhaps, adversely if they fit poorly. Family physicians must understand common variations of normal foot and leg development if they are to effectively advise and reassure parents about appropriate footwear. Flat feet, knock knees, bow legs, in-toeing, and...

  13. Improving venous leg ulcer management

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Carolina Dragica

    2017-01-01

    This thesis reports several different methods to develop and evaluate complex interventions designed to improve venous leg ulcer management. Chronic venous leg ulcers (VLU) are the most common chronic wound problem in the community. Its health and economic burden is predicted to increase due to ageing of the community and increase in prevalence of diabetes and obesity. Although many patients seek health care for VLU, most do not receive the most effective management. Patients with this condi...

  14. Effects of water temperature on breeding phenology, growth and timing of metamorphosis of foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) on the mainstem and selected tributaries of California's Trinity River - 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara Wheeler; James Bettaso; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2013-01-01

    The cold temperatures maintained in the Trinity River are beneficial to fish but may be problematic for foothill yellow-legged frogs. We examined the timing of breeding, reproductive output, and growth and development of tadpoles for populations of foothill yellow-legged frogs on the mainstem and six tributaries of the Trinity River. On the colder mainstem, onset of...

  15. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  16. Analysis of a hot-leg small break loss-of-coolant accident in a three-loop westinghouse pressurized water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Chexal, V.K.; Clements, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    The RETRAN-02 computer code was used to perform a best-estimate analysis of a 7.52-cm-diam hotleg break in a three-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor. This break size produced a net primary coolant mass depletion through the early portion of the transient. The primary system started to refill only after the accumulator valves opened. As the primary system refilled, there were extreme temperature differentials around the system with cold, denser fluid collecting at the lower elevations and two-phase fluid at higher elevations

  17. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  18. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  19. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  20. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shang-Chang; Hu, Chia-Jui; Shih, Wen-Pin; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic ...

  1. Applying a pelvic corrective force induces forced use of the paretic leg and improves paretic leg EMG activities of individuals post-stroke during treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Jung; Kim, Janis; Tang, Rongnian; Roth, Elliot J; Rymer, William Z; Wu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether applying a mediolateral corrective force to the pelvis during treadmill walking would enhance muscle activity of the paretic leg and improve gait symmetry in individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis. Fifteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis participated in this study. A customized cable-driven robotic system based over a treadmill generated a mediolateral corrective force to the pelvis toward the paretic side during early stance phase. Three different amounts of corrective force were applied. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the paretic leg, spatiotemporal gait parameters and pelvis lateral displacement were collected. Significant increases in integrated EMG of hip abductor, medial hamstrings, soleus, rectus femoris, vastus medialis and tibialis anterior were observed when pelvic corrective force was applied, with pelvic corrective force at 9% of body weight inducing greater muscle activity than 3% or 6% of body weight. Pelvis lateral displacement was more symmetric with pelvic corrective force at 9% of body weight. Applying a mediolateral pelvic corrective force toward the paretic side may enhance muscle activity of the paretic leg and improve pelvis displacement symmetry in individuals post-stroke. Forceful weight shift to the paretic side could potentially force additional use of the paretic leg and improve the walking pattern. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  3. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  4. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  5. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease - Doppler; PVD - Doppler; PAD - Doppler; Blockage of leg arteries - Doppler; Intermittent claudication - Doppler; Arterial insufficiency of the legs - Doppler; Leg pain and ...

  6. Internal Displacement: Livelihood saving responses

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Hines

    2001-01-01

    Deborah Hines explores how to assist the internally displaced and those prone to displacement. She considers the major causes of internal displacement, making the case for a more comprehensive set of policy and operational actions in response to situations of internal displacement. Development (2001) 44, 34–39. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110289

  7. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  8. Piezoelectric displacement in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Good Practice Guide is intended to aid a user to perform displacement measurements on piezoelectric ceramic materials such as PZT (lead zirconium titanate) in either monolithic or multilayer form. The various measurement issues that the user must consider are addressed, and good measurement practise is described for the four most suitable methods. (author)

  9. BETHSY ISP-38 flow behaviour in hot leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelin, S.; Jurkovic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Betsy Test 6.9c OECD ISP-38 RELAP5/MOD3.2 input model was developed and simulation performed for loss of RHR system during mid-loop operation. Initial liquid level in RCS was at horizontal axis of the hot legs. Pressurizer and steam generator manways were opened 1 s after the transient was initiated. Secondary side is full of air and isolated. Results of calculations were satisfied except in surge line and in pressurizer where larger amount of water is presented. Liquid was entrained in that part of the system during bubbly or varies stratified flow in the hot leg. Due to non-physical results in hot leg pipe with connected surge line and pressurizer, RELAP5 horizontal stratification model deficiencies was studied and possible improvements investigated.(author)

  10. Arm to leg coordination in elite butterfly swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2006-04-01

    This study proposed the use of four time gaps to assess arm-to-leg coordination in the butterfly stroke at increasing race paces. Fourteen elite male swimmers swam at four velocities corresponding to the appropriate paces for, respectively, the 400-m, 200-m, 100-m, and 50-m events. The different stroke phases of the arm and leg were identified by video analysis and then used to calculate four time gaps (T1: time gap between entry of the hands in the water and the high break-even point of the first undulation; T2: time gap between the beginning of the hands' backward movement and the low break-even point of the first undulation; T3: time gap between the hands' arrival in a vertical plane to the shoulders and the high break-even point of the second undulation; T4: time gap between the hands' release from the water and the low break-even point of the second undulation), the values of which described the changing relationship of arm to leg movements over an entire stroke cycle. With increases in pace, elite swimmers increased the stroke rate, the relative duration of the arm pull, the recovery and the first downward movement of the legs, and decreased the stroke length, the relative duration of the arm catch phase and the body glide with arms forward (measured by T2), until continuity in the propulsive actions was achieved. Whatever the paces, the T1, T3, and T4 values were close to zero and revealed a high degree of synchronisation at key motor points of the arm and leg actions. This new method to assess butterfly coordination could facilitate learning and coaching by situating the place of the leg undulation in relation with the arm stroke.

  11. Large displacement vertical translational actuator based on piezoelectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhen; Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Lin, Xianke; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Polcawich, Ronald G; Oldham, Kenn

    2010-07-01

    A novel vertical translational microactuator based on thin-film piezoelectric actuation is presented, using a set of four compound bend-up/bend-down unimorphs to produce translational motion of a moving platform or stage. The actuation material is a chemical-solution deposited lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin film. Prototype designs have shown as much as 120 μ m of static displacement, with 80-90 μ m displacements being typical, using four 920 μ m long by 70 μ m legs. Analytical models are presented that accurately describe nonlinear behavior in both static and dynamic operation of prototype stages when the dependence of piezoelectric coefficients on voltage is known. Resonance of the system is observed at a frequency of 200 Hz. The large displacement and high bandwidth of the actuators at low-voltage and low-power levels should make them useful to a variety of optical applications, including endoscopic microscopy.

  12. [Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debure, Clélia

    2010-09-20

    Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers must be the first step of treatment, even if we know that veinous disease is often present. We can build a clinical decisional diagram, which helps us to understand and not forget the other causes of chronic wounds and choose some basic examination, like ultrasound and histological findings. This diagnosis helps to choose the right treatment in order to cure even the oldest venous ulcers. Educational programs should be improved to prevent recurrence.

  13. Intermediate Leg SBLOCA - Long Lasting Pressure Transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konjarek, D.; Bajs, T.; Vukovic, J.

    2010-01-01

    The basic phenomenology of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) for PWR plant is described with focus on analysis of scenario in which reactor coolant pressure decreases below secondary system pressure. Best estimate light water reactor transient analysis code RELAP5/mod3.3 was used in calculation. Rather detailed model of the plant was used. The break occurs in intermediate leg on lowest elevation near pump suction. The size of the break is chosen to be small enough to cause cycling of safety valves (SVs) on steam generators (SGs) for some time, but, afterwards, it is large enough to remove decay heat through the break, causing cooling the secondary side. In this case of SBLOCA, when primary pressure decreases below secondary pressure, long lasting pressure transients with significant amplitude occur. Reasons for such behavior are explained.(author).

  14. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    1999-12-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins

  15. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  16. Measurement of interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacement meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Hibiki, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; the refraction index of this device is same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 μm to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 μm at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film less than 1 μm in thickness in slug and annular flow regions. (author)

  17. Postural control of typical developing boys during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Van Geet, Kristel; Hermans, Cedric; Lobet, Sebastien

    2017-02-01

    Literature is lacking information about postural control performance of typically developing children during a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. The purpose of the present study was therefore to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a transition task in typical developing age groups as well as to study the correlation between associated balance measures and age.Thirty-three typically developing boys aged 6-20 years performed a standard transition task from DLS to SLS with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Balance features derived from the center of pressure displacement captured by a single force platform were correlated with age on the one hand and considered for differences in the perspective of limb dominance on the other hand.All TDB (typically developing boys) were able to perform the transition task with EO. With respect to EC condition, all TDB from the age group 6-7 years and the youngest of the age group 8-12 years (N = 4) were unable to perform the task. No significant differences were observed between the balance measures of the dominant and non-dominant limbs.With respect to EO condition, correlation analyses indicated that time to new stability point (TNSP) as well as the sway measure after this TNSP were correlated with age (p postural balance of typically developing children during walking, running, sit-to-stand, and bipodal and unipodal stance has been well documented in the literature. • These reference data provided not only insight into the maturation process of the postural control system, but also served in diagnosing and managing functional repercussions of neurological and orthopedic pathologies. What is New: • Objective data regarding postural balance of typical developing children during a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. • Insight into the role of maturation on the postural control system.

  18. Leg tissue composition and physico-chemical parameters of sheep meat fed annatto coproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate leg tissue composition and physico-chemical quality parameters of sheep meat fed with increasing levels of annatto coproduct. 32 male uncastrated animals without a defined breed were randomized in four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 of annatto coproduct in the DM diet. After 78 days of confinement, the animals were slaughtered and body components were recorded. Reconstituted leg weight, total muscle weight, biceps weight and semitendinosus weight showed a negative linear behavior (P 0.05 were found for leg tissue composition (%, muscle:bone ratio, relative fat or leg muscle. Meat physico-chemical parameters (color, shear force, water retention capacity and cooking losses were not affected by the inclusion of the annatto coproduct in the diet. The annatto coproduct can be included in up to 300 g kg-1 of dietary dry matter without negative effects to the leg tissue composition (% and physical parameters of confined sheep meat.

  19. Use of water as displacing agent in ion exchange chromatographic separation of isotope of boron using weak base ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Mohanakrishnan, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Krishna Prabhu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to study the feasibility of using weakly basic anion exchange resin for enrichment of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography and water as eluent. The results of experiments carried out to determine total chloride capacity (TCC), strong base capacity (SBC) of the resin at different concentrations of boric acid and enrichment profiles are reported in this paper. (author)

  20. Control rod displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, S.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods

  1. A Hydroxyurea-induced Leg Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Seon-Wook; Hong, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Jong-Keun; Lee, Deborah; Sung, Ho-Suk

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is a cytostatic agent that has recently become the drug of choice in the treatment of various myeloproliferative diseases. The cutaneous side effects of hydroxyurea include xerosis, hyperpigmentation, nail discoloration, and scaling. Leg ulcers have only rarely been reported in association with hydroxyurea treatment. A 75-year-old woman presented with leg ulcers, nail discoloration, and xerosis. The leg ulcers were refractory to conventional treatment. She had been taking oral hyd...

  2. RELIABILITY OF KINEMATICS AND KINETICS ASSOCIATED WITH HORIZONTAL SINGLE LEG DROP JUMP ASSESSMENT. A BRIEF REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Stålbom

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the reliability of a unilateral horizontal drop jump for displacement provided the focus for this research. Eighteen male subjects were required to step off a 20cm box and land on a force plate with one leg and thereafter jump for maximal horizontal displacement on two different days. Dependent variables from the jump assessment included mean and peak vertical (V and horizontal (H ground reaction forces (GRF and impulses, horizontal displacement and contact time. The between-trial variability of all kinematic and kinetic measures was less than 7%. The most consistent measure over both trials was the horizontal displacement jumped (1.2 to 1.4% and the most variable were the contact time the first day (6.5% and peak HGRF the second day (4.3%. In all cases there was less variation associated with the second rather than the first day. In terms of test-retest variability the percent changes in the means and coefficient of variations (CVs were all under 10%. The smallest changes in the mean (0.43 %, least variation (< 2.26 % and second highest intraclass correlation co-efficient (ICC = 0.95 were found for horizontal displacement jumped. The highest ICC (0.96 was found for horizontal impulse. Given the reliability of the single leg drop jump, it may offer better prognostic and diagnostic information than that obtained with bilateral vertical jumps

  3. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  4. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  5. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, p<.01, using the χ 2 Goodness of Fit Test. Based on the odds ratio, the odds of patients having RLS were 4.60 times higher if they had right temporal epilepsy than if they had left temporal epilepsy, serving as a potential lateralizing indicator. A prodromal sensation of worsening RLS occurred in some patients providing the opportunity to intervene at an earlier stage in this subgroup. We identified frequent moderate to severe RLS in patients with epilepsy. The frequency of RLS was much more common than would typically be seen in patients of similar

  6. Displaced Sense: Displacement, Religion and Sense-making

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Maheshvari

    2016-01-01

    Whether formally categorized as refugees or not, displaced migrants experience varying degrees of vulnerability in relation to where they find themselves displaced. The internally displaced furthermore squat invisibly and outside the boundaries of the legal framework and incentive structures accorded to those classified as 'refugee'. They are thus arguably, by and large, left to source sustaining solutions for themselves. This article works through the theoretical prism of sense-making theory...

  7. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    as an affective care recipient, as a citizen with rights and as an individual need-oriented user on the one hand. On the other hand, the goal of patient satisfaction also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardised. In the latter (market orientation......), the patient is also a resource for organizational development and a customer with consumer behavior. Overall, the strategy presents an information-pursuing patient figure making it possible to streamline the organization's care orientation on market conditions. In contrast to Annemarie Mol’s dichotomy of care......The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...

  8. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  9. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  10. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  11. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  12. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  13. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Wahbi AM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Al-Wahbi1, Shaza Elmoukaied2 1Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Surgery, Dr Sulaiman Al Habib Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. Keywords: varicocele, varicocelectomy, complications, vascular injuries

  14. Linking Species Traits to the Abiotic Template of Flowing Waters: Contrasting Eco physiologies Underlie Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels in a Large River-Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, A. F.

    2005-05-01

    The St. Lawrence River-Estuary was the gateway of entry for dreissenids to North America and holds some of the oldest populations. The St. Lawrence also has four distinct physical-chemical water masses (a regional scale abiotic template) that both species inhabit. Despite their ecological similarities, quagga mussels are supplanting zebra mussels in much of their shared range. In order to try to better understand the changing distributions of these two species we compared glycogen, shell mass and tissue biomass in each of the water masses. This comparative physiological combined with experimental approaches (estuarine salinity experiments and reciprocal transplants) showed that while quagga mussels should dominate in most habitats, that abiotic/bioenergetic constraints in two regions (the Ottawa River plume and the freshwater-marine transition zone) might prevent them from dominating these locations. These findings are an example of how the interaction of landscape scale abiotic heterogeneity and a species-specific physiology can have strong impacts of distribution of biota large rivers.

  15. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  16. Numerical simulation of thermal stratification in cold legs by using OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jiejin; Watanabe, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    During a small-break loss-of-coolant accident in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), emergency core cooling system (ECCS) is actuated and cold water is injected into cold legs. Insufficient mixing of injected cold water and hot primary coolant results in thermal stratification, which is a matter of concern for evaluation of pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in view of aging and life extension of nuclear power plants. In this study, an open source CFD software, OpenFOAM, is used to simulate mixing and thermal stratification in the cold leg of ROSA/LSTF, which is the largest thermal-hydraulic integral test facility simulating PWR. One of the cold-leg is numerically simulated from the outlet of primary coolant pump to the inlet of downcomer. ECCS water is injected from injection nozzle connected at the top of the cold leg into the steady-state natural circulation flow under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. The temperature distribution in the cold leg is compared with experimental and FLUENT's results. Effects of turbulent flow models and secondary flow due to the elbow section of the cold leg are discussed for the case with the single-phase natural circulation. Injection into a two-phase stratified flow is also simulated and predictive and numerical capabilities of OpenFOAM are discussed. (author)

  17. Numerical simulation of thermal stratification in cold legs by using openFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jiejin; Watanabe, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    During a small-break loss-of-coolant accident in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), emergency core cooling system (ECCS) is actuated and cold water is injected into cold legs. Insufficient mixing of injected cold water and hot primary coolant results in thermal stratification, which is a matter of concern for evaluation of pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in view of aging and life extension of nuclear power plants. In this study, an open source CFD software, OpenFOAM, is used to simulate mixing and thermal stratification in the cold leg of ROSA/LSTF, which is the largest thermal-hydraulic integral test facility simulating PWR. One of the cold-leg is numerically simulated from the outlet of primary coolant pump to the inlet of downcomer. ECCS water is injected from injection nozzle connected at the top of the cold leg into the steady-state natural circulation flow under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. The temperature distribution in the cold leg is compared with experimental and FLUENT's results. Effects of turbulent flow models and secondary flow due to the elbow section of the cold leg are discussed for the case with the single-phase natural circulation. Injection into a two-phase stratified flow is also simulated and predictive and numerical capabilities of OpenFOAM are discussed. (author)

  18. Analysis of hot leg natural circulation under station blackout severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jian; Cao Xuewu

    2007-01-01

    Under severe accidents, natural circulation flows are important to influence the accident progression and result in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In a station blackout accident with no recovery of steam generator (SG) auxiliary feedwater (TMLB' severe accident scenario), the hot leg countercurrent natural circulation flow is analyzed by using a severe-accident code, to better understand its potential impacts on the creep-rupture timing among the surge line, the hot leg; and SG tubes. The results show that the natural circulation may delay the failure time of the hot leg. The recirculation ratio and the hot mixing factor are also calculated and discussed. (authors)

  19. Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Warrer, Sarah; Broström, Stig

    Børns leg og eksperimenterende virksomhed er et rigt felt med mange perspektiver, indgangsvinkler og nuancer. I denne bog kædes leg og det eksperimenterende og skabende sammen som to gensidigt forbundne fænomener og belyses i pædagogisk og didaktisk perspektiv. Desuden beskrives potentialet i båd...

  20. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of val...

  1. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  2. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  3. Prediction of Counter-Current Flow Limitation at Hot Leg Pipe During a Small-Break Loca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H.Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    The possibility of hot leg flooding during reflux condensation cooling after a small-break loss-of-coolant accident in a nuclear power plant is evaluated. The vapor and liquid velocities in hot leg and steam generator tubes are calculated during reflux condensation cooling with the accident scenarios of three typical break sizes, 0.13 %, 1.02 % and 10.19 % cold leg break. The effect of initial water level to counter-current flow limitation is taken into account. It is predicted that the hot leg flooding is precluded when all steam generators are available for heat removal. It is also shown the both hot leg flooding and SG flooding are possible under the operation of one steam generators. Therefore, it can be said that the occurrence of hot leg flooding under reflux condensation cooling is possible when the number of steam generators available for heat removal is limited. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Displacement cascades in diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al 2 O 3 and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one

  5. Four-legged friend or foe? Dog walking displaces native birds from natural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Peter B; Bryant, Jessica V

    2007-01-01

    Dog walking is among the world's most popular recreational activities, attracting millions of people to natural areas each year with diverse benefits to human and canine health. But conservation managers often ban dog walking from natural areas fearing that wildlife will see dogs as potential predators and abandon their natural habitats, resulting in outcry at the restricted access to public land. Arguments are passionate on both sides and debate has remained subjective and unresolved because...

  6. Quantifying Leg Movement Activity During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Fulda, Stephany

    2016-12-01

    Currently, 2 sets of similar rules for recording and scoring leg movement (LM) exist, including periodic LM during sleep (PLMS) and periodic LM during wakefulness. The former were published in 2006 by a task force of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, and the second in 2007 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article reviews the basic recording methods, scoring rules, and computer-based programs for PLMS. Less frequent LM activities, such as alternating leg muscle activation, hypnagogic foot tremor, high-frequency LMs, and excessive fragmentary myoclonus are briefly described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  8. Effects of Buoyancy Forces on Immiscible Water/Oil Displacements in a Vertically Oriented Porous Medium Effets des facteurs de flottabilité sur les déplacements non-miscibles eau/huile dans un milieu poreux vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavu S. R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of buoyancy forces on liquid-liquid displacement processes occurring in porous media are important in a variety of practical situations, in particular during the displacement of oil from partially-depleted underground reservoirs by means of aqueous solutions. Most previous studies involving the visualization of water/oil displacements in porous media have been undertaken in horizontal two-dimensional porous medium cells. The objective of the present work was to determine the effects of buoyancy forces; on the fingering pattern and oil recovery by conducting immiscible displacement experiments in two-dimensional consolidated porous medium cells aligned in the vertical plane. In order to obtain a clear understanding of the favourable and unfavourable effects of buoyancy forces, experiments were carried out in three different flow modes, namely horizontal, vertical upward, and vertical downward. As the effects of buoyancy forces are negligible for two-dimensional porous media in the horizontal flow mode, the recoveries obtained in this mode were used as a reference for comparison with those obtained in the two vertical modes. Displacements using five different density ratios were studied. The breakthrough time and percentage oil recovery were measured in each case. The effects of buoyancy forces, viscous forces, and capillary forces, as well as the injection flow rate, were also recorded. The results obtained indicate that the effects of buoyancy forces are very pronounced at low flow rates and low oil/water density ratios, and that even a slight increase in the flow rate causes the buoyancy forces to rapidly become less significant. Les facteurs de flottabilité exercent un effet important sur les déplacements liquide/liquide en milieu poreux dans toute une gamme de situations pratiques, en particulier lorsqu'on veut déplacer l'huile de roches réservoirs partiellement épuisées à l'aide de solutions aqueuses. La plupart des

  9. Acupuncture for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ye; Wang, Yin; Liu, Zhishun

    2008-10-08

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common movement disorder for which patients may seek treatment with acupuncture. However, the benefits of acupuncture in the treatment of RLS are unclear and have not been evaluated in a systematic review until now. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy in patients with RLS. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2007), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2007), EMBASE (January 1980 to 2007 Week 8), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1978 to February 2007), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to February 2007), VIP Database (1989 to February 2007), Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (1983 to 2007) and Korean Medical Database (1986 to 2007). Four Chinese journals, relevant academic conference proceedings and reference lists of articles were handsearched. Randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials comparing acupuncture with no intervention, placebo acupuncture, sham acupuncture, pharmacological treatments, or other non-acupuncture interventions for primary RLS were included. Trials comparing acupuncture plus non-acupuncture treatment with the same non-acupuncture treatment were also included. Trials that only compared different forms of acupuncture or different acupoints were excluded. Two authors independently identified potential articles, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Relative risk (RR) was used for binary outcomes and weighted mean difference for continuous variables. Results were combined only in the absence of clinical heterogeneity. Fourteen potentially relevant trials were identified initially, but twelve of them did not meet the selection criteria and were excluded. Only two trials with 170 patients met the inclusion criteria. No data could be combined due to clinical heterogeneity between trials. Both trials had methodological and/or reporting shortcomings. No significant difference was detected

  10. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, K.K.; Bose, Arun

    2014-01-01

    10 B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10 B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH) 4 - ) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10 B and 11 B

  11. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  12. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    was defined as absence of hock infection, swollen hock, and bruising. The potential indicators were locomotion and foot and leg conformation, represented by rear leg side view, rear leg rear view, foot angle, and apparent hock quality and bone structure. The study was conducted using records from 429......,877 Danish Holstein cows in first lactation. Binary health traits were divided into 3 subcategories: claw health, leg health, and absence of all claw and leg disorders. Genetic (r(g)) and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate linear sire model and REML. Estimated heritabilities were 0.......01 for all 3 combined claw and leg health traits (on the observed binary scale), 0.09 for locomotion, 0.14 for rear leg rear view, 0.19 for rear leg side view, 0.13 for foot angle, 0.22 for apparent hock quality, and 0.27 for apparent bone structure. Heritabilities were 0.06 and 0.01 for claw health and leg...

  13. Development and Validation of a Method for Determining Tridimensional Angular Displacements with Special Applications to Ice Hockey Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Micheline; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A method for determining the tridimensional angular displacement of skates during the two-legged stop in ice hockey was developed and validated. The angles were measured by geometry, using a cinecamera and specially equipped skates. The method provides a new tool for kinetic analyses of skating movements. (Authors/PP)

  14. Displacement sensing system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  15. ATLAS Cold Leg Top Slot Break Analysis using RELAP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Haejung; Lee, Sang Ik; Park, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Tong-Soo [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC) has been reviewing the design certification application for APR1400 submitted by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). The main concern about cold leg top slot break is that cladding temperature might be increased by core uncover due to four loop seal reformation following flooding of safety injection water. An integral effect test for cold leg top slot break was performed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) using ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), which is a scaled down experimental facility for APR1400. In this study, RELAP5/MOD3.3/Patch04 is assessed by experimental result of ATLAS cold leg top slot break. Also, thermal hydraulic phenomena by four loop seals reformation is observed by RELAP5 result. The RELAP5/MOD3.3/Patch04 is assessed by the experimental result of ATLAS cold leg top slot break. The top slot break is described by offtake model, and the mass flow rate is fairly well estimated. The RELAP5 well predicts the correlation between general trend and four loop seal reformation. The pressure of the core region and the cladding temperature tends to increase during four loop seal reformation due to steam path blockage on four loop seals. It is presumed that the code cannot estimate two phase phenomena by loop seal clearing as same as experiments. In terms of cladding temperature, loop seal reformation due to loop seal elevation of APR1400 does not need to be the issue, since the void fraction at the active top core is maintained over 0.4.

  16. A prospective study on gait-related intrinsic risk factors for lower leg overuse injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani Zadeh Hesar, N; Van Ginckel, A; Cools, A; Peersman, W; Roosen, P; De Clercq, D; Witvrouw, E

    2009-12-01

    To determine prospectively gait-related risk factors for lower leg overuse injury (LLOI). A prospective cohort study. Male and female recruits from a start-to-run (STR) programme during a 10-week training period. 131 healthy subjects (20 men and 111 women), without a history of any lower leg complaint, participated in the study. Before the start of the 10-week STR programme, plantar force measurements during running were performed. During STR, lower leg injuries were diagnosed and registered by a sports physician. Plantar force measurements during running were performed using a footscan pressure plate. During the STR, 27 subjects (five men and 22 women) developed a LLOI. Logistic regression analysis revealed that subjects who developed a LLOI had a significantly more laterally directed force distribution at first metatarsal contact and forefoot flat, a more laterally directed force displacement in the forefoot contact phase, foot flat phase and at heel-off. These subjects also had a delayed change of the centre of force (COF) at forefoot flat, a higher force and loading underneath the lateral border of the foot, and a significantly higher directed force displacement of the COF at forefoot flat. These findings suggest that a less pronated heel strike and a more laterally directed roll-off can be considered as risk factors for LLOI. Clinically, the results of this study can be considered important in identifying individuals at risk of LLOI.

  17. Displacement functions for diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panrkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    An extension of the methods of Lindhard et at. was used to calculate the total displacement function n/sub ij/(E) for a number of diatomic materials, where n/sub ij/(E) is defined to be the average number of atoms of type j which are displaced from their sites in a displacement cascade initiated by a PKA of type i and energy E. From the n/sub ij/(E) one can calculate the fraction n/sub ij/(E) of the displacements produced by a type i PKA with energy E which are of type j. Values of the n/sub ij/ for MgO, CaO, Al 2 O 3 , and TaO are presented. It is shown that for diatomic materials with mass ratios reasonably near one (e.g., MgO, Al 2 O 3 ) and equal displacement thresholds for the two species the n/sub ij/ become independent of the PKA type i at energies only a few times threshold. However, for larger mass ratios the n/sub ij/ do not become independent of i until much larger, energies are reached - e.g. > 10 5 eV for TaO. In addition, it is found that the n/sub ij/ depend sensitively on the displacement thresholds, with very dramatic charges occuring when the two thresholds become significantly different from one another

  18. Initial placement and secondary displacement of a new suture-method catheter for sciatic nerve block in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, T S; Rothe, C; Steen-Hansen, C

    2017-01-01

    electromyography and cold sensation. After return of motor and sensory function, volunteers performed standardised physical exercises; injection of the same study medication was repeated in the same leg and followed by motor and sensory assessments. Fifteen of 16 (94%; 95%CI 72-99%) initial catheter placements...... displacement was 5 mm. Catheters with secondary block failure were displaced between 6 and 10 mm. One catheter was displaced 1.8 mm that resulted in a decrease in maximum voluntary isometric contraction of less than 20%. After repeat test injection, 14 of the 16 volunteers had loss of cold sensation. Neither...

  19. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  20. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in "turnout".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve "turning out" or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in "turned out" postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat.

  1. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. UPTF-TRAM test A3. Turn-over of the hot-leg injected ECC in the steam generator direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenckhoff; Brand, B.; Weiss, P.

    1993-06-01

    The UPTF TRAM test A3 was a separate effects test to investigate the interaction between the hot leg-injected ECC and the single-phase or two-phase natural circulation in the hot leg in the case of an SBLOCA in a PWR. The experimental investigation of 7 runs was mainly concentrated on the following phenomena: - Transport of hot leg injected ECC water to the upper plenum or in the direction of steam generator, depending on the loop mass flow, -Utilization of the condensation potential of ECC water, - Mixing of the saturated water with the ECC water, - Effect of hot leg injection on the flow phenomena in the hot leg, - Effect of pressure (3 and 15 bar) on the scaling and hence the verification of the scaling concept applied. A preliminary evaluation of the test is presented in the Quick Look Report. (orig.) [de

  3. The effect of starting or stopping skin cooling on the thermoregulatory responses during leg exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demachi, K; Yoshida, T; Kume, M; Tsuneoka, H

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effects of starting or stopping leg cooling on the thermoregulatory responses during exercise, 60 min of cycling exercise at 30% of maximal oxygen uptake was performed under 4 conditions using tube trouser perfused with water at 10 °C; no leg cooling (NC), starting of leg cooling after 30 min of exercise (delayed cooling, DC), continuous leg cooling (CC), and stopping of continuous leg cooling after 30 min of exercise (SC) at an environmental temperature of 28.5 °C. During exercise under the DC conditions, an instantaneous increase in the esophageal temperature (Tes), a suppression of the cutaneous vascular conductance at the forearm (%CVC), and a decrease in the mean skin temperature (Tsk) were observed after leg cooling. The total sweat loss (Δm sw,tot) was lower under the DC than the NC condition. In the SC study, however, the Tes remained constant, while the %CVC increased gradually after leg cooling was stopped, and the Δm sw,tot was greater than that under the CC condition. These results suggest that during exercise, rapid skin cooling of the leg may cause an increase in core temperature, while also enhancing thermal stress. However, stopping skin cooling did not significantly affect the core temperature long-term, because the skin blood flow and sweat rate subsequently increased. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Prasad Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  5. Conjoined legs: Sirenomelia or caudal regression syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sakti Prasad; Ojha, Niranjan; Ganesh, G Shankar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan

    2013-07-01

    Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.

  6. Influence of stability of polymer surfactant on oil displacement mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Li, Chengliang; Pi, Yanming; Wu, Di; He, Ying; Geng, Liang

    2018-02-01

    At present, most of the oilfields of China have entered the late stage of high water-cut development, and three oil recovery technique has become the leading technology for improving oil recovery. With the improvement of three oil recovery techniques, the polymer surfactant flooding technology has been widely promoted in oil fields in recent years. But in the actual field experiment, it has been found that the polymer surfactant has chromatographic separation at the extraction end, which indicates that the property of the polymer surfactant has changed during the displacement process. At present, there was few literature about how the stability of polymer surfactant affects the oil displacement mechanism. This paper used HuaDing-I polymer surfactant to conduct a micro photolithography glass flooding experiment, and then compared the oil displacement law of polymer surfactant before and after static setting. Finally, the influence law of stability of polymer surfactant on the oil displacement mechanism is obtained by comprehensive analysis.

  7. Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle

  8. Dipoles on a Two-leg Ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We study polar molecules with long-range dipole-dipole interactions confined to move on a two-leg ladder for different orientations of the molecular dipole moments with respect to the ladder. Matrix product states are employed to calculate the many-body ground state of the system as function...... that there is a critical angle at which ordering disappears. This angle is slightly larger than the angle at which the dipoles are non-interacting along a single leg. This behavior should be observable using current experimental techniques....

  9. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  10. Task driven optimal leg trajectories in insect-scale legged microrobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Benjamin; Jayaram, Kaushik; Wood, Robert

    Origami inspired layered manufacturing techniques and 3D-printing have enabled the development of highly articulated legged robots at the insect-scale, including the 1.43g Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Research on these platforms has expanded its focus from manufacturing aspects to include design optimization and control for application-driven tasks. Consequently, the choice of gait selection, body morphology, leg trajectory, foot design, etc. have become areas of active research. HAMR has two controlled degrees-of-freedom per leg, making it an ideal candidate for exploring leg trajectory. We will discuss our work towards optimizing HAMR's leg trajectories for two different tasks: climbing using electroadhesives and level ground running (5-10 BL/s). These tasks demonstrate the ability of single platform to adapt to vastly different locomotive scenarios: quasi-static climbing with controlled ground contact, and dynamic running with un-controlled ground contact. We will utilize trajectory optimization methods informed by existing models and experimental studies to determine leg trajectories for each task. We also plan to discuss how task specifications and choice of objective function have contributed to the shape of these optimal leg trajectories.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE LEG HOP PROGRESSION AND DOUBLE LEGS HOP PROGRESSION EXERCISE TO INCREASE SPEED AND EXPLOSIVE POWER OF LEG MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining W. Kusnanik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.

  12. Assessment of the vibration on the foam legged and sheet metal-legged passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aim ed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software. As a result, it was determined that the acceleration values of seat legs made of foam material were lower than that of seat legs made of 2 mm thick sheet metal, so they damped the vibration better.

  13. Fundamentals of displacement production in irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1975-09-01

    Radioinduced displacement damage in metals is described. Discussions are included on the displacement event itself, calculation of displacement rates in general, the manner in which different types of radiation interact with metals to produce displacements, the similarities and differences in the types of damage produced, the current status of computer simulations of displacement cascades, experimental evidence regarding cascades, and aspects of correlating damage produced by different types of radiation

  14. Urban displaced youth in Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Majidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Displaced young people in Kabul are waiting to see what the coming year brings for Afghanistan before making a decision as whether to move on again. This provides a window of opportunity to develop youth-sensitive programming.

  15. 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The national and international communities are confronted with the monumental task of ... displacement and environmental protection present a vicious cycle which today has ... Thus, issues of environmental protection viz-a-viz investment and .... out the conditions for product or process standards, the use of best available ...

  16. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Arne A.; Pitassi, Luiza H. U.; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia,

  17. Leg og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Leg synes at have et potentiale som metode til at fremme læring. Men hvordan? Legen har en vis grad af parallelitet med den virkelige verden i dens interaktive og relationelle strukturer. Det bliver muligt at finde nye meninger i interaktioner, som refererer til vante interaktionsformer, men...

  18. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J. S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J. P. K.; Geertzen, J. H. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitted

  19. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients,

  20. Parallel kinematics robot with five legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Robot with multiple degrees of freedom comprising five legs (2) linked at a first of their ends to a base ( 3), and at a second of their ends opposite to the first ends to a mobile platform (4), which platform carries at least one tool (5, 6, 121, 12 "), and wherein the robot further comprises an

  1. Omnidirectional Wheel-Legged Hybrid Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Vilikó

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of developing hybrid locomotion systems is to merge the advantages and to eliminate the disadvantages of different type of locomotion. The proposed solution combines wheeled and legged locomotion methods. This paper presents the mechatronic design approach and the development stages of the prototype.

  2. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical

  3. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  4. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic leg ulcer caused by Mycobacterium immunogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loots, Miriam A. M.; de Jong, Menno D.; van Soolingen, Dick; Wetsteyn, José C. F. M.; Faber, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Rare tropical skin diseases are seen more frequently in Western countries because of the increased popularity of visiting tropical regions. A 55-year-old white man developed a painless leg ulcer after traveling in Guatemala and Belize. A mycobacterium was cultured from a biopsy specimen and was

  6. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Self-Tests and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs syndrome Diagnosis Talk to a board certified sleep medicine physician if you think you have restless legs ... He or she can refer you to a sleep medicine physician if necessary. The sleep physician may ask ...

  7. Six-legged walking robot for service operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ihme, T.; Schneider, A.; Schmucker, U.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the control system of a six-legged vehicle including force control. Considered control schemes are control of forces and control of body motion. The experimental result with a six-legged robot is presented.

  8. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  9. Leg intravenous pressure during head-up tilt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, J.T.; Poelkens, F.; Wouters, C.W.; Kooijman, H.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Leg vascular resistance is calculated as the arterial-venous pressure gradient divided by blood flow. During orthostatic challenges it is assumed that the hydrostatic pressure contributes equally to leg arterial, as well as to leg venous pressure. Because of venous valves, one may question whether,

  10. Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders

  11. Double Displacement: an Improved Bioorthogonal Reaction Strategy for Templated Nucleic Acid Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinbaum, Daniel J.; Miller, Gregory P.; Kool, Eric T.

    2010-01-01

    Quenched autoligation probes have been employed previously in a target-templated nonenzymatic ligation strategy for detecting nucleic acids in cells by fluorescence. A common source of background signal in such probes is undesired reaction with water and other cellular nucleophiles. Here we describe a new class of self-ligating probes, double displacement (DD) probes, that rely on two displacement reactions to fully unquench a nearby fluorophore. Three potential double displacement architectu...

  12. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniq...

  13. Pictorial essay: Ultrasonography in 'tennis leg'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jeshil R; Shah, Bipin R; Shah, Ankit B

    2010-11-01

    Tennis leg is caused by a rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle, usually at its distal musculotendinous junction region. However, tears in this muscle and its tendon are also included under the term 'tennis leg'. It is seen regularly in practice and is an important cause of a painful calf. The common USG findings include: disruption of the pinnate pattern of the distal medial gastrocnemius, usually near the junction of the triceps surae (which is the echogenic line between the gastrocnemius, the soleus, and the plantaris muscles), fluid tracking along the fascia, adjacent hematoma, and intramuscular tears as well as hematomas. USG is useful for confirming the diagnosis, excluding other causes of a painful calf, for assessing the severity of the disease, and in follow-up.

  14. Experimental research on pedestrian lower leg impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.

  15. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  16. Asymptomatic Petechial Eruption on the Lower Legs

    OpenAIRE

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a...

  17. Principal component structure and sport-specific differences in the running one-leg vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffaye, G; Bardy, B G; Durey, A

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the kinetic principal components involved in one-leg running vertical jumps, as well as the potential differences between specialists from different sports. The sample was composed of 25 regional skilled athletes who play different jumping sports (volleyball players, handball players, basketball players, high jumpers and novices), who performed a running one-leg jump. A principal component analysis was performed on the data obtained from the 200 tested jumps in order to identify the principal components summarizing the six variables extracted from the force-time curve. Two principal components including six variables accounted for 78 % of the variance in jump height. Running one-leg vertical jump performance was predicted by a temporal component (that brings together impulse time, eccentric time and vertical displacement of the center of mass) and a force component (who brings together relative peak of force and power, and rate of force development). A comparison made among athletes revealed a temporal-prevailing profile for volleyball players, and a force-dominant profile for Fosbury high jumpers. Novices showed an ineffective utilization of the force component, while handball and basketball players showed heterogeneous and neutral component profiles. Participants will use a jumping strategy in which variables related to either the magnitude or timing of force production will be closely coupled; athletes from different sporting backgrounds will use a jumping strategy that reflects the inherent demands of their chosen sport.

  18. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  19. Sleep board review question: restless legs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omobomi O

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Ms. Jones (not her real name is a 63-year-old woman who states that she gets very fidgety when sitting in a theater, watching a movie or when flying long distances on a plane. She is unable to find words to describe the sensation but she states that moving her legs make them feel better. Lately, she has been getting this feeling almost every night. She reports no leg discomfort in the daytime. She denies muscle cramps her legs. She had some recent investigations done by her primary care physician because of complaints of fatigue. Which of the following will be helpful in the diagnosis and management in this patient? 1. An overnight polysomnogram showing apnea hypopnea index of 1.6 events per hour and no periodic limb movements (PLMs 2. Ferritin level of 18 ng/ml (normal range 20-200 ng/ml 3. Serum Bicarbonate of 29 mEq/L (normal range 23-29 mEq/L 4. Thyroid …

  20. Duplex sonography of the near-surface leg veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, E.

    2007-01-01

    The book contains the following contributions: The ultrasonograph, selection of the ultrasonic transducer, anatomy of the near-surface vein system, physiology of the near-surface vein system, varicose status classification, systematics of the duplex sonography of near-surface leg veins, provocational maneuver for the duplex sonographic varicose diagnostics, exploration of vena saphena parva, perforans veins, side branches, phlebitis, sonography for varicose therapy, postsurgical sonography, deep leg veins, examination of near-surface leg veins for the pathology of the deep vein system, differential diagnostic clarification of leg oedema from the phlebologic-lymphological view, diagnostic side features along the near-surface leg veins

  1. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperat...

  2. Resonant neutron-induced atomic displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K., E-mail: e.m.k.elmaghraby@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Neutron induced atomic displacements was investigated based on scattering of energy of neutron. • Model for cascade function (multiplication of displacements with increasing energy transfer) was proposed and justified. • Parameterizations for the dpa induced in all elements were performed. • Table containing all necessary parameters to calculate the displacement density induced by neutron is given. • Contribution of non resonance displacement and resonant-neutron induced displacements are distinguished. - Abstract: A model for displacement cascade function was modified to account for the continuous variation of displacement density in the material in response to neutron exposure. The model is based on the Gaussian distribution of displacement energies of atoms in a material. Analytical treatment for moderated epithermal neutron field was given in which the displacement density was divided into two terms, discrete-resonance term and continuum term. Calculation are done for all isotopes using ENDF/B VII.1 data files and temperature dependent cross section library. Weighted elemental values were reported a fitting was performed to obtain energy-dependent formula of displacement density and reduce the number of parameters. Results relevant the present specification of the cascade function are tabulated for each element to enable calculation of displacement density at any value of displacement energy in the between 5 eV and 55 eV.

  3. Electromagnetic device of linear displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savary, F.; Le Saulnier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The device moves a rod integral with a nuclear reactor control element. It has a grab for the rod operated by a mobil pole drive by a coil carried by a surrounding sealed casing, a second grab with fixed and mobile poles with facing surfaces shaped to limit the variation of magnetic force with distance between them, and a plunger driven by a coil to bear against another mobile pole moved by a coil. The invention proposes a device ensuring a displacement while the impact forces at the different level of the mechanism are reduced [fr

  4. PWR cold-leg small break loca with faulty HPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, H.; Kukita, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) is a 1/48 volumetrically-scaled model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). At the LSTF are performed cold-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests with faulty high pressure injection (HPI) system for break areas from 0.5% to 10% and an intentional primary system depressurization test following a small-break LOCA test. A simple prediction model is proposed for prediction of times of major events. Test data and calculations show that intentional primary system depressurization with use of the pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) is effective for break areas of approximately 0.5% or less, is unnecessary for breaks of 5% or more, and is insufficient for intermediate break areas to maintain adequate core cooling. (author)

  5. Test of Gravel to South Leg - Siri Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    A grout connection between one of the legs of the offshore platform, Siri, and a water caisson at the seabed is failed. The failure leaves a gap in the grout connection meaning that the stiffness of the connection is disappeared resulting in movements of the platform. These movements cause cracks...... in the caisson, hence, the stiffness of the connection must be re-established. In this report the effect of filling a sand material into the gap in the grout connection is investigated. Four types of sand materials is tested; Sand 0-8 mm, Norit 0-2 mm, Norit 0-5 mm, and Sand 0.4-5.6 mm. The comparison...

  6. Cruise report for FS METEOR Cruise 60 Leg 3 from Las Palmas, Canary Islands to Ponta Delgada, Azores, during February 28 - March 14, 1982 (NODC Accession 0078562)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of this cruise leg was physical oceanography of the area between the Canaries and the Azores within the program of the SFB 133 'Warm water sphere of the...

  7. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  8. Comparison of thermoregulatory responses to heat between Malaysian and Japanese males during leg immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanto, Titis; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Lee, Joo-Young; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate thermoregulatory responses to heat in tropical (Malaysian) and temperate (Japanese) natives, during 60 min of passive heating. Ten Japanese (mean ages: 20.8 ± 0.9 years) and ten Malaysian males (mean ages: 22.3 ± 1.6 years) with matched morphological characteristics and physical fitness participated in this study. Passive heating was induced through leg immersion in hot water (42°C) for 60 min under conditions of 28°C air temperature and 50% RH. Local sweat rate on the forehead and thigh were significantly lower in Malaysians during leg immersion, but no significant differences in total sweat rate were observed between Malaysians (86.3 ± 11.8 g m-2 h-1) and Japanese (83.2 ± 6.4 g m-2 h-1) after leg immersion. In addition, Malaysians displayed a smaller rise in rectal temperature (0.3 ± 0.1°C) than Japanese (0.7 ± 0.1°C) during leg immersion, with a greater increase in hand skin temperature. Skin blood flow was significantly lower on the forehead and forearm in Malaysians during leg immersion. No significant different in mean skin temperature during leg immersion was observed between the two groups. These findings indicated that regional differences in body sweating distribution might exist between Malaysians and Japanese during heat exposure, with more uniform distribution of local sweat rate over the whole body among tropical Malaysians. Altogether, Malaysians appear to display enhanced efficiency of thermal sweating and thermoregulatory responses in dissipating heat loss during heat loading. Thermoregulatory differences between tropical and temperate natives in this study can be interpreted as a result of heat adaptations to physiological function.

  9. Robust and efficient walking with spring-like legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, J; Blum, Y; Seyfarth, A, E-mail: juergen.rummel@uni-jena.d, E-mail: andre.seyfarth@uni-jena.d [Lauflabor Locomotion Laboratory, University of Jena, Dornburger Strasse 23, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The development of bipedal walking robots is inspired by human walking. A way of implementing walking could be performed by mimicking human leg dynamics. A fundamental model, representing human leg dynamics during walking and running, is the bipedal spring-mass model which is the basis for this paper. The aim of this study is the identification of leg parameters leading to a compromise between robustness and energy efficiency in walking. It is found that, compared to asymmetric walking, symmetric walking with flatter angles of attack reveals such a compromise. With increasing leg stiffness, energy efficiency increases continuously. However, robustness is the maximum at moderate leg stiffness and decreases slightly with increasing stiffness. Hence, an adjustable leg compliance would be preferred, which is adaptable to the environment. If the ground is even, a high leg stiffness leads to energy efficient walking. However, if external perturbations are expected, e.g. when the robot walks on uneven terrain, the leg should be softer and the angle of attack flatter. In the case of underactuated robots with constant physical springs, the leg stiffness should be larger than k-tilde = 14 in order to use the most robust gait. Soft legs, however, lack in both robustness and efficiency.

  10. Robust and efficient walking with spring-like legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, J; Blum, Y; Seyfarth, A

    2010-01-01

    The development of bipedal walking robots is inspired by human walking. A way of implementing walking could be performed by mimicking human leg dynamics. A fundamental model, representing human leg dynamics during walking and running, is the bipedal spring-mass model which is the basis for this paper. The aim of this study is the identification of leg parameters leading to a compromise between robustness and energy efficiency in walking. It is found that, compared to asymmetric walking, symmetric walking with flatter angles of attack reveals such a compromise. With increasing leg stiffness, energy efficiency increases continuously. However, robustness is the maximum at moderate leg stiffness and decreases slightly with increasing stiffness. Hence, an adjustable leg compliance would be preferred, which is adaptable to the environment. If the ground is even, a high leg stiffness leads to energy efficient walking. However, if external perturbations are expected, e.g. when the robot walks on uneven terrain, the leg should be softer and the angle of attack flatter. In the case of underactuated robots with constant physical springs, the leg stiffness should be larger than k-tilde = 14 in order to use the most robust gait. Soft legs, however, lack in both robustness and efficiency.

  11. Sleep disturbances in restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jasmina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Resteless legs syndrome (RLS is chronical neurological disorder characterized by urge to move legs that is usually accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the lower extremities. Sleep disturbance is one of the main accompanying symptoms of RLS which exists in approximatelly 90% of patients. Impairment of sleep is related to daily sleepiness, depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to detect frequency and characterisitics of sleep-related symptoms in patients with RLS, and its impairrment to daily sleepiness, fatique, anxiety and depression. Methods. We have examinated 94 patients with RLS. The diagnose of RLS was based on questionnaire with 4 specific questions according to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG criteria updated in 2003. Severity of symptoms was astimated with IRLSSG Rating Scale, depression and anxiety with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS and sleepiness with Epworth Sleepiness scale (ESS. We astimated sleep characteristics and disturbances with specific questionnaire. Results. In our study 79.9% of patients had sleep-related symptoms. Average sleep duration was 6.50 ± 1.42 hours, with average frequency of awakening 2.34 ± 1.69 times per night. Average ESS score was 5.12 ± 4.08 (0–17. Patients with more severe symptoms had higher degree of sleepiness (p = 0.005. Patients with higher symptoms frequency, significantly more often had sleep disturbance (p = 0.016, tiredness and daily sleepiness (p = 0.001. Daily sleepiness (ESS also significantly correlates with depression (p < 0.05 and anxiety (p = 0.012. Conclusion. Our results confirm that sleep disturbances are one of the key accompanying symptoms of RLS which cause daily sleepiness, tiredness, depression and anxiety. Therefore, their early recognition and appropriate treatment must be a priority in RLS patients.

  12. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-ying Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Painful legs and moving toes syndrome (PLMT is a rare movement disorder with low diagnostic rate, which is characterized by lower limb pain with involuntary movements of feet or toes. Etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is still unclear. Patients have different clinical manifestations, so the diagnosis is difficult. Treatment methods for PLMT are numerous, but so far the treatment of this disease is still a major challenge for clinicians. Further research is still needed to guide clinical work. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.013

  13. Optimal powering schemes for legged robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Paul; Bednarz, David; Czerniak, Gregory P.; Cheok, Ka C.

    2010-04-01

    Legged Robots have tremendous mobility, but they can also be very inefficient. These inefficiencies can be due to suboptimal control schemes, among other things. If your goal is to get from point A to point B in the least amount of time, your control scheme will be different from if your goal is to get there using the least amount of energy. In this paper, we seek a balance between these extremes by looking at both efficiency and speed. We model a walking robot as a rimless wheel, and, using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (PMP), we find an "on-off" control for the model, and describe the switching curve between these control extremes.

  14. Asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline.

  15. Primary shield displacement and bowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, K.V.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor primary shield is constructed of high density concrete and surrounds the reactor core. The inlet, outlet and side primary shields were constructed in-place using 2.54 cm (1 in) thick steel plates as the forms. The plates remained as an integral part of the shields. The elongation of the pressure tubes due to thermal expansion and pressurization is not moving through the inlet nozzle hardware as designed but is accommodated by outward displacement and bowing of the inlet and outlet shields. Excessive distortion of the shields may result in gas seal failures, intolerable helium gas leaks, increased argon-41 emissions, and shield cooling tube failures. The shield surveillance and testing results are presented

  16. An ion displacement membrame model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

    1967-09-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  17. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  18. Are the hamstrings from the drive leg or landing leg more active in baseball pitchers? An electromyographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J; Zaferiou, Antonia; Chalmers, Peter N; Ruby, Deana; Malloy, Phillip; Luchetti, Timothy J; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-11-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among baseball players of all levels. There are several graft choices in performing UCLR, one of which is a hamstring (gracilis or semitendinosus) autograft. It is unclear whether the hamstring muscle from a pitcher's drive leg (ipsilateral side of the UCLR) or landing leg (contralateral side of the UCLR) is more active during the pitching motion. We hypothesized that the landing leg semitendinosus will be more electromyographically active than the drive leg. Healthy, elite male pitchers aged 16-21 years were recruited. Sixteen pitchers (average age, 17.6 ± 1.6 years; 67% threw right handed) underwent electromyographic analysis. Pitchers threw 5 fastballs at 100% effort from the wind-up with electromyographic analysis of every pitch. Activation of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris in both legs was compared within pitchers and between pitchers. Hamstring activity was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg during each phase and in sum, although the difference was significant only during the double support phase (P = .021). On within-pitcher analysis, 10 of 16 pitchers had significantly more sum hamstring activity in the drive leg than in the landing leg, while only 4 of 16 had more activity in the landing leg (P = .043). During the baseball pitch, muscle activity of the semitendinosus was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg in most pitchers. Surgeons performing UCLR using hamstring autograft should consider harvesting the graft from the pitcher's landing leg to minimize disruption to the athlete's pitching motion. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Possible displacement of mercury's dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.H.; Beard, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.2 0 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged

  20. An Ultralightweight and Living Legged Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Tan, Melvin Y W; Bui, Xuan Hien; Sato, Hirotaka

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we describe the most ultralightweight living legged robot to date that makes it a strong candidate for a search and rescue mission. The robot is a living beetle with a wireless electronic backpack stimulator mounted on its thorax. Inheriting from the living insect, the robot employs a compliant body made of soft actuators, rigid exoskeletons, and flexure hinges. Such structure would allow the robot to easily adapt to any complex terrain due to the benefit of soft interface, self-balance, and self-adaptation of the insect without any complex controller. The antenna stimulation enables the robot to perform not only left/right turning but also backward walking and even cessation of walking. We were also able to grade the turning and backward walking speeds by changing the stimulation frequency. The power required to drive the robot is low as the power consumption of the antenna stimulation is in the order of hundreds of microwatts. In contrast to the traditional legged robots, this robot is of low cost, easy to construct, simple to control, and has ultralow power consumption.

  1. Restless Legs Syndrome with Current Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a chronic movement disorder, characterized by an urge to move legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations and sleep disorders. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges from 1% to 15% in the general population, and about 2% during childhood. RLS is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy. However RLS still remains underdiagnosed probably due to lack of accurate information about the disease. Family history is positive in 50-70% of the primary RLS patients. The secondary form of the syndrome is associated with iron deficiency, renal failure, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and many rheumatologic disorders. Secondary forms generally manifest at older ages and have a rapid progression with a poorer prognosis. The pathophysiology of RLS is focused on the dopaminergic system, reduced central nervous system iron levels and genetic linkages. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the diagnostic criteria suggested by International RLS Study Group. Secondary causes must be carefully investigated before the treatment. In mild forms of the disease non-pharmacologic therapies might be useful, while in moderate or severe forms of the disease generally pharmacologic therapies such as dopamine agonists, anticonvulsants, opioids and benzodiazepines are required. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 87-95

  2. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rafie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms.

  3. Bioinspired template-based control of legged locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Sharbafi, Maziar

    2018-01-01

    cient and robust locomotion is a crucial condition for the more extensive use of legged robots in real world applications. In that respect, robots can learn from animals, if the principles underlying locomotion in biological legged systems can be transferred to their artificial counterparts. However, legged locomotion in biological systems is a complex and not fully understood problem. A great progress to simplify understanding locomotion dynamics and control was made by introducing simple mo...

  4. Field survey of occupants thermal comfort in rooms with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitchurov, G.; Naidenov, K.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    Field survey of occupants´ response to the thermal environment in eight office buildings with displacement ventilation was performed. The response of 227 occupants (94 males and 133 females) was collected and analysed. A neutral thermal sensation was reported by 37% of the occupants, and between...... slightly cool and slightly warm by more than 85% of the occupants. The occupants´ thermal sensation was close to the predictions by the PMV index. About 24% of the surveyed occupants complained that they were daily bothered by draught mainly at lower leg. Presence of draught discomfort was verified even...

  5. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years...... immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks' retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men)....

  6. Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.

    1979-04-01

    Relative displacements of rock masses are evaluated in terms of geological evidence, seismological evidence, data from simulation experiments, and analytical predictive models. Numerical models have been developed to determine displacement fields as a function of depth, distance, and azimuth from an earthquake source. Computer calculations for several types of faults indicate that displacements decrease rapidly with distance from the fault, but that displacements can either increase or decrease as a function of depth depending on the type and geometry of the fault. For long shallow vertical strike-slip faults the displacement decreases markedly with depth. For square strike slip faults and for dip slip faults displacement does not decrease as markedly with depth. Geologic structure, material properties, and depth affect the seismic source spectrum. Amplification of the high frequencies of shear waves is larger by a factor of about 2 for layered geologic models than for an elastic half space

  7. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2015-03-10

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination....... All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure....... revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along...

  9. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  10. Displaced epithelium after liposuction for gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cristina S; Petrey, Chris; Grant, Shawn; Ransdell, Jill S; Reynolds, Carol

    2011-08-01

    The authors describe the case of a 36-year-old man with gynecomastia who was previously treated with liposuction of the breast for cosmetic purposes. Histologic examination of a subsequent excisional biopsy revealed nests of displaced epithelial cells in adipose tissue. Epithelial cell displacement is a well-known risk of core needle biopsies and fine-needle aspirations of breast lesions. However, to the authors' knowledge, epithelial displacement in gynecomastia after liposuction, mimicking invasive ductal carcinoma, has not previously been reported.

  11. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  12. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  13. Influence of increasing knee flexion angle on knee-ankle varus stress during single-leg jump landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam A. Ameer, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to identify the relationship between the peak knee flexion angle and knee-ankle varus stress in the landing phase of the single-leg jump during running. Methods: Fifteen male handball players from the first Saudi Arabian handball team were incorporated in this study. Each player performed a single-leg jump-land after running a fixed distance of 450 cm. The data were measured using a 3D motion analysis system. The maximum knee flexion angle, knee varus angle, centre of pressure pathway in the medio-lateral direction, and ankle varus moment were measured. Results: The Pearson Product Moment Correlation showed that a greater knee flexion angle was related to a greater lateral displacement of the centre of pressure (r = 0.794, P = 0.000, a greater ankle varus moment (r = 0.707, P = 0.003, and a greater knee varus angle (r = 0.753, P = 0.001. In addition, the greater ankle varus moment was related to the greater lateral displacement of the centre of pressure (r = 0.734, P = 0.002. Conclusions: These findings may help physical therapists and conditioning professionals to understand the impact of increasing knee flexion angle on the lower limb joints. Such findings may help to develop training protocols for enhancing the lateral body reaction during the landing phase of the single-leg jump, which may protect the knee and ankle joints from excessive varus stresses. Keywords: 3D motion analysis, Ankle kinetic, Centre of pressure pathway, Handball playing, Knee kinematic, Single-leg jump

  14. The Displaced ‘Dispositif’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Edmonds

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available “Dispositif” is a term used in film studies since the 1970s to describe the entire system of mechanical and human factors which together bring about the cinema experience. It therefore refers to (amongst other things the space of the auditorium, the screen, the projection technology and the physiology of the spectator. Many of its qualifying components are masked from the view of participants in the system. The dispositif’s purpose is to set up the conditions for a specific type of cognitive experience, one which mirrors and extends (and in some readings, controls the experience of its participants. The Displaced Dispositif is a performance designed for the space of a cinema theatre, but featuring the projection of fragments of early silent cinema on a coeval (1910s film projector from the auditorium. The film fragments are live-scored by the sound artist, Shaun Lewin, using a combination of closely mic’d sources on the projector itself, luminance data from the projected image and EEG brainwave data recorded from participants during previous projections of the film. Displacing elements in the dispositif in this way, by shifting modalities, situating in parallel, feeding back and layering, draws attention to its hidden existence and creates the potential for a more knowing and informed participation in the cinema experience. It also serves to demonstrate the degree to which dispositifs of modern cinema spectatorship, which have morphed and proliferated since the widespread digitization of film heritage, have radically altered both the technological and experiential qualities of the medium. By integrating EEG data, the performance adds the dimension of electrophysiological experience to the long tradition within experimental cinema of artists calling attention to Cinema’s hidden structures. As well as challenging the dominance of the worldview propagated by the film industry, the performance also signals a means of re-engaging with the

  15. On the Coulomb displacement energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.

    1976-01-01

    The Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1/2 mirror nuclei (A=15,17,27,29,31,33,39 and 41) are re-examined with the best available HF wave functions (the DME and the Skyrme II interaction), with the inclusion of all electromagnetic corrections. The results are compared with the experimental s.p. charge dependent energies extracted from the experimental data taking into account admixtures of core-excitation corrections with the help of present shell-model and co-existence model calculations. Although the so-called Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is not removed by these improvements, it is found that the remaining observed anomalies in the ground states of s.p. and s.h. systems can be resolved with the introduction of a simple, phenomenological charge symmetry breaking nucleon-nucleon force. This force can also account for the observed anomalies in the higher excited s.p. states, while those of the deeper s.h. states need further explanation. (Auth.)

  16. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  17. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammad Yaser Salman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG. Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease.

  18. Deep vein thrombosis of the leg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Rhee, Kwang Woo; Jeon, Suk Chul; Joo, Kyung Bin; Lee, Seung Ro; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    Ascending contrast venography is the definitive standard method for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. Authors analysed 22 cases of DVT clinically and radiographically. 1.The patients ranged in age from 15 to 70 yrs and the most prevalent age group was 7th decade (31%). There was an equal distribution of males and females. 2.In 11 cases of 22 cases, variable etiologic factors were recognized, such as abdominal surgery, chronic bedridden state, local trauma on the leg, pregnancy, postpartum, Behcet's syndrome, iliac artery aneurysm, and chronic medication of estrogen. 3.Nineteen cases out of 22 cases showed primary venographic signs of DVT, such as well-defined filling defect in opacified veins and narrowed, irregularly filled venous lumen. In only 3 cases, the diagnosis of DVT was base upon the segmental nonvisualization of deep veins with good opacification of proximal and distal veins and presence of collaterals. 4.Extent of thrombosis: 3 cases were confined to calf vein, 4 cases extended to femoral vein, and 15 cases had involvement above iliac vein. 5.In 17 cases involving relatively long segment of deep veins, propagation pattern of thrombus was evaluated by its radiologic morphology according to the age of thrombus: 9 cases suggested central or antegrade propagation pattern and 8 cases, peripheral or retrograde pattern. 6.None of 22 cases showed clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism. The cause of the rarity of pulmonary embolism in Korean in presumed to be related to the difference in major involving site and propagation pattern of DVT in the leg.

  19. Deep vein thrombosis of the leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Rhee, Kwang Woo; Jeon, Suk Chul; Joo, Kyung Bin; Lee, Seung Ro; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1987-01-01

    Ascending contrast venography is the definitive standard method for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. Authors analysed 22 cases of DVT clinically and radiographically. 1.The patients ranged in age from 15 to 70 yrs and the most prevalent age group was 7th decade (31%). There was an equal distribution of males and females. 2.In 11 cases of 22 cases, variable etiologic factors were recognized, such as abdominal surgery, chronic bedridden state, local trauma on the leg, pregnancy, postpartum, Behcet's syndrome, iliac artery aneurysm, and chronic medication of estrogen. 3.Nineteen cases out of 22 cases showed primary venographic signs of DVT, such as well-defined filling defect in opacified veins and narrowed, irregularly filled venous lumen. In only 3 cases, the diagnosis of DVT was base upon the segmental nonvisualization of deep veins with good opacification of proximal and distal veins and presence of collaterals. 4.Extent of thrombosis: 3 cases were confined to calf vein, 4 cases extended to femoral vein, and 15 cases had involvement above iliac vein. 5.In 17 cases involving relatively long segment of deep veins, propagation pattern of thrombus was evaluated by its radiologic morphology according to the age of thrombus: 9 cases suggested central or antegrade propagation pattern and 8 cases, peripheral or retrograde pattern. 6.None of 22 cases showed clinical evidence of pulmonary embolism. The cause of the rarity of pulmonary embolism in Korean in presumed to be related to the difference in major involving site and propagation pattern of DVT in the leg

  20. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhara; Rao, Rathnamala

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  1. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhara [NMAMIT, Nitte (India); Rao, Rathnamala [NITK, Surathkal (India)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  2. Effect of displacement on resistance and capacitance of polyaniline film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Khasan Sanginovich; Saeed, Muhammad Tariq; Khalid, Fazal Ahmad; Moiz, Syed Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of displacement sensors based on polyaniline (PANI) films. About 1 wt% of PANI micropowder is mixed and stirred in a solution of 90 wt% water and 10 wt% alcohol at room temperature. The films of PANI are deposited from solution by drop-casting on Ag electrodes, which are preliminary deposited on glass substrates. The thicknesses of the PANI films are in the range of 20 μm–80 μm. A displacement sensor with polyaniline film as an active material is designed and fabricated. The investigations showed that, on average, the AC resistance of the sensor decreases by 2 times and the capacitance accordingly increases by 1.6 times as the displacement changes in the range of 0 mm–0.5 mm. The polyaniline is the only active material of the displacement sensor. The resistance and capacitance of the PANI changes under the pressure of spring and elastic rubber, and this pressure is created by the downward movement of the micrometer. (general)

  3. Diurnal variations in lower leg subcutaneous blood flow rate in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Kristensen, J K

    1991-01-01

    The blood flow rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured on the lower legs of 11 patients with chronic lower-leg venous insufficiency and ulceration and in eight age-matched control subjects for 12-20 h, under ambulatory conditions, using the 133Xe wash-out technique with portable Cadmium...... telluride (CdTe(Cl)) detectors. In both groups, the change from an upright to a supine position at the beginning of the night period elicited an instantaneous increment in the blood flow rate of 30-40% with a decrease in the central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. After...... approximately 1 h of sleep, a considerable increase in blood flow rate was seen in both patient and control groups which persisted for nearly 100 min. In the patient group, the mean increase was 137% compared to a mean increase of 68% in the control group (P less than 0.01). The blood flow then returned...

  4. Treatment of vasovagal syncope: pacemaker or crossing legs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, N.; Harms, M. P.; Linzer, M.; Wieling, W.

    2000-01-01

    A 50-year-old male patient continued to experience syncope after implantation of a pacemaker. During cardiovascular examination, the patient showed a typical vasovagal response, with normal pacemaker function. Leg crossing, which prohibits the pooling of blood in the legs and abdomen, at the onset

  5. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmus Mahfooz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  6. Secondary hyperparathyroidism: Uncommon cause of a leg ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssen, L. B.; Brenninkmeijer, E. E. A.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Most leg ulcers are vascular based. Only if vascular therapy fails other causes are considered. We report the case of a female with incapacitating leg ulcers caused by a rare condition which was only diagnosed after failing treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The female had an extensive previous

  7. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  8. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  9. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  10. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and ...

  11. Displaced Homemakers: Vo-Tech Workshop Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Wanda Jo

    Written for displaced homemaker programs in vocational-technical schools, this curriculum contains material designed so that instructors can prepare student manuals appropriate to almost any educational support situation for displaced homemakers. An overview provides information on special needs groups, curriculum use, and resources and sample…

  12. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., in accordance with American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) E 29-67. (b) For rotary engines... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine...

  13. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  14. Laboratory on Legs: An Architecture for Adjustable Morphology with Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    including walking, running,7 pronking,8,9 leaping and flipping,10 climbing stairs ,11,12 recovering from failures,13 and even running upright on (modified...speed activities requiring large leg torques, such as clambering over rocks and climbing stairs , as well as high speed activities with moderate torques...8] McMordie, D. and Buehler, M., “Towards pronking with a hexapod robot ,” in [International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots

  15. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas H. Hart, Jodie L. Cochrane, Tania Spiteri, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2 each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15 and inaccurate (n = 16 kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701. Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631, while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083. Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy.

  16. Relation between knee extensors' strength, postural stability and variability of centre of pressure displacement during gait in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza C. de Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that variability of walking is related to fall risk similarly as postural control and muscle strength. Joint potential of this group of variables for fall risk assessment is promising, however research interested in relations between them is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between knee extensors' strength, centre of pressure (COP velocity during one-leg stance and variability of COP displacement during various phases of gait cycle in middle-age women. Methods: A single group of 40 healthy women (age 56 ± 4.2 years took part in the study. For assessment of knee extensors' strength (peak torque and average work during concentric and eccentric contractions an isokinetic dynamometer was used. Mean velocity of COP during one-leg stance in anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML directions was assessed on a force plate on a rigid surface with eyes open (two 30 s trials. Variability of COP displacement was assessed for loading response, midstance, terminal stance and preswing gait cycle phases (determined by vertical ground reaction force in AP and ML directions. It was measured by two force plates positioned in the middle of an 8 m walkway (5 trials at a self-selected speed. For statistical analysis of relationships between variables Pearson correlation was applied. Results: Our results showed significant correlations between eccentric peak torque and COP velocity in AP direction during one-leg stance, eccentric and concentric peak torque and COP variability during loading response in both ML and AP directions and during terminal stance in AP direction. Conclusion: Loading response and terminal stance seems to be more related to knee extensors' strength. Variables derived from postural stability assessment during one-leg stance are independent from variables derived from assessment of COP displacement variability during walking.

  17. A three-degree-of-freedom thin-film PZT-actuated microactuator with large out-of-plane displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongsoo; Qiu, Zhen; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Oldham, Kenn

    2014-07-01

    A novel three degree-of-freedom microactuator based on thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) is described with its detailed structural model. Its central rectangular-shaped mirror platform, also referred to as the stage, is actuated by four symmetric PZT bending legs such that each leg provides vertical translation for one corner of the stage. It has been developed to support real-time in vivo vertical cross-sectional imaging with a dual axes confocal endomicroscope for early cancer detection, having large displacements in three axes (z, θ x , θ y ) and a relatively high bandwidth in the z-axis direction. Prototype microactuators closely meet the performance requirements for this application; in the out-of-plane (z-axis) direction, it has shown more than 177 μ m of displacement and about 84 Hz of structural natural frequency, when two diagonal legs are actuated at 14V. With all four legs, another prototype of the same design with lighter stage mass has achieved more than 430 μ m of out-of-plane displacement at 15V and about 200 Hz of bandwidth. The former design has shown approximately 6.4° and 2.9° of stage tilting about the x-axis and y-axis, respectively, at 14V. This paper also presents a modeling technique that uses experimental data to account for the effects of fabrication uncertainties in residual stress and structural dimensions. The presented model predicts the static motion of the stage within an average absolute error of 14.6 μ m, which approaches the desired imaging resolution, 5 μ m, and also reasonably anticipates the structural dynamic behavior of the stage. The refined model will support development of a future trajectory tracking controller for the system.

  18. Frustrated S = 1/2 Two-Leg Ladder with Different Leg Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, Takashi; Okamoto, Kiyomi; Hikihara, Toshiya; Sakai, Tôru

    2017-04-01

    We explore the ground-state phase diagram of the S = 1/2 two-leg ladder. The isotropic leg interactions J1,a and J1,b between nearest neighbor spins in the legs a and b, respectively, are different from each other. The xy and z components of the uniform rung interactions are denoted by Jr and ΔJr, respectively, where Δ is the XXZ anisotropy parameter. This system has a frustration when J1,aJ1,b employ the physical consideration, the level spectroscopy analysis of the results obtained by the exact diagonalization method and also the density-matrix renormalization-group method. It is found that the non-collinear ferrimagnetic (NCFR) state appears as the ground state in the frustrated region of the parameters. Furthermore, the direct-product triplet-dimer (TD) state in which all rungs form the TD pair is the exact ground state, when J1,a + J1,b = 0 and 0≤ Δ ≲ 0.83. The obtained phase diagrams consist of the TD, XY and Haldane phases as well as the NCFR phase.

  19. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  20. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n VDE instabilities observed when vertical control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  1. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Bi Shusheng

    2012-01-01

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks. (topical review)

  2. Adaptive leg coordination with a biologically inspired neurocontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braught, Grant; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.

    1996-10-01

    Natural selection is responsible for the creation of robust and adaptive control systems. Nature's control systems are created only from primitive building blocks. Using insect neurophysiology as a guide, a neural architecture for leg coordination in a hexapod robot has been developed. Reflex chains and sensory feedback mechanisms from various insects and crustacea form the basis of a pattern generator for intra-leg coordination. The pattern generator contains neural oscillators which learn from sensory feedback to produce stepping patterns. Using sensory feedback as the source of learning information allows the pattern generator to adapt to changes in the leg dynamics due to internal or external causes. A coupling between six of the single leg pattern generators is used to produce the inter-leg coordination necessary to establish stable gaits.

  3. Model-Based Experimental Development of Passive Compliant Robot Legs from Fiberglass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the methodology of developing compliant, half-circular, and composite robot legs with designable stiffness. First, force-displacement experiments on flat cantilever composites made by one or multifiberglass cloths are executed. By mapping the cantilever mechanics to the virtual spring model, the equivalent elastic moduli of the composites can be derived. Next, by using the model that links the curved beam mechanics back to the virtual spring, the resultant stiffness of the composite in a half-circular shape can be estimated without going through intensive experimental tryouts. The overall methodology has been experimentally validated, and the fabricated composites were used on a hexapod robot to perform walking and leaping behaviors.

  4. Nonlinear mode interaction in equal-leg angle struts susceptible to cellular buckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L; Wang, F; Wadee, M A; Yang, J

    2017-11-01

    A variational model that describes the interactive buckling of a thin-walled equal-leg angle strut under pure axial compression is presented. A formulation combining the Rayleigh-Ritz method and continuous displacement functions is used to derive a system of differential and integral equilibrium equations for the structural component. Solving the equations using numerical continuation reveals progressive cellular buckling (or snaking) arising from the nonlinear interaction between the weak-axis flexural buckling mode and the strong-axis flexural-torsional buckling mode for the first time-the resulting behaviour being highly unstable. Physical experiments conducted on 10 cold-formed steel specimens are presented and the results show good agreement with the variational model.

  5. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  6. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper LS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke S Hopper,1 Nahoko Sato,2 Andries L Weidemann1 1Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, WA, Australia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya Gakuin University, Seto, Japan Abstract: The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. Keywords: injury, motion capture, clinical assessment

  7. Novel actuation design of a gait trainer with shadow leg approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, Jos; Meuleman, Jos; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; van der Kooij, Herman

    2013-06-01

    Robotic gait training has developed since the end of the 20(th) century, yet there is much room for improvement in the design of the robots. With the conventional exoskeleton structures, donning of patients in a gait trainer usually is a cumbersome process due to the need of joint alignments and normal walking is often hindered due to obstructed arm swing. Our goal was to design a gait training robots that overcomes these limitations. We propose a novel design in which these drawbacks are reduced to a great amount. By using a parallel structure behind the patient (shadow leg) that is connected to the patient joints with rods, little alignment is needed, the area lateral to the hip is left free, and thus arm swing is not obstructed. The construction is lightweight, because the actuators are mounted on a fixed base and the transmission of power is executed with light weight rods. An end stop in the shadow leg prevents hyper extension of the patient's knee. The relationship between motor displacement and human joint rotations is nonlinear. In this paper we derive the nonlinear relationships between motors and patient joints and verify these. calculations with a measurement. The device has been built, now tests with subjects are required to assess if subjects can indeed walk normally in the robot.

  8. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1993-08-04

    The number of refugees and internally displaced persons in need of protection and assistance has increased from 30 million in 1990 to more than 43 million today. War and civil strife have been largely responsible for this epidemic of mass migration that has affected almost every region of the world, including Europe. Since 1990, crude death rates (CDRs) during the early influx of refugees who crossed international borders have been somewhat lower than CDRs reported earlier among Cambodian and Ethiopian refugees. Nevertheless, CDRs among refugees arriving in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Malawi, and Zimbabwe since 1990 ranged from five to 12 times the baseline CDRs in the countries of origin. Among internally displaced populations in northern Iraq, Somalia, and Sudan, CDRs were extremely high, ranging from 12 to 25 times the baseline CDRs for the nondisplaced. Among both refugees and internally displaced persons, death rates among children less than 5 years of age were far higher than among older children and adults. In Bangladesh, the death rate in female Rohingya refugees was several times higher than in males. Preventable conditions such as diarrheal disease, measles, and acute respiratory infections, exacerbated often by malnutrition, caused most deaths. Although relief programs for refugees have improved since 1990, the situation among the internally displaced may have worsened. The international community should intervene earlier in the evolution of complex disasters involving civil war, human rights abuses, food shortages, and mass displacement. Relief programs need to be based on sound health and nutrition information and should focus on the provision of adequate shelter, food, water, sanitation, and public health programs that prevent mortality from diarrhea, measles, and other communicable diseases, especially among young children and women.

  9. Artificial Leg Design and Control Research of a Biped Robot with Heterogeneous Legs Based on PID Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL is proposed to provide an ideal test-bed for intelligent bionic legs (IBL. To make artificial leg gait better suited to a human, a four-bar mechanism is used as its knee joint, and a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM is used as its driving source. The static mathematical model of PAM is established and the mechanical model of a single degree of freedom of a knee joint driven by PAM is analyzed. A control simulation of an artificial leg based on PID control algorithm is carried out and the simulation results indicate that the artificial leg can simulate precisely a normal human walking gait.

  10. Assessment of the MARS-KS Code Using Atlas 6-inch cold leg Break Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. G.; Kim, J. S.; Ahn, S. H.; Seul, K. W. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    An integral effect test on the SBLOCA (Small-Break Loss of Coolant Accident) aiming at 6-inch cold leg bottom break, SB-CL-09, was conducted with the Atlas on November, 13, 2009, by KAERI. In this study, the calculations using MARS-KS Vt1.2 code were conducted for 6-inch cold leg break test of Atlas (SB-CL-09) which is the second domestic standard problem (Dsp-02) to assess MARS-KS code capability to simulate the transient thermal-hydraulic behavior for SBLOCA. The steady state was determined by conducting a null transient calculation and the errors between the calculated and measured values are acceptable for almost primary/secondary system parameters. The predicted pressurizer pressure agrees relatively well with the experimental data and the predicted break flow and mass are in good agreement with experiment. In MARS-KS calculation, the decrease of core collapsed water level is predicted well in blowdown phase, but just before LSC, water level is higher than experiment. However, the sudden decrease and increase of water level is higher than experiment. However, the sudden decrease and increase of water level at the LSC are predicted qualitatively. After LSC, there is another water level dip at Sit injection time which is not in experiment. It is considered that this phenomenon is caused by rapid depressurization of downcomer due to significant condensation rate of vapor in downcomer when Sit water flows in it. For the downcomer water level is predicted well, however, it is significantly over-predicted at SIT injection time, water level is predicted well, however, it is significantly over-predicted at SIT injection time after SIT water flows in downcomer. Predicted cladding temperature generally agrees well with the experiment, while there is peak at SIT injection time in calculation which is not in experiment. The loop seals of 1A, 2B intermediate leg are cleared around 400 seconds in experiment, while only that of 1A is cleared in MARS-KS calculation at the

  11. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlJahdali, Hamdan H; AlQadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; AlHejaili, Fayez F; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A; AlGhamdi, Saeed M

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 + - 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 + - 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and

  12. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jahdali Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH, Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG′s RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ. Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 ± 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 ± 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM, coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively. Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively. Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis

  13. Displacement of location in illusory line motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2013-05-01

    Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to "unfold" or "be drawn" from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.

  14. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Hubicki, Christian M; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W; Daley, Monica A

    2014-11-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force-length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force-length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. UPTF-TRAM test A2. Formation of stratified flow in the hot leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenckhoff; Brand, B.; Weiss, P.

    1992-10-01

    The separate effect UPTF TRAM Test A2 consisting of six runs was designed to investigate flow regimes in the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor under two-phase natural circulation conditions. In particular, the following phenomena were investigated: - Formation of different flow regimes, e.g. stratified and slug flow in the hot leg under different boundary conditions; -Correlation between flow regime and boundary conditions of the system (mass flows, water level etc.); - Mechanism of the transport of water into the steam generator. The test runs are divided into two groups: a) Test Runs 01a, 01b and 02b with steam injection through the core simulator: In these test runs the steam injection through the core simulator was increased stepwise. In each step the steam injection was kept constant for about 100 s in order to observe steady water distribution in the hot leg and SG-simulator of broken loop. b) Test Runs 03c, 04c and 04d with steam and water injection through the core simulator: These test runs were performed at a constant steam injection rate and the water injection rate was increased stepwise. In order to verify the consistency of scaling with the pressure, the test runs were carried out at different pressures as: a) Runs 01a and 01b at 15 bar, and Run 02b at 3 bar b) Runs 03c, 04c and 04d at 15, 3 and 5 bar respectively. A preliminary evaluation of the test is presented in the Quick Look Report. (orig.) [de

  16. Leak-before-break due to fatigue cracks in the cold leg piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayfield, M.E.; Collier, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    This review paper presents the results of a deterministic assessment of the margin of safety against a large break in the cold leg piping system of pressurized water reactors. The paper focuses on the computation of leak rates resulting from fatigue cracks that penetrate the full wall thickness. Results are presented that illustrate the sensitivity of the leak rate to stress level, crack shape and crack orientation. Further, the leak rates for specific conditions are contrasted to detection levels, shutdown criteria, make-up capacity and the leak rate associated with final failure of the piping system. The results of these computations indicate that, in general, leaks far in excess of the present detection sensitivities would result at crack sizes well below the critical crack sizes for the upset loadings on the cold leg piping system

  17. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  18. Evaluation of arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Leblanc, H; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2004-10-01

    This study proposes a new method to evaluate arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke. Five arm and leg stroke phases were defined with a velocity-video system. Five time gaps quantified the time between arm and leg actions during three paces of a race (200 m, 100 m and 50 m) in 16 top level swimmers. Based on these time gaps, effective glide, effective propulsion, effective leg insweep and effective recovery were used to identify the different stroke phases of the body. A faster pace corresponded to increased stroke rate, decreased stroke length, increased propulsive phases, shorter glide phases, and a shorter T1 time gap, which measured the effective body glide. The top level swimmers showed short time gaps (T2, T3, T4, measuring the timing of arm-leg recoveries), which reflected the continuity in arm and leg actions. The measurement of these time gaps thus provides a pertinent evaluation of swimmers' skill in adapting their arm-leg coordination to biomechanical constraints.

  19. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  20. Laterality of the legs in young female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.

  1. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  2. 3-D thermoelastic analysis of the straight section of a PWR hot leg containing a hot spot using BEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, R.S.; Sugimoto, J.

    1995-01-01

    A 3-D steady state thermoelastic analysis using the boundary element method has been successfully employed to investigate the structural response of the straight section of a pressurised water reactor hot leg containing a localised hot spot. With the present severe accident thermal boundary conditions, the analysis produces a nonuniform expansion across the hot leg thickness. This expansion was most predominant on the inner surface, especially at the hot spot location where surface swelling was obtained. Furthermore, the hot spot generates large tangential and axial tensile stresses on the outer surface. These could be detrimental to the integrity of the hot leg by acting as potential sites of crack initiation and subsequent propagation. (orig.)

  3. [Innovative therapy for leg ulcers: Electrostimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds can take a long time to heal despite appropriate therapy based upon aetiology and use of suitable dressings. The success of electrostimulation is based upon the existence within the skin of the endogenous currents involved in the wound healing process. Where skin continuity is broken by a wound, these electrical potentials are short-circuited, resulting in leakage of electrical current. Woundel(®) therapy is the only such treatment currently available in France and is based on the use of continuous pulsed current that generates an electrical field near the endogenous electrical fields. It utilises a console to deliver the electrical impulses, a dressing electrode and a dispersion electrode. The electrode dressing is left on the wound for 3 days, and venous compression bandaging may be applied to the leg, taking care to leave the connector free. Negative polarity stimulates migration of fibroblasts, resulting in elimination of fibrin. Positive polarity causes keratinocyte migration, which in turn leads to epidermisation. Electrostimulation is of recognised utility in the healing of chronic wounds: it has been assigned a high-level recommendation in the European and American guidelines for the treatment of venous ulcers and bedsores with proof level of A. Further, the analgesic effect of electrostimulation has been demonstrated in several studies. Electrostimulation is already well developed in France among wound specialists, but prospective studies are planned so that it may be used at patients' homes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Peripheral Dopamine in Restless Legs Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Mitchell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective/BackgroundRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a dopamine-dependent disorder characterized by a strong urge to move. The objective of this study was to evalulate blood levels of dopamine and other catecholamines and blood D2-subtype dopamine receptors (D2Rs in RLS.Patients/MethodsDopamine levels in blood samples from age-matched unmedicated RLS subjects, medicated RLS subjects and Controls were evaluated with high performance liquid chromatography and dopamine D2R white blood cell (WBC expression levels were determined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunocytochemistry.ResultsBlood plasma dopamine levels, but not norepinepherine or epinephrine levels, were significantly increased in medicated RLS subjects vs unmedicated RLS subjects and Controls. The percentage of lymphocytes and monocytes expressing D2Rs differed between Control, RLS medicated and RLS unmedicated subjects. Total D2R expression in lymphocytes, but not monocytes, differed between Control, RLS medicated and RLS unmedicated subjects. D2Rs in lymphocytes, but not monocytes, were sensitive to dopamine in Controls only.ConclusionDownregulation of WBCs D2Rs occurs in RLS. This downregulation is not reversed by medication, although commonly used RLS medications increase plasma dopamine levels. The insensitivity of monocytes to dopamine levels, but their downregulation in RLS, may reflect their utility as a biomarker for RLS and perhaps brain dopamine homeostasis.

  5. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  6. Adjuvant Biological Therapies in Chronic Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Burgos-Alonso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current biological treatments for non-healing wounds aim to address the common deviations in healing mechanisms, mainly inflammation, inadequate angiogenesis and reduced synthesis of extracellular matrix. In this context, regenerative medicine strategies, i.e., platelet rich plasmas and mesenchymal stromal cell products, may form part of adjuvant interventions in an integral patient management. We synthesized the clinical experience on ulcer management using these two categories of biological adjuvants. The results of ten controlled trials that are included in this systematic review favor the use of mesenchymal stromal cell based-adjuvants for impaired wound healing, but the number and quality of studies is moderate-low and are complicated by the diversity of biological products. Regarding platelet-derived products, 18 controlled studies investigated their efficacy in chronic wounds in the lower limb, but the heterogeneity of products and protocols hinders clinically meaningful quantitative synthesis. Most patients were diabetic, emphasizing an unmet medical need in this condition. Overall, there is not sufficient evidence to inform routine care, and further clinical research is necessary to realize the full potential of adjuvant regenerative medicine strategies in the management of chronic leg ulcers.

  7. Analytical Study of Active Prosthetic Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kyosuke; Katsumata, Mie

    Walking with prosthesis has not been well analyzed mathematically and it seems that the design of powered prosthesis has been done empirically so far. This paper presents a dynamic simulation of a normal human walking and walking with an active prosthesis. We also studied the two controlling methods of a powered thigh prosthesis based on multi-body simulation of human walking. First we measured the normal human walking gait, then, we showed that a 3-DOF human walking model can walk on level ground by applying tracking control to the measured walking gait within a certain range of tuned walking period. Next, we applied the tracking control and self-excited control to the powered thigh prosthesis and compared the robustness and efficiency of the two control methods by numerical simulation. As a result, we found that the self-excited control can significantly decrease the hip joint torque and specific cost to 1/3 compared with the tracking control. Moreover, the self-excited control is superior to the tracking control because tuning for the walking period is not needed for the active prosthetic leg.

  8. Primary headaches in restless legs syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies conducted among migraineurs have shown an association between migraine and restless legs syndrome (RLS. We chose RLS patients and looked for migraine to exclude sample bias. Materials and Methods: 99 consecutive subjects of idiopathic RLS were recruited from the sleep clinic during four months period. Physician diagnosis of headache and depressive disorder was made with the help of ICHD-2 and DSM-IV-TR criteria, respectively. Sleep history was gathered. Severity of RLS and insomnia was measured using IRLS (Hindi version and insomnia severity index Hindi version, respectively. Chi-square test, one way ANOVA and t-test were applied to find out the significance. Results: Primary headache was seen in 51.5% cases of RLS. Migraine was reported by 44.4% subjects and other types of ′primary headaches′ were reported by 7.1% subjects. Subjects were divided into- RLS; RLS with migraine and RLS with other headache. Females outnumbered in migraine subgroup (χ2 =16.46, P<0.001. Prevalence of depression (χ2 =3.12, P=0.21 and family history of RLS (χ2 =2.65, P=0.26 were not different among groups. Severity of RLS (P=0.22 or insomnia (P=0.43 were also similar. Conclusion: Migraine is frequently found in RLS patients in clinic based samples. Females with RLS are prone to develop migraine. Depression and severity of RLS or insomnia do not affect development of headache.

  9. Clinical correlates of the restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fabiano Marin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical correlates of the restless legs syndrome (RLS in a Brazilian sleep disorders center. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 118 patients with RLS from January, 2004, to December, 2010. The analyzed variables were: age at disease onset, gender, race, years of school instruction, primary and secondary RLS, and treatment options. RESULTS: Among the studied patients, 83.9% were women with a female/male sex ratio of 5:1. Mean age of the patients at symptom onset ± standard deviation was 41.7±17.9 years-old. The primary RLS was found in 85% of patients. The other 15% remainders consisted of secondary forms, and they were associated with neuropathy, iron deficiency anemia, end-stage renal disease, or Parkinson's disease. Drug therapy for RLS was introduced in 67% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients presented primary RLS with an early disease onset. Further epidemiological studies are welcomed to provide better information on secondary RLS in Brazil.

  10. Concurrent validity and reliability of using ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters in the determination of leg movement initiation during single leg lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, Daniela; de Castro, Marcelo Peduzzi; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie Dawn

    2016-09-01

    Postural adjustment evaluations during single leg lift requires the initiation of heel lift (T1) identification. T1 measured by means of motion analyses system is the most reliable approach. However, this method involves considerable workspace, expensive cameras, and time processing data and setting up laboratory. The use of ground reaction forces (GRF) and centre of pressure (COP) data is an alternative method as its data processing and setting up is less time consuming. Further, kinetic data is normally collected using frequency samples higher than 1000Hz whereas kinematic data are commonly captured using 50-200Hz. This study describes the concurrent-validity and reliability of GRF and COP measurements in determining T1, using a motion analysis system as reference standard. Kinematic and kinetic data during single leg lift were collected from ten participants. GRF and COP data were collected using one and two force plates. Displacement of a single heel marker was captured by means of ten Vicon(©) cameras. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected using a sample frequency of 1000Hz. Data were analysed in two stages: identification of key events in the kinetic data, and assessing concurrent validity of T1 based on the chosen key events with T1 provided by the kinematic data. The key event presenting the least systematic bias, along with a narrow 95% CI and limits of agreement against the reference standard T1, was the Baseline COPy event. Baseline COPy event was obtained using one force plate and presented excellent between-tester reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  12. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The “geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is ... an attitude is also close to the chemical thinking ..... These vectors explicitly define the corresponding ..... chain-rule for implicit functionals: p p. N p.

  13. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  14. Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, A K; Zegeye, E; Woldesenbet, E; Jin, Y

    2013-01-01

    Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated. (paper)

  15. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  16. Radiating leg pain and positive straight leg raising in spondylolysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, N; Copeliovitch, L; Schachner, E

    1983-09-01

    Three children presented with low back pain radiating to the leg and with spasm of the hamstring and paravertebral muscles. Since the pain could not be ascribed to trauma, it was necessary to exclude the presence of infection or tumors. All the signs--localization of the pain, tenderness on one side of the back, X-ray film findings of unilateral or bilateral spondylolysis, and localized positive bone scan--pointed to spondylolysis as the cause of pain. All three children exhibited symptoms resembling those found in the facet syndrome described by Mooney and Robertson.

  17. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  18. Experimental validation of a numerical model of two-phase displacement in porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genty, A.

    1996-01-01

    Burial in geological layers appears to be an interesting solution to dispose of radioactive wastes. This thesis analyzes and simulates the behaviour of gas produced by waste barrels corrosion. The released contaminated gas drains the water initially present in the host rock and yields a water-gas two phase flow. A literature survey of two phase flow shows that fluid interfaces may display instabilities for definite flow characteristics. When the displacement is stable a smooth interface proceeds through the porous medium. When the interface shows fingering, the displacement is said to be 'viscous-unstable', and when the front is jagged the displacement is called 'capillary' displacement. A dimensional analysis of classical equations governing two phase flow in porous media is combined with a classification of dominant forces to define an original map of flow regimes that includes gravitational forces. The map is based on three dimensionless numbers and predicts a priori the flow type. For typical data describing a radioactive waste repository a 'viscous-unstable' displacement is predicted by the map. We simulate water-gas displacement with a numerical model previously developed; this code, based on the Muskat model, uses the mixed-hybrid finite elements technique and is therefore well adapted for tracking moving interfaces. Fluxes are well conserved, however instabilities cannot be simulated. We assume that there is always a scale to be found where instabilities can be averaged and we try to validate the model with experimental two phase flows. We performed laboratory water-gas flow experiments for a variety of flow conditions. The observed displacement types are consistent with the map of flow regimes. Good agreement with numerical simulations is obtained when precise parameters of the displacements are available, in particular relative permeability curves. We conclude that our model allows a first approach of migration of gas near a radioactive waste repository

  19. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  20. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  1. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  2. SOCIAL CAPITAL IN INVOLUNTARY DISPLACEMENT AND RESETTLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Quetulio-Navarra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital amongpoor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital conceptand its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used inevaluating the adaptation and integration of involuntarily displaced individualsinto their new environment. This paper presents insights based on a review of thefindings of studies that looked into the role of social capital in conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacement contexts. Althoughboth types of displace-ments are involuntary or forced in nature, they differ in terms of the role of socialcapital regarding its main sources, the formation pattern and its determinants.Social capital studies in forced resettlement appear to be relatively small innumber and are heavily concentrated on first worldcountries and conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacements. The conduct of similar studies in developingcountries and in a disaster-induced resettlement context, the third type ofinvoluntary displacement, should generate new and relevant findings regardingthe role of social capital in resettlement communities.

  3. The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Iwanami, Masaoki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Hirata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder that is frequently associated with periodic leg movements (PLMS). RLS is generally considered to be a central nervous system (CNS)-related disorder although no specific lesion has been found to be associated with the syndrome. Reduced intracortical inhibition has been demonstrated in RLS by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some MRI studies have revealed the presence of morphologic changes in the somatosensory cortex, motor cortex and thalamic gray matter. The results of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed that the limbic and opioid systems also play important roles in the pathophysiology of RLS. A functional MRI study revealed abnormal bilateral cerebellar and thalamic activation during the manifestation of sensory symptoms, with additional red nucleus and reticular formation activity during PLMS. PLMS is likely to occur in patients with spinal cord lesions, and some patients with sensory polyneuropathy may exhibit RLS symptoms. RLS symptoms seem to depend on abnormal spinal sensorimotor integration at the spinal cord level and abnormal central somatosensory processing. PLMS appears to depend on increased excitability of the spinal cord and a decreased supraspinal inhibitory mechanism from the A11 diencephalic dopaminergic system. RLS symptoms respond very dramatically to dopaminergic therapy. The results of analysis by PET and SPECT studies of striatal D2 receptor binding in humans are inconclusive. However, studies in animal models suggest that the participation of the A11 dopaminergic system and the D3 receptor in RLS symptoms. The symptoms of RLS are aggravated in those with iron deficiency, and iron treatment ameliorates the symptoms in some patients. Neuroimaging studies, analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid, and studies on postmortem tissue and use of animal models have indicated that low brain iron concentrations and dysfunction of

  4. The Motor and the Brake of the Trailing Leg in Human Walking: Leg Force Control Through Ankle Modulation and Knee Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, Megan E.; Chang, Young-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Human walking is a complex task, and we lack a complete understanding of how the neuromuscular system organizes its numerous muscles and joints to achieve consistent and efficient walking mechanics. Focused control of select influential task-level variables may simplify the higher-level control of steady state walking and reduce demand on the neuromuscular system. As trailing leg power generation and force application can affect the mechanical efficiency of step-to-step transitions, we investigated how joint torques are organized to control leg force and leg power during human walking. We tested whether timing of trailing leg force control corresponded with timing of peak leg power generation. We also applied a modified uncontrolled manifold analysis to test whether individual or coordinated joint torque strategies most contributed to leg force control. We found that leg force magnitude was adjusted from step-to-step to maintain consistent leg power generation. Leg force modulation was primarily determined by adjustments in the timing of peak ankle plantar-flexion torque, while knee torque was simultaneously covaried to dampen the effect of ankle torque on leg force. We propose a coordinated joint torque control strategy in which the trailing leg ankle acts as a motor to drive leg power production while trailing leg knee torque acts as a brake to refine leg power production. PMID:27334888

  5. Cold-Leg Small Break LOCA Analysis of APR1400 Plant Using a SPACE/sEM Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Gyu; Lee, Suk Ho; Yu, Keuk Jong; Kim, Han Gon; Lee, Jae Yong [Central Research Institute, KHNP, Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) evaluation methodology (EM) for APR1400, called sEM, is now being developed using SPACE code. SPACE/sEM is to set up a conservative evaluation methodology in accordance with appendix K of 10 CFR 50. Major required and acceptable features of the evaluation models are described as below. - Fission product decay : 1.2 times of ANS97 decay curve - Critical flow model : Henry-Fauske Moody two phase critical flow model - Metal-Water reaction model : Baker-Just equation - Critical Heat Flux (CHF) : B and W, Barnett and Modified Barnett correlation - Post-CHF : Groeneveld 5.7 film boiling correlation A series of test matrix is established to validate SPACE/sEM code in terms of major SBLOCA phenomena, e.g. core level swelling and boiling, core heat transfer, critical flow, loop seal clearance and their integrated effects. The separated effect tests (SETs) and integrated effect tests (IETs) are successfully performed and these results shows that SPACE/sEM code has a conservatism comparing with experimental data. Finally, plant calculations of SBLOCA for APR1400 are conducted as described below. - Break location sensitivity : DVI line, hot-leg, cold-leg, pump suction leg. - Break size spectrum : 0.4ft{sup 2}∼0.02ft{sup 2}(DVI) 0.5ft{sup 2}∼0.02ft{sup 2}(hot-leg, cold-leg, pump suction leg) This paper deals with break size spectrum analysis of cold-leg break accidents. Based on the calculation results, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) performances of APR1400 and typical SBLOCA phenomena can be evaluated. Cold-leg SBLOCA analysis for APR1400 is performed using SPACE/sEM code under harsh environment condition. SPACE/sEM code shows the typical SBLOCA behaviors and it is reasonably predicted. Although SPACE/sEM code has conservative models and correlations based on appendix K of 10 CFR 50, PCT does not exceed the requirement (1477 K). It is concluded that ECCS in APR1400 has a sufficient performance in cold-leg SBLOCA.

  6. Cold-Leg Small Break LOCA Analysis of APR1400 Plant Using a SPACE/sEM Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Gyu; Lee, Suk Ho; Yu, Keuk Jong; Kim, Han Gon; Lee, Jae Yong

    2013-01-01

    The Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) evaluation methodology (EM) for APR1400, called sEM, is now being developed using SPACE code. SPACE/sEM is to set up a conservative evaluation methodology in accordance with appendix K of 10 CFR 50. Major required and acceptable features of the evaluation models are described as below. - Fission product decay : 1.2 times of ANS97 decay curve - Critical flow model : Henry-Fauske Moody two phase critical flow model - Metal-Water reaction model : Baker-Just equation - Critical Heat Flux (CHF) : B and W, Barnett and Modified Barnett correlation - Post-CHF : Groeneveld 5.7 film boiling correlation A series of test matrix is established to validate SPACE/sEM code in terms of major SBLOCA phenomena, e.g. core level swelling and boiling, core heat transfer, critical flow, loop seal clearance and their integrated effects. The separated effect tests (SETs) and integrated effect tests (IETs) are successfully performed and these results shows that SPACE/sEM code has a conservatism comparing with experimental data. Finally, plant calculations of SBLOCA for APR1400 are conducted as described below. - Break location sensitivity : DVI line, hot-leg, cold-leg, pump suction leg. - Break size spectrum : 0.4ft 2 ∼0.02ft 2 (DVI) 0.5ft 2 ∼0.02ft 2 (hot-leg, cold-leg, pump suction leg) This paper deals with break size spectrum analysis of cold-leg break accidents. Based on the calculation results, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) performances of APR1400 and typical SBLOCA phenomena can be evaluated. Cold-leg SBLOCA analysis for APR1400 is performed using SPACE/sEM code under harsh environment condition. SPACE/sEM code shows the typical SBLOCA behaviors and it is reasonably predicted. Although SPACE/sEM code has conservative models and correlations based on appendix K of 10 CFR 50, PCT does not exceed the requirement (1477 K). It is concluded that ECCS in APR1400 has a sufficient performance in cold-leg SBLOCA

  7. Development and Physical Control Research on Prototype Artificial Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To provide an ideal platform for research on intelligent bionic leg (IBL, this paper proposes a model of a biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL. A prototype of an artificial leg is developed based on biological structure and motion principle analysis of human lower extremities. With regard to the driving sources, servomotors are chosen for the hip joint and ankle joint, while pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs are chosen for the knee joint. The control system of the bionic artificial leg is designed and a physical experimental platform is established. The physical control experiments are done based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID control strategy. The experimental results show that such a system can realize the expected goals.

  8. Seismic response analysis for hinged-leg type port crane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwazaki, A.; Kanayama, T.; Arai, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Container cranes and unloaders in Kobe Pont were severely damaged during the Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake in 1995. Notably, some of the hinged-leg type of cranes with hinges at the end of sea-or land-side of legs were overturned. These damages were derived from the uplifting of their legs. To explain the uplifting and overturning behavior, we carried out nonlinear analyses and shaking table tests using a 1/8-scale model of the container crane. The results of nonlinear response analyses of hinged-leg type of crane, which are in an agreement with the state of damages in the Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake and the result of shaking table tests, are described. (author)

  9. Emphysematous Pyelonephritis Presenting as Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiong Ye

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus who presented with a painful, swollen right leg. He had also experienced right flank pain for 1 week prior to admission. Physical examination was notable for tenderness over the right flank. The right leg was diffusely swollen and exquisitely tender to touch, with palpable crepitance. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis and pyuria. Computed tomography showed a right ureteral stone with hydronephrosis and characteristic findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Furthermore, a right perirenal gas-forming abscess with extension to the right leg was noted. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, aggressive control of blood sugar, percutaneous drainage of the hydronephrosis and perirenal abscess, and aggressive debridement of the leg.

  10. Dynamic Leg Exercise Improves Tolerance to Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.

  11. Epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of chronic leg ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic leg ulcer (CLU) is reported to have an impact on virtually all ... Conclusion: Most patients benefited from debridement with or without split thickness skin graft or flap. .... low incidence of arterial and venous diseases in.

  12. Hereditary Lymphedema of the Leg – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Heinig

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary of hereditary lymphedema is a rare but progressive disease. It is yet not curable. We present a 48-year-old male patient with hereditary lymphedema of his left leg, that was realised by minor trauma (able twist when he was seven years old. He had never been treated for lymphedema but experienced multiple erysipelas during his life. After diagnostic procedures to exclude other causes of leg swelling, the diagnosis of hereditary lymphedema of the leg, stage III was confirmed. We initialized complex decongestive therapy. During two weeks of intensive treatment, the circumference of the left leg could be reduced by 10 cm. This case illustrates the "natural course" hereditary lymphedema. But it raises the hope that even after decades of ignorance, the patients benefits from complex decongestive treatment. Therapeutic nihilism is unnecessary and poses lymphedema patients to risks of infection and secondary malignancies like Stewart-Trewes syndrome.

  13. Quality of Life in People with Leg Ulcer, Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main changes in the daily life of people with leg ulcer and how that affects the person’s quality of life. Methodology: We used the methodology PI [C] OD and selected four research articles, taken from EBSCO, PubMed, and EWMA. Results: The main changes identified in the people’s daily live with leg ulcers are physical (pain, decreased mobility, presence of exudate, bad smell from the wound and change in the style of clothing, psychological (sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, feelings of rejection and low self-steem, social (isolation, restriction in leisure activities, inability to perform household chores. Conclusions: The literature about the person’s quality of life with leg ulcer reported a significant impact in the daily life. The care provided by nurses should be centered on the person, integrating all the kind of needs and the leg ulcer must not be the sole focus of care

  14. Reasonable designing method for fillet welding leg length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiso, T; Michiyuki, T; Nagao, S; Yoshikawa, M; Miyazaki, S

    1976-12-01

    In VLCC and ULCC vessels, the scantling of structural members, especially the thickness of web plate, increases naturally. The present rule of each classification society generally prescribes that welding leg length should be based on the thickness of the web plate. Welding leg length between this web plate and skin plate such as shell plate, deck plate, etc., or face plate, increases according to increase of the thickness of the web plate. We investigated the method to decide reasonable welding leg length and its programming by using the results of finite element method structural analysis, without adhering to the above rule about welding leg length. As a result of applying this method to actual ships under classification societies' approval, the amount of welding decreased by from about 10 percent to 15 percent compared with that required by the above rule. The rationality of the method has been already confirmed by successful results of the application to several vessels in service.

  15. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  16. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin; Lei, Guanglun; Hou, Jian; Xu, Xiaohong; Wang, Dan; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-01-01

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  17. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin

    2015-10-12

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  18. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  19. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon in Intensive Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Tarsim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield affected by addition of this species. Final  affected by white legged shrimp addition. No adding effects were found on the water quality parameters. The results indicate that, at densities tested, white legged shrimp addition to the intensive farming of tiger shrimp polyculture is viable as species increase crop production Key words: Penaeus vannamei, P. monodon, growth, survival, polyculture

  20. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  1. Leg ulcer assessment techniques in a remote rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Julia

    Community-based leg ulcer clinics are a cost-effective and efficient way of managing patients with leg ulcers in the community (Blair et al, 1988; Moffatt and Oldroyd, 1994). According to the Scottish Clinical Standards for Vascular Services (NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2003): 'It is essential that all vascular patients are seen by a nurse with vascular expertise, who is able to provide information, support and health promotion advice'.

  2. Cervical cord compression presenting with sciatica-like leg pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Chee Keong; Lee, Ho-Yeon; Choi, Won-Chul; Cho, Ji Young; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Sciatica-like leg pain can be the main presenting symptom in patients with cervical cord compression. It is a false localizing presentation, which may lead to missed or delayed diagnosis, resulting in the wrong plan of management, especially in the presence of concurrent lumbar lesions. Medical history, physical findings and the results of imaging studies were reviewed in two cases of cervical cord compressions, which presented with sciatica-like leg pain. There was multi-level cervical spond...

  3. Modeling posture-dependent leg actuation in sagittal plane locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J; Clark, J

    2009-01-01

    The spring loaded inverted pendulum template has been shown to accurately model the steady locomotion dynamics of a variety of running animals, and has served as the inspiration for an entire class of dynamic running robots. While the template models the leg dynamics by an energy-conserving spring, insects and animals have structures that dissipate, store and produce energy during a stance phase. Recent investigations into the spring-like properties of limbs, as well as animal response to drop-step perturbations, suggest that animals use their legs to manage energy storage and dissipation, and that this management is important for gait stability. In this paper, we extend our previous analysis of control of the spring loaded inverted pendulum template via changes in the leg touch-down angle to include energy variations during the stance phase. Energy variations are incorporated through leg actuation that varies the force-free leg length during the stance phase, yet maintains qualitatively correct force and velocity profiles. In contrast to the partially asymptotically stable gaits identified in previous analyses, incorporating energy and leg angle variations in this manner produces complete asymptotic stability. Drop-step perturbation simulations reveal that the control strategy is rather robust, with gaits recovering from drops of up to 30% of the nominal hip height.

  4. Straight leg elevation to rule out pelvic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Caroline; O'Keeffe, Francis; Finnegan, Pete; Dickson, Kristofer; Smit, De Villiers; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Mitra, Biswadev

    2018-02-01

    Pelvic x-ray is frequently used as a screening tool during initial assessment of injured patients. However routine use in the awake and alert blunt trauma patient may be questioned due to low yield. We propose a clinical tool that may avoid unnecessary imaging by examining whether the ability to straight leg raise, without pain, can rule out pelvic injury. We conducted a prospective cohort study with the exposure variables of ability to straight leg raise and presence of pain on doing so, and presence of pelvic fracture on x-ray as the primary outcome variable. Of the 328 participants, 35 had pelvic fractures, and of these 32 were either unable to straight leg raise, or had pain on doing so, with a sensitivity of 91.43% (95% CI: 76.94-98.2%) and a negative predictive value of 98.57% (95% CI: 95.88-99.70%). The 3 participants with a pelvic fracture who could straight leg raise with no pain, all had a GCS of less than 15, and therefore, among the sub-group of patients with GCS15, a 100% sensitivity and 100% negative predictive value for straight leg raise with no pain to rule out pelvic fracture was demonstrated. Among awake, alert patients, painless straight leg raise can exclude pelvic fractures and be incorporated into initial examination during reception and resuscitation of injured patients. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Toward Balance Recovery With Leg Prostheses Using Neuromuscular Model Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lower limb amputees are at high risk of falling as current prosthetic legs provide only limited functionality for recovering balance after unexpected disturbances. For instance, the most established control method used on powered leg prostheses tracks local joint impedance functions without taking the global function of the leg in balance recovery into account. Here we explore an alternative control policy for powered transfemoral prostheses that considers the global leg function and is based on a neuromuscular model of human locomotion. Methods We adapt this model to describe and simulate an amputee walking with a powered prosthesis using the proposed control, and evaluate the gait robustness when confronted with rough ground and swing leg disturbances. We then implement and partially evaluate the resulting controller on a leg prosthesis prototype worn by a non-amputee user. Results In simulation, the proposed prosthesis control leads to gaits that are more robust than those obtained by the impedance control method. The initial hardware experiments with the prosthesis prototype show that the proposed control reproduces normal walking patterns qualitatively and effectively responds to disturbances in early and late swing. However, the response to mid-swing disturbances neither replicates human responses nor averts falls. Conclusions The neuromuscular model control is a promising alternative to existing prosthesis controls, although further research will need to improve on the initial implementation and determine how well these results transfer to amputee gait. Significance This work provides a potential avenue for future development of control policies that help improve amputee balance recovery. PMID:26315935

  6. Ultrasonography of Skin Changes in Legs with Chronic Venous Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiati, A

    2016-10-01

    In daily practice, ultrasonography (US) is used only to designate the location and pattern of venous lesions. Skin US is not performed between routine venous investigations. Skin morphology is evaluated by the same probes used for routine Duplex evaluation of superficial veins. US findings from evident skin lesions are comparatively evaluated with those from the surrounding apparently normal skin and from the contralateral leg. Inflammation and dermal edema can be found in the apparently normal skin of C2 legs. Swollen legs show thickening of the subcutaneous layer as a result of diffuse soaking or anechoic cavities, with or without dermal edema. Chronic hypodermitis is characterized by inflammatory edema in initial phases, and by liposclerosis in advanced cases. Recrudescence of inflammation provokes focal rarefactions of the subcutaneous layer, possibly related to ulcer opening. In legs with venous disorders, sonography refines clinical evaluation of the skin and may reveal changes not highlighted by inspection. Some of these changes could require further investigation because they have not yet been explained or described. Skin sonography should improve knowledge of the natural history of skin changes, as well as contribute to a better grading of venous diseases severity In particular, US evidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous changes in C2 legs should be considered to stratify the treatment in C2 legs, by identifying those in which varicose veins are not simply a cosmetic problem. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  8. Measurement of liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in microchannels and minichannels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with a water box was used; the refraction index of this device is the same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of the interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement by using the measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 μm to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 mm and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with the real displacement to within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 μm at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 mm and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film of less than 1 μm in thickness in the slug and annular flow regimes.

  9. Measurement of liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Marine Technology, Etchujima, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Hibiki, Takashi [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka (Japan); Ishii, Mamoru [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in microchannels and minichannels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with a water box was used; the refraction index of this device is the same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of the interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement by using the measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 {mu}m to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 mm and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with the real displacement to within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 {mu}m at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 mm and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film of less than 1 {mu}m in thickness in the slug and annular flow regimes. (orig.)

  10. Bone anatomy of the pelvic girdle, the thigh and the leg of Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Myrmecophagidae: Pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is the largest anteater species in the world. It is an animal of terrestrial habits, however, it has some ability to climb tall trees and termite mounds. The hard skeletal structures are of crucial importance, since they join and protect the soft organs and help support the body, shape, and get involved in movement. The appendicular skeleton is an important part of the locomotor apparatus, whose anatomical information in wild species is scarce, making it difficult to interpret data on these bones. This paper aims to describe the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg skeleton in the giant anteater. We used two specimens of Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus (1758, fixed in a 3.7% aqueous formaldehyde solution. At first, the limbs were disjointed and we removed the skin, viscera, and muscles associated to the bones of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg in the specimens. Then, they were macerated in boiling water, and, subsequently, placed in a hydrogen peroxide solution. Once clean and dry, the bones were identified and described. The pelvic girdle skeleton in the giant anteater consists of the hip bone, formed by the ilium, pubis, and ischium bones; the thigh consists of the femur bone, and the leg consists of the tibia and fibula bones. In the knee joint region there is the patella, a relatively small sesamoid bone, considering the large size of this animal. The giant anteater have osteological features of the pelvic girdle, the thigh, and the leg similar to those in domestic carnivores, however, some morphological differences are made evident, something which may reflect differences in locomotor patterns.

  11. Emittance growth rates for displaced beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1993-05-01

    Emittance growth rates have been previously analyzed for nonuniform beams in linear channels and for initially uniform mismatched beams in nonlinear channels. These studies were for centered beams. Additional emittance growth can arise in cases where the beam is initially displaced. The purpose of this study is to obtain growth rates for displaced beams. This work differs from studies involving random displacement of electrodes. Our analysis assumes instead that the focusing system is perfectly aligned but that the beam is initially displaced with respect to the equilibrium axis. If the focusing force is slightly nonlinear, we find a gradual transfer of the potential energy of beam displacement into kinetic energy associated with emittance growth. We present explicit results for the emittance growth distance as a function of the nonlinearity of the channel. These results will have practical importance for designers of accelerators and transport systems when setting realistic tolerances for initial beam alignment. These tolerances will depend on the nonlinearity and the length of the system

  12. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ∼100–1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues. (paper)

  13. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  14. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  15. Leg kinematics and kinetics in landing from a single-leg hop for distance. A comparison between dominant and non-dominant leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, J. J.; Gokeler, A.; Hof, A. L.

    Background. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can be a major problem for athletes and subsequent reconstruction of the ACL may be indicated if a conservative regimen has failed. After ACL reconstruction signs of abnormality in the use of the leg remain for a long time. It is expected that

  16. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  17. Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Donny

    2010-04-01

    In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes.

  18. [Management of disk displacement with condylar fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-bin; Li, Zu-bing; Yang, Xue-wen; Zhao, Ji-hong; Dong, Yao-jun

    2003-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of disk displacement during the course of condylar fracture and to explore the techniques of disk reposition and suturation. 32 patients (10 females and 22 males) who had disk displacements with condylar fractures were followed up. Reduction and reposition of the dislocated disks simultaneously with fixation of fractures were performed. 7 patients underwent intermaxillary fixation with elastic bands for 1 to 2 weeks. The occlusions were satisfactory in all cases but one for the reason of ramus height loss. No TMJ symptom was found when examined 3 months post operation. Anterior disk displacements were most occurred with high condylar process fractures. Surgical reposition and suturation of disk play an important role for the later TMJ-function.

  19. Leg symptoms associated with sacroiliac joint disorder and related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi; Kurosawa, Daisuke; Noguchi, Kyoko

    2017-06-01

    The symptoms of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are usually detected in the buttock and groin, and occasionally referred to the thigh and leg. However, lumbar disorders also cause symptoms in these same body regions. The presence of a characteristic, symptomatic pattern in the legs would be useful for diagnosing SIJ disorders. This study aimed to identify specific leg symptoms in patients with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament and determine the rate of occurrence of these symptoms. The source population consisted of 365 consecutive patients from February 2005 to December 2007. One hundred patients were diagnosed with SIJ pain by a periarticular SIJ injection (42 males and 58 females, average age 46 years, age range, 18-75 years). A leg symptom map was made by subtracting the symptoms after a periarticular SIJ injection from the initial symptoms, and evaluating the rate of each individual symptom by area. Ninety-four patients reported pain at or around the posterior-superior iliac spine (PSIS). Leg symptoms comprised pain and a numbness/tingling sensation; ≥60% of the patients had these symptoms. Pain was mainly detected in the back, buttock, groin, and thigh areas, while numbness/tingling was mainly detected in the lateral to posterior thigh and back of the calf. Leg symptoms associated with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament include both pain and numbness, which do not usually correspond to the dermatome. These leg symptoms in addition to pain around the PSIS may indicate SIJ disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep apnea in patients reporting insomnia or restless legs symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M T; Goparaju, B; Moro, M

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are defined by self-reported symptoms, and polysomnography (PSG) is not routinely indicated. Occult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), common even in asymptomatic adults, may complicate management of patients presenting with insomnia or restless legs. To this end, we investigated objective sleep apnea metrics in a large retrospective cohort according to self-reported symptom profiles. We compared sleep apnea findings in patients referred to our center according to self-reported symptoms associated with insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless legs. The cohort included over 1900 adults who underwent diagnostic (n = 1418) or split-night (n = 504) PSGs and completed a symptom and medical history questionnaire. More than 30% of patients who did not endorse any OSA symptoms, but did endorse insomnia or restless legs symptoms, were found to have OSA based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >5 during overnight laboratory testing. Regression models of the full cohort showed that the risk of OSA was related, as expected, to older age, male sex, elevated body mass index, and presence of OSA symptoms. The presence of insomnia symptoms did not alter the risk of OSA. The presence of restless legs symptoms showed a small odds ratio for lowered OSA risk. Objective evidence of OSA occurs similarly in those with insomnia or restless legs symptoms, even among those without self-reported OSA symptoms. Providers should be aware of the potential for occult OSA in populations with insomnia and restless legs, which may complicate their management in addition to presenting an independent medical risk itself. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Comparing the Leg Muscles Electromyography during Single Leg Drop Landing in Pesplanus and Normal Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa bazvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: pesplanus is one of the changes that brings about changes in muscle activation patterns. Being aware of muscles activity changes in various standing positions among pesplanus patients provides insights into preventing lower extremity injuries in this population. The aim of this study was to compare leg muscles electromyography during various standing positions in pesplanus and normal subjects. Methods: 60 healthy male university students, 30 subjects with pesplanus deformity (with average age 23/54±3/57 year, average height 175/34±7/62 cm, average weight 74/87±10/72 kg and 30 normal subjects (with average age 22/97±2/38 year, average height 176/6±5/59 cm, average weight 73/58±8/36 kg participated in this comparative study. Deformity of pesplanus was assessed with navicular drop test. Each subject performed single-leg landing dropping from 30cm height onto a force platform where muscles activity was recorded with EMG device. For data analysis, Matlab and Spss softwares were used and independent sample t-test was used to compare the dependent variables at a significance level of P &le 0/05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups for the activities of the longus peroneus and anterior tibialis muscles ( p&le0/05 while no significant differences were observed in other muscles. Conclusion: The changes in the normal structure of the foot might affect muscle activities during standing, which can cause changes in the injury patterns. Therefore, it is proposed that focusing on corrective exercises and therapy plan can reduce these risks.

  2. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 μm/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions. (Auth.)

  3. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B. (California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology)

    1981-11-27

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 ..mu..m/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions.

  4. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  5. Constant displacement rate testing at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, J.J.; Gonyea, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A short time test has been developed which is capable of determining the long time notch sensitivity tendencies of CrMoV rotor forging materials. This test is based on Constant Displacement Rate (CDR) testing of a specific notch bar specimen at 1200 0 F at 2 mils/in/hour displacement rate. These data were correlated to conventional smooth and notch bar rupture behavior for a series of CrMoV materials with varying long time ductility tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the details of this new test procedure and some of the relevant mechanics of material information generated during its development

  6. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  7. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...

  8. Efficiency of a variable displacement open circuit floating cup pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vael, G.E.M.; Achten, P.A.J.; Brink, van den T.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Floating Cup Displacement principle is a relatively new axial piston displacement principle for hydrostatic pumps, motors and transformers. Since its origin in 2001, it has been mainly applied in fixed displacement pump prototypes. At the SICFP’05, a design for a variable displacement open

  9. Experimental characterisation of the interfacial structure during counter-current flow limitation in a model of the hot leg of a PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, C., E-mail: c.vallee@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Inst. of Safety Research, Dresden (Germany); Nariai, T.; Futatsugi, T.; Tomiyama, A., E-mail: nariai@cfrg.scitec.kobe-u.ac.jp, E-mail: futatsugi@cfrg.scitec.kobe-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tomiyama@mech.kobe-u.ac.jp [Kobe Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe (Japan); Lucas, D., E-mail: d.lucas@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Inst. of Safety Research, Dresden (Germany); Murase, M., E-mail: murase@inss.co.jp [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System, Inc. (INSS), Fukui (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    In order to investigate the two-phase flow behaviour during counter-current flow limitation in the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor, dedicated experiments were performed in a scaled down model of Kobe University. The structure of the interface was observed from the side of the channel test section using a high-speed video camera. An algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames after background subtraction. The evolution of the water level along the hot leg is analysed in function of the liquid and gas flow rates. (author)

  10. Military boot attenuates axial loading to the lower leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Schlick, Michael; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanical tests to understand injury mechanisms and derive injury tolerance information using Post-Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) have not used foot protection and they have primarily focused on civilian environments such as automotive and athletic- and sports-related events. As military personnel use boots, tests with the boot are required to understand their effect on attenuating lower leg loads. The purpose of this study was therefore, to determine the modulation of human lower leg kinematics with boot compressions and share of the force absorbed by the boot from underbody blast loading. Axial impacts were delivered to the Hybrid III dummy lower leg in the neutral position. The dummy leg was instrumented with its internal upper and lower tibia load cells, and in addition, a knee load cell was attached to the proximal end. Tests were conducted at 4.4 to 8.9 m/s, with and without boots, and repeat tests were done. Morphologies of the force-time responses were similar at the three load cell locations and for all input combinations and booted and unbooted conditions. However, booted tests resulted in considerably lower maximum forces (approximately two-third reduction) than unbooted tests. These results clearly show that boots can absorb a considerable share of the impact energy and decrease impact loads transmitted to the lower leg under vertical loading, thus necessitating the generation of tolerance data using PMHS for this environment.

  11. Can tissue dielectric constant measurement aid in differentiating lymphoedema from lipoedema in women with swollen legs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkballe, Susanne; Jensen, Maj-Britt Raaby; Noerregaard, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distinguishing lymphoedema from lipoedema in women with swollen legs can be difficult. Local tissue water content can be quantified using tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether TDC measurements can differentiate untreated lower extremity...... controls. All subjects were measured at three predefined sites (foot, ankle and lower leg). All groups except U-LP were measured by three blinded investigators. Using a handheld device, a 300-MHz electromagnetic wave is transmitted into the skin via a 2.5-mm depth probe. TDC calculated from the reflected...... wave is directly proportional to tissue water content ranging from 1 (vacuum) to 78.5 (pure water). RESULTS: Mean ± SD TDC values for U-LP were 48.8 ± 5.2. TDC values of T-LP, LipP and controls were 34.0 ± 6.6, 29.5 ± 6.2 and 32.3 ± 5.7, respectively. U-LP had significantly higher TDC values in all...

  12. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cm by 23cm) abdominal dressing pad (ABD) Gauze wraps or Kling roll Plastic bag A basin for water and soap to ... dressing off. Remove the tape. Unwind the outer wrap, or cut off the outer dressing with clean ... Wash your hands again. Use ...

  13. Experimental investigation of stratified two-phase flows in the hot leg of a PWR for CFD validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Tomiyama, Akio [Kobe Univ (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Murase, Michio [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc. (INSS), Fukui (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Stratified 2-phase flows were investigated in 2 different models of the hot leg of a pressurised water reactor (PWR) in order to provide experimental data for the development and validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Therefore, the local flow structure was visualised with a high-speed video camera. Moreover, one test section was designed with a rectangular cross-section to achieve optimal observation conditions. The phenomenon of counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) was investigated, which may affect the reflux condenser cooling mode in some accident scenarios. The experiments were conducted with air and water at room temperature and maximum pressures of 3 bar as well as with steam and saturated water at boundary conditions of up to 50 bar and 264 C. The measured CCFL characteristics were compared with similar experimental data and correlations available in the literature. This shows that the channel height is the characteristic length to be used in the Wallis parameter for channels with rectangular cross-sections. Furthermore, the experimental results confirm that the Wallis similarity is appropriate to scale CCFL in the hot leg of a PWR over a wide range of pressure and temperature conditions. Finally, an image processing algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. Subsequently, the interfacial structure along the hot leg was visualised by the representation of the probability distribution of the water level. (orig.)

  14. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF YELLOW-LEGGED GULL (LARUS CACHINNANS PALLAS, 1811 OF ISLANSDS OF OBITOCHNAYA BAY (NORTH-WEST AZOV SEA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinina U.U.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered territorial connection of Yellow-legged gull in breeding colony on islands Obitochnaya Bay. Analysis of the basic stages of the annual life cycle of Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 with taking into account the seasonal characteristics of each age group of seagulls (young, immature, adult. Based on this data set direction and distance of displacement, among whom were identified intra-continental migrations, domestic migrations within the territory of Ukraine and migrations within the nesting area. Settlement species on islands Obitochnaya Bay characterized by: high degree conservatism of adult Yellow-legged gull a wide range in season after nesting migrations and variance of young birds, the exchange of individuals between neighbouring settlements and the establishment of new colonies at the expense of immature individuals.

  15. Rotational melting in displacive quantum paraelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martonak, R.; Tosatti, E.

    1994-06-01

    Displacive quantum paraelectrics are discussed as possible realizations of rotational quantum melting. The phenomenology of SrTiO 3 and KTaO 3 is discussed in this light. Both old and fresh theoretical work on two-dimensional lattice models for quantum paraelectricity is reviewed. (author). 73 refs, 15 figs

  16. Page | 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    development remain one of the greatest concerns of human beings globally.4. This urbanization which most often result in conflicts, ethnic violence, communal rife and clashes, and incessant tussle for natural and artificial resources, has also contributed to the displacement of persons. * By Obinna MBANUGO, LLM, BL, ...

  17. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  18. Public policy to address displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cossío Díaz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At hearings of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in November 2013 on the human rights situation in Mexico, the issue of the internally displaced in particular caught my attention, both due to its current serious level and for its potential impact in the not too distant future.

  19. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-01-01

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement

  20. Microbial adhesion in flow displacement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC

    Flow displacement systems are superior to many other (static) systems for studying microbial adhesion to surfaces because mass transport and prevailing shear conditions can be adequately controlled and notoriously ill-defined slight rinsing steps to remove so-called "loosely adhering organisms" can

  1. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  2. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publication of this report. The authors declare no competing interests. Discussion. A delay in diagnosis of a lesser tuberosity fracture may lead to significant future clinical disability (2). In one such case the patient presented with axillary nerve neuropraxia while another case reported displacement of the biceps tendon (4).

  3. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped-clamped beams and a folded flexure design is

  4. Fiber-optic couplers as displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Martin C.; Gerdt, David W.; Adkins, Charles M.

    2003-04-01

    We introduce the novel concept of using a fiber-optic coupler as a versatile displacement sensor. Comparatively long fiber-optic couplers, with a coupling region of approximately 10 mm, are manufactured using standard communication SM fiber and placed in a looped-back configuration. The result is a displacement sensor, which is robust and highly sensitive over a wide dynamic range. This displacement sensor resolves 1-2 μm over distances of 1-1.5 mm and is characterized by the essential absence of a 'spring constant' plaguing other strain gauge-type sensors. Consequently, it is possible to couple to extremely weak vibrations, such as the skin displacement affected by arterial heart beat pulsations. Used as a wrist-worn heartbeat monitor, the fidelity of the arterial pulse signal has been shown to be so high that it is possible to not only determine heartbeat and breathing rates, but to implement a new single-point blood pressure measurement scheme which does not squeeze the arm. In an application as a floor vibration sensor for the non-intrusive monitoring of independently living elderly, the sensor has been shown to resolve the distinct vibration spectra of different persons and different events.

  5. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  6. Measuring displacement signal with an accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Bo

    2010-01-01

    An effective and simple way to reconstruct displacement signal from a measured acceleration signal is proposed in this paper. To reconstruct displacement signal by means of double-integrating the time domain acceleration signal, the Nyquist frequency of the digital sampling of the acceleration signal should be much higher than the highest frequency component of the signal. On the other hand, to reconstruct displacement signal by taking the inverse Fourier transform, the magnitude of the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal should be greater than the 6 dB increment line along the frequency axis. With a predetermined resolution in time and frequency domain, determined by the sampling rate to measure and record the original signal, reconstructing high-frequency signals in the time domain and reconstructing low-frequency signals in the frequency domain will produce biased errors. Furthermore, because of the DC components inevitably included in the sampling process, low-frequency components of the signals are overestimated when displacement signals are reconstructed from the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal. The proposed method utilizes curve-fitting around the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal before it is inverse-Fourier transformed. Curve-fitting around the dominant frequency components provides much better results than simply ignoring the insignificant frequency components of the signal

  7. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-08-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  8. [Fractures of the lower leg in professional skiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mückley, T; Kruis, C; Schütz, T; Brucker, P; Bühren, V

    2004-03-01

    Fractures of the lower leg due to skiing accidents remain an important concern. Few studies have focussed on the special demands of professional athletes who sustain these injuries. We present our experience with three cases of lower leg fractures in competitive professional downhill skiers and discuss management and treatment concepts. We performed limited reamed compression nailing in all the patients presented because it offers the advantages of high mechanical stability and optimized fragment apposition. Plate osteosynthesis of the fibula is not required in most typical fractures. All patients resumed ski training. Two of them returned to World Cup. Only one achieved her pre-injury World Cup level of performance and success. In conclusion, a successful return for professional skiers with lower leg fractures is feasible using an optimized treatment strategy.

  9. Why do arms extract less oxygen than legs during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Holmberg, H-C; Rosdahl, H

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether conditions for O2 utilization and O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are different in exercising arms and legs, six cross-country skiers participated in this study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flow and gases were determined during skiing on a treadmill at approximately 76...... exercise (diagonal stride), the corresponding mean values were 93 and 85% (n = 3; P hemoglobin to be 50% saturated (P50: r = 0.93, P ...Hg, respectively. Because conditions for O2 off-loading from the hemoglobin are similar in leg and arm muscles, the observed differences in maximal arm and leg O2 extraction should be attributed to other factors, such as a higher heterogeneity in blood flow distribution, shorter mean transit time, smaller...

  10. Asterixis in the leg induced by anterior cerebral artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Jang, Hyun-Soon; Roh, Sook Young; Yoo, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Choe, Yeo Reum; Lee, Ko-Eun

    2016-06-01

    Asterixis commonly occurs in a patient with metabolic encephalopathy, whereas focal brain lesions such as thalamus, cerebellum, or frontal area also cause focal or unilateral asterixis in the arms. We report a novel case of asterixis in the leg after unilateral anterior cerebral artery territory infarction. A 76-year-old man was admitted with sudden-onset mild right leg weakness and postural instability due to knee buckling. He was diagnosed with ischemic stroke in the left prefrontal area and cingulated gyrus by brain magnetic imaging. Needle electromyography of the right vastus lateralis muscle while standing showed intermittent periods of EMG silence, consistent with asterixis. There were no abnormal involuntary movements in the upper extremities. This case suggests that gait disturbance or postural instability after structural lesions in the prefrontal area may be directly related to asterixis in the leg, not in the arm associated with postural failure.

  11. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  12. HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengang; Zha Meisheng; Zhao Lei; Sun Zhuo

    2005-01-01

    The 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test module reactor (HTR-10GT) with the core made of spherical fuel elements was designed and constructed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University in China. In the HTR-10GT, turbo-compressor and generator rotors are connected by a flexible coupling. The rotors, restricted by actual instruments and working environment, must be supported without any contact and lubrication. Active magnetic bearing (AMB), known as its advantages over the conventional bearings., such as contact-free, no-lubricating and active damping vibration, is the best way to suspend and stabilize the position of rotors of HTR-10GT. Each rotor is suspended by two radial and one axial AMBs. The radial AMB's radial gap is 0.15 mm considering the gap of 0.4 mm between the compressor stator and blades in order to protect the compressor. The control system controls the rotor position to meet the required gaps between rotor and stator through windings current. All the position information concerning radial and axial AMB is generated by sensors for measuring the displacement of the levitated body. Some typical sensors, i.e. eddy current displacement sensor, capacitive displacement sensor, can provide position information, but, quite often, unsatisfactory anti-jamming, which is a key issue for AMB systems near generator and other electric devices in HTR-10GT. Therefore, a kind of new type sensor is designed to measure the radial and axial displacements and the vibration of the rotors. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensors and introduction of the related experiments to demonstrate its performance. (authors)

  13. Vibration transmission characteristics of the legs of freely standing honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrseitz, Kristin; Kilpinen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    as the stimulator. This was also the case in freely standing honeybees, except around 400 Hz, where an average attenuation of approximately 6 dB was observed. In the fixed bee preparation, the vertical movements of the legs were also measured during horizontal stimulation. The vertical vibration amplitude...... of the legs was 15-20 dB lower than the horizontal stimulation amplitude. The electrophysiologically and behaviourally determined thresholds for vibration stimulation increased by approximately 10 dB, when the stimulus direction was changed from vertical to horizontal. These observations support the notion...

  14. Superconductivity in doped two-leg ladder cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Jihong; Yuan Feng; Feng Shiping

    2006-01-01

    Within the t-J ladder model, superconductivity with a modified d-wave symmetry in doped two-leg ladder cuprates is investigated based on the kinetic energy driven superconducting mechanism. It is shown that the spin-liquid ground-state at the half-filling evolves into the superconducting ground-state upon doping. In analogy to the doping dependence of the superconducting transition temperature in the planar cuprate superconductors, the superconducting transition temperature in doped two-leg ladder cuprates increases with increasing doping in the underdoped regime, and reaches a maximum in the optimal doping, then decreases in the overdoped regime

  15. The RiSE climbing robot: body and leg design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A.; Goldman, D. I.; Full, R. J.; Buehler, M.

    2006-05-01

    The RiSE robot is a biologically inspired, six legged climbing robot, designed for general mobility in scansorial (vertical walls, horizontal ledges, ground level) environments. It exhibits ground reaction forces that are similar to animal climbers and does not rely on suction, magnets or other surface-dependent specializations to achieve adhesion and shear force. We describe RiSE's body and leg design as well as its electromechanical, communications and computational infrastructure. We review design iterations that enable RiSE to climb 90° carpeted, cork covered and (a growing range of) stucco surfaces in the quasi-static regime.

  16. Myonecrosis in the leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørring, S; Kolmos, H J; Klareskov, B

    1994-01-01

    Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case of myonecr......Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case...

  17. Aesthetic refinements in reconstructive microsurgery of the lower leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, Christian; Schwabegger, Anton H; Gardetto, Alexander; Schoeller, Thomas; Hussl, Heribert; Ninkovic, Milomir M

    2004-02-01

    Even if a surgical procedure is performed for reconstructive and functional reasons, a plastic surgeon must be responsible for the visible result of the work and for the social reintegration of the patient; therefore, the aesthetic appearance of a microsurgically reconstructed lower leg must be considered. Based on the experience of 124 free-tissue transfers to the lower leg performed in 112 patients between January 1994 and March 2001 (110 [88.7 percent] were transferred successfully), three cases are presented. Considerations concerning flap selection and technical refinements in designing and tailoring microvascular flaps to improve the quality of reconstruction, also according to the aesthetic appearance, are discussed.

  18. Venous leg ulcer management: single use negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Caroline; Grothier, Lorraine; Henderson, Valerie; Leak, Kathy; Milne, Jeanette; Davis, Lynn; Bielby, Alistair; Timmons, John

    2013-06-01

    A number of leg ulcer specialist/tissue viability specialists from across the UK were invited to evaluate PICO (Smith and Nephew, Hull) as a treatment for venous leg ulcers also in conjunction with a variety of compression bandages and garments. Patients across 5 sites had PICO applied in conjunction with compression therapy. This group of treating clinicians were then asked to give feedback on the outcome of the patients on whom they had used the new device. All feedback was recorded at a meeting and this was used to create a guideline for use.

  19. Report of a man with heterotopic ossification of the legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arpa, Mónica; Flores-Terry, Miguel A; Franco-Muñoz, Monserrat; Villasanti-Rivas, Natalia; González-Ruiz, Lucía; Banegas-Illescas, M Eugenia

    2018-05-21

    Heterotopic ossification is an uncommon disorder that consists of deposition of ectopic bone outside the extraskeletal tissues. In the skin, it can be primary, in association with genetic syndromes, or be secondary to different disorders. The latter include subcutaneous ossification of the legs in chronic venousinsufficiency, an infrequent and unrecognized complication. We report the case of a patient with subcutaneous ossification of both legs secondary to venous insufficiency and review the literature. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Reumatologña y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatologña. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of a Single Motor Based Leg Structure with the Consideration of Inherent Mechanical Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha Manzoor, Muhammad; Sohail, Umer; Noor-e-Mustafa; Nizami, Muhammad Hamza Asif; Ayaz, Yasar

    2017-07-01

    The fundamental aspect of designing a legged robot is constructing a leg design that is robust and presents a simple control problem. In this paper, we have successfully designed a robotic leg based on a unique four bar mechanism with only one motor per leg. The leg design parameters used in our platform are extracted from design principles used in biological systems, multiple iterations and previous research findings. These principles guide a robotic leg to have minimal mechanical passive impedance, low leg mass and inertia, a suitable foot trajectory utilizing a practical balance between leg kinematics and robot usage, and the resultant inherent mechanical stability. The designed platform also exhibits the key feature of self-locking. Theoretical tools and software iterations were used to derive these practical features and yield an intuitive sense of the required leg design parameters.

  1. Study on distribution of reservoir endogenous microbe and oil displacement mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to research oil displacement mechanism by indigenous microbial communities under reservoir conditions, indigenous microbial flooding experiments using the endogenous mixed bacterium from Shengli Oilfield were carried out. Through microscopic simulation visual model, observation and analysis of distribution and flow of the remaining oil in the process of water flooding and microbial oil displacement were conducted under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Research has shown that compared with atmospheric conditions, the growth of the microorganism metabolism and attenuation is slowly under high pressure conditions, and the existence of the porous medium for microbial provides good adhesion, also makes its growth cycle extension. The microbial activities can effectively launch all kinds of residual oil, and can together with metabolites, enter the blind holes off which water flooding, polymer flooding and gas flooding can’t sweep, then swap out remaining oil, increase liquidity of the crude oil and remarkably improve oil displacement effect.

  2. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  3. A web-based GPS system for displacement monitoring and failure mechanism analysis of reservoir landslide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyao; Huang, Jinsong; Jiang, Shui-Hua; Huang, Faming; Chang, Zhilu

    2017-12-07

    It is important to monitor the displacement time series and to explore the failure mechanism of reservoir landslide for early warning. Traditionally, it is a challenge to monitor the landslide displacements real-timely and automatically. Globe Position System (GPS) is considered as the best real-time monitoring technology, however, the accuracies of the landslide displacements monitored by GPS are not assessed effectively. A web-based GPS system is developed to monitor the landslide displacements real-timely and automatically in this study. And the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is proposed to assess the accuracy of the GPS monitoring displacements. Wangmiao landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir area in China is used as case study. The results show that the web-based GPS system has advantages of high precision, real-time, remote control and automation for landslide monitoring; the Root Mean Square Errors of the monitoring landslide displacements are less than 5 mm. Meanwhile, the results also show that a rapidly falling reservoir water level can trigger the reactivation of Wangmiao landslide. Heavy rainfall is also an important factor, but not a crucial component.

  4. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  5. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  6. Application of harmonic pulse testing to water-oil displacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.; Verga, F.

    2011-01-01

    Harmonic pulse testing is a well testing technique in which the injection or production rate is varied in a periodic way. The pressure response to the imposed rates, both in the pulser well and in the observer wells, can be analyzed in the frequency domain to evaluate the reservoir properties. The

  7. Differential glucose uptake in quadriceps and other leg muscles during one-legged dynamic submaximal knee-extension exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron...... emission tomography (PET) determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU) during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25 W for 35 min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest...

  8. Static loading and vertical displacement at southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Timofeev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seismic method is usually used for elastic parametric estimation. This is why this method presents dynamic parameters of Earth. Frequency seismic range changes greatly from geodynamic modelling time. Now we have opportunity to use geodesy result for some years for elastic parameters estimation. Static solution from elastic theory may be used for the interpretation of long term results. It presents static elastic parameter. The inverse problem for different types of vertical surface loading on one year period is calculated. Two cases of loading with maximal and minimal area are presented. Results are determined by space geodesy and leveling methods. Current relation between atmospheric pressure and vertical displacements was estimated at the center of Siberian Anti Cyclone with size varied from 2000 km to 3000 km. Pressure-displacement coefficients (PDC can be achieved by three years observation (0.997 mm/mbar for NVSK GPS station. It is used for elastic module study of geology medium with maximum thickness up to 600 km. In the context of elastic model, the modulus of rigidity is estimated to be 113 GPa. Vast expanse of anti-cyclone may relate with rheology of crust and upper mantle. Smaller size of surface loading – local loading is seasonal variation of water reservoir. Annual vertical changes were obtained by leveling near the dam of the reservoir. PDC ratio was 1.15 mm/bar for these places. In elastic theory, the Young modulus E = 80 GPa (Poisson ratio = 0.25, the modulus of rigidity = 32 GPa was calculated by sixteen years of leveling measurements. This result can effectively be represented for upper crust. Our results were checked by solution for coseismic displacement of Chyia-Altai earthquake (Sep. 27, 2003, M = 7.3. Coseismic results calculated by static modules agree with experimental coseismic GPS data at 10% level.

  9. Variability of leg kinematics during overground walking in persons with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Won Joon; Tan, Andrew Q; Hayes, Heather B; Pochiraju, Saahith; Deffeyes, Joan; Trumbower, Randy D

    2018-03-20

    Incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) often leads to partial disruption of spinal pathways that are important for motor control of walking. Persons with iSCI present with deficits in walking ability due, in part, to inconsistent leg kinematics during stepping. While kinematic variability is important for normal walking, growing evidence indicates that excessive variability may limit walking ability and increase reliance on assistive devices (AD) after iSCI. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of iSCI-induced impairments on kinematic variability during overground walking. We hypothesized that iSCI results in greater variability of foot and joint displacement during overground walking compared to controls. We further hypothesized that variability is larger in persons with limited walking speed and greater reliance on ADs. To test these hypotheses, iSCI and control subjects walked overground. Kinematic variability was quantified as step-to-step foot placement variability (endpoint), and variability in hip-knee, hip-ankle, and knee-ankle joint space (angular coefficient of correspondence; ACC). We characterized sensitivity of kinematic variability to cadence, auditory cue, and AD. Supporting our hypothesis, persons with iSCI exhibited greater kinematic variability than controls, which scaled with deficits in overground walking speed (pvariability, and with walking speed, indicates both are markers of walking performance. Moreover, hip-knee and hip-ankle ACC discriminated between AD use, indicating that ACC may capture AD-specific control strategies. We conclude that increased variability of foot and joint displacement are indicative of motor impairment severity and may serve as therapeutic targets to restore walking after iSCI.

  10. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigekazu eKusumoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

  11. Remarks about the displaced spectra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Pineyro, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent paper a new method, called displaced spectra techniques, was presented for distinguishing between sinusoidal components and narrowband random noise contributions in otherwise random noise data. It is based on Fourier transform techniques, and uses the power spectral density (PSD) and a newly-introduced second-order displaced power spectra density (SDPSD) function. In order to distinguish between the two peak types, a validation criterion has been established. In this note, three topics are covered: a) improved numerical data for the validation criterion are given by using the refined estimation procedure of the PSD and SDPSD functions by the Welch method; b) the validation criterion requires the subtraction of the background below the peaks. A semiautomatic procedure is described; c) it was observed that peaks in the real part of the SDPSD function can be accompanied by fine structure phenomena which are unresolved in the PSD function. A few remarks are made about this problem. (author)

  12. OSPAR 30'' displacement; Esvaziamento do OSPAR 30''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Jose Carlos [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Recife, PE (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Crude oil pipeline OSPAR that unites Sao Francisco do Sul-SC to Araucaria-PR, with 30 inches in diameter and extension of 118 km (74 mi) was displaced in May 2004. Nitrogen at high flow rate and a pig were used to remove the crude oil, liberating the line to maintenance. Logistic restrictions prevented that the displacement followed the normal flow direction, so the option was to do the job in the reverse direction. To make viable our operation, a maneuver was performed; which we suppose was never done before in Brazil, at an intermediate pumping station, allowing a pressure reduction at the line end, maintaining it at permissible levels. Despite logistical and operational difficulties, the job was performed with success in 47 hours. (author)

  13. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  14. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... contaminant sources, this entrainment improves the indoor air quality. Measurements of exposure due to a passive contaminant source show a significant dependence on the flow field as well as on the contaminant source location. Poor system performance is found in the case of a passive contaminant released...

  15. Neogene displacements in the Solomon Islands Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, J.

    1987-02-01

    The geology and present configuration of the Solomon Island arc can be explained in terms of the Neogene displacement of a single linear chain of islands. The central part of an original arc consisting of Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Ysabel, Guadalcanal and San Cristobal was displaced to the northeast as a consequence of the attempted subduction of the Woodlark spreading system. Malaita arose on the northeastern side of the arc as a result of interaction between the arc and the Pacific Ocean floor and the volcanic islands of the New Georgia group formed to the southwest in response to the subduction of a spreading ridge, thus giving rise to the present double chain structure of the arc.

  16. Epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of chronic leg ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recovered accounting for 32.61% and 23.91%, respectively. Radiological investigation with plain. X-ray showed evidence of bony involvement in two patients. We managed our patients with wound dressing using. Table 1: Associated medical conditions seen in patients with chronic leg ulcer (n=60). Frequency Percent.

  17. Well-leg compartment syndrome after gynecological laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard-Kjer, Diana H; Boesgaard-Kjer, Daniel; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome in the lower extremities after surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but severe complication requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Several circumstances predispose to this condition as a consequence of increased intra-compartmental pressure, such as posit...

  18. Monocoque structure for the SKITTER three-legged walker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansek, Robert N.; Booth, Andrew J.; Daneman, Steven A.; Dresser, James A.; Haney, Todd G.; Johnson, Gregory R.; Lindzen, Eric C.; Montgomery, Robert C.; Warren, Andrew L.

    1988-01-01

    The SKITTER 2 design is a monocoque version of the proposed lunar three-legged walker. By the definition of monocoque, the body and legs are a shell with no internal ribbing or supports added for absorbing stresses. The purpose of the monocoque is to encase the elements used for power transmission, power supply, and control of the motion. The material for the structure is a vinyl ester resin, Derakane 8084. This material is easily formable and locally obtainable. The body consists of a hexagonally shaped cylinder with truncated hexagonal pyramids on the top and botton. The legs are eight inch diameter cylinders. The legs are comprised of a tibia section and a femur section. The SKITTER 2 is powered by six actuators which provide linear forces that are transformed into rotary torques by a series of chains and sprockets. The joints connect the femur to the body and the tibia to the femur. Surrounding the joints are flexible rubber hoses that fully encase the chains and sprockets. The SKITTER 2 is capable of walking upside down, righting itself after being overturned, and has the ability to perform in many environments. Applications for this walker include lunar transport or drilling, undersea exploration, and operation in severe surroundings such as arctic temperatures or high radiation.

  19. urrent status and assessment of quantitative and qualitative one leg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of only a quantitative assessment. These findings indicate that, when evaluating the one leg balance in children aged 3-6 years, a quantitative and qualitative assessment should be used in combination together to assure a more accurate assessment. (S. African J. for Research in Sport, Physical Ed. and Recreation: 2001 ...

  20. Why Animals Run on Legs, Not on Wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jared

    1983-01-01

    Speculates why animals have not developed wheels in place of inefficient legs. One study cited suggests three reasons why animals are better off without wheels: wheels are efficient only on hard surfaces, limitation of wheeled motion due to vertical obstructions, and the problem of turning in spaces cluttered with obstacles. (JN)

  1. Biomechanical analysis of the single-leg decline squat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, J.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Hof, A. L.

    Background: The single-leg squat on a 25 decline board has been described as a clinical assessment tool and as a rehabilitation exercise for patients with patellar tendinopathy. Several assumptions have been made about its working mechanism on patellar load and patellofemoral forces, but these are

  2. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  3. Traumatic bowing of forearm and lower leg in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, R.; Gripenberg, L.; Bergius, A.-R.

    1978-01-01

    Traumatic bowing of the forearm or lower leg is reported in 31 children. It is a relatively rare condition. Bowing occurs most frequently in combination with fracture of the other bone in the same extremity. In a minority of cases a bowing deformity is a single lesion. Age distribution, degree of deformity, mechanism of origin and therapy are presented and discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Compression therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemond, Joachim; Assenheimer, Bernd; Bültemann, Anke; Gerber, Veronika; Gretener, Silvia; Kohler-von Siebenthal, Elisabeth; Koller, Sonja; Kröger, Knut; Kurz, Peter; Läuchli, Severin; Münter, Christian; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Probst, Sebastian; Protz, Kerstin; Riepe, Gunnar; Strohal, Robert; Traber, Jürg; Partsch, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Wund-D.A.CH. is the umbrella organization of the various wound care societies in German-speaking countries. The present consensus paper on practical aspects pertinent to compression therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers was developed by experts from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. In Europe, venous leg ulcers rank among the most common causes of chronic wounds. Apart from conservative and interventional wound and vein treatment, compression therapy represents the basis of all other therapeutic strategies. To that end, there are currently a wide variety of materials and systems available. While especially short-stretch bandages or multicomponent systems should be used in the initial decongestion phase, ulcer stocking systems are recommended for the subsequent maintenance phase. Another - to date, far less common - alternative are adaptive Velcro bandage systems. Medical compression stockings have proven particularly beneficial in the prevention of ulcer recurrence. The large number of treatment options currently available enables therapists to develop therapeutic concepts geared towards their patients' individual needs and abilities, thus resulting in good acceptance and adherence. Compression therapy plays a crucial role in the treatment of patients with venous leg ulcers. In recent years, a number of different treatment options have become available, their use and application differing among German-speaking countries. The present expert consensus is therefore meant to outline concrete recommendations for routine implementation of compression therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula) KidsHealth / For ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  6. European guidelines on management of restless legs syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Kohnen, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of the first European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) guidelines in 2005 on the management of restless legs syndrome (RLS; also known as Willis-Ekbom disease), there have been major therapeutic advances in the field. Furthermore, the management of RLS is now a pa...

  7. Measuring Clearance Mechanics Based on Dynamic Leg Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Sam; Danino, Barry; Hayek, Shlomo; Carmeli, Eli

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify clearance mechanics during gait. Seventeen children diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy underwent a three-dimensional gait analysis evaluation. Dynamic leg lengths were measured from the hip joint center to the heel, to the ankle joint center and to the forefoot throughout the gait cycle. Significant…

  8. A tracked robot with novel bio-inspired passive "legs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Jing, Xingjian

    2017-01-01

    For track-based robots, an important aspect is the suppression design, which determines the trafficability and comfort of the whole system. The trafficability limits the robot's working capability, and the riding comfort limits the robot's working effectiveness, especially with some sensitive instruments mounted on or operated. To these aims, a track-based robot equipped with a novel passive bio-inspired suspension is designed and studied systematically in this paper. Animal or insects have very special leg or limb structures which are good for motion control and adaptable to different environments. Inspired by this, a new track-based robot is designed with novel "legs" for connecting the loading wheels to the robot body. Each leg is designed with passive structures and can achieve very high loading capacity but low dynamic stiffness such that the robot can move on rough ground similar to a multi-leg animal or insect. Therefore, the trafficability and riding comfort can be significantly improved without losing loading capacity. The new track-based robot can be well applied to various engineering tasks for providing a stable moving platform of high mobility, better trafficability and excellent loading capacity.

  9. Delivery of Compression Therapy for Venous Leg Ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarchi, Kian; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    adequate subbandage pressure when treating patients with venous leg ulcers and the factors that predict the ability to achieve optimal pressure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a cross-sectional study from March 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012, in home care centers in 2 Danish...

  10. Hereditary lymphedema of the leg – A Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinig, Birgit; Lotti, T.; Tchernev, Georgi; Wollina, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Primary of hereditary lymphedema is a rare but progressive disease. It is yet not curable. We present a 48-year-old male patient with hereditary lymphedema of his left leg, that was realised by minor trauma (able twist) when he was seven years old. He had never been treated for lymphedema but

  11. Effects of wearing lower leg compression sleeves on locomotion economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Eduard; Anders, Christoph

    2018-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effect of compression sleeves on muscle activation cost during locomotion. Twenty-two recreationally active men (age: 25 ± 3 years) ran on a treadmill at four different speeds (ordered sequence of 2.8, 3.3, 2.2, and 3.9 m/s). The tests were performed without (control situation, CON) and while wearing specially designed lower leg compression sleeves (SL). Myoelectric activity of five lower leg muscles (tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, lateral and medial head of gastrocnemius, and soleus) was captured using Surface EMG. To assess muscle activation cost, the cumulative muscle activity per distance travelled (CMAPD) of the CON and SL situations was determined. Repeated measures analyses of variance were performed separately for each muscle. The analyses revealed a reduced lower leg muscle activation cost with respect to test situation for SL for all muscles (p  0.18). The respective significant reductions of CMAPD values during SL ranged between 4% and 16% and were largest at 2.8 m/s. The findings presented point towards an improved muscle activation cost while wearing lower leg compression sleeves during locomotion that have potential to postpone muscle fatigue.

  12. A radiographic method for measurement of leg length inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, O; Koivisto, E; Wegelius, C

    1985-01-01

    An accurate and simple radiographic method for the measurement of weight-bearing leg length inequality with a minimum of radiated body area is described. The measurement can be made in a conventional chest X-ray unit without other extra equipment than a gonad shield described here.

  13. Leg 201Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A.; Lecocq, J.

    2004-01-01

    Leg 201 Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have 201 Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg 201 Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of 201 Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest 201 Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: 201 Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  14. How Can I Relieve My Pregnancy Leg Cramps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How Can I Relieve My Pregnancy Leg Cramps? KidsHealth / For Parents / How Can I ...

  15. A young woman with weakness of the legs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previously well 22-year-old woman presented with progressive weakness of her legs and urinary incontinence over 7 days. Clinically she was healthy, with no skin rashes. On neurological examination she had profound bilateral weakness of the lower limbs, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, a positive Babinski sign and a T6 ...

  16. Standard Hip Ventrodorsal Leg Extended View In The Diagnosis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is hereditary developmental condition that involves a lack of conformity between the femoral head and acetabulum. It invariably leads to osteoarthritis. We hereby review the standard hip ventrodorsal leg extended view to be adopted by our Tanzanian veterinarians. Diagnostic radiography is the ...

  17. Presenting Symptoms in Pediatric Restless Legs Syndrome Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Al; Arico, Irene; Silvestri, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis restless legs syndrome (RLS) in children depends on the history told by the child and his parents. The description of symptoms given by the child him or herself is most important. Additional criteria are, among others, the results of polysomnography (PSG). Description of the

  18. Nuclear sizes and the Coulomb Displacement Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werf, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Data on Coulomb Displacement Energies in the mass range A = 40 - 240 are analyzed in the deformed Liquid Drop model and in the independent particle model. Reduced half-widths of Woods-Saxon mean-field potential of the resulting neutron-excess distributions are deduced. It is argued that the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly may be lifted by allowing for a slight binding-energy dependence of the mean-field potential geometry. (author)

  19. Computer simulation of displacement cascades in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1983-06-01

    More than 500 displacement cascades in copper have been generated with the computer simulation code MARLOWE over an energy range pertinent to both fission and fusion neutron spectra. Three-dimensional graphical depictions of selected cascades, as well as quantitative analysis of cascade shapes and sizes and defect densities, illustrate cascade behavior as a function of energy. With increasing energy, the transition from production of single compact damage regions to widely spaced multiple damage regions is clearly demonstrated

  20. Displaced abomasum and ketosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Stengärde, Lena

    2010-01-01

    High producing dairy cows struggle to meet energy demands and handle various transitional changes in late gestation and early lactation. Negative energy balance in early lactation is inevitable and metabolic disorders may follow as a consequence of a deep negative energy balance. This thesis studies associations between blood profiles and body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows, and displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis, and investigates risk factors for the two diseases at the herd le...

  1. Environmentally-induced displacement and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Terminski, Bogumil

    2012-01-01

    We can distinguish two general causes of internal displacement worldwide: 1. the impact of threats to and ensuing decline in the level of human security below that needed for normal existence in the homeland territory, 2. administrative compulsion to leave the current place of residence. Every year, at least tens of millions of people on all continents are forced to leave their places of residence. The predominant cause is the occurrence of natural disasters, creating the most dynamic categor...

  2. Influence of the Perspectives on the Movement of One-Leg Lifting in an Interactive-Visual Virtual Environment: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have confirmed the feasibility of active video games for clinical rehabilitation. To maximize training effectiveness, a personal program is necessary; however, little evidence is available to guide individualized game design for rehabilitation. This study assessed the perspectives and kinematic and temporal parameters of a participant's postural control in an interactive-visual virtual environment.Twenty-four healthy participants performed one-leg standing by leg lifting when a posture frame appeared either in a first- or third-person perspective of a virtual environment. A foot force plate was used to detect the displacement of the center of pressure. A three-way mixed factor design was applied, where the perspective was the between-participant factor, and the leg-lifting times (0.7 and 2.7 seconds and leg-lifting angles (30°and 90° were the within-participant factors. The reaction time, accuracy of the movement, and ability to shift weight were the dependent variables.Regarding the reaction time and accuracy of the movement, there were no significant main effects of the perspective, leg-lifting time, or angle. For the ability to shift weight, however, both the perspective and time exerted significant main effects, F(1,22 = 6.429 and F(1,22 = 13.978, respectively.Participants could shift their weight more effectively in the third-person perspective of the virtual environment. The results can serve as a reference for future designs of interactive-visual virtual environment as applied to rehabilitation.

  3. Reproductive Health Education and Services Needs of Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees following Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Lopez, Guillermo E.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Wilke Corvin, Jaime A.; Allen, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Following the occurrence of natural or man-made disaster, relief worker priorities include providing water, food, shelter, and immunizations for displaced persons. Like these essential initiatives, reproductive health education and services must also be incorporated into recovery efforts. Purpose: This study examined reproductive…

  4. Contactless sub-millimeter displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    Weather effects on foldable domes, as used at the DOT and GREGOR, are investigated, in particular the correlation between the wind field and the stresses caused to both metal framework and tent clothing. Camera systems measure contactless the displacement of several dome points. The stresses follow from the measured deformation pattern. The cameras placed near the dome floor do not disturb telescope operations. In the set-ups of DOT and GREGOR, these cameras are up to 8 meters away from the measured points and must be able to detect displacements of less than 0.1 mm. The cameras have a FireWire (IEEE1394) interface to eliminate the need for frame grabbers. Each camera captures 15 images of 640 × 480 pixels per second. All data is processed on-site in real-time. In order to get the best estimate for the displacement within the constraints of available processing power, all image processing is done in Fourier-space, with all convolution operations being pre-computed once. A sub-pixel estimate of the peak of the correlation function is made. This enables to process the images of four cameras using only one commodity PC with a dual-core processor, and achieve an effective sensitivity of up to 0.01 mm. The deformation measurements are well correlated to the simultaneous wind measurements. The results are of high interest to upscaling the dome design (ELTs and solar telescopes).

  5. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.

  6. Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaverbeke Frederik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1 random spreading (PN, (2 multiple-OCDMA (MO, and (3 PN/OCDMA (PN/O. For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement and improved (with displacement systems, as well as for systems based on quasi-Welch-bound-equality (QWBE sequences, by means of several types of turbo detectors. For each system, the best performing turbo detector is selected in order to compare the performance of these systems. It is found that the improved systems substantially outperform their original counterparts. With uncoded data, (improved PN/O yields the highest acceptable channel load. For coded data, MO allows for the highest acceptable channel load over all considered systems, both for the conventional and the improved systems. In the latter case, channel loads of about 280% are achievable with a low degradation as compared to a single user system.

  7. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  8. A dynamic model of liquid containers (tanks) with legs and probability analysis of response to simulated earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi; Shimosaka, Haruo

    1980-01-01

    This paper is described on the results of analysis of the response of liquid containers (tanks) to earthquakes. Sine wave oscillation was applied experimentally to model tanks with legs. A model with one degree of freedom is good enough for the analysis. To investigate the reason of this fact, the response multiplication factor of tank displacement was analysed. The shapes of the model tanks were rectangular and cylindrical. Analyses were made by a potential theory. The experimental studies show that the characteristics of attenuation of oscillation was non-linear. The model analysis of this non-linear attenuation was also performed. Good agreement between the experimental and the analytical results was recognized. The probability analysis of the response to earthquake with simulated shock waves was performed, using the above mentioned model, and good agreement between the experiment and the analysis was obtained. (Kato, T.)

  9. Mathematical Modelling to Solve Tasks of Profiled Cross of Robot Systems with a Wheel-Legged Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Diakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main trends for development of promising military equipment is to create transport robot systems (TRS.To conduct a theoretical study of the potential properties of TRS mobility was used a software package for invariant simulation of multibody dynamics system "Euler", which allows us to solve problems regarding the "large displacements", typical for TRS.The modelling results of TRS motion dynamics when overcoming the single-stage and two stages, which are higher than the roller diameter of propeller are obtained.Analysis of modelling results of the TRS motion dynamics to overcome obstacles commensurate with its dimensions allows us to conclude that the use of wheel-legged three-roller propulsion can provide the required level of permeability and, as a result, increasing TRS mobility.

  10. Skipping on uneven ground: trailing leg adjustments simplify control and enhance robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Andrada, Emanuel

    2018-01-01

    It is known that humans intentionally choose skipping in special situations, e.g. when descending stairs or when moving in environments with lower gravity than on Earth. Although those situations involve uneven locomotion, the dynamics of human skipping on uneven ground have not yet been addressed. To find the reasons that may motivate this gait, we combined experimental data on humans with numerical simulations on a bipedal spring-loaded inverted pendulum model (BSLIP). To drive the model, the following parameters were estimated from nine subjects skipping across a single drop in ground level: leg lengths at touchdown, leg stiffness of both legs, aperture angle between legs, trailing leg angle at touchdown (leg landing first after flight phase), and trailing leg retraction speed. We found that leg adjustments in humans occur mostly in the trailing leg (low to moderate leg retraction during swing phase, reduced trailing leg stiffness, and flatter trailing leg angle at lowered touchdown). When transferring these leg adjustments to the BSLIP model, the capacity of the model to cope with sudden-drop perturbations increased.

  11. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  12. An MRI volumetric study for leg muscles in congenital clubfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Ernesto; Dragoni, Massimiliano; Antonicoli, Marco; Farsetti, Pasquale; Simonetti, Giovanni; Masala, Salvatore

    2012-10-01

    To investigate both volume and length of the three muscle compartments of the normal and the affected leg in unilateral congenital clubfoot. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (VMRI) of the anterior, lateral and postero-medial muscular compartments of both the normal and the clubfoot leg was obtained in three groups of seven patients each, whose mean age was, respectively, 4.8 months, 11.1 months and 4.7 years. At diagnosis, all the unilateral congenital clubfeet had a Pirani score ranging from 4.5 to 5.5 points, and all of them had been treated according to a strict Ponseti protocol. All the feet had percutaneous lengthening of the Achilles tendon. A mean difference in both volume and length was found between the three muscular compartments of the leg, with the muscles of the clubfoot side being thinner and shorter than those of the normal side. The distal tendon of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus and triceps surae (Achilles tendon) were longer than normal on the clubfoot side. Our study shows that the three muscle compartments of the clubfoot leg are thinner and shorter than normal in the patients of the three groups. The difference in the musculature volume of the postero-medial compartment between the normal and the affected side increased nine-fold from age group 2 to 3, while the difference in length increased by 20 %, thus, showing that the muscles of the postero-medial compartment tend to grow in both thickness and length much less than the muscles of the other leg compartments.

  13. STRUCTURE OF PROMINENCE LEGS: PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Schmieder, B. [Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, F-92195 (France); Ariste, A. López, E-mail: p.levens.1@research.gla.ac.uk [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Toulouse (France)

    2016-02-10

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s{sup −1} in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  14. Restless Legs Syndrome in a Nigerian Elderly Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawale, Michael B.; Ismaila, Isiaka Alani; Mustapha, Adekunle F.; Komolafe, Morenikeji A.; Adedeji, Tewogbade A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is highest in the elderly in Caucasian populations; the prevalence of RLS in elderly Africans is not known. This study aimed at determining the frequency and associations of RLS in a Nigerian elderly population. Methods: The study population comprised of 633 consecutive elderly individuals aged 65–105 years attending the general outpatient clinic of the State Hospital, Ilesa, for minor complaints and routine check-up. The diagnosis of RLS was made using the 2003 minimal criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data, including sleep duration, were also obtained. Results: Restless legs syndrome was found in 3.5% of the study population with a male-female ratio of 2:1. There was no significant age (p = 0.427) or gender (p = 0.178) influence on the prevalence of RLS except in the 75- to 84-year age group where there was significant male preponderance (p = 0.044). A strong independent association between RLS and sleep duration (OR, 3.229; 95% CI, 1.283–8.486; p = 0.013) and past history of head injury (OR, 4.691; 95% CI, 1.750–12.577; p = 0.002) was found. Conclusions: Our finding support previous reports of a possible lower prevalence of RLS in Africans. Restless legs syndrome independently increases the odds of habitual sleep curtailment in elderly individuals. Head injury may be a risk factor for future RLS; this requires further investigation as indirect evidence for a possible link between RLS and traumatic brain injury exists. Citation: Fawale MB, Ismaila IA, Mustapha AF, Komolafe MA, Adedeji TA. Restless legs syndrome in a Nigerian elderly population. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):965–972. PMID:27070251

  15. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumel, Stephanie E-mail: stephanie.jumel@edf.fr; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean E-mail: jean-claude.van-duysen@edf.fr

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  17. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumel, Stephanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-01-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  18. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300–800 ms by compressing their body 40–60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s−1, despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion—“body-friction legged crawling” with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces. PMID:26858443

  19. The Effect of Additional Mooring Chains on the Motion Performance of a Floating Wind Turbine with a Tension Leg Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Ou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two types of floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT systems were proposed: a traditional tension leg platform (TLP type and a new TLP type with additional mooring chains. They were both based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model. Taking the coupled effect of dynamic response of the top wind turbine, tower support structure and lower mooring system into consideration, not only were the 1/60 scale model tests for the two floating wind turbine systems done in HIT’s wind-wave tunnel according to the typical design conditions in IEC61400-3 code, but also the numerical simulations corresponding to the scaled model tests were performed by advanced numerical tools. As a result, the numerical results displayed good agreement with the test data. Moreover, the additional mooring chains could play an active role in reducing the surge displacement, surge acceleration and typical tension leg force responses of the FOWT system, which is very beneficial for ensuring the good operational performance and the safety of the FOWT system.

  20. Supporting adherence and healthy lifestyles in leg ulcer patients: systematic development of the Lively Legs program for dermatology outpatient clinics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Bartholomew, L.K.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Achterberg, T. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of our project was to develop a lifestyle program for leg ulcer patients at outpatient clinics for dermatology. METHODS: We used the intervention-mapping (IM) framework for systematically developing theory and evidence based health promotion programs. We started with a

  1. Lower-limb kinematics of single-leg squat performance in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Sean A; Watson, Steven L; Carty, Christopher P; Sartori, Massimo; Weeks, Benjamin K

    2014-01-01

    To determine the kinematic parameters that characterize good and poor single-leg squat (SLS) performance. A total of 22 healthy young adults free from musculoskeletal impairment were recruited for testing. For each SLS, both two-dimensional video and three-dimensional motion analysis data were collected. Pelvis, hip, and knee angles were calculated using a reliable and validated lower-limb (LL) biomechanical model. Two-dimensional video clips of SLSs were blindly assessed in random order by eight musculoskeletal physiotherapists using a 10-point ordinal scale. To facilitate between-group comparisons, SLS performances were stratified by tertiles corresponding to poor, intermediate, and good SLS performance. Mean ratings of SLS performance assessed by physiotherapists were 8.3 (SD 0.5), 6.8 (SD 0.7), and 4.0 (SD 0.8) for good, intermediate, and poor squats, respectively. Three-dimensional analysis revealed that people whose SLS performance was assessed as poor exhibited increased hip adduction, reduced knee flexion, and increased medio-lateral displacement of the knee joint centre compared to those whose SLS performance was assessed as good (p≤0.05). Overall, poor SLS performance is characterized by inadequate knee flexion and excessive frontal plane motion of the knee and hip. Future investigations of SLS performance should consider standardizing knee flexion angle to illuminate other influential kinematic parameters.

  2. Body shape helps legged robots climb and turn in complex 3-D terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuanfeng; Wang, Zheliang; Li, Chen

    Analogous to streamlined shapes that reduce drag in fluids, insects' ellipsoid-like rounded body shapes were recently discovered to be ``terradynamically streamlined'' and enhance locomotion in cluttered terrain by facilitating body rolling. Here, we hypothesize that there exist more terradynamic shapes that facilitate other modes of locomotion like climbing and turning in complex 3-D terrains by facilitating body pitching and yawing. To test our hypothesis, we modified the body shape of a legged robot by adding an elliptical and a rectangular shell and tested how it negotiated with circular and square vertical pillars. With a rectangular shell the robot always pitched against square pillars in an attempt to climb, whereas with an elliptical shell it always yawed and turned away from circular pillars given a small initial lateral displacement. Square / circular pillars facilitated pitching / yawing, respectively. To begin to reveal the contact physics, we developed a locomotion energy landscape model. Our model revealed that potential energy barriers to transition from pitching to yawing are high for angular locomotor and obstacle shapes (rectangular / square) but vanish for rounded shapes (elliptical / circular). Our study supports the plausibility of locomotion energy landscapes for understanding the rich locomotor transitions in complex 3-D terrains.

  3. Bio-Inspired Design and Kinematic Analysis of Dung Beetle-Like Legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aditya, Sai Krishna Venkata; Ignasov, Jevgeni; Filonenko, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    The African dung beetle Scarabaeus galenus can use its front legs to walk and manipulate or form a dung ball. The interesting multifunctional legs have not been fully investigated or even used as inspiration for robot leg design. Thus, in this paper, we present the development of real dung beetle......-like front legs based on biological investigation. As a result, each leg consists of three main segments which were built using 3D printing. The segments were combined with in total four active DOFs in order to mimic locomotion and object manipulation of the beetle. Kinematics analysis of the leg was also...... performed to identify its workspace as well as to design its trajectory. To this end, the study contributes not only novel multifunctional robotic legs but also the methodology of the bio-inspired leg design....

  4. The role of arterial vascularity in pathogenesis of infected pseudoarthrosis of the lower leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, K.

    1993-01-01

    A series of 250 femoral arteriographies performed in patients with leg pseudoarthrosis served to asses condition of arteries of the extremity. It was found that vascular injuries contribute significantly to pathogenesis of union disorders in lower leg fractures. (author)

  5. Embodiment of Legged Robots Emerged in Evolutionary Design: Pseudo Passive Dynamic Walkers

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Kojiro; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    An objective of this paper is to illustrate a physical representation of the embodiment on legged locomotion. Embodiment is here defined as physical features that reduce control complexity and energy consumption of legged robots. In this method, the embodiment of

  6. 78 FR 68909 - Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Crystal Rennie, Enterprise Records... Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Knee and Lower Leg...

  7. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  8. Displacement laser interferometry with sub-nanometer uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosijns, S.J.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Development in industry is asking for improved resolution and higher accuracy in mechanical measurement. Together with miniaturization the demand for sub nanometer uncertainty on dimensional metrology is increasing rapidly. Displacement laser interferometers are used widely as precision displacement

  9. Dissolved oxygen detection by galvanic displacement-induced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dissolved oxygen detection by galvanic displacement-induced graphene/silver nanocomposite ... dissolved oxygen (DO) detection based on a galvanic displacement synthesized reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticles ... Current Issue

  10. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices.......Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  11. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Broadwater, D.?W.?Bo; Kim, Harold?D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied si...

  12. Endothermic decompositions of inorganic monocrystalline thin plates. II. Displacement rate modulation of the reaction front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Comperat, M.; Lallemant, M.

    1980-09-01

    Copper sulfate pentahydrate dehydration into trihydrate was investigated using monocrystalline platelets with (110) crystallographic orientation. Temperature and pressure conditions were selected so as to obtain elliptical trihydrate domains. The study deals with the evolution, vs time, of elliptical domain dimensions and the evolution, vs water vapor pressure, of the {D}/{d} ratio of ellipse axes and on the other hand of the interface displacement rate along a given direction. The phenomena observed are not basically different from those yielded by the overall kinetic study of the solid sample. Their magnitude, however, is modulated depending on displacement direction. The results are analyzed within the scope of our study of endothermic decomposition of solids.

  13. Using NJOY99 and MCNP4B2 to Estimate the Radiation Damage Displacements per Atom per Second in Steel Within the Boiling Water Reactor Core Shroud and Vessel Wall from Reactor-Grade Mixed-Oxide/Uranium Oxide Fuel for the Nuclear Power Plant at Laguna Verde, Veracruz, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickers, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    The government of Mexico has expressed interest in utilizing the Laguna Verde boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant for the disposition of reprocessed spent uranium oxide (UOX) fuel in the form of reactor-grade mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel. MOX fuel would replace spent UOX fuel as a fraction in the core from 18 to 30% depending on the fuel loading cycle. MOX fuel is expected to increase the neutron fluence, flux, fuel centerline temperature, reactor core pressure, and yield higher energy neutrons.There is concern that a core with a fraction of MOX fuel (i.e., increased 239 Pu wt%) would increase the radiation damage displacements per atom per second (dpa-s -1 ) in steel within the core shroud and vessel wall as compared to only conventional, enriched UOX fuel in the core. The evaluation of radiation damage within the core shroud and vessel wall is a concern because of the potentially adverse affect to personnel and public safety, environment, and operating life of the reactor.The primary uniqueness of this paper is the computation of radiation damage (dpa-s -1 ) using NJOY99-processed cross sections for steel within the core shroud and vessel wall. Specifically, the unique radiation damage results are several orders of magnitude greater than results of previous works. In addition, the conclusion of this paper was that the addition of the maximum fraction of one-third MOX fuel to the LV1 BWR core did significantly increase the radiation damage in steel within the core shroud and vessel wall such that without mitigation of radiation damage by periodic thermal annealing or reduction in operating parameters such as neutron fluence, core temperature, and pressure, it posed a potentially adverse affect to the personnel and public safety, environment, and operating life of the reactor

  14. Fiber Optic Displacement Sensor for Measuring Cholesterol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Budiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple design of a cholesterol concentration detection is proposed and demonstrated using a fiber optic displacement sensor based on an intensity modulation technique. The proposed sensor uses a bundled plastic optical fiber (POF as a probe in conjunction with a flat mirror as a target. It is obtained that the peak voltage reduces with increasing cholesterol concentration. The sensor is capable of measuring the cholesterol concentration ranging from 0 to 300 ppm in a distilled water with a measured sensitivity of 0.01 mV/ppm, a linearity of more than 99.62 % and a resolution of 3.9188 ppm. The proposed sensor also shows a high degree of stability and good repeatability. The simplicity of design, accuracy, flexible dynamic range, and the low cost of fabrication are favorable attributes of the sensor and beneficial for real- field applications. Fiber optic sensors

  15. Optimization of chemical displacement deposition of copper on porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandarenka, Hanna; Redko, Sergey; Nenzi, Paolo; Balucani, Marco; Bondarenko, Vitaly

    2012-11-01

    Copper (II) sulfate was used as a source of copper to achieve uniform distribution of Cu particles deposited on porous silicon. Layers of the porous silicon were formed by electrochemical anodization of Si wafers in a mixture of HF, C3H7OH and deionized water. The well-known chemical displacement technique was modified to grow the copper particles of specific sizes. SEM and XRD analysis revealed that the outer surface of the porous silicon was covered with copper particles of the crystal orientation inherited from the planes of porous silicon skeleton. The copper crystals were found to have the cubic face centering elementary cell. In addition, the traces of Cu2O cubic primitive crystalline phases were identified. The dimensions of Cu particles were determined by the Feret's analysis of the SEM images. The sizes of the particles varied widely from a few to hundreds of nanometers. A phenomenological model of copper deposition was proposed.

  16. Stability of Miscible Displacements Across Stratified Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariati, Maryam; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-09-11

    This report studied macro-scale heterogeneity effects. Reflecting on their importance, current simulation practices of flow and displacement in porous media were invariably based on heterogeneous permeability fields. Here, it was focused on a specific aspect of such problems, namely the stability of miscible displacements in stratified porous media, where the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of stratification.

  17. Peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rull James; Lin, Darius; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Ellington, J Kent; Strasser, Nicholas; Kwon, John Y

    2014-02-19

    Peroneal tendon displacement (subluxation or dislocation) accompanying an intra-articular calcaneal fracture is often undetected and under-treated. The goals of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures, (2) the association of tendon displacement with fracture classifications, (3) the association of tendon displacement with heel width, and (4) the rate of missed diagnosis of the tendon displacement on radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans and the resulting treatment rate. A retrospective radiographic review of all calcaneal fractures presenting at three institutions from June 30, 2006, to June 30, 2011, was performed. CT imaging of 421 intra-articular calcaneal fractures involving the posterior facet was available for review. The prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement was noted and its associations with fracture classification and heel width were evaluated. Peroneal tendon displacement was identified in 118 (28.0%) of the 421 calcaneal fracture cases. The presence of tendon displacement was significantly associated with joint-depression fractures compared with tongue-type fractures (p displacement had been identified in the radiology reports. Although sixty-five (55.1%) of the fractures with tendon displacement had been treated with internal fixation, the tendon displacement was treated surgically in only seven (10.8%) of these cases. Analysis of CT images showed a 28% prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Surgeons and radiologists are encouraged to consider this association.

  18. 5 CFR 330.706 - Notification of displaced employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of displaced employees. 330... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.706 Notification of displaced employees. (a) In addition to meeting the requirements of...

  19. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  20. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  1. Postprandial triacylglycerol uptake in the legs is increased during exercise and post-exercise recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2005-01-01

    plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake and clearance in the exercising legs immediately and for at least 4 h post-exercise, while food intake per se did not change leg plasma TAG uptake or clearance for up to 6 h. It is hypothesized that the effect of exercise on leg plasma TAG metabolism is a result...

  2. Displaced and non-displaced Colombian children's evaluations of moral transgressions, retaliation, and reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Killen, Melanie; Brenick, Alaina

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of displacement and exposure to violence on children's moral reasoning, Colombian children exposed to minimal violence (non-displaced or low-risk) (N = 99) and to extreme violence (displaced or high-risk) (N = 94), evenly divided by gender, at 6-, 9-, and 12 - years of age, were interviewed regarding their evaluation of peer-oriented moral transgressions (hitting and not sharing toys). The vast majority of children evaluated moral transgressions as wrong. Group and age differences were revealed, however, regarding provocation and retaliation. Children who were exposed to violence, in contrast to those with minimum exposure, judged it more legitimate to inflict harm or deny resources when provoked and judged it more okay to retaliate for reasons of retribution. Surprisingly, and somewhat hopefully, all children viewed reconciliation as feasible. The results are informative regarding theories of morality, culture, and the effects of violence on children's social development. PMID:25722543

  3. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Ji-Han; Yan, Feifei; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Brad Kim, Yuan H

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg during display storage. Two hundred and forty, 1-day-old male chicks (5 birds per pen) were subjected to four treatments in a 2 (thermoneutral condition at 21 °C and cyclic heat stress at 32-21-32 °C for 10 h day -1 ) × 2 (regular diet with 0 or 0.25 g kg -1 Bacillus subtilis) factorial design. Chickens were harvested at day 46, and pairs of whole legs were collected at 1 day postmortem. The chicken legs were deboned, ground, tray-packaged with oxygen-permeable film, and displayed for 3 days. Heat stress and probiotic supplementation had no impact on pH, water-holding capacity, color, protein functionality, lipid lipolysis and lipid/protein oxidation stability (P > 0.05). Display storage increased the pH and lipid oxidation of ground chicken legs (P chicken leg meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  5. Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinante, A.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100 μT, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2 K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

  6. Traumatic displacement of stomach - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Joshima; Tarvadi, Pratik Vijay; Manipady, Shahnavaz; Shetty, Mahabalesh; Somashekar, C

    2014-01-01

    These days we have fast paced traffic on our roads to help us keep up with our fast paced life. But every boon has a down side and our high velocity traffic is no exception. Here is a case report of a blunt abdominal injury following a road traffic accident. Externally the deceased had only a few grazed abrasions on the forehead and right forearm. But on internal examination of abdomen, it was noticed that the left hemi-diaphragm was torn and the stomach and intestines were found displaced into the left thoracic cavity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Reactive Balance Control in Response to Perturbation in Unilateral Stance: Interaction Effects of Direction, Displacement and Velocity on Compensatory Neuromuscular and Kinematic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyler, Kathrin; Gollhofer, Albert; Colin, Ralf; Brüderlin, Uli; Ritzmann, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Unexpected sudden perturbations challenge postural equilibrium and require reactive compensation. This study aimed to assess interaction effects of the direction, displacement and velocity of perturbations on electromyographic (EMG) activity, centre of pressure (COP) displacement and joint kinematics to detect neuromuscular characteristics (phasic and segmental) and kinematic strategies of compensatory reactions in an unilateral balance paradigm. In 20 subjects, COP displacement and velocity, ankle, knee and hip joint excursions and EMG during short (SLR), medium (MLR) and long latency response (LLR) of four shank and five thigh muscles were analysed during random surface translations varying in direction (anterior-posterior (sagittal plane), medial-lateral (frontal plane)), displacement (2 vs. 3cm) and velocity (0.11 vs. 0.18m/s) of perturbation when balancing on one leg on a movable platform. Phases: SLR and MLR were scaled to increased velocity (Pjoints compensated for both increasing displacement and velocity in all directions (Pjoint deflections were particularly sensitive to increasing displacement in the sagittal (Pjoint deflections to increasing velocity in the frontal plane (P<0.05). COP measures increased with increasing perturbation velocity and displacement (P<0.05). Interaction effects indicate that compensatory responses are based on complex processes, including different postural strategies characterised by phasic and segmental specifications, precisely adjusted to the type of balance disturbance. To regain balance after surface translation, muscles of the distal segment govern the quick regain of equilibrium; the muscles of the proximal limb serve as delayed stabilisers after a balance disturbance. Further, a kinematic distinction regarding the compensation for balance disturbance indicated different plane- and segment-specific sensitivities with respect to the determinants displacement and velocity. PMID:26678061

  8. Elastic stockings effect on leg volume variability in healthy workers under prolonged gravitational gradient exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Tessari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the elastic stockings effect on healthy workers (HW who are exposed to a prolonged hydrostatic pressure overload for professional reasons. The cohort was composed by 20 HW who voluntarily underwent a water plethysmography test before and after eight hour of standing up in an operating room, wearing elastic stockings. After 8 h of gravity exposure, we demonstrated the absence of leg volume increase in case of elastic stockings use. In the morning measurement we found that the lower limb volume was 1967.5 mL±224, while in the evening it was 1962.5 mL±227 (P<0.0828. The decreased volume is significantly correlated with the time that was spent under gravity forces for working purpose wearing elastic stockings (R2=0.99, P<0.0001. Our experiment demonstrates that elastic stockings may effectively counteract the increased leg volume over time in workers who are exposed to prolonged gravitational gradient. Further longitudinal studies are needed to determine if the above effect could correct one of the major risk factors for the development of chronic venous insufficiency.

  9. Apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor by vertical displacement of a unit absorbing neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiart, A.; Defaucheux, J.; Martin, J.; Pasqualini, G.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for controlling a nuclear reactor by vertical displacement of a unit absorbing neutrons, comprising, inside a sealed enclosure in communication with the interior of the reactor, a movable magnetic piece connected to a control shaft which is itself connected to the absorbent unit. This magnetic piece has at least two radial projections. The magnetic piece is displaced by an inductor with at least two pole shoes corresponding to the projections on the magnetic piece and allowing magnetic coupling between the inductor and the magnetic piece. The inductor and its displacement device are disposed outside the sealed enclosure. A control means allows the control shaft to be uncoupled from a member assuring its suspension so as to drop the absorbent unit in the event of emergency shutdown. The apparatus is particularly applicable to control rods of pressurized water nuclear reactors

  10. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pham, Kiemanh; Glass, Nancy; Loochkartt, Saskia; Kidane, Teemar; Cuspoca, Decssy; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Singh, Sonal; Vu, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on confidential approaches and active

  11. VDLLA: A virtual daddy-long legs optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakub, Abdul Razak; Ghathwan, Khalil I.

    2016-08-01

    Swarm intelligence is a strong optimization algorithm based on a biological behavior of insects or animals. The success of any optimization algorithm is depending on the balance between exploration and exploitation. In this paper, we present a new swarm intelligence algorithm, which is based on daddy long legs spider (VDLLA) as a new optimization algorithm with virtual behavior. In VDLLA, each agent (spider) has nine positions which represent the legs of spider and each position represent one solution. The proposed VDLLA is tested on four standard functions using average fitness, Medium fitness and standard deviation. The results of proposed VDLLA have been compared against Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE) and Bat Inspired Algorithm (BA). Additionally, the T-Test has been conducted to show the significant deference between our proposed and other algorithms. VDLLA showed very promising results on benchmark test functions for unconstrained optimization problems and also significantly improved the original swarm algorithms.

  12. Malignant Transformation of Nodular Hidradenoma in the Lower Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan Ngo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nodular hidradenoma (NH is a benign adnexal tumor that arises from either eccrine or apocrine sweat glands. NH can originate from any cutaneous site, but the most common sites are the head and anterior surface of the trunk, with very rare cases in the extremities. Long-standing NH has been reported to undergo malignant transformation to malignant NH (MNH; however, its occurrence in the lower leg is extremely rare with only one other case reported to date. In this report, we present a rare case of MNH occurring in the lower leg which was resected with the intent to make a diagnosis. At the final follow-up after 11 months, no local recurrence or metastasis has been observed.

  13. A Case of Nonhealing Leg Ulcer: Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our outpatient clinic with a three-year history of a painless, nonhealing ulcer located on the left lower leg. She had no response to previous therapy with local wound care. Skin examination revealed an ulcer 2.7 x 3.7 cm in size, and the surrounding skin showed minimal erythema. The surface of the ulcer demonstrated shiny granulation tissue. Biopsy of the ulcer edge and base showed basal cell carcinoma. Venous Doppler ultrasonography and dermatological examination did not reveal chronic venous insufficiency. Basal cell carcinomas rarely arise from previous long-term ulcers or developing de novo. We suggest that patients who develop non-healing leg ulcers, should be examined for basal cell carcinoma.

  14. A Novel Perforator Flap Training Model Using a Chicken Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Ignacio J; Yañez, Ricardo A; Salisbury, Maria C; Rodriguez, José R; Varas, Julian E; Dagnino, Bruno L

    2016-04-01

    Living animal models are frequently used for perforator flap dissection training, but no ex vivo models have been described. The aim of this study is to present a novel nonliving model for perforator flap training based on a constant perforator in the chicken leg. A total of 15 chicken legs were used in this study. Anatomical dissection of the perforator was performed after its identification using ink injection, and in four of these specimens a perforator-based flap was raised. The anatomical dissection revealed a constant intramuscular perforator with a median length of 5.7 cm. Median proximal and distal vessel diameters were 0.93 and 0.4 mm, respectively. The median dissection time was 77.5 minutes. This study introduces a novel, affordable, and reproducible model for the intramuscular dissection of a perforator-based flap using an ex vivo animal model. Its consistent perforator and appropriate-sized vessels make it useful for training.

  15. Quality of life of elderly patients with leg ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cardoso Tavares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To identify compromised domains of the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36 for elderly individuals with leg ulcers and correlate their clinical and sociodemographic variables with the SF-36's components. Method: Exploratory and cross-sectional study conducted with 50 elderly individuals with leg ulcers. The instruments were the sociodemographic and clinical form and the SF-36. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyze data. Results: Most were married, retired, and received one times the minimum wage, were Caucasians or of mixed race, and had hypertension. In regard to the SF-36, the most compromised domain was physical limitations, while social aspects and general health status were the less compromised domains. The SF-36 domains were not correlated with age, income, duration or size of the lesion or pain. Conclusion: The ulcer-related biopsychosocial aspects need to be considered in order to devise more effective nursing interventions.

  16. Loss of Coolant Accident Simulation for the Top-Slot break at Cold Leg Focusing on the Loop Seal Reformation under Long Term Cooling with the ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Rok; Park, Yu Sun; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Choi, Nam Hyun; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Choi, Ki Yong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the present paper, loss of coolant accident for the top-slot break at cold leg was simulated with the ATLAS, which is a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility for evolutionary pressurized water reactors (PWRs) of an advanced power reactor of 1400 MWe (APR1400). The simulation was focused on the loop seal reformation under long term cooling condition. During a certain class of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a PWR like an advanced power reactor of 1400 MWe (APR1400), the steam volume in the reactor vessel upper plenum and/or upper head may continue expanding until steam blows liquid out of the intermediate leg (U-shaped pump suction cold leg), called loop seal clearing (LSC), opening a path for the steam to be relieved from the break. Prediction of the LSC phenomena is difficult because they are varies for many parameters, which are break location, type, size, etc. This LSC is the major factor that affects the coolant inventory in the small break LOCA (SBLOCA) or intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA). There is an issue about the loop seal reformation that liquid refills intermediate leg and blocks the steam path after LSC. During the SBLOCA or IBLOCA, the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is operated. For long term of the top slot small or intermediate break at cold leg, the primary steam condensation by SG heat transfer or SIP, SIT water flooding (reverse flow to loop seal) make loop seal reformation possibly. The primary pressure increase at the top core region due to the steam release blockage by loop seal reformation. And then core level decreases and partial core uncover may occur. The loss of coolant accident for the top-slot break at cold leg was simulated with the ATLAS. The loop seal clearing and loop seal reformation were occurred repeatedly.

  17. Experimental and simulated displacement of oil in sand berea cores using aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Hernandez, F.; Hernandez, H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a mathematical algorithm to simulate the displacement of a resident fluid using a displacing one in a saturated anisotropic porous media is shown in this work. The algorithm was included in the simulator developed by the present authors in previous works to represent the anisotropic distribution of the porous media properties and the fluid injection [Ramirez A et al. Mathematical simulation of oil reservoir properties. Chaos, solitons and Fractals 2008;38:778-88, Ramirez A et al. Simulation of uncompressible fluid flow through a porous media. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2009;39:1753-63] in a nested loop to analyze the participant nodes in the transport process and calculate the volumes of the resident and new fluids. The new routine developed takes in count the mobility of both fluids. Additionally experimental fluid displacement tests were done using heavy oil from Mexican reservoirs as a resident fluid in sand berea cores. The injection of new fluids in natural oil reservoirs is a part of the Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods used to improve the oil displacement and increase production after the primary stage of the oil recovery has been finished. Water is an available and economical resource to be used as a displacing fluid due to many of the producers (off-shores) of the oil industries are placed in the sea near the coast.

  18. Double displacement: An improved bioorthogonal reaction strategy for templated nucleic acid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbaum, Daniel J; Miller, Gregory P; Kool, Eric T

    2010-06-16

    Quenched autoligation probes have been employed previously in a target-templated nonenzymatic ligation strategy for detecting nucleic acids in cells by fluorescence. A common source of background signal in such probes is the undesired reaction with water and other cellular nucleophiles. Here, we describe a new class of self-ligating probes, double displacement (DD) probes, that rely on two displacement reactions to fully unquench a nearby fluorophore. Three potential double displacement architectures, all possessing two fluorescence quencher/leaving groups (dabsylate groups), were synthesized and evaluated for templated reaction with nucleophile (phosphorothioate) probes both in vitro and in intact bacterial cells. All three DD probe designs provided substantially better initial quenching than a single-Dabsyl control. In isothermal templated reactions in vitro, double displacement probes yielded considerably lower background signal than previous single displacement probes; investigation into the mechanism revealed that one dabsylate acts as a sacrificial leaving group, reacting nonspecifically with water, but yielding little signal because another quencher group remains. Templated reaction with the specific nucleophile probe is required to activate a signal. The double displacement probes provided a ca. 80-fold turn-on signal and yielded a 2-4-fold improvement in signal/background over single Dabsyl probes. The best-performing probe architecture was demonstrated in a two-color, FRET-based two-allele discrimination system in vitro and was shown to be capable of discriminating between two closely related species of bacteria differing by a single nucleotide at an rRNA target site.

  19. Ambler: Performance of a six-legged planetary rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, E. P.; Simmons, R. G.; Whittaker, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we quantify several performance metrics for the Ambler, a six-legged robot configured for autonomous traversal of Mars-like terrain. We present power consumption measures for walking on sandy terrain and for vertical lifts at different velocities. We document the performance of a novel dead-reckoning approach, and analyze its accuracy. We describe the results of autonomous walking experiments in terms of terrain traversed, walking speed and endurance.

  20. Ambler - Performance of a six-legged planetary rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, E. P.; Simmons, R. G.; Whittaker, W. L.

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, several performance metrics are quantified for the Ambler, a six-legged robot configured for autonomous traversal of Mars-like terrain. Power consumption measures are presented for walking on sandy terrain and for vertical lifts at different velocities. The performance of a novel dead reckoning approach is documented, and its accuracy is analyzed. The results of autonomous walking experiments are described in terms of terrain traversed, walking speed, and endurance.