WorldWideScience

Sample records for water development supply

  1. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available , Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2006 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES, WATER SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION Operational safety of urine diversion toilets in Durban, South Africa L M Austin, South Africa There are approximately 50 000...

  2. Developing portfolios of water supply transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, Gregory W.; Kirsch, Brian R.; Ramsey, Jocelyn; Dillard, Karen E. M.; Kelley, C. T.

    2006-05-01

    Most cities rely on firm water supply capacity to meet demand, but increasing scarcity and supply costs are encouraging greater use of temporary transfers (e.g., spot leases, options). This raises questions regarding how best to coordinate the use of these transfers in meeting cost and reliability objectives. This paper combines a hydrologic-water market simulation with an optimization approach to identify portfolios of permanent rights, options, and leases that minimize the expected costs of meeting a city's annual demand with a specified reliability. Spot market prices are linked to hydrologic conditions and described by monthly lease price distributions which are used to price options via a risk-neutral approach. Monthly choices regarding when and how much water to acquire through temporary transfers are made on the basis of anticipatory decision rules related to the ratio of expected supply to expected demand. The simulation is linked with an algorithm that uses an implicit filtering search method designed for solution surfaces that exhibit high-frequency, low-amplitude noise. This simulation-optimization approach is applied to a region that currently supports an active water market, with results suggesting that temporary transfers can reduce expected water supply costs substantially, while still maintaining high reliability. Also evaluated are trade-offs between expected costs and cost variability that occur with variation in a portfolio's distribution of rights, options, and leases.

  3. Developing the Water Supply System for Travel to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Fisher, John W.; Delzeit, Lance D.; Flynn, Michael T.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    What water supply method should be used on a trip to Mars? Two alternate approaches are using fuel cell and stored water, as was done for short missions such as Apollo and the Space Shuttle, or recycling most of the water, as on long missions including the International Space Station (ISS). Stored water is inexpensive for brief missions but its launch mass and cost become very large for long missions. Recycling systems have much lower total mass and cost for long missions, but they have high development cost and are more expensive to operate than storage. A Mars transit mission would have an intermediate duration of about 450 days out and back. Since Mars transit is about ten times longer than a brief mission but probably less than one-tenth as long as ISS, it is not clear if stored or recycled water would be best. Recycling system design is complicated because water is used for different purposes, drinking, food preparation, washing, and flushing the urinal, and because wastewater has different forms, humidity condensate, dirty wash water, and urine and flush water. The uses have different requirements and the wastewater resources have different contaminants and processing requirements. The most cost-effective water supply system may recycle some wastewater sources and also provide safety reserve water from storage. Different water supply technologies are compared using mass, cost, reliability, and other factors.

  4. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    because of demographic pressure, climate change and economic transformation. Two new policy ... and for direct in situ water supply, be best channelled to maximise the benefits whilst minimising the risks? ... Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, groundwater development, groundwater management, groundwater governance.

  5. Effect of type of water supply on water quality in a developing community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to provide water to developing communities in South Africa have resulted in various types of water supplies being used. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used. Source (communal...

  6. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is the scope for promoting much increased groundwater use for irrigated agriculture, and how might the investment risks be reduced and sustainable outcomes ensured? • How can the demand to expand urban groundwater use, for both further supplementing municipal water-supply systems and for direct in situ water ...

  7. Development of specific water quality index for water supply in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Prakirake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the specific water quality index for assessing water quality in terms of water supply (WSI usage has been developed by using Delphi technique and its application in Thai rivers is proposed. The thirteen parameters including turbidity, DO, pH, NO3-N, TDS, FCB, Fe, color, BOD, Mn, NH3-N, hardness, and total PO4-P are employed for the estimation of water quality. The sub-index transformation curves are established for each variable to assess the variation in water quality level. An appropriate function to aggregate overall sub-indices was weighted Solway function that provided reasonableresults for reducing ambiguous and eclipsing effects for high and slightly polluted samples. The developed WSI couldbe applied to measure water quality into 5 levels - very good (85-100; good (80-<85; average (65-<80; poor (40-<65and very poor (<40. The proposed WSI could be used for evaluating water quality in terms of water supply. In addition, it could be used for analyzing long-term trait analysis and comparing water quality among different reaches of rivers or between different watersheds.

  8. THE BUFFER ROLE OF GROUNDWATER WHEN SURFACE WATER SUPPLIES ARE UNCERTAIN: THE IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Tsur, Yacov

    1988-01-01

    When used in conjunction with surface water for irrigation, groundwater serves two roles: to increase water supply; and to mitigate fluctuations in the supply of water. The later is the buffer role. This paper identifies and evaluates the economic benefit associated with the buffer role of ground water. Implications for the development of groundwater resources are investigated. An estimate is given of the buffer benefit to wheat growers of the fossil water aquifer underlying the Israeli Negev...

  9. Water supply arrangements in developing countries: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Malawi. B.U.G. Mughogho, I.B.M. Kosamu. Abstract. The provision of potable water in the cities of developing countries has been of concern for a long time. Most of the urban population, especially in unplanned settlements, relies on ...

  10. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  11. Using an Integrated Hydrologic-Economic Model to Develop Minimum Cost Water Supply Portfolios and Manage Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.; Ramsey, J.

    2004-12-01

    Water scarcity has become a reality in many areas as a result of population growth, fewer available sources, and reduced tolerance for the environmental impacts of developing the new supplies that do exist. As a result, successfully managing future water supply risk will become more dependent on coordinating the use of existing resources. Toward that end, flexible supply strategies that can rapidly respond to hydrologic variability will provide communities with increasing economic advantages, particularly if the frequency of more extreme events (e.g., drought) increases due to global climate change. Markets for established commodities (e.g., oil, gas) often provide a framework for efficiently responding to changes in supply and demand. Water markets, however, have remained relatively crude, with most transactions involving permanent transfers and long regulatory processes. Recently, interest in the use of flexible short-term transfers (e.g., leases, options) has begun to motivate consideration of more sophisticated strategies for managing supply risk, strategies similar to those used in more mature markets. In this case, communities can benefit from some of the advantages that water enjoys over other commodities, in particular, the ability to accurately characterize the stochastic nature of supply and demand through hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic-economic models are developed for two different water scarce regions supporting active water markets: Edward Aquifer and Lower Rio Grande Valley. These models are used to construct portfolios of water supply transfers (e.g., permanent transfers, options, and spot leases) that minimize the cost of meeting a probabilistic reliability constraint. Real and simulated spot price distributions allow each type of transfer to be priced in a manner consistent with financial theory (e.g., Black-Scholes). Market simulations are integrated with hydrologic models such that variability in supply and demand are linked with price behavior

  12. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, Berit; Jørgensen, C.

    2013-01-01

    ) desalinated brackish water for all uses including drinking water and 4) local reclamation of rain and grey water for use in toilets and laundry. The project has been conducted by multiple stakeholders, including the municipality, landowners, the water utility, consultants, technology providers and research......Nordhavn, a former industrial harbour area is under development into an integrated part of Copenhagen City. All infrastructures will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. Our project assesses the potential for establishing a secondary water supply to relieve...... the pressure on the primary and conventional groundwater based drinking water supply. Four alternative water resources for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3...

  13. Sustainable energy development and water supply security in Kamojang Geothermal Field: The Energy-Water Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Kamojang Geothermal Field (KGF) is a typical vapor dominated hydrothermal system in West Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is the oldest exploited geothermal field in Indonesia. From 1983 to 2005, more than 160 million tons of steam have been exploited from the KGF and more than 30 million tons of water were injected into the reservoir system. The injected water come from condensed water, local river and ground water. Sustainable production in the geothermal energy development is the ability of the production system applied to sustain the stable production level over long times and to manage the mass balance between production, injection and natural recharge in the geothermal reservoir during exploitation. Mass balance in the reservoir system can be monitored by using time lapse gravity monitoring. Mass variation of hydrodynamic in the reservoir of KGF from 1999 to 2005 is about -3.34 Mt/year while is about -3.78 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Another period between 2009 and 2010, mass variation decreased about -8.24 Mt. According to the history of production and injection, natural recharge to the KGF's reservoir is estimated at about 2.77 Mt/year from 1999 to 2005 and 2.75 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Between 2009 and 2010, KGF has a bigger mass deficiency rate throughout 200 MWe maintain production. Large amount of fresh water is needed for sustainable geothermal energy production, while the domestic water supply need is also increased. Natural recharge, about 50% of injected water, cooling system, drilling and other production activities in KGF spend large amounts of fresh water. Water consumption for local people around KGF is about 1.46 MT/year. The water volume around KGF of total runoff is the range between dry season 0.07 MT/month and rainy season 4.4 MT/month. The water demands for sustainable geothermal production of KGF and for local people's consumption will increase in the future. Integrated planning between the energy and water sectors in KGF

  14. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, B.; Jørgensen, C.

    2014-01-01

    brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been......Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields....... A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondarywater supply in the area...

  15. Technological developments in Zimbabwe's rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of standpipe fitted with a tap. A quarter million people take their water from about 35 000 family owned "upgraded" wells, with some 55 000 people taking water from springs. All these sources are relatively safe and impose a minimal health risk. The Zimbabwe Science News Volume 33(1) January-March 1999, pp. 20-25 ...

  16. Development and validation of a drinking water temperature model in domestic drinking water supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanovic, Ljiljana; Moerman, Andreas; Hoek, van der Jan Peter; Vreeburg, Jan; Blokker, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Domestic drinking water supply systems (DDWSs) are the final step in the delivery of drinking water to consumers. Temperature is one of the rate-controlling parameters for many chemical and microbiological processes and is, therefore, considered as a surrogate parameter for water quality

  17. Implementation of the national desalination and water purification technology roadmap : structuring and directing the development of water supply solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Kevin M.; Dorsey, Zachary; Miller, G. Wade; Brady, Patrick Vane; Mulligan, Conrad; Rayburn, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the United States, economic growth increasingly requires that greater volumes of freshwater be made available for new users, yet supplies of freshwater are already allocated to existing users. Currently, water for new users is made available through re-allocation of xisting water supplies-for example, by cities purchasing agricultural water rights. Water may also be made available through conservation efforts and, in some locales, through the development of ''new'' water from non-traditional sources such as the oceans, deep aquifer rackish groundwater, and water reuse.

  18. Development of a iron pipe corrosion simulation model for a water supply network

    OpenAIRE

    Bernats, M.; Osterhus, S. W.; Dzelzitis, K.; Juhna, T.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion in water supply networks is unwanted process that causes pipe material loss and subsequent pipe failures. Nowadays pipe replacing strategy most often is based on pipe age, which is not always the most important factor in pipe burst rate. In this study a methodology for developing a mathematical model to predict the decrease of pipe thickness in a large cast iron networks is presented. The quality of water, the temperature and the water flow regime were the main factors taken into ac...

  19. Water Supply Deficiency and Implications for Rural Development in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwocha, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in terms of infrastructural and social services provision. This study examined the water supply deficiency and its general implications for rural development within the region. Data and other study characteristics were extracted from 501 subjects drawn from…

  20. Robust Water Supply Infrastructure Development Pathways: What, When and Where Matters the Most? (INVITED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Patrick; Zeff, Harrison; Characklis, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Water supply adaptation frameworks that seek robustness must adaptively trigger actions that are contextually appropriate to emerging system observations and avoid long term high regret lock-ins. As an example, emerging water scarcity concerns in southeastern United States are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify regionally coordinated, scarcity-mitigating infrastructure development pathways that trigger time appropriate actions. Mistakes can lead to water shortages, overbuilt stranded assets and possibly financial failures. This presentation uses the Research Triangle area of North Carolina to illustrate the key concerns and challenges that emerged when helping Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill develop their long term water supply infrastructure pathways through 2060. This example shows how the region's water utilities' long term infrastructure pathways are strongly shaped by their short term conservation policies (i.e., reacting to evolving demands) and their ability to consider regional water transfers (i.e., reacting to supply imbalances). Cooperatively developed, shared investments across the four municipalities expand their capacity to use short term transfers to better manage severe droughts with fewer investments in irreversible infrastructure options. Cooperative pathways are also important for avoiding regional robustness conflicts, where one party benefits strongly at the expense of one or more the others. A significant innovation of this work is the exploitation of weekly and annual dynamic risk-of-failure action triggers that exploit evolving feedbacks between co-evolving human demands and regional supplies. These dynamic action triggers provide high levels of adaptivity, tailor actions to their specific context

  1. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home, a...

  2. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Paula

    As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

  3. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.

    2009-12-01

    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  4. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  5. Developing system robustness analysis for drought risk management: an application on a water supply reservoir

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mens, M. J. P; Gilroy, K; Williams, D

    2015-01-01

    .... These frequencies are becoming more uncertain due to climate change. Many methods in support of drought risk management focus on providing insight into changing drought frequencies, and use water supply reliability as a key decision criterion...

  6. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  7. Rural water supply and related services in developing countries — Comparative analysis of several approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Y.; Draper, M.; Viens, P.

    1981-05-01

    The proposed paper deals with a comparative analysis of several approaches possible and actually used for a joint action of local institutions and foreign aid in the field of water supply and related services such as sanitation to villages and small rural agglomerations (market towns, etc.) in developing countries. This comparative analysis is based on examples of actual programmes in this field. The authors have participated in most of the programmes selected as examples, at various levels and in various capacities, from conception to design, implementation and/or evaluation (i.e. rural development programmes in Ivory Coast, Ghana (upper region), Benin and Ethiopia. The authors were not involved in other examples such as water supply and/or sanitation to small urban centres in Benin, Ivory Coast, etc. They have, however, witnessed them directly and have obtained, therefore, first-hand information on their organization, execution and results. Several typical examples of actual projects are briefly defined and characterized. The paper undertakes, then, to compare, in a clinical fashion, the advantages and drawbacks of the approaches taken in the various examples presented. The paper finally proposes a recommendation for a realistic approach to joint action between local/domestic and foreign financing/assistance agencies and executing bodies (consultants, contractors) in the field of rural water supply, sanitation, and more generally, health improvement. The definition of this line of approach is made in terms of logical framework, i.e. goals, purposes, outputs and inputs at the various stages of the project, up to actual evaluation of execution and impact if possible; description of practical indicators of the two types of evaluation. A particular attention is given to the problems of technological choices, in view of the constraints imposed by the natural environment, by the human and social patterns; in view also of the institutions and the economy. Another point

  8. Managing water supply systems using free-market economy approaches: A detailed review of the implications for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikozho, C.; Kujinga, K.

    2017-08-01

    Decision makers in developing countries are often confronted by difficult choices regarding the selection and deployment of appropriate water supply governance regimes that sufficiently take into account national socio-economic and political realities. Indeed, scholars and practitioners alike continue to grapple with the need to create the optimum water supply and allocation decision-making space applicable to specific developing countries. In this paper, we review documented case studies from various parts of the world to explore the utility of free-market economics approaches in water supply governance. This is one of the major paradigms that have emerged in the face of enduring questions regarding how best to govern water supply systems in developing countries. In the paper, we postulate that increasing pressure on available natural resources may have already rendered obsolete some of the water supply governance regimes that have served human societies very well for many decades. Our main findings show that national and municipal water supply governance paradigms tend to change in tandem with emerging national development frameworks and priorities. While many developing countries have adopted water management and governance policy prescriptions from the international arena, national and local socio-economic and political realities ultimately determine what works and what does not work on the ground. We thus, conclude that the choice of what constitutes an appropriate water supply governance regime in context is never simple. Indeed, the majority of case studies reviewed in the paper tend to rely on a mix of market economics and developmental statism to make their water governance regimes more realistic and workable on the ground.

  9. Potential of Nanotechnology based water treatment solutions for the improvement of drinking water supplies in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Joydeep; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades explosive population growth in the world has led to water scarcity across the globe putting additional pressure already scarce ground water resources and is pushing scientists and researchers to come up with new alternatives to monitor and treat water for use by mankind and for food security. Nearly 4 billion people around the world are known to lack access to clean water supply. Systematic water quality data is important for the assessment of health risks as well as for developing appropriate and affordable technologies for waste and drinking water treatments, and long-term decision making policy against water quality management. Traditional water treatment technologies are generally chemical-intensive processes requiring extremely large infrastructural support thus limiting their effective applications in developing nations which creates an artificial barrier to the application of technological solutions for the provision of clean water. Nanotechnology-based systems are in retrospect, smaller, energy and resource efficient. Economic impact assessment of the implementation of nanotechnology in water treatment and studies on cost-effectiveness and environmental and social impacts is of key importance prior to its wide spread acceptance. Government agencies and inter-governmental bodies driving research and development activities need to measure the effective potential of nanotechnology as a solution to global water challenges in order to effectively engage in fiscal, economic and social issues at national and international levels for different types of source waters with new national and international initiatives on nanotechnology and water need to be launched. Environmental pollution and industrialization in global scale is further leading to pollution of available water sources and thus hygienically friendly purification technologies are the need of the hour. Thus cost-effective treatment of pollutants for the transformation of hazardous

  10. Water supply, sanitation and health education programmes in developing countries: problems of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, U; Lindskog, P; Wall, S

    1987-01-01

    There are several methodological problems related to evaluating the impact that improved water supply, sanitation and health education projects have on public health. Fifteen studies of intervention programmes, one by the present authors, are discussed. Since non-intervention studies of water supply are difficult to assess, a valid study design must include an intervention programme, even though such studies are more costly and time-consuming. Detailed descriptions of programmes, study plans, and analytical methods are often lacking, and different studies reach greatly diverging conclusions. It may be proposed that studies based on "weak" methodology give a more positive impression of improved public health after improvement of water supply than do before-after studies using comparison groups.

  11. Global costs of attaining the Millennium Development Goal for water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Bartram, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to "halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Because of its impacts on a range of diseases, it is a health-related MDG target. This study presents cost estimates of attaining MDG target 10. We estimate the population to be covered to attain the MDG target using data on household use of improved water and sanitation for 1990 and 2004, and taking into account population growth. We assume this estimate is achieved in equal annual increments from the base year, 2005, until 2014. Costs per capita for investment and recurrent costs are applied. Country data is aggregated to 11 WHO developing country subregions and globally. Estimated spending required in developing countries on new coverage to meet the MDG target is US$ 42 billion for water and US$ 142 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 18 billion. The cost of maintaining existing services totals an additional US$ 322 billion for water supply and US $216 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 54 billion. Spending for new coverage is largely rural (64%), while for maintaining existing coverage it is largely urban (73%). Additional programme costs, incurred administratively outside the point of delivery of interventions, of between 10% and 30% are required for effective implementation. In assessing financing requirements, estimates of cost should include the operation, maintenance and replacement of existing coverage as well as new services and programme costs. Country-level costing studies are needed to guide sector financing.

  12. Development of aquatic biomonitoring models for surface waters used for drinking water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the need for continued quality control of surface waters used for the production of drinking water by state-of-the-art bioassays and biological early warning systems, the objective of the present thesis was to validate and improve some of the bioassays and biological early warning systems used

  13. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert E.S.; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A.; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Background Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. Objectives We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. Methods We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Results Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p Source water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Conclusions Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water. Citation Shields KF, Bain RE, Cronk R, Wright JA, Bartram J. 2015. Association of supply type with fecal contamination of source water and household stored drinking water in developing countries: a bivariate meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 123:1222–1231; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409002 PMID:25956006

  14. Wetland and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John Augustus

    1960-01-01

    The Geological Survey has received numerous inquiries about the effects of proposed changes in the wetland environment. The nature of the inquiries suggests a general confusion in the public mind as to wetland values and an increasing concern by the public with the need for facts as a basis for sound decisions when public action is required. Perhaps the largest gap in our knowledge is in regard to the role played by the wetland in the natural water scheme. Specialists in such fields as agriculture and conservation have studied the wetland in relation to its special uses and values for farming and as a habitat for fish and wildlife. However, except as studied incidentally by these specialists, the role of the wetland with respect to water has been largely neglected. This facet of the wetland problem is of direct concern to the Geological Survey. We commonly speak of water in terms of its place in the hydrologic environment---as, for example, surface water or ground water. These terms imply that water can be neatly pigeonholed. With respect to the wetland environment nothing can be further from the truth. In fact, one objective of this discussion is to demonstrate that for the wetland environment surface water, ground water, and soil water cannot be separated realistically, but are closely interrelated and must be studied together. It should be noted that this statement holds true for the hydrologic environment in general, and that the wetland environment is by no means unique in this respect. Our second and principal objective is to identify some of the problems that must be studied in order to clarify the role of the wetland in relation to water supply. We have chosen to approach these objectives by briefly describing one area for which we have some information, and by using this example to point out some of the problems that need study. First, however, let us define what we, as geohydrologists, mean by wetland and briefly consider wetland classifications. For our

  15. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  16. A Newly Developed Method for Computing Reliability Measures in a Water Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability model of a water supply network has beens examined. Its main features are: a topology that can be decomposed by the so-called state factorization into a (relativelysmall number of derivative networks, each having a series-parallel structure (1, binary-state components (either operative or failed with given flow capacities (2, a multi-state character of the whole network and its sub-networks - a network state is defined as the maximal flow between a source (sources and a sink (sinks (3, all capacities (component, network, and sub-network have integer values (4. As the network operates, its state changes due to component failures, repairs, and replacements. A newly developed method of computing the inter-state transition intensities has been presented. It is based on the so-called state factorization and series-parallel aggregation. The analysis of these intensities shows that the failure-repair process of the considered system is an asymptotically homogenous Markov process. It is also demonstrated how certain reliability parameters useful for the network maintenance planning can be determined on the basis of the asymptotic intensities. For better understanding of the presented method, an illustrative example is given. (original abstract

  17. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish......Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  18. Water supply of Zaporizhzhya Priazovye: nascent, stages of development, problems of nowadays and hygienic substantiation of ways of their solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorodniuk K.Yu.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the modern stage of development humanity is on the verge of the pandemic of non-communicable diseases. It is not an exception for the population of the Ukraine, among which more than 2/3 of the total morbidity incidences is non-communicable diseases: desieses of cardiovascular system, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes. To the mind of experts in the field of public health and environment protection, the first place among factors affecting the level of population’s health in Ukraine is given to the water that is ahead of air and food products in this aspect. Taking into consideration the fact that after annexation of the Crimea by the Russian Federation in March of 2014 and uncertainty in the military-political situation on the East of the Ukraine, Zaporizhzhya Priazovye is becoming a recreational zone, and with each year it will be used by more and more Ukrainian citizens. The objective of our research was to investigate nascent, stages of development and nowadays problems of region’s water supply as well as hygienic substantiation of complex ways of nowadays problem of Zaporizhzhya Priazovye water supply. As a result of conducted researches it was found that single economically feasible way of providing population of Zaporizhzhya Priazovye with water with normative total hardness and general mineralization is supply of the Dnipro water carried out by operation of Western group water conduit. To reduce the formation of chlorination by-products in the process of water purification it is necessary to use iron-containing chlorine-sulfate coagulant "Aula" of brand A according to the technical requirements TR U 24.1-33075701-002: 2011. For utilization of flush water of contact clarifiers, it is necessary to retool water purification facilities by clarifiers-recirculators with sediment recirculation in “inner contour”. It was proved that corrosive aggressiveness is an indicator of water quality which will determine further

  19. Improving access to water supply and sanitation in urban India: microfinance for water and sanitation infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna; White, Gary; Damodaron, Said; Thorsten, Rich

    2008-01-01

    This article summarises initial findings of a study to explore the potential of providing micro-financing for low-income households wishing to invest in improved water supply and sanitation services. Through in-depth interviews with more than 800 households in the city of Hyderabad in India, we conclude that, even if provided with market (not concessional) rates of financing, a substantial proportion of poor households would invest in water and sewer network connections. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  20. California's transition from conventional snowpack measurements to a developing remote sensing capability for water supply forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. J.; Peterson, N.

    1980-01-01

    California's Snow Survey Program and water supply forecasting procedures are described. A review is made of current activities and program direction on such matters as: the growing statewide network of automatic snow sensors; restrictions on the gathering hydrometeorological data in areas designated as wilderness; the use of satellite communications, which both provides a flexible network without mountaintop repeaters and satisfies the need for unobtrusiveness in wilderness areas; and the increasing operational use of snow covered area (SCA) obtained from satellite imagery, which, combined with water equivalent from snow sensors, provides a high correlation to the volumes and rates of snowmelt runoff. Also examined are the advantages of remote sensing; the anticipated effects of a new input of basin wide index of water equivalent, such as the obtained through microwave techniques, on future forecasting opportunities; and the future direction and goals of the California Snow Surveys Program.

  1. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  2. Water Supplies: Microbiological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing high-quality drinking water that is free of harmful microorganisms and maintaining its purity through distribution systems are essential for public health. Drinking water quality standards and guidelines for microbial contaminants vary within and among countries but typ...

  3. Spatial analysis method of assessing water supply and demand applied to energy development in the Ohio River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, A.D.

    1979-08-01

    The focus of the study is on water availability for energy development in the Ohio River Basin; however, the techniques developed are applicable to water supply investigations for other regions and uses. The study assesses the spatial association between water supply and demand for future energy development in the Basin. The problem is the development of a method that accurately portrays the actual spatial coincidence of water availability and use within a basin. The issues addressed involve questions of scale and methods used to create a model distribution of streamflow and to compare it with projected patterns of water requirements for energy production. The analysis procedure involves the compilation of streamflow data and calculation of 7-day/10-year low-flow estimates within the Basin. Low-flow probabilities are based on historical flows at gaging stations and are adjusted for the effects of reservoir augmentation. Once streamflow estimates have been determined at gaging stations, interpolation of these values is made between known data points to enable direct comparison with projected energy water-use data. Finally, a method is devised to compare the patterns of projected water requirements with the model distribution of streamflow, in sequential downstream order.

  4. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  5. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  6. Wildfire and the future of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, Kevin D; Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Stone, Micheal

    2014-08-19

    In many parts of the world, forests provide high quality water for domestic, agricultural, industrial, and ecological needs, with water supplies in those regions inextricably linked to forest health. Wildfires have the potential to have devastating effects on aquatic ecosystems and community drinking water supply through impacts on water quantity and quality. In recent decades, a combination of fuel load accumulation, climate change, extensive droughts, and increased human presence in forests have resulted in increases in area burned and wildfire severity-a trend predicted to continue. Thus, the implications of wildfire for many downstream water uses are increasingly concerning, particularly the provision of safe drinking water, which may require additional treatment infrastructure and increased operations and maintenance costs in communities downstream of impacted landscapes. A better understanding of the effects of wildfire on water is needed to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to protect globally critical water supplies originating in forested environments.

  7. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  8. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  9. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-05-27

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  10. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless when...

  11. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  12. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Katherine F; Bain, Robert E S; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water.

  13. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at a...

  14. Water Utility Planning for an Emergency Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviews roles and responsibilities among various levels of government regarding emergency water supplies and seeks to encourage collaboration and partnership regarding emergency water supply planning.

  15. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  16. Water supply and management concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1965-01-01

    If I had to cite one fact about water in the United States which would be not only the most important but also the most informative, the one I would choose would k this: Over 50 percent of all the water presently being used in the United States is used by industry, and nearly all of that is used for cooling.The large amount of attention recently being given to water shortage and the expected rapid increase in demand for water is probably to some extent clouded because there are certain simple facts about water availability and water use which, though readily available, are not generally either known or understood.Probably most people react to information in the public press about present and possible future water shortages with the thought that it is going to be more difficult in the future to supply the ordinary household with water for drinking, washing, and tbe culinary arts. As a matter of fact that may be true to some extent, but it is not the salient aspect.

  17. Progressive development of water resources in the Middle East for sustainable water supply in a period of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issar, Arie S; Adar, Eilon

    2010-11-28

    The history of the Middle East has been influenced by past global climatic changes. Warm periods caused droughts, resulting in desertification, migration and war. Cold periods were humid and brought prosperity and agricultural settlement to the desert fringes. The forecast based on this correlation is that the present global warming will cause the drying up of the Middle East. As in the past, this negative impact should be mitigated by using the groundwater resources stored from past wetter times. This will involve deep drilling, pumping and modern irrigation methods within the framework of a new policy of 'progressive development', which will entail the use of currently undeveloped natural water resources beyond that of present water replenishment. While the use of the one-time groundwater reserves is taking place, a master long-term comprehensive progressive development plan for the Middle East will be prepared. This plan will include the step-by-step development of other water resources such as treated effluents, desalinated brackish groundwater and desalination of seawater.

  18. Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is

  19. POTABLE WATER SUPPLY IN OWERRI METROPOLIS: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    United Nations Expert Group Meeting of strategic approaches to fresh water management (United Nations ... national, and local levels that promote both equitable access and adequate supplies (United Nations 2001); and ... must make significant achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The paper intends to ...

  20. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over a...

  1. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State health...

  2. Feed-Forward control of water and nutrient supply in greenhouse horticulture: development of a system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Heinen, M.; Werner, B.E.; Visser, de P.; Boogaard, van den H.A.G.M.; Gieling, T.H.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Minimisation of nutrient and water loss to the environment, prediction and planning of production and product quality, such that they meet the demands of customers, and increased financial return are some of the goals of current greenhouse horticulture. This requires an integrated system for

  3. Bayesian networks modelling in support to cross-cutting analysis of water supply and sanitation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; López Puga, J.; Carmona Moreno, C.

    2013-09-01

    Despite the efforts made towards the Millennium Development Goals targets during the last decade, improved access to water supply or basic sanitation still remains unavailable for millions of people across the world. This paper proposes a set of models that use 25 key variables and country profiles from the WatSan4Dev data set involving water supply and sanitation (Dondeynaz et al., 2012). This paper suggests the use of Bayesian network modelling methods because they are more easily adapted to deal with non-normal distributions, and integrate a qualitative approach for data analysis. They also offer the advantage of integrating preliminary knowledge into the probabilistic models. The statistical performance of the proposed models ranges between 20 and 5% error rates, which are very satisfactory taking into account the strong heterogeneity of variables. Probabilistic scenarios run from the models allow an assessment of the relationships between human development, external support, governance aspects, economic activities and water supply and sanitation (WSS) access. According to models proposed in this paper, gaining a strong poverty reduction will require the WSS access to reach 75-76% through: (1) the management of ongoing urbanisation processes to avoid slums development; and (2) the improvement of health care, for instance for children. Improving governance, such as institutional efficiency, capacities to make and apply rules, or control of corruption is positively associated with WSS sustainable development. The first condition for an increment of the HDP (human development and poverty) remains of course an improvement of the economic conditions with higher household incomes. Moreover, a significant country commitment to the environment, associated with civil society freedom of expression constitutes a favourable setting for sustainable WSS services delivery. Intensive agriculture using irrigation practises also appears as a mean for sustainable WSS thanks to

  4. Bayesian networks modelling in support to cross-cutting analysis of water supply and sanitation in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dondeynaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts made towards the Millennium Development Goals targets during the last decade, improved access to water supply or basic sanitation still remains unavailable for millions of people across the world. This paper proposes a set of models that use 25 key variables and country profiles from the WatSan4Dev data set involving water supply and sanitation (Dondeynaz et al., 2012. This paper suggests the use of Bayesian network modelling methods because they are more easily adapted to deal with non-normal distributions, and integrate a qualitative approach for data analysis. They also offer the advantage of integrating preliminary knowledge into the probabilistic models. The statistical performance of the proposed models ranges between 20 and 5% error rates, which are very satisfactory taking into account the strong heterogeneity of variables. Probabilistic scenarios run from the models allow an assessment of the relationships between human development, external support, governance aspects, economic activities and water supply and sanitation (WSS access. According to models proposed in this paper, gaining a strong poverty reduction will require the WSS access to reach 75–76% through: (1 the management of ongoing urbanisation processes to avoid slums development; and (2 the improvement of health care, for instance for children. Improving governance, such as institutional efficiency, capacities to make and apply rules, or control of corruption is positively associated with WSS sustainable development. The first condition for an increment of the HDP (human development and poverty remains of course an improvement of the economic conditions with higher household incomes. Moreover, a significant country commitment to the environment, associated with civil society freedom of expression constitutes a favourable setting for sustainable WSS services delivery. Intensive agriculture using irrigation practises also appears as a mean for sustainable

  5. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With proper...

  6. Developing Chiefs of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Appendix E. Demographic Data for Total Population ......... . 152 r Appendix F: Correlation Matrix of Importance Versus Capability Utilizing the Ten Most...Section III, Part I and Questions 1 thru 24, Section III, Part 1I were use, to measure these responses. A correlation matrix was calculated plotting...concept of project teask ng, ols, end performance expectetions _. 56 NEGOTIl’, The extent to which# Chief of Supply rawly " conflict with eo6le outside

  7. Bayesian networks modelling in support to cross cutting analysis of water supply and sanitation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; López Puga, J.; Carmona Moreno, C.

    2013-02-01

    Despite the efforts made towards the millennium goals targets during the last decade, access to improved water supply or basic sanitation remains still not accessible for millions of people across the world. This paper proposes a set of models that use 25 key variables from the WatSan4Dev dataset and country profiles involving Water Supply and Sanitation (Dondeynaz et al., 2012). This paper proposes the use of Bayesian Network modelling methods because adapted to the management of non-normal distribution, and integrate a qualitative approach for data analysis. They also offer the advantage to integrate preliminary knowledge into the probabilistic models. The statistical performance of the proposed models ranges between 80 and 95% which is very satisfactory taking into account the strong heterogeneity of variables. Probabilistic scenarios run from the models allow a quantification of the relationships between human development, external support, governance aspects, economic activities and Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) access. According to models proposed in this paper, a strong poverty reduction will induce an increment of the WSS access equal to 75-76% through: (1) the organisation of on-going urbanisation process to avoid slums development; and, (2) the improvement of health care for instance for children. On one side, improving governance, such as institutional efficiency, capacities to make and apply rules or control of corruption will also have a positive impact on WSS sustainable development. The first condition for an increment of the WSS access remains of course an improvement of the economic development with an increment of household income. Moreover, a significant country environmental commitment associated with civil society freedom of expression constitutes a favourable environment for sustainable WSS services delivery. Intensive agriculture through irrigation practises also appears as a mean for sustainable WSS thanks to multi-uses and

  8. Activities in water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held a regional workshop in Thailand in 1992 to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive. Using the same modules, with the support of other organizations such as the Department of Development Support and Management Services, ESCAP conducted four more workshops in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Thailand in 1995. In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels. In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.

  9. Mathematical modeling of systemic factors determining the risk of deterioration of drinking water supply and development of allergic diseases of population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, Yurii G.; Nosov, Konstantin V.; Vysotska, Olena V.; Porvan, Andrii P.; Omiotek, Zbigniew; Burlibay, Aron; Assembay, Azat; Szatkowska, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    This study aims at mathematical modeling of systemic factors threatening the sanitary and hygienic state of sources of water supply. It is well-known, that this state affects health of population consuming water from different water sources (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). In particular, water quality problem may cause allergic reactions that are the important problem of health care. In the paper, the authors present the mathematical model, that enables on the basis of observations of a natural system to predict the system's behavior and determine the risks related to deterioration of drinking water resources. As a case study, we uses supply of drinking water from Lake Sevan, but the approach developed in the study can be applied to wide area of adjacent problems.

  10. Water supply system decision making using multicriteria analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sound decision-making processes for investments in water supply systems need to be developed. This need arises from the problem observed in developing countries of a growing demand for water supply projects coupled with a lack of financial resources available to invest in them. A second problem is the selection of a ...

  11. Assessing Risk Management Capability of Public Sector Organizations Related to PPP Scheme Development for Water Supply in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangeran M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of Public Private Partnership (PPP for water supply investment is inseparable from the capability of risk management of the parties within the project. This study investigates the risk management capability of Indonesian local public sector organizations that are potentially involved in PPP schemes for water supply. A risk management maturity model based assessment tool probing the culture, process, experience, application and partnership aspects is used in the survey. The model describes risk management capability in four levels (ad-hoc, initial, competent, excellent. The survey shows that their risk management capability is still in-average at the initial stage (level 2, meaning that the adopted risk management postures are mostly supported only by unstructured, ad-hoc and non-formal processes. The result of this study can help decision makers in choosing appropriate risk management methods and tools to be used by the local public authorities for managing risks in PPP schemes.

  12. Organization and scaling in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Likwan; Karney, Bryan W.

    2017-12-01

    Public water supply is one of the society's most vital resources and most costly infrastructures. Traditional concepts of these networks capture their engineering identity as isolated, deterministic hydraulic units, but overlook their physics identity as related entities in a probabilistic, geographic ensemble, characterized by size organization and property scaling. Although discoveries of allometric scaling in natural supply networks (organisms and rivers) raised the prospect for similar findings in anthropogenic supplies, so far such a finding has not been reported in public water or related civic resource supplies. Examining an empirical ensemble of large number and wide size range, we show that water supply networks possess self-organized size abundance and theory-explained allometric scaling in spatial, infrastructural, and resource- and emission-flow properties. These discoveries establish scaling physics for water supply networks and may lead to novel applications in resource- and jurisdiction-scale water governance.

  13. Water supply from wetlands in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihayo, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives a brief discussion on water supply from wetlands in Tanzania. The majordrainage basins in Tanzania are described and the status and role of the Division of WaterResearch in the monitoring of water resources and data collection from wetlands and watersources are highlighted. The role of wetlands in the hydrological cycle, and the utilisation ofwetlands as water supply sources are discussed. The need for conservation and protection ofwetlands and other water sources is outlined.

  14. Fungi, Water Supply and Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Costa, Damien; Imbert, Christine

    Even though it has been studied for many years, water-related infectious risk still exists in both care and community environments due to the possible presence of numerous microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and protists. People can be exposed directly to these microorganisms either through aerosols and water, after ingestion, inhalation, skin contact and entry through mucosal membranes, or indirectly usually due to pre-treatment of some medical devices. Species belonging to genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pseudallesheria, Fusarium, Cuninghamella, Mucor and in some particular cases Candida have been isolated in water from health facilities and their presence is particularly related to the unavoidable formation of a polymicrobial biofilm in waterlines. Fungi isolation methods are based on water filtration combined with conventional microbiology cultures and/or molecular approaches; unfortunately, these are still poorly standardized. Moreover, due to inappropriate culture media and inadequate sampling volumes, the current standardized methods used for bacterial research are not suitable for fungal search. In order to prevent water-related fungal risk, health facilities have implemented measures such as ultraviolet radiation to treat the input network, continuous chemical treatment, chemical or thermal shock treatments, or microfiltration at points of use. This article aims to provide an overview of fungal colonization of water (especially in hospitals), involvement of biofilms that develop in waterlines and application of preventive strategies.

  15. Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, N

    2010-01-01

    To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In this research, therefore, the development of an appropriate technology for an As-free, safe drinking water supply is considered from a local perspective and a societal context. To achieve the goal a...

  16. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Lin; Dong Jiang; Rui Duan; Jingying Fu; Mengmeng Hao

    2017-01-01

    Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP) in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES) is also highly significant for water...

  17. Development of a System for Rapid Detection of Contaminants in Water Supplies Using Magnetic Resonance and Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowery, Thomas J; Neely, Lori; Chepin, James; Wellman, Parris; Toso, Ken; Murray, Paul; Audeh, Mark; Demas, Vasiliki; Palazzolo, Robert; Min, Michael; Phung, Nu; Blanco, Matt; Raphel, Jordan; O' Neil, Troy

    2010-09-14

    To keep the water supply safe and to ensure a swift and accurate response to a water supply contamination event, rapid and robust methods for microbial testing are necessary. Current technologies are complex, lengthy and costly and there is a need for rapid, reliable, and precise approaches that can readily address this fundamental security and safety issue. T2 Biosystems is focused on providing solutions to this problem by making breakthroughs in nanotechnology and biosensor techniques that address the current technical restrictions facing rapid, molecular analysis in complex samples. In order to apply the T2 Biosystems nucleic acid detection procedure to the analysis of nucleic acid targets in unprocessed water samples, Bacillus thuringeinsis was selected as a model organism and local river water was selected as the sample matrix. The initial assay reagent formulation was conceived with a manual magnetic resonance reader, was optimized using a high throughput system, and transferred back to the MR reader for potential field use. The final assay employing the designed and manufactured instruments was capable of detecting 10 CFU/mL of B. thuringiensis directly within the environmental water sample within 90 minutes. Further, discrimination of two closely related species of Bacilli was accomplished using the methods of this project; greater than 3-fold discrimination between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis at a concentrations spanning 10 CFU/mL to 10{sup 5} CFU/mL was observed.

  18. Impact of Hybrid Water Supply on the Centralised Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sitzenfrei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional (technical concepts to ensure a reliable water supply, a safe handling of wastewater and flood protection are increasingly criticised as outdated and unsustainable. These so-called centralised urban water systems are further maladapted to upcoming challenges because of their long lifespan in combination with their short-sighted planning and design. A combination of (existing centralised and decentralised infrastructure is expected to be more reliable and sustainable. However, the impact of increasing implementation of decentralised technologies on the local technical performance in sewer or water supply networks and the interaction with the urban form has rarely been addressed in the literature. In this work, an approach which couples the UrbanBEATS model for the planning of decentralised strategies together with a water supply modelling approach is developed and applied to a demonstration case. With this novel approach, critical but also favourable areas for such implementations can be identified. For example, low density areas, which have high potential for rainwater harvesting, can result in local water quality problems in the supply network when further reducing usually low pipe velocities in these areas. On the contrary, in high demand areas (e.g., high density urban forms there is less effect of rainwater harvesting due to the limited available space. In these high density areas, water efficiency measures result in the highest savings in water volume, but do not cause significant problems in the technical performance of the potable water supply network. For a more generalised and case-independent conclusion, further analyses are performed for semi-virtual benchmark networks to answer the question of an appropriate representation of the water distribution system in a computational model for such an analysis. Inappropriate hydraulic model assumptions and characteristics were identified for the stated problem, which have more

  19. The Issue Of Water Resources Diversification In Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Janusz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the methodology for determining the diversification degree of water resources in Collective Water Supply Systems (CWSS. Knowing the number of water supply sub-systems and their share in the total supply of water for CWSS, it is possible to calculate the dimensionless Pielou ratio. The paper presents the calculation of the diversification rate for 26 CWSS in Poland. The presented methodology makes it possible to compare CWSS with different water requirements.

  20. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  1. Elements of Conjunctive Use Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    surface spreading basins and supply distribution networks are used to improve the Sutilization of water resources (increased yield), to maintain an...transfer agreements Inter-agency planning Cost-benefit allocation Water use permits Facilities maintenance agreements Water markets Water...export of water for off-site use if other users of the aquifer are adversely affected. Effective water rights markets would require a distinct move

  2. STATE OF WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE SUBCARPATHIAN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIETRUCHA-URBANIK

    Full Text Available The characteristics of equipping the Subcarpathian province cities with water supply infrastructure was made on the basis of data collected from the Provincial Office, Statistical Office, reports submitted by water companies regarding the functioning of water supply infrastructure and literature data. The indicators characterizing water supply infrastructure were determined for the years 1995-2014. In the paper the indicators of equipping cities with water supply systems were presented. Also water consumption and changes in the length of the water supply network in the cities of the Subcarpathian Province were examined. The analysis shows that the water consumption for the years 1995-2014 decreased by almost 6 m3∙year-1 per capita. The reason for such situation was the increasing price of water and the ecological awareness of the inhabitants of the Subcarpathian region. In the last year of the analysis the water supply system in urban areas of the Subcarpathian province was used by 95% of the population and, for comparison, in rural areas by 77% of the population. In the paper also changes in prices for water in the Subcarpathian region were shown, on the basis of data from the water tariffs in individual water companies. The important element of urban development is the technical infrastructure which reduces the investment costs. The determined indicators of equipping cities with water supply systems show an upward trend in the development of technical infrastructure. Based on the operational data from the water companies the failure rates in selected water supply networks were determined.

  3. The application of impedance measurement to assess biofilm development on technical materials used for water supply system construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of biological stability of water which is introduced into the network, leads primarily to its secondary contamination during transport to the consumer. The water that is biologically unstable creates ideal conditions for colonization of the inner surface of pipelines by microorganisms and adhesion of their products (biocorrosion. The studies was conducted using the identified microorganisms isolated from the water supply network which accounted inocula in continuous culture of biofilm in CDC reactor. As a result of studies it was revealed the presence of biofilm formed on different materials polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polybutylene. Microbiological biodiversity of organisms inhabiting a biofilm of the diversity of nucleic acids was used. It was observed the amount of the psychrophilic bacteria oscillation in the effluent from the reactor. It was also determined the affinity of various bacteria to the plastic through adhesion measurement using impedance spectroscopy. For impedance measurements apparatus SIGNAL RECOVERY 7280 DSP LOCK-IN AMPLIFIER was used, recording impedance components (real and imaginary. The results will allow for the creation of biosensor systems that can be used in predicting health risks in connection with drinking water and taking corrective actions.

  4. The application of impedance measurement to assess biofilm development on technical materials used for water supply system construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mirela; Traczewska, Teodora; Grzebyk, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    The lack of biological stability of water which is introduced into the network, leads primarily to its secondary contamination during transport to the consumer. The water that is biologically unstable creates ideal conditions for colonization of the inner surface of pipelines by microorganisms and adhesion of their products (biocorrosion). The studies was conducted using the identified microorganisms isolated from the water supply network which accounted inocula in continuous culture of biofilm in CDC reactor. As a result of studies it was revealed the presence of biofilm formed on different materials polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polybutylene. Microbiological biodiversity of organisms inhabiting a biofilm of the diversity of nucleic acids was used. It was observed the amount of the psychrophilic bacteria oscillation in the effluent from the reactor. It was also determined the affinity of various bacteria to the plastic through adhesion measurement using impedance spectroscopy. For impedance measurements apparatus SIGNAL RECOVERY 7280 DSP LOCK-IN AMPLIFIER was used, recording impedance components (real and imaginary). The results will allow for the creation of biosensor systems that can be used in predicting health risks in connection with drinking water and taking corrective actions.

  5. Barcelona's water supply, 1867–1967 : the transition to a modern system

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Bassols, Manuel; Rosselló i Nicolau, Maribel; Garriga Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Barcelona's water supply since 14th century to 1867, the Eixample's water supply problem the development of modern water supply since 1867 to 1967 the new sanitation system impact on water consumption water's slow entry into the domestic sphere from post-war restrictions to widespread water consumption. Peer Reviewed

  6. Not Just a Tool. Taking Context into Account in the Development of a Mobile App for Rural Water Supply in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wesselink

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 'eGovernance' hype around the potential of mobile phone and geoweb technologies for enhancing 'good governance' is soaring. In East Africa, the extensive use of mobile telephony adds to the imagined promises of ICT. We reflect on the assumptions made by the proponents of such tools, using our own action research project as an example. We took great care to consider context in the development of software for enhancing empowerment and accountability in rural water supply in Tanzania. However, we found that the rural water supply context in Tanzania is much more complex than the contexts for which successful mApps have been developed previously. Institutional analysis and public administration theory help to understand why. Rural water supply shows institutional hybridity, with water being at the same time a private, public and common-pool good. In addition, in accountability relations, many informal mechanisms prevail where explicit reporting is not relevant. Finally, our proposal sat uneasily with other ongoing iGovernment initiatives. We conclude that we need to consider eGovernance tools as political Apps that can be expected to trigger political responses.

  7. Localizing the strategy for achieving rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-29

    economic development of any nation. In Nigeria, so many programmes to improve water supply and sanitation situation had been put in place by different administrations. Despite this, the hope of meeting the UN Millennium ...

  8. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis desalination plants for rural water supply in a developing country--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, P S; Joshi, V A; Ansari, M H; Manivel, U

    2003-12-01

    Performance evaluation of two reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants (DSP) at villages: Melasirupodhu (30 m3 day(-1)) and Sikkal (50 m3 day(-1)) in Ramanathpuram district, Tamil Nadu (India) were studied so as to bring out the state-of-art of their operation and maintenance (O&M). Detailed information on plant design and engineering, water quality, plant personnel, and cost of O&M was collected for a period of three years after commissioning of the two plants. Feed water was brackish, the TDS varied in the range of 6500-8500 mg L(-1) at Melasirupodhu and 5300-7100 mg L(-1) at Sikkal villages. The product water quality was observed to be gradually deteriorating as the salt rejection by the membranes decreased with time. The salt rejection was 97-99% at the time of commissioning of the plants, and came down to 89-90% at the end of 3 years of operation. Product water TDS soon after installation of the plants was excellent and within desirable limits of BIS. After three years of operation, few parameters exceeded the desirable limits, however, they were found to be within permissible limits of BIS. The analyses of the data showed that both plants were operated only at 30-36% of the design capacity. Plant shut-down due to inadequate and erratic power supply, and plant break-down and inherent delay in repairs due to lack of adequate infrastructure were found to be the major causes for the low utilization of the plants. Consequently the recurring cost of product water production enhanced to Rs. 25.0/m3 at Melasirupodhu and Rs. 17.5 m(-3) at Sikkal, as against the estimated cost of Rs. 15.0/m3 and Rs. 11.0/m3, respectively, as per the design. Over the years, the energy consumption for the product water output increased reflecting higher operational pressures needed with the aging of the membranes.

  9. Microbial quality of Jimma water supply Sofonias Kifle Tsegaye Gadisa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    G, 2000). Many water sources in developing countries are unhealthy because they contain harmful chemical and biological agents. It is essential to protect water supplies from pollution and to perform basic surveillance and maintenance of water and sanitation system (Cheesbrough,. 2001). WHO estimated that 80% of all.

  10. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...

  11. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  12. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  13. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lieb, Anna M.; Rycroft, Chris H.; Wilkening, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic bo...

  14. Localizing the strategy for achieving rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is essential for sustenance of life and determines the overall socio- economic development of any nation. In Nigeria, so many programmes to improve water supply and sanitation situation had been put in place by different administrations. Despite this, the hope of meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals ...

  15. Modelling trihalomethanes formation in water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristo, Cristiana; Esposito, Giovanni; Leopardi, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Chlorination is the most widely used method for disinfection of drinking water, but there are concerns about the formation of by-products, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), since the chronic exposure to them may pose risks to human health. For these reasons regulations fix maximum acceptable THMs levels throughout distribution networks, so it is very important to be able to correctly reproduce their formation. In the literature many models for predicting THMs formation have been developed, both based on empirical relationships and on kinetics involved during chlorine reactions. In this work the use of some of these models and their reliability in real situations is investigated through the application to the Aurunci-Valcanneto Water Supply System in Southern Lazio (Italy). The comparison of the performances of 18 selected literature empirical models furnishes interesting observations, indicating that the formula, developed using field data, results in being more suitable for reproducing THMs formation for the presented case study. Other considerations are also offered from the comparison with the results obtained using a simple first order kinetic model, calibrated using measured data.

  16. Water Supply in the Ankobra Basin, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that result in the release of aluminium ions into the groundwater. The acidity of groundwaters has given slightly sour taste to drinking water and has also led to the mobilization of trace metals particularly iron, manganese, aluminium and arsenic into the groundwater system. Since borehole supply is rarely treated, these trace ...

  17. Supplying rural Kazakhstan with safe water and sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Tussupova, Kamshat

    2016-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is essential for both individual and population health as well as for quality of life and dignity. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require nations to ensure adequate water supply and sanitation for all. For Kazakhstan, this means that rural areas will need a much stronger attention as they have been rather neglected in efforts to comply with the previous UN Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). A new massive drinking water program in Kaza...

  18. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. S. Cullis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing

  19. Optimization of urban water supply portfolios combining infrastructure capacity expansion and water use decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Fraga, C. C. S.; Marques, G.; Mendes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion and operation of urban water supply systems under rapidly growing demands, hydrologic uncertainty, and scarce water supplies requires a strategic combination of various supply sources for added reliability, reduced costs and improved operational flexibility. The design and operation of such portfolio of water supply sources merits decisions of what and when to expand, and how much to use of each available sources accounting for interest rates, economies of scale and hydrologic variability. The present research provides a framework and an integrated methodology that optimizes the expansion of various water supply alternatives using dynamic programming and combining both short term and long term optimization of water use and simulation of water allocation. A case study in Bahia Do Rio Dos Sinos in Southern Brazil is presented. The framework couples an optimization model with quadratic programming model in GAMS with WEAP, a rain runoff simulation models that hosts the water supply infrastructure features and hydrologic conditions. Results allow (a) identification of trade offs between cost and reliability of different expansion paths and water use decisions and (b) evaluation of potential gains by reducing water system losses as a portfolio component. The latter is critical in several developing countries where water supply system losses are high and often neglected in favor of more system expansion. Results also highlight the potential of various water supply alternatives including, conservation, groundwater, and infrastructural enhancements over time. The framework proves its usefulness for planning its transferability to similarly urbanized systems.

  20. Sustainability of Ancient Water Supply Facilities in Jerusalem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal M. Barghouth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the sustainability of ancient water supply systems in Jerusalem from the Chalcolithic period (4500–3200 B.C. until the present time. Archaeological evidences and landscape settings were applied utilizing all available and accessible literature relevant to ancient water resources management in Jerusalem. Irrigated agriculture was practiced for many centuries in this region, hence sustainable water supply facilities were erected, including well developed aqueducts, water harvesting pools and irrigation channels for water storage and landscaping purposes. To cope with seismic events, soil subsidence and water leakage, ancient water engineers and architects applied innovative construction methods for the erection of water pools, channels and aqueduct systems. Ancient water supply systems in Jerusalem are valuable treasures of past civilizations and crucial urban environmental facilities and their protection is consistent with sustainable development principles. Effective environmental assessment as a decision-making process for sustainable development can be applied to preserve threatened ancient water facilities from major development proposals and urban infrastructure projects in Jerusalem.

  1. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal and private water supplies consist of surface water or ground water which is directed to the intake of...

  2. Development of colorimetric solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) for in-flight Monitoring of spacecraft Water Supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazda, Daniel Bryan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Although having recently been extremely successful gathering data on the surface of Mars, robotic missions are not an effective substitute for the insight and knowledge about our solar system that can be gained though first-hand exploration. Earlier this year, President Bush presented a ''new course'' for the U.S. space program that shifts NASA's focus to the development of new manned space vehicles to the return of humans to the moon. Re-establishing the human presence on the moon will eventually lead to humans permanently living and working in space and also serve as a possible launch point for missions into deeper space. There are several obstacles to the realization of these goals, most notably the lack of life support and environmental regeneration and monitoring hardware capable of functioning on long duration spaceflight. In the case of the latter, past experience on the International Space Station (ISS), Mir, and the Space Shuttle has strongly underscored the need to develop broad spectrum in-flight chemical sensors that: (1) meet current environmental monitoring requirements on ISS as well as projected requirements for future missions, and (2) enable the in-situ acquisition and analysis of analytical data in order to further define on-orbit monitoring requirements. Additionally, systems must be designed to account for factors unique to on-orbit deployment such as crew time availability, payload restrictions, material consumption, and effective operation in microgravity. This dissertation focuses on the development, ground testing, and microgravity flight demonstration of Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) as a candidate technology to meet the near- and long-term water quality monitoring needs of NASA. The introduction will elaborate further on the operational and design requirements for on-orbit water quality monitoring systems by discussing some of the characteristics of an ''ideal'' system. A

  3. Development and Simulation of Decentralised Water and Energy Supply Concepts – Case Study of Rainwater Harvesting at the Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Czarny

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides a sufficient energy supply, concepts for accommodations require an intelligent water management. Using the example of quarters that do not have water and energy access, a dynamic simulation model is presented in which a rainwater harvesting concept is implemented and simulated over one year using MATLAB-Simulink. The aim is to minimize respectively suspend the use of fossil energy sources and to guarantee the provision of decentralized clean drinking water. Since traditional water bodies, e.g. groundwater, are increasingly polluted and depleted, utilisation of alternative sources is prudent. Especially in rural areas, where access to drinking water is scarce, rainwater is suitable for providing potable water. Besides its beneficial chemical water properties, it is easily accessed in a decentralized manner, which makes it a preferred choice in areas with sufficient precipitation. However, access to rainwater is limited by its occurrence and contamination, calling for proper storage, utilisation, and treatment strategies. For this purpose, a rainwater harvesting system, including different water and energy management systems, was modelled and implemented using the site of the Angkor Centre for Conservation of Biodiversity in Cambodia as an example. For the simulation, a precipitation generator was implemented using real historical rain event data. An appropriate rainwater treatment process was chosen, consisting of a microfiltration and a subsequent ultrafiltration unit removing bacteriological loads entirely. Both were modelled and implemented dynamically. Using the site of the Angkor Centre of Conservation of Biodiversity, a complete rainwater harvesting plant was implemented including harvest, storage, and utilization of rainwater. Further, a renewable energy management strategy is developed, using photovoltaic modules and batteries. It was shown that the cumulative runoff meets the water demand of the Angkor Centre for Conservation of

  4. Bulawayo water supplies: Sustainable alternatives for the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandla, Noel; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Sibanda, Peter

    Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabwe with a population of nearly one million people. It is located on the watershed of Umzingwane and Gwayi catchments. The former is part of the Limpopo basin, while the latter drains into the Zambezi basin. Bulawayo has a good potential of economic development but has been stymied by lack of sufficient water. The city currently relies on five surface sources in the Umzingwane catchment where it has to compete with evaporation. The well field from the Nyamandlovu aquifer in the Gwayi catchment, which was constructed as an emergency measure during the 1992 drought, is currently not operational. Alternative water supply sources are far and expensive. A multilinear regression model was developed to analyse and quantify the factors affecting water consumption. It was found that per capita water consumption is very low, indicating suppressed demand. Water rationing, tariffs, rainfall, population growth and gross domestic product are the main factors influencing water consumption in Bulawayo. Assuming that these factors will continue to be influential, future water consumption was projected for intensive, regular and slack water demand management. Future water consumption was then compared with the current water supply capacity in order to determine the date by which the next water supply source is required. With slack demand management, the Nyamandlovu well field should have been operational by 2003, while by the year 2007 an additional source of water is required. With intensive demand management and assuming low population growth, current capacities may suffice to satisfy the suppressed demand until the year 2015, by which time Nyamandlovu wells should be operational again. The additional water supply sources that are currently being considered for Bulawayo (namely the Zambezi water pipeline; Gwayi Shangani dam; Mtshabezi dam; Lower Tuli dam; and Glass block dam) were then compared with an alternative water source not yet

  5. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  6. Installation of potable water supply and heat supply at base of subsoil water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla Evseevna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of groundwater with further use of it for potable water supply and heat supply with the use of heat pump is an important problem. A new revolutionary approach to the decision of energy and water saving that provides rational accommodation of groundwater boreholes ensuring the required flow rate of water through the heat pump evaporator with simultaneously high intensity of heat exchange process is proposed. The method of calculation which allows determining the necessary depth of borehole, quantity of boreholes, in consideration of flow rate and temperature of subsoil water determining capacity of heat pump installation is worked out.

  7. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate

  8. Application of solar disinfection for treatment of contaminated public water supply in a developing country: field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Atif; Scholz, Miklas; Khan, Sadia; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2013-03-01

    A sustainable and low-cost point-of-use household drinking water solar disinfection (SODIS) technology was successfully applied to treat microbiologically contaminated water. Field experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of SODIS and evaluate the potential benefits and limitations of SODIS under local climatic conditions in Karachi, Pakistan. In order to enhance the efficiency of SODIS, the application of physical interventions were also investigated. Twenty per cent of the total samples met drinking water guidelines under strong sunlight weather conditions, showing that SODIS is effective for complete disinfection under specific conditions. Physical interventions, including black-backed and reflecting rear surfaces in the batch reactors, enhanced SODIS performance. Microbial regrowth was also investigated and found to be more controlled in reactors with reflective and black-backed surfaces. The transfer of plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) released from the bottle material polyethylene terephthalate (PET) under SODIS conditions was also investigated. The maximum DEHP concentration in SODIS-treated water was 0.38 μg/L less than the value of 0.71 μg/L reported in a previous study and well below the WHO drinking-quality guideline value. Thus SODIS-treated water can successfully be used by the people living in squatter settlements of mega-cities, such as Karachi, with some limitations.

  9. Planning for water supply projects in Kolkata, India | Guha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mega cities in developing countries like Kolkata in India are often dependent on international agencies for financing its civic infrastructures like water supply network. These funding agencies would require cost benefit analysis for appraisal of the projects. Such study would demand rapid cost estimation as well as the ...

  10. APPLICATION OF APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Zelenika

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The supply of safe water to all population is a basic need to improve health, quality of life and prosperity of people in the region. The paper gives an overview of low cost RWS intermediate technology experienced by UNICEF operations in developing countries.

  11. Ground-water supplies of the Ypsilanti area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles L.; Poindexter, O.F.; Otton, E.G.

    1949-01-01

    As of the date of this report (August 1945), the major water users in the Ypsilanti area are: (1) the city of Ypsilanti, (2) the Willow Run bomber plant, built by the Federal Government and operated by the Ford Motor Co., and (3) the war housing project of the Federal Public Housing Authority, designated in this report the Willow Run Townsite. The city, bomber plant, and townsite have required large quantities of water for domestic and industrial uses, and the necessary water supplies have been developed from wells. The Federal Works Agency had the responsibility of deciding whether the existing water facilities were adequate to meet the expected demands and determining the character of any additional public water-supply facilities that might be constructed with Federal assistance. In order to appraise the ground-water resources of the area the Federal Works Agency requested the Geological Survey to investigate the adequacy of the existing supplies and the availability of additional water. The present report is the result of the investigation, which was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey Division.The water supplies of the three major users are obtained from wells penetrating glacial and associated sands and gravels. Supplies for the city of Ypsilanti and the Willow Run bomber plant are obtained from wells in the valley of the Huron River; the supply for the Willow Run Townsite is obtained from wells penetrating glacial gravels underlying the upland northeast of the valley. The bedrock formations of the area either yield little water to wells or yield water that is too highly mineralized for most uses.The water supply for the bomber plant is obtained from three closely spaced, highly productive wells at the northern edge of the Huron River, a little more than 3 miles southeast of Ypsilanti. The water receives complete treatment in a modern treatment plant. River water also can be treated and has been used occasionally in the winter and spring

  12. Water Quality Index Assessment of Pogradec Water- Supply, in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    , P. Icka; , R. Damo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is applied for the first time in Albania Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Canadian Council of Ministries of the Environment (CCME) for assessment of water quality of water supply network on Pogradec city. CCME WQI, a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess spatial and temporal changes on the quality of any water body. Calculations of the index are based on a combination of three factors: scope - the number of variables whose objectives are not met; freq...

  13. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  14. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck...

  15. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND 58502...

  16. Predicting Trihalomethanes (THMs) in the New York City Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, R.; Van Dreason, R.

    2013-12-01

    Chlorine, a commonly used disinfectant in most water supply systems, can combine with organic carbon to form disinfectant byproducts including carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THMs). We used water quality data from 24 monitoring sites within the New York City (NYC) water supply distribution system, measured between January 2009 and April 2012, to develop site-specific empirical models for predicting total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels. Terms in the model included various combinations of the following water quality parameters: total organic carbon, pH, specific conductivity, and water temperature. Reasonable estimates of TTHM levels were achieved with overall R2 of about 0.87 and predicted values within 5 μg/L of measured values. The relative importance of factors affecting TTHM formation was estimated by ranking the model regression coefficients. Site-specific models showed improved model performance statistics compared to a single model for the entire system most likely because the single model did not consider locational differences in the water treatment process. Although never out of compliance in 2011, the TTHM levels in the water supply increased following tropical storms Irene and Lee with 45% of the samples exceeding the 80 μg/L Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) in October and November. This increase was explained by changes in water quality parameters, particularly by the increase in total organic carbon concentration and pH during this period.

  17. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish......Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like...... and clothes washer replacements is expected to decrease by 14%. In economic terms these changes are equal to 24–85% of water production costs in 2005. Our calculations further indicate that the economic impact from changing the water quality can be at least as significant as the change in operating costs...

  18. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  19. ANALYSIS OF WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE STATE IN LUBLIN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIETRUCHA-URBANIK

    Full Text Available In the paper the analysis of water supply infrastructure in Lublin Province was presented. We analysed the length of the water supply system divided into urban and rural areas, also change of water supply system growth and the analysis of number of connections to buildings over the studied years were presented. An issue of water consumption for household purposes, for industry, agriculture and forestry, and the operational needs of the water supply network, was also discussed. We analysed the percentage of the population using the water supply system and the indicators of equipping individual cities and counties in water supply systems were shown. The paper presents the analysis of the density of the water supply system in relation to national conditions. Appointed indicator of failure rate of water supply systems in the individual districts of Lublin province has an average reliability and failure rate according to the criteria recommended in the study [7]. There was a steady increase in the water supply system and related to it increase in investments. Significant changes that occurred in the field of water supply were the result of Polish accession to the European Union. After this accession Poland had to meet certain requirements related to the functioning of environment protection infrastructure. Changes in individual parameters characterizing the water supply infrastructure fit with the national tendency.

  20. Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, N.

    2010-01-01

    To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In

  1. COMPLEX USE OF RESOURCES IN THE REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. ALEXANDRESCU; F. TĂMĂŞANU

    2011-01-01

    Complex use of resources in the regional water supply systems. Regional water supply systems have expanded the range from county to regional level. These are complex works meant to serve the customers from several counties. Viable sources of underground water have become lower in number, quality and volume, due to pollution. Also, the quality indicators of surface water have downgraded because of the pollution. This paper will analyze a typical case of regional system, the water supply system...

  2. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lieb, Anna M; Wilkening, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic boundary conditions. We validate the model against several published data sets, and demonstrate its use on a real pipe network. The model is extended to consider several optimization problems motivated by realistic scenarios. We demonstrate how to infer water flow in a small pipe network from a single pressure sensor, and show how to control water inflow to minimize damaging pressure gradients.

  3. A Modeling Framework for Improved Agricultural Water Supply Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, G. H.; David, O.; Garen, D. C.; Lea, J.; Marron, J. K.; Pagano, T. C.; Perkins, T. R.; Strobel, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    The National Water and Climate Center (NWCC) of the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service is moving to augment seasonal, regression-equation based water supply forecasts with distributed-parameter, physical process models enabling daily, weekly, and seasonal forecasting using an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) methodology. This effort involves the development and implementation of a modeling framework, and associated models and tools, to provide timely forecasts for use by the agricultural community in the western United States where snowmelt is a major source of water supply. The framework selected to support this integration is the USDA Object Modeling System (OMS). OMS is a Java-based modular modeling framework for model development, testing, and deployment. It consists of a library of stand-alone science, control, and database components (modules), and a means to assemble selected components into a modeling package that is customized to the problem, data constraints, and scale of application. The framework is supported by utility modules that provide a variety of data management, land unit delineation and parameterization, sensitivity analysis, calibration, statistical analysis, and visualization capabilities. OMS uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to collaboratively work on addressing the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. A long-term goal in the development of these water-supply forecasting capabilities is the implementation of an ensemble modeling approach. This would provide forecasts using the results of multiple hydrologic models run on each basin.

  4. Sustainable Water Supplies in Uppsala, Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Bert

    2014-05-01

    This is a description of a transdisciplinary three-day project with upper secondary school students around ecosystem services and sustainability. Uppsala (200 000 inhabitants) gets its municipal water from wells in the esker that dominates the landscape in and around the town. This esker was formed by glacial melt water around 11 000 BP, at the end of the latest glaciation and was lifted above sea level by post-glacial land rise from 6000 BP. To keep up the water table in the esker, water from river Fyris is pumped up and infiltrated in the esker. The river is also the recipient of wastewater downstream of the town, and the river runs out into Lake Mälaren that in its turn spills out into the Baltic Sea through Stockholm. The esker and river can thus be a central topic to work around, in Biology and Geography in upper secondary school, concerning recent and future water supplies, quaternary geology, limnology and landscape history. The fieldwork is carried out during three days in a period of three subsequent weeks. 1. One day is used to examine the water quality in the river above the town, organisms, pH, levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, conductivity and turbidity. Then the direction of the water is followed, first up to the infiltration dams on the esker, and then along the esker to the wells in the town. The formation of the esker and other traces in the landscape from the latest glaciation is also studied, as well as the historical use of the esker as a road and as a source of gravel and sand. The tap water that comes from the wells is finally tested in school in the same way as in the river. 2. The second day is used to follow the wastewater from households to the sewage plant, where the staff presents the plant. The water quality is tested in the same way as above in the outlet from the plant to the river. 3. The third day consists of a limnological excursion on the lake outside the mouth of the river where plankton and other organisms are studied, as

  5. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeogun, Aina O.; Ibor, Oju R.; Adeduntan, Sherifat D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Høgskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with

  6. FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY OF MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot water supply systems. The main research directions of the department of water supply are diverse: hydraulics of water supply systems, recon-struction of pipelines using trenchless technologies, reliable water supply and distribution systems, purification of natural water for drinking and industrial water supply, post-treatment of natural water for domestic water supply, resource conservation in domes-tic water supply systems, etc. The laboratory also has a computer lab, able to simultane-ously hold up to 30 students. In collaboration with the laboratory there operates a scien-tific circle for students and Master students, which provides a lot of interesting and useful information on the latest developments.

  7. Time evolving multi-city dependencies and robustness tradeoffs for risk-based portfolios of conservation, transfers, and cooperative water supply infrastructure development pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, B. C.; Reed, P. M.; Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity in historically water-rich regions such as the southeastern United States is becoming a more prevalent concern. It has been shown that cooperative short-term planning that relies on conservation and transfers of existing supplies amongst communities can be used by water utilities to mitigate the effects of water scarcity in the near future. However, in the longer term, infrastructure expansion is likely to be necessary to address imbalances between growing water demands and the available supply capacity. This study seeks to better diagnose and avoid candidate modes for system failure. Although it is becoming more common for water utilities to evaluate the robustness of their water supply, defined as the insensitivity of their systems to errors in deeply uncertain projections or assumptions, defining robustness is particularly challenging in multi-stakeholder regional contexts for decisions that encompass short management actions and long-term infrastructure planning. Planning and management decisions are highly interdependent and strongly shape how a region's infrastructure itself evolves. This research advances the concept of system robustness by making it evolve over time rather than static, so that it is applicable to an adaptive system and therefore more suited for use for combined short and long-term planning efforts. The test case for this research is the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, where the cities of Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill are experiencing rapid population growth and increasing concerns over drought. This study is facilitating their engagement in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. The insights from this work have general merit for regions where adjacent municipalities can benefit from improving cooperative infrastructure investments and more efficient resource management strategies.

  8. Urban renovation of the hot water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraday Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to improving the reliability of hot water supply systems are considered. Currently, centralized hot water supply systems are in an emergency condition due to the fact that the external networks are made of black pipes without anticorrosive coatings. A fundamental difference between hot water supply systems and heating systems is the nature of black metal corrosion. The purpose of this article is to conduct a research of the state of hot water supply systems and consider options for their recovery. The options suggested for restoration of hot water supply systems in cities and settlements of Ukraine are the following: complete replacement of failed networks with new pre-insulated plastic pipelines; refusal from external networks of centralized hot water supply systems and a central heat point with the installation of individual heat points in each house; decentralization of hot water supply systems by installing electric water heaters. A technical and economic comparison of these options is carried out, and the advantages and disadvantages of each option are considered. The arrangement of a set of individual heat points instead of one central point cannot be considered as the recommended method, because of the need for large additional costs for the reconstruction of heating, water supply and electricity supply systems. The most technically and economically justified method from the considered renovation methods of hot water supply systems is the complete replacement of failed steel pipelines with new nonmetallic pre-insulated structures.

  9. A Study of Prediction of Daily Water Supply using ANFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Kyoung Hoon; Kang, Il Hwan [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Moon, Byoung Seok [Seonam Univ. Namwon (Korea)

    1998-12-31

    This study investigates the prediction of daily water supply, which is a necessary for the efficient management of water distribution system. Fuzzy neuron, namely artificial intelligence, is a neural network into which fuzzy information is inputted and then processed. In this study, daily water supply was predicted through an adaptive learning method by which a membership function and fuzzy rules were adapted for daily water supply prediction. This study was investigated methods for predicting water supply based on data about the amount of water supplied to the city of Kwangju. For variables choice, four analyses of input data were conducted: correlation analysis, autocorrelation analysis, partial autocorrelation analysis, and cross-correlation analysis. Input variables were (a) the amount of water supplied (b) the mean temperature, and (c) the population of the area supplied with water. Variables were combined in an integrated model. Data of the amount of daily water supply only was modelled and its validity was verified in the case that the meteorological office of weather forecast is not always reliable. Proposed models include accidental cases such as a suspension of water supply. The maximum error rate between the estimation of the model and the actual measurement was 18.35 % and the average error was lower than 2.36 %. The model is expected to be a real-time estimation of the operational control of water works and water/drain pipes. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs., 11 figs.

  10. Urban community perception towards intermittent water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M W; Talkhande, A V; Andey, S P; Kelkar, P S

    2002-04-01

    While evaluating intermittent and continuous water supply systems, consumers opinion survey was undertaken for critical appraisal of both modes of operation. With the help of a pre-designed set of questions relating to various aspects of water supply and the opinion of consumers regarding degree of service, a house to house survey was conducted in the study area of Ghaziabad and Jaipur. The consumer opinion survey clearly indicated a satisfactory degree of service wherever adequate quantity of water was made available irrespective of the mode of water supply. Number of complaints regarding quality of water supplied, timings of supply, low pressures and breakdowns in supply were reported during intermittent water supply. Every family stored water for drinking and other uses. Most of the families discard drinking water once the fresh water supply is resumed next day. Discarded drinking water is usually used in kitchen for washing and gardening. Storage for other purposes depends on economic status and availability of other sources like open dug well in the house. While most of the respondents had no complaints on water tariff, all of them were in favour of continuous water supply.

  11. Sources of emergency water supplies in San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    San Mateo County has several densely populated urban areas that get most of their water supplies from surface-water sources that could by damaged by a major earthquake or other general disaster. In the event of such a disaster, limited supplies of potable water may be obtained from selected wells, springs, and perennial streams. This report outlines the principal sources of existing water supplies, gives information on the need for emergency water-supply procedures, presents general criteria needed for selecting emergency water-supply wells, summarizes information for 60 selected water wells, numerous springs, and perennial streams that can be used as sources of water, and describes emergency water-purification procedures that can be used by individuals or small groups of people.

  12. Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Erika C. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of long-term impacts of projected changes in climate, population, and land use and land cover on regional water resource is critical to the sustainable development of the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to fully budget annual water availability for water supply (precipitation ) evapotranspiration + groundwater supply + return flow...

  13. Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent supply is a common way of delivering water in many developing countries. Limitations on water and economic resources, in addition to poor management and population growth, limit the possibilities of delivering water 24 h a day. Intermittent water supply networks are usually designed and managed in an empirical manner, or using tools and criteria devised for continuous supply systems, and this approach can produce supply inequity. In this paper, an approach based on the hydraulic capacity concept, which uses soft computing tools of graph theory and cluster analysis, is developed to define sectors, also called district metered areas (DMAs, to produce an equitable water supply. Moreover, this approach helps determine the supply time for each sector, which depends on each sector’s hydraulic characteristics. This process also includes the opinions of water company experts, the individuals who are best acquainted with the intricacies of the network.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate to... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are...

  15. Forecasting Water Demand and Supply of China for 2025 | Wei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is a kind of renewable resources, but China is faced with a serious shortage of freshwater because of its huge population. In this paper, two models are built to make a forecast of water demand and supply of China in 2025. These two forecasting models for water demand and supply based on the algorithm of Double ...

  16. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in § 76.10-5(c...

  17. Water Allocation and Supply Reliability in the Murrumbidgee Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Randall E.; Musgrave, Warren F.; Bryant, Mike

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the average annual income and income variance of alternative irrigation water allocations and associated supply reliabilities in the Murrumbidgee Valley. Traditionally, water supply authorities have aimed to supply irrigators with their full allocations in all but the most severe drought years. This means that a substantial amount of water is held in storage as a reserve and in most years it is not utilised for irrigation or other, including environ...

  18. Uncertainty Categorization, Modeling, and Management for Regional Water Supply Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K. M.; AlSaati, A.; Alhassan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Many water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from growing demands, variability in supply and a changing climate. Short-term variation in water availability and demand; long-term uncertainty in climate, groundwater storage, and sectoral competition for water; and varying stakeholder perspectives on the impacts of water shortages make it difficult to assess the necessity of expensive infrastructure investments. We categorize these uncertainties on two dimensions: whether they are the result of stochastic variation or epistemic uncertainty, and whether the uncertainties can be described probabilistically or are deep uncertainties whose likelihood is unknown. We develop a decision framework that combines simulation for probabilistic uncertainty, sensitivity analysis for deep uncertainty and Bayesian decision analysis for uncertainties that are reduced over time with additional information. We apply this framework to two contrasting case studies - drought preparedness in Melbourne, Australia and fossil groundwater depletion in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia - to assess the impacts of different types of uncertainty on infrastructure decisions. Melbourne's water supply system relies on surface water, which is impacted by natural variation in rainfall, and a market-based system for managing water rights. Our results show that small, flexible investment increases can mitigate shortage risk considerably at reduced cost. Riyadh, by contrast, relies primarily on desalination for municipal use and fossil groundwater for agriculture, and a centralized planner makes allocation decisions. Poor regional groundwater measurement makes it difficult to know when groundwater pumping will become uneconomical, resulting in epistemic uncertainty. However, collecting more data can reduce the uncertainty, suggesting the need for different uncertainty modeling and management strategies in Riyadh than in Melbourne. We will categorize the two systems and propose appropriate

  19. A hydrologic-economic modeling approach for analysis of urban water supply dynamics in Chennai, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veena Srinivasan; Steven M. Gorelick; Lawrence Goulder

    2010-01-01

    .... In order to do this, we develop a hydrologic-engineering-economic model to address the complexity of urban water supply arising from consumers' dependence on multiple interconnected sources of water...

  20. The Financing of Water Supply and Sewerage Services in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Florentina CUCOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water supply and sewerage services represent utilities that must be provided to all users, both the urban and the rural. The responsibility to ensure these services in terms of non-discrimination and affordability belongs to the local authorities, which in the spirit of decentralization have exclusive jurisdiction on their establishment, organization and operation. Regardless of the chosen management, the funding of water supply and sewerage services, is accomplished by means of the prices and tariffs paid by the users. Their quantum, specific to some social services, covers the costs without allowing the accumulation of consistent profit margins, which would ensure the development of the specific infrastructure from the operators' own funds. It is therefore necessary that funding for the creation and rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage systems to be provided from other sources than the budgets of operators, such as: budgetary allocations of local public authorities, government or European funding programs. This paper is of interest because it captures just how the prices and tariffs for these services are composed, and the entire procedure for foundation, adjustment and modification that follows different rules from those of pricing in the market economy, and it provides a review of the types of programs through which the development of the specific technical-urban infrastructure and the significant increase in the number of users in the past 25 years.

  1. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES is also highly significant for water and energy development programs in the long-term. The objectives of this paper were to provide an estimation of the blue component of WFEP and WFES in China for the period from 2001 to 2014, and to evaluate the impact on water resources from energy production, the contribution of internal and external WFES, and water-energy related issues of the international energy trade by applying water footprint analysis based on the bottom-up approach. The results indicate that generally, the WFEP and WFES in China both maintained steady growth before 2013, with the WFEP increasing from approximately 3900 million m3/year to 10,400 million m3/year, while the WFES grew from 3900 million m3/year to 11,600 million m3/year. The fossil energy production caps of the 13th Five Year Plan can bring the water consumed for fossil energy production back to a sustainable level. Over the long-term, China’s energy trade plan should also consider the water and energy resources of the countries from which fossil energy is imported.

  2. Rethinking Sustainability, Scaling Up, and Enabling Environment: A Framework for Their Implementation in Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urooj Q. Amjad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment are inconsistently used in implementing water supply projects. To clarify these terms we develop a framework based on Normalization Process Theory, and apply the framework to a hypothetical water supply project in schools. The resulting framework provides guidance on how these terms could be implemented and analyzed in water supply projects. We conclude that effective use of the terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment would focus on purpose, process, and perspective. This is the first known attempt to analyze the implementation of the three terms together in the context of water supply services.

  3. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  4. Hard water problems and soft water paths: The "supply versus demand" conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Water problems are complex, interdisciplinary, and have profound effects on human and ecosystem health and well-being. And they are classic "hard" problems. Good science is necessary to solve these problems, but it is rarely sufficient. One of these hard problems is that of "perception" and "frame" - traditional water planners and managers frame freshwater as a "supply" problem, i.e., how can we access and deliver sufficient quantities of water of suitable quality, to satisfy perceived demand. In recent years, however, as water scarcity in different regions has increased due to growing populations and expanding economies, "peak water" limits (including peak renewable, non-renewable, and ecological limits) have started to constrain development of traditional "supply" options (Figure 1). That has led to new thinking about the other side of the equation: what is meant by water "demand" and can demand management tools and approaches offer a way to solve water problems. The "soft path for water" addresses this issue of water demand directly, but implementing demand-side solutions faces serious barriers. This talk will expound on the soft path approach and its potential to overcome some of the gridlock and stagnation in current water policy debates, with examples from both developed and developing countries, and different economic sectors.umulative global reservoir storage (major reservoirs) from 1900 to 2010, showing leveling off of traditional supply expansion. Data from the GRanD database.

  5. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in damage and destruction to local water supplies in Mississippi and Louisiana affecting millions of people. Immediately following the devastation, a multidisciplinary team of 30 EPA emergency response, research, and water program personnel joined force...

  6. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  7. Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Accessibility in Off-Campus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On access to water supply, only 29% had water in their premises, while 71% access water elsewhere of 30 minutes distance. The sources include borehole, protected dug wells, unprotected dug wells; while others during the wet season harvest rain water. Only 18% of the students treated their water by boiling it, adding ...

  8. Microbial quality of Jimma water supply Sofonias Kifle Tsegaye Gadisa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Microbial Quality of Jimma Water Supply. Sofonias Kifle et. al 25 made. For treated water, sample was taken only once but, for untreated water, samples were taken twice according to the guidelines for unchlorinated water. Sample collection procedures. A. Collecting sample from pipe water and protected springs. 1. The out ...

  9. Managing Public Water Utilities: an assessment of bureaucratic and New Public Management models in the water supply and sanitation sectors in low- and middle-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Schwartz (Klaas)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDespite strong encouragement of many international financing and development agencies to stimulate private sector involvement in the water supply and sanitation sector, the overwhelming majority of water supply and sanitation services are still provided by public sector organizations

  10. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  11. Water supply system decision making using multicriteria analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-04

    Jul 4, 2005 ... implementation of the water supply system. This study describes the application of multicriteria decision aid for choosing the priority city to receive a water supply system, using the ELECTRE methodology. It was found that this type of methodol- ogy accommodates the decision-making in selecting a locality, ...

  12. Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and their significance to public health are reviewed in this paper, to highlight their levels of general acceptability and suitability as safeguards against health hazards associated with water supplies. Regular bacteriological analysis with the sole aim of detecting faecal ...

  13. Towards the commercialisation of urban water supply in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Policy for Water Supply and Sanitation of the Federal Government in Nigeria (NPWSS) strongly advocates the adoption of commercialisation and privatisation of piped urban water supply as a means of ensuring its sustainability through full cost recovery. This paper examines the economic feasibility and ...

  14. Community-based management of water supply services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mogane-Ramahotswa, B

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of suitability of water supply is the ability of the community to manage its own scheme. Unlike in urban settlement institutional arrangements for rural water supply are rudimentary. Over the past decade...

  15. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  16. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the opti...

  17. Change in the southern U.S. water demand and supply over the next forty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven C. McNulty; Ge Sun; Erika C. Cohen; Jennifer A. Moore Myers

    2008-01-01

    Water shortages are often considered a problem in the western United States, where water supply is limited compared to the eastern half of the country. However, periodic water shortages are also common in the southeastern United States due to high water demand and periodic drought. Southeastern U.S. municipalities spend billions of dollars to develop water storage...

  18. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electricity and water supply in Lokoja, Jos and Kaduna, 1900-1939 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the development of electricity and water supply in Northern Nigeria have not received much attention. However, most of the studies dealing with the theme under investigation are those undertaking by some urban historians, engineers, town planners and geographers. Even then, electricity and water supplies are ...

  20. Water Supply. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-9-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on water supply is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 4-hour unit is to assist the firefighter in the proper use of water supplies and the understanding of the…

  1. An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water managers around the world are adopting decentralized water supply systems, often in combination with centralized systems. While increasing demand for water arising from population growth is one of the primary reasons for this increased adoption of alternative technologies, factors such as climate change, increased frequency of extreme weather events and rapid urbanization also contribute to an increased rate of adoption of these technologies. This combination of centralized-decentralized water systems approach is referred to as “hybrid water supply systems” and is based on the premise that the provision of alternative water sources at local scales can both extend the capacity of existing centralized water supply infrastructures, and improve resilience to variable climatic conditions. It is important to understand, however, that decentralized water production and reuse may change the flow and composition of wastewater and stormwater, thereby potentially also having negative impacts on its effectiveness and performance. This paper describes a framework to assess the interactions between decentralized water supply systems and existing centralized water servicing approaches using several analytical tools, including water balance modelling, contaminant balance modelling and multi-criteria decision analysis. The framework enables the evaluation of impacts due to change in quantity and quality of wastewater and stormwater on the existing centralized system arising from the implementation of hybrid water supply systems. The framework consists of two parts: (1 Physical system analysis for various potential scenarios and (2 Ranking of Scenarios. This paper includes the demonstration of the first part of the framework for an area of Melbourne, Australia by comparing centralized water supply scenario with a combination of centralized water supply and reuse of treated waste water supply scenario.

  2. Sharing the burden of water supply protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn A. Dehring; Craig A. Depken

    2010-01-01

    A sufficient supply of freshwater is critical to human survivability and biodiversity. Much of the recent decline in freshwater biodiversity and overall freshwater ecosystem health is attributable to land use change.

  3. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide emergency supplies of clean water to any locality confronted with a source of contaminated water... interests to provide normal supplies of water. (9) State, tribal, and local governments must make full use... interests are responsible for restoration of the routine supply of clean drinking water, including...

  4. Mobility for elderly people: market supply developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekstra, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes parts of a survey on the market supply expectations in the field of mobility products for elderly over the next 10 years. It focuses on the expected developments with respect to: travel information for private and public transport ; driver support systems for private transport by

  5. [Development of medical supplies management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianping; Shen, Beijun; Zhu, Huili

    2012-11-01

    This paper adopts advanced information technology to manage medical supplies, in order to improve the medical supplies management level and reduce material cost. It develops a Medical Supplies Management System with B/S and C/S mixed structure, optimizing material management process, building large equipment performance evaluation model, providing interface solution with HIS, and realizing real-time information briefing of high value material's consumption. The medical materials are managed during its full life-cycle. The material consumption of the clinical departments is monitored real-timely. Through the closed-loop management with pre-event budget, mid-event control and after-event analysis, it realizes the final purpose of management yielding benefit.

  6. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  7. Improving Potable Water Accessibility And Sustainability Through Efficient Management Of Pipe Water Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Nakabugo, Stella Mirembe

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how to improve potable water accessibility and sustainability through efficient management of pipe water supply system a case study of Uganda, Kampala region. Kampala the capital city of Uganda still faces a challenge to access clean potable water. Water supply coverage is 77.5 % showing at least 22.5 % of the total population has limited access to potable drinking water causing a gap between water supply and water demand. Hypotheses of the paper were that the city's popu...

  8. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  9. Perceived Impact of Private Sector Involvement In Water Supply on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article reveals that public provision of water to the urban poor have been grappling with huge demands for water resulted from poor water infrastructure, high operation costs, mismanagement, illegal connections, poor urban planning and limited investment in water supply services just to mention few. These bottlenecks ...

  10. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  11. Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-09-15

    Supplying piped water intermittently is a common practice throughout the world that increases the risk of microbial contamination through multiple mechanisms. Converting an intermittent supply to a continuous supply has the potential to improve the quality of water delivered to consumers. To understand the effects of this upgrade on water quality, we tested samples from reservoirs, consumer taps, and drinking water provided by households (e.g. from storage containers) from an intermittent and continuous supply in Hubli-Dharwad, India, over one year. Water samples were tested for total coliform, Escherichia coli, turbidity, free chlorine, and combined chlorine. While water quality was similar at service reservoirs supplying the continuous and intermittent sections of the network, indicator bacteria were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in samples from taps supplied intermittently compared to those supplied continuously (p water supply tap samples positive for E. coli. In samples from both continuously and intermittently supplied taps, higher concentrations of total coliform were measured after rainfall events. While source water quality declined slightly during the rainy season, only tap water from intermittent supply had significantly more indicator bacteria throughout the rainy season compared to the dry season. Drinking water samples provided by households in both continuous and intermittent supplies had higher concentrations of indicator bacteria than samples collected directly from taps. Most households with continuous supply continued to store water for drinking, resulting in re-contamination, which may reduce the benefits to water quality of converting to continuous supply. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches the head losses in the inner water supply line will be significantly decreased as well as the water mains length will be decreased with material and installation saving. Based on the data the conclusions on necessity to review standard arrangement solutions of water supply systems in the reconstructed buildings were made. Recommendations on water loss reduction in the system by installation of special water saving fittings on water devices and touchless faucets.

  13. Measuring the Welfare Losses from Urban Water Supply Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Buck; Maximilian Auffhammer; Stephen Hamilton; David Sunding

    2015-01-01

    The paper evaluates welfare losses from urban water supply disruptions. The analysis incorporates important features of the water industry that may cause the initial allocation of water to be inefficient, namely that ther are a large number of retail-level water utilities, and that mosst water utilities engage in a form of average cost pricing where volumetric rates are used to finance fixed expenses. We consider a sample of 53 urban water utilities in California collectively providing servic...

  14. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2003-01-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  15. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  16. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  17. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual......, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community...

  18. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  19. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  20. Energy-Saving Optimization of Water Supply Pumping Station Life Cycle Based on BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Miao; Wang, Jiayuan; Liu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    In the urban water supply system, pump station is the main unit of energy consumption. In the background of pushing forward the informatization in China, using BIM technology in design, construction and operations of water supply pumping station, can break through the limitations of the traditional model and effectively achieve the goal of energy conservation and emissions reduction. This work researches the way to solve energy-saving optimization problems in the process of whole life cycle of water supply pumping station based on BIM technology, and put forward the feasible strategies of BIM application in order to realize the healthy and sustainable development goals by establishing the BIM model of water supply pumping station of Qingdao Guzhenkou water supply project.

  1. Monitoring systems for community water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. E.; Brooks, R. R.; Jeffers, E. L.; Linton, A. T.; Poel, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Water monitoring system includes equipment and techniques for waste water sampling sensors for determining levels of microorganisms, oxygen, chlorine, and many other important parameters. System includes data acquisition and display system that allows computation of water quality information for real time display.

  2. Groundwater as source of rural water supply in Ghana | Gyau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exploitation of groundwater for water supply needs of many rural communities in Africa has been on the increase in the last decade. The emphasis or reliance on groundwater supplies for rural communities stems from the fact that groundwater sourcing is not only feasible but also the most economic source of potable ...

  3. Evaluating Water Supply Risk in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Hanjiang River Basin Based on an Integrated Optimal Water Resources Allocation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Xingjun Hong; Shenglian Guo; Le Wang; Guang Yang; Dedi Liu; Haijin Guo; Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    The rapid socio-economic development and expanding human-induced hydrological alteration have strengthened the interactions between the social and hydrologic systems. To assess regional water supply security under changing water supply and demand condition in strongly human-impacted area, an integrated water resources management model that fully incorporates water demand prediction, optimal water resources allocation and water supply risk analysis is proposed and applied in the mid-lower reac...

  4. Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most instances water conservation and water-demand management and the development of local surface and groundwater resources are the most feasible options to meet any current or projected future water-supply shortfalls. Any intervention must be combined with a skills-development programme at the operational ...

  5. Assessment of domestic water supply situation in rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result indicated that only three percent (3%) of the people have access to clean and safe pipe-borne water while the remaining 97% relied on streams, rain water, wells and springs for their domestic uses. Only 26% of the people had water supply within their houses while 47% of the rural dwellers trek for over an hour to ...

  6. Sources Of Incidental Events In Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the main types of incidental events in collective water supply system. The special attention was addressed to the incidental events associated with a decrease in water quality, posing a threat to the health and life of inhabitants. The security method against incidental contamination in the water source was described.

  7. Trace elements determination in municpal water supply in Damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater is the only source of drinking water for residents of Damaturu Metropolis. This is because surface water is very scarce as a result of the very low and erratic rainfall in the region. This study examines the presence of trace elements in the municipal water supplies of Damaturu Metropolis, Yobe state. The trace ...

  8. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Gregor

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  9. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  10. Water Supply and Treatment Equipment. Change Notice 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-05

    provides technical guidance and recommendations for the sanitary control and surveillance of land-based field water support. It establishes field...of Defense Helicopters, 3 February 1997. 4. TB MED 577, Sanitary Control and Surveillance of Field Water Supplies, 1 May 2010. 5. TOP 01-2-610...water quality standards, describes the process for water portability certification and water quality surveillance requirements, and provides guidance

  11. Incidence of coliphage in potable water supplies.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Abagy, M M; Dutka, B J; Kamel, M; el Zanfaly, H T

    1988-01-01

    Samples of drinking water from different sources in greater Cairo, Egypt, and bottled drinking water were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, and coliphage populations. Of the 147 samples tested, 4 samples were positive for both total coliforms and coliphage, 65 samples were negative for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and coliphage, and 78 samples were positive for coliphage and negative for total coliforms and fecal coliforms. The incidence of coliphage in these potable water suppl...

  12. Official data on German water supply: 2004, 2007, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Zschille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Research Data Centers of the German Federal Statistical Office and the Statistical Offices of the German 'Länder' provide information on potable water supply in Germany ('Statistik der öffentlichen Wasserver- und Abwasserentsorgung', EVAS No. 32211). Together with these statistics, information on sewage collection and treatment is also available. However, the focus of this data documentation is only on the data on potable water supply. [...

  13. The need for a standard approach to assessing the functionality of rural community water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsor, Helen; MacDonald, Alan; Casey, Vincent; Carter, Richard; Wilson, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals have set an agenda for transformational change in water access, aiming for secure household connections globally. Despite this goal, communal groundwater supplies are likely to remain the main source of improved water supplies for many rural areas in Africa and South Asia for decades to come. Understanding the poor functionality of existing communal supplies remains, therefore, a priority. A critical first step is to establish a sector-wide definition of borehole supply functionality and a standard method of its assessment.

  14. Trends in Rural Water Supply: Towards a Service Delivery Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2013-10-01

    The papers in this special issue argue that tackling these challenges requires a shift in emphasis in rural water supply in developing countries: away from a de-facto focus on the provision of hardware for first-time access towards the proper use of installed hardware as the basis for universal access to rural water services. The outline of the main actions required to achieve this shift are becoming clearer. Chief amongst these are the professionalisation of community management and/or provision of direct support to community service providers; adoption of a wider range of service delivery models than community management alone; and addressing the sustainable financing of all costs with a particular focus on financing capital maintenance (asset management and direct support costs. This introductory paper provides an overview of these issues and a guide to the other articles, which demonstrate these points.

  15. Water supply at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ishizawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE has sourced domestic water for daily use from ponds, snow drifts, and icebergs on sea ice at Syowa Station since the first wintering expedition. These water sources are dependent on weather conditions and maintenance of the sources requires considerable human effort and thermal energy. For example, the maintenance of outside water tanks and pipelines requires a lot of working force of wintering members and huge thermal energy which has been obtained from waste heat of engine generators. Here, we propose seawater desalination method using a reverse osmosis membrane to provide a reliable domestic water source to Syowa Station. Such a system could meet the station's water needs without requiring a large amount of staff time or heat energy.

  16. Public water supplies in Gloucester County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, William F.

    1963-01-01

    Gloucester County is in the southwestern part of New Jersey, below Camden, and is a part of the Lower Delaware River Valley. This area is attracting new industry and has shown a population increase of about 47 percent from 1950 to 1960, mostly urban. With the economic growth of the county, the availability and quality of water become increasingly important. The county is in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. It is underlain by unconsolidated sands and clays of Quaternary, Tertiary, and Cretaceous age. The Raritan and Magothy Formations constitute the most important aquifers and yield more than 95 percent of the water pumped by the public water systems in the county. These formations are capable of yielding 1,400 gpm (gallons per minute) or more to large diameter wells. High yielding wells generally can be drilled anywhere in the county, although the formations are deeper toward the Atlantic Ocean. The Cohansey Sand, second most important aquifer, yields up to 800 gpm or more from large diameter wells. This aquifer is present only in the sparsely populated southeastern half of the county. The Wenonah Formation and Mount Laurel Sand are capable of yielding 100 to 200 gpm in certain areas. The overall chemical quality of the naturally occurring ground water is good. The water generally meets the U.S. Public Health Service's (1962) suggested limit for dissolved solids; however, in some areas, the water carries objectionable amounts of iron and nitrate in solution and has a low pH. Contamination of ground water by salt-water encroachment or by pollution from industrial activity or organic waste in densely populated areas should be prevented. The quality rather than the quantity of water may be the important factor in future ground-water developments. The 21 public water systems in Gloucester County pumped about 1.3 billion gallons of water during 1948 and some 2.7 billion gallons during 1959. This is slightly more than a hundred percent increase in pumpage in 12 year s

  17. Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Brame, Jonathon; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2013-03-19

    Ensuring reliable access to clean and affordable water is one of the greatest global challenges of this century. As the world's population increases, water pollution becomes more complex and difficult to remove, and global climate change threatens to exacerbate water scarcity in many areas, the magnitude of this challenge is rapidly increasing. Wastewater reuse is becoming a common necessity, even as a source of potable water, but our separate wastewater collection and water supply systems are not designed to accommodate this pressing need. Furthermore, the aging centralized water and wastewater infrastructure in the developed world faces growing demands to produce higher quality water using less energy and with lower treatment costs. In addition, it is impractical to establish such massive systems in developing regions that currently lack water and wastewater infrastructure. These challenges underscore the need for technological innovation to transform the way we treat, distribute, use, and reuse water toward a distributed, differential water treatment and reuse paradigm (i.e., treat water and wastewater locally only to the required level dictated by the intended use). Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next-generation water supply systems. This Account reviews promising nanotechnology-enabled water treatment processes and provides a broad view on how they could transform our water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The extraordinary properties of nanomaterials, such as high surface area, photosensitivity, catalytic and antimicrobial activity, electrochemical, optical, and magnetic properties, and tunable pore size and surface chemistry, provide useful features for many applications. These applications include sensors for water quality monitoring, specialty adsorbents, solar disinfection/decontamination, and high performance membranes. More importantly, the modular, multifunctional and high-efficiency processes enabled by nanotechnology provide a

  18. Modelling Water Supply-Billing and Collection Systems for Effective Utility Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water is a strong constraint to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals by 2020. The water supply coverage of 38.3% of the total population corresponds to 45 litres per person and an average supply period of 3.5 hours daily. This further explains the degree of water-stress in Ikare. Annual non-revenue of 18.3% represented $6.2 million USD which was lost to physical water loss, thus leading to gradual increase in operation ratio value of 1.05. Chlorination water treatment is cost effective for large water scheme than ultraviolent (UV with a price index of $ 0.01 per 1m 3 of water. The predicted cost for plant with 5 million m 3 capacity. Increasing water supply coverage requires the reduction of non-revenue water and creates effective tariff system.

  19. The management of potable water supply in Mogwase Township, Moses Kotane Local Municipality / Daniel Kagiso Mosime

    OpenAIRE

    Mosime, Daniel Kagiso

    2014-01-01

    The continuous population growth and the notable development of the mining industry have resulted in challenges for potable water supply in South Africa. The ever-increasing number of people migrating to urban areas has resulted in the demand of potable water supply in South Africa. Water is regarded as a human basic right which is promulgated by the recent amendment of the potable water service provisioning Water Services Act 108 of 1997 and the National Water Act 36 of 1998. The afore-menti...

  20. About economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotov, P. V.; Sivukhin, A. A.; Zhukov, D. A.; Zhukova, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The assessment of the power efficiency realized in the current of heat supply system of technology of regulation of loading of the hot water supply system, considering unevenness consumption of hot water is executed. For the purpose of definition the applicability boundary of realized technology comparative analysis of indicators of the effectiveness of its work within the possible range of the parameters of regulations. Developed a software application “The calculation of the total economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system when you change of the parameters of regulations”, which allows on the basis of multivariate calculations analyses of their results, to choose the optimum mode of operation heat supply system and to assess the effectiveness of load regulation in the hot water supply system.

  1. Lesotho - Rural Water Supply and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation design of the rural water intervention proposes two separate approaches so as to ensure a “defensive evaluation” that is, so that results can...

  2. Water supply project feasibilities in fringe areas of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply management to the peri-urban areas of the developing world is a complex task due to migration, infrastructure and paucity of fund. A cost-benefit methodology particularly suitable for the peri-urban areas has been developed for the city of Kolkata, India. The costs are estimated based on a neural network estimate. The water quality of the area is estimated from samples and a water quality index has been prepared. A questionnaire survey in the area has been conducted for relevant information like income, awareness and willingness to pay for safe drinking water. A factor analysis has been conducted for distinguishing the important factors of the survey and subsequent multiple regressions have been conducted for finding the relationships for the willingness to pay. A system dynamics model has been conducted to estimate the trend of increase of willingness to pay with the urbanizations in the peri-urban areas. A cost benefit analysis with the impact of time value of money has been executed. The risk and uncertainty of the project is investigated by Monte Carlos simulation and tornado diagrams. It has been found that the projects that are normally rejected in standard cost benefit analysis would be accepted if the impacts of urbanizations in the peri-urban areas are considered.

  3. National water summary 1987: Hydrologic events and water supply and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.; Moody, David W.

    1990-01-01

    the quality might degrade with each additional use.The allocation and the management of water resources are the responsibilities of the individual States and water institutions within the States. These institutions are evolving in response to the challenges of water management problems. As the individual State summaries indicate, recent State legislation deals with facilitating water transfers within the States as a means of reducing imbalances between water supplies and use, with emphasizing water conservation in times of drought and at places where groundwater depletion is a problem of long standing, and with reducing threats to public health and the environment from water pollution.Most of the State summaries indicate the expectation that water use will continue to increase in the future and that water contamination will continue to be a major water concern. Both issues will require increasingly intensive water management in the future. Whether the water resources under management are considered to be fully appropriated or over appropriated, as in some Western States, or whether the resource could support additional development, as is the situation in most States, improved water-use information will play a key role in future water management efforts.

  4. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.5 Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. Water supply outlook reports prepared by NRCS and its cooperators containing water supply forecasts and basic data are usually...

  5. Economic Insight from Utah’s Water Efficiency Supply Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Edwards

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Across the western US, growing populations and urbanization along with environmental demands and a changing climate have strained water allocation mechanisms originally designed to provide water to agriculture. This paper provides a methodology, using Utah as an example, for examining the options for new water supply via conservation, interpretable by policymakers, water agencies, and water users. Findings indicate that the largest potential water savings, at the lowest cost, are in agriculture and outdoor residential water use, where more efficient applications can maintain the acreage of crops and lawns at current levels while dramatically reducing use.

  6. [Public drinking water supply and egg laying by Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela R A Monteiro; Chaves, Leonardo Suveges Moreira; Serpa, Lígia Leandro Nunes; Arduíno, Marylene de Brito; Chaves, Francisco José Moreira

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of the quality of publicly supplied water in domestic water tanks on egg laying by female Aedes aegypti. Laboratory study on immature Ae. aegypti, collected from water-tanks in the municipality of Potim, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Each cage contained three types of water in which eggs could be laid: Three choice per test were simultaneously used to deposit the eggs, ovipositor (A) with water collected from a water tank in Taubaté, ovipositor (B) with distilled water (control) and ovipositor (C) water collected from a water tank in the municipality of Potim. Physiochemical parameters were analyzed. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to analyze the mean number of eggs in each water sample and the Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner test was used in making comparisons. To evaluate egg laying, an ovipositional activity index was adopted. A significant difference in the number of eggs was found between the liquid solutions tested (H = 45; p water tank samples originating from deep wells (C), was statistically superior to water samples from water tanks originating from superficial wells (A) (p water (A). In all three tests, the first position was the most productive in all tested solutions. Only water sample (C) produced a positive index (0.54), i.e., attractive to egg laying. Water quality influences egg laying by Aedes aegypti. The high concentrations of ammonium nitrate in public water supplies suggest that this chemical component was responsible for attracting pregnant female Aedes aegypti to lay eggs in these environments.

  7. Optimal crop selection and water allocation under limited water supply in irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Peter; Grießbach, Ulrike; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with limited water resources in irrigation systems, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand at the same time. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). These functions take into account different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. The SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies.

  8. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  9. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

  10. Ensuring water availability in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia: evaluation of the water supply sub-project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Temitope D. Timothy

    2017-11-01

    The need and demand for water in the world are becoming acute with the growing population. This is mostly pressing in developing countries of which Mekelle City in Northern Ethiopia is not an exception. World Bank borehole-support sub-project was aimed at addressing this challenge. The evaluation of the intervention indicates that there is a significant increase in water supply in the city because of the sub-project. However, the increase in water supply has not been able to meet up with the already established and increasing demand. Coupled with this challenge are: the limited capacity of human capital and expertise that will ensure the proper management of borehole interventions; insufficient cost recovery for proper operation and maintenance of the projects; loss of land and farmlands and lack of compensations because of the projects which affect the livelihood.

  11. Ensuring water availability in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia: evaluation of the water supply sub-project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Temitope D. Timothy

    2017-05-01

    The need and demand for water in the world are becoming acute with the growing population. This is mostly pressing in developing countries of which Mekelle City in Northern Ethiopia is not an exception. World Bank borehole-support sub-project was aimed at addressing this challenge. The evaluation of the intervention indicates that there is a significant increase in water supply in the city because of the sub-project. However, the increase in water supply has not been able to meet up with the already established and increasing demand. Coupled with this challenge are: the limited capacity of human capital and expertise that will ensure the proper management of borehole interventions; insufficient cost recovery for proper operation and maintenance of the projects; loss of land and farmlands and lack of compensations because of the projects which affect the livelihood.

  12. Sea water magnesium fuel cell power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert; Mainert, Jan; Glaw, Fabian; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-08-01

    An environmentally friendly magnesium fuel cell system using seawater electrolyte and atmospheric oxygen was tested under practical considerations for use as maritime power supply. The hydrogen rate and therefore the power density of the system were increased by a factor of two by using hydrogen evolution cathodes with a gas separation membrane instead of submerged cathodes without gas separation. Commercial magnesium AZ31 rolled sheet anodes can be dissolved in seawater for hydrogen production, down to a thickness below 100 μm thickness, resulting in hydrogen generation efficiency of the anode of over 80%. A practical specific energy/energy density of the alloy of more than 1200 Wh/kg/3000 Wh/l was achieved when coupled to a fuel cell with atmospheric air breathing cathode. The performance of several AZ31 alloy anodes was tested as well as the influence of temperature, electrolyte concentration and anode - cathode separation. The excess hydrogen produced by the magnesium hydrogen evolving cell, due to the negative difference effect, is proportional to the cell current in case of the AZ31 alloys, which simplifies system control considerably. Stable long-term operation of the system was demonstrated at low pressures which can be maintained in an open-seawater-submerged hydrogen generator.

  13. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  14. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quantity of water collected per day in each of five rural sources was inadequate (> 6 buckets or Ca 90 litres). Besides, all the traditional sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternatives supplies. Only 4.4% of the rural water users subjected them to any further treatment such ...

  15. Calculation of Water Supply to Hydraulic Jet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Krautsou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence for calculation of working fluid supply to water-air ejector is proposed. The de­pendence has been derived via analysis and processing of data being obtained by experimental research of water-jet devices.

  16. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of potable water to every nock and crannies of the state must be pursed vigorously. To achieve this task in Ekiti State, the problems militating against the supply of clean water need to be tackled effectively. For this reason, the rehabilitation of existing dams provision of funds, completion of the 132 KVA ...

  17. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions...

  18. Supply chain management in product development.

    OpenAIRE

    Tzortzopoulos, Patricia; Kagioglou, Mike; Cooper, Rachel; Dyson, E

    2009-01-01

    Mounting emphasis on construction supply chain management (CSCM) is due to both global sourcing of materials and a shortage of labor. These factors force increasing amounts of value-added work to be conducted off-site deep in the supply chain. Construction Supply Chain Management Handbookcompiles in one comprehensive source an overview of the diverse research and examples of construction supply chain practice around the world.Reflecting the emergence of CSCM as an important area of multi-nati...

  19. Best Practices for Water Conservation and Efficiency as an Alternative for Water Supply Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released a document that provides water conservation and efficiency best practices for evaluating water supply projects. The document can help water utilities and federal and state governments carry out assessments of the potential for future

  20. Evaluating Water Supply and Water Quality Management Options for Las Vegas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.

    2007-05-01

    The ever increasing population in Las Vegas is generating huge demand for water supply on one hand and need for infrastructure to collect and treat the wastewater on the other hand. Current plans to address water demand include importing water from Muddy and Virgin Rivers and northern counties, desalination of seawater with trade- payoff in California, water banking in Arizona and California, and more intense water conservation efforts in the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). Water and wastewater in the LVV are intrinsically related because treated wastewater effluent is returned back to Lake Mead, the drinking water source for the Valley, to get a return credit thereby augmenting Nevada's water allocation from the Colorado River. The return of treated wastewater however, is a major contributor of nutrients and other yet unregulated pollutants to Lake Mead. Parameters that influence the quantity of water include growth of permanent and transient population (i.e., tourists), indoor and outdoor water use, wastewater generation, wastewater reuse, water conservation, and return flow credits. The water quality of Lake Mead and the Colorado River is affected by the level of treatment of wastewater, urban runoff, groundwater seepage, and a few industrial inputs. We developed an integrated simulation model, using system dynamics modeling approach, to account for both water quantity and quality in the LVV. The model captures the interrelationships among many variables that influence both, water quantity and water quality. The model provides a valuable tool for understanding past, present and future pathways of water and its constituents in the LVV. The model is calibrated and validated using the available data on water quantity (flows at water and wastewater treatment facilities and return water credit flow rates) and water quality parameters (TDS and phosphorus concentrations). We used the model to explore important questions: a)What would be the effect of the water transported from

  1. Large-Scale Water Resources Management within the Framework of GLOWA-Danube - Part B: The Water Supply Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, D.; Barthel, R.; Schmid, C.; Braun, J.

    2003-04-01

    The research project GLOWA-Danube, financed by the German Federal Government, investigates long-term changes in the water cycle of the Upper Danube river basin in light of global climatic change. Its concrete aim is to build a fully integrated decision support tool that combines the competence of eleven different institutes in domains covering all major aspects governing the water cycle - from the formation of clouds to groundwater flow patterns to the behaviour of the water consumer. The research group "Water Supply" at the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (IWS), Universitaet Stuttgart, has the central task of creating an agent-based model of the water supply sector. The Water Supply model will act as a link between the various physical models determining water quality and availability on the one hand and the actors models determining water demand on the other, which together form the tool DANUBIA. Ultimately, with the help of scenario testing, the water supply model will indicate the ability of the water supply system in the Upper Danube catchment to adapt to changing boundary conditions using different management approaches. The specific aim of the Water Supply model is the creation of a model which is not only able to simulate the present day system of water extraction, treatment and distribution but also its development and change with time. As most changes to the system are brought about by decisions made by relevant actors in the field of water management or their behaviour (in response to political and economic boundary conditions, changes in water demand or water quality, advances in technology etc.), the use of agent-based modelling was chosen, whereby an agent is seen as a computer system (in our case representing a human or group of humans) which is aware of its environment, has defined objectives and is able to act independently in order to meet these objectives. Whereas agent-based modelling has received much attention over the past decades, the use

  2. WATER SUPPLY PIPE REPLACEMENT CONSIDERING SUSTAINABLE TRANSITION TO POPULATION DECREASED SOCIETY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Yoji; Aklog, Dagnachew; Masuda, Takanori

    Social infrastructures are aging and population is decreasing in Japan. The aged social infrastructures should be renewed. At the same time, they are required to be moved into new framework suitable for population decreased societies. Furthermore, they have to continue to supply sufficient services even during transition term that renewal projects are carried out. Authors propose sustainable soft landing management of infrastructures and it is tried to apply to water supply pipe replacement in this study. Methodology to replace aged pipes not only aiming for the new water supply network which suits for population decreased condition but also ensuring supply service and feasibility while the project is carried out was developed. It is applied for a model water supply network and discussions were carried out.

  3. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS: A MULTI ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central Oklahoma aquifer, which supplies drinking water to numerous communities in central Oklahoma. Concentrations as high as 230 µg/L have been reported in some drinking water supply wells from this aquifer. The city of Norman, like most other affected cities, is actively seeking a cost-effective solution to the arsenic problem. Only six of the city’s 32 wells exceeded the old MCL of 50 µg/L. With implementation of the new MCL this year, 18 of the 32 wells exceed the allowable concentration of arsenic. Arsenic-bearing shaly sandstones appear to be the source of the arsenic. It may be possible to isolate these arsenic-bearing zones from water supply wells, enabling production of water that complies with drinking water standards. It is hypothesized that geologic mapping together with detailed hydrogeochemical investigations will yield correlations which predict high arsenic occurrence for the siting of new drinking water production wells. More data and methods to assess the specific distribution, speciation, and mode of transport of arsenic in aquifers are needed to improve our predictions for arsenic occurrence in water supply wells. Research is also needed to assess whether we can ret

  4. Efficient dynamic scarcity pricing in urban water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien J.; Escriva-Bou, Alvar

    2017-04-01

    Water pricing is a key instrument for water demand management. Despite the variety of existing strategies for urban water pricing, urban water rates are often far from reflecting the real value of the resource, which increases with water scarcity. Current water rates do not bring any incentive to reduce water use in water scarcity periods, since they do not send any signal to the users of water scarcity. In California, the recent drought has spurred the implementation of drought surcharges and penalties to reduce residential water use, although it is not a common practice yet. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive calls for the implementation of new pricing policies that assure the contribution of water users to the recovery of the cost of water services (financial instrument) while providing adequate incentives for an efficient use of water (economic instrument). Not only financial costs should be recovered but also environmental and resource (opportunity) costs. A dynamic pricing policy is efficient if the prices charged correspond to the marginal economic value of water, which increases with water scarcity and is determined by the value of water for all alternative uses in the basin. Therefore, in the absence of efficient water markets, measuring the opportunity costs of scarce water can only be achieved through an integrated basin-wide hydroeconomic simulation approach. The objective of this work is to design a dynamic water rate for urban water supply accounting for the seasonal marginal value of water in the basin, related to water scarcity. The dynamic pricing policy would send to the users a signal of the economic value of the resource when water is scarce, therefore promoting more efficient water use. The water rate is also designed to simultaneously meet the expected basic requirements for water tariffs: revenue sufficiency (cost recovery) and neutrality, equity and affordability, simplicity and efficiency. A dynamic increasing block rate (IBR

  5. Climatic changes, flood prevention and water supply in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleš Bizjak

    1999-01-01

    The forecasts following research on climatic changes and consequences of global warming on the environment that were carried out by research institutes predict qualitative and quantitative changes in certain elements of the water cycle, such as: precipitation, soil humidity, storms and intensive weather and the sea level. The article shows possible effects of climatic change on the water cycle, floods and water supply in Slovenia

  6. Climatic changes, flood prevention and water supply in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Bizjak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The forecasts following research on climatic changes and consequences of global warming on the environment that were carried out by research institutes predict qualitative and quantitative changes in certain elements of the water cycle, such as: precipitation, soil humidity, storms and intensive weather and the sea level. The article shows possible effects of climatic change on the water cycle, floods and water supply in Slovenia

  7. Introduction of water footprint assessment approach to enhance water supply management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Syazwan N.; Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Presently, Water Footprint (WF) Approach has been used to assess the sustainability of a product's chain globally but is lacking in the services sector. Thus, this paper aims to introduce WF assessment as a technical approach to determine the sustainability of water supply management for the typical water supply treatment process (WSTP) used in Malaysia. Water supply is one of the pertinent services and most of WF accounting begins with data obtained from the water supply treatment plant. Therefore, the amount of WF will be accounted for each process of WSTP in order to determine the water utilization for the whole process according to blue, green and grey WF. Hence, the exact amount of water used in the process can be measured by applying this accounting method to assess the sustainability of water supply management in Malaysia. Therefore, the WF approach in assessing sustainability of WSTP could be implemented.

  8. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    - & stormwater harvesting as the most environmentally friendly technology followed by the cases relying on groundwater abstraction. The least favorable case is desalination of seawater. Rain- & stormwater harvesting and desalination have markedly lower environmental impacts in the use stage compared to the base...... data was extracted from the national implementation of the EU water framework directive. When incorporating the impacts of freshwater withdrawal in addition to the standard LCA the rank order is partly reversed since rain- & stormwater harvesting and desalination are significantly more preferable...... showed that the result depends upon the weighting of the sustainability categories. This study shows that when the highest weight is assigned to environment then the case of rain- & stormwater harvesting is the most sustainable followed by desalination of seawater. When the highest weight was assigned...

  9. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerability Distribution of Water Resources in a Regional Water Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Tung, C.; Li, M.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. It is important to know how climate change might effect regional water resources, however, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will effect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate. For example, the water supply of some area is from the water of river. When the storm occurred, the water can't be treated due to high density of suspended sediment in the river. Then the water supply in this area is more vulnerable to climate. This study used an integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool. A water supply system is very complex which needs dynamic modeling to determine the vulnerability distribution. This study used a system dynamics model- VENSIM connected with TaiWAP to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  10. Optimal demand reponse to water pricing policies under limited water supply in irrigation: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grießbach, Ulkrike; Stange, Peter; Schuetze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with the higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local stochastic water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. These functions take into account different soil types, crops, stochastically generated climate scenarios considering different economic conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed and applied for a case study in Saxony which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies on a regional level.

  11. Irrigation, risk aversion, and water right priority under water supply uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Xu, Wenchao; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    2017-09-01

    This paper explores the impacts of a water right's allocative priority—as an indicator of farmers' risk-bearing ability—on land irrigation under water supply uncertainty. We develop and use an economic model to simulate farmers' land irrigation decision and associated economic returns in eastern Idaho. Results indicate that the optimal acreage of land irrigated increases with water right priority when hydroclimate risk exhibits a negatively skewed or right-truncated distribution. Simulation results suggest that prior appropriation enables senior water rights holders to allocate a higher proportion of their land to irrigation, 6 times as much as junior rights holders do, creating a gap in the annual expected net revenue reaching up to 141.4 acre-1 or 55,800 per farm between the two groups. The optimal irrigated acreage, expected net revenue, and shadow value of a water right's priority are subject to substantial changes under a changing climate in the future, where temporal variation in water supply risks significantly affects the profitability of agricultural land use under the priority-based water sharing mechanism.

  12. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  13. Optimization of energy cost in water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimoch, Izabela; Bartkiewicz, Ewelina

    2017-11-01

    The decreasing amount of fossil fuels and deteriorating air quality forces the governments to introduce a rational energy management in all sectors of economy. At the beginning of the twenty-first century many water supply systems (WSSs) were oversized because of the reduction of water consumption, especially in industry. This resulted in high energy consumption in the pumping stations. Improving pumps operation will decrease energy consumption and also the water prices. The purpose of this paper is to present a method of energy optimization in WSSs. This paper presents an analysis of energy consumption in a selected water supply system. In this study pumps located in water treatment plants and pumping station cooperating with the tanks are analyzed. The study used hydraulic model of the WSS created in MOSKAN-W, which defines pumpś parameters such as flow, head, and efficiency. Using optimization options of calculation software several scenarios of energy costs were prepared.

  14. Economic Aspects of Urban Water Supply: Some Reflections on Water Conservation Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Hanke, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Water supply planning has traditionally been carried out in two steps: first, water requirements are forecast; and second, water systems are planned to meet these requirements. This traditional approach served water planners well until the 1960's. Then costs began to increase dramatically but regulators failed to allow revenues to increase as rapidly. As a result, the traditional approach to water supply planning became inadequate. To reduce costs and reduce waste, planners began to consider ...

  15. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  16. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  17. Presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae in the water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Farzana Abubakar; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae. Rotavirus was present in 35% of the water samples collected from water filtration plants; however, domestic tap water samples had a prevalence of only 5%. Out of 20 water samples from filtration plants, 13 (65%) were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and one (5%) was positive for B. mandrillaris. Out of 20 drinking water samples collected from different areas of Karachi, 35% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Rotavirus was detected in 5% of the drinking water samples tested. Overall, these findings showed for the first time the presence of rotavirus, in addition to pathogenic free-living amoebae in drinking water supplies of Karachi that could be an important public health risk for the affected population. PMID:28591260

  18. Presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae in the water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Abubakar Yousuf

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae. Rotavirus was present in 35% of the water samples collected from water filtration plants; however, domestic tap water samples had a prevalence of only 5%. Out of 20 water samples from filtration plants, 13 (65% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and one (5% was positive for B. mandrillaris. Out of 20 drinking water samples collected from different areas of Karachi, 35% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Rotavirus was detected in 5% of the drinking water samples tested. Overall, these findings showed for the first time the presence of rotavirus, in addition to pathogenic free-living amoebae in drinking water supplies of Karachi that could be an important public health risk for the affected population.

  19. Metabolic modelling to support long term strategic decisions on water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, Valentina; Felisa, Giada; Lauriola, Ilaria; Pomanti, Flavio; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2017-04-01

    Water resources are essential for the economic development and sustenance of anthropic activities belonging to the civil, agricultural and industrial sectors. Nevertheless, availability of water resources is not uniformly distributed in space and time. Moreover, the increasing water demand, mainly due to population growth and expansion of agricultural crops, may cause increasing water stress conditions, if combined with the effects of climate change. Under these circumstances, it is necessary to improve the resilience of water supply systems both in terms of infrastructures and environmental compliance. Metabolic modelling approaches represent a flexible tool able to provide support to decision making in the long term, based on sustainability criteria. These approaches mimic the water supply network through a set of material and energy fluxes that interact and influence each other. By analyzing these fluxes, a suite of key performance indicators is evaluated in order to identify which kind of interventions may be applied to increase the sustainability of the system. Here, we adopt these concepts to analyze the water supply network of Reggio-Emilia (Italy) which is supported by water withdrawals from both surface water and groundwater bodies. We analyze different scenarios, including possible reduction of water withdrawals from one of the different sources as a consequence of a decrease in water availability under present and future scenarios. On these basis, we identify preventive strategies for a dynamic management of the water supply system.

  20. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.6 Application for water supply forecast service. Requests for obtaining water supply forecasts or...

  1. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454... section except the periodic testing required by paragraph (j) of this section. Electric hot water supply...

  2. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  3. Corrosion of galvanized pipes in the hot water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the problem of steel pipes corrosion in domestic hot water supply systems. A case study of abnormally high rate of corrosion of galvanized steel pipes in a hot water supply system, installed in a complex of residential and public buildings, was considered. The rapid corrosion led to premature failure of these pipelines. Onsite visual inspection, chemical analysis of the tap water with LSI/RSI calculation and scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis were used during this study. The basic factors that lead to pitting corrosion were established: quality of source water (its high corrosion activity, high temperature and local increase in oxygen content near the pipe surface. A possibility of microbial corrosion was also assumed.

  4. Spatial distribution of water supply in the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Michael T. Hobbins; Jorge A. Ramirez

    2008-01-01

    Available water supply across the contiguous 48 states was estimated as precipitation minus evapotranspiration using data for the period 1953-1994. Precipitation estimates were taken from the Parameter- Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Evapotranspiration was estimated using two models, the Advection-Aridity model and the Zhang model. The...

  5. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any State or Indian tribe that has not certified completion of all coal-related reclamation under section... service area expansion of a utility or facility not necessary to address a specific abandoned mine land...

  6. Potable water supply in owerri metropolis: a challenge to mdgs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research paper examined the readiness of the Imo State Government to deliver the MDGs by 2015 through potable water supply. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed randomly to heads of households in the residential zone, 20 at the institutional areas, 20 to traders within the commercial zone and 5 ...

  7. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...

  8. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  9. Public Perception of Potable Water Supply in Abeokuta South west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception of residents towards the supply of potable water to Abeokuta was assessed with the aid of questionnaire. Well-structured interviewer administered questionnaire were distributed across the city through the stratified random sampling method using the network distribution map obtained from the Ogun State ...

  10. Determinants of willingness to pay for improved water supply services in rural Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussupova, Kamshat

    2017-04-01

    The UN Sustainable development goals declare to provide water, sanitation and hygiene for all. The supply of affordable and safe water is a global priority and there is thus a requirement for a safe drinking water management and management of excreta disposal and wastewater. The current paper assesses the determinants of consumers' willingness to connect and pay (WTP) for the piped water in rural Kazakhstan. The results show that local villagers use water from different sources and at least three quarters of the respondents are willing to connect and use water from the piped water supply. The general defined determinants for WTP should be carefully considered among the different water users. Perceived water quality is a variable that is relevant for all water users. Other variables such as perceived reliability and the time-spent to collect water from the source, in-household treatment of water, and income perception are also significant but differently correlated with the WTP among different water users. Although, piped water is considered to be a safe system if properly managed, still some water users are reluctant to pay for the system and are satisfied with their current water supply and sanitation services. In this case, a proper management for the drinking water and wastewater and safe management of the excreta disposal should be supplied. It is recommended to include local water userś opinion as regard the willingness to connect and pay for the piped water system. The findings are of particular importance for policy-makers, water managers, engineers, and public health specialists.

  11. Developing green supply chain management strategies: A taxonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mutingi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this research is to explore the empirical green supply chain activities found in literature, and to develop a taxonomic framework that can be used for formulating appropriate strategies for green supply chains, based on characteristic dimensions for the green supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The taxonomic framework is developed through (i analysis of green supply chain activities found in existing empirical work or case studies recorded in literature, (ii identification of key dimensions that influence green supply chain management strategies, and (iii development of a taxonomic scheme for selecting or developing green strategies. Findings: The paper finds that this study yielded: a set of three characteristic dimensions that influence strategic green supply chain management, and a guided structured approach selecting appropriate green strategies, providing managerial insights. Research limitations/implications: This paper shows that future work includes development of specific performance management indices according to the taxonomy of green strategies developed in this study. Practical implications: This research provided a practical guided approach that enhances appropriate formulation of green strategies for green supply chain management, while providing sound managerial insights for the supply chain decision maker. The choice of supply chain strategy directly impacts the overall environmental, economic and operations performance of the supply chain. Originality/value: This study presents to supply chain decision makers a new taxonomic framework that simplifies and enhances the formulation of green strategies, and to researchers a comparative understanding of various strategies applicable to green supply chains.

  12. Public water-supply systems and associated water use in Tennessee, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John A.; Brooks, Jaala M.

    2010-01-01

    Public water-supply systems in Tennessee provide water to for domestic, industrial, and commercial uses, and municipal services. In 2005, more than 569 public water-supply systems distributed about 920 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of non-purchased surface water and groundwater to a population of nearly 6 million in Tennessee. Surface-water sources provided 64 percent (about 591 Mgal/d) of the State's water supplies. Groundwater produced from wells and springs in Middle and East Tennessee and from wells in West Tennessee provided 36 percent (about 329 Mgal/d) of the public water supplies. Gross per capita water use for Tennessee in 2005 was about 171 gallons per day. Water withdrawals by public water-supply systems in Tennessee have increased from 250 Mgal/d in 1955 to 920 Mgal/d in 2005. Tennessee public water-supply systems withdraw less groundwater than surface water, and surface-water use has increased at a faster rate than groundwater use. However, 34 systems reported increased groundwater withdrawals during 2000–2005, and 15 of these 34 systems reported increases of 1 Mgal/d or more. The county with the largest surface-water withdrawal rate (130 Mgal/d) was Davidson County. Each of Tennessee's 95 counties was served by at least one public water-supply system in 2005. The largest groundwater withdrawal rate (about 167 Mgal/d) by a single public water-supply system was reported by Memphis Light, Gas and Water, which served 654,267 people in Shelby County in 2005.

  13. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  14. Potable Water Emergency/Contingency Plan. Water Supply Information Paper; No. IP-31-020

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grover, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides guidance to installations for preparing an emergency/contingency plan to effectively address potential contamination of drinking water supplies, and for providing potable water during emergencies...

  15. Isotopic Fingerprint for Phosphorus in Drinking Water Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooddy, Daren C; Lapworth, Dan J; Ascott, Matthew J; Bennett, Sarah A; Heaton, Timothy H E; Surridge, Ben W J

    2015-08-04

    Phosphate dosing of drinking water supplies, coupled with leakage from distribution networks, represents a significant input of phosphorus to the environment. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate (δ(18)OPO4), a novel stable isotope tracer for phosphorus, offers new opportunities to understand the importance of phosphorus derived from sources such as drinking water. We report the first assessment of δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies. A total of 40 samples from phosphate-dosed distribution networks were analyzed from across England and Wales. In addition, samples of the source orthophosphoric acid used for dosing were also analyzed. Two distinct isotopic signatures for drinking water were identified (average = +13.2 or +19.7‰), primarily determined by δ(18)OPO4 of the source acid (average = +12.4 or +19.7‰). Dependent upon the source acid used, drinking water δ(18)OPO4 appears isotopically distinct from a number of other phosphorus sources. Isotopic offsets from the source acid ranging from -0.9 to +2.8‰ were observed. There was little evidence that equilibrium isotope fractionation dominated within the networks, with offsets from temperature-dependent equilibrium ranging from -4.8 to +4.2‰. While partial equilibrium fractionation may have occurred, kinetic effects associated with microbial uptake of phosphorus or abiotic sorption and dissolution reactions may also contribute to δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies.

  16. Adapting Community-Based Water Supply in Central America to a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Central America, nearly 24,000 community-based organizations supply drinking water to rural and peri-urban residents. By delivering potable water, these organizations improve the health and welfare of millions, and play a key role in local economic development. Climate change in the region is resulting in higher ...

  17. A Potential Approach for Low Flow Selection in Water Resource Supply and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang

    2012-01-01

    Low flow selections are essential to water resource management, water supply planning, and watershed ecosystem restoration. In this study, a new approach, namely the frequent-low (FL) approach (or frequent-low index), was developed based on the minimum frequent-low flow or level used in minimum flows and/or levels program in northeast Florida, USA. This FL approach was...

  18. Concerns in Water Supply and Pollution Control: Legal, Social, and Economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D. Barlow, Jr.; And Others

    This bulletin contains three articles which focus on ground water's potential as a dependable supply source and some of the problems impeding the development of that potential. The authors' concerns are discussed from the vantage point of their areas of specialization: law, sociology, and economics. The first author states that water law abounds…

  19. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Bath, A.

    2011-01-01

    to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO2-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3...... ± 0.2 per delivered m3 for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water...... supply planning and management....

  20. Improved Sustainability of Water Supply Options in Areas with Arsenic-Impacted Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. McBean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The supply of water for rural populations in developing countries continues to present enormous problems, particularly where there is arsenic contamination in the groundwater, as exists over significant parts of Bangladesh. In response, improvements in the sustainability of water supplies are feasible through the use of a combination of water sources wherein rainwater harvesting is employed for a portion of the year. This can potentially reduce the duration of the year during which arsenic-contaminated groundwater is utilized. As demonstrated, a rainwater cistern volume of 0.5 m3 in the Jessore district area of Bangladesh can provide rainwater for periods averaging 266 days of the year, which allows groundwater at 184 µg/L arsenic to be used as a water supply for the remainder of the year. This dual supply approach provides the body burden equivalent to the interim drinking water guideline of arsenic concentration of 50 µg/L for 365 days of the year (assuming the water consumption rate is 4 L/cap/day for a family of five with a rainwater collection area of 15 m2. If the water use rate is 20 L/cap/day, the same cistern can provide water for 150 days of the year; however, although this is insufficient to supply water to meet the body burden equivalent guideline of 50 µg/L. Results are provided also for different rooftop areas, sizes of cisterns and alternative arsenic guidelines [World Health Organization (WHO and Bangladeshi]. These findings provide useful guidelines on supply options to meet sustainability targets of water supply. However, they also demonstrate that the use of cisterns cannot assist the meeting of the 10 µg/L WHO target arsenic body burden, if the arsenic contamination in the groundwater is high (e.g., at 100 µg/L.

  1. Water supply as a constraint on transmission expansion planning in the Western interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Bailey, Michael; Zemlick, Katie M.; Moreland, Barbara D.

    2016-12-01

    Consideration of water supply in transmission expansion planning (TEP) provides a valuable means of managing impacts of thermoelectric generation on limited water resources. Toward this opportunity, thermoelectric water intensity factors and water supply availability (fresh and non-fresh sources) were incorporated into a recent TEP exercise conducted for the electric interconnection in the Western United States. The goal was to inform the placement of new thermoelectric generation so as to minimize issues related to water availability. Although freshwater availability is limited in the West, few instances across five TEP planning scenarios were encountered where water availability impacted the development of new generation. This unexpected result was related to planning decisions that favored the development of low water use generation that was geographically dispersed across the West. These planning decisions were not made because of their favorable influence on thermoelectric water demand; rather, on the basis of assumed future fuel and technology costs, policy drivers and the topology of electricity demand. Results also projected that interconnection-wide thermoelectric water consumption would increase by 31% under the business-as-usual case, while consumption would decrease by 42% under a scenario assuming a low-carbon future. Except in a few instances, new thermoelectric water consumption could be accommodated with less than 10% of the local available water supply; however, limited freshwater supplies and state-level policies could increase use of non-fresh water sources for new thermoelectric generation. Results could have been considerably different if scenarios favoring higher-intensity water use generation technology or potential impacts of climate change had been explored. Conduct of this exercise highlighted the importance of integrating water into all phases of TEP, particularly joint management of decisions that are both directly (e.g., water

  2. Application of a risk management framework to a drinking water supply augmented by stormwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzalm, J L; Page, D W; Dillon, P J

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Lake is an important water resource for the city of Mount Gambier and the surrounding region, primarily as the drinking water supply source, but also as a tourist attraction. Mount Gambier's stormwater is discharged directly via drainage wells into the unconfined, karstic Gambier Limestone aquifer, which in turn provides the majority of recharge to Blue Lake. Discharge of urban runoff to the aquifer commenced in the 1800s as a means of stormwater management, but is now recognised as contributing to the drinking water supply in Blue Lake. Recently, guidelines for managing the risks associated with water recycling and augmenting drinking water supplies have been developed. This paper examines the organic chemical hazards associated with a stormwater to potable recycling scheme as an example of the current risk management framework.

  3. Earthquake damage scenario simulation of a water supply system in Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ji-Hao; Chen, Walter W.

    2008-10-01

    Taiwan is located in the Circum-Pacific Belt and at the junction of the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The island is squeezed over a long period of time, so the frequency of the occurrence of earthquakes is very high. Changes of terrain due to seismic forces such as fault ruptures and surface uplifts could cause extensive damage to water pipeline networks. The 921 Ji-Ji earthquake was one of the most serious disasters in recent years in Taiwan, and it indeed resulted in the most severe damage of water supply systems. The urban water supply network is very important for municipal water management in Taiwan. If the water supply systems break down, hospitals and fire stations will not have enough water to carry out the rescue work, and the results may worsen the disasters. This study took the water supply system of the West District in Taipei City as an example. First, the metro-Taipei area was split into three hundred and twenty-seven 1 km by 1 km cells. Second, the location of a simulated earthquake was determined. Third, the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) value of each cell was calculated by an empirical formula. Fourth, the Repair Rate (RR) of each cell was calculated based on its PGA value. Fifth, using the GIRAFFE software developed by Cornell University, the Monte Carlo simulation method was used to simulate the possible damage to the water supply system. And finally, the EPANET program developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency was applied to compute the distribution of flow volumes and water pressures of the damaged water supply system. Results of the pipeline network under different scenarios of earthquake magnitudes are shown in this study, and they provide an evaluation basis to decision makers to improve the pipeline infrastructures for fire protection after major earthquakes.

  4. Concentration and size of asbestos in water supplies.

    OpenAIRE

    Millette, J R; Clark, P J; Pansing, M F; Twyman, J D

    1980-01-01

    A review of the results of over 1500 asbestos analyses from U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations in their drinking water over 1 x 10(6) fibers per liter. There are, however, some populations that are exposed to waterborne asbestos concentrations over 10 x 10(6) fibers per liter caused by natural erosion, mine processing wastes, waste pile erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipe, or disintegration of asbestos tile roofs...

  5. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela

    2016-08-01

    The growth and concentration of population, housing and industry in urban and suburban areas in the continuous evolution of a city over time causes complex social, economic, and physical challenges. The population and its relationship with the use and development of the land and water is a critical issue of urban growth, and since ancient times land, water and man were directly involved in the human populations' survival. Nevertheless the current potential of study over this relationship between urban growth, water supply, drainage and water resources conditions becomes more and more attractive due to the possibility to make use of the broader variety of information sources and technologies readily available in recent years, with emphasis on the open data and on the big data as primary sources. In this regard we present some new possibilities of analyses over the demographics, land use/land cover and water supply and conservation based on a study over a Romanian region of development (Bucharest-Ilfov). As urban development usually outgrows the existing water supply systems, the resolution consists in drilling new and deeper wells, building new water distribution pipelines, building longer aqueducts and larger reservoirs, or finding new sources and constructing completely new water supply systems, water supplies may evolve this way from a result into a cause and driver of urban growth. The evolution trends of the studied area was estimated based on the open satellite time-series imagery and remote sensing techniques by land use/land cover extraction and the identification of the changes in urbanization. The survey is mainly focused on the expansion of the water network in terms of areal, total length and number of connections correlated with the amount of water produced, consumed and lost within a supply zone. Some urban human activities including the industrial ones alter water resource by pollution, over pumping of groundwater, construction of dams and reservoirs

  6. Water supply in the long term: a risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2000-01-01

    Integrated water assessment studies are often confined to a study of physical aspects, considering the relation between surface and groundwater, water quantity and water quality, and between water, land and climate. The interaction between changes in the water system and socio-economic development

  7. [Significance of underground waters for population water supply of oil- producing regions in the Republic of Tatarstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A V; Tafeeva, E A

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides the hygienic characteristics of the underground waters used for water supply of the population of oil-producing regions in the Republic of Tatarstan (RT). The most common indicators of poor-quality drinking water of centralized water-supply systems from underground sources are shown to be its high mineralization, hardness, and higher than normal hygiene levels of chlorides, sulfates, and iron. The primary reason for drinking water quality deterioration is a high (as high as 70%) wear of water mains. It is noted that industrially based sanitary-and-hygienic and nature-conservative measures to improve water supply conditions for the population are being implemented under the financial backing of OAO "Tatneft" in the oil-producing regions. Considerable development-and-survey work is under way to detect and approve underground water reserves; underground reserves of fresh water have been today industrially introduced for the water supply of the towns of Zainsk, Bugulma, Nurlat, and the industrial community of Urussu. More than 400 springs and sources have been constructed, by meeting all the sanitary-and-hygienic requirements.

  8. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the cooperative snow survey and water supply forecast program, NRCS: (a) Establishes, maintains, and operates manual...

  9. Proposal for a Model of Co-Management for the Small Community Water Supplies in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bernal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the conceptual evolution of Community Based Monitoring (CBM from different approaches : social capital, common pool resources and co-management or collaborative management, and presents the main co-management strategies applied to water supply at small scale: local and community driven development (LCDD and sustainable services at scale (SSS. Supported by this theoretical background, and in order to improve access to drinking water in rural communities in Colombia, the authors propose a co-management model for small and community water supplies.

  10. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer; Restrepo-Osorio, Diana

    2017-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release provides derivative statistics of water used by Kansas public-supply systems in 2015. Gallons per capita per day is calculated using self-reported information in the “Part B: Monthly Water Use Summary” and “Part C: Population, Service Connections, and Water Rates” sections of the Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources' (DWR) annual municipal water use report (see appendixes at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds964 for an example of a municipal water use report form.) Percent unaccounted for water is calculated using self-reported information in “Part B: Monthly Water Use Summary” of the DWR’s municipal water-use report. The published statistics from the previous 4 years (2011–2014) are also shown with the 2015 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. Derivative statistics of 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 5-year averages for gallons per capita per day (gpcd) are also provided by the Kansas Water Authority's 14 regional planning areas, and the DWR regions used for analysis of per capita water use in Kansas. An overall Kansas average (yearly and 5-year average) is also calculated. Kansas state average per capita municipal water use in 2015 was 105 gpcd.

  11. Managing drought risk with a computer model of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system in central New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Paul; Tasker, Gary

    1996-01-01

    The reservoirs and pumping stations that comprise the Raritan River Basin water-supply system and its interconnections to the Delaware-Raritan Canal water-supply system, operated by the New Jersey Water Supply Authority (NJWSA), provide potable water to central New Jersey communities. The water reserve of this combined system can easily be depleted by an extended period of below-normal precipitation. Efficient operation of the combined system is vital to meeting the water-supply needs of central New Jersey. In an effort to improve the efficiency of the system operation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the NJWSA, has developed a computer model that provides a technical basis for evaluating the effects of alternative patterns of operation of the Raritan River Basin water-supply system. This fact sheet describes the model, its technical basis, and its operation.

  12. An integrated mine development and supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, T. [Brambles Coal Services, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    In the face of intense global competition and other business pressures on coal miners, ongoing quality initiatives and continuous process improvements are needed to enhance business performance. By viewing a minesite interms of key processes, rather than departments, and employing innovative technologies and better applying organisational resources, there exists enormous potential to achieve reductions in process cost and time. The paper identifies and selects one critical coal mining process, namely the supply system, to think about how productivity improvements might occur and what changes might be employed to enhance overall system performance. While the supply system is one of few processes existing at a minesite, the paper addresses only the supply process, but includes interaction across traditional interdepartmental boundaries. The paper has been prepared for a wide audience and is based on experience and observation at several underground mines however some of the concepts are a result of dreaming in the face of global competition. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Developing Exchange in Short Local Foods Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Engelseth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Findings reveal that since these chains are transparent, reciprocal interdependency is abundant mainly because human perception creates a sufficient understanding of the operations management issues pertinent within this simple inter-organisational structure. Local foods supply chains are similar to service supply chains. This includes that both are short in nature and associated with bi-directional interaction between the customer and supplier. Developing short supply chains in local foods supply is associated with improving the exchange economy found in short supply chains. This also implies that development of local foods supply is associated with two paths which may be complementary. First, the use of improved intensive technology associated with reciprocal interdependency to develop efficiencies in the bi-directional and somewhat complex interaction. Alternatively local foods suppliers may seek to reduce this form of reciprocal interdependency thereby increasing the impact of pooled interdependencies and enabling using mediating technology involving standardising interaction such as through increased standardised products and packaging as well as automation of information connectivity.

  14. Monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal care products in reservoir water used for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal-Ciro, Carolina; Botero-Coy, Ana María; López, Francisco J; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the presence of selected emerging contaminants has been investigated in two reservoirs, La Fe (LF) and Rio Grande (RG), which supply water to two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of Medellin, one of the most populated cities of Colombia. An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the sample followed by measurement by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for this purpose. Five monitoring campaigns were performed in each reservoir, collecting samples from 7 sites (LF) and 10 sites (RG) at 3 different depths of the water column. In addition, water samples entering in the DWTPs and treated water samples from these plans were also analysed for the selected compounds. Data from this work showed that parabens, UV filters and the pharmaceutical ibuprofen were commonly present in most of the reservoir samples. Thus, methyl paraben was detected in around 90% of the samples collected, while ibuprofen was found in around 60% of the samples. Water samples feeding the DWTPs also contained these two compounds, as well as benzophenone at low concentrations, which was in general agreement with the results from the reservoir samples. After treatment in the DWTPs, these three compounds were still present in the samples although at low concentrations (water are still unknown. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to these compounds via consumption of drinking water.

  15. Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in WondoGenet district, Southern Ethiopia to assess the water quality of rural water supply schemes in relation to the sustainability of their service delivery. 28 functional water points were selected randomly, for their assessments. The assessments included sanitary surveillance of water points and ...

  16. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  18. Life-cycle energy impacts for adapting an urban water supply system to droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad; Lane, Joe L; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, cities in some water stressed regions have explored alternative water sources such as seawater desalination and potable water recycling in spite of concerns over increasing energy consumption. In this study, we evaluate the current and future life-cycle energy impacts of four alternative water supply strategies introduced during a decade-long drought in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. These strategies were: seawater desalination, indirect potable water recycling, network integration, and rainwater tanks. Our work highlights the energy burden of alternative water supply strategies which added approximately 24% life-cycle energy use to the existing supply system (with surface water sources) in SEQ even for a current post-drought low utilisation status. Over half of this additional life-cycle energy use was from the centralised alternative supply strategies. Rainwater tanks contributed an estimated 3% to regional water supply, but added over 10% life-cycle energy use to the existing system. In the future scenario analysis, we compare the life-cycle energy use between "Normal", "Dry", "High water demand" and "Design capacity" scenarios. In the "Normal" scenario, a long-term low utilisation of the desalination system and the water recycling system has greatly reduced the energy burden of these centralised strategies to only 13%. In contrast, higher utilisation in the unlikely "Dry" and "Design capacity" scenarios add 86% and 140% to life-cycle energy use of the existing system respectively. In the "High water demand" scenario, a 20% increase in per capita water use over 20 years "consumes" more energy than is used by the four alternative strategies in the "Normal" scenario. This research provides insight for developing more realistic long-term scenarios to evaluate and compare life-cycle energy impacts of drought-adaptation infrastructure and regional decentralised water sources. Scenario building for life-cycle assessments of water supply

  19. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY SOURCE WATER ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENNETT,D.B.; PAQUETTE,D.E.; KLAUS,K.; DORSCH,W.R.

    2000-12-18

    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered

  20. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  1. Managing Water Supply through Joint Regional Municipal Authorities in Finland: Two Comparative Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Stenroos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze two Finnish Joint Regional Authorities for Water Supply—namely the Raisio-Naantali Joint Municipal Authority for Water Supply (established in 1957 and the Tuusula Region Joint Municipal Authority for Water Supply (established in 1967—for assessing the development of supra-municipal water governance. The above two cases make it possible to analyze and assess water policies in settings where the owners are groups of municipalities. The analysis is based on two separately conducted case studies. The study data consist of several types of materials: Annual reports, local government documents, etc. The conducted interviews were semi-structured with some themes defined beforehand. The studies describe two authorities in the context of historical development and as a part of local development.

  2. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1996. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLin, S.G.; Purtymun, W.D.; Maes, M.N.; Longmire, P.A.

    1997-12-01

    Production of potable municipal water supplies during 1996 totaled about 1,368.1 million gallons from wells in the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi well fields. There was no water used from either the spring gallery in Water Canyon or from Guaje Reservoir during 1996. About 2.6 million gallons of water from Los Alamos Reservoir was used for lawn irrigation. The total water usage in 1996 was about 1,370.7 million gallons, or about 131 gallons per day per person living in Los Alamos County. Groundwater pumpage was up about 12.0 million gallons in 1996 compared with the pumpage in 1995. This report fulfills requirements specified in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (Groundwater Protection Management Program), which requires the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to monitor and document groundwater conditions below Pajarito Plateau and to protect the regional aquifer from contamination associated with Laboratory operations. Furthermore, this report also fulfills special conditions by providing information on hydrologic characteristics of the regional aquifer, including operating conditions of the municipal water supply system.

  3. Water Supply at Los Alamos 1998-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard J. Koch; David B. Rogers

    2003-03-01

    impacts by production on long-term water supply sustainability at Los Alamos. This report summarizes production data and aquifer conditions for water production and monitor wells in the Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) area (Figure 1). Water production wells are grouped within the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi fields, the locations of which are shown on Figure 1. Wells from these fields supply all the potable water used for municipal and most industrial purposes in Los Alamos County (LAC), at LANL, and at Bandelier National Monument. This report has three primary objectives: (1) Provide a continuing historical record of metered well production and overall water usage; (2) Provide data to the Department of Energy (DOE) and LANL management, and Los Alamos County planners for operation of the water supply system and for long-range water resource planning; and (3) Provide water-level data from regional aquifer production wells, test wells, and monitoring wells.

  4. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  5. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  6. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

    2001-05-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with

  7. Designing Decentralized Water and Electricity Supply System for Small Recreational Facilities in the South of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasharin, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article tackles the issues of designing seasonal water and power supply systems for small recreational facilities in the south of Russia based on intelligent decision support systems. The paper proposes modular prefabricated shell water and power supply works (MPSW&PW) along with energy-efficient standalone water-treatment plants as the principal facilities compliant with the environmental and infrastructural requirements applied to specially protected areas and ensuring the least possible damage to the environment due to a maximum possible use of local construction materials characterized by impressive safety margins in highly seismic environments. The task of designing water and power supply systems requires the consideration of issues pertaining to the development of an intelligent GIS-based system for the selection of water intake sites that facilitate automation of data-processing systems using a priori scanning methods with a variable step and random directions. The paper duly addresses such issues and develops parameterized optimization algorithms for MPSW&PW shell facilities. It equally provides the substantiation of water-treatment plants intelligent design based on energy recovery reverse osmosis and nanofiltration plants that enhance the energy efficiency of such plants serving as the optimum solution for the decentralized water supply of small recreational facilities from renewable energy sources.

  8. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  9. Multi-objective analysis of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in a multisource water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, João; da Conceição Cunha, Maria

    2017-04-01

    A multi-objective decision model has been developed to identify the Pareto-optimal set of management alternatives for the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater of a multisource urban water supply system. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, Borg MOEA, is used to solve the multi-objective decision model. The multiple solutions can be shown to stakeholders allowing them to choose their own solutions depending on their preferences. The multisource urban water supply system studied here is dependent on surface water and groundwater and located in the Algarve region, southernmost province of Portugal, with a typical warm Mediterranean climate. The rainfall is low, intermittent and concentrated in a short winter, followed by a long and dry period. A base population of 450 000 inhabitants and visits by more than 13 million tourists per year, mostly in summertime, turns water management critical and challenging. Previous studies on single objective optimization after aggregating multiple objectives together have already concluded that only an integrated and interannual water resources management perspective can be efficient for water resource allocation in this drought prone region. A simulation model of the multisource urban water supply system using mathematical functions to represent the water balance in the surface reservoirs, the groundwater flow in the aquifers, and the water transport in the distribution network with explicit representation of water quality is coupled with Borg MOEA. The multi-objective problem formulation includes five objectives. Two objective evaluate separately the water quantity and the water quality supplied for the urban use in a finite time horizon, one objective calculates the operating costs, and two objectives appraise the state of the two water sources - the storage in the surface reservoir and the piezometric levels in aquifer - at the end of the time horizon. The decision variables are the volume of withdrawals from

  10. Evaluating the electricity intensity of evolving water supply mixes: the case of California’s water network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Draut, Jennifer; Taptich, Michael; Kavvada, Olga; Horvath, Arpad

    2017-11-01

    Climate change is making water supply less predictable, even unreliable, in parts of the world. Urban water providers, especially in already arid areas, will need to diversify their water resources by switching to alternative sources and negotiating trading agreements to create more resilient and interdependent networks. The increasing complexity of these networks will likely require more operational electricity. The ability to document, visualize, and analyze water–energy relationships will be critical to future water planning, especially as data needed to conduct the analyses become increasingly available. We have developed a network model and decision-support tool, WESTNet, to perform these tasks. Herein, WESTNet was used to analyze a model of California’s 2010 urban water network as well as the projected system for 2020 and 2030. Results for California’s ten hydrologic regions show that the average number of water sources per utility and total electricity consumption for supplying water will increase in spite of decreasing per-capita water consumption. Electricity intensity (kWh m‑3) will increase in arid regions of the state due to shifts to alternative water sources such as indirect potable water reuse, desalination, and water transfers. In wetter, typically less populated, regions, reduced water demand for electricity-intensive supplies will decrease the electricity intensity of the water supply mix, though total electricity consumption will increase due to urban population growth. The results of this study provide a baseline for comparing current and potential innovations to California’s water system. The WESTNet tool can be applied to diverse water systems in any geographic region at a variety of scales to evaluate an array of network-dependent water–energy parameters.

  11. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial water...

  12. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.

  13. Developing a model for agile supply: an empirical study from Iranian pharmaceutical supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API.

  14. Developing a Model for Agile Supply: an Empirical Study from Iranian Pharmaceutical Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Ali; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Zarenezhad, Forouzandeh; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Agility is the fundamental characteristic of a supply chain needed for survival in turbulent markets, where environmental forces create additional uncertainty resulting in higher risk in the supply chain management. In addition, agility helps providing the right product, at the right time to the consumer. The main goal of this research is therefore to promote supplier selection in pharmaceutical industry according to the formative basic factors. Moreover, this paper can configure its supply network to achieve the agile supply chain. The present article analyzes the supply part of supply chain based on SCOR model, used to assess agile supply chains by highlighting their specific characteristics and applicability in providing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). This methodology provides an analytical modeling; the model enables potential suppliers to be assessed against the multiple criteria using both quantitative and qualitative measures. In addition, for making priority of critical factors, TOPSIS algorithm has been used as a common technique of MADM model. Finally, several factors such as delivery speed, planning and reorder segmentation, trust development and material quantity adjustment are identified and prioritized as critical factors for being agile in supply of API. PMID:24250689

  15. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  16. Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources. A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies, including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution, was developed and applied to a water supply system. The methodology developed includes three solutions: (1 the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed, (2 the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand, and (3 the use of other renewable energy sources, including a wind turbine, to supply energy to the pumping station, with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid. The use of an integrated solution (water and energy proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power, and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations, as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  17. Status of small water supplies in the Nordic countries: Characteristics, water quality and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Persson, Kenneth M; Andradottir, Hrund O; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M

    2017-11-01

    Access to safe water is essential for public health and is one of the most important prerequisites for good living and safe food production. Many studies have shown that non-compliance with drinking water quality standards in small water supply systems is much higher than in large systems. Nevertheless, people served by small water supply systems have the right to the same level of health protection. Actions are therefore needed to improve the situation. The objective of the present study was to carry out a baseline analysis of the situation in the Nordic region and provide recommendations for governmental policy and actions. Data were gathered on number of water supplies, population served, compliance with regulations and waterborne disease outbreaks from various sources in the Nordic countries. The collected data showed that there are about 12500 regulated water supplies, 9400 of which serve fewer than 500 persons. The number of unregulated and poorly regulated supplies is unknown, but it can be roughly estimated that these serve 10% of the Nordic population on a permanent basis or 2.6 million people. However, this does not tell the whole story as many of the very small water supplies serve transient populations, summerhouse dwellers and tourist sites, with many more users. Non-compliance regarding microbes is much higher in the small supplies. The population weighted average fecal contamination incidence rate in the Nordic region is eleven times higher in the smaller supplies than in the large ones, 0.76% and 0.07%, respectively. Registered waterborne disease outbreaks were also more frequent in the small supplies than in the large ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Strategic Dimensions of Software Development in a Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, G. H.; Meijler, T. D.; Barry, C; Conboy, K; Lang, M; Wojtkowski, G; Wojtkowski, W

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between characteristics of a software market and strategic management of software development in a supply chain. The typical characteristics of software markets and software supply chains are described. A decision framework is developed which connects specific

  19. Supply chain management under fuzziness recent developments and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Öztayşi, Başar

    2014-01-01

    Supply Chain Management Under Fuzziness presents recently developed fuzzy models and techniques for supply chain management. These include: fuzzy PROMETHEE, fuzzy AHP, fuzzy ANP, fuzzy VIKOR, fuzzy DEMATEL, fuzzy clustering, fuzzy linear programming, and fuzzy inference systems. The book covers both practical applications and new developments concerning these methods. This book offers an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners in supply chain management and logistics, and will provide them with new suggestions and directions for future research. Moreover, it will support graduate students in their university courses, such as specialized courses on supply chains and logistics, as well as related courses in the fields of industrial engineering, engineering management and business administration.

  20. Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Scott A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, and numerous studies report that these supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for contamination. Canadians in rural areas test their water intermittently, if at all, and treatment of water from private supplies is not common. Understanding the perceptions of drinking water among residents served by private systems will enable public health professionals to better target education and outreach activities, and to address the needs and concerns of residents in their jurisdictions. The purpose of this study was to explore the drinking water perceptions and self-described behaviours and needs of participants served by private water systems in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada. Methods In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age. Results Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed. Conclusion While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in

  1. Adoption of irrigation water policies to guarantee water supply: A choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcon, F.; Tapsuwan, S.; Brouwer, R.; de Miguel, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    More efficient and sustainable use of water is increasingly becoming an urgency in drought prone parts of the world. In particular, in water scarce regions such as the Mediterranean, water supply is expected to become more uncertain because of climate change. Consequently, pro-active policy

  2. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin [Nuclear Science and Development Center, National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Weng, Pao-Shan [Radiation Protection Association ROC, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m{sup 3}/day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m{sup 3}, while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m{sup 3}. Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  3. Estimating critical water supply for debris flow initiation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Dyrrdal, A. V.; Frauenfelder, R.; Etzelmüller, B.; Nadim, F.

    2012-04-01

    Debris flows frequently affect the Norwegian road and railway infrastructure, especially during spring and autumn. While the debris flow activity in autumn is mainly due to the occurrence of extreme rainfall events, debris flows in spring often occur during periods of rapid snow melt. Existing rainfall threshold values that indicate critical conditions for debris-flow initiation are largely based on precipitation data recorded by meteorological stations. However, during winter the measured amount of precipitation (accumulated as snow) can differ significantly from the actual amount of water that is released to the ground, which is in turn the more critical factor for debris flow initiation. In this study, the data on the actual water supply by the Norwegian Water and Energy Directorate (NVE), and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (met.no) were used to assess the threshold values. Compared to rainfall data, these data define the hydro-meteorological threshold conditions more accurately throughout the year - i.e. the debris flow triggering conditions due to snow accumulation in autumn and winter and snow melt in spring and summer. Three intensity-duration threshold curves were derived by analyzing the data on 502 past debris flows for water supply durations of 1 to 7 days. Normalization of the data was accomplished using the local "precipitation day normal" to account for regional differences in climate. The minimum threshold indicates the lower boundary above which debris-flow occurrence has been recorded and ranges between 6 and 63 mm/day for different locations and durations. The medium threshold (ranging between 7 and 131 mm/day) characterizes the conditions that are likely to initiate debris flows. Water supply rates exceeding the maximum threshold are regarded as a certain trigger and lie between 12 and 250 mm/day. Based on the obtained threshold curves a frequency analysis over durations of 1, 3 and 7 days for the period 1981-2010 was conducted

  4. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  5. Influence of Space-Time Heterogeneity of Water Consumption Conditions on the Parameters of a Water Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiołda, Ewa; Nowogoński, Ireneusz; Babiuch, Maciej

    2017-03-01

    The work presents the results of the analysis of an existing water supply system. It contains a description of the analysed area in which the analysed system was located, as well as its parameters regarding water intakes and transport of water with pumps, the length and diameter of pipes, and a complication of the materials used to construct the network. Water demand accounting for the nature of the consumers using the water supply network was subject to analysis. The influence of changes in the distribution of water within a day for the basic categories of recipients was accounted for. The EPANET 2.0 program for the simulating water supply network operation, made available by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through a public-domain licence, was used to construct the model of the system. The obtained results of the simulation allowed for indicating the main problems with the use of the analysed system. Subject to analysis was the pressure pattern in characteristic nodes of the network from which mining companies, industrial plants and residential households were supplied. Usefulness of the developed simulation model in preparing the assessment of future modernization works was confirmed, allowing for the effects of their implementation to be assessed.

  6. Future Water-Supply Scenarios, Cape May County, New Jersey, 2003-2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Carleton, Glen B.; Pope, Daryll A.; Rice, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Stewards of the water supply in New Jersey are interested in developing a plan to supply potable and non-potable water to residents and businesses of Cape May County until at least 2050. The ideal plan would meet projected demands and minimize adverse effects on currently used sources of potable, non-potable, and ecological water supplies. This report documents past and projected potable, non-potable, and ecological water-supply demands. Past and ongoing adverse effects to production and domestic wells caused by withdrawals include saltwater intrusion and water-level declines in the freshwater aquifers. Adverse effects on the ecological water supplies caused by groundwater withdrawals include premature drying of seasonal wetlands, delayed recovery of water levels in the water-table aquifer, and reduced streamflow. To predict the effects of future actions on the water supplies, three baseline and six future scenarios were created and simulated. Baseline Scenarios 1, 2, and 3 represent withdrawals using existing wells projected until 2050. Baseline Scenario 1 represents average 1998-2003 withdrawals, and Scenario 2 represents New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) full allocation withdrawals. These withdrawals do not meet projected future water demands. Baseline Scenario 3 represents the estimated full build-out water demands. Results of simulations of the three baseline scenarios indicate that saltwater would intrude into the Cohansey aquifer as much as 7,100 feet (ft) to adversely affect production wells used by Lower Township and the Wildwoods, as well as some other near-shore domestic wells; water-level altitudes in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand would decline to -156 ft; base flow in streams would be depleted by 0 to 26 percent; and water levels in the water-table aquifer would decline as much as 0.7ft. [Specific water-level altitudes, land-surface altitudes, and present sea level when used in this report are referenced to the North American

  7. Well Head Protection Areas For Public Non-Community Water Supply Wells In New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Well Head Protection Area for a Public Non-Community Water Supply Well (PNCWS) in New Jersey is a map area calculated around a Public Non-Community Water Supply...

  8. Establishing Vulnerability Map of Water Resources in Regional Water Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. To reduce the threat of water scarcity, it is important to know how climate change might affect regional water resources and where the hotspots, the vulnerability points, are. However, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will affect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate due to the lack of water treatment plants or tape water pipe system. And also, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable due to high population and high industrial product value when they expose to the same threat of water scarcity. This study aims to evaluate the spatial vulnerability distribution of water resources and propose the adaptive plan for southern region of Taiwan. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  9. Water supply pipe dimensioning using hydraulic power dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemathy, J. R.; Rashmi, G.; Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    Proper sizing of the pipe component of water distribution networks play an important role in the overall design of the any water supply system. Several approaches have been applied for the design of networks from an economical point of view. Traditional optimization techniques and population based stochastic algorithms are widely used to optimize the networks. But the use of these approaches is mostly found to be limited to the research level due to difficulties in understanding by the practicing engineers, design engineers and consulting firms. More over due to non-availability of commercial software related to the optimal design of water distribution system,it forces the practicing engineers to adopt either trial and error or experience-based design. This paper presents a simple approach based on power dissipation in each pipeline as a parameter to design the network economically, but not to the level of global minimum cost.

  10. A new concept for the water supply at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    1998-01-01

    The present state of the station Le Vengeron (the main pumping station supplying CERN with drinking water), and also to comply with the new Swiss standards impose a thorough consolidation and upgrade of this station which is shared with the Services Industriels de Genève (SIG). The total cost of the works (around 62 MCHF) would be shared proportionally to the nominal flow-rate demand which, at present, is of 2/3 for CERN and 1/3 for SIG. An alternative to the above is a complete review of CERN's water consumption, reducing our needs by half, thus allowing savings in both investment and operation. This reduction in investment cost would be diverted towards much needed consolidation works for the existing facilities within CERN. This paper also reviews the planning and possible ways for the execution of the works and the future responsibilities of operation of the water distribution systems (drinking and machine) inside CERN's sites.

  11. A tale of integrated regional water supply planning: Meshing socio-economic, policy, governance, and sustainability desires together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Tirusew; Adams, Alison; Kajtezovic-Blankenship, Ivana

    2014-11-01

    In 1998, Tampa Bay Water, the largest wholesale water provider in South East USA with over 2.3 million customers, assumed the role of planning, developing, and operating water supply sources from six local water supply utilities through an Interlocal Agreement. Under the agreement, cities and counties served by the agency would have their water supply demands met unequivocally and share the cost of delivery and/or development of new supplies based on their consumption, allowing a more holistic approach to manage resources in the region. Consequently, the agency was able to plan and execute several components of its Long-Term Master Water Plan to meet the region's demand, as well as diversify its sources of water supply. Today, the agency manages a diverse and regionally interconnected water supply system that includes 13 wellfields, two surface water supply sources, off-site reservoir storage, a sea water desalination plant, a surface water treatment plant, and 14 pumping/booster stations. It delivers water through 390 km of large diameter pipe to 19 potable water connections. It uses state-of-the-practice computer tools to manage short and long-term operations and planning. As a result, after the agency's inception, groundwater pumpage was reduced by more than half in less than a decade-by far one of the largest cutback and smaller groundwater utilization rate compared to other utilities in Florida or elsewhere. The region was able to witness a remarkable recovery in lake and wetland water levels through the agency's use of this diverse mix of supply sources. For example, in the last three years, 45-65% of water supply came from groundwater sources, 35-45% from surface water sources and 1-9% from desalinated seawater-very different from 100% groundwater only supply just few years ago. As an "on demand" wholesale water provider, the agency forecasts water supply availability and expected water demands from seasonal to decadal time frames using a suite of

  12. Flood risk assessment of fresh water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Chiara; Tarani, Fabio; Vicario, Enrico; Castelli, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Flooding is a common hazard causing damages to people, buildings and infrastructures. Often located in low-lying areas or nearby rivers, water utilities are particularly vulnerable to flooding. Water and debris can inundate the facility, thereby damaging equipment and causing power outages. Such impacts can lead to costly repairs, disruptions of service, hazardous situations for personnel and public health advisories. While flood damage evaluation to buildings and their contents is becoming increasingly available, the quantification of impact on critical infrastructures is less common. In this work, we present the flood risk assessment of a fresh water supply system considering the hazard of a riverine flooding and exposure and vulnerability of the system components (i.e. pipes, junctions, lifting stations etc.). The evaluation of flood impact on the aqueduct network is carried out for flood scenarios with assigned recurrence intervals. Vulnerable elements exposed to the flood are identified and analysed in order to determine their residual functionality. Above a selected threshold, the affected elements are considered as failed. The water distribution piping system is modelled through a model based on EPANET designed so as to implement Pressure-Driven Demand (PDD), which is more appropriate when modelling water distribution networks with a high number of offline nodes. Results of piping system model affected by the flood are then compared in a QGIS environment with flood depth to identify the location of service outages and potential risk of contamination. The application to the water supply system of the city of Florence (Italy), serving approximately 385000 inhabitants through 900 km of piping is presented and discussed.

  13. The public water supply protection value of forests: A watershed-scale ecosystem services based upon total organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a cost-based methodology to assess the value of forested watersheds to improve water quality in public water supplies. The developed methodology is applicable to other source watersheds to determine ecosystem services for water quality. We assess the value of forest land for source wate...

  14. Karst water: An important factor for the drinking water supply in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zötl, J. G.

    1985-12-01

    Approximately one-sixth of Austria’s land surface is karstified One-fourth of the precipitation falling in Austria lands in these karst areas, providing one-third of the population with drinking water If the projected future water needs of Austria are to be met, optimal utilization and protection of these karst water supplies is necessary To achieve these goals, community officials and civil engineers must understand the nature of karst water resources and the problems associated with their utilization At the recommendation fo the Federal Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry of the Republic of Austria, a pamphlet designed to provide this critical information has been written. The four major areas discussed in the pamphlet are definitions and descriptions of karst water flow and occurrence, discharge and physiochemical requirements for karst water supplies, requisite environmental studies of all possible sources of qualitative and/or quantitative damage to the karst water supply and engineering methods that can aid in preventing such damage, and legislative provisions necessary to protect karst water resources from water quality or quantity degradation In addition, the role of the public in karst water supply protection is discussed.

  15. Future water supply management adaptation measures - case study of Ljubljana field aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenčur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main drinking water supply problems are related to the significant change of groundwater quantity and quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices and very likely also climate change. The latter may affect the ability of drinking water suppliers to provide enough water of sufficient quality to the consumers. These topics were studied in the frame of SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply) with the main goal to develop a water supply management system regarding optimisation of water extraction and land use restrictions under climate change scenarios for water suppliers, since existing management practices are mostly inadequate to reduce impacts of CC on water supply reliability. The main goal was a designation of appropriate measures and risk assessment to adapt water supply to changing climate and land use activities considering socio-economic aspects. This was accomplished by using 'Fuzzy Decimaker', which is a tool for selecting and ranking risk reduction measures or management actions for local waterworks or water authorities under the pressure of climate change. Firstly, management options were selected and ranked. For public water supply of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, several management options were selected. For improvement of water supply and preservation of water resource quantities there is a need for engineering interventions, such as reducing water losses on pipelines. For improving drinking water safety and preserving water resource quality farmers are not allowed to use fertilisers in the first safeguarding zone and they get compensations for income reduction because of lower farming production. Compensations for farming restrictions in the second safeguarding zone were applied as additional management option. On the other hand, drinking water treatment is another management option to be considered. Trends in groundwater level are decreasing, above all recharge areas of waterworks

  16. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  17. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  18. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  19. 75 FR 18190 - New Jersey Water Supply Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Jersey Water Supply Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On March 17, 2009, the New Jersey Water Supply Authority (New Jersey WSA) filed an application... generation of about 628 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Edward Buss, P.E., New Jersey Water Supply...

  20. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation... and the 1958 Water Supply Act, as amended, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Omaha District, intends to prepare an integrated Municipal and Industrial (M&I) Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report...

  1. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: bacteriology of drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, A A

    2005-07-01

    Several communities in Nigeria exist without regular water supplies of good quality and quantity. Despite this situation, successive governments have tended to ignore the problem. The water supplies to two rural communities 7-8 km north of Calabar, Cross River State of Nigeria, were examined bacteriologically using standard indicator bacteria (coliforms and streptococci). A contiguous community supplied with treated piped water was also studied in parallel. The rural water supplied was found to be bacteriologically unsatisfactory, having failed to meet the international standards for drinking water as set by the WHO. The geometric mean bacterial counts per 100 ml of serial samples from six sources ranged from 0.12 x 10(1) to 1.57 x 10(2) for fecal coliforms (E. col) and 0.05 x 10(1) to 7.5 x 10(1) for the fecal streptococci. Fecal streptococci were particularly recovered in large numbers from one source (Ayip Asikimangfuk) at concentrations of up to 3.0 x 10(2) per 100 ml at the onset of the rains. The water supplies from the community with piped water were, in general, bacteriologically satisfactory; fecal coliforms were found only in occasional samples (0.12 x 10(1)/100 ml).

  2. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: making water supply levels transparent to water users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens; Vuren Saskia, Van; der Vat Marnix, Van

    2016-04-01

    To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, assessed the impact of climate change and socio-economic development, and explored strategies to deal with these impacts. The Programme initiated a joint approach to water supply management with stakeholders and developed a national adaptation plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions. The adaptation plan consists of a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of possible actions and measures through time - to achieve targets while responding in a flexible manner to uncertain developments over time, allowing room to respond to new opportunities and insights. With regard to fresh water allocation, the Delta Programme stated that supplying water of sufficient quality is a shared responsibility that requires cohesive efforts among users in the main and regional water system. The national and local authorities and water users involved agreed that the water availability and, where relevant, the water quality should be as transparent and predictable as possible under normal, dry and extremely dry conditions. They therefore introduced the concept of "water supply service levels", which should describe water availability and quality that can be delivered with a certain return period, for all regions and all relevant water users in the Netherlands. The service levels form an addition to the present policy and should be decided on by 2021. At present water allocation during periods of (expected) water shortage occurs according to a prearranged ranking system (a water hierarchy scheme based on a list of priorities), if water availability drops below a critical low level. The aim is to have supply levels available that are based on the probability of occurrence and economic impact of water shortage, and that are transparent for all water users in the regional water systems and the main water system. As part of the European project

  3. Global land-water nexus: Agricultural land and freshwater use embodied in worldwide supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Han, M Y; Peng, K; Zhou, S L; Shao, L; Wu, X F; Wei, W D; Liu, S Y; Li, Z; Li, J S; Chen, G Q

    2018-02-01

    As agricultural land and freshwater inextricably interrelate and interact with each other, the conventional water and land policy in "silos" should give way to nexus thinking when formulating the land and water management strategies. This study constructs a systems multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to expound global land-water nexus by simultaneously tracking agricultural land and freshwater use flows along the global supply chains. Furthermore, land productivity and irrigation water requirements of 160 crops in different regions are investigated to reflect the land-water linkage. Results show that developed economies (e.g., USA and Japan) and major large developing economies (e.g., mainland China and India) are the overriding drivers of agricultural land and freshwater use globally. In general, significant net transfers of these two resources are identified from resource-rich and less-developed economies to resource-poor and more-developed economies. For some crops, blue water productivity is inversely related to land productivity, indicating that irrigation water consumption is sometimes at odds with land use. The results could stimulus international cooperation for sustainable land and freshwater management targeting on original suppliers and final consumers along the global supply chains. Moreover, crop-specific land-water linkage could provide insights for trade-off decisions on minimizing the environmental impacts on local land and water resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  5. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  6. An application of MC-SDSS for water supply management during a drought crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihouni, Mehrdad; Toomanian, Ara; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Shahabi, Mahmoud; Bazdar, Saba

    2015-07-01

    Climate change influences many countries' rainfall patterns and temperatures. In Iran, population growth has increased water demands. Tabriz is the capital of East Azerbaijan province, in northwestern Iran. A large proportion of the water required for this city is supplied from dams; thus, it is important to find alternatives to supply water for this city, which is the largest industrial city in northwestern Iran. In this paper, the groundwater quality was assessed using 70 wells in Tabriz Township. This work seeks to define the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as chloride, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, hardness, and sulfate using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and geostatistics; map groundwater quality for drinking purposes employing multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM), such as the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, in the study area; and develop an Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for managing a water crisis in the region. The map produced by the AHP is more accurate than the map produced using fuzzy logic because in the AHP, priorities were assigned to each parameter based on the weights given by water quality experts. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality increases from the north to the south and from the west to the east within the study area. During critical conditions, the groundwater quality maps and the presented SDSS core can be utilized by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company to develop an SDSS to drill new wells or to select existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz City.

  7. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in water supply reservoirs in Jingjinji area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Guang; Lv, Zhiwei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Jingjinji area occupies important position in developing of the Chinese economy, while there exists a sharp conflict between economic growth and limited water resources in this area. To ensure the safety of water consumption of cities in Jingjinji area, we investigated the abundance of three classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in water and sediment of six water supply reservoirs in this area. The results showed that the detection frequency of sul1, tetM and ermB were 100%. However, the content ranges of these genes were different (10-5 to 10-2/16S gene copies for sul1, 10-5 to 10-3/16S gene copies for ermB, and 10-5 to 10-3/16S gene copies for tetM). The content of ribosome protection proteins (RPP) genes were the highest in all selected tet genes. The highest abundance of ARGs in water and sediment samples was sampled from Panjiakou reservoir and Guanting reservoir, respectively. Except COD, chla and tetM, there are no significant correlation between water quality parameters and ARGs. Overall, this study provides integrated profiles of the three types of ARGs in water supply reservoirs of Jingjinji area and thus helps to re-evaluate the effects of human activities to water supply reservoirs.

  8. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies’ Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociepa-Kubicka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK. The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI, as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  9. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies' Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepa-Kubicka, Agnieszka; Wilczak, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK). The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI), as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  10. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  11. A triangular fuzzy TOPSIS-based approach for the application of water technologies in different emergency water supply scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Yu, Huan; You, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Because of the increasing frequency and intensity of unexpected natural disasters, providing safe drinking water for the affected population following a disaster has become a global challenge of growing concern. An onsite water supply technology that is portable, mobile, or modular is a more suitable and sustainable solution for the victims than transporting bottled water. In recent years, various water techniques, such as membrane-assisted technologies, have been proposed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically identify the optimum options for different disaster scenarios. Hence, a fuzzy triangular-based multi-criteria, group decision-making tool was developed in this research. The approach was then applied to the selection of the most appropriate water technologies corresponding to the different emergency water supply scenarios. The results show this tool capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency water technologies for enduring security drinking water supply in disaster relief.

  12. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  13. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  14. Transforming Water Supply Regimes in India: Do Public-Private Partnerships Have a Role to Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Gopakumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP are an important governance strategy that has recently emerged as a solution to enhance the access of marginalised residents to urban infrastructures. With the inception of neo-liberal economic reforms in India, in Indian cities too PPP has emerged as an innovative approach to expand coverage of water supply and sanitation infrastructures. However, there has been little study of the dynamics of partnership efforts in different urban contexts: What role do they play in transforming existing infrastructure regimes? Do reform strategies such as partnerships result in increased privatisation or do they make the governance of infrastructures more participative? Reviewing some of the recent literature on urban political analysis, this article develops the concept of water supply regime to describe the context of water provision in three metropolitan cities in India. To further our understanding of the role of PPP within regimes, this article sketches five cases of water supply and sanitation partnerships located within these three metropolitan cities. From these empirical studies, the article arrives at the conclusion that while PPP are always products of the regime-context they are inserted within, quite often strategic actors in the partnership use the PPP to further their interests by initiating a shift in the regime pathway. This leads us to conclude that PPPs do play a role in making water supply regimes more participative but that depends on the nature of the regime as well as the actions of partners.

  15. Invisible pollution: the impact of pharmaceuticals in the water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Kimberly A

    2011-12-01

    During the past decade, interest in the public and environmental health effects of trace levels of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the water supply has evolved. Although most pharmaceuticals are tested for human safety and efficacy prior to marketing and distribution, the potential for adverse effects in nontarget populations exposed to minute environmental medication doses has not been established. Several recent studies have demonstrated adverse effects from longstanding, low-dose exposures in both aquatic and terrestrial wildlife, although human toxicity related to trace levels of pharmaceuticals in the water supply remains unknown. This article provides a brief overview of the routes through which pharmaceuticals are introduced into the environment; a description of the effects of longstanding, low-dose exposures in aquatic and terrestrial animals, including human health effects; an update on the current regulations and solutions regarding pharmaceutical disposal practices; and a discussion of implications for reducing pharmaceuticals in the environment for occupational health nurses and other allied health professionals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the supranational standard, i.e. the European Community Standard. Three classification schemes for water quality are proposed for surface water quality assessment. Water quality determinants of the new index are cadmium, cyanide, mercury, ...

  17. GIS Method for Developing Wind Supply Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, D.; Heimiller, D.; Cowlin, S.

    2008-06-01

    This report describes work conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as part of the Wind Technology Partnership (WTP) sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This project has developed methods that the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) intends to use in the planning and development of China's 30 GW of planned capacity. Because of China's influence within the community of developing countries, the methods and the approaches here may help foster wind development in other countries.

  18. Planning Mechanisms for Regional Electric Power Supply System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Key problems of the regional electric power supply systems are examined. These problems result from a lack of regulated interaction mechanisms for uniting the different entities’ resources aimed at the realization of investment activities. One of the main problems of the power supply industry is physical and moral aging of both generating and networking equipment. In the article, the necessity of management system formation to control the development of power sector has been proved. The deficiencies of the modern investment procedure in power companies are described. The absence of continuity between the regional and local strategic planning documents and investment planning of a power company has been found out. The possibility to develop a new mechanism for attracting investment has been proposed. The regulation of joint activities to implement the development program for the regional power supply industry has been proposed. The management system to develop the Russian power industry has been proposed. The comparative analysis of generating capacity development mechanisms has been carried out, such as capacity supply agreement (CSA, investment support mechanism (ISM, and long-term power market (LPM. The interaction procedure of the planning of the power supply infrastructure development has been described. The mechanism connecting the state sectoral and regional planning and corporate planning of power supply infrastructure development has been proposed. The regional aspects of industrial policy and its legislative support have been considered. To successfully implement the public-private-partnership (PPP projects, it is necessary to create the effective PPP model within the federal and regional legislation framework; to develop the financial model providing the recoverability of investments; to provide a mutually beneficial cooperation between executive bodies and private investors. The possibility to apply the PPP mechanism for regional

  19. Inequalities in microbial contamination of drinking water supplies in urban areas: the case of Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Ansah, Akosua Sarpong; Ferrero, Giuliana; Rusca, Maria; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Over past decades strategies for improving access to drinking water in cities of the Global South have mainly focused on increasing coverage, while water quality has often been overlooked. This paper focuses on drinking water quality in the centralized water supply network of Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. It shows how microbial contamination of drinking water is unequally distributed to consumers in low-income (unplanned areas) and higher-income neighbourhoods (planned areas). Microbial contamination and residual disinfectant concentration were measured in 170 water samples collected from in-house taps in high-income areas and from kiosks and water storage facilities in low-income areas between November 2014 and January 2015. Faecal contamination (Escherichia coli) was detected in 10% of the 40 samples collected from planned areas, in 59% of the 64 samples collected from kiosks in the unplanned areas and in 75% of the 32 samples of water stored at household level. Differences in water quality in planned and unplanned areas were found to be statistically significant at p contamination of drinking water are produced by decisions both on the development of the water supply infrastructure and on how this is operated and maintained.

  20. [Safe drinking water supply to the Vologda Region's population using risk assessment methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, I A; Figurina, T Ia; Shadrina, S Iu

    2011-01-01

    To supply the population with qualitative potable water is a priority problem in the provision of sanitary-and-epidemiologic well-being and in the prevention of disease in the Vologda Region. The monitoring of the results of laboratory control over the quality of drinking-water and the assessment of health risk enabled a package of measures to be proposed to optimize the conditions of drinking water supply in the Vologda Region. The risk assessment technology used by a state agency for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance makes it possible to substantiate a system of actions to organize household water use and to include scientifically grounded proposals into the developed regional and local programs.

  1. Water Supply or ‘Beautiful Latrines’? Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Around half of the Mekong Delta’s rural population lacks year-round access to clean water. In combination with inadequate hygiene and poor sanitation this creates a high risk of diseases. Microcredit schemes are a popular element in addressing such problems on the global policy level. The present paper analyses the contradictory results of such a microcredit programme for rural water supply and sanitation in the context of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, through a qualitative study primarily based on semi-structured interviews in rural communes of Can Tho City. We come to the conclusion that the programme has a positive effect regarding the safer disposal of human excreta as well as surface water quality, but a marginal impact on poverty reduction as it only reaches better-off households already having access to clean water. The paper shows how the outcome of rural water supply and sanitation policies are strongly influenced by the local ecological, technological, and social settings, in particular by stakeholders’ interests. The authors challenge the assumption that water supply and sanitation should be integrated into the same policy in all circumstances. ----- Etwa die Hälfte der ländlichen Bevölkerung des Mekong-Deltas hat nicht das ganze Jahr über Zugang zu sauberem Wasser. Zusammen mit unzureichender Hygiene und mangelnder sanitärer Grundversorgung erhöht diese Situation das Krankheitsrisiko. Auf globaler Ebene sind Mikrokreditprogramme eine gefragte Strategie, um diese Probleme zu behandeln. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert die widersprüchlichen Ergebnisse eines solchen Mikrokreditprogramms für ländliche Wasser- und sanitäre Grundversorgung im Mekong-Delta in Vietnam im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie, die auf halbstrukturierten Interviews im Raum Can Tho City basiert. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass das Programm eine positive Wirkung in Bezug auf die sichere Entsorgung von Fäkalien und die Qualität des Regenwassers

  2. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE WATER HEATER SYSTEMS OPERATING WITH UNRELIABLE WATER SUPPLIES

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Yurtsev; Jenkins, Glenn P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a cost-effectiveness analysis of four types of water heating systems operating in a situation where there is an unreliable water supply. These systems are electric water heating, a solar water heating system (SWHS) with electricity back-up, the SWHS with an LPG water heater, and an LPG water heater alone. It is found that in the conditions of North Cyprus, that an SWHS with an LPG heater back-up is the most cost-effective, most convenient and most environmentally friendl...

  3. Ambient water quality in aquifers used for drinking-water supplies, Gem County, southwestern Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Hopkins, Candice B.

    2016-12-20

    In recent years, the rapid population growth in Gem County, Idaho, has been similar to other counties in southwestern Idaho, increasing about 54 percent from 1990 to 2015. Because the entire population of the study area depends on groundwater for drinking water supply (either from self-supplied domestic, community, or municipal-supply wells), this population growth, along with changes in land use (including potential petroleum exploration and development), indicated to the public and local officials the need to assess the quality of groundwater used for human consumption. To this end, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gem County and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, assessed the quality of groundwater from freshwater aquifers used for domestic supply in Gem County. A total of 47 domestic or municipal wells, 1 spring, and 2 surface-water sites on the Payette River were sampled during September 8–November 19, 2015. The sampled water was analyzed for a variety of constituents, including major ions, trace elements, nutrients, bacteria, radionuclides, dissolved gasses, stable isotopes of water and methane, and either volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or pesticides.To better understand analytical results, a conceptual hydrogeologic framework was developed in which three hydrogeologic units were described: Quaternary-Tertiary deposits (QTd), Tertiary Idaho Group rocks (Tig), and Tertiary-Cretaceous igneous rocks (TKi). Water levels were measured in 30 wells during sampling, and a groundwater-level altitude map was constructed for the QTd and Tig units showing groundwater flow toward the Emmett Valley and Payette River.Analytical results indicate that groundwater in Gem County is generally of good quality. Samples collected from two wells contained water with fluoride concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L), six wells contained arsenic at

  4. [The development of hospital medical supplies information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaoping; Gu, Hongqing; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Qiang

    2010-05-01

    The information management of medical materials by using high-tech computer, in order to improve the efficiency of the consumption of medical supplies, hospital supplies and develop a new technology way to manage the hospital and material support. Using C # NET, JAVA techniques to develop procedures for the establishment of hospital material management information system, set the various management modules, production of various statistical reports, standard operating procedures. The system is convenient, functional and strong, fluent statistical functions. It can always fully grasp and understand the whole hospital supplies run dynamic information, as a modern and effective tool for hospital materials management.

  5. Triangulating the Sociohydrology of Water Supply, Quality and Forests in the Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    The North Carolina Research Triangle is among the most rapidly growing metropolitan areas in the United States, with decentralized governance split among several different municipalities, counties and water utilities. Historically smaller populations, plentiful rainfall, and riparian rights based water law provided both a sense of security for water resources and influenced the development of separate infrastructure systems across the region. The growth of water demand with rising populations with typical suburban sprawl, the development of multi-use reservoirs immediately downstream of urban areas, and increased hydroclimate variability have raised the potential for periodic water scarcity coupled with increasing eutrophication of water supplies. We discuss the interactions and tradeoffs between management of emerging water scarcity, quality and forest biodiversity in the Triangle as a model for the US Southeast. Institutional stakeholders include water supply and stormwater utilities, environmental NGOs, federal, state, county and municipal governments, developers and home owner associations. We emphasize principles of ecohydrologic resilience learned in heavily instrumented research watersheds, adapted to rapidly developing urban systems, and including socioeconomic and policy dynamics. Significant 20th century reforestation of central North Carolina landscapes have altered regional water balances, while providing both flood and water quality mitigation. The regrowth forest is dynamic and heterogeneous in water use based on age class and species distribution, with substantial plantation and natural regeneration. Forecasts of land use and forest structural and compositional change are based on scenario socioeconomic development, climate change and forecast wood product markets. Urban forest and green infrastructure has the potential to mediate the trade-offs and synergies of these goals, but is in a very nascent state. Computational tools to assess policy

  6. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  7. Development of new supply chains. Insights from Strategic Niche Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caniels, M.C.J. [Open University of the Netherlands OUNL, Faculty of Management Sciences MW, Heerlen (Netherlands); Van Eijck, J. [Diligent Tanzania, Moshi (Tanzania); Romijn, H.A. [Faculty of Technology Management, Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    The extant supply chain literature devotes remarkably little attention to possible strategies and instruments of supply chain design associated with the development of radically new innovations. The main argument put forward in this paper is that an analytical framework derived from evolutionary innovation studies, Strategic Niche Management, is helpful for this purpose. The framework offers a set of concepts with which one can shed light on three key dynamic processes that have to form an integral part of the setting up of a new supply chain, namely networking, learning and the management of actor expectations. It also helps to understand how these processes are embedded into a wider societal context, which forms the setting within which supply chain design decisions have to be made. We illustrate these points with a case study about the setting up of a new supply chain in the biofuels sector in East Africa. Some implications for strategic managerial decision making are also addressed.

  8. Application of BIM Technology in Building Water Supply and Drainage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tianyun; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Junde

    2017-12-01

    Through the application of BIM technology, the idea of building water supply and drainage designers can be related to the model, the various influencing factors to affect water supply and drainage design can be considered more comprehensively. BIM(Building information model) technology assist in improving the design process of building water supply and drainage, promoting the building water supply and drainage planning, enriching the building water supply and drainage design method, improving the water supply and drainage system design level and building quality. Combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to analyze the advantages of BIM technology in building water supply and drainage design. Therefore, application prospects of BIM technology are very worthy of promotion.

  9. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study comprised the development of a new index called the 'universal water quality index (UWQI)'. This index has advantages over pre-existing indices by reflecting the appropriateness of water for specific use, e.g. drinking water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the ...

  10. Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-marc; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Boroto, Jean R.

    Halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, is one of the targets of the 7th Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In South Africa, with its mix of developed and developing regions, 9.7 million (20%) of the people do not have access to adequate water supply and 16 million (33%) lack proper sanitation services. Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH), which provides water directly to households enables a number of small-scale productive activities, has the potential to supply water even in rural and peri-urban areas that conventional technologies cannot supply. As part of the effort to achieve the MDGs, the South African government has committed itself to provide financial assistance to poor households for the capital cost of rainwater storage tanks and related works in the rural areas. Despite this financial assistance, the legal status of DRWH remains unclear and DRWH is in fact illegal by strict application of the water legislations. Beyond the cost of installation, maintenance and proper use of the DRWH system to ensure its sustainability, there is risk of waterborne diseases. This paper explores challenges to sustainable implementation of DRWH and proposes some interventions which the South African government could implement to overcome them.

  11. A hydrologic-economic modeling approach for analysis of urban water supply dynamics in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Veena; Gorelick, Steven M.; Goulder, Lawrence

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss a challenging water resources problem in a developing world city, Chennai, India. The goal is to reconstruct past system behavior and diagnose the causes of a major water crisis. In order to do this, we develop a hydrologic-engineering-economic model to address the complexity of urban water supply arising from consumers' dependence on multiple interconnected sources of water. We integrate different components of the urban water system: water flowing into the reservoir system; diversion and distribution by the public water utility; groundwater flow in the aquifer beneath the city; supply, demand, and prices in the informal tanker-truck-based water market; and consumer behavior. Both the economic and physical impacts of consumers' dependence on multiple sources of water are quantified. The model is calibrated over the period 2002-2006 using a range of hydrologic and socio-economic data. The model's results highlight the inadequacy of the reservoir system and the buffering role played by the urban aquifer and consumers' coping investments during multiyear droughts.

  12. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  13. A Holistic ICT Solution to Improve Matching between Supply and Demand over the Water Supply Distribution Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anzaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While many water management tools exist, these systems are not usually interconnected and therefore cannot communicate between one another, preventing Integrated Water Resources Management to be fully achieved. This paper presents the solution proposed by WatERP project* where a novel solution enables better matching between water supply and demand from holistic perspective. Subsystems that control the production, management and consumption of water will be interconnected through both information architecture and intelligent infrastructure. The main outcome will consist of, a web-based Open Management Platform integrating near real-time knowledge on water supplies and demand, from sources to users, across geographic and organizational scales and supported by a knowledge base where information will be structured in water management ontology to ensure interoperability and maximize usability. WatERP will thus provide a major contribution to: 1 Improve coordination among actors, 2 Foster behavioural change, 3 Reduce water and energy consumption, 4 Optimize water accountability.

  14. California Water Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    overbank flows Study efforts during calendar year 1977 will focus on occur an average of once every three years, especially the stormwater runoff...of disposing of waterborne wastes, includ- trol, navigation, salinity control, water supply, tidelands ing reclamation and reuse where appropriate...studies for Wilson and Wildwood Creeks streams in the South Coastal Basins have been com- Keys Canyon pleted: Moose Canyon Agua Hedionda Creek Otay

  15. Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade it has been known that shallow tube wells in Bangladesh are frequently contaminated with arsenic concentrations at a level that is harmful to human health. By now it is clear that a disaster of an unheard magnitude is going on: the World Health Organization has estimated that long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater, at concentrations over 500 μg L−1, causes death in 1 in 10 adults. Other studies show that problems with arsenic in groundwater/drinking water occur in many more countries worldwide, such as in the USA and China. In Europe the focus on arsenic problems is currently confined to countries with high arsenic levels in their groundwater, such as Serbia, Hungary and Italy. In most other European countries, the naturally occurring arsenic concentrations are mostly lower than the European drinking water standard of 10 μg L−1. However, from the literature review presented in this paper, it is concluded that at this level health risks cannot be excluded. As consumers in European countries expect the drinking water to be of impeccable quality, it is recommended that water supply companies optimize arsenic removal to a level of <1 μg L−1, which is technically feasible.

  16. Integrating developing country manufacturing industries into global supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to globalization of manufacturing activities, the arena of competition and competitiveness advantage is moving from firms towards supply chains and networks. With the recent advancement of information and communication technologies this participation are becoming as common business practice in developed countries firms. Companies were more integrated into the world market for the global nature of the sourcing, manufacturing and distribution. These changes create both challenges and opportunities for the manufacturing industries in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to examine the level of inter-organizational and intra-organizational supply chain integration practices in developing country, Ethiopia.Design/methodology/approach: An industrial questionnaires survey was used to collect the current practices of the manufacturing industries in Ethiopia as an example of the developing countries. Descriptive statistics is primarily used for the analysis.Findings: Results show a low level of supply chain relationship both in intra and inter organizational supply chain integration level among members. Accordingly, such issues require much attention to facilitate a greater integration within the supply chains in the Ethiopian manufacturing industries.Research limitations/implications: The paper focuses on examining the practices of Ethiopian manufacturing industries empirical data. The interpretation of results should be taken with prudence.Originality/Value: The manufacturing industry in developing countries (MIDC has been a part of the global supply chains for long time as a supplier of raw material and manufacturer of primary products. Currently, the MIDC is trying to access the different markets segment of the world even with new products starting from their local market to the complex and dynamic international market. Nevertheless, their supply chains are inefficient and hence, their competitiveness level far from the

  17. A case study on the status of water supply for domestic purposes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic water supply is a daily necessity and key factor in human health and well being. Without water, life cannot be sustained and lack of access to adequate water supplies leads to wide spread of diseases with children bearing the greatest health burden associated with poor water quality and sanitation. The WHO ...

  18. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon AGENCY... that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term...

  19. An Optimal Method for Developing Global Supply Chain Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Chun Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the transparency in supply chains, enhancing competitiveness of industries becomes a vital factor. Therefore, many developing countries look for a possible method to save costs. In this point of view, this study deals with the complicated liberalization policies in the global supply chain management system and proposes a mathematical model via the flow-control constraints, which are utilized to cope with the bonded warehouses for obtaining maximal profits. Numerical experiments illustrate that the proposed model can be effectively solved to obtain the optimal profits in the global supply chain environment.

  20. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, Ma Jose, E-mail: pmedrano@isciii.es [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Palau, Margarita [Subdireccion General de Sanidad Ambiental y Salud Laboral, Direccion General de Salud Publica y Sanidad Exterior, Ministerio de Sanidad y Politica Social, Madrid (Spain); Damian, Javier [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ramis, Rebeca [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Barrio, Jose Luis del [Departamento de Salud Publica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-07-15

    water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 {mu}g/L.

  1. The Potential for Snow to Supply Human Water Demand in the Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Justin S.; Viviroli, Daniel; Singh, Deepti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2015-01-01

    Runoff from snowmelt is regarded as a vital water source for people and ecosystems throughout the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Numerous studies point to the threat global warming poses to the timing and magnitude of snow accumulation and melt. But analyses focused on snow supply do not show where changes to snowmelt runoff are likely to present the most pressing adaptation challenges, given sub-annual patterns of human water consumption and water availability from rainfall. We identify the NH basins where present spring and summer snowmelt has the greatest potential to supply the human water demand that would otherwise be unmet by instantaneous rainfall runoff. Using a multi-model ensemble of climate change projections, we find that these basins - which together have a present population of approx. 2 billion people - are exposed to a 67% risk of decreased snow supply this coming century. Further, in the multi-model mean, 68 basins (with a present population of more than 300 million people) transition from having sufficient rainfall runoff to meet all present human water demand to having insufficient rainfall runoff. However, internal climate variability creates irreducible uncertainty in the projected future trends in snow resource potential, with about 90% of snow-sensitive basins showing potential for either increases or decreases over the near-term decades. Our results emphasize the importance of snow for fulfilling human water demand in many NH basins, and highlight the need to account for the full range of internal climate variability in developing robust climate risk management decisions.

  2. Environmental burden of diarrhoeal diseases due to unsafe water supply and poor sanitation coverage in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, K K; Joshi, H D; Dhimal, M; Singh, S P; Dhakal, P; Dhimal, B; Bhusal, C L

    2012-05-01

    Unsafe water and poor sanitation are major contributing factors of diarrhoea. Most of the water supply systems in urban and rural area of Nepal do not have basic water treatment facilities. This has resulted in frequent reports of fecal contamination in drinking water and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The purpose of this study was to find out the burden of diarrhoeal diseases at different scenario of water supply system and sanitation status in Nepalese context. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four different districts of Nepal analyzing six different scenarios based on availability of water supply and sanitation status. Village Development Committees (VDCs) and community selection was made purposively and 360 households, 60 from each scenario were selected conveniently to achieve the required number. Within the selected household, the head of the household or any member above 18 years of age was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Observation was done for toilet and water sources besides questionnaire method. Incidence of diarrhoea per 1000 population was found to be the highest in scenario-IV (Spring without toilet) with 204.89 followed by scenario-VI (Tube well without toilet) with 145.30, while it was less in scenario-I (Tap water with toilet) with 46.05. Accordingly, the burden of disease (YLD) was also found to be the highest in scenario-IV and the lowest in scenario-I. Most of the households didn't treat water before drinking. Hand washing practice was found to be more than 90% regardless of toilet availability. The greater risk of acquiring diarrhoeal disease and higher burden of disease in situation of unprotected water source and absence of toilet shows that these are still important contributing factors for diarrhoeal disease in Nepal. Use of sanitary toilets and protected water source are the important measures for diarrhoeal disease prevention in Nepal.

  3. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygaard, M; Arvin, E; Bath, A; Binning, P J

    2011-06-01

    It is possible to optimize drinking water composition based on a valuation of the impacts of changed water quality. This paper introduces a method for assessing the potential for designing an optimum drinking water composition by the use of membrane desalination and remineralization. The method includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO(2)-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3 ± 0.2 per delivered m(3) for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water supply planning and management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IMPROVING CYANOBACTERIA AND CYANOTOXIN MONITORING IN SURFACE WATERS FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria in fresh water can cause serious threats to drinking water supplies. Managing cyanobacterial blooms particularly at small drinking water treatment plants is challenging. Because large amount of cyanobacteria may cause clogging in the treatment process and various cyanotoxins are hard to remove, while they may cause severe health problems. There is lack of instructions of what cyanobacteria/toxin amount should trigger what kind of actions for drinking water management except for Microcystins. This demands a Cyanobacteria Management Tool (CMT to help regulators/operators to improve cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin monitoring in surface waters for drinking water supply. This project proposes a CMT tool, including selecting proper indicators for quick cyanobacteria monitoring and verifying quick analysis methods for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin. This tool is suggested for raw water management regarding cyanobacteria monitoring in lakes, especially in boreal forest climate. In addition, it applies to regions that apply international WHO standards for water management. In Swedish context, drinking water producers which use raw water from lakes that experience cyanobacterial blooms, need to create a monitoring routine for cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin and to monitor beyond such as Anatoxins, Cylindrospermopsins and Saxitoxins. Using the proposed CMT tool will increase water safety at surface water treatment plants substantially by introducing three alerting points for actions. CMT design for each local condition should integrate adaptive monitoring program.

  5. An Optimal Method for Developing Global Supply Chain Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Hao-Chun Lu; Yao-Huei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the transparency in supply chains, enhancing competitiveness of industries becomes a vital factor. Therefore, many developing countries look for a possible method to save costs. In this point of view, this study deals with the complicated liberalization policies in the global supply chain management system and proposes a mathematical model via the flow-control constraints, which are utilized to cope with the bonded warehouses for obtaining maximal profits. Numerical experiments illus...

  6. Gaming Change: A Many-objective Analysis of Water Supply Portfolios under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Kasprzyk, J.; Characklis, G.; Kirsch, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study explores the uncertainty and tradeoffs associated with up to six conflicting water supply portfolio planning objectives. A ten-year Monte Carlo simulation model is used to evaluate water supply portfolios blending permanent rights, adaptive options contracts, and spot leases for a single city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Historical records of reservoir mass balance, lease pricing, and demand serve as the source data for the Monte Carlo simulation. Portfolio planning decisions include the initial volume and annual increases of permanent rights, thresholds for an adaptive options contract, and anticipatory decision rules for purchasing leases and exercising options. Our work distinguishes three cases: (1) permanent rights as the sole source of supply, (2) permanent rights and adaptive options, and (3) a combination of permanent rights, adaptive options, and leases. The problems have been formulated such that cases 1 and 2 are sub-spaces of the six objective formulation used for case 3. Our solution sets provide the tradeoff surfaces between portfolios' expected values for cost, cost variability, reliability, frequency of purchasing permanent rights increases, frequency of using leases, and dropped (or unused) transfers of water. The tradeoff surfaces for the three cases show that options and leases have a dramatic impact on the marginal costs associated with improving the efficiency and reliability of urban water supplies. Moreover, our many-objective analysis permits the discovery of a broad range of high quality portfolio strategies. We differentiate the value of adaptive options versus leases by testing a representative subset of optimal portfolios' abilities to effectively address regional increases in demand during drought periods. These results provide insights into the tradeoffs inherent to a more flexible, portfolio-style approach to urban water resources management, an approach that should become increasingly attractive in an environment of

  7. Study on hydraulic characteristics of mine dust-proof water supply network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Quanlong; Jiang, Zhongan; Han, Shuo; Fu, Enqi

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the hydraulic characteristics of mine dust-proof water supply network and obtain the change rule of water consumption and water pressure, according to the similarity principle and the fluid continuity equation and energy equation, the similarity criterion of mine dust-proof water supply network is deduced, and a similar model of dust-proof water supply network is established based on the prototype of Kailuan Group, the characteristics of hydraulic parameters in water supply network are studied experimentally. The results show that water pressure at each point is a dynamic process, and there is a negative correlation between water pressure and water consumption. With the increase of water consumption, the pressure of water points show a decreasing trend. According to the structure of the pipe network and the location of the water point, the influence degree on the pressure of each point is different.

  8. Vulnerability-based evaluation of water supply design under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umit Taner, Mehmet; Ray, Patrick; Brown, Casey

    2015-04-01

    Long-lived water supply infrastructures are strategic investments in the developing world, serving the purpose of balancing water deficits compounded by both population growth and socio-economic development. Robust infrastructure design under climate change is compelling, and often addressed by focusing on the outcomes of climate model projections ('scenario-led' planning), or by identifying design options that are less vulnerable to a wide range of plausible futures ('vulnerability-based' planning). Decision-Scaling framework combines these two approaches by first applying a climate stress test on the system to explore vulnerabilities across many traces of the future, and then employing climate projections to inform the decision-making process. In this work, we develop decision scaling's nascent risk management concepts further, directing actions on vulnerabilities identified during the climate stress test. In the process, we present a new way to inform climate vulnerability space using climate projections, and demonstrate the use of multiple decision criteria to guide to a final design recommendation. The concepts are demonstrated for a water supply project in the Mombasa Province of Kenya, planned to provide domestic and irrigation supply. Six storage design capacities (from 40 to 140 million cubic meters) are explored through a stress test, under a large number climate traces representing both natural climate variability and plausible climate changes. Design outcomes are simulated over a 40-year planning period with a coupled hydrologic-water resources systems model and using standard reservoir operation rules. Resulting performance is expressed in terms of water supply reliability and economic efficiency. Ensemble climate projections are used for assigning conditional likelihoods to the climate traces using a statistical distance measure. The final design recommendations are presented and discussed for the decision criteria of expected regret, satisficing, and

  9. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Water Supply Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    soon for water supply if there was an extreme need for it. Water can be pumped from Audubon Lake to the McClusky Canal which flows to Lone Tree...from the well field to Grand Forks’ and East Grand Forks’ water treatment plants. Alternatively, surface canals could be used to transport the water...size to Grand Forks and East Grand Forks. 15 Midi o .t c"I- u,,-Tjo en en %0" trA .n-4 on 0% %0A.) G n % 4 n 14 0; 11-; 0C4 10 0 r-’ 0 8 - 0 1-1 1-4

  10. Water supply at heavy disaster (earthquake); Saigaiji (jishinji) no mizu jijo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, S. [College of Science and Technology, Tohoku, Sendai (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    With the destructive earthquake recently visited Hanshin/Awaji Districts as a momentum, importance to secure water at an emergency has seriously been recongnized. This papaer describes the administrative actions, technical level, future problems or the like in securing water. Practically, the countermeasure taken against the disaster, the water volume required for emergency supply, the water quality by applications, the example of the administrative emergency water supply system, and the water source at the disaster are outlined. (author)

  11. Determination of Aluminium and Physicochemical Parameters in the Palm Oil Estates Water Supply at Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Farizwana, M. R.; Mazrura, S.; Zurahanim Fasha, A.; Ahmad Rohi, G.

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems. PMID:21461348

  12. Determination of Aluminium and Physicochemical Parameters in the Palm Oil Estates Water Supply at Johor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Siti Farizwana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, and residual chlorine in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S, the treatment plant outlet (TPO, and at the nearest houses (H1 and the furthest houses (H2 from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90. The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU. Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L. Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.

  13. Evaluating the potential of biofilm control in water supply systems by removal of phosphorus from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubulis, Jinis; Juhna, Tălis

    2007-01-01

    Effect of microbially available phosphorus (MAP) on biofilm development in drinking water systems was investigated at the pilot-scale experiments over 3 years. Completely mixed biofilm reactors Propella (water detention time 24 h, flow rate 0.25 m s(-1), PVC pipe coupons) were used as water distribution network models. Four experimental runs were carried out with water containing different levels of phosphorus which was limiting nutrient for bacterial growth. Positive correlation between MAP in the inlet water and heterotrophic plate count (correlation coefficient 0.95) in biofilm, as well as for the total bacteria number (correlation coefficient 0.71), was observed. However, our experiments showed that removal of phosphorus down to very low levels (below detection limits of chemical method and MAP < 1 microg L(-1) was not an efficient strategy to eliminate bacterial regrowth and biofilm formation (< 51,00,000 cells/cm2) in drinking water supply systems.

  14. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ASSESSMENT METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS OF WATER SUPPLY AND WATER DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kapansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods for assessing the energy efficiency of technological systems of water supply and water disposal are examined. The main tool of the existing methods is a settlement-and-analytical method, and, in accordance with the mentioned one, the determining of general and specific electric power consumption is based on actual consumption evaluation, evaluation of pressure and efficiency of the pump unit. However, in practical terms a lot of factors influence on those characteristics therefore affecting the resulting magnitude of energy efficiency and leading to errors in the calculation. These factors include the technical condition of the equipment and piping systems, alterations in the modes of operation of pumping units over time, a significant impact of the ambient temperature on the power consumption, amount of precipitation and the chemical composition of the effluent. As an object of management water supply and water disposal systems are considered as a totality; therefore the assessment of the energy efficiency of pipeline enterprises ought to be based on a systematic approach, whereas the existing methods are mainly based on an analysis of operating modes of individual electrical equipment, not on the whole technological system. The article describes the management system of energy efficiency of pipeline water supply and water disposal systems. The management system is based on information base of statistic data of power, hydraulic and industrial indexes of wastewater management. The original basic mathematical models of common costs and unit costs of electrical power in the water supply and water disposal systems, which are the basis for the solution of the problems of forecasting and the current state assessment of energy efficiency of enterprises, the selection of priority areas of energy efficiency and finding the ways to save energy resources, are presented.

  16. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  17. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  18. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  19. A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalçıntaş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure.

  20. Water Quality Study on the Hot and Cold Water Supply Systems at Vietnamese Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as part of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM of the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of the Environment project’s preparation in Vietnam. Samples were taken from hot and cold water supplies from guest rooms’ faucets in 12 hotels in Hanoi city, Vietnam, and 13 hotels in Japan for comparison. A simple water quality measurement and determination of Legionella was carried out. The results showed that residual effective chlorine—which guarantees bactericidal properties—was not detected in tap water supplied in hotel rooms in Vietnam, and nitrite (an indicator of water pollution was detected in 40% of buildings. In the hotels in Japan, the prescribed residual chlorine concentration met the prescribed levels, and nitrite was not detected. Additionally, while there was no Legionella detected in the Japanese cases, it was detected in most of the Vietnamese hotels, which were found to manage the hot water storage tank at low temperatures of 40–50 °C. It was found that there were deficiencies in cold and hot water supply quality, and that there was no effective system in place for building operation maintenance and management.

  1. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... water management (rural water supply), public recreation, public fish and wildlife, and watershed...] [FR Doc No: 2010-11227] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service. ACTION: Notice...

  2. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability AGENCY: Bureau... for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply projects intended to serve... helps rural communities assess their potable water needs and identify options to address those needs...

  3. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00 a.m...

  4. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that these...

  5. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory Revisions...

  6. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  7. The Value of Advanced Smart Metering in the Management of Urban Water Supply Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, J.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Cominola, A.; Arregui de la Cruz, F.; Escriva-Bou, A.; Soriano, J.; Pérez, J. J.; Castillo, J.; Barba, J.; González, V.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    This work intends to outline the experience of the implementation and further exploitation of an extensive network of smart meters (SM) in the city of Valencia by Aguas de Valencia, the water utility that offers water supply and sanitation services to the city of Valencia and its metropolitan area. Valencia has become the first large city in Europe fully equipped with a point-to-point fixed network of SM (currently with more than 430,000 units, about 90% of the meters of the city). The shift towards a water supply management system based on SM is a complex process that entails changes and impacts on different management areas of the water supply organization. A new data management and processing platform has been developed and is already proving notable benefits in the operation of the system. For example, a tool allows to automatically issue and manage work orders when abnormalities such as internal leaks (constant consumption) or meter alarms are detected. Another tool has been developed to reduce levels of non-revenue water by continuously balancing supply and demand in district metered areas. Improving leak detection and adjusting pressure levels has significantly increased the efficiency of the water distribution network. Finally, a service of post-meter leak detection has been also implemented. But the SM also contribute to improve demand management. The customers now receive detailed information on their water consumption, valuable for improving household water management and assessing the value of water conservation strategies. SM are also key tools for improving the level of understanding of demand patterns. Users have been categorized into different clusters depending in their consumption patterns characteristics. Within the EU SmartH2O project, a high resolution and frequency monitoring of residential uses has been conducted in a selected sample of households for a precise disaggregation of residential end-uses. The disaggregation of end-uses allows for

  8. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  9. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  10. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Yousefi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran. Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. standard methods for water and wastewater experiment. The data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism 5. The results were compared with national and international standards. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD values of Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, Puckorius and Larson-Skold indices in year 2009 were equal to 7.833 (±0.28, -0.102 (±0.35, 11.88 (±0.34, 7.481 (±0.22 and 0.801 (±0.44, respectively, and were 7.861 (±0.28, -0.175 (±0.34, 11.84 (±0.37, 7.298(±0.32 and 0.633 (±0.47, for year 2013 respectively. The average of Langelier, Ryznar, Aggression, and Puckorius indices indicate that potable water resources in Ilam city have the tendency to be corrosive. Statistical analysis and figures carried out by GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Conclusion: The results of different indices for water resources of Ilam city revealed that water supplies of Ilam city were corrosive. Water quality control and replacement of distribution pipes in development of water network should be carried out. Moreover, water pipelines should be preserved with several modes of corrosion inhibition.

  11. Calibration of parameters of water supply network model using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boczar Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation models of water supply networks are commonly applied in the water industry. As part of the research works, results of which are presented in the paper, OFF-LINE and ON-LINE calibration of water supply network model parameters using two methods was carried out and compared. The network skeleton was developed in the Epanet software. For optimization two types of dependent variables were subjected: the pressure on the node and volume flow in the network section. The first calibration method regards to application of the genetic algorithm, which is a build in plugin - “Epanet Calibrator”. The second method was related to the use of function ga, which is implemented in the MATLAB toolbox Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search. The possibilities of application of these algorithms to solve the issue of optimizing the parameters of the created model of water supply network in both cases: OFF-LINE and ON-LINE calibration was examined. An analysis of the effectiveness of the considered algorithms for different values of configuration parameters was performed. Based on the achieved results it was stated that application of the ga algorithm gives higher correlation of the calibrated values to the empirical data.

  12. Calibration of parameters of water supply network model using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczar, Tomasz; Adamikiewicz, Norbert; Stanisławski, Włodzimierz

    2017-10-01

    Computer simulation models of water supply networks are commonly applied in the water industry. As part of the research works, results of which are presented in the paper, OFF-LINE and ON-LINE calibration of water supply network model parameters using two methods was carried out and compared. The network skeleton was developed in the Epanet software. For optimization two types of dependent variables were subjected: the pressure on the node and volume flow in the network section. The first calibration method regards to application of the genetic algorithm, which is a build in plugin - "Epanet Calibrator". The second method was related to the use of function ga, which is implemented in the MATLAB toolbox Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search. The possibilities of application of these algorithms to solve the issue of optimizing the parameters of the created model of water supply network in both cases: OFF-LINE and ON-LINE calibration was examined. An analysis of the effectiveness of the considered algorithms for different values of configuration parameters was performed. Based on the achieved results it was stated that application of the ga algorithm gives higher correlation of the calibrated values to the empirical data.

  13. Emerging and Innovative Techniques for Arsenic Removal Applied to a Small Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. Alçada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of arsenic on human health has led its drinking water MCL to be drastically reduced from 50 to 10 ppb. Consequently, arsenic levels in many water supply sources have become critical. This has resulted in technical and operational impacts on many drinking water treatment plants that have required onerous upgrading to meet the new standard. This becomes a very sensitive issue in the context of water scarcity and climate change, given the expected increasing demand on groundwater sources. This work presents a case study that describes the development of low-cost techniques for efficient arsenic control in drinking water. The results obtained at the Manteigas WTP (Portugal demonstrate the successful implementation of an effective and flexible process of reactive filtration using iron oxide. At real-scale, very high removal efficiencies of over 95% were obtained.

  14. Analytical and experimental investigation of chlorine decay in water supply systems under unsteady hydraulic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the dynamic hydraulic conditions on the kinetics of chlorine decay in water supply systems. A simulation framework has been developed for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady- and unsteady-state flows. An unsteady decay...... coefficient is defined which depends upon the absolute value of shear stress and the rate of change of shear stress for quasi-unsteady and unsteady-state flows. By coupling novel instrumentation technologies for continuous hydraulic monitoring and water quality sensors for in-pipe water quality sensing...... a pioneering experimental and analytical investigation was carried out in a water transmission main. The results were used to model monochloramine decay and these demonstrate that the dynamic hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on water quality deterioration. The spatial and temporal resolution...

  15. Polycentrism and Poverty: Experiences of Rural Water Supply Reform in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Falk

    2009-02-01

    This paper investigates how polycentric rural water supply reform impacts on natural resource management and water users’ livelihoods in three communal areas of Namibia. The analysis takes into account the effects of historic discriminative policies and the resulting low financial, human and social capital of rural communities. We conclude that the devolution of institutional and financial responsibility for water supply to users has had a positive impact on rural water management. However, the introduction of cost recovery principles conflicts with the objectives of the Namibian government to alleviate poverty and inequality. The high level of inequality within the country as a whole and also within communities impedes the development of fair fee systems. Polycentrism faces the major challenge of building on existing structures without replicating historic injustices. It allows, however, for the state to mitigate any negative impact on livelihoods. While the reform is in the process of full implementation, the government is discussing various options of how the poor can be guaranteed access to water without diminishing their development opportunities. The Namibian experience demonstrates the difficulties in developing effective incentive mechanisms without undermining major social objectives. Our analyses show that, compared to naive monocentric governance approaches, polycentrism offers much broader opportunities for achieving multidimensional objectives. Nonetheless, a reform does not become successful simply because it is polycentric.

  16. Isotopic metrics for structure, connectivity, and residence time in urban water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gabriel; Kennedy, Casey; Good, Stephen; Ehleringer, James

    2014-05-01

    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas, accessing, managing, and distributing water from an often complex array of sources to provide on-demand access to safe, potable water at the point-of-use. Water managers are faced with a wide range of potential threats, ranging from climate change to infrastructure failure to supply contamination. Information on the structure of supply and conveyance systems, connectivity within these systems, and links between the point-of-use and environmental water sources are thus critical to assessing the stability of water supplies and responding efficiently and effectively to water supply threats. We report datasets documenting stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of public supply water in cities of the United States across a range of scales. The data show a wide range of spatial and temporal variability that can be attributed to a combination of regional hydroclimate and water supply characteristics. Comparisons of public supply waters with model-based estimates of the isotopic composition of regional water sources suggests that major factors reflected in the tap water data include the degree of fragmentation of natural and man-made storage and conveyance systems, inter-basinal transfer of water, evaporative losses, and the total residence time of the natural and artificial systems being exploited. Because each of these factors contributes to determining the sustainability of water supply systems and their sensitivity to environmental disturbance, we propose a set of isotope-based metrics that can be used to efficiently assess and monitor the characteristics of public-supply systems in water security assessments and in support of management, planning, and outreach activities.

  17. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water—a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways—through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management.

  18. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  19. Energetic efficiency in water supply and sanitation systems; Eficientizacao energetica em sistemas de abastecimento de agua e saneamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Lydiane Abdon; Barbosa, Paulo Sergio Franco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes energy efficiency programs developed by two foreigners and two brazilian water supply companies, showing the interdependence between water and energy consumptions. The work indicates the procedure for the conception of a data bank containing important information for the success of energy efficiency programs in the sector.

  20. Implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points in the drinking water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Tavasolifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to design comprehensive risk management based on hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP in the Isfahan drinking water system. Materials and Methods: Data obtained from field inspections and through related organizations of Isfahan, Iran. The most important risks and risky events of water quality in all sources of raw water in the study area including the Zayanderoud river, the water treatment plant, and the distribution system were identified and analyzed. Practical measures for the protection, control, and limitation of the risks in different phases, from water supply to consumption point, were presented in the form of seven principles of the HACCP system. Results: It was found that there was a potential of hazards during the treatment process of water because of seasonal changes and discharge of various pollutants. Water contamination could occur in eight identified critical control points (CCP. River water could be contaminated by rural communities on the banks of the river, by natural and sudden accidents, by subversive accidents, by incomplete operation, by lack of proportionate of the current treatment process, and by the high extent of antiquity of the Isfahan water distribution system. Conclusions: In order to provide safe drinking water, it is necessary to implement a modern risk management system such as the HACCP approach. The increasing trend of the Zayandehroud river pollution needs urgent attention. Therefore, the role of the government in developing and mandating the HACCP system in water industries is essential.

  1. Water-supply potential from an asphalt-lined catchment near Holualoa Kona, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Salwyn S.W.

    1965-01-01

    The Jenkins-Whitesburg area includes approximately 250 square miles In Letcher and Pike Counties in the southeastern part of the Eastern Coal Field. In this area ground water is the principal source of water for nearly all rural families, most public supplies, several coal mines and coal processing plants, and one bottling plant. The major aquifers in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area are the Breathitt and Lee Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Other aquifers range in age from Devonian to Quaternary but are not important in this area because they occur at great depth or yield little or no water. The Breathitt Formation occurs throughout the area except along the crest and slopes of Pine Mountain and where it is covered by unconsolidated material of Quaternary age. The Breathitt Formation consists of shale, sandstone, and lesser amounts of coal and associated underclay. The yield of wells penetrating the Breathitt Formation ranges from less than 1 to 330 gallons per minute. Well yield is controlled by the type and depth of well, character of the aquifer, and topography of the well site. Generally, deep wells drilled in valleys of perennial streams offer the best potential for high yields. Although enough water for a minimum domestic supply (more than 100 gallons per day) may be obtained from shale, all high-yielding wells probably obtain water from vertical joints and from bedding planes which are best developed in sandstone. About 13 percent of the wells inventoried in the Breathitt Formation failed to supply enough water for a minimum domestic supply. Most of these are shallow dug wells or drilled wells on hillsides or hilltops. Abandoned coal mines are utilized as large infiltration galleries and furnish part of the water for several public supplies. The chemical quality of water from the Breathitt Formation varies considerably from place to place, but the water generally is acceptable for most domestic and industrial uses. Most water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate

  2. Energy Costs of Urban Water Supply Systems: Evidence from India (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malghan, D.; Mehta, V. K.; Goswami, R.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time in human history more people around the globe now live in urban centres rather than in rural settings. Although India's urban population proportion at 31% is still below the global average, it has been urbanizing rapidly. The population growth rate in urban India is more than two-and-half times that of rural India. The current Indian urban population, of over 370 million people, exceeds that of the total population of every other country on the planet with the exception of China. Supplying water to India's burgeoning urban agglomerations poses a challenge in terms of social equity, biophysical sustainability, and economic efficiency. A typical Indian city relies on both surface and ground water sources. Several Indian cities import surface water from distances that now exceed a hundred kilometres and across gradients of up to three thousand metres. While the depleting groundwater levels as a result of rapidly growing demand from urban India is at least anecdotally understood even when reliable estimates are not available, the energy costs of supplying water to urban India has thus far not received academic or policy attention it deserves. We develop a simple framework to integrate distributed groundwater models with water consumption data to estimate the energy and emissions associated with supplying water to urban centres. We assemble a unique data set from seventy five of the largest urban agglomerations in India and derive estimated values of energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with water provision in urban India. Our analysis shows that in every major city, the energy cost associated with long distance import of surface water significantly exceeds groundwater extraction. However, with rapidly depleting groundwater levels, we estimate inflection points for select cities when energy costs of groundwater extraction will exceed energy required to import surface water into the city. In addition to the national snapshot, we also

  3. Establishment of sustainable water supply system in small islands through rainwater harvesting (RWH): case study of Guja-do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mooyoung; Ki, Jaehong

    2010-01-01

    Many islands in Korea have problems related to water source security and supply. In particular, the water supply condition is worse in small islands which are remote from the mainland. A couple of alternatives are developed and suggested to supply water to islands including water hauling, groundwater extraction, and desalination. However, these alternatives require much energy, cost, and concern in installation and operation. Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable option that supplies water with low energy and cost. However, lack of practical or comprehensive studies on rainwater harvesting systems in these regions hinders the promotion of the system. Therefore, this research examines defects of current RWH systems on an existing island, Guja-do, and provides technical suggestions in quantitative and qualitative aspects. A simple system design modification and expansion of system capacity using empty space such as a wharf structure can satisfy both the qualitative and the quantitative water demand of the island. Since rainwater harvesting is estimated to be a feasible water supply option under the Korean climate, which is an unfavorable condition for rainwater harvesting, implies a high potential applicability of rainwater harvesting technology to other regions over the world suffering from water shortage.

  4. Suitability of the H2S method for testing untreated and chlorinated water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, J; Gibbs, R; Mathew, K; Ho, G E

    2001-01-01

    Rainwater, borewater and catchment water are used for domestic water supply purposes with or without treatment in remote areas around the world. These places seldom have any facilities for routine testing of their drinking water. A simple on-site testing method is highly required in such areas. The H2S method has been tested for treated drinking water and was found to have a good correlation with the standard methods. The present study was aimed at assessing the suitability of the H2S method for testing different sources of drinking water. Since these types of water may contain H2S producing bacteria not of faecal origin the occurrence of false results in this method cannot be overruled. Therefore it was worthwhile to study whether the positive results are true positive results and what percentage of false positive and false negative results could be expected while using this test for routine analysis of water samples. Results were compared with the results using standard procedures for testing total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. The present experiment analysed 121 rainwater samples, 17 borewater samples, 41 catchment water samples and 74 remote Aboriginal community water samples. Rainwater, borewater and catchment water samples gave true results of 78.5%, 82.3% and 80.5% respectively while the treated and untreated community samples gave true results of 93.7 and 84.6% respectively. It was concluded that in the developing countries where the acceptable level of total coliform is <10 MPN, the H2S method would be a good test to identify microbial contamination. In other regions, the H2S method could be used as a screening test for drinking water supplies.

  5. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  6. Water Loss Management : Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  7. Surface wastewater in Samara and their impact on water basins as water supply sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Shuvalov, Mikhail; Gridneva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper gives an overview of surface wastewater outlets in Samara through the rainwater sewer system into the Saratov water reservoir and the Samara river. The rainwater sewer system in Samara is designed and executed according to a separate scheme, except for the old part of the city, where surface run-off is dumped into the sewer system through siphoned drain. The rainwater system disposes of surface, drainage, industrial clean-contamined waters, emergency and technology discharges from the city’s heat supply and water supply systems. The effluent discharge is carried out by means of separate wastewater outlets into ravines or directly into the Samara river and the Saratov water reservoir without cleaning. The effluent discharge is carried out through the rainwater sewer system with 17 wastewater outlets into the Saratov water reservoir. In the Samara river, surface runoff drainage and clean-contamined water of industrial enterprises is carried out through 14 wastewater outlets. This study emphasizes the demand to arrange effluent discharge and construction of sewage treatment plants to prevent contamination of water objects by surface run-off from residential areas and industrial territories.

  8. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  9. Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Developments and Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; Klumpp, Matthias; Zijm, Henk; Klumpp, Matthias; Clausen, Uwe; ten Hompel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The demand for sustainable logistic and supply chain processes poses enormous challenges in terms of technology integration, the development of new business models, cultural change and job qualification, and as such requires a real paradigm shift. In this paper, we start with a brief sketch of how

  10. The right to water in rural Punjab: assessing equitable access to water in the context of the ongoing Punjab Rural Water Supply Proejct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Shamsher; Crowley, Julia; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-12-15

    Although India is poised to meet its Millennium Development Goal for providing access to safe drinking water, there remains a worrying discrepancy in access between urban and rural areas. In 2006, 96% of the urban population versus 86% of the rural population obtained their drinking water from an improved water source. To increase access to potable water in rural areas, the World Bank and the state of Punjab have implemented the Punjab Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PRWSS) to improve or construct water supply systems in 3,000 villages deemed to have inadequate access to clean drinking water. This study aimed to examine whether the right to water was fulfilled in six towns in rural Punjab during implementation of the PRWSS. The normative content of the right to water requires that water be of adequate quantity, safety, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability in terms of quality. While our findings suggest that the PRWSS improved water quality, they also indicate that access to water was limited due to affordability and the low socioeconomic status of some people living in the target communities. Copyright © 2011 Samra, Crowley, and Smith Fawzi. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  11. On the climate change implications to water supply in the city of lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro Chavez, A.; Bardossy, A.

    2009-04-01

    Water supply is one of the mayor problems that face the city of Lima in Peru. This problem is critic in periods of drought and extreme drought. Moreover, the hydrological cycle vulnerability to climate change, especially the impact on the availability of water resources requires the study and prediction of the consequences in water resources, among others. The project Liwa is a large-scale project that involves several disciplines addressing the problem of water supply in different perspectives in order to know the different parameters involved their interactions, their present and future implications, and at the end try to give an assessment and proposal for development and the optimal use of the water resource. By using hydrological models, the first part of the project addresses the water supply problem in Lima by considering the use of three basins that feed the city. Secondly, through numerical simulations it is determined the future potential of the system by taking account the potential impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle. A statistical downscaling scheme (Bárdossy 2002) will be used to generate time series of local climate scenarios. These results will be input to the hydrological models. In order to simulate discharges and storage volume in glaciers, reservoirs and water balance groundwater the conceptual model HBV (Bergström, 1995) will be used. The most important variables considered in the system are the rivers, melting glaciers, precipitation, groundwater availability and other elements of the hydrological cycle. Results show that climate change implies, as well known, mean temperature will rise gradually in the coming years. As a consequence of this phenomenon precipitation pattern in this area will decline in rainy years and will increase slightly in the drought years.

  12. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  13. City, region, and in between: New York City's water supply and the insights of regional history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, David

    2012-01-01

    Urban historians have greatly expanded their geographical purview in recent years, incorporating suburbs and hinterlands into their analysis of social and environmental change. Urban environmental historians and suburban historians have played a critical role in the regionalization of urban history over the last decade. This case study of the development of New York City’s water supply reveals the benefits of taking a regional approach to urban history. From the New York Public Library to Central Park’s Great Lawn to neighborhood parks, the New York City landscape bears the traces of the continuous development of the city’s water network. Expansion of the water system in rural hinterlands enabled municipal officials to put urban reservoirs to new uses, creating some of the city’s most beloved public spaces. The rehabilitation of urban infrastructure underscores the intimate linkages between rural development and the urban built environment.

  14. Impacts on groundwater recharge areas of megacity pumping: analysis of potential contamination of Kolkata, India, water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.; Sikdar, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Water supply to the world's megacities is a problem of quantity and quality that will be a priority in the coming decades. Heavy pumping of groundwater beneath these urban centres, particularly in regions with low natural topographic gradients, such as deltas and floodplains, can fundamentally alter the hydrological system. These changes affect recharge area locations, which may shift closer to the city centre than before development, thereby increasing the potential for contamination. Hydrogeological simulation analysis allows evaluation of the impact on past, present and future pumping for the region of Kolkata, India, on recharge area locations in an aquifer that supplies water to over 13 million people. Relocated recharge areas are compared with known surface contamination sources, with a focus on sustainable management of this urban groundwater resource. The study highlights the impacts of pumping on water sources for long-term development of stressed city aquifers and for future water supply in deltaic and floodplain regions of the world.

  15. Impact of climate change on persistent turbidity in the water supply system of a Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S. W.; Park, H. S.; Lim, K. J.; Kang, B.

    2016-12-01

    Persistent turbidity, a long-term resuspension of fine particles in aquatic system, is one of the major water quality concerns for the sustainable management of water supply systems in metropolitan areas. Turbid water has undesirable aesthetic and recreational appeal and may have harmful effect on ecosystem health, in addition to increasing water treatment costs in drinking water supply systems. These concerns have been more intensified as the strength and frequency of rainfall events increase by climate change in the Asian monsoon climate region, including Korea. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of potential climate change on the persistent turbidity of the Han River systems that supplies drinking water to approximately 25 million consumers dwelling in the Seoul Metropolitan areas. A comprehensive numerical and statistical modeling suit has been developed and applied to the systems for the projection of future climate, responding hydrological and soil erosion processes in the watershed, and sediment transport processes in the rivers and reservoirs systems. The down-scaled 100 years of climatic data from General Circulation Model (HadGEM2-AO) based on the IPCC's greenhouse-gas emissions scenario RCP4.5 were used for the forcing data of the watershed and river-reservoir models. As the results, an extreme flood event that may incur significant persistent turbidity was projected to be occurred five times in the future. The threshold of a flood event that is classified as an extreme event was based on the historical flood event that occurred on July of 2006 when turbid water had persisted within the Soyang Reservoir and discharged to the downstream of the Han River systems over the year until May of the following year. A two-dimensional river and reservoir model simulated the transport and dynamics of suspended sediments in Soyang Reservoir, and routed the discharged turbid water to the downstream of Paldang Reservoir, in which most of the drinking water

  16. Evaluation of actions for better water supply and demand management in Fayoum, Egypt using RIBASIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie M. Omar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fayoum Governorate faces many water-related challenges being; compensating the water shortage and controlling the volumes of drainage water effluents into Quarun Lake. There are many actions, based on water resources management approach, which can help overcome these water-related challenges. These actions are classified to developing additional water resources (supply management, and properly using the existing water resources (demand management. This study investigates using the RIBASIM (RIver BAsin SIMulation model, the most suitable actions for the future. RIBASIM was used to simulate the current condition and evaluate various scenarios in 2017 based on different actions. Three scenarios were formulated being optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic which represent different implementation rates of the tested actions. RIBASIM results indicated a water shortage of 0.59, 1, and 1.85 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM/year, for the simulated scenarios, respectively. Since Fayoum is a miniature of Egypt with respect to both, the natural and water resources systems, the results of this study can be used as guidelines for optimization of the water resources system in Egypt.

  17. Climate Informed Economic Instruments to Enhance Urban Water Supply Resilience to Hydroclimatological Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Carriquiry, M.; Souza Filho, F. A.

    2006-12-01

    Hydroclimatological variability presents acute challenges to urban water supply providers. The impact is often most severe in developing nations where hydrologic and climate variability can be very high, water demand is unmet and increasing, and the financial resources to mitigate the social effects of that variability are limited. Furthermore, existing urban water systems face a reduced solution space, constrained by competing and conflicting interests, such as irrigation demand, recreation and hydropower production, and new (relative to system design) demands to satisfy environmental flow requirements. These constraints magnify the impacts of hydroclimatic variability and increase the vulnerability of urban areas to climate change. The high economic and social costs of structural responses to hydrologic variability, such as groundwater utilization and the construction or expansion of dams, create a need for innovative alternatives. Advances in hydrologic and climate forecasting, and the increasing sophistication and acceptance of incentive-based mechanisms for achieving economically efficient water allocation offer potential for improving the resilience of existing water systems to the challenge of variable supply. This presentation will explore the performance of a system of climate informed economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on water-sensitive stakeholders. The system is comprised of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Contract and insurance parameters are linked to forecasts and the evolution of seasonal precipitation and streamflow and designed for financial and political viability. A simulation of system performance is presented based on ongoing work in Metro Manila, Philippines. The

  18. INCORPORATING THE RURAL AREAS’ PARTICULARITIES IN THE WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orest Valentin TROFIN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the safe water supply and sewerage systems, especially in the rural areas of Romania, are mandatory for the insurance of the public health. In this context, a series of Romanian regional water and sewerage services suppliers developed Total Quality Management Systems, starting with the implementation of multiple ISO standards and in response to the need for answering to high requirements, both for constant development / modernization of the infrastructure and expansions to new consumers, as for the permanent improvement of the water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment’s quality. The Total Quality Management Systems inter-relate a series of quality components, all of them functioning in a unitary–integrated way, using specific rules and procedures for assuring the increase of the delivered services’ quality and performance. The results begin to be seen on all areas of the concerned water suppliers’ activity: from the operational field to the commercial, staff’s performance, environmental and customer care ones. one of the main fundaments of the monetary creation – aspect which is indissolubly related to the idea of evolution, more precisely, to the idea of economic development.

  19. Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thorough documentation, research and analysis of the available information was ... It has emerged that the poor operation and maintenance of water supply, treatment and ..... reliability and reduced water consumption to avoid imminent.

  20. [Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of drinking water of two networks supplied by surface water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellacani, Claudia; Branchi, Elisa; Buschini, Annamaria; Furlini, Mariangela; Poli, Paola; Rossi, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic load of drinking water in relationship to the source of supplies, the disinfection process, and the piping system. Two treatment/distribution networks of drinking water, the first (#1) located near the source, the second (#2) located near the mouth of a river supplying the plants. Water samples were collected before (F) and after (A) the disinfection process and in two points (R1 and R2) of the piping system. The samples, concentrated on C18, were tested for DNA damage in human leukocytes by the Comet assay and for gene conversion, reversion and mitochondrial mutability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. The approach used in this study is able to identify genotoxic compounds at low concentration and evaluate their antagonism/synergism in complex mixtures. Comet assay results show that the raw water quality depends on the sampling point, suggesting that a high input of environmental pollutants occurred during river flowing; they also show that the disinfection process can both detoxify or enhance biological activity of raw water according to its quality and that the piping systems do not affect tap water cytotoxic/genotoxic load. The yeast tests indicate the presence of some disinfection by-products effective on mitochondrial DNA. The biological assays used in this study are proven to be able to detect the presence of low concentrations of toxic/genotoxic compounds and assess the sources of their origin/production.

  1. Remaking Waste as Water: The Governance of Recycled Effluent for Potable Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Meehan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water managers increasingly rely on the indirect potable reuse (IPR of recycled effluent to augment potable water supplies in rapidly growing cities. At the same time, the presence of waste – as abject material – clearly remains an object of concern in IPR projects, spawning debate and opposition among the public. In this article, we identify the key governance factors of IPR schemes to examine how waste disrupts and stabilises existing practices and ideologies of water resources management. Specifically, we analyse and compare four prominent IPR projects from the United States and Australia, and identify the techno-scientific, legal, and socio-economic components necessary for successful implementation of IPR projects. This analysis demonstrates that successful IPR projects are characterised by large-scale, centralised infrastructure, state and techno-scientific control, and a political economy of water marked by supply augmentation and unchecked expansion. We argue that – despite advanced treatment – recycled effluent is a parallax object: a material force that disrupts the power geometries embedded in municipal water management. Consequently, successful IPR schemes must stabilise a particular mode of water governance, one in which recycled effluent is highly regulated and heavily policed. We conclude with insights about the future role of public participation in IPR projects.

  2. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to...

  3. Developing a Management Information System for the Chief of Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    This study examined the information needs of the Chief of Supply in order to facilitate the development of a Management Information System (MIS...information items found to be available within the SBSS program, it was determined feasible to continue the development of this Management Information System . The...results of this study led to two recommendations. The first was to immediately implement a Management Information System for the Chief of

  4. Hydrogeological modelling of the Atlantis aquifer for management support to the Atlantis water supply scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Supply Scheme (AWSS, Western Cape, South Africa) has been in operation for about 40 years as a means to supply and augment drinking water to the town of Atlantis via managed aquifer recharge (MAR). In this study, the numerical...

  5. Fishing for improvements: managing fishing by boat on New York City water supply reservoirs and lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole L. Green; Jennifer A. Cairo

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Water Supply undertook a 5-year initiative to improve fishing by boat on its water supply reservoirs and controlled lakes in upstate New York. The project includes: revising administrative procedures; cleaning up boat fishing areas on reservoir shores; improving two-way communication with...

  6. Getting "boater" all the time: managing fishing by boat on New York city water supply reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer A. Cairo

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 the New York City Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Water Supply undertook a five-year initiative to improve fishing by boat on its Water Supply reservoirs and controlled lakes in upstate New York. The project includes cleanup of administrative procedures and boat fishing areas on reservoir shores; improving two-way communication with anglers;...

  7. Public health risk status of the water supply frame work at Kwame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to assess the public health risk status of the potable water supply framework at the Kwame Nkurumah Postgraduate Residence (PG) Hall, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, (UNN), Enugu State, Nigeria, and environs. Four potable water supply frame-works at the PG Hall, UNN, and exposed stagnant ...

  8. Accessibility levels to potable Water Supply in Rural Areas of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population of the communities provided a basis for evolving an index that measured the levels of access to potable water supply in the study area. The use of GIS was subsequently employed to map out the study area on the basis of levels of access to potable water supply. The overall result depicts a very poor status ...

  9. The management of potable water supply : the case of Mkhwanazi Tribal Authority / Magwaza, D.W.

    OpenAIRE

    Magwaza, Duduzile Witness

    2011-01-01

    This mini–dissertation addresses the management of the potable water supply in the Mkhwanazi Tribal Authority's area of jurisdiction. The main objectives of the study were to determine the organisational structures and public policies governing the potable water supply in the uMhlathuze Local Municipality with a view to establishing the factors that hinder the provision of potable water to some parts of the Mkhwanazi Tribal Area and also determine how the present potable water situation is pe...

  10. [Water requirements, water supply and thermoregulation in small ruminants in pasture-based husbandry systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, D; Strobel, H; Axt, H; Voigt, K

    2015-01-01

    Water is an essential source of life and is available to animals as free water, water content of feed, film water (e. g. dew) and metabolic water. The water requirements of small ruminants are influenced by the type of feed, climate, stage of production, type and length of the fleece or hair coat, husbandry factors and the general health of the animal. Differences in water metabolism, drinking behaviour and the efficiency of temperature regulation are further influenced by species, breed, production type, husbandry system, acclimatisation and adaptation. Small ruminants have been, and are still predominantly kept in extensive husbandry systems. They are therefore genetically and phenotypically well adapted to these conditions and possess a range of physiological and behavioural mechanisms to deal with adverse and suboptimal weather conditions. Regarding animal welfare, there is considerable debate in the discussion and assessment of what constitutes a sufficient water supply for small ruminants under different husbandry conditions, often involving differences between theoretical demands and practical experience. This publication reviews and summarises the current literature regarding water requirements, water metabolism and thermoregulatory mechanisms of small ruminants to provide the basis for an informed assessment of extensive husbandry systems in terms of compliance with animal-welfare requirements.

  11. Trihalomethanes formation in Iranian water supply systems: predicting and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Ali Akbar; Atari, Leila; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ahmadiangali, Kambiz; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Alavi, Nadali

    2015-09-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) were the first disinfection by-products discovered in drinking water and are classified as probable carcinogens. This study measures and models THMs formation at two drinking water distribution systems (WDS1 and WDS2) in Ahvaz City, Iran. The investigation was based on field-scale investigations and an intensive 36-week sampling program, from January to September 2011. The results showed total THM concentrations in the range 17.4-174.8 μg/L and 18.9-99.5 μg/L in WDS1 and WDS2, respectively. Except in a few cases, the THM concentrations in WDS1 and WDS2 were lower than the maximum contaminant level values. Using two-tailed Pearson correlation test, the water temperature, dissolved organic carbon, UV254, bromide ion (Br-), free residual chlorine, and chlorine dose were identified as the significant parameters for THMs formation in WDS2. Water temperature was the only significant parameter for THMs formation in WDS1. Based on the correlation results, a predictive model for THMs formation was developed using a multiple regression approach. A multiple linear regression model showed the best fit according to the coefficients of determination (R2) obtained for WDS1 (R2=0.47) and WDS2 (R2=0.54). Further correlation studies and analysis focusing on THMs formation are necessary to assess THMs concentration using the predictive models.

  12. WATER MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer Karima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available «Of course I wish I was in school. I want to learn, I want to read and write... But how mom need me to fetch water» - Benny Bazan, Bolivia; «…the factories consume a lot of water, while we can hardly find enough basic our needs, not to mention what we need to irrigate crops» - Gopal Jojor, India. Voices are united by the same thing: the denial of access to water. It’s what began the United Nations report of human development for the year 2006. The observed increase of the population and increasing water pressure to use some form of this article despite the enormous availability and large, underground or surface quantities, but the supply and demand equation is no longer as in the past in spite of the new techniques introduced Kthalih seawater. And has worked to highlight the importance of this element as the most important determinants of sustainable development, which aims to rationality and adulthood and dealing with efforts to achieve growth and meet the needs of the population of housing and economic activities and food and education, without prejudice to the negative form of ecological, and sustainable development is the way only to ensure a good quality of life for residents of the present and the future.

  13. Radium and radon in water supplies from the Texas Gulf coastal aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cech, I.; Lemma, M.; Prichard, H.M.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    A sampling of the domestic water for two isotopes of the uranium (U)-238 series, radium (Ra)-226 and radon (Rn)-222, was conducted in parts of the Texas Gulf Coast to understand the distribution patterns of these radioisotopes in residential and commercial water supplies. Samples were obtained from consumers' taps, as well as at well heads to evaluate variation due to location and depth of water sources. Computer mapping and statistical analyses were used to depict patterns of Ra and Rn distribution. The concentrations varied depending on water source. No measurable Ra or Rn were found in surface water supplies, whereas up to 23 pCi l/sup -1/ of Ra and 3300 pCi l/sup -1/ of Rn were observed in some of the wells in northwest and southwest Harris County. The Rn concentrations were observed to increase with depth, but for Ra peak concentrations were found between 180 and 320 m below the surface. High concentrations of Ra and Rn were associated with wells developed on the flanks of piercement-type salt domes, along faults, and near streams

  14. Reconnaissance of Volatile Synthetic Organic Chemicals at Public Water Supply Wells Throughout Puerto Rico, November 1984-May 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Rios, Senen; Garcia, Rene; Aviles, Ada

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ground water is the principal source of drinking water for about 850,000 people in Puerto Rico (National Water Summary, 1985). Ground-water withdrawals for public supply, agricultural, and industrial water uses in Puerto Rico are about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) (Torres-Sierra and Aviles, 1985). The development of the most accessible surface water supplies will result in an increasing demand for ground water. Recent investigations conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey, WRD (USGS) have shown the presence of toxic synthetic organic chemicals in ground water throughout Puerto Rico (Gomez-Gomez and Guzman-Rios, 1982). Volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOC's) have been detected in water from public water supply wells in concentrations ranging from 1 to 500 micrograms per liter (Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1984 and Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1985). As result of these findings, pumpage was discontinued at 6 wells operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico agency responsible for public-water supply. Monitoring of 10 additional wells in the vicinity of those wells is being conducted by the USGS in cooperation with PRASA. In 1985, the USGS began a comprehensive islandwide study of VOC's in drinking water. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) and PRASA. Samples were collected from 243 public-water supply wells operated by PRASA (flgure 1). The authors wish to acknowledge the support, assistance and cooperation of the PRASA staff throughout Puerto Rico in the sample collection effort. The authors are especially grateful to Engineer Carlos Garcia-Troche from the PRASA main office in San Juan.

  15. Contingency interim measure for the public water supply at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-07-09

    This document presents a conceptual design for a contingency interim measure (IM) for treatment of the public water supply system at Barnes, Kansas, should this become necessary. The aquifer that serves the public water supply system at Barnes has been affected by trace to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and its degradation product, chloroform. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2008a) have demonstrated that groundwater at the Barnes site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at concentrations exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility in Barnes, approximately 800 ft east-southeast of the public water supply wells. Carbon tetrachloride was used in the treatment of grain. Another potential source identified in an investigation conducted for the KDHE (PRC 1996) is the site of a former agriculture building owned by the local school district (USD 223). This building is located immediately east of well PWS3. The potential contingency IM options evaluated in this report include the treatment of groundwater at the public water supply wellheads and the provision of an alternate water supply via Washington County Rural Water District No.2 (RWD 2). This document was developed in accordance with KDHE Bureau of Environmental Remediation (BER) Policy No.BER-RS-029 (Revised) (KDHE 2006a), supplemented by guidance from the KDHE project manager. Upon the approval of this contingency IM conceptual design by the KDHE, the CCC/USDA will prepare a treatment system design document that will contain the following elements: (1) Description of the approved contingency IM treatment method; (2) Drawings and/or schematics provided by the contractor and/or manufacturer of the approved technology; (3) A

  16. Viewpoint – Taking a multi-dimensional approach to small town water supply: The case of Paikgachha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imrul Kayes Muniruzzaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring access to safe drinking water in climate-vulnerable southwest Bangladesh is a growing challenge. People living in the coastal municipality town of Paikgachha in Khulna District are suffering from an acute crisis of drinking water due to contamination of groundwater by salinity, iron and arsenic. WaterAid Bangladesh piloted a piped water supply model with a progressive tariff approach that brings residents, especially the poor, safe and affordable water, while ensuring financial sustainability of the model. This paper discusses how the multidimensional approach underlying the development of the piped water system successfully addressed the social and institutional dimensions of water supply in a context involving multiple stressors. The initiative has demonstrated that sustainable service with full cost recovery is possible while addressing equity issues in the challenging circumstances of Bangladesh’s coast.

  17. Monitoring of water supply connections as an element to reduce apparent losses of water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwoździej-Mazur, Joanna

    2017-11-01

    Measuring instruments are designed to measure a given physical value, to process the obtained information and forward it to the observer. They are designed to perform specific tasks in specific working conditions and meeting the envisaged requirements. The most important requirement to be met by measuring instruments, is to preserve the established metrological characteristics. The basic and most common instrument for measuring the volume of flowing water is the water meter. Selecting the right water meter in the operating conditions is not an easy issue. The problem has been further intensified by decrease of water consumption which began in the 90s of the twentieth century and continuing to the present day. As a result, there has changed the structure of water consumption in both the residential and industrial applications. In this situation, a right selection of the optimal water meter it is an important case. The article presents the results of research in the field of characteristic flows in the water supply connections in multi-family housing using modern monitoring systems. It has been presented the calculated inequality ratio of water consumption, which can be helpful when designing a plumbing systems. In addition, the structure of water consumption due to the typical flow ranges was determined.

  18. [Arsenic levels in drinking water supplies from underground sources in the community of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés Sanz, N; Palacios Diez, M; Avello de Miguel, A; Gómez Rodríguez, P; Martínez Cortés, M; Rodríguez Bernabeu, M J

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, arsenic concentrations of more than 50 micrograms/l were detected in some drinking water supplies from underground sources in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, which is the maximum permissible concentration for drinking water in Spain. These two facts have meant the getting under way of a specific plan for monitoring arsenic in the drinking water in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The results of the first two sampling processes conducted in the arsenic level monitoring plan set out are presented. In the initial phase, water samples from 353 water supplies comprised within the census of the Public Health Administration of the Autonomous Community of Madrid were analyzed. A water supply risk classification was made based on these initial results. In a second phase, six months later, the analyses were repeated on those 35 water supplies which were considered to possibly pose a risk to public health. Seventy-four percent (74%) of the water supplies studied in the initial phase were revealed to have an arsenic concentration of less than 10 micrograms/l, 22.6% containing levels of 10 micrograms/l-50 micrograms/l, and 3.7% over 50 micrograms/l. Most of the water supplies showing arsenic levels of more than 10 micrograms/l are located in the same geographical area. In the second sampling process (six months later), the 35 water supplies classified as posing a risk were included. Twenty-six (26) of these supplies were revealed to have the same arsenic level ((10-50 micrograms/l), and nine changed category, six of which had less than 10 micrograms/l and three more than 50 micrograms/l. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, less than 2% of the population drinks water coming from supplies which are from underground sources. The regular water quality monitoring conducted by the Public Health Administration has led to detecting the presence of more than 50 micrograms/l of arsenic in sixteen drinking water supplies from underground sources, which is the maximum

  19. Adapted hydropower-driven water supply system: assessment of an underground application in an Indonesian karst area

    OpenAIRE

    Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; F. Nestmann

    2016-01-01

    Populated karst landscapes can be found all over the world, although their natural boundary conditions mostly lead to distinct challenges regarding a sustainable water supply. Especially in developing and emerging countries, this situation aggravates since appropriate technologies and water management concepts are rarely available. Against this background, the interdisciplinary, German-Indonesian joint project ‘‘Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia’’, funded by the German Fe...

  20. Development of a heavy duty portable variable power supply (HPVPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmad Zulfadli Bin; Lung, Chong Man; Abidin, Wan'Amirah Basyarah Binti Zainol

    2017-08-01

    This paper covers the innovation of a Heavy Duty Portable Variable Power Supply (HPVPS) in Jabatan Kejuruteraan Elektrik (JKE), Politeknik Mukah, Sarawak (PMU). This project consists of variable power supply which can vary the output from 1.2 V to 11.6V, AC pure wave inverter to convert DC to AC for the operation of low power home appliances and also used Li-on rechargeable batteries to store the electrical energy and additional feature that can be used to jump-start the batteries of the car. The main objective of this project is to make the user can operate the electronic devices anywhere whenever if no electricity while doing their lab activities. Most of the regulated power supply in JKE lab aged 9-10 years old and need periodical maintenance and need cost and also the unit can be used is not enough to support the whole class during lab activities. As a result, the P&P process will be facing the major problem in order to make the lab activities running smoothly. By development of the portable variable power supply, the P&P process is more efficient and very helpful.

  1. Concept Development of Optimal Mine Site Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on early work and concept development for Optimal Mine Site Energy Supply, where the specific energy supply requirements and constraints for mineral production operations are considered against methodologies that have been applied for other sectors and in other energy policy regimes. The primary motivation for this research is to help ensure that Canadian mineral producers will achieve reduced production costs through improvements in the efficiency with which they consume energy resources. Heat has not yet been considered for the mining sector in an integrated manner, which makes polygeneration of great interest. The methodology that optimizes configuration of polygeneration systems for mine sites has not been reported before. The variety of mining circumstances, temporal variations in energy prices, institutional inertia, and conservatism in design for mines are some of the reasons for this. This paper reviews some aspects of precedent energy management practice in mineral operations, which highlights energy challenges characteristic of the sector and sets out the initial formulation of optimal mine site energy supply. The review indicates the additional benefits of energy supply systems for mine sites that concurrently meet all utilities.

  2. Post-Construction Support and Sustainability in Community-Managed Rural Water Supply : Case Studies in Peru, Bolivia, and Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Akanbang (Bernard); A. Alvestegui (Alfonso); A. Bakalian (Alexander); B. Bucheli (Brenda); J. Davis (Jennifer); J. Izaguirre (Jorge); M. Jeuland (Marc); K. Komives (Kristin); E. Larbi (Eugene); G. Lizárraga (Gloria); H. Lukacs (Heather); L. Prokopy (Linda); B. Soto (Betty); R. Thorsten (Richard); B. Tuffuor (Benedict); W. Wakeman (Wendy); D. Whittington (Dale)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractExecutive Summary This volume reports the main findings from a multi-country research project that was designed to develop a better understanding of how rural water supply systems are performing in developing countries. We began the research in 2004 to investigate how the provision of

  3. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; ,; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  4. California’s Agricultural and Urban Water Supply Reliability and the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Jay R.

    2016-01-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art6 Much of the water supplied in California for agriculture and cities is taken directly from the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta) or indirectly from surface and groundwater diversions upstream. These water supplies have great economic and social value, and considerable ecosystem effects. Long thought of as the major source of water for economic growth in California, the reliability of water supplied from the Delta is t...

  5. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    wells, bore holes and extension of the existing water pipes to neighbouring towns and villages. This programme is to be repackaged as “water for all'. The provision of safe drinking water to all nocks and crannies will reduce the incidence of water borne diseases. More funds are to be allocated to the state water corporation.

  6. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. This paper presents an economic framework that can be used to optimize electric power system reliability. Finally the cost models are investigated to take into account the economic analysis of system reliability, which can be periodically updated to improve overall reliability of electric power system.

  7. Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Binning, Philip John

    Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream......, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short......, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using...

  8. Managing Supply Chain Networks: A Framework for Achieving Superior Performance through Leadership Capabilities Development in Supply Chain Node

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Sharp; Watson, Derek; Worrall, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Leadership capability is acknowledged as a major challenge for organizations and a pre-requisite for sustaining high levels of organizational performance and supply chain competitiveness. Recent research highlights how globalisation has led to the extension of domestic supply chains, particularly SME ones, to include both suppliers and customers globally. This paper examines the role capabilities development in managers and leaders as nexus of their supply chain networks have to play in achie...

  9. Studying Drinking Water Quality and its Change During Transportation through Samara Water-Supply Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichigin, V. I.; Egorova, Y. A.; Nesterenko, O. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper investigates changes in water physico-chemical composition and its physical indicators through ζ-potential in residential buildings in eight administrative districts of Samara. The results are processed by the methods of mathematical statistics and presented at the 0.05 level of importance. The sampling points for water in the city districts were chosen with the aid of random numbers tables. It was determined that the quality of drinking water was stable and consistent with the existing standards in Zheleznodorozhniy, Samarskiy, Leninskiy, Octyabrskiy, Kirovsliy, Sovetskiy and Promyshlenniy districts of Samara. The following indicators were taken into account: pH, colour, turbidity, alkalinity, general rigidity, content of ions Ca2 +, Mg2 +. It was also established that drinking water in Kuibyshevskiy district (with all other excellent indicators) had increased mineralization due to the natural hydrological conditions of the water inlet. Some change in the size of zeta-potential of the water was detected during its transportation through the existing water-supplying networks of the city. It was shown that the link between zeta-potential and various kinds of contamination in drinking water is underexplored and requires further detailed study.

  10. Adaptation strategies for water supply management in a drought prone Mediterranean river basin: Application of outranking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Del Vasto-Terrientes, Luis; Valls, Aida; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The regional water allocation planning is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to water supply management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Tarragona) and to test the applicability and suitability of an outranking method ELECTRE-III-H for evaluating sectoral water allocation policies. This study is focused on the use of alternative water supply scenarios to fulfil the demand of water from three major sectors: domestic, industrial and agricultural. A detail scenario planning for regional water demand and supply has been discussed. For each future scenario of climate change, the goal is to obtain a ranking of a set of possible actions with regards to different types of indicators (costs, water stress and environmental impact). The analytical method used is based on outranking models for decision aid with hierarchical structures of criteria and ranking alternatives using partial preorders based on pairwise preference relations. We compare several adaptation measures including alternative water sources (reclaimed water and desalination); inter basin water transfer and sectoral demand management coming from industry, agriculture and domestic sectors and tested the sustainability of management actions for different climate change scenarios. Results have shown use of alternative water resources as the most reliable alternative with medium reclaimed water reuse in industry and agriculture and low to medium use of desalination water in domestic and industrial sectors as the best alternative. The proposed method has several advantages such as the management of heterogeneous scales of measurement without requiring any artificial

  11. Hazard Ranking Method for Populations Exposed to Arsenic in Private Water Supplies: Relation to Bedrock Geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Crabbe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one million people in the UK are served by private water supplies (PWS where main municipal water supply system connection is not practical or where PWS is the preferred option. Chronic exposure to contaminants in PWS may have adverse effects on health. South West England is an area with elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater and over 9000 domestic dwellings here are supplied by PWS. There remains uncertainty as to the extent of the population exposed to arsenic (As, and the factors predicting such exposure. We describe a hazard assessment model based on simplified geology with the potential to predict exposure to As in PWS. Households with a recorded PWS in Cornwall were recruited to take part in a water sampling programme from 2011 to 2013. Bedrock geologies were aggregated and classified into nine Simplified Bedrock Geological Categories (SBGC, plus a cross-cutting “mineralized” area. PWS were sampled by random selection within SBGCs and some 508 households volunteered for the study. Transformations of the data were explored to estimate the distribution of As concentrations for PWS by SBGC. Using the distribution per SBGC, we predict the proportion of dwellings that would be affected by high concentrations and rank the geologies according to hazard. Within most SBGCs, As concentrations were found to have log-normal distributions. Across these areas, the proportion of dwellings predicted to have drinking water over the prescribed concentration value (PCV for As ranged from 0% to 20%. From these results, a pilot predictive model was developed calculating the proportion of PWS above the PCV for As and hazard ranking supports local decision making and prioritization. With further development and testing, this can help local authorities predict the number of dwellings that might fail the PCV for As, based on bedrock geology. The model presented here for Cornwall could be applied in areas with similar geologies

  12. Hazard Ranking Method for Populations Exposed to Arsenic in Private Water Supplies: Relation to Bedrock Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, Helen; Fletcher, Tony; Close, Rebecca; Watts, Michael J; Ander, E Louise; Smedley, Pauline L; Verlander, Neville Q; Gregory, Martin; Middleton, Daniel R S; Polya, David A; Studden, Mike; Leonardi, Giovanni S

    2017-12-01

    Approximately one million people in the UK are served by private water supplies (PWS) where main municipal water supply system connection is not practical or where PWS is the preferred option. Chronic exposure to contaminants in PWS may have adverse effects on health. South West England is an area with elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater and over 9000 domestic dwellings here are supplied by PWS. There remains uncertainty as to the extent of the population exposed to arsenic (As), and the factors predicting such exposure. We describe a hazard assessment model based on simplified geology with the potential to predict exposure to As in PWS. Households with a recorded PWS in Cornwall were recruited to take part in a water sampling programme from 2011 to 2013. Bedrock geologies were aggregated and classified into nine Simplified Bedrock Geological Categories (SBGC), plus a cross-cutting "mineralized" area. PWS were sampled by random selection within SBGCs and some 508 households volunteered for the study. Transformations of the data were explored to estimate the distribution of As concentrations for PWS by SBGC. Using the distribution per SBGC, we predict the proportion of dwellings that would be affected by high concentrations and rank the geologies according to hazard. Within most SBGCs, As concentrations were found to have log-normal distributions. Across these areas, the proportion of dwellings predicted to have drinking water over the prescribed concentration value (PCV) for As ranged from 0% to 20%. From these results, a pilot predictive model was developed calculating the proportion of PWS above the PCV for As and hazard ranking supports local decision making and prioritization. With further development and testing, this can help local authorities predict the number of dwellings that might fail the PCV for As, based on bedrock geology. The model presented here for Cornwall could be applied in areas with similar geologies. Application of the method

  13. Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Simone T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian municipalities. Methods The information on the process of water fluoridation in the municipalities and in the macro region in which each municipality is located was obtained from the national epidemiological survey which was concluded in 2003. The data relating to the human development index at municipal level (HDI-M and access to mains water came from the Brazilian Human Development Atlas, whilst the size of the population was obtained from a governmental source. The Fisher exact test (P Results The results clearly showed that there is a relationship between municipalities with larger populations, located in more socio-economically advantaged regions and with better HDI-M, and where fluoridation is both present and has been implemented for a longer period of time (started before 1990. Conclusion The findings suggest that the aim of treating water with fluoride may not be being adequately achieved, requiring more effective strategies so that access to this measure can be expanded equitably.

  14. Modeling of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water supplies: a case study of eastern part of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Minashree; Gupta, S K

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at developing a model for predicting the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water supplies. Monitoring of THMs in five major water treatment plants situated in the Eastern part of India revealed high concentration of THMs (231-484 μg l(-1)). Chloroform was predominant, contributing 87-98.9% to total THMs. Seasonal variation in THMs levels dictated that the concentration were higher in autumn than other seasons. Linear regression analysis of data indicated that TOC is the major organic precursors for THMs formation followed by DOC and UV254. Linear and non-linear predictive models were developed using SPSS software version 16.0. Validation results indicated that there is no significant difference in the predictive and observed values of THMs. Linear model performed better than non-linear one in terms of percentage prediction errors. The model developed were site specific and the predictive capabilities in the distribution systems vary with different environmental conditions.

  15. Potential impacts of climate warming on water supply reliability in the Tuolumne and Merced River Basins, California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiparsky

    Full Text Available We present an integrated hydrology/water operations simulation model of the Tuolumne and Merced River Basins, California, using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP platform. The model represents hydrology as well as water operations, which together influence water supplied for agricultural, urban, and environmental uses. The model is developed for impacts assessment using scenarios for climate change and other drivers of water system behavior. In this paper, we describe the model structure, its representation of historical streamflow, agricultural and urban water demands, and water operations. We describe projected impacts of climate change on hydrology and water supply to the major irrigation districts in the area, using uniform 2 °C, 4 °C, and 6 °C increases applied to climate inputs from the calibration period. Consistent with other studies, we find that the timing of hydrology shifts earlier in the water year in response to temperature warming (5-21 days. The integrated agricultural model responds with increased water demands 2 °C (1.4-2.0%, 4 °C (2.8-3.9%, and 6 °C (4.2-5.8%. In this sensitivity analysis, the combination of altered hydrology and increased demands results in decreased reliability of surface water supplied for agricultural purposes, with modeled quantity-based reliability metrics decreasing from a range of 0.84-0.90 under historical conditions to 0.75-0.79 under 6 °C warming scenario.

  16. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Immerzeel, W.; Droogers, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply–demand imbalances in

  17. Flow Down! Can managing forests help maintain water supplies in the face of climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie Laseter; Chelcy Miniat; James Vose

    2014-01-01

    Climate change can have a direct and indirect impacts on water resources. Direct impacts of climate change can be seen by the presence of more extreme weather events. Extreme weather events include things like heat waves and droughts. Droughts have a direct impact on water and water supply. The indirect impacts of climate change on water resources relate to temperature...

  18. Comparing risk of failure models in water supply networks using ROC curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debon, A., E-mail: andeau@eio.upv.e [Centro de Gestion de la Calidad y del Cambio, Dpt. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Carrion, A. [Centro de Gestion de la Calidad y del Cambio, Dpt. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cabrera, E. [Dpto. De Ingenieria Hidraulica Y Medio Ambiente, Instituto Tecnologico del Agua, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Solano, H. [Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-01-15

    The problem of predicting the failure of water mains has been considered from different perspectives and using several methodologies in engineering literature. Nowadays, it is important to be able to accurately calculate the failure probabilities of pipes over time, since water company profits and service quality for citizens depend on pipe survival; forecasting pipe failures could have important economic and social implications. Quantitative tools (such as managerial or statistical indicators and reliable databases) are required in order to assess the current and future state of networks. Companies managing these networks are trying to establish models for evaluating the risk of failure in order to develop a proactive approach to the renewal process, instead of using traditional reactive pipe substitution schemes. The main objective of this paper is to compare models for evaluating the risk of failure in water supply networks. Using real data from a water supply company, this study has identified which network characteristics affect the risk of failure and which models better fit data to predict service breakdown. The comparison using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) graph leads us to the conclusion that the best model is a generalized linear model. Also, we propose a procedure that can be applied to a pipe failure database, allowing the most appropriate decision rule to be chosen.

  19. Environmental hedging: A theory and method for reconciling reservoir operations for downstream ecology and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L. E.; Lund, J. R.; Moyle, P. B.; Quiñones, R. M.; Herman, J. D.; O'Rear, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Building reservoir release schedules to manage engineered river systems can involve costly trade-offs between storing and releasing water. As a result, the design of release schedules requires metrics that quantify the benefit and damages created by releases to the downstream ecosystem. Such metrics should support making operational decisions under uncertain hydrologic conditions, including drought and flood seasons. This study addresses this need and develops a reservoir operation rule structure and method to maximize downstream environmental benefit while meeting human water demands. The result is a general approach for hedging downstream environmental objectives. A multistage stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear program with Markov Chains, identifies optimal "environmental hedging," releases to maximize environmental benefits subject to probabilistic seasonal hydrologic conditions, current, past, and future environmental demand, human water supply needs, infrastructure limitations, population dynamics, drought storage protection, and the river's carrying capacity. Environmental hedging "hedges bets" for drought by reducing releases for fish, sometimes intentionally killing some fish early to reduce the likelihood of large fish kills and storage crises later. This approach is applied to Folsom reservoir in California to support survival of fall-run Chinook salmon in the lower American River for a range of carryover and initial storage cases. Benefit is measured in terms of fish survival; maintaining self-sustaining native fish populations is a significant indicator of ecosystem function. Environmental hedging meets human demand and outperforms other operating rules, including the current Folsom operating strategy, based on metrics of fish extirpation and water supply reliability.

  20. Dam construction as an engineering solution for water supply problem : environmental thrusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2004-09-01

    Water supply management and the potential impacts associated with engineering practices in water supply systems were examined. Global aspects of increasing water demand were presented and compared with populations, urbanization and water demand. Engineering practices in waterworks developments such as dam construction, river intakes, infiltration galleries, wells, boreholes and adits were also discussed. Construction of large dams and the problems associated with damming the rivers were studied as large dams generally have substantial impacts on rivers, watersheds and aquatic ecosystems, leading to the irreversible loss of species populations and ecosystems. These problems include negative impacts on the terrestrial ecosystem, greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs due to decaying vegetation and carbon inflows from the catchment, changes in flow regimes, trapping of sediments and nutrients behind a dam, blocking migration of aquatic organisms, as well as negative impacts on flood plain ecosystems and fisheries. In addition, a case study, on the environmental impacts associated with damming in Three Gorges Valley in China was presented. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  1. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... impoundments; (c) Water treatment facilities for potable water supplies, including desalination facilities; (d... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included...

  2. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can the water supply for the... § 149.419 Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? (a) The water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system required under § 149.420 or...

  3. Impact of climate change to carrying capacity of water supply system in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Tung, Ching-Pin; Yu, Pao-Shan; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2010-05-01

    The carrying capacity of water supply in the water resources system is neither just the quantity of the river discharge nor the summation of storage of the reservoirs. To estimate it reasonably, it must be considered with both demand side and supply side which includes the systematic combination of hydrology, climate, reservoirs, weirs, water treatment plants… etc. To analyze and approach the carrying capacity of water supply system, this study used system dynamics model to establish the water resources system in Gaoping river basin which is located in southern area of Taiwan. The impact of climatic change to water supply system was estimated with the output of 5 GCMS running with SRES scenarios and integrated with several models such as weather generation, HBV hydrological process model and system dynamics model - VENSIM. The drought index, deficit percent day (%-day), was adopted to analyze the risk of water shortage of the water resources system in Gaoping river basin under present condition and climatic change condition. The water supply system in Gaoping river basin is under two threats in the future. One is the expanded water demand, and another is climatic change. Climatic change would cause more stream flow in wet season and less stream flow in dry season. Most results from the simulation of different scenarios indicated that the carrying capacity will decrease down and the water shortage will rise up under expanding water demand and changing stream flow caused by climatic change.

  4. Residents’ perceptions of institutional performance in water supply in Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    This paper addresses the performance of institutions in water supply systems for improving social and economic benefits of people living in Dar es Salaam city. The methods employed in field data and information collection included interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussions and participatory observation. Kinondoni and Ilala Districts were used as case study. The study revealed that, the main water sources in the study areas are boreholes, shallow wells, rain water and water vendors. Other minor sources are piped water and natural water sources, such as rivers and streams. The supply of piped water by Dar es Salaam Water Sewerage and Sanitation Company (DAWASA/DAWASCO) meets only 45% of the total water demands. Individuals own and sell water from boreholes, shallow wells, piped water connected to their individual houses and natural wells located in their individual plots. The price of one 20 l bucket of water from a water vendor depends on the availability of water and the distance walked from the water source to the customer. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) indicated that individual water delivery systems provide sufficient water as compared to five years ago in the study areas. Few of the respondents (6.3%) said individual water delivery systems have no capacity to provide sufficient water while 16.3% indicate that individual water delivery systems provide moderate water supply but are important in supplementing other water providers in the study areas. The study reveals that a majority of the local population are satisfied with the capacity of individual water delivery systems in providing water for household uses. This paper recommends some improvements to be done to water supply systems in the Dar es Salaam city.

  5. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc.

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  6. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  7. Methods Used to Assess the Susceptibility to Contamination of Transient, Non-Community Public Ground-Water Supplies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihood, Leslie D.; Cohen, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Safe Water Drinking Act of 1974 as amended in 1996 gave each State the responsibility of developing a Source-Water Assessment Plan (SWAP) that is designed to protect public-water supplies from contamination. Each SWAP must include three elements: (1) a delineation of the source-water protection area, (2) an inventory of potential sources of contaminants within the area, and (3) a determination of the susceptibility of the public-water supply to contamination from the inventoried sources. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) was responsible for preparing a SWAP for all public-water supplies in Indiana, including about 2,400 small public ground-water supplies that are designated transient, non-community (TNC) supplies. In cooperation with IDEM, the U.S. Geological Survey compiled information on conditions near the TNC supplies and helped IDEM complete source-water assessments for each TNC supply. The delineation of a source-water protection area (called the assessment area) for each TNC ground-water supply was defined by IDEM as a circular area enclosed by a 300-foot radius centered at the TNC supply well. Contaminants of concern (COCs) were defined by IDEM as any of the 90 contaminants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established primary drinking-water standards. Two of these, nitrate as nitrogen and total coliform bacteria, are Indiana State-regulated contaminants for TNC water supplies. IDEM representatives identified potential point and nonpoint sources of COCs within the assessment area, and computer database retrievals were used to identify potential point sources of COCs in the area outside the assessment area. Two types of methods-subjective and subjective hybrid-were used in the SWAP to determine susceptibility to contamination. Subjective methods involve decisions based upon professional judgment, prior experience, and (or) the application of a fundamental understanding of processes without the collection and

  8. The quality of water in small community supplies of Kingolwira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality is an important aspect in human health, as the majority of infectious diseases that cause morbidity and mortality in population are water related. The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of water in Kingolwira, Morogoro Rural District, Tanzania. Water was collected from different sites in the village ...

  9. trace element determination in municipal water supply of Damaturu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Groundwater is the only source of drinking water for residents of Damaturu Metropolis. This is because surface water is ... examination of water and wastewater from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The result of the ... Key words: Contamination, Trace elements, Toxic, underground water. INTRODUCTION.

  10. Consumer's Perception of the Quality of Municipal Water Supplies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major alternative sources of water were from boreholes, wells and groundwater. All respondents also agreed on some levels of contamination and pollution of these alternative sources of water. The respondents indicated that they have suffered one form of water-borne disease or another due to poor quality water ...

  11. Pennsylvania Village to Get Safe, Reliable Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Pennsylvania village whose unfiltered, contaminated water source made it the top violator of federal and state drinking water laws will be connected to a public water system in 2015 with $2.2 million from EPA’s Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

  12. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellegers, Petra; Immerzeel, Walter; Droogers, Peter

    2013-10-01

    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia in 2040-2050 under dry, average and wet climate change projections and to show on the basis of the marginal cost and marginal value of water the optimum mix of supply-side and demand-side adjustments to address the imbalance. A hydrological model has been used to estimate the water supply-demand imbalance. Water supply and demand curves have been used to explore for which (marginal value of) water usage the marginal cost of supply-enhancement becomes too expensive. The results indicate that in the future in all cases, except in Iran under the wet climate projection, the quantity of water demanded has to be reduced considerably to address the imbalance, which is indeed what is currently happening already.

  13. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  14. Reestablishing public health and land use planning to protect public water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Mayer, Henry; Miller, K Tyler; Hordon, Robert; Knee, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    This study measured the extent to which land use, design, and engineering practices could reduce contamination of major public water supplies. Key parcels of land were identified in New Jersey, and the potential uncontrolled loading of contaminants was estimated with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment model for a variety of land use, design, and engineering scenarios. High-density per-acre development and engineering controls, along with housing and light commercial activity near main railroads, would substantially reduce runoff. In New Jersey, government and purveyor action is being taken as a result of, and in support of, these findings.

  15. Normalization of water flow rate for external fire fighting of the buildings in settlements with zone water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the requirements for fire safety assurance are justified for the objects, in which water is supplied with account for serial and parallel area zoning. In the process of zoning the district is segregated into such parts, for which head rate in any point of selection of water from network will not exceed 6 bar. In the current regulatory rules the requirements for the calculation of the costs of water points are stated, as well as in case of extinguishing fires at the sites with water-supply systems zones. It is recommended to analyze each zone of the system of water-supply separately, without interrelation with the common water feeders, water consumers and services of fire extinguishing. Such an approach to assign water discharge for fire extinguishing results in the decrease of fire safety of an object, deforms calculation technique of outside systems of water-supply of the similar-type objects located in different parts of the terrain. Taking the number of fires and water consumption for fire suppression by the number of residents in each zone, we thus underestimate the capacity of the pipeline system. It is offered to make changes in Norms and Standards in force on fire safety of settlements. The recommendations on regulation of the number of fires and water flow for fire fighting in residential objects with zoned systems of water-supply are formulated.

  16. Supply Side Constraints on Export Development in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Freckleton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina los impedimientos por el lado de la oferta que afectan al desarollo de la exportación en Jamaica. El análisis se basa en un examen de exportadores jamaicanos no tradicionales. Los resultados indican que los exportadores jamaicanos hacen frente a impedimientos significativos por el lado de la oferta incluyendo la falta de acceso a capital, insuficiencia de innovaciones, altos costos energéticos y deficiencias infraestructurales. El artículo concluye que en el caso de los países en vías de desarollo afectados por impedimientos por el lado de la oferta se hace necesario tomar medidas que les permitan la ventaja de acceder a los mercados disponibles. En el caso de Jamaica, las medidas requeridas para aliviar los impedimientos por el lado de la oferta incluyen el establecimiento de instituciones financieras de riesgo, el estímulo de la innovación y el desarrollo de la infraestructura. English: This article examines the supply side constraints affecting export development in Jamaica. The analysis is based on a survey of non-traditional exporters. The results of the survey indicates that Jamaican exporters face significant supply side constraints including lack of access to capital, insufficient innovation, high energy costs and infrastructural deficiencies. The article concludes that in the cases of those developing countries facing binding supply side constraints, measures to relax such constraints are necessary to allow them to take full advantage of available market access. In the case of Jamaica, measures required to relax supply side constraints include establishment of venture capital institutions, stimulation of innovation and upgrading of infrastructure.

  17. Dual water supply system as a way to better resources utilization. The case of Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, Martin; Trinh, Claire,; Imbert, Dominique; Hubert, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Dual water supply system can be used to optimize and diversify the water resources utilization. In the case of Paris the non drinking water network can be used to combine several resources like leakage water, river water and reclaimed water. The article propose, to re-evaluate for the city Paris for the existing uses, the actual distribution using mass flow analysis and potential energy considerations.

  18. A Data Mining Approach to Modelling of Water Supply Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babovic, V.; Drecourt, J.; Keijzer, M.

    2002-01-01

    supply assets are mainly situated underground, and therefore not visible and under the influence of various highly unpredictable forces. This paper proposes the use of advanced data mining methods in order to determine the risks of pipe bursts. For example, analysis of the database of already occurred...

  19. Economic Valuation of Sufficient and Guaranteed Irrigation Water Supply for Paddy Farms of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kalashami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the strategic crop of rice highly depends to the existence of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water, and water shortage stresses have irreparable effects on yield and quality of productions. Decrease of the Sefidrud river inflow in Guilan province which is the main source of supplying irrigation water for 171 thousand hectares under rice cropping area of this province, has been challenged sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply in many regions of mentioned province. Hence, in present study estimating the value that paddy farmers place on sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been considered. Economic valuation of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply improves water resource management policies in demand side. Requested data set were obtained on the base of a survey and are collected from 224 paddy farms in rural regions that faced with irrigation water shortages. Then, using open-ended valuation approach and estimation of Tobit model via ML and two stages Heckman approach, eliciting paddy farmers' willingness to pay for sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been accomplished. Results revealed that farmers in investigated regions willing to pay 26.49 percent more than present costs of providing irrigation water in order to have sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water.

  20. Water Wells Monitoring Using SCADA System for Water Supply Network, Case Study: Water Treatment Plant Urseni, Timis County, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian-Lucian, Cococeanu; Ioana-Alina, Cretan; Ivona, Cojocinescu Mihaela; Teodor Eugen, Man; Narcis, Pelea George

    2017-10-01

    The water supply system in Timisoara Municipality is insured with about 25-30 % of the water demand from wells. The underground water headed to the water treatment plant in order to ensure equal distribution and pressure to consumers. The treatment plants used are Urseni and Ronaţ, near Timisoara, in Timis County. In Timisoara groundwater represents an alternative source for water supply and complementary to the surface water source. The present paper presents a case study with proposal and solutions for rehabilitation /equipment /modernization/ automation of water drilling in order to ensure that the entire system can be monitored and controlled remotely through SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) system. The data collected from the field are designed for online efficiency monitoring regarding the energy consumption and water flow intake, performance indicators such as specific energy consumption KW/m3 and also in order to create a hydraulically system of the operating area to track the behavior of aquifers in time regarding the quality and quantity aspects.

  1. Calibration of the computer model describing flows in the water supply system; example of the application of a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowska-Szostak, Maria; Orłowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    The paper discusses some relevant aspects of the calibration of a computer model describing flows in the water supply system. The authors described an exemplary water supply system and used it as a practical illustration of calibration. A range of measures was discussed and applied, which improve the convergence and effective use of calculations in the calibration process and also the effect of such calibration which is the validity of the results obtained. Drawing up results of performed measurements, i.e. estimating pipe roughnesses, the authors performed using the genetic algorithm implementation of which is a software developed by Resan Labs company from Brazil.

  2. Experimental Application of an Advanced Separation Process for NOM Removal from Surface Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Callegari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural organic matter (NOM in drinking water supplies significantly impacts on water supply quality and treatment, due to observed reactivity with many dissolved and particulate species. Several technologies are used nowadays to remove NOM from the water supply. The evolution of water-related directives, and progressively more restrictive standards for drinking water, however, call for the investigation of advanced, more efficient, and cost-effective water treatment processes. This paper contains a brief overview on the state-of-the-art methods for NOM removal from supply waters, and describes the experimental application of an advanced technology, tested and validated at the pilot scale on the water supply source of a town in Poland. The process allowed significant removal of natural organic matter (about 50% as Dissolved Organic Carbon and turbidity (from 50% to 90%, however, these results requested significant additions of powdered activated carbon. The key to success of this type of process is a correct setup with the identification of optimal types and dosages of reagents. Based on the results of the tests conducted it is foreseeable that this technology could be used onsite, not only for removal of NOM, but also of other hard-to-tackle pollutants potentially contained in the freshwater supply and not presently considered.

  3. Thirsty Cities: Urban Environments and Water Supply in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many cities in Latin America and the Caribbean are experiencing a water crisis as sources become exhausted or degraded. Urbanization, deteriorating infrastructures with a lack of funds for repairs, and inadequate polices are conspiring to cause water shortages.

  4. Engineering and Design: Trace Organic Compounds in Potable Water Supplies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    This letter provides basic information pertaining to the occurrence, detection, and treatment of trace organic compounds that may be found in drinking water and existing and proposed drinking water...

  5. Water development projects map

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new map showing major water development projects across the United States has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The map shows the location, size, and ownership of approximately 2800 of the nation's major multipurpose and flood control dams and virtually all of the reservoir storage and flood control capacity of the country. Other features illustrated on the map include U.S. Bureau of Reclamation surface water irrigation projects; watershed protection projects of the U.S. Soil Conservation Service; hydroelectric power facilities, including both federal plants and nonfederal plants leased by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigation and flood damage reduction projects; and the federal systems of wild and scenic rivers. The map also delineates major rivers and the 21 USGS water resources region boundaries so that users of the map can locate development projects with respect to drainage basins.

  6. Analysis of (unsustainability of the current water: Supply strategy in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokmanović Petar B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Planned construction of more than 30 dams, lake-reservoirs and regional water-supply systems, are the basis of long-term water-supply strategy of the Republic of Serbia. The strategy was adopted in the 1970s and some experiences so far indicate the necessity of revision and rationalization, because of the following: - Quantity and effects of realized works are far lower than planned. The main reasons is the lack of finance as well as some systemic weaknesses shown in the processes of construction and management of the water systems. - Forecasted demographic growth as well as water consumption rates, dating back to 1970s-80s, are significantly oversized. -Global and domestic experiences in the field of construction and management of artificial lake- reservoirs indicate numerous techno-economic and environmental risks and negative consequences. - So far results of hydrogeological researches and groundwater capturing in Serbia show that this resource is a very good basis for municipal water-supply in the most part of the territory. - Water pipe lines are, on average, in very poor condition. Water supply deficits are recorded frequently because of enormous losses in distribution. The rationalization means an approach suited to the real water-supply need as well as to the financial and organizational capabilities. Orientation to the available groundwater resources is the basic guideline. One of the priorities is repairing of water pipe networks. This approach allows: - Much faster solving of water-supply problems - Big financial savings in the construction of dams, reservoirs, regional pipelines, raw water treatment plants as well as in the space adaptation and maintenance of regional water-supply systems.

  7. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  8. Implementations of Riga city water supply system founded on groundwater sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lāce, I.; Krauklis, K.; Spalviņš, A.; Laicāns, J.

    2017-10-01

    Drinking water for Riga city is provided by the groundwater well field complex “Baltezers, Zakumuiza, Rembergi” and by the Daugava river as a surface water source. Presently (2016), the both sources jointly supply 122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water. It seems reasonable to use in future only groundwater, because river water is of low quality and its treatment is expensive. The research on this possibility was done by scientists of Riga Technical university as the task drawn up by the company “Aqua-Brambis”. It was required to evaluate several scenario of the groundwater supply for Riga city. By means of hydrogeological modelling, it was found out that groundwater well fields could provide 120-122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water for the Riga city and it is possible further not to use water of the Daugava river. However, in order to provide more extensive use of groundwater sources, existing water distribution network shall be adapted to the change of the water sources and supply directions within the network. Safety of water supply shall be ensured. The publication may be of interest for specialists dealing with problems of water supply for large towns.

  9. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  10. Microbial deterioration of stored water for users supplied by stand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two forms of water service delivery in peri-urban settlements in the eThekwini municipal region are communal stand-pipes and household ground-tanks. Water from these sources requires storage prior to use. Previous studies have shown that water quality tends to deteriorate during storage. This study was conducted ...

  11. Domestic Water Supply, Sanitation and Health in Rural Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Chi-square analysis shows a significant association between water sources and guinea worm and diarrhea. Skin diseases were however found to be associated with inadequate water for personal hygiene. The research notes that adequate provision of potable water and safe disposal of excreta and other waste are ...

  12. NREPS Applications for Water Supply and Management in California and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, P.; Scott, M.; Carery, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    Management of water resources is a balancing act between temporally and spatially limited sources and competitive needs which can often exceed the supply. In order to manage water resources over a region such as the San Joaquin Valley or the Tennessee River Valley, it is pertinent to know the amount of water that has fallen in the watershed and where the water is going within it. Since rain gauge networks are typically sparsely spaced, it is typical that the majority of rainfall on the region may not be measured. To mitigate this under-sampling of rainfall, weather radar has long been employed to provide areal rainfall estimates. The Next-Generation Weather Radars (NEXRAD) make it possible to estimate rainfall over the majority of the conterminous United States. The NEXRAD Rainfall Estimation Processing System (NREPS) was developed specifically for the purpose of using weather radar to estimate rainfall for water resources management. The NREPS is tailored to meet customer needs on spatial and temporal scales relevant to the hydrologic or land-surface models of the end-user. It utilizes several techniques to mitigate artifacts in the NEXRAD data from contaminating the rainfall field. These techniques include clutter filtering, correction for occultation by topography as well as accounting for the vertical profile of reflectivity. This presentation will focus on improvements made to the NREPS system to map rainfall in the San Joaquin Valley for NASA s Water Supply and Management Project in California, but also ongoing rainfall mapping work in the Tennessee River watershed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and possible future applications in other areas of the continent.

  13. Ignored sediment fungal populations in water supply reservoirs are revealed by quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihan; Huang, Tinglin; Chen, Shengnan

    2015-02-22

    The sediment hosts a variety of fungal species in water supply reservoirs; however, the taxonomically and functionally diverse fungal populations have remained vastly unexplored. Here, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and recently developed high-throughput 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing were combined to investigate the abundance and diversity of sediment fungal communities in three water supply reservoirs. These results revealed 1991, 2473, and 2610 copies of the 18S rRNA gene in the sediments from the ZC, SBY, and JP reservoirs, respectively. The fungal abundance in JP reservoir was 1.31 times higher than that of the ZC reservoir. In general, 43123 reads were recovered, corresponding to 945 distinct molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% similarity cut-off level). The majority of the fungal nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences were affiliated with Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Mucoromycotina. The highest Chao 1 index (962) was observed in the JP reservoir, and this value was 5.66 times greater than that of the SBY reservoir. Heat map analysis showed that Rhizophydium (relative frequency 30.98%), Placidium (20.20%), Apophysomyces (8.43%), Allomyces (6.26%), and Rhodotorula (6.01%) were the dominant genera in the JP reservoir, while Elaphomyces (20.0%) was the dominant genus in the ZC reservoir and Rhizophydium (30.98%) and Mattirolomyces (39.40%) were the most abundant in the JP and SBY reservoirs. Glomus sp. was only found in the JP reservoir. Furthermore, the larger proportions of "unassigned fungi" call for crafting International Nucleotide Sequence Database. Principle component analysis (PCA) and network analysis also suggested that tremendously diverse functional fungal populations were resident in the sediments of the three water supply reservoirs. Thus, the results of this research suggest that the combination of high-throughput Roche 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing and qPCR is successfully employed to

  14. A Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-based Biosensor for Monitoring Microcystin-LR in Sources of Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxic cyanobacterial toxin, in sources of drinking water supplies. The biosensor electrodes are fabricated using dense, mm-long multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) arrays gro...

  15. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  17. Climate change and water supply, management and use: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L.H.; Draves, J.D.; Hunsaker, C.T.

    1992-05-01

    There is evidence that atmospheric concentrations Of C0{sub 2}, tropospheric 0{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4}, among other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect, have increased in recent decades, and that these changes may induce changes in global air temperatures and regional climate features in coming years. A literature review was conducted to sample the literature base on which our understanding of the water resource impacts of climate change rests. Water resource issues likely to be important include hydrologic response to climate change, the resilience of water supply systems to changing climatic and hydrologic conditions, and the effects of climate change on water quality and water uses (such as navigation and energy generation). A computer-assisted search of literature on the effects of climate change on these subjects was conducted. All studies were classified by type of paper (e.g., review, discussion, case study), region, water resource variable studied, and source of climate scenario. The resulting bibliography containing more than 200 references was largely annotated. Case studies of potential hydrologic impacts have been more common than studies of impacts on water management or water use, but this apparent research gap is decreasing. Case studies demonstrating methods of incorporating potential risks of climate change into water project planning and management have been performed. Considerable variability in regional coverage exists; the Great Lakes basin and California receive relatively more attention than such regions as New England and the Missouri River basin. General circulation model-based and hypothetical climate scenarios have been the dominant sources of climate scenarios used in case studies, although a variety of other methods for developing climate scenarios have been developed.

  18. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Supply: Application of the Contingent Valuation Method; Evidence from Jigjiga Town, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemelis Kebede Hundie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water problem in developing countries like Ethiopia is twofold: low coverage levels and poor quality that require urgent attention to reduce associated health and social consequences. Understanding this fact, the government and NGOs are currently carrying out several activities to improve the coverage and quality of water supply. To this end, willingness to pay of households that are expected to be benefited from the project should be analysed. The central objective of this study is, hence, to estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP of households for better-quality water service provision and identify its determinants by using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM in Jigjiga city. We estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP for better quality of water supply service on cross-sectional survey of households in Jigjiga city taking 210 sample households randomly drawn. The highest relative WTP for improved water supply service was found in the city with the highest percentage of respondents being unsatisfied with the current water supply both in terms of quality and quantity. Response to the hypothetical scenario shown that sampled households stated that their mean WTP of 94 cents per 20 litres. The results of logit model revealed that household income, family size, water source, age of the respondent and bid value have significant effects on WTP for improved water service provision. The implication is that it is better take into account the socio-economic characteristics of the households in planning and designing water supply projects, which may serve to set rigorous demand oriented projects that can sustain the service delivery.

  19. Performance Analysis of a Hot Water Supply System with a CO2 Heat Pump by Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Shimizu, Takeshi; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Ito, Koichi

    Heat pumps using CO2 as a natural refrigerant have been developed and are expected to contribute to energy saving in hot water supply. In residential applications, CO2 heat pumps are used in combination with hot water storage tanks. The objective of this series of papers is to analyze the overall performance of a hot water supply system composed of a CO2 heat pump and a hot water storage tank by numerical simulation. In the 1st report, a simulation model of a CO2 heat pump is created based on thermodynamic equations and measured data for an existing CO2 heat pump. In addition, the performance of a CO2 heat pump is clarified in relation to the air temperature as well as the inlet and outlet water temperatures.

  20. Water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane for advanced fuel cell system with liquid water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Shohji; Teranishi, Kazuhiro; Nishida, Kousuke; Hirai, Shuichiro

    2005-02-01

    To better understand the operation of a new fuel cell design, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane under fuel cell operation with and without a supply of liquid water. The supply of liquid water to the membrane improved the cell performance by increasing the water content in the membrane and thus reducing the electrical resistance of the membrane. The study also showed that MRI is a promising method to investigate the distribution of water in the membrane of a fuel cell under operating conditions.