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Sample records for water decomposition final

  1. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics in aquaculture water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2015-01-01

    during the HP decomposition. The model assumes that the enzyme decay is controlled by an inactivation stoichiometry related to the HP decomposition. In order to make the model easily applicable, it is furthermore assumed that the COD is a proxy of the active biomass concentration of the water and thereby......Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish...... reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water...

  2. Investigations on the photoelectrochemical decomposition of water using solar radiation (photolysis). Final report. Untersuchung zur photoelektrochemischen Wasserzersetzung mit Hilfe von Sonnenenergie (Photolyse). Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, R N

    1985-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out on illuminated TiO/sub 2/-electrodes to examine the possibility of conversion and storage of solar radiation in a chemical system especially as hydrogen from the photolysis of water. Methods of preparation of new photosensitive semiconducting electrodes were studied. For the preparation of the electrodes various technique of vapour deposition and surface treatment including ion implantation were employed. The thin-layered electrodes were characterized by absorption spectroscopy and by electrochemical methods. The results of the investigations are published in 29 original contributions quoted as references and in 3 PhD thesis of co-workers. Using solar radiation only small yields of hydrogen were obtained in the photolysis of water on TiO/sub 2/ electrodes. Nevertheless it is concluded that photoelectrochemistry possesses a high potential in photocatalysis and in investigations of photooxidation processes occurring in the atmosphere. (orig.) With 36 refs., 2 tabs., 56 figs.

  3. Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Bowman, M.G.

    A process is described for the production of hydrogen from water by a sulfuric acid process employing electrolysis and thermo-chemical decomposition. The water containing SO/sub 2/ is electrolyzed to produce H/sub 2/ at the cathode and to oxidize the SO/sub 2/ to form H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at the anode. After the H/sub 2/ has been separated, a compound of the type M/sub r/X/sub s/ is added to produce a water insoluble sulfate of M and a water insoluble oxide of the metal in the radical X. In the compound M/sub r/X/sub s/, M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Ba/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Sr/sup 2 +/, La/sup 2 +/, and Pb/sup 2 +/; X is at least one radical selected from the group consisting of molybdate (MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), tungstate (WO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and metaborate (BO/sub 2//sup 1 -/); and r and s are either 1, 2, or 3 depending upon the valence of M and X. The precipitated mixture is filtered and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to form SO/sub 3/ gas and to reform M/sub r/X/sub s/. The SO/sub 3/ is dissolved in a small amount of H/sub 2/O to produce concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the M/sub r/X/sub s/ is recycled to the process. Alternatively, the SO/sub 3/ gas can be recycled to the beginning of the process to provide a continuous process for the production of H/sub 2/ in which only water need be added in a substantial amount. (BLM)

  4. Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method proposed involves the decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas via electrolysis, which is used in internal combustion engines of electrical generators for electricity generation. The by-product obtained from combustion of this gas is water vapour and oxygen to replenish the atmosphere.

  5. Radiolytic decomposition of water-ethanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquey, Charles

    1968-07-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the behaviour of binary mixtures submitted to ionizing radiations, and notably aims, by studying the case of water-ethanol mixtures, at verifying solutions proposed by previously published works on the origin of hydrogen atoms and of molecular hydrogen, on the intervention of excited atoms, and on the origin of products appearing under radiolysis. The experimental part of this work consists in the dosing of products formed in water-ethanol mixtures irradiated in presence or absence of nitrate, hydrogen, hydrocarbon, acetaldehyde, 2-3 butanediol and nitrite. Results are discussed and interpreted in terms of acetaldehyde efficiency, 2-3 butanediol efficiencies, and hydrocarbon efficiencies in pure ethanol, and in water-ethanol mixtures. The influence of the presence of nitrate ions in mixtures is also discussed

  6. Method for thermochemical decomposition of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Schreiner, Felix

    1977-01-11

    Water is thermochemically decomposed to produce hydrogen by the following sequence of reactions: KI, NH.sub.3, CO.sub. 2 and water in an organic solvent such as ethyl or propyl alcohol are reacted to produce KHCO 3 and NH.sub.4 I. The KHCO.sub.3 is thermally decomposed to K.sub.2 CO.sub.3, H.sub.2 O and CO.sub.2, while the NH.sub.4 I is reacted with Hg to produce HgI.sub.2, NH.sub.3 and H.sub.2. The K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 obtained by calcining KHCO.sub.3 is then reacted with HgI.sub.2 to produce Hg, KI, CO and O.sub.2. All products of the reaction are recycled except hydrogen and oxygen.

  7. Biomass decomposition in near critical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinag, Ali, E-mail: sinag@science.ankara.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Guelbay, Selen; Uskan, Burcin; Canel, Muammer [Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    Conversion of baby food (taken as model biomass for protein and carbohydrate containing biomass) to the valuable chemicals in near critical water (648 K and 24 MPa) in an autoclave is presented in this work. K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Nickel on silica and Zeolith (HZSM-5) are selected as catalysts. A detailed characterization of the aqueous phases is performed by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Total Organic Carbon Analyser. Solid particles recovered by the experiments are also subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis. This study determines the effect of reaction conditions on the reactivity of the major biomass component. Acetic, formic and glycolic acid, aldehydes (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde), phenol and phenol derivatives, furfural, methyl furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural are the intermediates found in the aqueous phase. Baby food contains mostly carbohydrates, proteins, a variety of salts and minerals, etc. Thus, the results show the effect of these ingredients on the hydrothermal conversion of biomass. It is found that the formation and degradation pathways of the intermediates are influenced by the biomass structure.

  8. Biomass decomposition in near critical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinag, Ali; Guelbay, Selen; Uskan, Burcin; Canel, Muammer

    2010-01-01

    Conversion of baby food (taken as model biomass for protein and carbohydrate containing biomass) to the valuable chemicals in near critical water (648 K and 24 MPa) in an autoclave is presented in this work. K 2 CO 3 , Nickel on silica and Zeolith (HZSM-5) are selected as catalysts. A detailed characterization of the aqueous phases is performed by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Total Organic Carbon Analyser. Solid particles recovered by the experiments are also subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis. This study determines the effect of reaction conditions on the reactivity of the major biomass component. Acetic, formic and glycolic acid, aldehydes (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde), phenol and phenol derivatives, furfural, methyl furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural are the intermediates found in the aqueous phase. Baby food contains mostly carbohydrates, proteins, a variety of salts and minerals, etc. Thus, the results show the effect of these ingredients on the hydrothermal conversion of biomass. It is found that the formation and degradation pathways of the intermediates are influenced by the biomass structure.

  9. Advances in hydrogen production by thermochemical water decomposition: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen demand as an energy currency is anticipated to rise significantly in the future, with the emergence of a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen production is a key component of a hydrogen economy. Several production processes are commercially available, while others are under development including thermochemical water decomposition, which has numerous advantages over other hydrogen production processes. Recent advances in hydrogen production by thermochemical water decomposition are reviewed here. Hydrogen production from non-fossil energy sources such as nuclear and solar is emphasized, as are efforts to lower the temperatures required in thermochemical cycles so as to expand the range of potential heat supplies. Limiting efficiencies are explained and the need to apply exergy analysis is illustrated. The copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle is considered as a case study. It is concluded that developments of improved processes for hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition are likely to continue, thermochemical hydrogen production using such non-fossil energy will likely become commercial, and improved efficiencies are expected to be obtained with advanced methodologies like exergy analysis. Although numerous advances have been made on sulphur-iodine cycles, the copper-chlorine cycle has significant potential due to its requirement for process heat at lower temperatures than most other thermochemical processes.

  10. Solid oxide electrolysis cell for decomposition of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Ohno, H.; Yoshida, H.; Katsuta, H.; Naruse, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The decomposition of tritiated water vapor by means of solid oxide electrolysis cells has been proposed for the application to the D-T fusion reactor system. This method is essentially free from problems such as large tritium inventory, radiation damage, and generation of solid waste, so it is expected to be a promising one. Electrolysis of water vapor in an argon carrier was performed using a tube-type stabilized zirconia cell with porous platinum electrodes over the temperature range 500-950 0 C. High conversion ratios from water to hydrogen, of up to 99.9%, were achieved. The characteristics of the cell were deduced from the Nernst equation and the conversion ratios expressed as a function of the IR-free voltage. Experimental results agreed with the equation. The isotope effect in electrolysis is also discussed and experiments with heavy water were carried out. The obtained separation factor was slightly higher than the theoretical value. (author)

  11. Solid oxide electrolysis cell for decomposition of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Katsuta, H.; Naruse, Y.; Ohno, H.; Yoshida, H.

    1984-01-01

    The decomposition of tritiated water vapor with solid oxide electrolysis cell was proposed for the application to the D-T fusion reactor system. This method is essentially free from problems such as large tritium inventory, radiation damage, and generation of solid waste, so it is expected to be a promising one. Electrolysis of water vapor in argon carrier was performed using tube-type stabilized zirconia cell with porous platinum electrodes in the temperature range of 500 0 C to 950 0 C. High conversion ratio from water to hydrogen up to 99.9% was achieved. The characteristics of the cell is deduced from the Nernst's equation and conversion ratio is described as the function of the open circuit voltage. Experimental results agreed with the equation. Isotope effect in electrolysis is also discussed and experiments with heavy water were carried out. Obtained separation factor was slightly higher than the theoretical value

  12. Radiation induced decomposition of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yongke; Liu Jun; Fang Xiangwang; Wu Jilan

    1998-01-01

    The decomposition of PCP in water induced by γ-irradiation has been studied at low PCP concentration under various conditions. PCP is consumed linearly with increasing absorbed doses. PCP could be decomposed almost completely by γ-irradiation at relatively high doses. Chloride ions are increased simultaneously with the consumption of PCP. The amount of chloride increases also linearly with the increasing absorbed dose. At relatively high absorbed dose, almost all chloride atoms in PCP are eliminated. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) has been measured after irradiation. Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent for PCP. After saturation of 1.09x10 -4 mol.dm -3 PCP aqueous solution with ozone, PCP concentration drops to 1.6x10 -5 mol.dm -3 . The combination of ozonation-ionizing radiation treatment is very effective, which greatly decreased the dose needed. pH and chemical oxygen demand also have been measured after ozonation and irradiation

  13. The Effect of Water Vapor on the Thermal Decomposition of Pyrite in N2 Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin BOYABAT

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of water vapor on the thermal decomposition of pyrite mineral in nitrogen atmosphere has been investigated in a horizontal tube furnace. Temperature, time and water vapor concentration were used as experimental parameters. According to the data obtained at nitrogen/ water vapor environment, it was observed that the water vapor on the decomposition of pyrite increased the decomposition rate. The decomposition reaction is well represented by the "shrinking core" model and can be divided into two regions with different rate controlling step. The rate controlling steps were determined from the heat transfer through the gas film for the low conversions, while it was determined from the mass transfer through product ash layer for the high conversions. The activation energies of this gas and ash film mechanisms were found to be 77 and 81 kJ/mol-1, respectively.

  14. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi River water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is kn...

  15. Confronting South Africa’s water challenge: A decomposition analysis of water intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Kohler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is a vital natural resource, demanding careful management. It is essential for life and integral to virtually all economic activities, including energy and food production and the production of industrial outputs. The availability of clean water in sufficient quantities is not only a prerequisite for human health and well-being but the life-blood of freshwater ecosystems and the many services that these provide. Water resource intensity measures the intensity of water use in terms of volume of water per unit of value added. It is an internationally accepted environmental indicator of the pressure of economic activity on a country’s water resources and therefore a reliable indicator of sustainable economic development. The indicator is particularly useful in the allocation of water resources between sectors of the economy since in waterstressed countries like South Africa, there is competition for water among various users, which makes it necessary to allocate water resources to economic activities that are less intensive in their use of water. This study focuses on economy-wide changes in South Africa’s water intensity using both decomposition and empirical estimation techniques in an effort to identify and understand the impact of economic activity on changes in the use of the economy’s water resources. It is hoped that this study will help inform South Africa’s water conservation and resource management policies

  16. Hydrothermal decomposition of liquid crystal in subcritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Xuning; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Lu, Shangming; Hou, Lianjiao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal technology can effectively decompose the liquid crystal of 4-octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl. • The decomposition rate reached 97.6% under the optimized condition. • Octoxy-4'-cyanobiphenyl was mainly decomposed into simple and innocuous products. • The mechanism analysis reveals the decomposition reaction process. - Abstract: Treatment of liquid crystal has important significance for the environment protection and human health. This study proposed a hydrothermal process to decompose the liquid crystal of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl. Experiments were conducted with a 5.7 mL stainless tube reactor and heated by a salt-bath. Factors affecting the decomposition rate of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl were evaluated with HPLC. The decomposed liquid products were characterized by GC-MS. Under optimized conditions i.e., 0.2 mL H 2 O 2 supply, pH value 6, temperature 275 °C and reaction time 5 min, 97.6% of 4-octoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl was decomposed into simple and environment-friendly products. Based on the mechanism analysis and products characterization, a possible hydrothermal decomposition pathway was proposed. The results indicate that hydrothermal technology is a promising choice for liquid crystal treatment

  17. The influence of water vapor and sulfur dioxide on the catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalamas, C.; Heinisch, R.; Barz, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Cournil, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France)

    2001-03-01

    For the nitrous oxide decomposition three groups of catalysts such as metals on support, hydrotalcites, and perovskites were studied relating to their activity in the presence of vapor or sulfur dioxide, in the temperature range from 200 to 500 C. It was found that the water vapor strongly inhibates the nitrous oxide decomposition at T=200-400 C. The sulfur dioxide poisons the catalysts, in particular the perovskites. (orig.)

  18. Electrolytic decomposition of N-nitrosodimethylamine in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, K; Ladanowski, C; Somers, A; Whittaker, H [Environment Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Emergencies Science Div.; Anantaraman, A [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Electrochemical Science and Technology Centre

    1996-12-31

    The feasibility of electrically reducing N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in aqueous solutions was studied in a series of bench-scale experiments. The presence of nitrosamines in soil and groundwater is largely associated with missile fuels, but also with pesticides and other chemicals. Inexpensive carbon, stainless steel and nickel electrodes were used to perform the experiments. The electrodes, voltage and solution pH were the variables studied. Results showed that a higher rate of decomposition of NDMA occurred in acidic conditions using a relatively high potential applied to the electrodes. Further studies were suggested to optimize treatment conditions and evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of the process. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Radiation induced decomposition of chlorinated phenols in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getoff, N.; Solar, S.

    Experiments with 4-Cl-phenol as a model compound for pesticides were performed under steady-state conditions using deoxygenated solutions as well as such saturated with air, oxygen or oxygen mixed with ozone. The yield of Cl -ions serviced as an indicator for the degradation process. As main products of the first step of decomposition were identified: polyhydroxybenzenes, aldehydes and acids. The yield of aldehydes was studied as a function of the absorbed dose and substrate concentration. In the presence of ozone a chain-reaction of the oxidative pollutant degradation takes place. Transient absorption spectra and kinetics obtained by preliminary pulse radiolysis studies of 4-Cl-phenol in the presence of oxygen as well as probable reaction mechanisms are also presented.

  20. Radiation induced decomposition of chlorinated phenols in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, N.; Solar, S.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments with 4-Cl-phenol as a model compound for pesticides were performed under steady-state conditions using deoxygenated solutions as well as solutions saturated with air, oxygen or oxygen mixed with ozone. The yield of Cl - ions served as an indicator for the degradation process. As main products of the first step of decomposition were identified: polyhydroxybenzenes, aldehydes and acids. The yield of aldehydes was studied as a function of the absorbed dose and substrate concentration. In the presence of ozone a chain-reaction of the oxidative pollutant degradation takes place. Transient absorption spectra and kinetics obtained by preliminary pulse radiolysis studies of 4-Cl-phenol in the presence of oxygen as well as probable reaction mechanisms are also presented. (author)

  1. IN SITU INFRARED STUDY OF CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The growing concerns for the environment and increasingly stringent standards for NO emission have presented a major challenge to control NO emissions from electric utility plants and automobiles. Catalytic decomposition of NO is the most attractive approach for the control of NO emission for its simplicity. Successful development of an effective catalyst for NO decomposition will greatly decrease the equipment and operation cost of NO control. Due to lack of understanding of the mechanism of NO decomposition, efforts on the search of an effective catalyst have been unsuccessful. Scientific development of an effective catalyst requires fundamental understanding of the nature of active site, the rate-limiting step, and an approach to prolong the life of the catalyst. The authors have investigated the feasibility of two novel approaches for improving catalyst activity and resistance to sintering. The first approach is the use of silanation to stabilize metal crystallites and supports for Cu-ZSM-5 and promoted Pt catalysts; the second is utilization of oxygen spillover and desorption to enhance NO decomposition activity. The silanation approach failed to stabilize Cu-ZSM-5 activity under hydrothermal condition. Silanation blocked the oxygen migration and inhibited oxygen desorption. Oxygen spillover was found to be an effective approach for promoting NO decomposition activity on Pt-based catalysts. Detailed mechanistic study revealed the oxygen inhibition in NO decomposition and reduction as the most critical issue in developing an effective catalytic approach for controlling NO emission

  2. Interaction between litter quality and simulated water depth on decomposition of two emergent macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Xie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Both water depth and litter quality are important factors influencing litter decomposition in wetlands, but the interactive role of these factors in regulating mass loss and nutrient dynamics is far from clear. The responses of mass loss and nutrient dynamics to simulated water depths and litter quality are investigated in leaves of Carex brevicuspis and leaves and stems of Miscanthus sacchariflorus from the Dongting Lake, China. Three litter types differing in litter quality were incubated for 210 days at three water depths (0 cm, 5 cm, and 80 cm, relative to the water surface in a pond near the Dongting Lake. The litter mass remaining, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, organic carbon (organic C, cellulose, and lignin contents were analyzed during the controlled decomposition experiment. Moreover, water properties (temperature, dissolved oxygen content, and conductivity and fungal biomass were also characterized. Initial N and P contents were highest in C. brevicuspis leaves, intermediate in M. sacchariflorus leaves and lowest in M. sacchariflorus stems, whereas the organic C, cellulose, and lignin contents exhibited an opposite trend. After a 210 days incubation, decomposition rate was highest in M. sacchariflorus leaves (0.0034–0.0090 g g-1 DW day-1, in exponential decay model, intermediate in C. brevicuspis leaves (0.0019–0.0041 g g-1 DW day-1, and lowest in M. sacchariflorus stems (0.0005–0.0011 g g-1DW day-1. Decomposition rate of C. brevicuspis leaves was highest at 5 cm water depth, intermediate at 80 cm, and lowest at 0 cm. Decomposition rate of M. sacchariflorus leaves was higher at 5 cm, and 80 cm than at 0 cm water depths. Water depth had no effect on decomposition of M. sacchariflorus stems. At the end of incubation, N and P mineralization was completely in leaf litters with increasing rates along with increasing water depth, while nutrients were accumulated in M. sacchariflorus stem. Organic C, cellulose, and lignin decayed quickly

  3. Decomposition of water-insoluble organic waste by water plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S; Watanabe, T

    2012-01-01

    The water plasma was generated in atmospheric pressure with the emulsion state of 1-decanol which is a source of soil and ground water pollution. In order to investigate effects of operating conditions on the decomposition of 1-decanol, generated gas and liquid from the water plasma treatment were analysed in different arc current and 1-decanol concentration. The 1-decanol was completely decomposed generating hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, treated liquid and solid carbon in all experimental conditions. The feeding rate of 1- decanol emulsion was increased with increasing the arc current in virtue of enhanced input power. The generation rate of gas and the ratio of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide were increased in the high arc current, while the generation rate of solid carbon was decreased due to enhanced oxygen radicals in the high input power. Generation rates of gas and solid carbon were increased at the same time with increasing the concentration of 1-decanol, because carbon radicals were increased without enhancement of oxygen radicals in a constant power level. In addition, the ratio of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide was increased along with the concentration of 1-decanol due to enhanced carbon radicals in the water plasma flame.

  4. [Influence of decomposition of Cladophora sp. on phosphorus concentrations and forms in the overlying water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin-Zhi; Wei, Quan; Gao, Li; Sun, Wei-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Sediments were sampled in the dominated zone of Cladophora sp. in Rongcheng Swan Lake, and cultivated with algae in the laboratory to reveal the influence of Cladophora decomposition on concentrations and forms of phosphorus in the overlying water. Concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), particulate phosphorus (PP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in overlying water were investigated, and some physicochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and conductivity were monitored during the experiment. In addition, the influence of algae decomposition on P release from sediments was analyzed. Due to the decomposition of Cladophora, DO concentration in the overlying water declined remarkably and reached the anoxic condition (0-0.17 mg x L(-1)). The pH value of different treatments also decreased, and treatments with algae reduced by about 1 unit. Concentrations of TP and different P forms all increased obviously, and the increasing extent was larger with the adding algae amount. TP concentrations of different treatments varied from 0.04 mg x L(-1) to 1.34 mg x L(-1). DOP and PP were the main P forms in the overlying water in algae without sediments treatments, but SRP concentrations became much higher in algae with sediments treatments. The result showed that P forms released from decomposing Cladophora were mainly DOP and PP, and the Cladophora decomposition could also promote the sediments to release P into the overlying water.

  5. Processes controlling the production of aromatic water-soluble organic matter during litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Kaiser, K.; Filley, T.R.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a

  6. Decomposition of dilute residual active chlorine in sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Tetsutaro; Kawano, Kentaro; Yanagase, Kenjiro; Shiga, Akira

    1985-01-01

    Coastal industries such as power stations require enormous quantities of sea-water for cooling, but the marine organisms in it often result in fouling and/or blockade of the circulating water condenser and pipeworks. To prevent this, chlorine, or hypochlorite by the direct electrolysis of sea-water have been added. Environmental concerns, however, dictate that the residual chlorine concentration at the outlet should be less than the regulated value (0.02 ppm). Methods for decomposing dilute residual chlorine solutions were therefore studied. It was found that: 1) The addition of (raw) sea-water to the sea-water which passed through the condenser lowered the residual chlorine concentration to an greater extent than could be expected by dilution only. 2) Ozonation of the residual chlorine solution led to degradation of OCl - , but in solutions with a residual chlorine concentrations of less than 3 -- 4 ppm, ozonation had no effect. 3) Irradiation with ultra violet light (254 nm) decomposed the residual chlorine. Under the present work conditions (25 0 C: pH 8; depth 10 mm), nearly first order kinetics were to hold [da/dt = ksub((1)) (1-a)sup(n)]. There is a proportional relationship between the kinetic constant (k) and illuminous intensity (L), i.e., ksub((1))[C 0 sup(Cl 2 ): 10 ppm] = 6.56 x 10 -5 L (L = 0 -- 1000 lx). Thus, the use of both sea-water addition and UV irradiation provides a probable method for decomposing a residual chlorine to the expected concentration. (author)

  7. Simulation of radiation-induced ozone decomposition in water in the presence of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Namba, H.; Miyata, T.; Arai, M.; Sakumoto, A.; Sunaga, H.

    1995-01-01

    Ozone decomposition in water by electron beam irradiation in the presence of acetic acid and t-butanol was studied by the direct measurement of ozone concentration using a spectroscopy equipped with optical fiber light guides and the computer simulation based on 80 reactions. The calculated data were in fair agreement with the observed data for acetic acid aq. solution. For t-butanol high concentration aq. solution, the calculated data became closer to the observed data when the decomposition of peroxide were assumed to occur to produce HO 2 or O 2 - . At low concentration of the organic solutes, the presence of HCO 3 - or CO 3 2- disturbs the ozone decomposition substantially. The concentrations of active species such as OH radicals during the irradiation were also estimated from the simulation. (author)

  8. Radiolytic decomposition of pesticide carbendazim in waters and wastes for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojanowska-Czajka, A.; Drzewicz, P.; Meczynska, S.; Kruszewski, M.; Zimek, Z.; Nichipor, H.; Galezowska, A.; Nalecz-Jawecki, G.; Trojanowicz, M.; Warsaw University, Warsaw

    2011-01-01

    The radiolytic degradation of widely used fungicide, carbendazim, in synthetic aqueous solutions and industrial wastewater was investigated employing γ-irradiation. The effect of the absorbed dose, initial concentration and pH of irradiated solution on the effectiveness of carbendazim decomposition were investigated. Decomposition of carbendazim in 100 μM concentration in synthetic aqueous solutions required irradiation with 600 Gy dose. The aqueous solutions of carbendazim have been irradiated in different conditions, where particular active radical species from water radiolysis predominate. The obtained data have been compared with the kinetic modeling. The reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used for the determination of carbendazim and its radiolytic decomposition products in irradiated solutions. The changes of toxicity of irradiated solutions were examined with different test organisms and human leukemia cells. (author)

  9. Daily water level forecasting using wavelet decomposition and artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmin; Kim, Sungwon; Kisi, Ozgur; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable water level forecasting for reservoir inflow is essential for reservoir operation. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply two hybrid models for daily water level forecasting and investigate their accuracy. These two hybrid models are wavelet-based artificial neural network (WANN) and wavelet-based adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (WANFIS). Wavelet decomposition is employed to decompose an input time series into approximation and detail components. The decomposed time series are used as inputs to artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for WANN and WANFIS models, respectively. Based on statistical performance indexes, the WANN and WANFIS models are found to produce better efficiency than the ANN and ANFIS models. WANFIS7-sym10 yields the best performance among all other models. It is found that wavelet decomposition improves the accuracy of ANN and ANFIS. This study evaluates the accuracy of the WANN and WANFIS models for different mother wavelets, including Daubechies, Symmlet and Coiflet wavelets. It is found that the model performance is dependent on input sets and mother wavelets, and the wavelet decomposition using mother wavelet, db10, can further improve the efficiency of ANN and ANFIS models. Results obtained from this study indicate that the conjunction of wavelet decomposition and artificial intelligence models can be a useful tool for accurate forecasting daily water level and can yield better efficiency than the conventional forecasting models.

  10. Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global warming is on the increase and the current energy trends are headed towards the use of alternative sources of energy that produce less amounts of carbon dioxide. This paper proposes water as an alternative energy source that is cheap, abundant in nature and will achieve minimum emission goal. The method ...

  11. Fructose decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinghua; Lu, Xiuyang; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Xin [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China)

    2009-09-15

    Biomass continues to be an important candidate as a renewable resource for energy, chemicals, and feedstock. Decomposition of biomass in high temperature liquid water is a promising technique for producing industrially important chemicals such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, levulinic acid with high efficiency. Hexose, which is the hydrolysis product of cellulose, will be one of the most important starting chemicals in the coming society that is highly dependent on biomass. Taking fructose as a model compound, its decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water was studied in the temperature range from 180 C to 220 C under the pressure of 10 MPa to further improve reaction rate and selectivity of the decomposition reactions. The results showed that the reaction rate is greatly enhanced with the addition of organic acids, especially formic acid. The effects of temperature, residence time, organic acids and their concentrations on the conversion of fructose and yield of 5-HMF were investigated. The evaluated apparent activation energies of fructose decomposition are 126.8 {+-} 3.3 kJ mol{sup -1} without any catalyst, 112.0 {+-} 13.7 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with formic acid, and 125.6 {+-} 3.8 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with acetic acid, respectively, which shows no significant difference. (author)

  12. Decomposition of Phragmites australis rhizomes in artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    Rhizomes are essential organs for growth and expansion of Phragmites australis. They function as an important source of organic matter and as a nutrient source, especially in the artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) of shallow lakes. In this study, decomposition experiments on 1- to 6-year-old P. australis rhizomes were conducted in the ALWTZ of Lake Baiyangdian to evaluate the contribution of the rhizomes to organic matter accumulation and nutrient release. Mass loss and changes in nutrient content were measured after 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days. The decomposition process was modeled with a composite exponential model. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors. A multiple stepwise regression model was utilized to determine the dominant factors that affect mass loss. Results showed that the decomposition rates in water were significantly higher than those in soil for 1- to 6-year-old rhizomes. However, the sequence of decomposition rates was identical in both water and soil. Significant relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors were observed at a later stage, and P-related factors proved to have a more significant impact than N-related factors on mass loss. According to multiple stepwise models, the C/P ratio was found to be the dominant factor affecting the mass loss in water, and the C/N and C/P ratios were the main factors affecting the mass loss in soil. The combined effects of harvesting, ditch broadening, and control of water depth should be considered for lake administrators.

  13. The water decomposition reactions on boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suffredini, Hugo B.; Machado, Sergio A.S; Avaca, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical processes occurring at both edges of the wide electrochemical window of the boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode were studied by polarization curves experiments to evaluate the apparent energy of activation for the rate determining step in each reaction. It was found that the hydrogen evolution reaction occurs by a Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism with the first step being the RDS. Moreover, the apparent energy of activation calculated from the Tafel plots presented a value as high as 150 kJ mol -1 , indicating the formation of the M-H intermediate that is characteristic for the Volmer step. On the other hand, the apparent energy of activation for the oxygen evolution reaction was found to be 106 kJ mol -1 suggesting that the RDS in this mechanism is the initial adsorption step. In this way, it was demonstrated that the interaction between water molecules and the electrode surface is strongly inhibited on BDD thus justifying the extended potential window observed for this material. (author)

  14. The water decomposition reactions on boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suffredini Hugo B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical processes occurring at both edges of the wide electrochemical window of the boron doped diamond (BDD electrode were studied by polarization curves experiments to evaluate the apparent energy of activation for the rate determining step in each reaction. It was found that the hydrogen evolution reaction occurs by a Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism with the first step being the RDS. Moreover, the apparent energy of activation calculated from the Tafel plots presented a value as high as 150 kJ mol-1, indicating the formation of the M-H intermediate that is characteristic for the Volmer step. On the other hand, the apparent energy of activation for the oxygen evolution reaction was found to be 106 kJ mol-1 suggesting that the RDS in this mechanism is the initial adsorption step. In this way, it was demonstrated that the interaction between water molecules and the electrode surface is strongly inhibited on BDD thus justifying the extended potential window observed for this material.

  15. Interactive plant functional group and water table effects on decomposition and extracellular enzyme activity in Sphagnum peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena M. Wiedermann; Evan S. Kane; Lynette R. Potvin; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2017-01-01

    Peatland decomposition may be altered by hydrology and plant functional groups (PFGs), but exactly how the latter influences decomposition is unclear, as are potential interactions of these factors.We used a factorial mesocosm experiment with intact 1 m3 peat monoliths to explore how PFGs (sedges vs Ericaceae) and water table level individually...

  16. Decomposition of atmospheric water content into cluster contributions based on theoretical association equilibrium constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Water vapor is treated as an equilibrium mixture of water clusters (H 2 O)/sub i/ using quantum-chemical evaluation of the equilibrium constants of water associations. The model is adapted to the conditions of atmospheric humidity, and a decomposition algorithm is suggested using the temperature and mass concentration of water as input information and used for a demonstration of evaluation of the water oligomer populations in the Earth's atmosphere. An upper limit of the populations is set up based on the water content in saturated aqueous vapor. It is proved that the cluster population in the saturated water vapor, as well as in the Earth's atmosphere for a typical temperature/humidity profile, increases with increasing temperatures

  17. Application of Wavelet Decomposition to Removing Barometric and Tidal Response in Borehole Water Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Rui; Huang Fuqiong; Chen Yong

    2007-01-01

    Wavelet decomposition is used to analyze barometric fluctuation and earth tidal response in borehole water level changes. We apply wavelet analysis method to the decomposition of barometric fluctuation and earth tidal response into several temporal series in different frequency ranges. Barometric and tidal coefficients in different frequency ranges are computed with least squares method to remove barometric and tidal response. Comparing this method with general linear regression analysis method, we find wavelet analysis method can efficiently remove barometric and earth tidal response in borehole water level. Wavelet analysis method is based on wave theory and vibration theories. It not only considers the frequency characteristic of the observed data but also the temporal characteristic, and it can get barometric and tidal coefficients in different frequency ranges. This method has definite physical meaning.

  18. Decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorooctanoic acid in water by photochemical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hisao; Hayakawa, Etsuko; Einaga, Hisahiro; Kutsuna, Shuzo; Koike, Kazuhide; Ibusuki, Takashi; Kiatagawa, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2004-11-15

    The decomposition of persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water by UV-visible light irradiation, by H202 with UV-visible light irradiation, and by a tungstic heteropolyacid photocatalyst was examined to develop a technique to counteract stationary sources of PFOA. Direct photolysis proceeded slowly to produce CO2, F-, and short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids. Compared to the direct photolysis, H2O2 was less effective in PFOA decomposition. On the other hand, the heteropolyacid photocatalyst led to efficient PFOA decomposition and the production of F- ions and CO2. The photocatalyst also suppressed the accumulation of short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids in the reaction solution. PFOA in the concentrations of 0.34-3.35 mM, typical of those in wastewaters after an emulsifying process in fluoropolymer manufacture, was completely decomposed by the catalyst within 24 h of irradiation from a 200-W xenon-mercury lamp, with no accompanying catalyst degradation, permitting the catalyst to be reused in consecutive runs. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) measurements showed no trace of environmentally undesirable species such as CF4, which has a very high global-warming potential. When the (initial PFOA)/(initial catalyst) molar ratio was 10: 1, the turnover number for PFOA decomposition reached 4.33 over 24 h of irradiation.

  19. Modelling a deep water oil/gas spill under conditions of gas hydrate formation and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Yapa, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    A model for the behavior of oil and gas spills at deepwater locations was presented. Such spills are subjected to pressures and temperatures that can convert gases to gas hydrates which are lighter than water. Knowing the state of gases as they rise with the plume is important in predicting the fate of an oil or gas plume released in deepwater. The objective of this paper was to develop a comprehensive jet/plume model which includes computational modules that simulate the gas hydrate formation/decomposition of gas bubbles. This newly developed model is based on the kinetics of hydrate formation and decomposition coupled with mass and heat transfer phenomena. The numerical model was successfully tested using results of experimental data from the Gulf of Mexico. Hydrate formation and decomposition are integrated with an earlier model by Yapa and Zheng for underwater oil or gas jets and plumes. The effects of hydrate on the behavior of an oil or gas plume was simulated to demonstrate the models capabilities. The model results indicate that in addition to thermodynamics, the kinetics of hydrate formation/decomposition should be considered when studying the behavior of oil and gas spills. It was shown that plume behavior changes significantly depending on whether or not the local conditions force the gases to form hydrates. 25 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  20. Decomposition of the Urban Water Footprint of Food Consumption: A Case Study of Xiamen City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of the urban water footprint can provide insight for water management. In this paper, a new decomposition method based on the log-mean Divisia index model (LMDI was developed to analyze the driving forces of water footprint changes, attributable to food consumption. Compared to previous studies, this new approach can distinguish between various factors relating to urban and rural residents. The water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen City, from 2001 to 2012, was calculated. Following this, the driving forces of water footprint change were broken down into considerations of the population, the structure of food consumption, the level of food consumption, water intensity, and the population rate. Research shows that between 2001 and 2012, the water footprint of food consumption in Xiamen increased by 675.53 Mm3, with a growth rate of 88.69%. Population effects were the leading contributors to this change, accounting for 87.97% of the total growth. The food consumption structure also had a considerable effect on this increase. Here, the urban area represented 94.96% of the water footprint increase, driven by the effect of the food consumption structure. Water intensity and the urban/rural population rate had a weak positive cumulative effect. The effects of the urban/rural population rate on the water footprint change in urban and rural areas, however, were individually significant. The level of food consumption was the only negative factor. In terms of food categories, meat and grain had the greatest effects during the study period. Controlling the urban population, promoting a healthy and less water-intensive diet, reducing food waste, and improving agriculture efficiency, are all elements of an effective approach for mitigating the growth of the water footprint.

  1. Solar radiation influence on the decomposition process of diclofenac in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, Peter; Tuempling, Wolf von

    2007-01-01

    Diclofenac can be detected in surface water of many rivers with human impacts worldwide. The observed decrease of the diclofenac concentration in waters and the formation of its photochemical transformation products under the impact of natural irradiation during one to 16 days are explained in this article. In semi-natural laboratory tests and in a field experiment it could be shown, that sunlight stimulates the decomposition of diclofenac in surface waters. During one day intensive solar radiation in middle European summer diclofenac decomposes in the surface layer of the water (0 to 5 cm) up to 83%, determined in laboratory exposition experiments. After two weeks in a field experiment, the diclofenac was not detectable anymore in the water surface layer (limit of quantification: 5 ng/L). At a water depth of 50 cm, within two weeks 96% of the initial concentration was degraded, while in 100 cm depth 2/3 of the initial diclofenac concentration remained. With the decomposition, stable and meta-stable photolysis products were formed and observed by UV detection. Beyond that the chemical structure of these products were determined. Three transformation products, that were not described in the literature so far, were identified and quantified with GC-MS

  2. Radiation-induced decomposition of small amounts of trichloroethylene in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proksch, E.; Gehringer, P.; Szinovatz, W.; Eschweiler, H.

    1989-01-01

    Solutions of 10 ppm trichloroethylene in air-saturated drinking waters are decomposed by γ radiation with initial G-values, G 0 , around 3-5 molecules per 100 eV. At lower concentrations, the G 0 -values decrease with decreasing trichloroethylene concentration and with increasing amounts of inorganic (especially HCO 3 - ) and organic solutes. From the results, a semi-empirical formula is derived which allows an estimation of G 0 -values for the trichloroethylene decomposition in drinking waters of given composition. (author)

  3. European CO2 emission trends: A decomposition analysis for water and aviation transport sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, V.; Galmarini, S.

    2012-01-01

    A decomposition analysis is used to investigate the main factors influencing the CO 2 emissions of European transport activities for the period 2001–2008. The decomposition method developed by Sun has been used to investigate the carbon dioxide emissions intensity, the energy intensity, the structural changes and the economy activity growth effects for the water and the aviation transport sectors. The analysis is based on Eurostat data and results are presented for 14 Member States, Norway and EU27. Results indicate that economic growth has been the main factor behind the carbon dioxide emissions increase in EU27 both for water and aviation transport activities. -- Highlights: ► Decomposition analysis is used to investigate factors that influenced the energy-related CO 2 emissions of European transport. ► Economic growth has been the main factor affecting the energy-related CO 2 emissions increases. ► Investigating the CO 2 emissions drivers is the first step to define energy efficiency policies and emission reduction strategies.

  4. Plant litter decomposition and carbon sequestration for arable soils. Final report of works. April 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recous, S.; Barrois, F.; Coppens, F.; Garnier, P.; Grehan, E.; Balesdent, J.; Dambrine, E.; Zeller, B.; Loiseau, P.; Personeni, E.

    2002-01-01

    The general objective of this project was to contribute to the evaluation of land use and management impacts on C sequestration and nitrogen dynamics in soils. The land used through the presence/absence of crops and their species, and the land management through tillage, localisation of crop residues, fertilizer applications,... are important factors that affect the dynamics of organic matters in soils, particularly the mineralization of C and N, the losses to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the retention of carbon into the soil. This project was conducted by four research groups, three of them having expertise in nutrient cycling of three major agro-ecosystems (arable crops, grasslands, forests) and the fourth one having expertise in modelling long term effects of land use on C storage into the soils. Within this common project one major objective was to better understand the fate of plant litter entering the soil either as above litter or as root litter. The focus was put on two factors that particularly affect decomposition: the initial biochemical quality of plant litter, and the location of the decomposing litter. One innovative aspect of the project was the use of stable isotope as 13 C for carbon, based on the use of enriched or depleted 13 C material, the only option to assess the dynamics of 'new' C entering the soil on the short term, in order to reveal the effects of decomposition factors. Another aspect was the simultaneous study of C and N. The project consisted in experiments relevant for each agro-ecosystem, in forest, grassland and arable soils for which interactions between residue quality and nitrogen availability on the one hand, residue quality and location on the other hand, was investigated. A common experiment was set up to investigate the potential degradability of the various residue used (beech leaf rape straw, young rye, Lolium and dactylic roots) in a their original soils and in a single soil was assessed. Based on these experiments, the

  5. Water Complexes of Cytochrome P450: Insights from Energy Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Hirao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is a small molecule that nevertheless perturbs, sometimes significantly, the electronic properties of an enzyme’s active site. In this study, interactions of a water molecule with the ferric heme and the compound I (Cpd I intermediate of cytochrome P450 are studied. Energy decomposition analysis (EDA schemes are used to investigate the physical origins of these interactions. Localized molecular orbital EDA (LMOEDA implemented in the quantum chemistry software GAMESS and the EDA method implemented in the ADF quantum chemistry program are used. EDA reveals that the electrostatic and polarization effects act as the major driving force in both of these interactions. The hydrogen bonding in the Cpd I•••H2O complex is similar to that in the water dimer; however, the relative importance of the electrostatic effect is somewhat larger in the water dimer.

  6. Decomposition of ρ-nonylphenols in water by 60Co γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kojima, Takuji; Namba, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    ρ-Nonylphenols (NPs), one of endocrine disrupting chemicals, are used as plastic flexibilizers or nonionic surfactants, and widely released into the water environment. Hydroxyl radicals produced from water molecules by γ-ray irradiation have high oxidation reactivity. Recently, treatments with the hydroxyl radicals have drawn much attention to conserve the water environment. In this study, decompositions of NPs in water were investigated using hydroxyl radicals by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. The concentrations of the NPs at initial concentration from 45 to 1000 nM were decomposed by γ-ray irradiation. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of NPs were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. The decomposition curves of NPs at each initial concentration were analyzed as single exponential functions. Alkylphenol activity of aqueous NPs solution, which was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, implies the irradiation products have alkylphenol activity. Two products having molecular weight of 236 were investigated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and were considered to be ρ-nonylcatechol and 1-(ρ-hydroxyphenyl)-1-nonanol on the basis of the oxidation mechanisms of ρ-cresol and 4-ethylphenol. (author)

  7. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korajkic, Asja; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; McMinn, Brian R; Baeza, Yoshiki Vazquez; VanTeuren, Will; Knight, Rob; Shanks, Orin C

    2015-02-01

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is known about how these communities change due to mixing and subsequent decomposition of the sewage contaminant. We investigated decay of sewage in upper Mississippi River using Illumina sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA gene hypervariable regions and qPCR for human-associated and general fecal Bacteroidales indicators. Mixtures of primary treated sewage and river water were placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ under ambient conditions for seven days. We assessed changes in microbial community composition under two treatments in a replicated factorial design: sunlight exposure versus shaded and presence versus absence of native river microbiota. Initial diversity was higher in sewage compared to river water for 16S sequences, but the reverse was observed for 18S sequences. Both treatments significantly shifted community composition for eukaryotes and bacteria (P treatments for both 16S (R = 0.50; P > 0.001) and 18S (R = 0.91; P = 0.001) communities. A comparison of 16S sequence data and fecal indicator qPCR measurements indicated that the latter was a good predictor of overall bacterial community change over time (rho: 0.804-0.814, P = 0.001). These findings suggest that biotic interactions, such as predation by bacterivorous protozoa, can be critical factors in the decomposition of sewage in freshwater habitats and support the use of Bacteroidales genetic markers as indicators of fecal pollution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Partial oxidation of n-hexadecane through decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in supercritical water

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. This work reports the experimental analysis of partial oxidation of n-hexadecane under supercritical water conditions. A novel reactor flow system was developed which allows for total decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a separate reactor followed partial oxidation of n-hexadecane in a gasification reactor instead of having both reactions in one reactor. The kinetics of hydrothermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was studied in order to confirm its full conversion into water and oxygen under the desired partial oxidation conditions, and the kinetic data were found in a good agreement with previously reported literature. The gas yield and gasification efficiency were investigated under different operating parameters. Furthermore, the profile of C-C/C=C ratio was studied which showed the favourable conditions for maximising yields of n-alkanes via hydrogenation of their corresponding 1-alkenes. Enhanced hydrogenation of 1-alkenes was observed at higher O/C ratios and higher residence times, shown by the increase in the C-C/C=C ratio to more than unity, while increasing the temperature has shown much less effect on the C-C/C=C ratio at the current experimental conditions. In addition, GC-MS analysis of liquid samples revealed the formation of heavy oxygenated compounds which may suggest a new addition reaction to account for their formation under the current experimental conditions. Results show new promising routes for hydrogen production with in situ hydrogenation of heavy hydrocarbons in a supercritical water reactor.

  9. The Conceptual Design of an Integrated Nuclearhydrogen Production Plant Using the Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen production plant was designed based on a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical process for decomposing water. The sulfur cycle water decomposition system is driven by a very high temperature nuclear reactor that provides 1,283 K helium working gas. The plant is sized to approximately ten million standard cubic meters per day of electrolytically pure hydrogen and has an overall thermal efficiently of 45.2 percent. The economics of the plant were evaluated using ground rules which include a 1974 cost basis without escalation, financing structure and other economic factors. Taking into account capital, operation, maintenance and nuclear fuel cycle costs, the cost of product hydrogen was calculated at $5.96/std cu m for utility financing. These values are significantly lower than hydrogen costs from conventional water electrolysis plants and competitive with hydrogen from coal gasification plants.

  10. Decomposition of colored wastewater for recycling water by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Teruko

    1995-01-01

    Utilization of advanced treated water from wastewater treatment plants for the restoration of waterway is in progress to improve the waterside environment. However, the colored wastewater containing molasses pigments, melanoidins, is not decolorized by activated sludge process, and the water can not be applied for recycling water. We have studied the radiation treatment for decolorization of wastewater discharged from baker's yeast factory. The decolorization after decomposition of colored biorefractory organic substances in wastewater, enhancement in biodegradability and effective decrease in values of COD were observed after gammaray irradiation. Although the decrease in values of COD was observed, however chromaticity was not improved after the combined treatment of wastewater by radiation together with activated sludge. The result suggests that it is necessary to find the optimum conditions for stimulation of sludge in the combined treatment. (author)

  11. Hierarchical prediction of industrial water demand based on refined Laspeyres decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yizi; Lu, Shibao; Gong, Jiaguo; Shang, Ling; Li, Xiaofei; Wei, Yongping; Shi, Hongwang

    2017-12-01

    A recent study decomposed the changes in industrial water use into three hierarchies (output, technology, and structure) using a refined Laspeyres decomposition model, and found monotonous and exclusive trends in the output and technology hierarchies. Based on that research, this study proposes a hierarchical prediction approach to forecast future industrial water demand. Three water demand scenarios (high, medium, and low) were then established based on potential future industrial structural adjustments, and used to predict water demand for the structural hierarchy. The predictive results of this approach were compared with results from a grey prediction model (GPM (1, 1)). The comparison shows that the results of the two approaches were basically identical, differing by less than 10%. Taking Tianjin, China, as a case, and using data from 2003-2012, this study predicts that industrial water demand will continuously increase, reaching 580 million m 3 , 776.4 million m 3 , and approximately 1.09 billion m 3 by the years 2015, 2020 and 2025 respectively. It is concluded that Tianjin will soon face another water crisis if no immediate measures are taken. This study recommends that Tianjin adjust its industrial structure with water savings as the main objective, and actively seek new sources of water to increase its supply.

  12. Afghanistan water constraints overview analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Afghanistan's already severe water supply problems are expected to intensify as Afghan refugees resettle in former conflictive zones. The report examines the technical, economic, cultural, and institutional facets of the country's water supply and suggests steps to mitigate existing and anticipated water supply problems. Chapter 2 presents information on Afghanistan's water resources, covering the country's climate, precipitation, glaciers/snow packs, and watersheds; the principal patterns of water flow and distribution; and comprehensive estimates. Chapter 3 examines water resource development in the country from 1945 to 1979, including projects involving irrigation and hydroelectric power and strategies for improving the drinking water supply

  13. Detection of Water Contamination Events Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Alternating Trilinear Decomposition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on conventional index and UV-vision has been widely applied in the field of water quality abnormality detection. This paper presents a qualitative analysis approach to detect the water contamination events with unknown pollutants. Fluorescence spectra were used as water quality monitoring tools, and the detection method of unknown contaminants in water based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD is proposed to analyze the excitation and emission spectra of the samples. The Delaunay triangulation interpolation method was used to make the pretreatment of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra data, in order to estimate the effect of Rayleigh and Raman scattering; ATLD model was applied to establish the model of normal water sample, and the residual matrix was obtained by subtracting the measured matrix from the model matrix; the residual sum of squares obtained from the residual matrix and threshold was used to make qualitative discrimination of test samples and distinguish drinking water samples and organic pollutant samples. The results of the study indicate that ATLD modeling with three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can provide a tool for detecting unknown organic pollutants in water qualitatively. The method based on fluorescence spectra can be complementary to the method based on conventional index and UV-vision.

  14. A study on the photocatalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO 2 photocatalytic reaction characteristics of 4 nitrogen-containing and 12 aromatic organic compounds were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photocatalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the dependence of decomposition of the N-containing compounds were linearly proportional to their nitrogen atomic charge values, while that of the aromatic compounds were inversely proportional. The effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO 2 photocatalytic characteristics of EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5∼3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to a unit process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source water of the system water, and for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by chemical cleaning process in the domestic NPPs

  15. A study on the photocatalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO{sup 2} photocatalytic reaction characteristics of 4 nitrogen-containing and 12 aromatic organic compounds were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photocatalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the dependence of decomposition of the N-containing compounds were linearly proportional to their nitrogen atomic charge values, while that of the aromatic compounds were inversely proportional. The effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO{sup 2} photocatalytic characteristics of EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5{approx}3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to a unit process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source water of the system water, and for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by chemical cleaning process in the domestic NPPs.

  16. Radiation-induced decomposition of trace amounts of 17 β-estradiol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Arai, Hidehiko; Hiratsuka, Hiroshi; Namba, Hideki; Kojima, Takuji

    2004-01-01

    The radiation-induced decomposition of trace amounts of 17 β-estradiol (E2) in water was studied as a function of the dose of 60 Co γ-rays. The rate constant of the reaction of the OH radicals with E2 was estimated to be 1.6x10 10 mol dm -3 s -1 by a comparison with the known rate constant for the reaction with phenol. Both E2 and E2-equivalent concentrations were estimated by LC-MS and ELISA, and decreased with an increase in γ-rays dose. E2 (1.8 nmol dm -3 ) in water was degraded almost completely by irradiations up to 10 Gy. The estrogen activity of the same sample solution still remained at a dose of 10 Gy, but decreased at 30 Gy to the lower than the threshold level of contamination to induce some estrogenic effects on the environmental ecology

  17. Effects of natural water constituents on the photo-decomposition of methylmercury and the role of hydroxyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon-Kyung; Zoh, Kyung-Duk, E-mail: zohkd@snu.ac.kr

    2013-04-01

    Photo-decomposition of methylmercury (MeHg) in surface water is thought to be an important process that reduces the bioavailability of mercury (Hg) to aquatic organisms. In this study, photo-initiated decomposition of MeHg was investigated under UVA irradiation in the presence of natural water constituents including NO{sub 3}{sup −}, Fe{sup 3+}, and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} ions, and dissolved organic matter such as humic and fulvic acid. MeHg degradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics; the rate constant increased with increasing UVA intensity (0.3 to 3.0 mW cm{sup −2}). In the presence of NO{sub 3}{sup −}, Fe{sup 3+}, and fulvic acid, the decomposition rate of MeHg increased significantly due to photosensitization by reactive species such as hydroxyl radical. The presence of humic acid and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} ions lowered the degradation rate through a radical scavenging effect. Increasing the pH of the solution increased the degradation rate constant by enhancing the generation of hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals play an important role in the photo-decomposition of MeHg in water, and natural constituents in water can affect the photo-decomposition of MeHg by changing radical production and inhibition. - Highlights: ► The abiotic photodecomposition of methylmercury (MeHg) in water was examined. ► UVA light is a primary factor inducing MeHg photodecomposition in water. ► Fulvic acid, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, and Fe{sup 3+} ion increased MeHg photo-decomposition rate significantly. ► Humic acid and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} ions inhibited photodecomposition through radical scavenging. ► OH radical is an important compound affecting photodecomposition of MeHg in water.

  18. Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Dune Grassland: Neutral Effect of Water Supply and Inhibitory Effect of Nitrogen Addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Li

    Full Text Available The decomposition of plant material in arid ecosystems is considered to be substantially controlled by water and N availability. The responses of litter decomposition to external N and water, however, remain controversial, and the interactive effects of supplementary N and water also have been largely unexamined.A 3.5-year field experiment with supplementary nitrogen and water was conducted to assess the effects of N and water addition on mass loss and nitrogen release in leaves and fine roots of three dominant plant species (i.e., Artemisia halondendron, Setaria viridis, and Phragmites australis with contrasting substrate chemistry (e.g. N concentration, lignin content in this study in a desertified dune grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments included N addition, water addition, combination of N and water, and an untreated control. The decomposition rate in both leaves and roots was related to the initial litter N and lignin concentrations of the three species. However, litter quality did not explain the slower mass loss in roots than in leaves in the present study, and thus warrant further research. Nitrogen addition, either alone or in combination with water, significantly inhibited dry mass loss and N release in the leaves and roots of the three species, whereas water input had little effect on the decomposition of leaf litter and fine roots, suggesting that there was no interactive effect of supplementary N and water on litter decomposition in this system. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that the inhibitory effects of external N on dry mass loss and nitrogen release are relatively strong in high-lignin litter compared with low-lignin litter.These findings suggest that increasing precipitation hardly facilitates ecosystem carbon turnover but atmospheric N deposition can enhance carbon sequestration and nitrogen retention in desertified dune grasslands of northern China. Additionally, litter quality of plant species

  19. Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Dune Grassland: Neutral Effect of Water Supply and Inhibitory Effect of Nitrogen Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulin; Ning, Zhiying; Cui, Duo; Mao, Wei; Bi, Jingdong; Zhao, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    The decomposition of plant material in arid ecosystems is considered to be substantially controlled by water and N availability. The responses of litter decomposition to external N and water, however, remain controversial, and the interactive effects of supplementary N and water also have been largely unexamined. A 3.5-year field experiment with supplementary nitrogen and water was conducted to assess the effects of N and water addition on mass loss and nitrogen release in leaves and fine roots of three dominant plant species (i.e., Artemisia halondendron, Setaria viridis, and Phragmites australis) with contrasting substrate chemistry (e.g. N concentration, lignin content in this study) in a desertified dune grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments included N addition, water addition, combination of N and water, and an untreated control. The decomposition rate in both leaves and roots was related to the initial litter N and lignin concentrations of the three species. However, litter quality did not explain the slower mass loss in roots than in leaves in the present study, and thus warrant further research. Nitrogen addition, either alone or in combination with water, significantly inhibited dry mass loss and N release in the leaves and roots of the three species, whereas water input had little effect on the decomposition of leaf litter and fine roots, suggesting that there was no interactive effect of supplementary N and water on litter decomposition in this system. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that the inhibitory effects of external N on dry mass loss and nitrogen release are relatively strong in high-lignin litter compared with low-lignin litter. These findings suggest that increasing precipitation hardly facilitates ecosystem carbon turnover but atmospheric N deposition can enhance carbon sequestration and nitrogen retention in desertified dune grasslands of northern China. Additionally, litter quality of plant species should be considered

  20. A study on the photo catalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K.W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO 2 photo catalytic reaction of nitrogen containing organic compounds such as ethylamine, phenylhydrazine, pyridine, urea and EDTA were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photo catalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the decomposition characteristics was linearly proportional to nitrogen atomic charge value. On the other hand, the effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO 2 photo catalytic characteristics of EDTA, EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5-3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to construction of a process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source of system water, or for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by a chemical cleaning in the domestic NPPs. (author)

  1. A study on the photo catalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K.W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H

    2000-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO{sub 2} photo catalytic reaction of nitrogen containing organic compounds such as ethylamine, phenylhydrazine, pyridine, urea and EDTA were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photo catalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the decomposition characteristics was linearly proportional to nitrogen atomic charge value. On the other hand, the effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO{sub 2} photo catalytic characteristics of EDTA, EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5-3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to construction of a process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source of system water, or for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by a chemical cleaning in the domestic NPPs. (author)

  2. Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Alleman, T. L.

    2005-08-01

    Document details the evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a gas-to-liquid fuel, in medium-duty delivery vehicles at Yosemite Waters. The study was conducted by NREL at the company's Fullerton, California, bottling headquarters.

  3. Confronting South Africa’s water challenge: A decomposition analysis of water intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Kohler

    2016-01-01

    Water is a vital natural resource, demanding careful management. It is essential for life and integral to virtually all economic activities, including energy and food production and the production of industrial outputs. The availability of clean water in sufficient quantities is not only a prerequisite for human health and well-being but the life-blood of freshwater ecosystems and the many services that these provide. Water resource intensity measures the intensity of water use in terms of vo...

  4. Confronting South Africa's water challenge: a decomposition analysis of water intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Water is a vital natural resource, demanding careful management. It is essential for life and integral to virtually all economic activities, including energy and food production and the production of industrial outputs. The availability of clean water in sufficient quantities is not only a prerequisite for human health and well-being but the life-blood of freshwater ecosystems and the many services that these provide. Water resource intensity measures the intensity of water use in terms of vo...

  5. Measurement of water decomposition products after the irradiation with high-energy heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Y.; Yamashita, S.; Muroya, Y.; Lin, M.; Miyazaki, T.; Kudo, H.; Murakami, T.

    2005-01-01

    We measured the G-values of water decomposition products produced by high-energy heavy-ion beams. It was found that the evaluated yields are consistent with reported ones. In other words, with the increase of LET, the radical yields decrease, and the molecular yields increase and tend to level off. But the evaluated yields are slightly higher than reported values. So we have started two trials. One is to check the values with experiment again, and the other is to explain the difference between the yields by using the spur diffusion model. In order to explain the values quantitatively, the spur diffusion model has been applied and track structure has been investigated. (author)

  6. Above and belowground controls on litter decomposition in semiarid ecosystems: effects of solar radiation, water availability and litter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. T.; Araujo, P. I.; Leva, P. E.; Ballare, C. L.

    2008-12-01

    The integrated controls on soil organic matter formation in arid and semiarid ecosystems are not well understood and appear to stem from a number of interacting controls affecting above- and belowground carbon turnover. While solar radiation has recently been shown to have an important direct effect on carbon loss in semiarid ecosystems as a result of photochemical mineralization of aboveground plant material, the mechanistic basis for photodegradative losses is poorly understood. In addition, there are large potential differences in major controls on above- and belowground decomposition in low rainfall ecosystems. We report on a mesocosm and field study designed to examine the relative importance of different wavelengths of solar radiation, water availability, position of senescent material above- and belowground and the importance of carbon litter quality in determining rates of abiotic and biotic decomposition. In a factorial experiment of mesocosms, we incubated leaf and root litter simultaneously above- and belowground and manipulated water availability with large and small pulses. Significant interactions between position-litter type and position-pulse sizes demonstrated interactive controls on organic mass loss. Aboveground decomposition showed no response to pulse size or litter type, as roots and leaves decomposed equally rapidly under all circumstances. In contrast, belowground decomposition was significantly altered by litter type and water pulses, with roots decomposing significantly slower and small water pulses reducing belowground decomposition. In the field site, using plastic filters which attenuated different wavelengths of natural solar radiation, we found a highly significant effect of radiation exclusion on mass loss and demonstrated that both UV-A and short-wave visible light can have important impacts on photodegradative carbon losses. The combination of position and litter quality effects on litter decomposition appear to be critical for the

  7. Water quality criteria for hexachloroethane: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Ross, R.H.

    1988-03-01

    The available data regarding the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of hexachloroethane, which is used in military screening smokes, were reviewed. The USEPA guidelines were used to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its uses and of human health. 16 tabs.

  8. Reproducible automated breast density measure with no ionizing radiation using fat-water decomposition MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Stopeck, Alison T; Gao, Yi; Marron, Marilyn T; Wertheim, Betsy C; Altbach, Maria I; Galons, Jean-Philippe; Roe, Denise J; Wang, Fang; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thompson, Patricia A; Huang, Chuan

    2018-04-06

    Increased breast density is a significant independent risk factor for breast cancer, and recent studies show that this risk is modifiable. Hence, breast density measures sensitive to small changes are desired. Utilizing fat-water decomposition MRI, we propose an automated, reproducible breast density measurement, which is nonionizing and directly comparable to mammographic density (MD). Retrospective study. The study included two sample sets of breast cancer patients enrolled in a clinical trial, for concordance analysis with MD (40 patients) and reproducibility analysis (10 patients). The majority of MRI scans (59 scans) were performed with a 1.5T GE Signa scanner using radial IDEAL-GRASE sequence, while the remaining (seven scans) were performed with a 3T Siemens Skyra using 3D Cartesian 6-echo GRE sequence with a similar fat-water separation technique. After automated breast segmentation, breast density was calculated using FraGW, a new measure developed to reliably reflect the amount of fibroglandular tissue and total water content in the entire breast. Based on its concordance with MD, FraGW was calibrated to MR-based breast density (MRD) to be comparable to MD. A previous breast density measurement, Fra80-the ratio of breast voxels with density changes and treatment response. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Steam-water jet analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwa, B.A.; Harlow, F.H.; Demuth, R.B.; Ruppel, H.M.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of a theoretical study on the effects of the steam-water jet emitted from a hypothetical rupture in the high-pressure piping pf a nuclear power plant. A set of calculations is presented, incorporating increasingly complex formulations for mass and momentum exchange between the liquid and vapor flow fields. Comparisons between theory and detailed experimental data are given. The study begins with a thorough evaluation of the specification of equilibrium mass and momentum exchange (homogeneous equilibrium) throughout the flow region, a model that generally overpredicts the rate of jet momentum divergence. The study finds that a near-equilibrium momentum exchange rate and a strongly nonequilibrium momentum exchange rate are needed in the region of large vapor-volume fraction to explain the impingement data for fully developed two-phase jets. This leads to the viewpoint that the large-scale jet is characterized by a flow of large liquid entities that travel relatively unaffected by the strongly diverging vapor flow field. The study also finds circumstances in which a persistent core of metastable superheated water can cause much larger impingement pressures than would otherwise be possible. Existing engineering methods are evaluated for jet-loading predictions in plant design. The existing methods appear to be conservative in most possible rupture circumstances with one exception: when the impingement target is about one pipe-diameter away, large enough to capture the full jet, and the rupture flow area is equal to the full pipe flow area, the existing method can produce loadings that are slightly lower than observed for subcooled, flashing discharge. Recommendations have been made to improve the prediction of existing methods under these conditions

  10. Kinetics of electron-induced decomposition of CF2Cl2 coadsorbed with water (ice): A comparison with CCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faradzhev, N.S.; Perry, C.C.; Kusmierek, D.O.; Fairbrother, D.H.; Madey, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of decomposition and subsequent chemistry of adsorbed CF 2 Cl 2 , activated by low-energy electron irradiation, have been examined and compared with CCl 4 . These molecules have been adsorbed alone and coadsorbed with water ice films of different thicknesses on metal surfaces (Ru; Au) at low temperatures (25 K; 100 K). The studies have been performed with temperature programmed desorption (TPD), reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). TPD data reveal the efficient decomposition of both halocarbon molecules under electron bombardment, which proceeds via dissociative electron attachment (DEA) of low-energy secondary electrons. The rates of CF 2 Cl 2 and CCl 4 dissociation increase in an H 2 O (D 2 O) environment (2-3x), but the increase is smaller than that reported in recent literature. The highest initial cross sections for halocarbon decomposition coadsorbed with H 2 O, using 180 eV incident electrons, are measured (using TPD) to be 1.0±0.2x10 -15 cm 2 for CF 2 Cl 2 and 2.5±0.2x10 -15 cm 2 for CCl 4 . RAIRS and XPS studies confirm the decomposition of halocarbon molecules codeposited with water molecules, and provide insights into the irradiation products. Electron-induced generation of Cl - and F - anions in the halocarbon/water films and production of H 3 O + , CO 2 , and intermediate compounds COF 2 (for CF 2 Cl 2 ) and COCl 2 , C 2 Cl 4 (for CCl 4 ) under electron irradiation have been detected using XPS, TPD, and RAIRS. The products and the decomposition kinetics are similar to those observed in our recent experiments involving x-ray photons as the source of ionizing irradiation

  11. Low-order modelling of shallow water equations for sensitivity analysis using proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokagoa, Jean-Marie; Soulaïmani, Azzeddine

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a reduced-order model (ROM) of the shallow water equations (SWEs) for use in sensitivity analyses and Monte-Carlo type applications. Since, in the real world, some of the physical parameters and initial conditions embedded in free-surface flow problems are difficult to calibrate accurately in practice, the results from numerical hydraulic models are almost always corrupted with uncertainties. The main objective of this work is to derive a ROM that ensures appreciable accuracy and a considerable acceleration in the calculations so that it can be used as a surrogate model for stochastic and sensitivity analyses in real free-surface flow problems. The ROM is derived using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method coupled with Galerkin projections of the SWEs, which are discretised through a finite-volume method. The main difficulty of deriving an efficient ROM is the treatment of the nonlinearities involved in SWEs. Suitable approximations that provide rapid online computations of the nonlinear terms are proposed. The proposed ROM is applied to the simulation of hypothetical flood flows in the Bordeaux breakwater, a portion of the 'Rivière des Prairies' located near Laval (a suburb of Montreal, Quebec). A series of sensitivity analyses are performed by varying the Manning roughness coefficient and the inflow discharge. The results are satisfactorily compared to those obtained by the full-order finite volume model.

  12. Ozone decomposition in water studied by pulse radiolysis. 2. OH and HO4 as chain intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehelin, J.; Buehler, R.E.; Hoigne, J.

    1984-01-01

    Ozone decomposition in pure water involves a chain mechanism, initiated by the reaction OH - +O 3 and propogated by O 2 - and OH. In the present studies this chain is initiated by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ozone. The chain propogation steps were studied in two parts. By computer simulation of the rate curves, it is shown that from OH + O 3 and intermediate HO 4 must be formed, most likely a charge-transfer complex (HO.O 3 ), which eventually decays into HO 2 . The derived rate constants for the formation of the various species are included. The spectrum of HO 4 is derived. It is similar to the one of ozone, but the absorption coefficients are about 50% larger. In the presence of high ozone concentration, the dominant chain termination reactions are HO 4 + HO 4 and HO 4 + HO 3 . The effect on chain length, dose, overall rate, and pH and of added scavengers is described. The implications for the natural ozone decay mechanism are discussed

  13. Experimental burial inhibits methanogenesis and anaerobic decomposition in water-saturated peats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodau, Christian; Siems, Melanie; Beer, Julia

    2011-12-01

    A mechanistic understanding of carbon (C) sequestration and methane (CH(4)) production is of great interest due to the importance of these processes for the global C budget. Here we demonstrate experimentally, by means of column experiments, that burial of water saturated, anoxic bog peat leads to inactivation of anaerobic respiration and methanogenesis. This effect can be related to the slowness of diffusive transport of solutes and evolving energetic constraints on anaerobic respiration. Burial lowered decomposition constants in homogenized peat sand mixtures from about 10(-5) to 10(-7) yr(-1), which is considerably slower than previously assumed, and methanogenesis slowed down in a similar manner. The latter effect could be related to acetoclastic methanogenesis approaching a minimum energy quantum of -25 kJ mol(-1) (CH(4)). Given the robustness of hydraulic properties that locate the oxic-anoxic boundary near the peatland surface and constrain solute transport deeper into the peat, this effect has likely been critical for building the peatland C store and will continue supporting long-term C sequestration in northern peatlands even under moderately changing climatic conditions.

  14. Thermoanalytical study of the decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloussifi, H.; Farjas, J.; Roura, P.; Ricart, S.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Dammak, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the use of the thermal analysis techniques to study yttrium trifluoroacetate thin films decomposition. In situ analysis was done by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, and evolved gas analysis. Solid residues at different stages and the final product have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate thin films results in the formation of yttria and presents the same succession of intermediates than powder's decomposition, however, yttria and all intermediates but YF 3 appear at significantly lower temperatures. We also observe a dependence on the water partial pressure that was not observed in the decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate powders. Finally, a dependence on the substrate chemical composition is discerned. - Highlights: • Thermal decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate films. • Very different behavior of films with respect to powders. • Decomposition is enhanced in films. • Application of thermal analysis to chemical solution deposition synthesis of films

  15. Control of xenon oscillations in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor via two-stage decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munje, R.K.; Parkhe, J.G.; Patre, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Singularly perturbed model of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor is explored. • Composite controller is designed using slow subsystem alone, which achieves asymptotic stability. • Nonlinear simulations are carried out under different transient conditions. • Performance of the controller is found to be satisfactory. - Abstract: Xenon induced spatial oscillations developed in large nuclear reactors, like Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) need to be controlled for safe operation. Otherwise, a serious situation may arise in which different regions of the core may undergo variations in neutron flux in opposite phase. If these oscillations are left uncontrolled, the power density and rate of change of power at some locations in the reactor core may exceed their respective thermal limits, resulting in fuel failure. In this paper, a state feedback based control strategy is investigated for spatial control of AHWR. The nonlinear model of AHWR including xenon and iodine dynamics is characterized by 90 states, 5 inputs and 18 outputs. The linear model of AHWR, obtained by linearizing the nonlinear equations is found to be highly ill-conditioned. This higher order model of AHWR is first decomposed into two comparatively lower order subsystems, namely, 73rd order ‘slow’ subsystem and 17th order ‘fast’ subsystem using two-stage decomposition. Composite control law is then derived from individual subsystem feedback controls and applied to the vectorized nonlinear model of AHWR. Through the dynamic simulations it is observed that the controller is able to suppress xenon induced spatial oscillations developed in AHWR and the overall performance is found to be satisfactory

  16. Influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by pulsed discharge plasma inside bubble in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of sodium carbonate on the decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubbles in water was investigated experimentally. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of sodium carbonate additive, the pH increased owing to the decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the percentage of conversion of formic acid increased with increasing pH because the reaction rate of ozone with formic acid increased with increasing pH. In the case of argon injection, the percentage of conversion was not affected by the pH owing to the high rate loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  17. Decomposition of atrazine traces in water by combination of non-thermal electrical discharge and adsorption on nanofiber membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanraes, Patrick; Willems, Gert; Daels, Nele; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Clerck, Karen; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim; Nikiforov, Anton; Leys, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, several types of persistent substances are detected in the aquatic environment at very low concentrations. Unfortunately, conventional water treatment processes are not able to remove these micropollutants. As such, advanced treatment methods are required to meet both current and anticipated maximally allowed concentrations. Plasma discharge in contact with water is a promising new technology, since it produces a wide spectrum of oxidizing species. In this study, a new type of reactor is tested, in which decomposition by atmospheric pulsed direct barrier discharge (pDBD) plasma is combined with micropollutant adsorption on a nanofiber polyamide membrane. Atrazine is chosen as model micropollutant with an initial concentration of 30 μg/L. While the H2O2 and O3 production in the reactor is not influenced by the presence of the membrane, there is a significant increase in atrazine decomposition when the membrane is added. With membrane, 85% atrazine removal can be obtained in comparison to only 61% removal without membrane, at the same experimental parameters. The by-products of atrazine decomposition identified by HPLC-MS are deethylatrazine and ammelide. Formation of these by-products is more pronounced when the membrane is added. These results indicate the synergetic effect of plasma discharge and pollutant adsorption, which is attractive for future applications of water treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  19. [Effects of brackish water irrigation on soil enzyme activity, soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-qian; Wang, Fei; Liu, Tao; Chu, Gui-xin

    2015-09-01

    Brackish water irrigation utilization is an important way to alleviate water resource shortage in arid region. A field-plot experiment was set up to study the impact of the salinity level (0.31, 3.0 or 5.0 g · L(-1) NaCl) of irrigated water on activities of soil catalase, invertase, β-glucosidase, cellulase and polyphenoloxidase in drip irrigation condition, and the responses of soil CO2 flux and organic matter decomposition were also determined by soil carbon dioxide flux instrument (LI-8100) and nylon net bag method. The results showed that in contrast with fresh water irrigation treatment (CK), the activities of invertase, β-glucosidase and cellulase in the brackish water (3.0 g · L(-1)) irrigation treatment declined by 31.7%-32.4%, 29.7%-31.6%, 20.8%-24.3%, respectively, while soil polyphenoloxidase activity was obviously enhanced with increasing the salinity level of irrigated water. Compared to CK, polyphenoloxidase activity increased by 2.4% and 20.5%, respectively, in the brackish water and saline water irrigation treatments. Both soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient decreased with increasing the salinity level, whereas, microbial metabolic quotient showed an increasing tendency with increasing the salinity level. Soil CO2 fluxes in the different treatments were in the order of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) ≥ saline water irrigation (5.0 g · L(-1)). Moreover, CO2 flux from plastic film mulched soil was always much higher than that from no plastic film mulched soil, regardless the salinity of irrigated water. Compared with CK, soil CO2 fluxes in the saline water and brackish water treatments decreased by 29.8% and 28.2% respectively in the boll opening period. The decomposition of either cotton straw or alfalfa straw in the different treatments was in the sequence of CK (0.31 g · L(-1)) > brackish water irrigation (3.0 g · L(-1)) > saline water treatment (5.0 g · L(-1)). The organic matter

  20. Effects of stream water chemistry and tree species on release and methylation of mercury during litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Martin Tsz Ki; Finlay, Jacques C; Nater, Edward A

    2008-12-01

    Foliage of terrestrial plants provides an important energy and nutrient source to aquatic ecosystems but also represents a potential source of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg). In this study, we examined how different stream water types and terrestrial tree species influenced the release of Hg from senesced litter to the water and its subsequent methylation during hypoxic litter decomposition. After laboratory incubations of maple leaf litter for 66 days, we observed 10-fold differences in dissolved Hg (DHg, tree species collected at the same site and incubated with the same source water, litter from slower decomposing species (e.g., cedar and pine) yielded higher DHg concentrations than those with more labile carbon (e.g., maple and birch). Percent MeHg, however, was relatively similar among different leaf species (i.e., 61-86%). Our study is the first to demonstrate that stream water chemistry and terrestrial plant litter characteristics are important factors determining Hg release and methylation during hypoxic litter decomposition. These results suggest that certain watershed and aquatic ecosystem properties can determine the levels of MeHg inputs during litterfall events.

  1. Effects of micro-water on decomposition of the environment-friendly insulating medium C5F10O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xiao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available SF6 is widely used in all kinds of high-voltage electrical equipment because of its excellent insulation and arc-extinguishing performance. However, this compound leads to serious greenhouse effect, which harms the environment. Many research institutions are now actively in search of SF6 alternative gas. C5F10O has attracted much attention as an alternative gas with low global warming potential (GWP and excellent dielectric strength. In this paper, we analyzed the possible decomposition paths of C5F10O under micro-water environment through density functional theory. We also evaluated the ionization parameters and toxicity of the decomposition products. The results show that OH• and H• produced by H2O exhibited a catalytic effect on the decomposition of C5F10O. CF4, C2F6, C3F6, C3F8, C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C3F7COH, C3F7OH, CF3COH, C3F7H, and CF3OH were produced in the micro-water environment. Based on molecular configuration calculation, the ionization parameters of these products were inferior to perfluorocarbons, such as C3F8, leading to reduced insulation performance of the system. Moreover, CF2O and HF are hazardous to human health and equipment safety. Results will provide a basis for further study of the insulation characteristic of the C5F10O gas mixture under micro-water condition to guide the formulation of their relevant international standards prior to engineering applications.

  2. Effects of micro-water on decomposition of the environment-friendly insulating medium C5F10O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Song; Li, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Tian, Shuangshuang; Deng, Zaitao; Tang, Ju

    2017-06-01

    SF6 is widely used in all kinds of high-voltage electrical equipment because of its excellent insulation and arc-extinguishing performance. However, this compound leads to serious greenhouse effect, which harms the environment. Many research institutions are now actively in search of SF6 alternative gas. C5F10O has attracted much attention as an alternative gas with low global warming potential (GWP) and excellent dielectric strength. In this paper, we analyzed the possible decomposition paths of C5F10O under micro-water environment through density functional theory. We also evaluated the ionization parameters and toxicity of the decomposition products. The results show that OH• and H• produced by H2O exhibited a catalytic effect on the decomposition of C5F10O. CF4, C2F6, C3F6, C3F8, C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C3F7COH, C3F7OH, CF3COH, C3F7H, and CF3OH were produced in the micro-water environment. Based on molecular configuration calculation, the ionization parameters of these products were inferior to perfluorocarbons, such as C3F8, leading to reduced insulation performance of the system. Moreover, CF2O and HF are hazardous to human health and equipment safety. Results will provide a basis for further study of the insulation characteristic of the C5F10O gas mixture under micro-water condition to guide the formulation of their relevant international standards prior to engineering applications.

  3. Synergistic effect of plasmacatalyst and ozone in a pulsed corona discharge reactor on the decomposition of organic pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif [Applied Chemistry Laboratories, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2003-11-01

    Plasmacatalytic effects of {alpha}-alumina, {gamma}-alumina, and silica gel in a pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor on the decomposition of aqueous methylene blue are described. Methylene blue concentration in the effluent was reduced to 23% of the inlet concentration by PCDs in water. Under the same experimental conditions, addition of {alpha}-alumina further reduced it to 8%, {gamma}-alumina to 4%, and silica gel to below the detection limits. PCDs with silica gel were run for >100 h in a continuous flow reactor and methylene blue in the effluent remained below the detection limit. A hybrid system of plasmacatalysis and ozonation is also described. Phenol concentration in the effluent was reduced to 84% of the inlet concentration by PCDs in water. Under the same experimental conditions, addition of either silica gel or ozone further reduced it to around 35%, and simultaneous addition of silica gel and ozone to 14% of inlet concentration. Decolourization of pre-adsorbed methylene blue on silica gel has been demonstrated. Adsorption and stabilization of the chemically active species on silica gel was indicated by experimental evidence. A significant improvement in the rate of decomposition of organic pollutants in water has been realized by hybridizing plasmacatalysis and ozonation in a PCD reactor.

  4. Synergistic effect of plasmacatalyst and ozone in a pulsed corona discharge reactor on the decomposition of organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif

    2003-01-01

    Plasmacatalytic effects of α-alumina, γ-alumina, and silica gel in a pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor on the decomposition of aqueous methylene blue are described. Methylene blue concentration in the effluent was reduced to 23% of the inlet concentration by PCDs in water. Under the same experimental conditions, addition of α-alumina further reduced it to 8%, γ-alumina to 4%, and silica gel to below the detection limits. PCDs with silica gel were run for >100 h in a continuous flow reactor and methylene blue in the effluent remained below the detection limit. A hybrid system of plasmacatalysis and ozonation is also described. Phenol concentration in the effluent was reduced to 84% of the inlet concentration by PCDs in water. Under the same experimental conditions, addition of either silica gel or ozone further reduced it to around 35%, and simultaneous addition of silica gel and ozone to 14% of inlet concentration. Decolourization of pre-adsorbed methylene blue on silica gel has been demonstrated. Adsorption and stabilization of the chemically active species on silica gel was indicated by experimental evidence. A significant improvement in the rate of decomposition of organic pollutants in water has been realized by hybridizing plasmacatalysis and ozonation in a PCD reactor

  5. Using decomposition kinetics to model the removal of mine water pollutants in constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarutis, W J; Unz, R F [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Although numerous mathematical models have been used to describe decomposition, few, if any, have been used to model the removal of pollutants in constructed wetlands. A steady state method based on decomposition kinetics and reaction stoichiometry has been developed which simulates the removal of ferrous iron entering wetlands constructed for mine drainage treatment. Input variables for the model include organic matter concentration, reaction rate coefficient, porosity and dry density, and hydraulic detection time. Application of the model assumes complete anaerobic conditions within the entire substrate profile, constant temperature, no additional organic matter input, and subsurface flow only. For these ideal conditions, model simulations indicate that wetlands constructed with readily decomposable substrates rich in organic carbon are initially capable of removing far greater amounts of iron than wetlands built with less biodegradable substrates. However, after three to five years of operation this difference becomes negligible. For acceptable long-term treatment performance, therefore, periodic additions of decomposable organic matter will be required.

  6. FURFURAL YIELD AND DECOMPOSITION IN SODIUM 2,4DIMETHYLBENZENESULFONATE--SULFURIC ACID--WATER SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch-type microreactors (about 1/40 milliliter of reactants) were used to measure furfural yields from acidified xylose solutions containing sodium...It was found that presence of the salt did not affect the quantity of furfural produced, but greatly increased the rate of formation. The regular...increase in rate of furfural formation was directly related to the increase in the rate xylose decomposition, and furfural yields for all salt and acid

  7. Alumina nanowire growth by water decomposition and the peritectic reaction of decagonal Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 15}Co{sub 20} quasicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Téllez-Vázquez, J.O., E-mail: oswald.tellez@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Metalurgia y Materiales, UMSNH, Edificio U, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 58060 Morelia Michoacán, México (Mexico); Patiño-Carachure, C., E-mail: cpatino@pampano.unacar.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Carmen, Campus III, Avenida Central S/N, Esq. Con Fracc. Mundo Maya, C.P. 24115 Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, México (Mexico); Rosas, G., E-mail: grtrejo@yahoo07.com.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Metalurgia y Materiales, UMSNH, Edificio U, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 58060 Morelia Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, the results of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires' growth through a chemical reaction between Al and water vapor at 1050 °C are presented. Our approach is based on two primary considerations. First, at room temperature, the Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 15}Co{sub 20} alloy is affected by the following mechanism: 2Al (s) + 3H{sub 2}O (g) → Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (s) + H{sub 2} (g). In this reaction, the released hydrogen induces cleavage fracture of the material to form small particles. Second, the Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 15}Co{sub 20} quasicrystalline phase is transformed on heating to liquid + Al (Cu, Co) cubic phase through a peritectic reaction at 1050 °C. The Al-rich liquid then reacts with water vapor, forming Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the formed nanowires have a hexagonal structure, and infrared analysis further confirms the presence of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase in the final products. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that nanoparticles are present at the end of nanowires, suggesting the VLS growth mechanism. Elemental analysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) indicates that the particles at the tip of the nanowires are mainly formed by Co and Cu alloying elements and small amounts of Al. Electron microscopy observations showed nanowires with diameters ranging from 20 to 70 nm; the average diameter was 37 nm and the nanowire lengths were up to several micrometers. - Highlights: • Hexagonal alumina nanowires are grown at 1050 °C through the VLS process. • Alumina nanowires are obtained by the decomposition of decagonal quasicrystalline phase. • The decagonal phase decomposition follows a peritectic reaction at 1030 °C. • Nanoparticles are obtained by hydrogen embrittlement mechanism. • The nanoparticles catalyze the water decomposition to form wires.

  8. Final technical report. Can microbial functional traits predict the response and resilience of decomposition to global change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Steven D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The role of specific micro-organisms in the carbon cycle, and their responses to environmental change, are unknown in most ecosystems. This knowledge gap limits scientists’ ability to predict how important ecosystem processes, like soil carbon storage and loss, will change with climate and other environmental factors. The investigators addressed this knowledge gap by transplanting microbial communities from different environments into new environments and measuring the response of community composition and carbon cycling over time. Using state-of-the-art sequencing techniques, computational tools, and nanotechnology, the investigators showed that microbial communities on decomposing plant material shift dramatically with natural and experimentally-imposed drought. Microbial communities also shifted in response to added nitrogen, but the effects were smaller. These changes had implications for carbon cycling, with lower rates of carbon loss under drought conditions, and changes in the efficiency of decomposition with nitrogen addition. Even when transplanted into the same conditions, microbial communities from different environments remained distinct in composition and functioning for up to one year. Changes in functioning were related to differences in enzyme gene content across different microbial groups. Computational approaches developed for this project allowed the conclusions to be tested more broadly in other ecosystems, and new computer models will facilitate the prediction of microbial traits and functioning across environments. The data and models resulting from this project benefit the public by improving the ability to predict how microbial communities and carbon cycling functions respond to climate change, nutrient enrichment, and other large-scale environmental changes.

  9. Solar Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Water Using a Dual Bed Photosystem - Phase I Final Report and Phase II Proposal; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clovis A. Linkous; Darlene K. Slattery

    2000-01-01

    In this work we are attempting to perform the highly efficient storage of solar energy in the form of H(sub 2) via photocatalytic decomposition of water. While it has been demonstrated that H(sub 2) and O(sub 2) can be evolved from a single vessel containing a single suspended photocatalyst (Sayama 1994; 1997), we are attempting to perform net water-splitting by using two photocatalysts immobilized in separate containers, or beds. A schematic showing how the device would work is shown

  10. Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated wetting agents in plating industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, Andreas; Sacher, Frank; McCaskie, John E

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated surfactants (PFAS, perfluorinated alkyl substances) used in the plating industry was analyzed and the decomposition process parameters optimized at the laboratory scale and production scale of a 500-liter reactor using lead electrodes. The method and system was successfully demonstrated under production conditions to treat PFAS) with up to 99% efficiency in the concentration range of 1,000-20,000 μg/l (1 ppm-20 ppm). The treatment also reduced hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) ions to trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) ions in the wastewater. If the PFAS-containing wastewater is mixed with other wastewater streams, specifically from nickel plating drag out solution or when pH values >5, the treatment process is ineffective. For the short chain PFAS, (perfluorobutylsulfonate) the process was less efficient than C6-C8 PFAS. The process is automated and has safety procedures and controls to prevent hazards. The PFAS were decomposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF) under the strong acid electrochemical operating conditions. Analytical tests showed no evidence of organic waste products remaining from the process. Conventional alternative PFAS removal systems were tested on the waste streams and compared with each other and with the-E-destruct (electrochemical oxidation) process. For example, ion exchange resin (IX resin) treatment of wastewater to complex and remove PFAS was found to be seven times more efficient when compared to the conventional activated carbon absorption (C-treat) process. However, the E-destruct process is higher in capacity, exhibits longer service life and lower operating costs than either IX or C-treat methods for elimination of PFAS from these electroplating waste streams.

  11. Use of high energy radiation in decomposition and removal of organic water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, P.

    1990-01-01

    The present review deals with the radiation chemistry of dilute aqueous solutions of organic substances emphasizing the possibility of use of high energy radiation in waste water treatment. Effects of radiation on biodegradability, toxicity to water organisms and changes in molecules of solutes showing resistance to biochemical degradation and toxicity to water organisms are discussed. (author) 31 refs

  12. To prevent the occurrence of black water agglomerate through delaying decomposition of cyanobacterial bloom biomass by sediment microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Li; Jiang, He-Long; Cai, Hai-Yuan

    2015-04-28

    Settlement of cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) into sediments in eutrophic lakes often induced the occurrence of black water agglomerate and then water quality deterioration. This study investigated the effect of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) on CBB removal in sediments and related water pollution. Sediment bulking and subsequent black water from decomposition of settled CBB happened without SMFC, but were not observed over 100-day experiments with SMFC employment. While CBB in sediments improved power production from SMFC, the removal efficiency of organic matters in CBB-amended sediments with SMFC was significantly lower than that without SMFC. Pyrosequencing analysis showed higher abundances of the fermentative Clostridium and acetoclastic methanogen in CBB-amended bulk sediments without SMFC than with SMFC at the end of experiments. Obviously, SMFC operation changed the microbial community in CBB-amended sediments, and delayed the CBB degradation against sediment bulking. Thus, SMFC could be potentially applied as pollution prevention in CBB-settled and sensitive zones in shallow lakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of sea water by difference chromatography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangelsdorf, P.C. Jr.

    1977-02-01

    During the final period of this research contract the principal results obtained were: (a) the development of anion analysis by difference chromatography to the extent that SO/sub 4//sup =//Cl/sup -/ can be determined to better than 0.1 percent using an 0.5 ml seawater sample, (b) the determination of the ion-exchange cation complements of a variety of sediments in river water and in seawater, and (c) the discovery of a simple technique for the qualitative removal of NH/sub 4//sup +/ from seawater samples without altering the ratios of the other cations. This method supersedes the use of Cu-Chelex which has proved impossible to sustain.

  14. Spatial Decomposition of Translational Water–Water Correlation Entropy in Binding Pockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A number of computational tools available today compute the thermodynamic properties of water at surfaces and in binding pockets by using inhomogeneous solvation theory (IST) to analyze explicit-solvent simulations. Such methods enable qualitative spatial mappings of both energy and entropy around a solute of interest and can also be applied quantitatively. However, the entropy estimates of existing methods have, to date, been almost entirely limited to the first-order terms in the IST’s entropy expansion. These first-order terms account for localization and orientation of water molecules in the field of the solute but not for the modification of water–water correlations by the solute. Here, we present an extension of the Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory (GIST) approach which accounts for water–water translational correlations. The method involves rewriting the two-point density of water in terms of a conditional density and utilizes the efficient nearest-neighbor entropy estimation approach. Spatial maps of this second order term, for water in and around the synthetic host cucurbit[7]uril and in the binding pocket of the enzyme Factor Xa, reveal mainly negative contributions, indicating solute-induced water–water correlations relative to bulk water; particularly strong signals are obtained for sites at the entrances of cavities or pockets. This second-order term thus enters with the same, negative, sign as the first order translational and orientational terms. Numerical and convergence properties of the methodology are examined. PMID:26636620

  15. Synergy between TiO2 and CoxOy sites in electrocatalytic water decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szyja, B.M.; van Santen, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    A computational study of the cooperative effect of a small four-atom Co oxide cluster supported on the TiO2 anatase (100) surface in the electrochemical water splitting reaction is presented. The results have been obtained including explicit solvent water molecules by means of Car-Parrinello MD

  16. PWR [pressurized water reactor] pressurizer transient response: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, S.I.

    1987-08-01

    To predict PWR pressurizer transients, Ahl proposed a three region model with a universal coefficient to represent condensation on the water surface. Specifically, this work checks the need for three regions and the modeling of the interfacial condensation coefficient. A computer model has been formulated using the basic mass and energy conservation laws. A two region vapor and liquid model was first used to predict transients run on a one-eleventh scale Freon pressurizer. These predictions verified the need for a second liquid region. As a result, a three region model was developed and used to predict full-scale pressurizer transients at TMI-2, Shippingport, and Stade. Full-scale pressurizer predictions verified the three region model and pointed out the shortcomings of Ahl's universal condensation coefficient. In addition, experiments were run using water at low pressure to study interface condensation. These experiments showed interface condensation to be significant only when spray flow is turned on; this result was incorporated in the final three region model

  17. Energy and exergy analyses of a copper-chlorine thermochemical water decomposition pilot plant for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orhan, M.F.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear-based hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition using a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle consists of a series of chemical reactions in which water is split into hydrogen and oxygen as the net result. This is accomplished through reactions involving intermediate copper and chlorine compounds, which are recycled. Energy and exergy analyses are reported here of a Cu-Cl pilot plant, including the relevant chemical reactions. The reference environment is taken to be at a temperature of 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure (1 atm). The chemical exergy of a substance, which is the maximum work that can be obtained from it by taking it to chemical equilibrium with the reference environment at constant temperature and pressure, is calculated with property data for the substance and the reference environment, with enthalpy and entropy values calculated using Shomate equations. The reaction heat, exergy destruction and efficiencies in each chemical reaction vary with the reaction temperature and reference-environment temperature. A parametric study with variable reaction and reference-environment temperatures is also presented. (author)

  18. Preliminary radiation-oxidizing treatment influence on radiation-catalytic activity of zirconium during water decomposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.; Aliyev, A.G.; Agayev, T.N.; Aliyev, S.M.; Velibekova, G.Z.

    2004-01-01

    The study of physical-chemical processes proceeding in contact of metal constructional materials nuclear reactors with water at simultaneous influence of temperature and radiation represents the large interest at the decision of problems material authority and safety of work of nuclear -power installations [1-2]. One of the widely widespread materials of active zone nuclear reactors is metal zirconium and its alloys. The influence of preliminary radiation processing on radiation, radiation -thermal and thermal processes of accumulation of molecular hydrogen and oxidation zirconium in contact with water is investigated at T=673 K and ρ=5mg/sm 3 [3-4]. Initial samples zirconium previously has been exposed by an irradiation in medium H 2 O 2 at D=20-410 kGy. The contribution of radiation processes in these contacts in process thermo-radiation decomposition of water and oxidation of materials of zirconium is revealed. It is established that the interaction of Zr metal, preliminary treated by radiation, with water at radiation -heterogeneous processes leads to passivity of a surface. The rate meanings of thermal, radiation -thermal processes and radiation-chemical yields of hydrogen are determined. It is revealed, that at radiation-heterogeneous processes in system Zr +H 2 O (ρ =5mg/sm 3 T=673 K) the increase of the absorbed doze up to 123 kGy results to reduction of a radiation -chemical yield of molecular hydrogen. The further increase of the absorbed doze results to increase of a radiation -chemical yield of hydrogen. The observable effect at the preliminary radiation of zirconium is connected to formation of oxide phase on a surface. The mechanism of radiation -heterogeneous processes proceeding in system Zr+H 2 O is suggested. (author)

  19. OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

    2011-09-12

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline

  20. Thermal decomposition process of silver behenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xianhao; Lu Shuxia; Zhang Jingchang; Cao Weiliang

    2006-01-01

    The thermal decomposition processes of silver behenate have been studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), combined thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The TG-DTA and the higher temperature IR and XRD measurements indicated that complicated structural changes took place while heating silver behenate, but there were two distinct thermal transitions. During the first transition at 138 deg. C, the alkyl chains of silver behenate were transformed from an ordered into a disordered state. During the second transition at about 231 deg. C, a structural change took place for silver behenate, which was the decomposition of silver behenate. The major products of the thermal decomposition of silver behenate were metallic silver and behenic acid. Upon heating up to 500 deg. C, the final product of the thermal decomposition was metallic silver. The combined TG-MS analysis showed that the gas products of the thermal decomposition of silver behenate were carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, acetylene and some small molecule alkenes. TEM and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to investigate the process of the formation and growth of metallic silver nanoparticles

  1. Estimation of Paddy Rice Variables with a Modified Water Cloud Model and Improved Polarimetric Decomposition Using Multi-Temporal RADARSAT-2 Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice growth monitoring is very important as rice is one of the staple crops of the world. Rice variables as quantitative indicators of rice growth are critical for farming management and yield estimation, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR has great advantages for monitoring rice variables due to its all-weather observation capability. In this study, eight temporal RADARSAT-2 full-polarimetric SAR images were acquired during rice growth cycle and a modified water cloud model (MWCM was proposed, in which the heterogeneity of the rice canopy in the horizontal direction and its phenological changes were considered when the double-bounce scattering between the rice canopy and the underlying surface was firstly considered as well. Then, three scattering components from an improved polarimetric decomposition were coupled with the MWCM, instead of the backscattering coefficients. Using a genetic algorithm, eight rice variables were estimated, such as the leaf area index (LAI, rice height (h, and the fresh and dry biomass of ears (Fe and De. The accuracy validation showed the MWCM was suitable for the estimation of rice variables during the whole growth season. The validation results showed that the MWCM could predict the temporal behaviors of the rice variables well during the growth cycle (R2 > 0.8. Compared with the original water cloud model (WCM, the relative errors of rice variables with the MWCM were much smaller, especially in the vegetation phase (approximately 15% smaller. Finally, it was discussed that the MWCM could be used, theoretically, for extensive applications since the empirical coefficients in the MWCM were determined in general cases, but more applications of the MWCM are necessary in future work.

  2. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards

  3. Columbia Basin residents' view on water : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronalds, L.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is no strategic plan for water management in the Columbia Basin to ensure that long-term water quality and quantity issues are addressed according to residents' values and views. The Columbia Basin Trust was therefore created to address water management issues. It devised a comprehensive water information questionnaire and sent it to a broad range of respondents that fell within the Canadian portion of the Columbia Basin. These included municipal, regional, provincial and federal government agencies; community and watershed groups; industry and agriculture groups; recreation and tourism groups; and, First Nations groups. The most prevalent concern among the respondents pertained to issues surrounding domestic water consumption, and the most widespread water issue in the Columbia Basin was that of water conservation. The state of aquatic ecosystems was also of significant importance to respondents. Respondents also expressed concern for the cost of providing potable water and for the sustainability of rivers and their tributaries within the Basin. The survey also found a concern for the fluctuating reservoir levels within the Basin and the protection of drinking water from contamination. In order to address the wide range of water related issues, respondents indicated that an education program should be implemented to address the general nature of the hydrologic cycle; how much water is being used for toilets, lawn watering, and showers; the cost of potable water; the importance of water on a local and global level; the importance and nature of watersheds; the ways people influence and pollute water; the challenges of cleaning up contaminated water sources; the community's water sources; the role of water in sustaining food growth; and, challenges and consequences of other communities that experience severe water quality and quantity issues. It was suggested that the education program should address a water conservation plan, including conservation

  4. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  5. 76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to Wisconsin? C. Why is the EPA not withdrawing Wisconsin's chronic endrin aquatic life use criterion for waters designated as Warm Water Sportfish and Warm Water...

  6. Thermal decomposition of lutetium propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of lutetium(III) propionate monohydrate (Lu(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dehydration takes place around 90 °C. It is followed by the decomposition of the anhydrous...... °C. Full conversion to Lu2O3 is achieved at about 1000 °C. Whereas the temperatures and solid reaction products of the first two decomposition steps are similar to those previously reported for the thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) propionate monohydrate, the final decomposition...... of the oxycarbonate to the rare-earth oxide proceeds in a different way, which is here reminiscent of the thermal decomposition path of Lu(C3H5O2)·2CO(NH2)2·2H2O...

  7. Workshops capacity building for agricultural water demand management; final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehmeijer, P.W.; Wolters, W.

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural Water Demand Management (AWDM) is at the core of the Water for Food Programme launched as a result of a pledge by the Netherlands' Minister for Agriculture at the 2nd World Water Forum in March 2000, The Hague. One of the projects that was started after the March 2000 pledge was

  8. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  9. Uses of warmed water in agriculture. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.E.

    1978-11-01

    Energy in the form of warmed water is available from condenser cooling water from fossil fuel or nuclear-electric power-generating facilities, geothermal power plants, geothermal fluids, or spent steam and cooling water from industrial processes. A re-analysis of the characteristics of possible agricultural uses of warmed water has revealed the need to decouple considerations of warmed water sources from those of warmed water users. Conflicting objectives and managerial requirements seem to preclude an integrated system approach. Rather an interface must be established with separate costs and benefits identified for a reliable warmed water source and for its various potential uses. These costs and benefits can be utilized as a basis for decisions separately by the energy supplier and the prospective energy users. A method of classifying uses of warmed water according to need, volume, objective, temperature, and quality is presented and preliminary classifications are discussed for several potential agricultural uses of warmed water. Specific uses for soil warming, space heating in greenhouses, and irrigation are noted. Specific uses in aquaculture for catfish, lobster, and prawn production are discussed. Warmed water use in animal shelters is mentioned. Low-quality heat is required for methane generation from biomass and warmed water heating could be utilized in this industry. 53 references

  10. Ultrafiltration concept for separating oil from water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, R.L.; Schrab H.

    1973-01-01

    Discharge of oily wastes from shipboard operations of deballasting, bilge pumping, and slop tank cleaning constitutes a serious water pollution problem. Membrane ultrafiltration was studied in this project as a means of generating a highly purified water from a variety of oily wastes.

  11. SWEEP - Save Water and Energy Education Program; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Gregory P; Elliott, Douglas B; Hillman, Tim C; Hadley, Adam; Ledbetter, Marc R; Payson, David R

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop, monitor, analyze, and report on an integrated resource-conservation program highlighting efficient residential appliances and fixtures. The sites of study were 50 homes in two water-constrained communities located in Oregon. The program was designed to maximize water savings to these communities and to serve as a model for other communities seeking an integrated approach to energy and water resource efficiency. The program included the installation and in-place evaluation of energy- and water-efficient devices including the following: horizontal axis clothes washers (and the matching clothes dryers), resource-efficient dishwashers, an innovative dual flush low-flow toilet, low-flow showerheads, and faucet aerators. The significance of this activity lies in its integrated approach and unique metering evaluation of individual end-use, aggregated residential total use, and system-wide energy and water benefits

  12. RETRAN sensitivity studies of light water reactor transients. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, N.S.; Gose, G.C.; Harrison, J.F.; Sawtelle, G.R.

    1977-06-01

    This report presents the results of sensitivity studies performed using the RETRAN/RELAP4 transient analysis code to identify critical parameters and models which influence light water reactor transient predictions. Various plant transients for both boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are examined. These studies represent the first detailed evaluation of the RETRAN/RELAP4 transient code capability in predicting a variety of plant transient responses. The wide range of transients analyzed in conjunction with the parameter and modeling studies performed identify several sensitive areas as well as areas requiring future study and model development

  13. Water quality mitigation banking : final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Current practice in New Jersey for mitigating stormwater impacts caused by transportation infrastructure : projects is established by NJDEP Stormwater Regulations (N.J.A.C. 7:8). These rules outline specific : processes to offset impacts to water qua...

  14. Characterization, non-isothermal decomposition kinetics and photocatalytic water splitting of green chemically synthesized polyoxoanions of molybdenum containing phosphorus as hetero atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Cruz, Bessy; Samuel, Jadu; George, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CPM nanorods were synthesized by applying the principles of green chemistry. • The isoconversional method was used to analyze the effective activation energy. • The appropriate reaction models of the two decomposition stages were determined. • Photocatalytic water splitting was investigated in the presence of platinum co-catalyst. - Abstract: In here, the green synthesis and thermal characterization of a novel polyoxoanions of molybdenum containing phosphorus as hetero atom are reported. The composition and morphology of the nanorods were established by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) techniques. Thermal properties of the nanoparticles were investigated by non-isothermal analysis under nitrogen atmosphere. The values activation energy of each stage of thermal decomposition for all heating rates was calculated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunnose (KAS) methods. Invariant kinetic parameter (IKP) method and master plot method were also used to evaluate the kinetic parameters and mechanism for the thermal decomposition of cetylpyridinium phosphomolybdate (CPM). Photocatalytic water oxidation mechanism using CPM catalyst in the presence of platinum (Pt) co-catalyst enhances the H 2 evolution and was found to be 1.514 mmol/g/h

  15. Characterization, non-isothermal decomposition kinetics and photocatalytic water splitting of green chemically synthesized polyoxoanions of molybdenum containing phosphorus as hetero atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Cruz, Bessy [Department of Chemistry, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015 (India); Samuel, Jadu, E-mail: jadu_samuel@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015 (India); George, Leena [Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)

    2014-11-20

    Highlights: • CPM nanorods were synthesized by applying the principles of green chemistry. • The isoconversional method was used to analyze the effective activation energy. • The appropriate reaction models of the two decomposition stages were determined. • Photocatalytic water splitting was investigated in the presence of platinum co-catalyst. - Abstract: In here, the green synthesis and thermal characterization of a novel polyoxoanions of molybdenum containing phosphorus as hetero atom are reported. The composition and morphology of the nanorods were established by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) techniques. Thermal properties of the nanoparticles were investigated by non-isothermal analysis under nitrogen atmosphere. The values activation energy of each stage of thermal decomposition for all heating rates was calculated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunnose (KAS) methods. Invariant kinetic parameter (IKP) method and master plot method were also used to evaluate the kinetic parameters and mechanism for the thermal decomposition of cetylpyridinium phosphomolybdate (CPM). Photocatalytic water oxidation mechanism using CPM catalyst in the presence of platinum (Pt) co-catalyst enhances the H{sub 2} evolution and was found to be 1.514 mmol/g/h.

  16. Water and land availability for energy farming. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooley, F.A.; Mara, S.J.; Mendel, D.A.; Meagher, P.C.; So, E.C.

    1979-10-01

    The physical and economic availability of land and water resources for energy farming were determined. Ten water subbasins possessing favorable land and water availabilities were ranked according to their overall potential for biomass production. The study results clearly identify the Southeast as a favorable area for biomass farming. The Northwest and North-Central United States should also be considered on the basis of their highly favorable environmental characteristics. Both high and low estimates of water availability for 1985 and 2000 in each of 99 subbasins were prepared. Subbasins in which surface water consumption was more than 50% of surface water supply were eliminated from the land availability analysis, leaving 71 subbasins to be examined. The amount of acreage potentially available for biomass production in these subbasins was determined through a comparison of estimated average annual net returns developed for conventional agriculture and forestry with net returns for several biomass production options. In addition to a computerized method of ranking subbasins according to their overall potential for biomass production, a methodology for evaluating future energy farm locations was developed. This methodology included a general area selection procedure as well as specific site analysis recommendations. Thirty-five general factors and a five-step site-specific analysis procedure are described.

  17. Asbestos in cooling-tower waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.A.G.

    1979-03-01

    Water discharges from cooling towers constructed with asbestos fill were found to contain chrysotile--asbestos fibers at concentrations as high as 10 8 fibers/liter. The major source of these fibers, appears to be the components of the towers rather than the air drawn through the towers or the makeup water taken into the towers. Suggested mechanisms for the release of chrysotile fibers from cooling-tower fill include freeze-thaw cycles and dissolution of the cement due to acidic components of the circulating water. Ash- or other material-settling ponds were found to reduce asbestos-fiber concentrations in cooling-tower effluent. The literature reviewed did not support the case for a causal relationship between adverse human health effects and drinking water containing on the order of 10 6 chrysotile--asbestos fibers/liter; for this and other reasons, it is not presently suggested that the use of asbestos fill be discontinued. However, caution and surveillance are dictated by the uncertainties in the epidemiological studies, the absence of evidence for a safe threshold concentration in water, and the conclusive evidence for adverse effects from occupational exposure. It is recommended that monitoring programs be carried out at sites where asbestos fill is used; data from such programs can be used to determine whether any mitigative measures should be taken. On the basis of estimates made in this study, monitoring for asbestos in drift from cooling towers does not appear to be warranted

  18. Supercritical water oxidation data acquisition testing. Final report, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This report discusses the phase one testing of a data acquisition system for a supercritical water waste oxidation system. The system is designed to destroy a wide range of organic materials in mixed wastes. The design and testing of the MODAR Oxidizer is discussed. An analysis of the optimized runs is included

  19. Uranium reactions with water vapor. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.B.; Cristy, S.S.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction kinetics and ion microprobe mass analyzer (IMMA) depth-profile data for water-oxygen-uranium reaction is explained in terms of the perfusive-precipitation model. This model is reviewed extensively enough to deal with this interacting, 3-element reaction system. The model, based on simultaneous diffusion and product precipitation, can be applied to several systems in a parameterless fashion. It is applied to the uranium-water reaction in the absence and presence of the oxygen inhibitor. The results of the calculations of the model are compared to the experimental rates and the IMMA depth profiles obtained when 18 O-labeled water is used. The predictions are excellent for the pressure dependence of the rates, the activation energies for both the oxygen-poisoned and oxygen-free reactions, the absolute rates for the oxygen-poisoned case, and the IMMA depth profiles. The prediction of the absolute rate for the oxygen-free case is only within a factor of five due to the approximations made for the thermodynamics of the product layer that fixes the oxygen activity. Comparison of the model to experimental data for other metal-oxidation systems such as iron, silicon, copper, zirconium with oxygen, and thorium with water, is also presented to lend credibility to the modeling technique

  20. U-Shaped Fiber-Optic Detection Elements for Investigation of Photocatalytic Decomposition of Toluene Dissolved in Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějec, Vlastimil; Bartoň, Ivo; Mrázek, Jan; Podrazký, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, May (2014), s. 244-252 ISSN 2306-8515 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2361 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Toluene detection * Photocatalytic decomposition * U-Shaped fiber Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  1. Sources of radioiodine at pressurized water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, C.A.; Cline, J.E.; Barefoot, E.D.; Hemphill, R.T.; Voilleque, P.G.; Emel, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    The report determines specific components and operations at operating pressurized water reactors that have a potential for being significant emission sources of radioactive iodine. The relative magnitudes of these specific sources in terms of the chemical forms of the radioiodine and the resultant annual averages from major components are established. The data are generalized for broad industry use for predictive purposes. The conclusions of this study indicate that the majority of radioiodine emanating from the primary side of pressurized water reactors comes from a few major areas; in some cases these sources are locally treatable; the interaction of radioiodine with plant interior surfaces is an important phenomenon mediating the source and affecting its release to the atmosphere; the chemical form varies depending on the circumstances of the release

  2. Supercritical water oxidation data acquisition testing. Final report, Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) technology holds great promise for treating mixed wastes, in an environmentally safe and efficient manner. In the spring of 1994 the US Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Operations Office awarded Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation, of Boston Massachusetts and its sub-contractor MODAR, Inc. of Natick Massachusetts a Supercritical Water Oxidation Data Acquisition Testing (SCWODAT) program. The SCWODAT program was contracted through a Cooperative Agreement that was co-funded by the US Department of Energy and the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The SCWODAT testing scope outlined by the DOE in the original Cooperative Agreement and amendments thereto was initiated in June 1994 and successfully completed in December 1995. The SCWODAT program provided further information and operational data on the effectiveness of treating both simulated mixed waste and typical Navy hazardous waste using the MODAR SCWO technology

  3. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  4. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitored in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program. Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media

  5. Final report on the oxidation of energetic materials in supercritical water. Final Air Force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, S.J.; Allen, D.; Anderson, G.K. [and others

    1995-04-03

    The objective of this project was to determine the suitability of oxidation in supercritical fluids (SCO), particularly water (SCWO), for disposal of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics (PEPs). The SCO studies of PEPs addressed the following issues: The efficiency of destruction of the substrate. The products of destruction contained in the effluents. Whether the process can be conducted safely on a large scale. Whether energy recovery from the process is economically practicable. The information essential for process development and equipment design was also investigated, including issues such as practical throughput of explosives through a SCWO reactor, reactor materials and corrosion, and models for process design and optimization.

  6. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ocimar Manzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and groundwater chemistry and soil CO2 respiration were studied in forests on sandy soils, whereas drought sensitivity of poorly-drained valley soils was investigated in an artificial drainage experiment. Slightly changes in litter decomposition or water chemistry were observed as a consequence of artificial drainage. Riparian plots did experience higher litter decomposition rates than campina forest. In response to a permanent lowering of the groundwater level from 0.1 m to 0.3 m depth in the drainage plot, topsoil carbon and nitrogen contents decreased substantially. Soil CO2 respiration decreased from 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1 before drainage to 2.5±0.2 and 0.8±0.1 µmol m-2 s-1 eight and 11 months after drainage, respectively. Soil respiration in the control plot remained constant at 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1. The above suggests that more frequent droughts may affect topsoil carbon and nitrogen content and soil respiration rates in the riparian ecosystem, and may induce a transition to less diverse campinarana or short-statured campina forest that covers areas with strongly-leached sandy soil.

  7. Stainless steel clad for light water reactor fuels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, J.E.; Meyer, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    Proper reactor operation and design guidelines are necessary to assure fuel integrity. The occurrence of fuel rod failures for operation in compliance with existing guidelines suggests the need for more adequate or applicable operation/design criteria. The intent of this study is to develop such criteria for light water reactor fuel rods with stainless steel clad and to indicate the nature of uncertainties in its development. The performance areas investigated herein are: long term creepdown and fuel swelling effects on clad dimensional changes and on proximity to clad failure; and short term clad failure possibilities during up-power ramps

  8. Rates of Litter Decomposition and Soil Respiration in Relation to Soil Temperature and Water in Different-Aged Pinus massoniana Forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixiong; Huang, Zhilin; Lei, Jingpin; Zhou, Benzhi; Li, Maihe

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the soil carbon dynamics and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems in response to environmental changes, we studied soil respiration, litter decomposition, and their relations to soil temperature and soil water content for 18-months (Aug. 2010–Jan. 2012) in three different-aged Pinus massoniana forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Across the experimental period, the mean total soil respiration and litter respiration were 1.94 and 0.81, 2.00 and 0.60, 2.19 and 0.71 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and the litter dry mass remaining was 57.6%, 56.2% and 61.3% in the 20-, 30-, and 46-year-old forests, respectively. We found that the temporal variations of soil respiration and litter decomposition rates can be well explained by soil temperature at 5 cm depth. Both the total soil respiration and litter respiration were significantly positively correlated with the litter decomposition rates. The mean contribution of the litter respiration to the total soil respiration was 31.0%–45.9% for the three different-aged forests. The present study found that the total soil respiration was not significantly affected by forest age when P. masonniana stands exceed a certain age (e.g. >20 years old), but it increased significantly with increased soil temperature. Hence, forest management strategies need to protect the understory vegetation to limit soil warming, in order to reduce the CO2 emission under the currently rapid global warming. The contribution of litter decomposition to the total soil respiration varies across spatial and temporal scales. This indicates the need for separate consideration of soil and litter respiration when assessing the climate impacts on forest carbon cycling. PMID:25004164

  9. Modeling the Pan-Arctic terrestrial and atmospheric water cycle. Final report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutowski, W.J. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER61473 to Iowa State University (ISU). Work on this grant was performed at Iowa State University and at the University of New Hampshire in collaboration with Dr. Charles Vorosmarty and fellow scientists at the University of New Hampshire's (UNH's) Institute for the Study of the Earth, Oceans, and Space, a subcontractor to the project. Research performed for the project included development, calibration and validation of a regional climate model for the pan-Arctic, modeling river networks, extensive hydrologic database development, and analyses of the water cycle, based in part on the assembled databases and models. Details appear in publications produced from the grant

  10. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  11. Decomposition of water and production of H{sub 2} using semiconductor-photocatalytic effect induced by gamma ray from high radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Y; Kawaguchi, K; Myouchin, M [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1996-12-31

    The technology of the radiolytic decomposition of water leading to hydrogen production was demonstrated to explore a new field in the utilization of radiation and radioactive elements. The technology used consisted of a photoassisted catalytic method which has been generally investigated for photocatalysis using a semiconductor and light in an electrochemical study. In our study, gamma radiation from Co-60 was used instead of light, and a significant amount of evolved hydrogen was detected. Our preliminary experiments proved the possibility of converting the energy ionizing radiation (gamma radiation) into chemical energy (hydrogen) using a semiconductor-photocatalytic effect. (author).

  12. Advanced steam cycles for light water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.C.

    1975-07-01

    An appraisal of the potential of adding superheat to improve the overall LWR plant cycle performance is presented. The study assesses the economic and technical problems associated with the addition of approximately 500 0 F of superheat to raise the steam temperature to 1000 0 F. The practicality of adding either nuclear or fossil superheat to LWR's is reviewed. The General Electric Company Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) model 238-732 (BWR/6) is chosen as the LWR starting point for this evaluation. The steam conditions of BWR/6 are representative of LWR's. The results of the fossil superheat portion of the evaluation are considered directly applicable to all LWR's. In spite of the potential of a nuclear superheater to provide a substantial boost to the LWR cycle efficiency, nuclear superheat offers little promise of development at this time. There are difficult technical problems to resolve in the areas of superheat fuel design and emergency core cooling. The absence of a developed high integrity, high temperature fuel for operation in the steam/water environment is fundamental to this conclusion. Fossil superheat offers the potential opportunity to utilize fossil fuel supplies more efficiently than in any other mode of central station power generation presently available. Fossil superheat topping cycles evaluated included atmospheric fluidized beds (AFB), pressurized fluidized beds, pressurized furnaces, conventional furnaces, and combined gas/steam turbine cycles. The use of an AFB is proposed as the preferred superheat furnace. Fossil superheat provides a cycle efficiency improvement for the LWR of two percentage points, reduces heat rejection by 15 percent per kWe generated, increases plant electrical output by 54 percent, and burns coal with an incremental net efficiency of approximately 40 percent. This compares with a net efficiency of 36--37 percent which might be achieved with an all-fluidized bed fossil superheat plant design

  13. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

    1983-09-01

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ΔP rather than sigma ΔP 2 (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ΔP is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model

  14. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

    1983-09-01

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

  15. Effects of micro-water on decomposition of the environment-friendly insulating medium C5F10O

    OpenAIRE

    Song Xiao; Yi Li; Xiaoxing Zhang; Shuangshuang Tian; Zaitao Deng; Ju Tang

    2017-01-01

    SF6 is widely used in all kinds of high-voltage electrical equipment because of its excellent insulation and arc-extinguishing performance. However, this compound leads to serious greenhouse effect, which harms the environment. Many research institutions are now actively in search of SF6 alternative gas. C5F10O has attracted much attention as an alternative gas with low global warming potential (GWP) and excellent dielectric strength. In this paper, we analyzed the possible decomposition path...

  16. Nano-sized Mn3O4 and β-MnOOH from the decomposition of β-cyclodextrin-Mn: 2. The water-oxidizing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafalu, Ramin; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Ebrahimi, Foad; Kaboudin, Babak

    2015-11-01

    Nano-sized Mn oxides contain Mn3O4, β-MnOOH and Mn2O3 have been prepared by a previously reported method using thermal decomposition of β-cyclodextrin-Mn complexes. In the next step, the water-oxidizing activities of these Mn oxides using cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a chemical oxidant are studied. The turnover frequencies for β-MnO(OH) and Mn3O4 are 0.24 and 0.01-0.17 (mmol O2/mol Mns), respectively. Subsequently, water-oxidizing activities of these compounds are compared to the other previously reported Mn oxides. Important factors affecting water oxidation by these Mn oxides are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fact Sheet: Notice of Ambient Water Quality Criteria Document for Tributyltin (TBT) - Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information pertaining to 2004 Final Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Tributyltin (TBT) for freshwater and saltwater. This fact sheet includes the safe levels of TBT that should protect the majority of species.

  18. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  19. Revisions to the Clean Water Act Regulatory Definition of Discharge of Dredged Material; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated a final rule Amending a Clean Water Act (CWA) section 404 regulation that defines the term discharge of dredged material.

  20. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  1. Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modro, S.M.; Fisher, J.E.; Weaver, K.D.; Reyes, J.N.; Groome, J.T.; Babka, P.; Carlson, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle. Development of the baseline design concept has been sufficiently completed to determine that it complies with the safety requirements and criteria, and satisfies the major goals already noted. The more significant features of the baseline single-unit design concept include: (1) Thermal Power--150 MWt; (2) Net Electrical Output--35 MWe; (3) Steam Generator Type--Vertical, helical tubes; (4) Fuel UO 2 , 8% enriched; (5) Refueling Intervals--5 years; (6) Life-Cycle--60 years. The economic performance was assessed by designing a power plant with an electric generation capacity in the range of current and advanced evolutionary systems. This approach allows for direct comparison of economic performance and forms a basis for further evaluation, economic and technical, of the proposed design and for the design evolution towards a more cost competitive concept. Applications such as cogeneration

  2. Production of Hydrogen by Superadiabatic Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide - Final Technical Report for the Period June 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachid B. Slimane; Francis S. Lau; Javad Abbasian

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an economical process for hydrogen production, with no additional carbon dioxide emission, through the thermal decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in H{sub 2}S-rich waste streams to high-purity hydrogen and elemental sulfur. The novel feature of the process being developed is the superadiabatic combustion (SAC) of part of the H{sub 2}S in the waste stream to provide the thermal energy required for the decomposition reaction such that no additional energy is required. The program is divided into two phases. In Phase 1, detailed thermochemical and kinetic modeling of the SAC reactor with H{sub 2}S-rich fuel gas and air/enriched air feeds is undertaken to evaluate the effects of operating conditions on exit gas products and conversion efficiency, and to identify key process parameters. Preliminary modeling results are used as a basis to conduct a thorough evaluation of SAC process design options, including reactor configuration, operating conditions, and productivity-product separation schemes, with respect to potential product yields, thermal efficiency, capital and operating costs, and reliability, ultimately leading to the preparation of a design package and cost estimate for a bench-scale reactor testing system to be assembled and tested in Phase 2 of the program. A detailed parametric testing plan was also developed for process design optimization and model verification in Phase 2. During Phase 2 of this program, IGT, UIC, and industry advisors UOP and BP Amoco will validate the SAC concept through construction of the bench-scale unit and parametric testing. The computer model developed in Phase 1 will be updated with the experimental data and used in future scale-up efforts. The process design will be refined and the cost estimate updated. Market survey and assessment will continue so that a commercial demonstration project can be identified.

  3. Management of water balance in mining areas – WaterSmart: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Krogerus, Kirsti; Pasanen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks, they still face environmental management challenges. Several recent environmental incidents in Finnish mines have raised questions regarding mine site environmental and water management practices. This has increased public awareness of mining threats to the environment and resulted in stricter permits and longer permitting procedures. Water balance modelling aids in predictive water management and reduces risks caused ...

  4. Degradation and intermediates of diclofenac as instructive example for decomposition of recalcitrant pharmaceuticals by hydroxyl radicals generated with pulsed corona plasma in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschik, Robert; Jablonowski, Helena; Bednarski, Patrick J; Kolb, Juergen F

    2018-01-15

    Seven recalcitrant pharmaceutical residues (diclofenac, 17α-ethinylestradiol, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, trimethoprim, diazepam, diatrizoate) were decomposed by pulsed corona plasma generated directly in water. The detailed degradation pathway was investigated for diclofenac and 21 intermediates could be identified in the degradation cascade. Hydroxyl radicals have been found primarily responsible for decomposition steps. By spin trap enhanced electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), OH-adducts and superoxide anion radical adducts were detected and could be distinguished applying BMPO as a spin trap. The increase of concentrations of adducts follows qualitatively the increase of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Hydrogen peroxide is eventually consumed in Fenton-like processes but the concentration is continuously increasing to about 2mM for a plasma treatment of 70min. Degradation of diclofenac is inversely following hydrogen peroxide concentrations. No qualitative differences between byproducts formed during plasma treatment or due to degradation via Fenton-induced processes were observed. Findings on degradation kinetics of diclofenac provide an instructive understanding of decomposition rates for recalcitrant pharmaceuticals with respect to their chemical structure. Accordingly, conclusions can be drawn for further development and a first risk assessment of the method which can also be applied towards other AOPs that rely on the generation of hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon dynamics in peatlands under changing hydrology. Effects of water level drawdown on litter quality, microbial enzyme activities and litter decomposition rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakova, P.

    2010-07-01

    Pristine peatlands are carbon (C) accumulating wetland ecosystems sustained by a high water level (WL) and consequent anoxia that slows down decomposition. Persistent WL drawdown as a response to climate and/or land-use change directly affects decomposition: increased oxygenation stimulates decomposition of the 'old C' (peat) sequestered under prior anoxic conditions. Responses of the 'new C' (plant litter) in terms of quality, production and decomposability, and the consequences for the whole C cycle of peatlands are not fully understood. WL drawdown induces changes in plant community resulting in shift in dominance from Sphagnum and graminoids to shrubs and trees. There is increasing evidence that the indirect effects of WL drawdown via the changes in plant communities will have more impact on the ecosystem C cycling than any direct effects. The aim of this study is to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of WL drawdown on the 'new C' by measuring the relative importance of (1) environmental parameters (WL depth, temperature, soil chemistry) and (2) plant community composition on litter production, microbial activity, litter decomposition rates and, consequently, on the C accumulation. This information is crucial for modelling C cycle under changing climate and/or land-use. The effects of WL drawdown were tested in a large-scale experiment with manipulated WL at two time scales and three nutrient regimes. Furthermore, the effect of climate on litter decomposability was tested along a north-south gradient. Additionally, a novel method for estimating litter chemical quality and decomposability was explored by combining Near infrared spectroscopy with multivariate modelling. WL drawdown had direct effects on litter quality, microbial community composition and activity and litter decomposition rates. However, the direct effects of WL drawdown were overruled by the indirect effects via changes in litter type composition and

  6. Use of isotopic tools to delimit areas of harnessing for drinking water supply - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourcy, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2011-03-01

    Within the frame of an action of the ONEMA-BRGM convention (Methodological approaches and tools for the protection of drinking water harnessing against diffuse pollutions), this study aims at developing a synthesis of isotopic geochemical tools to obtain the information required for the delimitation of harnessing supply areas. The report first describes the conventional tools: water molecule steady isotopes, radioactive isotopes, water dating tools, tools developed for another use, and artificial tracers. It presents the possible uses of natural and artificial tracers to determine parameters like flow directions, water residence duration, exchanges between aquifers and water sheet-river interactions. It gives an overview of knowledge on the use of isotopic methods to determine the origin of contaminants. It proposes a brief overview of a previous study of water sheets-rivers relationships. It finally discusses the use of geochemical and isotopic tools when delimiting supply areas for harnessing aimed at drinking water supply

  7. Preparation of Ti/IrO2 Anode with Low Iridium Content by Thermal Decomposition Process: Electrochemical removal of organic pollutants in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqub, Asim; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ajab, Huma; Kutty, S. R. M.; Ezechi, Ezerie H.; Farooq, Robina

    2018-04-01

    In this study IrO2 (Iridium oxide) was coated onto a titanium plate anode from a dilute (50 mg/10 ml) IrCl3×H2O salt solution. Coating was done at high temperature (550∘C) using thermal decomposition. Surface morphology and characteristics of coated surface of Ti/IrO2 anode were examined by FESEM and XRD. The coated anode was applied for electrochemical removal of organic pollutants from synthetic water samples in 100 mL compartment of batch electrochemical cell. About 50% COD removal was obtained at anode prepared with low Ir content solution while 72% COD removal was obtained with anode prepared at high Ir content. Maximum COD removal was obtained at 10 mA/cm2 current density.

  8. Measurement of the initial phase of ozone decomposition in water and wastewater by means of a continuous quench-flow system: application to disinfection and pharmaceutical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffle, Marc-Olivier; Schumacher, Jochen; Salhi, Elisabeth; Jekel, Martin; von Gunten, Urs

    2006-05-01

    Due to a lack of adequate experimental techniques, the kinetics of the first 20s of ozone decomposition in natural water and wastewater is still poorly understood. Introducing a continuous quench-flow system (CQFS), measurements starting 350 ms after ozone addition are presented for the first time. Very high HO. to O3 exposures ratios (Rct=integralHO.dt/integralO3dt) reveal that the first 20s of ozonation present oxidation conditions that are similar to ozone-based advanced oxidation processes (AOP). The oxidation of carbamazepine could be accurately modeled using O3 and HO. exposures measured with CQFS during wastewater ozonation. These results demonstrate the applicability of bench scale determined second-order rate constants for wastewater ozonation. Important degrees of pharmaceutical oxidation and microbial inactivation are predicted, indicating that a significant oxidation potential is available during wastewater ozonation, even when ozone is entirely decomposed in the first 20s.

  9. Water level determination for transportation projects : mean high water manual, final report, November 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    To ensure proficient network management and safe usage of navigable waterways especially in waters that are : subject to tides, it is essential that the height of the water at various tidal phases be known. This knowledge is also : essential for prop...

  10. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure

  11. Environmental Effects on Zirconium Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Chemical Warfare Agent Decomposition: Implications of Atmospheric Water and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balow, Robert B; Lundin, Jeffrey G; Daniels, Grant C; Gordon, Wesley O; McEntee, Monica; Peterson, Gregory W; Wynne, James H; Pehrsson, Pehr E

    2017-11-15

    Zirconium hydroxide (Zr(OH) 4 ) has excellent sorption properties and wide-ranging reactivity toward numerous types of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals. Under pristine laboratory conditions, the effectiveness of Zr(OH) 4 has been attributed to a combination of diverse surface hydroxyl species and defects; however, atmospheric components (e.g., CO 2 , H 2 O, etc.) and trace contaminants can form adsorbates with potentially detrimental impact to the chemical reactivity of Zr(OH) 4 . Here, we report the hydrolysis of a CWA simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) on Zr(OH) 4 determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy under ambient conditions. DMMP dosing on Zr(OH) 4 formed methyl methylphosphonate and methoxy degradation products on free bridging and terminal hydroxyl sites of Zr(OH) 4 under all evaluated environmental conditions. CO 2 dosing on Zr(OH) 4 formed adsorbed (bi)carbonates and interfacial carbonate complexes with relative stability dependent on CO 2 and H 2 O partial pressures. High concentrations of CO 2 reduced DMMP decomposition kinetics by occupying Zr(OH) 4 active sites with carbonaceous adsorbates. Elevated humidity promoted hydrolysis of adsorbed DMMP on Zr(OH) 4 to produce methanol and regenerated free hydroxyl species. Hydrolysis of DMMP by Zr(OH) 4 occurred under all conditions evaluated, demonstrating promise for chemical decontamination under diverse, real-world conditions.

  12. Influence of Solar Radiation and Biotic Interactions on Bacterial and Eukaryotic Communities Associated with Sewage Decomposition in Ambient Water - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, the persistence of sewage-derived pathogens in environmental waters can represent a significant public health concern. Solar radiation and biotic...

  13. Influence of solar radiation and biotic interactions on bacterial and eukaryotic communities associated with sewage decomposition in ambient water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, the persistence of sewage-derived pathogens in environmental waters can represent a significant public health concern. Solar radiation and biot...

  14. Organic Contaminants and Treatment Chemicals in Steam-Water Cycles : Thermal stability, decomposition products and flow-accelerated corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moed, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    Boiler feedwater and steam have to be of high purity, because of the susceptibility of the steam-water cycle to corrosion. Organic contaminants break down in boilers by hydrothermolysis, leading to the formation of organic acid anions, which are suspected to cause corrosion of steam-water cycle

  15. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as par...

  16. Water supply authorities in Europe preventing agricultural water pollution : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, Geerten

    1997-01-01

    This document is a summary final report of research implemented under the 3rd RTD Framework Programme (1991-1994) in the field of the environment. It is one of about 160 research projects on the socio-economic aspects of environmental change which have been carried out since 1992 under both the 3rd

  17. Radiation treatment of organic substances which are difficult to decompose for utilizing sewage water again. Radiation decomposition of lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Taruko; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1996-01-01

    The sewerage model projects utilizing sewage-treated water and the sewerage model project for the future city executed in Tokyo are described. It is important to obtain the treated water which is suitable to purposes by setting up the target for control and reducing the organic contamination which is difficult to decompose. In fiscal year 1995, as to the decomposing treatment of lignin by radiation, the effect of reducing coloring and the influence when actual flowing-in sewage and treated water coexist were examined. The experimental samples were lignin aqueous solution, synthetic sewage and flowing-in sewage, treated water, and the mixture of treated water and synthetic sewage. The measurement of water quality is explained. The γ ray irradiation with a Co-60 source was carried out. The results of respective samples are reported. When total organic carbon was at the level in flowing-in sewage and treated water, irradiation was effective for eliminating coloring. The soluble organic substances which are difficult to decompose were efficiently decomposed by irradiation. (K.I.)

  18. Halogens in pore water of peat bogs – the role of peat decomposition and dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Biester

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Halogens are strongly enriched in peat and peatlands and such they are one of their largest active terrestrial reservoir. The enrichment of halogens in peat is mainly attributed to the formation of organohalogens and climatically controlled humification processes. However, little is known about release of halogens from the peat substrate and the distribution of halogens in the peat pore water. In this study we have investigated the distribution of chlorine, bromine and iodine in pore water of three pristine peat bogs located in the Magellanic Moorlands, southern Chile. Peat pore waters were collected using a sipping technique, which allows in situ sampling down to a depth greater than 6m. Halogens and halogen species in pore water were determined by ion-chromatography (IC (chlorine and IC-ICP-MS (bromine and iodine. Results show that halogen concentrations in pore water are 15–30 times higher than in rainwater. Mean concentrations of chlorine, bromine and iodine in pore water were 7–15 mg l−1, 56–123 μg l−1, and 10–20 μg l−1, which correspond to mean proportions of 10–15%, 1–2.3% and 0.5–2.2% of total concentrations in peat, respectively. Organobromine and organoiodine were the predominant species in pore waters, whereas chlorine in pore water was mostly chloride. Advection and diffusion of halogens were found to be generally low and halogen concentrations appear to reflect release from the peat substrate. Release of bromine and iodine from peat depend on the degree of peat degradation, whereas this relationship is weak for chlorine. Relatively higher release of bromine and iodine was observed in less degraded peat sections, where the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC was also the most intensive. It has been concluded that the release of halogenated dissolved organic matter (DOM is the predominant mechanism of iodine and bromine release from peat.

  19. Helicopter crashes into water: warning time, final position, and other factors affecting survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Christopher J; MacDonald, Conor V; Baker, Susan P; Shanahan, Dennis F; Haaland, Wren L

    2014-04-01

    According to 40 yr of data, the fatality rate for a helicopter crash into water is approximately 25%. Does warning time and the final position of the helicopter in the water influence the survival rate? The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database was queried to identify helicopter crashes into water between 1981 and 2011 in the Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii. Fatality rate, amount of warning time prior to the crash, and final position of the helicopter were identified. There were 133 helicopters that crashed into water with 456 crew and passengers. Of these, 119 occupants (26%) did not survive; of those who did survive, 38% were injured. Twelve died after making a successful escape from the helicopter. Crashes with 1 min. However, more than half of fatalities (57%) came from crashes for which the warning time could not be determined. Lack of warning time and how to survive in the water after the crash should be a topic for study in all marine survival/aircraft ditching courses. Investigators should be trained to provide estimates of warning time when investigating helicopter crashes into water.

  20. Plant litter decomposition and carbon sequestration for arable soils. Final report of works. April 2005; Biodegradation des litieres et sequestration du carbone dans les ecosystemes cultives et perennes. Rapport final des travaux Avril 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recous, S.; Barrois, F.; Coppens, F.; Garnier, P.; Grehan, E. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite d' Agronomie Laon-Reims-Mons (France); Balesdent, J. [CNRS-CEA-Univ.de la Mediterranee, UMR 6191, Lab. d' Ecologie Microbienne de la Rhizosphere, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Dambrine, E.; Zeller, B. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite Biogeochimie des Ecosystemes Forestiers, 54 - Nancy (France); Loiseau, P.; Personeni, E. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite d' Agronomie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2002-07-01

    The general objective of this project was to contribute to the evaluation of land use and management impacts on C sequestration and nitrogen dynamics in soils. The land used through the presence/absence of crops and their species, and the land management through tillage, localisation of crop residues, fertilizer applications,... are important factors that affect the dynamics of organic matters in soils, particularly the mineralization of C and N, the losses to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the retention of carbon into the soil. This project was conducted by four research groups, three of them having expertise in nutrient cycling of three major agro-ecosystems (arable crops, grasslands, forests) and the fourth one having expertise in modelling long term effects of land use on C storage into the soils. Within this common project one major objective was to better understand the fate of plant litter entering the soil either as above litter or as root litter. The focus was put on two factors that particularly affect decomposition: the initial biochemical quality of plant litter, and the location of the decomposing litter. One innovative aspect of the project was the use of stable isotope as {sup 13}C for carbon, based on the use of enriched or depleted {sup 13}C material, the only option to assess the dynamics of 'new' C entering the soil on the short term, in order to reveal the effects of decomposition factors. Another aspect was the simultaneous study of C and N. The project consisted in experiments relevant for each agro-ecosystem, in forest, grassland and arable soils for which interactions between residue quality and nitrogen availability on the one hand, residue quality and location on the other hand, was investigated. A common experiment was set up to investigate the potential degradability of the various residue used (beech leaf rape straw, young rye, Lolium and dactylic roots) in a their original soils and in a single soil was assessed. Based on

  1. Macrophyte decomposition in a surface-flow ammonia-dominated constructed wetland: Rates associated with environmental and biotic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, J.S.; Nelson, S.M.; Cade, B.S.; Sartoris, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Decomposition of senesced culm material of two bulrush species was studied in a surface-flow ammonia-dominated treatment wetland in southern California. Decomposition of the submerged culm material during summer months was relatively rapid (k = 0.037 day-1), but slowed under extended submergence (up to 245 days) and during fall and spring sampling periods (k = 0.009-0.014 day-1). Stepwise regression of seasonal data indicated that final water temperature and abundance of the culm-mining midge, Glyptotendipes, were significantly associated with culm decomposition. Glyptotendipes abundance, in turn, was correlated with water quality parameters such as conductivity and dissolved oxygen and ammonia concentrations. No differences were detected in decomposition rates between the bulrush species, Schoenoplectus californicus and Schoenoplectus acutus.

  2. The Characterization and Hydrogen Production from Water Decomposition with Methanol in a Semi-Batch Type Reactor Using In, P-TiO2s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonwoo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water using solar energy is potentially a clean and renewable source for hydrogen fuel. This study examines the production of hydrogen over In, P-TiO2s photocatalysts. 1 mol% In-TiO2 and P-TiO2 were produced using the solvothermal method and were treated at 500 and 800∘C to obtain anatase and rutile structure, respectively. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence spectra, X-ray spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The production of H2 from methanol photodecomposition was greater over the rutile structure than over the anatase structure of TiO2. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen was enhanced over In-TiO2 and P-TiO2 compared to that over pure TiO2; the production increased by about 30%. The structural effect and the addition of In, P have significant influence on the H2 production from methanol/water decomposition.

  3. Effect of ionite decomposition products on the reactor coolant pH in a boiling-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredikhin, V.Ya.; Moskvin, L.N.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of products resulting from thermal radiolysis of ionites on water-chemical regime of NPP with RBMK is considered basing on investigations conducted in a boiling type experimental reactor. Data are presented on dynamics of changes in the specific electric conductivity and pH of the coolant following destruction of ion exchange groups and ionite matrix under the effect of reactor radiation. The authors draw a conclusion that radiation destruction of ionito fine disperse suspension or high-molecular soluble compounds in the reactor are, probably, one of the main reasons for variations in pH values of the coolant at NPP in non-correction water chemical regime

  4. In situ study of glasses decomposition layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarembowitch-Deruelle, O.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the involved mechanisms during the decomposition of glasses by water and the consequences on the morphology of the decomposition layer, in particular in the case of a nuclear glass: the R 7 T 7 . The chemical composition of this glass being very complicated, it is difficult to know the influence of the different elements on the decomposition kinetics and on the resulting morphology because several atoms have a same behaviour. Glasses with simplified composition (only 5 elements) have then been synthesized. The morphological and structural characteristics of these glasses have been given. They have then been decomposed by water. The leaching curves do not reflect the decomposition kinetics but the solubility of the different elements at every moment. The three steps of the leaching are: 1) de-alkalinization 2) lattice rearrangement 3) heavy elements solubilization. Two decomposition layer types have also been revealed according to the glass heavy elements rate. (O.M.)

  5. Multiunit water resource systems management by decomposition, optimization and emulated evolution : a case study of seven water supply reservoirs in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milutin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Being one of the essential elements of almost any water resource system, reservoirs are indispensable in our struggle to harness, utilize and manage natural water resources. Consequently, the derivation of appropriate reservoir operating strategies draws significant attention in water

  6. Comparison of Austenite Decomposition Models During Finite Element Simulation of Water Quenching and Air Cooling of AISI 4140 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K.; Prasanna Kumar, T. S.

    2014-08-01

    An indigenous, non-linear, and coupled finite element (FE) program has been developed to predict the temperature field and phase evolution during heat treatment of steels. The diffusional transformations during continuous cooling of steels were modeled using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Komogorov equation, and the non-diffusion transformation was modeled using Koistinen-Marburger equation. Cylindrical quench probes made of AISI 4140 steel of 20-mm diameter and 50-mm long were heated to 1123 K (850 °C), quenched in water, and cooled in air. The temperature history during continuous cooling was recorded at the selected interior locations of the quench probes. The probes were then sectioned at the mid plane and resultant microstructures were observed. The process of water quenching and air cooling of AISI 4140 steel probes was simulated with the heat flux boundary condition in the FE program. The heat flux for air cooling process was calculated through the inverse heat conduction method using the cooling curve measured during air cooling of a stainless steel 304L probe as an input. The heat flux for the water quenching process was calculated from a surface heat flux model proposed for quenching simulations. The isothermal transformation start and finish times of different phases were taken from the published TTT data and were also calculated using Kirkaldy model and Li model and used in the FE program. The simulated cooling curves and phases using the published TTT data had a good agreement with the experimentally measured values. The computation results revealed that the use of published TTT data was more reliable in predicting the phase transformation during heat treatment of low alloy steels than the use of the Kirkaldy or Li model.

  7. Decomposition of p-nonylphenols in water and elimination of their estrogen activities by 6Co γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Ohtani, Yoshimi; Takigami, Machiko; Shimada, Yoshitaka; Kojima, Takuji; Hiratsuka, Hiroshi; Namba, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    Concentration of p-nonylphenols (NPs) in water at 1 μmol dm -3 was decreased exponentially with absorbed dose when NPs were irradiated by 6 Co γ-rays. Two products having molecular weight of 236, presumably OH adducts of NPs, were detected by LC-MS analyses. The elimination of estrogen activity of aqueous NPs solution including such irradiation products at 5000 Gy (J kg -1 ) was confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid assay. These results should expand the application of ionizing radiation to the treatment of NPs

  8. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water/methanol decomposition using Ag/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alenzi, Naser; Ehlig-Economides, Christine [Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Liao, Wei-Ssu; Cremer, Paul S. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Sanchez-Torres, Viviana; Cheng, Zhengdong [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Wood, Thomas K. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3258 (United States); Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 3136 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Though less frequently studied for solar-hydrogen production, films are more convenient to use than powders and can be easily recycled. Anatase TiO{sub 2} films decorated with Ag nanoparticles are synthesized by a rapid, simple, and inexpensive method. They are used to cleave water to produce H{sub 2} under UV light in the presence of methanol as a hole scavenger. A simple and sensitive method is established here to monitor the time course of hydrogen production for ultralow amounts of TiO{sub 2}. The average hydrogen production rate of Ag/TiO{sub 2} anatase films is 147.9 {+-} 35.5 {mu}mol/h/g. Without silver, it decreases dramatically to 4.65 {+-} 0.39 {mu}mol/h/g for anatase TiO{sub 2} films and to 0.46 {+-} 0.66 {mu}mol/h/g for amorphous TiO{sub 2} films fabricated at room temperature. Our method can be used as a high through-put screening process in search of high efficiency heterogeneous photocatalysts for solar-hydrogen production from water-splitting. (author)

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR): Project final report, Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellhauer, C.R.; Boing, L.E.; Aldana, J.

    1997-03-01

    The Final Report for the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E) Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) facility contains the descriptions and evaluations of the activities and the results of the EBWR D ampersand D project. It provides the following information: (1) An overall description of the ANL-E site and EBWR facility. (2) The history of the EBWR facility. (3) A description of the D ampersand D activities conducted during the EBWR project. (4) A summary of the final status of the facility, including the final and confirmation surveys. (5) A summary of the final cost, schedule, and personnel exposure associated with the project, including a summary of the total waste generated. This project report covers the entire EBWR D ampersand D project, from the initiation of Phase I activities to final project closeout. After the confirmation survey, the EBWR facility was released as a open-quotes Radiologically Controlled Area,close quotes noting residual elevated activity remains in inaccessible areas. However, exposure levels in accessible areas are at background levels. Personnel working in accessible areas do not need Radiation Work Permits, radiation monitors, or other radiological controls. Planned use for the containment structure is as an interim transuranic waste storage facility (after conversion)

  10. UV Photocatalytic Activity for Water Decomposition of SrxBa1−xNb2O6 Nanocrystals with Different Components and Morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strontium barium niobate SrxBa1-xNb2O6 (SBN nanocrystals with different components (x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 were synthesized by Molten Salt Synthesis (MSS method at various reaction temperatures (T = 950°C, 1000°C, 1050°C, and 1100°C. The SBN nanocrystals yielded through flux reactions possess different morphologies and sizes with a length of about ~100 nm~7 μm and a diameter of about ~200~500 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD techniques were used to study the compositions, structures, and morphologies of the nanocrystals. The absorption edges of the SBN nanocrystals are at a wavelength region of approximate 390 nm, which corresponds to band-gap energy of ~3.18 eV. The SBN nanocrystals with different sizes display different photocatalytic activity under ultraviolet light in decomposition of water. The SBN60 nanocrystals exhibit stable photocatalytic rates (~100~130 μmol of H2·g−1·h−1 for hydrogen production. The SBN nanocrystals can be a potential material in the application of photocatalysis and micro/nanooptical devices.

  11. Iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) imaging of multiple myeloma: initial clinical efficiency results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasu, Miyuki; Tani, Chihiro; Sakoda, Yasuko; Ishikawa, Miho; Tanitame, Keizo; Date, Shuji; Akiyama, Yuji; Awai, Kazuo; Sakai, Akira; Asaoku, Hideki; Kajima, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetric and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) MRI to quantify tumour infiltration into the lumbar vertebrae in myeloma patients without visible focal lesions. The lumbar spine was examined with 3 T MRI in 24 patients with multiple myeloma and in 26 controls. The fat-signal fraction was calculated as the mean value from three vertebral bodies. A post hoc test was used to compare the fat-signal fraction in controls and patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), asymptomatic myeloma or symptomatic myeloma. Differences were considered significant at P 2 -microglobulin-to-albumin ratio were entered into the discriminant analysis. Fat-signal fractions were significantly lower in patients with symptomatic myelomas (43.9 ±19.7%, P 2 -microglobulin-to-albumin ratio facilitated discrimination of symptomatic myeloma from non-symptomatic myeloma in patients without focal bone lesions. circle A new magnetic resonance technique (IDEAL) offers new insights in multiple myeloma. (orig.)

  12. Water, Rather than Temperature, Dominantly Impacts How Soil Fauna Affect Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen Release from Fresh Litter during Early Litter Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Liao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Longstanding observations suggest that dissolved materials are lost from fresh litter through leaching, but the role of soil fauna in controlling this process has been poorly documented. In this study, a litterbag experiment employing litterbags with different mesh sizes (3 mm to permit soil fauna access and 0.04 mm to exclude fauna access was conducted in three habitats (arid valley, ecotone and subalpine forest with changes in climate and vegetation types to evaluate the effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN during the first year of decomposition. The results showed that the individual density and community abundance of soil fauna greatly varied among these habitats, but Prostigmata, Isotomidae and Oribatida were the dominant soil invertebrates. At the end of the experiment, the mass remaining of foliar litter ranged from 58% for shrub litter to 77% for birch litter, and the DOC and TDN concentrations decreased to 54%–85% and increased to 34%–269%, respectively, when soil fauna were not present. The effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of both DOC and TDN in foliar litter were greater in the subalpine forest (wetter but colder during the winter and in the arid valley (warmer but drier during the growing season, and this effect was positively correlated with water content. Moreover, the effects of fauna on DOC and TDN concentrations were greater for high-quality litter and were related to the C/N ratio. These results suggest that water, rather than temperature, dominates how fauna affect the release of dissolved substances from fresh litter.

  13. Reactions of organic free radicals at colloidal silver in aqueous solution. Electron pool effect and water decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henglein, A.

    1979-01-01

    Organic free radicals of high negative redox potential such as α-alcohol radicals were found to transfer electrons to colloidal silver particles stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solution. The colloidal particles thus became a pool of stored electrons that could reduce water to form hydrogen or react with suitable acceptors in solution. The organic radicals were produced by irradiation, using suitable scavengers for the primary radicals from the radiolysis of the aqueous solvent. The solutions initially contained silver ions at 1 x 10 -4 - 2 x 10 -3 M. At doses below 10 5 rd, the silver ions were completely reduced to form the colloidal catalyst. In this dose range, the corresponding hydrogen yield amounted to 1 molecule per 100 eV. It increased steeply at higher doses up to 3 molecules per 100 eV. The H 2 yield decreased with increasing dose rate and with increasing pH in alkaline solutions. It was highest at a concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate of 1 x 10 -3 M, i.e., far below the critical micelle concentration of this surfactant. Changes in the absorption spectrum of the colloid are attributed to changes in the size of the silver particles upon charging up with electrons. The competition of radical-colloid reactions with radical-radical deactivation in the bulk of solution or at the surface of the colloidal particles is also discussed. 11 figures

  14. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton Zanchi, F.; Waterloo, M.J.; Dolman, A.J.; Groenendijk, M.; Kruijt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and

  15. WEXA: exergy analysis for increasing the efficiency of air/water heat pumps - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, L.; Wellig, B.; Hilfiker, K.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study at the made by the Engineering and Architecture department at the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts. The subject of the WEXA study (Waermepumpen-Exergie-Analyse - heat pump exergy analysis) is the analysis of the operation of air/water heat-pumps using exergy analysis methods. The basic thermodynamics of heating systems using heat-pumps is discussed. The exergy analyses and exergy balances for the various components and processes of an air/water heat-pump are presented and discussed. Comparisons are presented for heat-pumps with on/off and continuous control systems for their compressors and fans. The paper is concluded with a collection of appendices on the subject.

  16. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  17. Improved methods for water shutoff. Final technical progress report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.; Liang, J.T.; Schrader, R.; Hagstrom, J. II; Liu, J.; Wavrik, K.

    1998-10-01

    In the United States, more than 20 billion barrels of salt water are produced each year during oilfield operations. A tremendous economic incentive exists to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. This three-year research project had three objectives. The first objective was to identify chemical blocking agents that will (a) during placement, flow readily through fractures without penetrating significantly into porous rock and with screening out or developing excessive pressure gradients and (b) at a predictable and controllable time, become immobile and resistant breakdown upon exposure to moderate to high pressure gradients. The second objective was to identify schemes that optimize placement of the above blocking agents. The third objective was to explain why gels and other chemical blocking agents reduce permeability to one phase (e.g., water) more than that to another phase (e.g., oil or gas). The authors also wanted to identify conditions that maximize this phenomenon. This project consisted of three tasks, each of which addressed one of the above objectives. This report describes work performed during the third and final period of the project. During this three-year project, they: (1) Developed a procedure and software for sizing gelant treatments in hydraulically fractured production wells; (2) Developed a method (based on interwell tracer results) to determine the potential for applying gel treatments in naturally fractured reservoirs; (3) Characterized gel properties during extrusion through fractures; (4) Developed a method to predict gel placement in naturally fractured reservoirs; (5) Made progress in elucidating the mechanism for why some gels can reduce permeability to water more than that to oil; (6) Demonstrated the limitations of using water/oil ratio diagnostic plots to distinguish between channeling and coning; and (7) Proposed a philosophy for diagnosing and attacking water

  18. Usefulness of R2* maps generated by iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation quantitation sequence for cerebral artery dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Ayumi; Shinohara, Yuki; Fujii, Shinya; Miyoshi, Fuminori; Kuya, Keita; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological, and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Yamashita, Eijiro [Tottori University Hospital, Division of Clinical Radiology, Yonago (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Acute intramural hematoma resulting from cerebral artery dissection is usually visualized as a region of intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images (WI). This often causes problems with distinguishing acute atheromatous lesions from surrounding parenchyma and dissection. The present study aimed to determine whether or not R2* maps generated by the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation quantitation sequence (IDEAL IQ) can distinguish cerebral artery dissection more effectively than three-dimensional variable refocusing flip angle TSE T1WI (T1-CUBE) and T2*WI. We reviewed data from nine patients with arterial dissection who were assessed by MR images including R2* maps, T2*WI, T1-CUBE, and 3D time-of-flight (TOF)-MRA. We visually assessed intramural hematomas in each patient as positive (clearly visible susceptibility effect reflecting intramural hematoma as hyperintensity on R2* map and hypointensity on T2*WI), negative (absent intramural hematoma), equivocal (difficult to distinguish between intramural hematoma and other paramagnetic substances such as veins, vessel wall calcification, or hemorrhage) and not evaluable (difficult to determine intramural hematoma due to susceptibility artifacts arising from skull base). Eight of nine patients were assessed during the acute phase. Lesions in all eight patients were positive for intramural hematoma corresponding to dissection sites on R2* maps, while two lesions were positive on T2*WI and three lesions showed high-intensity on T1-CUBE reflected intramural hematoma during the acute phase. R2* maps generated using IDEAL IQ can detect acute intramural hematoma associated with cerebral artery dissection more effectively than T2*WI and earlier than T1-CUBE. (orig.)

  19. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  20. Thermal decomposition of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Ristic, M.; Popovic, S.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of natural pyrite (cubic, FeS 2 ) has been investigated using X-ray diffraction and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis of pyrite ore from different sources showed the presence of associated minerals, such as quartz, szomolnokite, stilbite or stellerite, micas and hematite. Hematite, maghemite and pyrrhotite were detected as thermal decomposition products of natural pyrite. The phase composition of the thermal decomposition products depends on the terature, time of heating and starting size of pyrite chrystals. Hematite is the end product of the thermal decomposition of natural pyrite. (author) 24 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. 75 FR 43160 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... taking final agency action on the following TMDL for waters located within the State of Arkansas: Segment-reach Waterbody name Pollutant 11070208-901 Town Branch..... Total Phosphorus. EPA requested the public...

  2. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254 nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP.

  3. Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas: Impacts from the Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle on Drinking Water Resources in the United States (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report provides a review and synthesis of available scientific information concerning the relationship between hydraulic fracturing activities and drinking water resources in the United States. The report is organized around activities in the hydraulic...

  4. Decoration of Cotton Fibers with a Water-Stable Metal–Organic Framework (UiO-66 for the Decomposition and Enhanced Adsorption of Micropollutants in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Schelling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the successful functionalization of cotton fabrics with a water-stable metal–organic framework (MOF, UiO-66, under mild solvothermal conditions (80 °C and its ability to adsorb and degrade water micropollutants. The functionalized cotton samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. UiO-66 crystals grew in a uniform and conformal manner over the surface of the cotton fibers. The cotton fabrics functionalized with UiO-66 frameworks exhibited an enhanced uptake capacity for methylchlorophenoxypropionic acid (MCPP, a commonly used herbicide. The functionalized fabrics also showed photocatalytic activity, demonstrated by the degradation of acetaminophen, a common pharmaceutical compound, under simulated sunlight irradiation. These results indicate that UiO-66 can be supported on textile substrates for filtration and photocatalytic purposes and that these substrates can find applications in wastewater decontamination and micropollutant degradation.

  5. Impact of the safe drinking water act on energy development. Final issue paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guymont, F.J.; Shore, R.; Goldberg, M.

    1977-11-01

    Energy development activities will be impacted by the Underground Injection Control Regulations that are formulated under Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The thrust of Part C of the Act is to protect groundwater that now is or in the future might be used for drinking water. A new draft of the regulations, on which this analysis is based, is currently being considered. These regulations will be either another set of proposed regulations or will be interim final which means they can be enforced immediately but EPA will still entertain comments on them and modify them if necessary. There are four possible situations in which the Underground Control Regulations would not apply. They are: If the aquifer in question can be left unprotected despite the fact that its solids level is less than 10,000 mg/1; if the aquifer is oil or mineral producing; if the aquifer is located at a depth that would made recovery of drinking water uneconomical; and if the aquifer is already contaminated. However, the individual states have to demonstrate this to the satisfaction of the EPA administrator. If none of the conditions holds, construction, monitoring operating and reporting requirements will be necessary to receive a permit. The economic impact of these requirements is uncertain but could involve significant economic and time expenditures. Permits do not have to be renewed and one permit can serve for a whole field of wells. However, the permit application requires a significant amount of information and will take a considerable amount of time and expense to fill out. Solution mining operations also will incur extra expenses establishing initial water quality profiles and maintaining monitoring wells

  6. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  7. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  8. Eigenvalue Decomposition-Based Modified Newton Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the Hessian matrix is not positive, the Newton direction may not be the descending direction. A new method named eigenvalue decomposition-based modified Newton algorithm is presented, which first takes the eigenvalue decomposition of the Hessian matrix, then replaces the negative eigenvalues with their absolute values, and finally reconstructs the Hessian matrix and modifies the searching direction. The new searching direction is always the descending direction. The convergence of the algorithm is proven and the conclusion on convergence rate is presented qualitatively. Finally, a numerical experiment is given for comparing the convergence domains of the modified algorithm and the classical algorithm.

  9. Final environmental statement for La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor: (Docket No. 50-409)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A Final Environmental Statement for the Dairyland Power Cooperative for the conversion from a provisional to a full-term operating license for the La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, located in Vernon County, Wisconsin, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. This statement provides a summary of environmental impacts and adverse effects of operation of the facility, and a consideration of principal alternatives (including removal of LACBWR from service, alternative cooling methodology, and alternative waste treatment systems). Also included are the comments of federal, state, and local governmental agencies and certain non-governmental organizations on the La Crosse Draft Environmental Statement and staff responses to these comments. After weighing environmental, economic, and technical benefits and liabilities, the staff recommends conversion from a provisional operating license to a full-term operating license, subject to specific environmental protection limitations. An operational monitoring program shall be established as part of the Environmental Technical Specifications. 64 refs., 20 figs., 48 tabs

  10. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation analyses the azimuthal decomposition of optical modes. Decomposition of azimuthal modes need two steps, namely generation and decomposition. An azimuthally-varying phase (bounded by a ring-slit) placed in the spatial frequency...

  12. Decommissioning of the MTR-605 process water building at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browder, J.H.; Wills, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the unused radioactively contaminated portions of the MTR-605 building at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has been completed; this final report describes the D and D project. The building is a two-story concrete structure that was used to house piping systems to channel and control coolant water flow for the Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), a 40 MW (thermal) light water test reactor that was operated from 1952 until 1970 and then deactivated. D and D project objectives were to reduce potential environmental and radioactive contamination hazards to levels as low a reasonably achievable. Primary tasks of the D and D project were: to remove contaminated piping (about 400 linear ft of 36- and 30-in.-dia stainless steel pipe) and valves from the primary coolant pipe tunnels, to remove a primary coolant pump and piping, and to remove the three 8-ft-dia by 25-ft-long evaporators from the building second floor

  13. 77 FR 12076 - Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Integrated Water Resource Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... water conservation and market reallocation elements. The plan elements include projects and actions... Conservation (agricultural water and municipal/ domestic conservation); and 7. Market-Based Reallocation of Water Resources (institutional improvements to facilitate market-based water transfers). Public...

  14. Cellular decomposition in vikalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyatskaya, I.S.; Vintajkin, E.Z.; Georgieva, I.Ya.; Golikov, V.A.; Udovenko, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Austenite decomposition in Fe-Co-V and Fe-Co-V-Ni alloys at 475-600 deg C is investigated. The cellular decomposition in ternary alloys results in the formation of bcc (ordered) and fcc structures, and in quaternary alloys - bcc (ordered) and 12R structures. The cellular 12R structure results from the emergence of stacking faults in the fcc lattice with irregular spacing in four layers. The cellular decomposition results in a high-dispersion structure and magnetic properties approaching the level of well-known vikalloys [ru

  15. Decompositions of manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Daverman, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Decomposition theory studies decompositions, or partitions, of manifolds into simple pieces, usually cell-like sets. Since its inception in 1929, the subject has become an important tool in geometric topology. The main goal of the book is to help students interested in geometric topology to bridge the gap between entry-level graduate courses and research at the frontier as well as to demonstrate interrelations of decomposition theory with other parts of geometric topology. With numerous exercises and problems, many of them quite challenging, the book continues to be strongly recommended to eve

  16. Management of water hyacinth: Final meeting and international conference. Working paper submitted by the Regional Coordinator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Final Meeting. This meeting will essentially make a terminal review of the project and register final records of work done on the various aspects, such as: - biology of the plant; - biological control; - biogas; - wastewater treatment; - papers and boards; - integrated systems, etc. We should have at the meeting a complete account of the work done in the project under each of the above headings. For example, under 'biogas' we should prepare one consolidated account of work carried out in all the three participating countries rather than individual country reports. Likewise on 'papers and boards', and the other items. To enable preparation of reports in this form there should naturally be prior consultations and contacts among the concerned investigators by correspondence and, if necessary, personal visits. These reports will then be edited and compiled by the Regional Coordinator in the form of a book or monograph on the Management of Water Hyacinth project as a whole. Contributors to chapters will be cited. International Conference. Independent of the consolidated reports, national coordinators may prepare papers for presentation at the proposed international conference. These papers could be prepared m the usual form and style for publication in international scientific journals. Although several papers could be prepared out of work done by us, we may consider the desirability of limiting the number, in order to give adequate opportunities for the other invited participants to the conference. There would be no bar on publication of these scientific papers after the conference in appropriate journals irrespective of whether a separate volume on proceedings of the conference is brought out or not. India would be happy to host the terminal review meeting to be followed by the conference. The likely period would be last week of January to first week in February, 1983. (author)

  17. Radiolytic decomposition of dioxins in liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Changli; Taguchi, M.; Hirota, K.; Takigami, M.; Kojima, T.

    2006-01-01

    The dioxins including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are some of the most toxic persistent organic pollutants. These chemicals have widely contaminated the air, water, and soil. They would accumulate in the living body through the food chains, leading to a serious public health hazard. In the present study, radiolytic decomposition of dioxins has been investigated in liquid wastes, including organic waste and waste-water. Dioxin-containing organic wastes are commonly generated in nonane or toluene. However, it was found that high radiation doses are required to completely decompose dioxins in the two solvents. The decomposition was more efficient in ethanol than in nonane or toluene. The addition of ethanol to toluene or nonane could achieve >90% decomposition of dioxins at the dose of 100 kGy. Thus, dioxin-containing organic wastes can be treated as regular organic wastes after addition of ethanol and subsequent γ-ray irradiation. On the other hand, radiolytic decomposition of dioxins easily occurred in pure-water than in waste-water, because the reaction species is largely scavenged by the dominant organic materials in waste-water. Dechlorination was not a major reaction pathway for the radiolysis of dioxin in water. In addition, radiolytic mechanism and dechlorinated pathways in liquid wastes were also discussed. (authors)

  18. Reuse of drainage water in the Nile Delta; monitoring, modelling and analysis; final report Reuse of Drainage Water Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring Centrum, Instituut voor Onderzoek van het LandelijkGebied

    1995-01-01

    The effects of reusing drainage water have been evaluated and other options to increase the water utilization rate in Egypt explored. The results are an operational network for monitoring drainage water discharges and salinity along the major drains, a database for monitored drainage water

  19. Thermal decomposition of UO3-2H20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The first part of the report summarizes the literature data regarding the uranium trioxide water system. In the second part, the experimental aspects are presented. An experimental program has been set up to determine the steps and species involved in decomposition of uranium oxide di-hydrate. Particular attention has been paid to determine both loss of free water (moisture in the fuel) and loss of chemically bound water (decomposition of hydrates). The influence of water pressure on decomposition has been taken into account

  20. Photochemical decomposition of catecholamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, N.J. de; Henegouwen, G.M.J.B. van; Gerritsma, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    During photochemical decomposition (lambda=254 nm) adrenaline, isoprenaline and noradrenaline in aqueous solution were converted to the corresponding aminochrome for 65, 56 and 35% respectively. In determining this conversion, photochemical instability of the aminochromes was taken into account. Irradiations were performed in such dilute solutions that the neglect of the inner filter effect is permissible. Furthermore, quantum yields for the decomposition of the aminochromes in aqueous solution are given. (Author)

  1. Thermal decomposition of zirconium compounds with some aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshel, A V; Malinko, L A; Karlysheva, K F; Sheka, I A; Shchepak, N I [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1980-02-01

    By the thermogravimetry method investigated are processes of thermal decomposition of different zirconium compounds with mandelic, parabromomandelic, salicylic and sulphosalicylic acids. For identification of decomposition products the specimens have been kept at the temperature of effects up to the constant weight. Taken are IR-spectra, rentgenoarams, carried out is elementary analysis of decomposition products. It is stated that thermal decomposition of the investigated compounds passes in stages; the final product of thermolysis is ZrO/sub 2/. Nonhydrolized compounds are stable at heating in the air up to 200-265 deg. Hydroxy compounds begin to decompose at lower temperature (80-100 deg).

  2. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liukang [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); McDermitt, Dayle [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Anderson, Tyler [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Riensche, Brad [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Komissarov, Anatoly [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Howe, Julie [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been

  3. Radiolytic decomposition of 4-bromodiphenyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Liang; Xu Gang; Wu Wenjing; Shi Wenyan; Liu Ning; Bai Yulei; Wu Minghong

    2010-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) spread widely in the environment are mainly removed by photochemical and anaerobic microbial degradation. In this paper, the decomposition of 4-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE -3), the PBDEs homologues, is investigated by electron beam irradiation of its ethanol/water solution (reduction system) and acetonitrile/water solution (oxidation system). The radiolytic products were determined by GC coupled with electron capture detector, and the reaction rate constant of e sol - in the reduction system was measured at 2.7 x 10 10 L · mol -1 · s -1 by pulsed radiolysis. The results show that the BDE-3 concentration affects strongly the decomposition ratio in the alkali solution, and the reduction system has a higher BDE-3 decomposition rate than the oxidation system. This indicates that the BDE-3 was reduced by effectively capturing e sol - in radiolytic process. (authors)

  4. [Analysis of the bacterial community developing in the course of Sphagnum moss decomposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaia, I S; Belova, S E; Kevbrin, V V; Dedysh, S N; Zavarzin, G A

    2007-01-01

    Slow degradation of organic matter in acidic Sphagnum peat bogs suggests a limited activity of organotrophic microorganisms. Monitoring of the Sphagnum debris decomposition in a laboratory simulation experiment showed that this process was accompanied by a shift in the water color to brownish due to accumulation of humic substances and by the development of a specific bacterial community with a density of 2.4 x 10(7) cells ml(-1). About half of these organisms are metabolically active and detectable with rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. Molecular identification of the components of this microbial community showed the numerical dominance of bacteria affiliated with the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Phanctomycetes. The population sizes of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, which are believed to be the main agents of bacterially-mediated decomposition in eutrophic wetlands, were low. The numbers of planctomycetes increased at the final stage of Sphagnum decomposition. The representative isolates of Alphaproteobacteria were able to utilize galacturonic acid, the only low-molecular-weight organic compound detected in the water samples; the representatives of Planctomycetes were able to decompose some heteropolysaccharides, which points to the possible functional role of these groups of microorganisms in the community under study. Thus, the composition of the bacterial community responsible for Sphagnum decomposition in acidic and low-mineral oligotrophic conditions seems to be fundamentally different from that of the bacterial community which decomposes plant debris in eutrophic ecosystems at neutral pH.

  5. Puget Sound Tidal Energy In-Water Testing and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collar, Craig W

    2012-11-16

    Tidal energy represents potential for the generation of renewable, emission free, environmentally benign, and cost effective energy from tidal flows. A successful tidal energy demonstration project in Puget Sound, Washington may enable significant commercial development resulting in important benefits for the northwest region and the nation. This project promoted the United States Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program's goals of advancing the commercial viability, cost-competitiveness, and market acceptance of marine hydrokinetic systems. The objective of the Puget Sound Tidal Energy Demonstration Project is to conduct in-water testing and evaluation of tidal energy technology as a first step toward potential construction of a commercial-scale tidal energy power plant. The specific goal of the project phase covered by this award was to conduct all activities necessary to complete engineering design and obtain construction approvals for a pilot demonstration plant in the Admiralty Inlet region of the Puget Sound. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County (The District) accomplished the objectives of this award through four tasks: Detailed Admiralty Inlet Site Studies, Plant Design and Construction Planning, Environmental and Regulatory Activities, and Management and Reporting. Pre-Installation studies completed under this award provided invaluable data used for site selection, environmental evaluation and permitting, plant design, and construction planning. However, these data gathering efforts are not only important to the Admiralty Inlet pilot project. Lessons learned, in particular environmental data gathering methods, can be applied to future tidal energy projects in the United States and other parts of the world. The District collaborated extensively with project stakeholders to complete the tasks for this award. This included Federal, State, and local government agencies, tribal governments, environmental groups, and

  6. 77 FR 17082 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... standard will be used to approve ballast water management methods that are effective in preventing or reducing the introduction of nonindigenous species via discharged ballast water into waters of the United....regulations.gov on or before April 23, 2012 or reach the Docket Management Facility by that date. ADDRESSES...

  7. Aridity and decomposition processes in complex landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Nyman, Petter

    2015-04-01

    Decomposition of organic matter is a key biogeochemical process contributing to nutrient cycles, carbon fluxes and soil development. The activity of decomposers depends on microclimate, with temperature and rainfall being major drivers. In complex terrain the fine-scale variation in microclimate (and hence water availability) as a result of slope orientation is caused by differences in incoming radiation and surface temperature. Aridity, measured as the long-term balance between net radiation and rainfall, is a metric that can be used to represent variations in water availability within the landscape. Since aridity metrics can be obtained at fine spatial scales, they could theoretically be used to investigate how decomposition processes vary across complex landscapes. In this study, four research sites were selected in tall open sclerophyll forest along a aridity gradient (Budyko dryness index ranging from 1.56 -2.22) where microclimate, litter moisture and soil moisture were monitored continuously for one year. Litter bags were packed to estimate decomposition rates (k) using leaves of a tree species not present in the study area (Eucalyptus globulus) in order to avoid home-field advantage effects. Litter mass loss was measured to assess the activity of macro-decomposers (6mm litter bag mesh size), meso-decomposers (1 mm mesh), microbes above-ground (0.2 mm mesh) and microbes below-ground (2 cm depth, 0.2 mm mesh). Four replicates for each set of bags were installed at each site and bags were collected at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 12 months since installation. We first tested whether differences in microclimate due to slope orientation have significant effects on decomposition processes. Then the dryness index was related to decomposition rates to evaluate if small-scale variation in decomposition can be predicted using readily available information on rainfall and radiation. Decomposition rates (k), calculated fitting single pool negative exponential models, generally

  8. Regulatory impact analysis of the proposed great lakes water quality guidance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raucher, R.; Dixon, A.; Trabka, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Regulatory Impact Analysis provides direction to the Great Lakes States and Tribes on minimum water quality standards and contains numerical water quality criteria for 32 pollutants as well as methodologies for the development of water quality criteria for additional pollutants discharged to these waters. It also provides guidance to the Great Lakes States and Tribes on antidegradation policies and standards and implementation procedures

  9. Development Of Nutrient And Water Recycling Capabilities In Algae Biofuels Production Systems. Final Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Tryg [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Spierling, Ruth [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Poole, Kyle [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Blackwell, Shelley [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Crowe, Braden [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Hutton, Matt [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Lehr, Corinne [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2018-01-25

    inhibition was only observed in the final fifth round of reuse. 11. No decline in productivity was detected after 15 rounds of water recycling with nutrients provided by whole digestate in lab cultivation. Lab tests allowed for steady light and temperature, increasing the ability to detect inhibition. 12. In initial pilot inhibition studies, wastewater growth media was reused once while productivity was monitored. Media reuse was accomplished with triplicate sets of 33-m2 raceways operated in series. First-round gross productivity (based on effluent biomass flow) averaged 23 g/m2-day annually while second-round gross productivity averaged 19 g/m2-day annually. In terms of net productivity (based on raceway effluent biomass minus influent biomass), the first-round productivity averaged 15 g/m2-d and second round averaged 13 g/m2-d during June-September operation. The higher productivity in the first-round ponds was likely due to heterotrophic/mixotrophic growth on the wastewater organic matter. 13. In a culminating pilot experiment, coagulant was used to decrease the carry-over of unsettled algae into subsequent rounds of growth. Over nearly 8 months, 93% of the media (the equivalent of 14 rounds of water reuse) was recycled without significant productivity loss compared to controls. Ponds receiving both recycled water and nutrients had net productivities of 14-24 g/m2-d during fall and mid-summer, respectively. 14. Techno-economic analysis of the proposed facility found minimum fuel selling price to range from $7.01/gallon gasoline equivalent without revenue other than fuel to $3.85/GGE with revenue from wastewater treatment fees and LCFS and RIN (Low Carbon Fuel Standard and Renewable Identification Numbers) credits. 15. Life cycle assessment indicated GHG emissions of 40.7 g CO2/MJ fuel and a net energy ratio (energy required/energy produced) of 0.37.

  10. Radiation decomposition of alcohols and chloro phenols in micellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno A, J.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of surfactants on the radiation decomposition yield of alcohols and chloro phenols has been studied with gamma doses of 2, 3, and 5 KGy. These compounds were used as typical pollutants in waste water, and the effect of the water solubility, chemical structure, and the nature of the surfactant, anionic or cationic, was studied. The results show that anionic surfactant like sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), improve the radiation decomposition yield of ortho-chloro phenol, while cationic surfactant like cetyl trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), improve the radiation decomposition yield of butyl alcohol. A similar behavior is expected for those alcohols with water solubility close to the studied ones. Surfactant concentrations below critical micellar concentration (CMC), inhibited radiation decomposition for both types of alcohols. However radiation decomposition yield increased when surfactant concentrations were bigger than the CMC. Aromatic alcohols decomposition was more marked than for linear alcohols decomposition. On a mixture of alcohols and chloro phenols in aqueous solution the radiation decomposition yield decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. Nevertheless, there were competitive reactions between the alcohols, surfactants dimers, hydroxyl radical and other reactive species formed on water radiolysis, producing a catalytic positive effect in the decomposition of alcohols. Chemical structure and the number of carbons were not important factors in the radiation decomposition. When an alcohol like ortho-chloro phenol contained an additional chlorine atom, the decomposition of this compound was almost constant. In conclusion the micellar effect depend on both, the nature of the surfactant (anionic or cationic) and the chemical structure of the alcohols. The results of this study are useful for wastewater treatment plants based on the oxidant effect of the hydroxyl radical, like in advanced oxidation processes, or in combined treatment such as

  11. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  12. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  13. Decomposing Nekrasov decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A. [ITEP,25 Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Institute for Information Transmission Problems,19-1 Bolshoy Karetniy, Moscow, 127051 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,31 Kashirskoe highway, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Zenkevich, Y. [ITEP,25 Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,31 Kashirskoe highway, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences,6a Prospekt 60-letiya Oktyabrya, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-16

    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions — this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition — into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair “interaction” is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  14. Decomposing Nekrasov decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.

    2016-01-01

    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions — this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition — into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair “interaction” is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  15. Symmetric Tensor Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brachat, Jerome; Comon, Pierre; Mourrain, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for decomposing a symmetric tensor, of dimension n and order d, as a sum of rank-1 symmetric tensors, extending the algorithm of Sylvester devised in 1886 for binary forms. We recall the correspondence between the decomposition of a homogeneous polynomial in n variables...... of polynomial equations of small degree in non-generic cases. We propose a new algorithm for symmetric tensor decomposition, based on this characterization and on linear algebra computations with Hankel matrices. The impact of this contribution is two-fold. First it permits an efficient computation...... of the decomposition of any tensor of sub-generic rank, as opposed to widely used iterative algorithms with unproved global convergence (e.g. Alternate Least Squares or gradient descents). Second, it gives tools for understanding uniqueness conditions and for detecting the rank....

  16. Exploratory study on pervaporation membranes for removal of water from water-crude oil emulsions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Study to explore the feasibility of removing water from oil/water (O/W) and water/oil (W/O) emulsions by means of pervaporation. Initial study involved preparation of simulated O/W and W/O emulsions prepared by mixing water and kerosene of various concentrations and stabilized by adding sodium lauryl sulfate. Preliminary experiments were conducted on 12 membranes fabricated from 2 different materials. One membrane of each type of material was chosen for further work based on the results of the preliminary tests. All experiments were carried out under 2 different downstream pressures and various temperatures.

  17. FDG decomposition products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.; Buriova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present the results of analysis of decomposition products of [ 18 ]fluorodexyglucose. It is concluded that the coupling of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation is a suitable tool for quantitative analysis of FDG radiopharmaceutical, i.e. assay of basic components (FDG, glucose), impurities (Kryptofix) and decomposition products (gluconic and glucuronic acids etc.); 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) is sufficiently stable and resistant towards autoradiolysis; the content of radiochemical impurities (2-[ 18 F]fluoro-gluconic and 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-glucuronic acids in expired FDG did not exceed 1%

  18. 78 FR 52192 - Final Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria For Ammonia-Freshwater 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life from effects of ammonia in freshwater... ammonia to freshwater aquatic life. On December 30, 2009, EPA published draft national recommended water... freshwater are intended to protect aquatic life and do not address human health toxicity data. The water...

  19. Water activities in Forsmark (Part II). The final disposal facility for spent fuel: water activities above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Ridderstolpe, Peter

    2010-09-01

    The construction of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark is associated with a number of measures above ground that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Swedish Environmental Code. This report, which is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment, describes these water operations, their effects and consequences, and planned measures

  20. Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Graham B; McMordie-Stoughton, Katherine L; Sullivan, Gregory P; Elliott, Douglas B

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is considering the development of a technology-specific Super-Energy Saving Performance Contract (ESPC) for water conservation. Prior to the development however, FEMP requires the completion of a market assessment to better understand the water conservation opportunities and the strategies available for capturing them. Thus, this market assessment has been undertaken to evaluate the water conservation opportunities and answer the key questions necessary for FEMP to make recommendations on whether or not to proceed with strategies for water conservation primarily through the development of a water conservation technology-specific performance contract

  1. A water-quality monitoring network for Vallecitos Valley, Alameda County, California. Water-resources investigations (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.D.

    1980-10-01

    A water-quality monitoring network is proposed to detect the presence of and trace the movement of radioisotopes in the hydrologic system in the vicinity of the Vallecitos Nuclear Center. The source of the radioisotopes is treated industrial wastewater from the Vallecitos Nuclear Center that is discharged into an unnamed tributary of Vallecitos Creek. The effluent infiltrates the alluvium along the stream course, percolates downward to the water table, and mixes with the native ground water in the subsurface. The average daily discharge of effluent to the hydrologic system in 1978 was about 100,000 gallons. The proposed network consists of four surface-water sampling sites and six wells to sample the ground-water system. Samples collected monthly at each site and analyzed for tritium and for alpha, beta, and gamma radiation would provide adequate data for monitoring

  2. Study on the characterization and thermal decomposition of uranium compounds by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, J.M.; Abrao, A.

    1981-04-01

    A contribution to the characterization of several uranium compounds obtained at the IPEN' Uranium Pilot Plant is given. Particularly, samples of ammonium diuranate (ADU) and uranium oxides were studied. The main objective was to know the stoichiometry of the ADU and the oxides resulting from its thermal transformation. ADU samples were prepared by batchwise precipitation, stationary dewatering into stove and batchwise thermal decomposition, or, alternatively, continuous precipitation, continuous filtration, continuous drying and continuous thermal decomposition inside a temperature gradient electrical furnace. All ADU were precipitated using NH 3 gas from uranul sulfate or uranyl nitrate solutions. The thermal decomposition of ADU and uranium oxides were studied in an air atmosphere by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Any correlation between the parameters of precipitation, drying, calcination and the hystory of the obtaintion of the several uraniumm compounds and their initial and final composition was looked for. Heating program was established to have the U 3 O 8 oxide as the final product. Intermediary phases were tentatively identified. Temperatures at which occurred the absorption water elimination, crystallization water elimination, evolution or oxidation of NH 3 , decomposition of NO -3 ion and oxygen evolution and the exo- and endothermic process for each sample were identified. (Author) [pt

  3. Ground-water elements of in situ leach mining of uranium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.E.; Swarzenski, W.V.; Warner, D.L.; Rouse, G.E.; Carrington, O.F.; Pyrih, R.Z.

    1978-07-01

    This report provides methods to collect data and evaluates impacts concerning ground-water elements of production-scale leach mining of uranium. Two overlapping networks of monitor wells are designed to collect premining hydrogeologic and baseline water-quality data and to detect excursions of leaching fluids. The pre-mining data collection network consists of 24 wells completed into the ore-zone aquifer and the water-bearing units above and below it. The excursion-monitor network utilizes two rings of wells encircling the ore body and other wells strategically placed into other water-bearing units. The lateral excursion detection system is keyed to changes in water levels whereas the vertical excursion detection system is keyed to changes in water quality. Several ground-water restoration methods are evaluated. Mechanical and chemical restoration methods can significantly remove most introduced and mobilized chemicals. Natural geochemical mechanisms should be capable of causing water-quality improvement. Several water-quality constituents, i.e., ammonia, chloride, sulfate, may not be greatly affected by restoration efforts. Most mining and restoration activities should not greatly affect the availability or usefulness of ground water unless uncontrolled withdrawals from many sources occur. Disposal of leach mining wastes may prove a greater threat to the environment than the mining. Natural conditions and/or current state and Federal regulations limit the types of disposal methods that may be used

  4. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Water and Aqueous Solutions, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amotz, Dor [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2012-08-17

    Understanding the fundamental principles governing the structure and dynamics of water - and particularly how water mediates chemical interactions and processes - continues to pose formidable challenges and yield abundant surprises. The focus of this Gordon Research Conference is on identifying key questions, describing emerging understandings, and unveiling surprising discoveries related to water and aqueous solutions. The talks and posters at this meeting will describe studies of water and its interactions with objects such as interfaces, channels, electrons, oils, ions, and proteins; probed using optical, electrical, and particle experiments, and described using classical, quantum, and multi-scale theories.

  5. High-resolution simulations of the final assembly of Earth-like planets. 2. Water delivery and planetary habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Quinn, Thomas; Lunine, Jonathan I

    2007-02-01

    The water content and habitability of terrestrial planets are determined during their final assembly, from perhaps 100 1,000-km "planetary embryos " and a swarm of billions of 1-10-km "planetesimals. " During this process, we assume that water-rich material is accreted by terrestrial planets via impacts of water-rich bodies that originate in the outer asteroid region. We present analysis of water delivery and planetary habitability in five high-resolution simulations containing about 10 times more particles than in previous simulations. These simulations formed 15 terrestrial planets from 0.4 to 2.6 Earth masses, including five planets in the habitable zone. Every planet from each simulation accreted at least the Earth's current water budget; most accreted several times that amount (assuming no impact depletion). Each planet accreted at least five water-rich embryos and planetesimals from the past 2.5 astronomical units; most accreted 10-20 water-rich bodies. We present a new model for water delivery to terrestrial planets in dynamically calm systems, with low-eccentricity or low-mass giant planets-such systems may be very common in the Galaxy. We suggest that water is accreted in comparable amounts from a few planetary embryos in a " hit or miss " way and from millions of planetesimals in a statistically robust process. Variations in water content are likely to be caused by fluctuations in the number of water-rich embryos accreted, as well as from systematic effects, such as planetary mass and location, and giant planet properties.

  6. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  7. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 15. Liming acidic surface waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olem, H.; Thornelof, E.; Sandoy, S.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1990-09-01

    The document describes the science and technology of aquatic liming--a method for improving the water quality of acidic surface waters to restore or enhance fisheries. The report is a comprehensive compilation of years of research in North America and Europe by dozens of scientists. Several mitigation technologies--including those that have only been proposed--are critically evaluated along with the effects of liming on water chemistry and aquatic biota. Through these evaluations, the state of the science and technology of aquatic liming is identified for the reader. Whole-lake liming is now recognized as a valuable management tool for acidic surface waters and their fisheries. However, some liming technologies are considered experimental and will need further evaluation. Distinctions between technologies are included--as is the distinction between liming acidic surface waters and reducing acidifying emissions

  8. Optimizing the air flotation water treatment process. Final report, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, B.

    1998-09-01

    The injection water for the Nelson Project is a combination of produced and make-up water, typical of many Eastern Kansas operations. The make-up water is a low-salinity salt water from the Arbuckle Formation and contains dissolved minerals and sulfides. The produced water contains suspended oil, suspended clay and silt particles, along with a combination of other dissolved minerals. The combination of the two waters causes several undesirable reactions. The suspended solids load contained in the combined waters would plug a 75-micron plant bag filter within one day. Wellhead filters of 75-micron size were also being used on the injection wells. The poor water quality resulted in severe loss of injectivity and frequent wellbore cleaning of the injection wells. Various mechanical and graded-bed filtration methods were considered for cleaning the water. These methods were rejected due to the lack of field equipment and service availability. A number of vendors did not even respond to the author`s request. The air flotation process was selected as offering the best hope for a long-term solution. The objective of this work is to: increase the cost effectiveness of the process through optimizing process design factors and operational parameters. A vastly modified air flotation system is the principal tool for accomplishing the project objective. The air flotation unit, as received from manufacturer Separation Specialist, was primarily designed to remove oil from produced water. The additional requirement for solids removal necessitated major physical changes in the unit. Problems encountered with the air flotation unit and specific modifications are detailed in the body of the report.

  9. Hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yuyan; Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Dezhen; Zhou, Bin; Li, Jianyi; Li, Xian-wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The first study to apply Fe-sulfate in hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition. ► The first study to comprehensively evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment on dioxin decomposition and heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. ► Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation, and to support the experimental data by the calculation results. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI fly ash was performed in this paper with a purpose to reduce its dioxin content. First a hydrothermal reactor was set up with a mixture of ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate serviced as the reactant, then the effects caused by reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, pre-treatment by water-washing and reactant dosage were checked; the results showed that as a promising technology, hydrothermal treatment exhibited considerable high efficiencies in decomposition of PCDDs/PCDFs and good stabilization of heavy metals as well. Experimental results also showed that for dioxin destruction, higher reaction temperature is the most important influencing factor followed by Fe addition, and pre-treatment of raw fly ash by water-washing increased the destruction efficiencies of dioxins only very slightly. Finally with help of Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation. The calculation results were supported by the experimental data. The leaching toxicities of hydrothermal products were higher than upper limits defined in the latest Chinese standard GB 16889-2008 for sanitary landfill disposal, thus an auxiliary process is suggested after the hydrothermal treatment for heavy metal stabilization.

  10. Role of electrodes in ambient electrolytic decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Kai Seng; Chin, Jitkai; Wahida Ku Chik, Tengku F.

    2013-01-01

    Decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) solution with electrolytic decomposition method has attracted much attention in recent years due to its efficiencies and practicability. However, the phenomenon has not been well-studied till now. By utilizing mathematical model currently available, the effect of water content and power used for decomposition was studied. Experiment data shows that sacrificial material such as copper or aluminum outperforms inert electrodes in the decomposition ...

  11. Research and development of an air-cycle heat-pump water heater. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, J.T.; Erickson, A.J.; Harvey, A.C.; Toscano, W.M.

    1979-10-01

    A prototype reverse Brayton air cycle heat pump water heater has been designed and built for residential applications. The system consists of a compressor/expander, an air-water heat exchanger, an electric motor, a water circulation pump, a thermostat, and fluid management controls. The prototype development program consisted of a market analysis, design study, and development testing. A potential residential market for the new high-efficiency water heater of approximately 480,000 units/y was identified. The retail and installation cost of this water heater is estimated to be between $500 and $600 which is approximately $300 more than a conventional electric water heater. The average payback per unit is less than 3-1/2 y and the average recurring energy cost savings after the payback period is approximately $105/y at the average seasonal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.7. As part of the design effort, a thermodynamic parametric analysis was performed on the water heater system. It was determined that to obtain a coefficient of performance of 1.7, the isentropic efficiency of both the compressor and the expander must be at least 85%. The selected mechanical configuration is described. The water heater has a diameter of 25 in. and a height of 73 in. The results of the development testing of the prototype water heater system showed: the electrical motor maximum efficiency of 78%; the compressor isentropic efficiency is 95 to 119% and the volumetric efficiency is approximately 85%; the expander isentropic efficiency is approximately 58% and the volumetric efficiency is 92%; a significant heat transfer loss of approximately 16% occurred in the expander; and the prototype heat pump system COP is 1.26 which is less than the design goal of at least 1.7. Future development work is recommended.

  12. Rapid Return of Nitrogen but not Phosphorus to Ecosystem Nutrition During Decomposition of Quagga Mussel Tissue in Sand, Mud, or Water During Oxic or Anoxic Incubation: Implications for Phytoplankton Bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, E. M.; Cuhel, R. L.; Aguilar, C.

    2016-02-01

    In 2003 Quagga mussels were found to have invaded Lake Michigan. Their presence has changed the structure of the lake both ecologically (benthification) as well as chemically (oligotrophication). They consume large amounts of phytoplankton, which decreases the particulate nitrogen and phosphorous nutrients available to other consumers including zooplankton. As a result, fisheries productivity has decreased nearly 95%. Recently reaching the end of the first life cycle, in death they release a portion of these nutrients back into the freshwater system during decomposition. This work determined amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrient recycling for several relevant sediment-water interface conditions: oxic vs anoxic in water, mud, or sand over a weeklong period. Concentrations of ammonium, soluble reactive phosphorus, and nitrate were used to analyze nutrient release as decomposition took place. In a short time up to 25% of tissue N was released as ammonia, and under oxic conditions in mud or sand, nitrification converted some of the ammonia to nitrate. Unexpectedly, mussels decaying in anoxic conditions released ammonium much more slowly. A slower rate of release in ammonium for the intact body with the shell (burial) was observed when compared to ground mussel tissue (detritivory). Nitrate was removed in anoxic incubations, indicating anaerobic denitrification. Phosphate release was initially higher under anoxic conditions than those decaying aerobically. There was no significant difference in the amount or rate of release of SRP between ground mussel and whole bodied with the shell. The anoxic treatment showed similar patterns of release for both ground mussel and intact body with shell. Most important, phosphate was subsequently removed in all treatments and diffusible nutrient was minimal (<100nM). The results link to nutrient assimilation patterns of deep phytoplankton communities, which can replace nitrate with ammonium as an N source.

  13. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

    1986-06-01

    Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

  14. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are

  15. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings ' ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.' Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are in

  16. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Method Study 12, cyanide in water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J.; Britton, P.; Kroner, R.

    1984-05-01

    EPA Method Study 12, Cyanide in Water reports the results of a study by EMSL-Cincinnati for the parameters, Total Cyanide and Cyanides Amendable to Chlorination, present in water at microgram per liter levels. Four methods: pyridine-pyrazolone, pyridine-barbituric acid, electrode and Roberts-Jackson were used by 112 laboratories in Federal and State agencies, municipalities, universities, and the private/industrial sector. Sample concentrates were prepared in pairs with similar concentrations at each of three levels. Analysts diluted samples to volume with distilled and natural waters and analyzed them. Precision, accuracy, bias and the natural water interference were evaluated for each analytical method and comparisons were made between the four methods.

  17. 77 FR 30280 - Final National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ...[supreg]. It is an insecticide, a molluscide, and is used to thin fruit in orchards. It is registered in... in water, with detections in approximately 50% of urban streams (U.S.G.S. 2006). EPA has previously...

  18. Thermal decomposition of nitrate salts liquid waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the thermal decomposition property of nitrate salts liquid waste which is produced in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Thermal decomposition property was analyzed by TG/DTA and XRD. Most ammonium nitrate in the nitrate salts liquid waste was decomposed at 250 .deg. C and calcium nitrate was decomposed and converted into calcium oxide at 550 .deg. C. Sodium nitrate was decomposed at 700 .deg. C and converted into sodium oxide which reacts with water easily. But sodium oxide was able to convert into a stable compound by adding alumina. Therefore, nitrate salts liquid waste can be treated by two steps as follows. First, ammonium nitrate is decomposed at 250 .deg. C. Second, alumina is added in residual solid sodium nitrate and calcium nitrate and these are decomposed at 900 .deg. C. Final residue consists of calcium oxide and Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 and can be stored stably

  19. Decomposition of lake phytoplankton. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.; Krog, G.F.; Soendergaard, M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-time (24 h) and long-time (4-6 d) decomposition of phytoplankton cells were investigasted under in situ conditions in four Danish lakes. Carbon-14-labelled, dead algae were exposed to sterile or natural lake water and the dynamics of cell lysis and bacterial utilization of the leached products were followed. The lysis process was dominated by an initial fast water extraction. Within 2 to 4 h from 4 to 34% of the labelled carbon leached from the algal cells. After 24 h from 11 to 43% of the initial particulate carbon was found as dissolved carbon in the experiments with sterile lake water; after 4 to 6 d the leaching was from 67 to 78% of the initial 14 C. The leached compounds were utilized by bacteria. A comparison of the incubations using sterile and natural water showed that a mean of 71% of the lysis products was metabolized by microorganisms within 24 h. In two experiments the uptake rate equalled the leaching rate. (author)

  20. Final Opportunity to Rehabilitate an Urban River as a Water Source for Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Orta-Ledesma, María Teresa; Armas-Vargas, Felipe; Tapia, Marco A.; Solano-Ortiz, Rosa; Silva, Miguel A.; Yañez-Noguez, Isaura; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973–2010), along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008–2012) in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City. PMID:25054805

  1. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  2. Final opportunity to rehabilitate an urban river as a water source for Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Mazari-Hiriart

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973-2010, along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008-2012 in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City.

  3. Final opportunity to rehabilitate an urban river as a water source for Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Orta-Ledesma, María Teresa; Armas-Vargas, Felipe; Tapia, Marco A; Solano-Ortiz, Rosa; Silva, Miguel A; Yañez-Noguez, Isaura; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973-2010), along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008-2012) in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City.

  4. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  5. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  6. Magic Coset Decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciatori, Sergio L; Marrani, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting a "mixed" non-symmetric Freudenthal-Rozenfeld-Tits magic square, two types of coset decompositions are analyzed for the non-compact special K\\"ahler symmetric rank-3 coset E7(-25)/[(E6(-78) x U(1))/Z_3], occurring in supergravity as the vector multiplets' scalar manifold in N=2, D=4 exceptional Maxwell-Einstein theory. The first decomposition exhibits maximal manifest covariance, whereas the second (triality-symmetric) one is of Iwasawa type, with maximal SO(8) covariance. Generalizations to conformal non-compact, real forms of non-degenerate, simple groups "of type E7" are presented for both classes of coset parametrizations, and relations to rank-3 simple Euclidean Jordan algebras and normed trialities over division algebras are also discussed.

  7. Three-dimensional decomposition models for carbon productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Ming; Niu, Dongxiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents decomposition models for the change in carbon productivity, which is considered a key indicator that reflects the contributions to the control of greenhouse gases. Carbon productivity differential was used to indicate the beginning of decomposition. After integrating the differential equation and designing the Log Mean Divisia Index equations, a three-dimensional absolute decomposition model for carbon productivity was derived. Using this model, the absolute change of carbon productivity was decomposed into a summation of the absolute quantitative influences of each industrial sector, for each influence factor (technological innovation and industrial structure adjustment) in each year. Furthermore, the relative decomposition model was built using a similar process. Finally, these models were applied to demonstrate the decomposition process in China. The decomposition results reveal several important conclusions: (a) technological innovation plays a far more important role than industrial structure adjustment; (b) industry and export trade exhibit great influence; (c) assigning the responsibility for CO 2 emission control to local governments, optimizing the structure of exports, and eliminating backward industrial capacity are highly essential to further increase China's carbon productivity. -- Highlights: ► Using the change of carbon productivity to measure a country's contribution. ► Absolute and relative decomposition models for carbon productivity are built. ► The change is decomposed to the quantitative influence of three-dimension. ► Decomposition results can be used for improving a country's carbon productivity.

  8. Kinetic study of lithium-cadmium ternary amalgam decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, M.H.; Andrade, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of metals, which form stable lithium phase in binary alloys, on the formation of intermetallic species in ternary amalgams and their effect on thermal decomposition in contact with water is analyzed. Cd is selected as ternary metal, based on general experimental selection criteria. Cd (Hg) binary amalgams are prepared by direct contact Cd-Hg, whereas Li is formed by electrolysis of Li OH aq using a liquid Cd (Hg) cathodic well. The decomposition kinetic of Li C(Hg) in contact with 0.6 M Li OH is studied in function of ageing and temperature, and these results are compared with the binary amalgam Li (Hg) decomposition. The decomposition rate is constant during one hour for binary and ternary systems. Ageing does not affect the binary systems but increases the decomposition activation energy of ternary systems. A reaction mechanism that considers an intermetallic specie participating in the activated complex is proposed and a kinetic law is suggested. (author)

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix M: Water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. Analysis of water quality begins with an account of the planning and evaluation process, and continues with a description of existing water quality conditions in the Columbia River Basin. This is followed by an explanation how the analysis was conducted. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the effects of SOR alternatives on water quality and a comparison of alternatives

  10. Fate and effects of nearshore discharges of OCS produced waters. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabalais, N.N.; McKee, B.A.; Reed, D.J.; Means, J.C.

    1991-06-01

    While the number of facilities that discharge OCS produced waters into coastal environments of Louisiana are few in number, they account for large volumes, individually and collectively. Of the 15 facilities which discharge OCS-generated produced water into coastal environments of Louisiana (as of February 1990), 10 discharges in seven areas were studied. The discharge volumes of the study areas range from 3,000 to 106,000/bbl.d. The receiving environments for these effluents are varied, but include the shallow, nearshore continental shelf; high energy, freshwater distributaries of the Mississippi River delta; and brackish and saline coastal environments with moderately to poorly flushed waters. All study areas are within the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. The study expanded on the initial assessment of Boesch and Rabalais (1989a) with increased temporal and spatial studies of three areas, additional study sites including an abandoned discharge, and additional analytical and field observations

  11. Final LDRD report :ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, Michael Anthony; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Ross, Michael P.; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Boucher, Ray

    2005-11-01

    We present the results of a one year LDRD program that has focused on evaluating the use of newly developed deep ultraviolet LEDs in water purification. We describe our development efforts that have produced an LED-based water exposure set-up and enumerate the advances that have been made in deep UV LED performance throughout the project. The results of E. coli inactivation with 270-295 nm LEDs are presented along with an assessment of the potential for applying deep ultraviolet LED-based water purification to mobile point-of-use applications as well as to rural and international environments where the benefits of photovoltaic-powered systems can be realized.

  12. The final effect of extraction system in the uranyl nitrate-water-diethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Luina, A.; Gutierrez Jodra, L.; Miro, A. R.

    1957-01-01

    The solute transfer of uranyl nitrate from diallylether to water has been studied in a spray column using water as dispersed phase and a direction of extraction from ether to water. The column is 102 cm. long has a diameter of 4. 7 cm. The entrances of the phases are 7 7 cm. apart. The rates of flow of both phases have been used as variables and the concentration of the continuous phase has been determined; at different heights. The curves of logarithm of concentration of the continuous phase vs , distance to interphase show the presence of a drop of concentration in the entrance of the continuous phase. This depends on the rates of flow of the phases. No effect in the entrance of the dispersed phase has been found. (Author)

  13. JGOFS IV. Subproject: natural radionuclides as tracers for particle dynamics in the water column. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, J.C.; Fietzke, J.; Mangini, A.; Stoffers, P.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the German JOINT GLOBAL OCEAN FLUX STUDY (JGOFS) the aim of the project was to investigate the particle dynamics in the water column, especially to estimate the trapping efficiencies of sediment traps deployed in the eastern North Atlantic (L1: 33 N 21 W; L2: 47 N 19.5 W; L3: 54,4 N 21,1 W; ESTOC: 29,07 N 15,25 W; OMEX: 49 N 12,5 W). This investigation was based on measurements of the distribution of natural radionuclides in the water column and in sediment traps. In the upper water column (≤1000 m) the 230 Th concentrations are similar at all locations investigated and a reversible scavenging model was able to describe the 230 Th distribution. In the deep water-column at L2 and L3 the 230 Th concentrations were significantly lower than predicted from the reversible scavenging model. The 230 Th concentrations here could be described by a scavenging-mixing model which assumes an advection of 230 Th depleted water masses and a rapid ventilation between 3 and 25 years. Based on two models, a mass balance for 230 Th and 231 Pa and a constant removal model, sediment trap efficiencies were calculated to be between 9% and 143%. The lowest efficiencies (9%-36%) were determined in the 500 m and 1000 m traps and no direct relation between water currents velocities and trapping biases were observed. The correction for trapping biases were found to be important for the understanding of the regional differences in the particle flux in the eastern north Atlantic. (orig.) [de

  14. Changes in water quality of the River Frome (UK) from 1965 to 2009: Is phosphorus mitigation finally working?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, M.J., E-mail: mibo@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Smith, J.T. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Burnaby Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Neal, C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Leach, D.V. [formally Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset, DT2 8ZD (United Kingdom); Scarlett, P.M.; Wickham, H.D.; Harman, S.A.; Armstrong, L.K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Davy-Bowker, J. [Freshwater Biological Association, River Laboratory, East Stoke, Wareham, Dorset, BH20 6BB (United Kingdom); Haft, M. [Freshwater Biological Association, Ferry Landing, Far Sawrey, Ambleside, Cumbria, LA22 0LP (United Kingdom); Davies, C.E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    The water quality of the River Frome, Dorset, southern England, was monitored at weekly intervals from 1965 until 2009. Determinands included phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, pH, alkalinity and temperature. Nitrate-N concentrations increased from an annual average of 2.4 mg l{sup -1} in the mid to late 1960s to 6.0 mg l{sup -1} in 2008-2009, but the rate of increase was beginning to slow. Annual soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations increased from 101 {mu}g l{sup -1} in the mid 1960s to a maximum of 190 {mu}g l{sup -1} in 1989. In 2002, there was a step reduction in SRP concentration (average = 88 {mu}g l{sup -1} in 2002-2005), with further improvement in 2007-2009 (average = 49 {mu}g l{sup -1}), due to the introduction of phosphorus stripping at sewage treatment works. Phosphorus and nitrate concentrations showed clear annual cycles, related to the timing of inputs from the catchment, and within-stream bioaccumulation and release. Annual depressions in silicon concentration each spring (due to diatom proliferation) reached a maximum between 1980 and 1991, (the period of maximum SRP concentration) indicating that algal biomass had increased within the river. The timing of these silicon depressions was closely related to temperature. Excess carbon dioxide partial pressures (EpCO{sub 2}) of 60 times atmospheric CO{sub 2} were also observed through the winter periods from 1980 to 1992, when phosphorus concentration was greatest, indicating very high respiration rates due to microbial decomposition of this enhanced biomass. Declining phosphorus concentrations since 2002 reduced productivity and algal biomass in the summer, and EpCO{sub 2} through the winter, indicating that sewage treatment improvements had improved riverine ecology. Algal blooms were limited by phosphorus, rather than silicon concentration. The value of long-term water quality data sets is discussed. The data from this monitoring programme are made

  15. Review and synthesis of historical Tampa Bay water quality data. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.; Weisberg, R.; Bendis, B.; Rutherford, E.H.

    1992-11-01

    The review and synthesis of historical water quality data was one of the first characterization projects administered by the Tampa Bay National Estuary Program (NEP). The objective of the project was to describe the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Tampa Bay. The report examines the spatial and temporal trends from the acquired data for possible interrelationships and develops them statistically

  16. Real-time discriminatory sensors for water contamination events :LDRD 52595 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III (; ); Carrejo-Simpkins, Kimberly; Wheeler, David Roger; Adkins, Douglas Ray; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Lewis, Patrick Raymond; Goodin, Andrew M.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Chambers, William Clayton; Mowry, Curtis Dale (1722 Micro-Total-Analytical Systems); Showalter, Steven Kedrick

    2005-10-01

    The gas-phase {mu}ChemLab{trademark} developed by Sandia can detect volatile organics and semi-volatiles organics via gas phase sampling . The goal of this three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project was to adapt the components and concepts used by the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} system towards the analysis of water-borne chemicals of current concern. In essence, interfacing the gas-phase {mu}ChemLab{trademark} with water to bring the significant prior investment of Sandia and the advantages of microfabrication and portable analysis to a whole new world of important analytes. These include both chemical weapons agents and their hydrolysis products and disinfection by-products such as Trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). THMs and HAAs are currently regulated by EPA due to health issues, yet water utilities do not have rapid on-site methods of detection that would allow them to adjust their processes quickly; protecting consumers, meeting water quality standards, and obeying regulations more easily and with greater confidence. This report documents the results, unique hardware and devices, and methods designed during the project toward the goal stated above. It also presents and discusses the portable field system to measure THMs developed in the course of this project.

  17. Spectroscopic studies of U(VI) sorption at the kaolinite-water interface. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.A.; Parks, G.A.; Brown, G.E. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Efficient use of U as a resource and safe handling, recycling and disposal of U-containing wastes require an understanding of the factors controlling the fate of U, where fate refers to the destination of U, typically expressed as an environmental medium or a process phase. The sorption process constitutes a change in elemental fate. Partitioning of an element from solution to a solid phase, or sorption, can be divided into three broad categories: adsorption, surface precipitation, and absorption. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), a type of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), offers the possibility for distinguishing among different modes of sorption by characterizing the atomic environment of the sorbing element. In this study, the authors use EXAFS to determine the structure of U(VI) sorption complexes at the kaolinite-water interface. In Chapter One, they present an overview of selected aspects of U structural chemistry as a basis for considering the structural environment of U at the solid-water interface. To evaluate the utility of XAS for characterization of the structural environment of U(VI) at the solid-water interface, they have carried out an in-depth analysis of XAS data from U(VI)-containing solid and solution model compounds, which they describe in Chapter Two. In Chapter three, they consider sorption of U by kaolinite as a means of effecting the removal of U from surface collection pond waters on the Rocky Flats Plant site in northern Colorado

  18. Final Technical Report: The Water-to-Wire (W2W) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissner, Daniel N. [Free Flow Power Corporation, Boston, MA (United States); Edward, Lovelace C. [Free Flow Power Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-24

    The purpose of the Free Flow Power (FFP) Water-to-Wire Project (Project) was to evaluate and optimize the performance, environmental compatibility, and cost factors of FFP hydrokinetic turbines through design analyses and deployments in test flumes and riverine locations.

  19. SEAFP cooling system design. Task M8 - water coolant option (final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubley, P.; Natalizio, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the ex-vessel portions of the outline designs for first wall, blanket and divertor cooling using water as the heat transport fluid. Equipment layout, key components and main system parameters are also described. (author). 7 tabs., 14 figs

  20. Water quality criteria for colored smokes: Solvent Yellow 33, Final report. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.

    1987-11-01

    The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of Solvent Yellow 33, a quinoline dye used in colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its use and of human health. 87 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low

  2. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ( 222 Rn), uranium ( 238,234 U), radium ( 226 , 228 Ra), lead ( 210 Pb) and polonium ( 210 Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 μSv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong acidic cation exchange resins

  3. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T. [eds.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ({sup 222}Rn), uranium ({sup 238,234}U), radium ({sup 226}, {sup 228}Ra), lead ({sup 210}Pb) and polonium ({sup 210}Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 {mu}Sv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong

  4. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project: Final report. [October 21, 1992-April, 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D. [Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US); Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc., Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (US); Nielson, D.L.; Lutz, S.J. [Energy and Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. Comprehensive reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations of the Monument Butte, Travis and Boundary units were presented in the two published project yearly reports. The primary and the secondary production from the Monument Butte unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close to its bubble point. The water flood in the smaller Travis unit appeared affected by natural and possibly by large interconnecting hydraulic fractures. Water flooding the boundary unit was considered more complicated due to the presence of an oil water contact in one of the wells. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter c ore, Formation Micro Imaging logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir characterization efforts identified new reservoirs in the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2000 barrels per day.

  5. Flow in water-intake pump bays: A guide for utility engineers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettema, R.

    1998-09-01

    This report is intended to serve as a guide for power-plant engineers facing problems with flow conditions in pump bays in water-intake structures, especially those located alongside rivers. The guide briefly introduces the typical prevailing flow field outside of a riverside water intake. That flow field often sets the inflow conditions for pump bays located within the water intake. The monograph then presents and discusses the main flow problems associated with pump bays. The problems usually revolve around the formation of troublesome vortices. A novel feature of this monograph is the use of numerical modeling to reveal diagnostically how the vortices form and their sensitivities to flow conditions, such as uniformity of approach flow entering the bay and water-surface elevation relative to pump-bell submergence. The modeling was carried out using a computer code developed specially for the present project. Pump-bay layouts are discussed next. The discussion begins with a summary of the main variables influencing bay flows. The numerical model is used to determine the sensitivities of the vortices to variations in the geometric parameters. The fixes include the use of flow-control vanes and suction scoops for ensuring satisfactory flow performance in severe flow conditions; notably flows with strong cross flow and shallow flows. The monograph ends with descriptions of modeling techniques. An extensive discussion is provided on the use of numerical model for illuminating bay flows. The model is used to show how fluid viscosity affects bay flow. The effect of fluid viscosity is an important consideration in hydraulic modeling of water intakes

  6. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project: Final report, October 21, 1992-April, 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, M.D.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D.; Nielson, D.L.; Lutz, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. Comprehensive reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations of the Monument Butte, Travis and Boundary units were presented in the two published project yearly reports. The primary and the secondary production from the Monument Butte unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close to its bubble point. The water flood in the smaller Travis unit appeared affected by natural and possibly by large interconnecting hydraulic fractures. Water flooding the boundary unit was considered more complicated due to the presence of an oil water contact in one of the wells. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter c ore, Formation Micro Imaging logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir characterization efforts identified new reservoirs in the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2000 barrels per day

  7. SEWAGE DECOMPOSITION IN AMBIENT WATER: INFLUENCE OF SOLARRADIATION AND BIOTIC INTERACTIONS ON MICROORGANISM COMMUNITIES AND BACTEROIDALES REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR MEASUREMENTS - poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIMS: Sewage and ambient water both consist of a highly complex array of bacteria and eukaryotic microbes. When these communities are mixed, solar radiation and biotic interactions (predation and competition) can influence pathogen decay based on experiments targeting indicator ...

  8. Photochemical decomposition of H2O and HN3 using colloidal semiconductor catalysts as a method of tritium recovery from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monserrat, K.J.; D'Souza, L.M.

    1985-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor redox catalysts were used to accelerate the photodecomposition of water and ammonia in aqueous solution. Parameters that affect overall catalytic efficiency, e.g. support material, doping and surface modification, were investigated

  9. Final Report: Phase II Nevada Water Resources Data, Modeling, and Visualization (DMV) Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Thomas [Desert Research Institute; Minor, Timothy [Desert Research Institute; Pohll, Gregory [Desert Research Institute

    2013-07-22

    Water is unquestionably a critical resource throughout the United States. In the semi-arid west -- an area stressed by increase in human population and sprawl of the built environment -- water is the most important limiting resource. Crucially, science must understand factors that affect availability and distribution of water. To sustain growing consumptive demand, science needs to translate understanding into reliable and robust predictions of availability under weather conditions that could be average but might be extreme. These predictions are needed to support current and long-term planning. Similar to the role of weather forecast and climate prediction, water prediction over short and long temporal scales can contribute to resource strategy, governmental policy and municipal infrastructure decisions, which are arguably tied to the natural variability and unnatural change to climate. Change in seasonal and annual temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and runoff affect the distribution of water over large temporal and spatial scales, which impact the risk of flooding and the groundwater recharge. Anthropogenic influences and impacts increase the complexity and urgency of the challenge. The goal of this project has been to develop a decision support framework of data acquisition, digital modeling, and 3D visualization. This integrated framework consists of tools for compiling, discovering and projecting our understanding of processes that control the availability and distribution of water. The framework is intended to support the analysis of the complex interactions between processes that affect water supply, from controlled availability to either scarcity or deluge. The developed framework enables DRI to promote excellence in water resource management, particularly within the Lake Tahoe basin. In principle, this framework could be replicated for other watersheds throughout the United States. Phase II of this project builds upon the research conducted during

  10. Water Treatment Using Advanced Ultraviolet Light Sources Final Report CRADA No. TC02089.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppes, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Oster, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Teknichal Services, LLC (TkS), to develop water treatment systems using advanced ultraviolet light sources. The Russian institutes involved with this project were The High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) and Russian Institute of Technical Physics-Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF). HCEI and VNIIEF developed and demonstrated the potential commercial viability of short-wavelength ultraviolet excimer lamps under a Thrust 1 Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) Program. The goals of this collaboration were to demonstrate both the commercial viability of excilampbased water disinfection and achieve further substantial operational improvement in the lamps themselves; particularly in the area of energy efficiency.

  11. Limiting factor analysis of high availability nuclear plants (boiling water reactors). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, L.G.; Brady, R.M.; Shor, S.W.W.; McCusker, J.T.; Alden, W.M.; Kovacs, S.

    1979-08-01

    The pertinent results are presented of a 16-month study conducted for Electric Power Research Institute by General Electric Company, Bechtel Power Corporation, and Philadelphia Electric Company. The study centered around the Peach Bottom 2 Atomic Power Station, but also included limited study of operations at 20 additional operating boiling water reactors. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate key factors limiting plant availability, and to identify potential improvements for eliminating or alleviating those limitations. The key limiting factors were found to be refueling activities; activities related to the reactor fuel; reactor scrams; activities related to 20 operating systems or major components; delays due to radiation, turbid water during refueling operations, facilities/working conditions, and dirt/foreign material; and general maintenance/repair of valves and piping. Existing programs to reduce the effect on plant unavailability are identified, and suggestions for further action are made

  12. Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

  13. Early response of pressurized hot water in a pipe to a sudden break. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Kan, C.Y.; Lienhard, J.H.

    1981-06-01

    Experimental and analytic studies that explain the details of early pressure variations during rapid depressurization in water-cooled reactors are presented as a means of assessing sudden break consequences in a coolant pipe. The report includes (1) a description of the experiment, (2) an analysis of the new bubble growth law for thermally controlled growth of vapor bubbles in an exponentially-varying pressure field, and (3) a review of previous studies and additional observations of blowdown behavior

  14. Influence of coffee/water ratio on the final quality of espresso coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Andueza, S. (Susana); Vila, M.A. (María A.); Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de; Cid, C. (Concepción)

    2007-01-01

    Espresso coffee is a polyphasic beverage in which the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics obviously depend on both the selection of ground roasted coffee and the technical conditions of the percolation process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the coffee/water ratio on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of espresso coffee. Furthermore, the influence of botanical varieties (Arabica and Robusta) and the type of roast (conventional and torrefacto) on the selec...

  15. East Saint Louis and Vicinity, Illinois. Blue Waters Ditch Improvements. Final Environmental Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    2.1.7 CLIMATOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF THE AMERICAN BOTTOMS 2.1.7.1 General The climate of the American Bottoms and the Blue Waters area is that of the...land be sold by the owner for urban developnient. The older farmers express an intention to remain in the alea even in the event of farm loss. Each...land use is pastureland for grazing. Such livestock activities, though important in St. Clair County agriculture, are totally lacking in the Blue

  16. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has a program of research in the environmental aspects of oil and gas extraction. This sampling project will characterize the environmental impacts associated with the discharge of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), metals and organics in produced water. This report is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico, supported by the USDOE. These assessments are being coordinated with the field study, using the collected data to perform human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the development and use of appropriate discharge practices. The initial human health and ecological risk assessments consist of conservative screening analyses meant to identify potentially important contaminants, and to eliminate others from further consideration. More quantitative assessments were done for contaminants identified, in the screening analysis, as being of potential concern. Section 2 gives an overview of human health and ecological risk assessment to help put the analyses presented here in perspective. Section 3 provides the hazard assessment portion of the risk assessment, and identifies the important receptors and pathways of concern. Section 3 also outlines the approach taken to the risk assessments presented in the rest of the report. The remaining sections (4 through 9) present the human health and ecological risk assessments for discharges of produced water to open bays in Louisiana

  17. Geothermal data-base study: mine-water temperatures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, D.C.; Sonderegger, J.L.

    1978-07-01

    Investigation of about 1,600 mines and prospects for perennial discharge resulted in the measurement of temperature, pH, specific conductance, and discharge at 80 sites to provide information for a geothermal data base. Measurements were made in the fall, winter, and late spring or early summer to provide information about seasonal variability. None of the temperatures measured exceeded the mean annual air temperature by 15/sup 0/F, but three areas were noted where discharges were anomalously warm, based upon high temperatures, slight temperature variation, and quantity of discharge. The most promising area, at the Gold Bug mine in the Little Rockies, discharges water averaging 7.3/sup 0/C (12.1/sup 0/F) above the mean annual air temperature. The discharge may represent water heated during circulation within the syenite intrusive body. If the syenite is enriched in uranium and thorium, an abnormal amount of heat would be produced by radioactive decay. Alternatively, the water may move through deep permeable sedimentary strata, such as the Madison Group, and be discharged to the surface through fractures in the pluton.

  18. Determination of T90 in the coastal waters near Punta Lobos final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.; Luchini, L.; Gesto, J.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the T--90 in estuarine and coastal waters is reviewed.A mathematical diagnostics model to describe advection,dispersion and bacterial mortality in complex stratified receiving waters is developed and solved using regular perturbation techniques.Four field experiments were designed and executed in the estuarine coastal waters of Punta Lobos,Department of Montevideo,Uruguay.Fluorescent dyes were used to measure dilution.The classic method of counting in the laboratory the number of colony forming units was employed to estimate bacterial concentrations.Drogues and an auxiliary dye were used to facilitate the sailor maneuvers.Three ships were used in the field experiments.Winds,currents,temperature,conductivity,salinity,ph and other parameters were measured in each campaign.Using the measured parameters and mathematical prognostic models the mass of tracer required was calculated on board and subsequently injected jointly with the bacterial population.The experimental data were used to estimate a value of T90 in each scenario

  19. Final hazard classification for N basin water filtration and sediment relocation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarcik, D.J.; Kretzschmar, S.P.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides an auditable safety analysis and hazard classification for the filtration of basin water and the relocation of 105-N basin solids to the North Cask Pit within the basin complex. This report assesses the operation of the Water Filtration System and the Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment (ROSEE). These activities have an activity hazard classification of radiological. Inventories of potentially releasable nonradioactive hazardous materials are far below the reportable quantities of 40 CFR 302. No controls are required to maintain the releasable inventories of these materials below the reportable quantities. Descriptive material is included to provide a general understanding of the water filtration and sediment relocation processes. All equipment will be operated as described in work instructions and/or applicable procedures. Special controls associated with these activities are as follows: (1) A leak inspection of the ROSEE system shall be performed at least once every 5-hour period of sediment relocation operation. (2) A berm must be in place around the North Cask Pit to redirect a potential abovewater ROSEE system leak back to the basin

  20. Clustering via Kernel Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Girolami, Mark A.; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Methods for spectral clustering have been proposed recently which rely on the eigenvalue decomposition of an affinity matrix. In this work it is proposed that the affinity matrix is created based on the elements of a non-parametric density estimator. This matrix is then decomposed to obtain...... posterior probabilities of class membership using an appropriate form of nonnegative matrix factorization. The troublesome selection of hyperparameters such as kernel width and number of clusters can be obtained using standard cross-validation methods as is demonstrated on a number of diverse data sets....

  1. Solid-phase thermal decomposition of 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minier, L.; Behrens, R. Jr. [Rome Astronomical Observatory (Italy). Space Physics Research Center; Bulusu, S. [Army Armament Research and Development Command, Dover, NJ (United States). Energetic Materials Div.

    1996-12-31

    The solid-phase thermal decomposition of the insensitive energetic nitroaromatic heterocycle 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI: mp 265--274C) is studied utilizing simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) between 200 and 247C. The pyrolysis products have been identified using perdeuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled isotopomers. The products consist of low molecular-weight gases and a thermally stable solid residue. The major gaseous products are NO, CO{sub 2}, CO, N{sub 2}, HNCO and H{sub 2}O. Minor gaseous products are HCN, C{sub 2}N{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sub 3}O and NH{sub 3}. The elemental formula of the residue is C{sub 2}HN{sub 2}O and FTIR analysis suggests that it is polyurea- and polycarbamate-like in nature. Rates of formation of the gaseous products and their respective quantities have been determined for a typical isothermal decomposition experiment at 235C. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates indicate that the overall decomposition is characterized by a sequence of four events; (1) an early decomposition period induced by impurities and water, (2) an induction period where C0{sub 2} and NO are the primary products formed at relatively constant rates, (3) an autoacceleratory period that peaks when the sample is depleted and (4) a final period in which the residue decomposes. Arrhenius parameters for the induction period are E{sub a} = 46.9 {plus_minus} 0.7 kcal/mol and Log(A) = 16.3 {plus_minus} 0.3. Decomposition pathways that are consistent with the data are presented.

  2. COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip E. Savage

    1999-01-01

    Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO(sub 2), bulk TiO(sub 2), and CuO supported on Al(sub 2) O(sub 3). We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO(sub 2) yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO(sub 2) and TiO(sub 2) catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO(sub 2) formation rates during SCWO. MnO(sub 2) does not affect the selectivity to CO(sub 2), or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO(sub 2) are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO(sub 2) , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of

  3. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  4. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  5. Formation of volatile decomposition products by self-radiolysis of tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Mori, Hirofumi

    1997-01-01

    In order to estimate the internal exposure dose in an experiment using tritiated thymidine, the rate of volatile 3 H-decomposition of several tritiated thymidine samples was measured. The decomposition rate of (methyl- 3 H)thymidine in water was over 80% in less than one year after initial analysis. (methyl- 3 H)thymidine was decomposed into volatile and non-volatile 3 H-decomposition products. The ratio of volatile 3 H-decomposition products increased with increasing the rate of the decomposition of (methyl- 3 H) thymidine. The volatile 3 H-decomposition products consisted of two components, of which the main component was tritiated water. Internal exposure dose caused by the inhalation of such volatile 3 H-decomposition products of (methyl- 3 H) thymidine was assumed to be several μSv. (author)

  6. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Optical fiber pH sensors for high temperature water. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrae, D.; Saaski, E.

    1994-11-01

    The goal of this program was the development of an optical pH measurement system capable of operating in a high-temperature aqueous environment. This project built upon a dual-wavelength fiber optic sensing system previously developed by Research International which utilizes light-emitting diodes as light sources and provides remote absorption spectroscopy via a single bidirectional optical fiber. Suitable materials for constructing an optical pH sensing element were identified during the program. These included a sapphire/Ti/Pt/Au thin-film reflector, quartz and sapphire waveguides, a poly(benzimidazole) matrix, and an azo chromophore indicator. By a suitable combination of these design elements, it appears possible to optically measure pH in aqueous systems up to a temperature of about 150 degrees C. A pH sensing system capable of operating in high-purity, low-conductivity water was built using quasi-evanescent wave sensing techniques. The sensing element incorporated a novel, mixed cellulose/cellulose acetate waveguide to which an azo indicator was bound. Testing revealed that the system could reproducibly respond to pH changes arising from 1 ppm differences in the morpholine content of low-conductivity water without influencing the measurement. The sensing system was stable for 150 hrs at room temperature, and no loss or degradation of the pH-responsive optical indicator was seen in 160 hrs at 50 degrees C. However, the prototype polymer waveguide lost transparency at 1.7% per day during this same 50 degrees C test. Additional effort is warranted in the areas of water-compatible waveguides and evanescent-wave detection methods

  8. Water-molten uranium hazard analysis. Final report. LATA report No. 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D.; Donham, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    The hazard potential of cooling water leakage into the crucible of molten uranium in the MARS laser isotope separation experiment was investigated. A vapor-phase explosion is highly unlikely in any of the scenarios defined for MARS. For the operating basis accident, the gas pressure transient experienced by the vessel wall is 544 psia peak with a duration of 200 μs, and the peak hoop stress is about 20,000 psi in a 0.5-in. wall. Design and procedural recommendations are given for reducing the hazard

  9. Analysis of the impact of energy crops on water quality. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, J.L.; Gale, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report consists of two separate papers. The first, ''The potential use of agricultural simulation models in predicting the fate of nitrogen and pesticides applied to switchgrass and poplars,'' describes three models (CREAMS, GLEAMS, and EPIC) for the evaluation of the relationships which determine water quality in the agroecosystem. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the utility of these models in evaluating the potential impact of alternative crop management practices. The second paper, ''Energy crops as part of a sustainable landscape,'' discusses concepts of landscape management and the linkage among agricultural practices and environmental quality

  10. Final Report - Energy Reduction and Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, John; Fanselow, Dan; Abbas, Charles; Sammons, Rhea; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-08-06

    3M and Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a novel membrane solvent extraction (MSE) process that can substantially reduce energy and water consumption in ethanol production, and accelerate the fermentation process. A cross-flow membrane module was developed, using porous membrane manufactured by 3M. A pilot process was developed that integrates fermentation, MSE and vacuum distillation. Extended experiments of 48-72 hours each were conducted to develop the process, verify its performance and begin establishing commercial viability.

  11. Recording of measurement results und data evaluation in water quality. Final report. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, H.H.; Krahe, P.

    1989-05-01

    The report presented includes different hydrological contributions which deal predominantly with the possibilities of evaluating and representing water quality data with statistical and graphical methods, with the exception of the contributions on guidelines for oil barriers and calculations on the progression of a pollutant wave in the Rhine. Experience gained on the basis of practical examples shows that techniques and methods of data interpretation ought to be taken into consideration in measurement programmes in order to be able to attain problem-related results. (orig.). 123 figs., 3 tabs., 14 refs [de

  12. Final report on 3-D experiment project air-water upper plenum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.K.; Mohr, C.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are presented from upper plenum air-water reflood behavior testing performed as part of the program to investigate three-dimensional aspects of PWR LOCA research. Tests described were performed at near ambient temperature and pressure in a plexiglass vessel which included the important features of the upper core and upper plenum regions corresponding to a single fuel bundle in both Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Trojan) and Kraftwerk Union (KKU) PWR designs. The data included observed two-phase flow characteristics, particularly with regard to countercurrent flow, and cinematography of the characteristic upper plenum flow patterns

  13. Evaluation of PWR steam generator water hammer. Final technical report, June 1, 1976--December 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.J.; Rothe, P.H.; Wallis, G.B.; Young, L.R.

    1977-05-01

    An investigation of waterhammer in the main feedwater piping of PWR steam generators due to water slugs formed in the steam generator feedring is reported. The relevant evidence from PWR operation and testing is compiled and summarized. The state-of-the-art of analysis of related phenomena is reviewed. Original exploratory modeling experiments at 1 / 10 and 1 / 4 scale are reported. Bounding analyses of the behavior are performed and several key phenomena have been identified for the first time. Recommendations to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are made

  14. Water chemistry and radiation buildup at the Commonwealth Edison Company LaSalle-1 BWR. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earls, C.E.; Blok, J.

    1986-09-01

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive study of the water quality and radiation buildup at the LaSalle County Unit 2 boiling warer reactor (BWR). The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of corrosion product inputs from the forward pumped heater drains on overall water quality. Since the drains are pumped into the feedwater line without filtration or demineralization, corrosion products in these streams will directly add to the impurity levels of the final feedwater. At LaSalle, the forward pumped heater drains contributed less to the feedwater impurities, on average, than the effluent of the condensate demineralizer. The feedwater quality at LaSalle was generally in the ''acceptable'' range. Nevertheless, significant water chemistry improvements, especially in reducing the corrosion product spikes associated with power or flow transients, is highly desirable for this plant. Such improvements should begin with a more consistent quality of demineralizer operation. Quantitative gamma scans of the primary system piping at LaSalle 2 were carried out in the course of the water chemistry study. Although the cumulative operational exposure of the plant was relatively limited at the time this study was carried out, the radiation buildup rate did appear to be rapid (in fact, among the most rapid) compared to other similar BWRs

  15. Environmental impact of coal ash on tributary streams and nearshore water or Lake Erie. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, K.G.

    1978-08-01

    The environmental impact of coal ash disposal at a landfill site in north-central Chautauqua County, New York was studied from June 1975 through July 1977. Water samples taken from wells, ponds, and streams at 67 sites were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfate and zinc. Evidence suggests that ponds at the landfill were high in Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and SO/sub 4/ compared to control pands. A stream adjacent to the site contained greater Mn (207 ug/1) and SO/sub 4/ (229 ppm) than control streams. Shallow alkaline test wells in the landfill had elevated As, Ca, and Se. Acid-neutral test wells had elevated As, Ca, Cr, Mg and Mn. Household wells in the vicinity of the landfill showed no evident contamination from the landfill. Average iron concentrations in the biota were tripled, and manganese concentrations doubled in biota affected by the coal ash dump. However, any effects of the disposal area on the distribution of the biota could not be separated from effects of varying environment factors such as water movements, substrate composition and food availability. No harmful effects could be demonstrated on the biota in the creek which flowed past the disposal area.

  16. Hollow ceramic block: containment of water for thermal storage in passive solar design. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winship, C.T.

    1983-12-27

    The project activity has been the development of designs, material compositions and production procedures to manufacture hollow ceramic blocks which contain water (or other heat absorptive liquids). The blocks are designed to serve, in plurality, a dual purpose: as an unobtrusive and efficient thermal storage element, and as a durable and aesthetically appealing surface for floors and walls of passive solar building interiors. Throughout the grant period, numerous ceramic formulas have been tested for their workabilty, thermal properties, maturing temperatures and color. Blocks have been designed to have structural integrity, and textured surfaces. Methods of slip-casting and extrusion have been developed for manufacturing of the blocks. The thermal storage capacity of the water-loaded block has been demonstrated to be 2.25 times greater than that of brick and 2.03 times greater than that of concrete (taking an average of commonly used materials). Although this represents a technical advance in thermal storage, the decorative effects provided by application of the blocks lend them a more significant advantage by reducing constraints on interior design in passive solar architecture.

  17. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, A.D.; Chiu, S.Y.; Nebgen, J.W.; Aleti, A.; Bennett, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  18. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical

  19. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stanley, D.; Nowak, Robert S.; Fenstermaker, Lynn, F.; Young, Michael,H.

    2007-11-30

    In order to anticipate the effects of global change on ecosystem function, it is essential that predictive relationships be established linking ecosystem function to global change scenarios. The Mojave Desert is of considerable interest with respect to global change. It contains the driest habitats in North America, and thus most closely approximates the world’s great arid deserts. In order to examine the effects of climate and land use changes, in 2001 we established a long-term manipulative global change experiment, called the Mojave Global Change Facility. Manipulations in this study include the potential effects of (1) increased summer rainfall (75 mm over three discrete 25 mm events), (2) increased nitrogen deposition (10 and 40 kg ha-1), and (3) the disturbance of biological N-fixing crusts . Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypotheses include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production through an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plant production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plant and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most

  20. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  1. Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1980-12-01

    Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

  2. Effect of water fogs on the deliberate ignition of hydrogen. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalosh, R.G.; Bajpai, S.N.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents an experimental evaluation of the effects of water fog density, droplet diameter, and temperature on the lower flammable limit (LFL) of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. The results show that the LFL for hydrogen in air at 20 0 C is only marginally higher with fog than without. Most of the nozzles tested at 20 0 C raised the hydrogen LFL from 4.0 vol % to about 4.8%, for the case of dense fogs with volume-average drop size in the range 45 to 90 microns. The lower flammable limit at 50 0 C was typically 7.2% for dense fogs with drop size in the range 25 to 50 microns. The lower flammable limit at 70 0 C was typically 7.6%. Typical fog concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 vol % at 20 0 C and decreased with increasing fog temperature. 7 figures, 4 tables

  3. Final report for the Light Water Breeder Reactor proof-of-breeding analytical support project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Hoh, J.C.; Martino, F.J.; Nelson, R.E.; Osudar, J.; Levitz, N.M.

    1987-05-01

    The technology of breeding /sup 233/U from /sup 232/Th in a light water reactor is being developed and evaluated by the Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) through operation and examination of the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Bettis is determining the end-of-life (EOL) inventory of fissile uranium in the LWBR core by nondestructive assay of a statistical sample comprising approximately 500 EOL fuel rods. This determination is being made with an irradiated-fuel assay gauge based on neutron interrogation and detection of delayed neutrons from each rod. The EOL fissile inventory will be compared with the beginning-of-life fissile loading of the LWBR to determine the extent of breeding. In support of the BAPL proof-of-breeding (POB) effort, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) carried out destructive physical, chemical, and radiometric analyses on 17 EOL LWBR fuel rods that were previously assayed with the nondestructive gauge. The ANL work included measurements on the intact rods; shearing of the rods into pre-designated contiguous segments; separate dissolution of each of the more than 150 segments; and analysis of the dissolver solutions to determine each segment's uranium content, uranium isotopic composition, and loading of selected fission products. This report describes the facilities in which this work was carried out, details operations involved in processing each rod, and presents a comprehensive discussion of uncertainties associated with each result of the ANL measurements. Most operations were carried out remotely in shielded cells. Automated equipment and procedures, controlled by a computer system, provided error-free data acquisition and processing, as well as full replication of operations with each rod. Despite difficulties that arose during processing of a few rod segments, the ANL destructive-assay results satisfied the demanding needs of the parent LWBR-POB program.

  4. Final report for the Light Water Breeder Reactor proof-of-breeding analytical support project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Hoh, J.C.; Martino, F.J.; Nelson, R.E.; Osudar, J.; Levitz, N.M.

    1987-05-01

    The technology of breeding 233 U from 232 Th in a light water reactor is being developed and evaluated by the Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) through operation and examination of the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Bettis is determining the end-of-life (EOL) inventory of fissile uranium in the LWBR core by nondestructive assay of a statistical sample comprising approximately 500 EOL fuel rods. This determination is being made with an irradiated-fuel assay gauge based on neutron interrogation and detection of delayed neutrons from each rod. The EOL fissile inventory will be compared with the beginning-of-life fissile loading of the LWBR to determine the extent of breeding. In support of the BAPL proof-of-breeding (POB) effort, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) carried out destructive physical, chemical, and radiometric analyses on 17 EOL LWBR fuel rods that were previously assayed with the nondestructive gauge. The ANL work included measurements on the intact rods; shearing of the rods into pre-designated contiguous segments; separate dissolution of each of the more than 150 segments; and analysis of the dissolver solutions to determine each segment's uranium content, uranium isotopic composition, and loading of selected fission products. This report describes the facilities in which this work was carried out, details operations involved in processing each rod, and presents a comprehensive discussion of uncertainties associated with each result of the ANL measurements. Most operations were carried out remotely in shielded cells. Automated equipment and procedures, controlled by a computer system, provided error-free data acquisition and processing, as well as full replication of operations with each rod. Despite difficulties that arose during processing of a few rod segments, the ANL destructive-assay results satisfied the demanding needs of the parent LWBR-POB program

  5. Iterative Decomposition of Water and Fat with Echo Asymmetric and Least—Squares Estimation (IDEAL (Reeder et al. 2005 Automated Spine Survey Iterative Scan Technique (ASSIST (Weiss et al. 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth L. Weiss

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Multi-parametric MRI of the entire spine is technologist-dependent, time consuming, and often limited by inhomogeneous fat suppression. We tested a technique to provide rapid automated total spine MRI screening with improved tissue contrast through optimized fat-water separation.Methods: The entire spine was auto-imaged in two contiguous 35 cm field of view (FOV sagittal stations, utilizing out-of-phase fast gradient echo (FGRE and T1 and/or T2 weighted fast spin echo (FSE IDEAL (Iterative Decomposition of Water and Fat with Echo Asymmetric and Least-squares Estimation sequences. 18 subjects were studied, one twice at 3.0T (pre and post contrast and one at both 1.5 T and 3.0T for a total of 20 spine examinations (8 at 1.5 T and 12 at 3.0T. Images were independently evaluated by two neuroradiologists and run through Automated Spine Survey Iterative Scan Technique (ASSIST analysis software for automated vertebral numbering.Results: In all 20 total spine studies, neuroradiologist and computer ASSIST labeling were concordant. In all cases, IDEAL provided uniform fat and water separation throughout the entire 70 cm FOV imaged. Two subjects demonstrated breast metastases and one had a large presumptive schwannoma. 14 subjects demonstrated degenerative disc disease with associated Modic Type I or II changes at one or more levels. FGRE ASSIST afforded subminute submillimeter in-plane resolution of the entire spine with high contrast between discs and vertebrae at both 1.5 and 3.0T. Marrow signal abnormalities could be particularly well characterized with IDEAL derived images and parametric maps.Conclusion: IDEAL ASSIST is a promising MRI technique affording a rapid automated high resolution, high contrast survey of the entire spine with optimized tissue characterization.

  6. An innovative fuel design concept for improved light water reactor performance and safety. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.; Connell, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance is limited by thermal and mechanical constraints associated with the design, fabrication, and operation of fuel in a nuclear reactor. The purpose of this research was to explore a technique for extending fuel performance by thermally bonding LWR fuel with a non-alkaline liquid metal alloy. Current LWR fuel rod designs consist of enriched uranium oxide (UO 2 ) fuel pellets enclosed in a zirconium alloy cylindrical clad. The space between the pellets and the clad is filled by an inert gas. Due to the thermal conductivity of the gas, the gas space thermally insulates the fuel pellets from the reactor coolant outside the fuel rod, elevating the fuel temperatures. Filling the gap between the fuel and clad with a high conductivity liquid metal thermally bonds the fuel to the cladding, and eliminates the large temperature change across the gap, while preserving the expansion and pellet loading capabilities. The resultant lower fuel temperature directly impacts fuel performance limit margins and also core transient performance. The application of liquid bonding techniques to LWR fuel was explored for the purposes of increasing LWR fuel performance and safety. A modified version of the ESCORE fuel performance code (ESBOND) has been developed under the program to analyze the in-reactor performance of the liquid metal bonded fuel. An assessment of the technical feasibility of this concept for LWR fuel is presented, including the results of research into materials compatibility testing and the predicted lifetime performance of Liquid Metal Bonded LWR fuel

  7. Accident source terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, L.; Burson, S.B.; Ferrell, C.M.; Lee, R.Y.; Ridgely, J.N.

    1995-02-01

    In 1962 tile US Atomic Energy Commission published TID-14844, ''Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactors'' which specified a release of fission products from the core to the reactor containment for a postulated accident involving ''substantial meltdown of the core''. This ''source term'', tile basis for tile NRC's Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, has been used to determine compliance with tile NRC's reactor site criteria, 10 CFR Part 100, and to evaluate other important plant performance requirements. During the past 30 years substantial additional information on fission product releases has been developed based on significant severe accident research. This document utilizes this research by providing more realistic estimates of the ''source term'' release into containment, in terms of timing, nuclide types, quantities and chemical form, given a severe core-melt accident. This revised ''source term'' is to be applied to the design of future light water reactors (LWRs). Current LWR licensees may voluntarily propose applications based upon it

  8. Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Final report: Pilot plant conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Chan, Jennifer P.; Raber, T.N.; Macmillan, D.C.; Rice, S.F.; Tschritter, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    The existing demilitarization stockpile contains large quantities of colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. For many years, these munitions have been stored in magazines at locations within the continental United States awaiting completion of the life-cycle. The open air burning of these munitions has been shown to produce toxic gases that are detrimental to human health and harmful to the environment. Prior efforts to incinerate these compositions have also produced toxic emissions and have been unsuccessful. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly developing hazardous waste treatment method that can be an alternative to incineration for many types of wastes. The primary advantage SCWO affords for the treatment of this selected set of obsolete munitions is that toxic gas and particulate emissions will not occur as part of the effluent stream. Sandia is currently designing a SCWO reactor for the US Army Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC) to destroy colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. This report summarizes the design status of the ARDEC reactor. Process and equipment operation parameters, process flow equations or mass balances, and utility requirements for six wastes of interest are developed in this report. Two conceptual designs are also developed with all process and instrumentation detailed.

  9. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  10. Gas hydrates forming and decomposition conditions analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Павленко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of gas hydrates has been defined; their brief description has been given; factors that affect the formation and decomposition of the hydrates have been reported; their distribution, structure and thermodynamic conditions determining the gas hydrates formation disposition in gas pipelines have been considered. Advantages and disadvantages of the known methods for removing gas hydrate plugs in the pipeline have been analyzed, the necessity of their further studies has been proved. In addition to the negative impact on the process of gas extraction, the hydrates properties make it possible to outline the following possible fields of their industrial use: obtaining ultrahigh pressures in confined spaces at the hydrate decomposition; separating hydrocarbon mixtures by successive transfer of individual components through the hydrate given the mode; obtaining cold due to heat absorption at the hydrate decomposition; elimination of the open gas fountain by means of hydrate plugs in the bore hole of the gushing gasser; seawater desalination, based on the hydrate ability to only bind water molecules into the solid state; wastewater purification; gas storage in the hydrate state; dispersion of high temperature fog and clouds by means of hydrates; water-hydrates emulsion injection into the productive strata to raise the oil recovery factor; obtaining cold in the gas processing to cool the gas, etc.

  11. Proton mass decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Ying; Draper, Terrence; Liang, Jian; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2018-03-01

    We report the results on the proton mass decomposition and also on the related quark and glue momentum fractions. The results are based on overlap valence fermions on four ensembles of Nf = 2 + 1 DWF configurations with three lattice spacings and volumes, and several pion masses including the physical pion mass. With 1-loop pertur-bative calculation and proper normalization of the glue operator, we find that the u, d, and s quark masses contribute 9(2)% to the proton mass. The quark energy and glue field energy contribute 31(5)% and 37(5)% respectively in the MS scheme at µ = 2 GeV. The trace anomaly gives the remaining 23(1)% contribution. The u, d, s and glue momentum fractions in the MS scheme are consistent with the global analysis at µ = 2 GeV.

  12. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  13. Art of spin decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangsong; Sun Weimin; Wang Fan; Goldman, T.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the problem of spin decomposition for an interacting system from a natural perspective of constructing angular-momentum eigenstates. We split, from the total angular-momentum operator, a proper part which can be separately conserved for a stationary state. This part commutes with the total Hamiltonian and thus specifies the quantum angular momentum. We first show how this can be done in a gauge-dependent way, by seeking a specific gauge in which part of the total angular-momentum operator vanishes identically. We then construct a gauge-invariant operator with the desired property. Our analysis clarifies what is the most pertinent choice among the various proposals for decomposing the nucleon spin. A similar analysis is performed for extracting a proper part from the total Hamiltonian to construct energy eigenstates.

  14. Mobility of radionuclides and MCPA in the soil-water-plant system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Haberhauer, G.; Strebl, F.; Temmel, B.

    1998-01-01

    . The physical decay is the most important factor decreasing 60 CO and 137 Cs contamination, although a measurable portion of Cs is removed by the harvests (up to 0.91%). In the case of 226 Ra physical decay and radioactivity losses through harvests are equally important. Anyhow, this does not mean that a significant portion of the radioactive contamination can be removed by agricultural plants in a time-span of a few decades. During the experimental period (May 1996 - November 1997) we collected 152.7 L and 253.5 L of leachate of soil I and III, respectively. Only 0.01% (soil I) and 0.02% (soil III) of the applied radioactivity was detected in the leachate. MCPA itself was not detectable in the water samples. Additional analyses showed that 96.5% of the recovered radioactivity in the seepage water originated from strongly polar substances or already mineralised compounds. 0.039% of the applied 14C was found in barley plants grown on soil I (application in the year 1996) and 0. 149% in barley grown on soil III. On soil I the 14 -concentrations, in barley grains and straw decreased by a factor of 3.8 and 5.8 as compared to the wheat samples of the previous year. Barley grown on soil III exhibited similar activity concentrations as wheat in the year 1996. (author)

  15. Environmentally-assisted cracking in austenitic light water reactor structural materials. Final report of the KORA-I project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H.-P.; Ritter, S

    2009-03-15

    The following document is the final report of the KORA-I project, which was performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) between 2006 and 2008 and was funded by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). The three sub-projects of KORA-I covered the experimental characterisation of the effect of the reactor coolant environment on fatigue initiation and crack growth in austenitic stainless steels under boiling and pressurised water reactor conditions, the experimental evaluation of the potential and limits of the electrochemical noise measurement technique for the early detection of stress corrosion cracking initiation in austenitic stainless steels under boiling water reactor/normal water chemistry conditions, as well as the characterisation of the stress corrosion crack growth behaviour in the fusion line region of an Alloy 182-low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steel dissimilar metal weld. The main scientific results and major conclusions of the three sub-projects are discussed in three independent parts of this report. (author)

  16. Environmentally-assisted cracking in austenitic light water reactor structural materials. Final report of the KORA-I project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.-P.; Ritter, S.

    2009-03-01

    The following document is the final report of the KORA-I project, which was performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) between 2006 and 2008 and was funded by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). The three sub-projects of KORA-I covered the experimental characterisation of the effect of the reactor coolant environment on fatigue initiation and crack growth in austenitic stainless steels under boiling and pressurised water reactor conditions, the experimental evaluation of the potential and limits of the electrochemical noise measurement technique for the early detection of stress corrosion cracking initiation in austenitic stainless steels under boiling water reactor/normal water chemistry conditions, as well as the characterisation of the stress corrosion crack growth behaviour in the fusion line region of an Alloy 182-low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steel dissimilar metal weld. The main scientific results and major conclusions of the three sub-projects are discussed in three independent parts of this report. (author)

  17. Decomposition of dioxin analogues and ablation study for carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko

    2002-01-01

    Two application studies associated with the free electron laser are presented separately, which are the titles of 'Decomposition of Dioxin Analogues' and 'Ablation Study for Carbon Nanotube'. The decomposition of dioxin analogues by infrared (IR) laser irradiation includes the thermal destruction and multiple-photon dissociation. It is important for us to choose the highly absorbable laser wavelength for the decomposition. The thermal decomposition takes place by the irradiation of the low IR laser power. Considering the model of thermal decomposition, it is proposed that adjacent water molecules assist the decomposition of dioxin analogues in addition to the thermal decomposition by the direct laser absorption. The laser ablation study is performed for the aim of a carbon nanotube synthesis. The vapor by the ablation is weakly ionized in the power of several-hundred megawatts. The plasma internal energy is kept over an 8.5 times longer than the vacuum. The cluster was produced from the weakly ionized gas in the enclosed gas, which is composed of the rough particles in the low power laser more than the high power which is composed of the fine particles. (J.P.N.)

  18. Decomposition methods for unsupervised learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the application and development of decomposition methods for Unsupervised Learning. It covers topics from classical factor analysis based decomposition and its variants such as Independent Component Analysis, Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Sparse Coding...... methods and clustering problems is derived both in terms of classical point clustering but also in terms of community detection in complex networks. A guiding principle throughout this thesis is the principle of parsimony. Hence, the goal of Unsupervised Learning is here posed as striving for simplicity...... in the decompositions. Thus, it is demonstrated how a wide range of decomposition methods explicitly or implicitly strive to attain this goal. Applications of the derived decompositions are given ranging from multi-media analysis of image and sound data, analysis of biomedical data such as electroencephalography...

  19. A comparative quantitative analysis of the IDEAL (iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation) and the CHESS (chemical shift selection suppression) techniques in 3.0 T L-spine MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eng-Chan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Ki-Hong; Choi, Cheon-Woong; Seok, Jong-min; Na, Kil-Ju; Han, Man-Seok

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted on 20 patients who had undergone pedicle screw fixation between March and December 2010 to quantitatively compare a conventional fat suppression technique, CHESS (chemical shift selection suppression), and a new technique, IDEAL (iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least squares estimation). The general efficacy and usefulness of the IDEAL technique was also evaluated. Fat-suppressed transverse-relaxation-weighed images and longitudinal-relaxation-weighted images were obtained before and after contrast injection by using these two techniques with a 1.5T MR (magnetic resonance) scanner. The obtained images were analyzed for image distortion, susceptibility artifacts and homogenous fat removal in the target region. The results showed that the image distortion due to the susceptibility artifacts caused by implanted metal was lower in the images obtained using the IDEAL technique compared to those obtained using the CHESS technique. The results of a qualitative analysis also showed that compared to the CHESS technique, fewer susceptibility artifacts and more homogenous fat removal were found in the images obtained using the IDEAL technique in a comparative image evaluation of the axial plane images before and after contrast injection. In summary, compared to the CHESS technique, the IDEAL technique showed a lower occurrence of susceptibility artifacts caused by metal and lower image distortion. In addition, more homogenous fat removal was shown in the IDEAL technique.

  20. Evaluation of the R2* value in invasive ductal carcinoma with respect to hypoxic-related prognostic factors using iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares emission (IDEAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Mari; Aoki, Takatoshi; Kinoshita, Shunsuke; Fujii, Masami; Korogi, Yukunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Radiology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Shimajiri, Shohei [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Matsuyama, Atsuji [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Pathology and Oncology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Katsuki, Takefumi; Inoue, Yuzuru [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, First Department of Surgery, Kitakyushu (Japan); Nagata, Yoshika; Tashima, Yuko [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Second department of Surgery, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    To correlate the R2* value obtained by iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares emission (IDEAL) with fibrotic focus (FF), microvessel density and hypoxic biomarker (HIF-1α) in breast carcinoma. Forty-two patients who were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast underwent breast MRI including IDEAL before surgery. The entire region of interest (ROI) was delineated on the R2* map, and average tumour R2* value was calculated for each ROI. Histological specimens were evaluated for the presence of FF, the microvessel density (the average microvessel density and the ratio of peripheral to central microvessel density), and the grading of HIF-1α. FF was identified in 47.6% (20/42) of IDCs. Average R2* value for IDC with FF (42.4±13.2 Hz) was significantly higher than that without FF (28.5±13.9 Hz) (P = 0.01). Spearman rank correlation suggested that the average R2* value correlated with the grade of HIF-1α and the ratio of peripheral to central microvessel density for IDCs (P < 0.001). Quantification of tumour R2* using IDEAL is associated with the presence of FF and the overexpression of HIF-1α, and may therefore be useful in predicting hypoxia of breast carcinoma. (orig.)

  1. Physical properties of peats as related to degree of decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Boelter

    1969-01-01

    Important physical characteristics, such as water retention, water yield coefficient, and hydraulic conductivity, vary greatly for representative northern Minnesota peat materials. The differences are related to the degree of decomposition, which largely determines the porosity and pore size distribution. Fiber content (> 0.1 mm) and bulk density are properties...

  2. Decomposition of lake phytoplankton. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.; Krog, G.F.; Soendergaard, M.

    1986-01-01

    The lysis process of phytoplankton was followed in 24 h incubations in three Danish lakes. By means of gel-chromatography it was shown that the dissolved carbon leaching from different algal groups differed in molecular weight composition. Three distinct molecular weight classes (>10,000; 700 to 10,000 and < 700 Daltons) leached from blue-green algae in almost equal proportion. The lysis products of spring-bloom diatoms included only the two smaller size classes, and the molecules between 700 and 10,000 Daltons dominated. Measurements of cell content during decomposition of the diatoms revealed polysaccharides and low molecular weight compounds to dominate the lysis products. No proteins were leached during the first 24 h after cell death. By incubating the dead algae in natural lake water, it was possible to detect a high bacterial affinity towards molecules between 700 and 10,000 Daltons, although the other size classes were also utilized. Bacterial transformation of small molecules to larger molecules could be demonstrated. (author)

  3. Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamsler, M. [AAF-Processdesign AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration. This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. Already during the project, measures have been implemented that are calculated to save 65 000 m{sup 3} water annually, corresponding to 10 % of the total water consumption. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. In the table below, these and additional measures are presented with a total savings potential at approximately 200 000 m{sup 3} /year water. The project will then achieve a saving of just below 35 % of present water consumption. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. It was found that with nano filtering a sugar concentration of more than 10 %(W) could be reached in the retentate at a flux 50al/m{sup 2}h. The total sugar losses were less than 5 %, i.e. 95 % should be possible to recover. In total, a savings potential of more than 300 tonnes sugar per year is indicated. The Energy savings in the project are calculated to 7,4 GWh/year, of which 0,2 GWh/year by reduced water consumption, 0,6 GWh/year by water recovery, 1,4 GWh/year by membrane technology and 5,2aGWh/year as a result of process integration. This should be compared to the target 2,5 GWh/year. Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment

  4. Thermal decomposition and spectroscopic investigation of a new aqueous glycolato(-peroxo) Ti(IV) solution-gel precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Dobbelaere, Christopher; Mullens, Jules; Hardy, An; Van Bael, Marlies K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A totally water based glycolato-Ti(IV) precursor is presented and characterized. → The precursors' thermal decomposition profile depends on the ligand to metal ratio. → Titanium is coordinated in an unidentate fashion by the glycolate anion. → Smooth and uniform TiO 2 films can be prepared from the precursor solution. - Abstract: A new aqueous solution-gel precursor based on water soluble glycolato(-peroxo)-Ti(IV) complexes is developed for the preparation of TiO 2 films. With regard to the decomposition of complexes towards oxide formation, it is important to gain insight in the chemical transformations inside the precursor during thermal treatment. Therefore, the thermo-oxidative decomposition pathway of a gel obtained by slow evaporation of the precursor solution is described based on hyphenated thermogravimetric analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). Pure glycolic acid is used as a reference system for this study. By varying the molar glycolic acid to Ti(IV) ratio, the thermal decomposition of the gel can be drastically shortened and the profile's course changed. Gel structure and chemical changes in the gel upon heating are also studied by means of off-line FTIR. A unidentate coordination of the titanium(IV) ion by the carboxylate group of the glycolato ligands and the involvement of the hydroxyl group is confirmed. Phase formation at certain points in the thermal decomposition is studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Finally, it is proven that the new precursor is a valuable candidate for the deposition of low carbon containing solution-gel films which can ultimately be converted into smooth and uniform TiO 2 films.

  5. Thermal decomposition and spectroscopic investigation of a new aqueous glycolato(-peroxo) Ti(IV) solution-gel precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Dobbelaere, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.dedobbelaere@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Mullens, Jules, E-mail: jules.mullens@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Hardy, An, E-mail: an.hardy@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw, Division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Bael, Marlies K., E-mail: marlies.vanbael@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Institute for Materials Research, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw, Division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} A totally water based glycolato-Ti(IV) precursor is presented and characterized. {yields} The precursors' thermal decomposition profile depends on the ligand to metal ratio. {yields} Titanium is coordinated in an unidentate fashion by the glycolate anion. {yields} Smooth and uniform TiO{sub 2} films can be prepared from the precursor solution. - Abstract: A new aqueous solution-gel precursor based on water soluble glycolato(-peroxo)-Ti(IV) complexes is developed for the preparation of TiO{sub 2} films. With regard to the decomposition of complexes towards oxide formation, it is important to gain insight in the chemical transformations inside the precursor during thermal treatment. Therefore, the thermo-oxidative decomposition pathway of a gel obtained by slow evaporation of the precursor solution is described based on hyphenated thermogravimetric analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR) and mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). Pure glycolic acid is used as a reference system for this study. By varying the molar glycolic acid to Ti(IV) ratio, the thermal decomposition of the gel can be drastically shortened and the profile's course changed. Gel structure and chemical changes in the gel upon heating are also studied by means of off-line FTIR. A unidentate coordination of the titanium(IV) ion by the carboxylate group of the glycolato ligands and the involvement of the hydroxyl group is confirmed. Phase formation at certain points in the thermal decomposition is studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Finally, it is proven that the new precursor is a valuable candidate for the deposition of low carbon containing solution-gel films which can ultimately be converted into smooth and uniform TiO{sub 2} films.

  6. Observation of spinodal decomposition in nuclei?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnera, A.; Colonna, M.; Chomaz, Ph.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the recently developed stochastic one-body descriptions it has been shown that the occurrence of nuclear multifragmentation by spinodal decomposition is characterized by typical size and time scales; in particular, the formation of nearly equal mass fragments is expected around Z=10. A first preliminary comparison of our predictions with experimental data for the Xe + Cu at 45 MeV/A and for Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/A recently measured by the Indra collaboration is presented. The agreement of the results with the data seems finally to plead in favour of a possible occurrence of a first order phase transition. (K.A.)

  7. Decomposition of acetaminophen in water by a gas phase dielectric barrier discharge plasma combined with TiO2-rGO nanocomposite: Mechanism and degradation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guyu; Sun, Yabing, E-mail: sybnju@163.com; Zhang, Chunxiao; Yu, Zhongqing

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Graphene Oxide-based catalyst was first applied with dielectric barrier discharge plasma. • The TiO{sub 2}-rGO showed efficient synergistic effect with gas phase dielectric barrier discharge plasma. • The property changes of TiO{sub 2}-rGO nanocomposite after plasma treatment were characterized. • The mechanism and possible pathways of APAP degradation in plasma/TiO{sub 2}-rGO system were proposed. - Abstract: Acetaminophen (APAP) served as the model pollutant to evaluate the feasibility of pollutant removal by gas phase dielectric barrier discharge plasma combined with the titanium dioxide-reduced Graphene Oxide (TiO{sub 2}-rGO) nanocomposite. TiO{sub 2}-rGO nanocomposite was prepared using the modified hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM and XPS before and after plasma process. The results indicated that the APAP degradation efficiency was significantly improved to 92% after 18 min of discharge plasma treatment coupling 0.25 g L{sup −1} TiO{sub 2}-rGO 5% wt at 18 kV, compared with the plasma alone and plasma combined with P25 TiO{sub 2}. The degradation mechanism for APAP in this system was studied by investigating the effects of the operational variables (e.g. discharge voltage and pH value) and the amount of the generated active species; and the results showed that O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} yields were influenced notably by adding TiO{sub 2}-rGO. Also, it was observed that, compared with unused TiO{sub 2}-rGO, the photocatalytic performance of used TiO{sub 2}-rGO declined after several recirculation times due to the further reduction of Graphene Oxide in plasma system. Finally, intermediate products were analyzed by UV–vis spectrometry and HPLC/MS, and possible transformation pathways were identified with the support of theoretically calculating the frontier electron density of APAP.

  8. Isotope based assessment of groundwater renewal in water scarce regions. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    The isotopic composition and chemical constituents of water infiltrating through the soil zone (unsaturated zone, or zone of aeration) into groundwater can be employed to determine the moisture transport in the unsaturated zone, thus enabling estimation of the water infiltration rate to the underlying aquifer. This was the basis on which this CRP was initiated in 1996. The overall results obtained from three years of applied field research related to study of moisture transport dynamics and estimation of natural recharge through use of isotope/hydrochemical depth profiles of the soil moisture in the unsaturated zone were presented and discussed at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 18 to 21 October 1999. A total of 44 sites were involved in the project on which detailed information on physiography, lithology, rainfall, unsaturated moisture content and a variety of chemical and isotopic determinants is now available. This publication contains 11 individual reports presented by CRP participants at the Meeting. Each of the reports have been indexed separately

  9. Danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by hydrochloric acid. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan with mineral acids, including hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite composition were determined. The chemical composition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was determined as well. The kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by hydrochloric acid was studied. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid was calculated.

  10. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Heiles, Carl [Radio Astronomy Lab, UC Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire AIM, Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goss, W. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickey, John, E-mail: rlindner@astro.wisc.edu [University of Tasmania, School of Maths and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  11. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes

  12. Advanced Oxidation: Oxalate Decomposition Testing With Ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing

  13. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration

  14. The trait contribution to wood decomposition rates of 15 Neotropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Koert G; Poorter, Lourens; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2010-12-01

    The decomposition of dead wood is a critical uncertainty in models of the global carbon cycle. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on dead wood decomposition, with a strong bias to higher latitudes. Especially the effect of interspecific variation in species traits on differences in wood decomposition rates remains unknown. In order to fill these gaps, we applied a novel method to study long-term wood decomposition of 15 tree species in a Bolivian semi-evergreen tropical moist forest. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in species traits are important drivers of variation in wood decomposition rates. Wood decomposition rates (fractional mass loss) varied between 0.01 and 0.31 yr(-1). We measured 10 different chemical, anatomical, and morphological traits for all species. The species' average traits were useful predictors of wood decomposition rates, particularly the average diameter (dbh) of the tree species (R2 = 0.41). Lignin concentration further increased the proportion of explained inter-specific variation in wood decomposition (both negative relations, cumulative R2 = 0.55), although it did not significantly explain variation in wood decomposition rates if considered alone. When dbh values of the actual dead trees sampled for decomposition rate determination were used as a predictor variable, the final model (including dead tree dbh and lignin concentration) explained even more variation in wood decomposition rates (R2 = 0.71), underlining the importance of dbh in wood decomposition. Other traits, including wood density, wood anatomical traits, macronutrient concentrations, and the amount of phenolic extractives could not significantly explain the variation in wood decomposition rates. The surprising results of this multi-species study, in which for the first time a large set of traits is explicitly linked to wood decomposition rates, merits further testing in other forest ecosystems.

  15. NRSA enzyme decomposition model data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Microbial enzyme activities measured at more than 2000 US streams and rivers. These enzyme data were then used to predict organic matter decomposition and microbial...

  16. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  17. Kinetic analysis of the thermal decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Mosqueda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A single dynamic kinetic analysis, describing the surface decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 pellets, has been performed. Samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses were performed between 1000 and 1100°C and different times, perceiving the Li4Ti5O12 decomposition to Li2Ti3O7, with a loss of lithium. As expected, more rapid decomposition behaviour was found at higher temperatures. Finally, the activation energy for this decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 to Li2Ti3O7 was estimated to be equal to 383 kJ/mol.

  18. Scientific-technical cooperation with Russia. Transient analyses for alternative types of water-cooled reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Pivovarov, Valeri; Matveev, Yurij

    2010-12-01

    The recently developed multi-group version DYN3D-MG of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D has been qualified for applications to water-cooled reactor concepts different from industrial PWR and BWR. An extended DYN3D version was applied to the graphite-moderated pressure tube reactor EGP-6 (NPP Bilibino) and conceptual design studies of an advanced Boiling Water Reactor with reduced moderation (RMWR) as well as the RUTA-70 reactor for low temperature heat supply. Concerning the RUTA reactor, safe heat removal by natural circulation of the coolant at low pressure has to be shown. For the corresponding validation of thermo-hydraulic system codes like ATHLET and RELAP5, experiments on flashing-induced natural circulation instabilities performed at the CIRCUS test facility at the TU Delft were simulated using the RELAP5 code. For the application to alternative water-cooled reactors, DYN3D model extensions and modifications were implemented, in particular adaptations of heat conduction and heat transfer models. Performing code-to-code comparisons with the Russian fine-mesh neutron diffusion code ACADEM contributed to the verification of DYN3D-MG. Validation has been performed by calculating reactor dynamics experiments at the NPP Bilibino. For the reactors EGP-6, RMWR and RUTA, analyses of various protected and unprotected control rod withdrawal and ejection transients were performed. The beyond design basis accident (BDBA) scenario ''Coast-down of all main coolant pumps at nominal power without scram'' for the RUTA reactor was analyzed using the code complexes DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5. It was shown, that the reactor passes over to a save asymptotic state at reduced power with coolant natural circulation. Analyzing the BDBA ''Unprotected withdrawal of a control rod group'' for the RMWR, the safety against Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) could not be shown with the necessary confidence. Finally, conclusions have been drawn

  19. Decomposition analysis of differential dose volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, Frank van den

    2006-01-01

    Dose volume histograms are a common tool to assess the value of a treatment plan for various forms of radiation therapy treatment. The purpose of this work is to introduce, validate, and apply a set of tools to analyze differential dose volume histograms by decomposing them into physically and clinically meaningful normal distributions. A weighted sum of the decomposed normal distributions (e.g., weighted dose) is proposed as a new measure of target dose, rather than the more unstable point dose. The method and its theory are presented and validated using simulated distributions. Additional validation is performed by analyzing simple four field box techniques encompassing a predefined target, using different treatment energies inside a water phantom. Furthermore, two clinical situations are analyzed using this methodology to illustrate practical usefulness. A comparison of a treatment plan for a breast patient using a tangential field setup with wedges is compared to a comparable geometry using dose compensators. Finally, a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculation is refined using this decomposition. The NTCP calculation is performed on a liver as organ at risk in a treatment of a mesothelioma patient with involvement of the right lung. The comparison of the wedged breast treatment versus the compensator technique yields comparable classical dose parameters (e.g., conformity index ≅1 and equal dose at the ICRU dose point). The methodology proposed here shows a 4% difference in weighted dose outlining the difference in treatment using a single parameter instead of at least two in a classical analysis (e.g., mean dose, and maximal dose, or total dose variance). NTCP-calculations for the mesothelioma case are generated automatically and show a 3% decrease with respect to the classical calculation. The decrease is slightly dependant on the fractionation and on the α/β-value utilized. In conclusion, this method is able to distinguish clinically

  20. Real interest parity decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Luiz Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the general causes of real interest rate differentials (rids for a sample of emerging markets for the period of January 1996 to August 2007. To this end, two methods are applied. The first consists of breaking the variance of rids down into relative purchasing power pariety and uncovered interest rate parity and shows that inflation differentials are the main source of rids variation; while the second method breaks down the rids and nominal interest rate differentials (nids into nominal and real shocks. Bivariate autoregressive models are estimated under particular identification conditions, having been adequately treated for the identified structural breaks. Impulse response functions and error variance decomposition result in real shocks as being the likely cause of rids.O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as causas gerais dos diferenciais da taxa de juros real (rids para um conjunto de países emergentes, para o período de janeiro de 1996 a agosto de 2007. Para tanto, duas metodologias são aplicadas. A primeira consiste em decompor a variância dos rids entre a paridade do poder de compra relativa e a paridade de juros a descoberto e mostra que os diferenciais de inflação são a fonte predominante da variabilidade dos rids; a segunda decompõe os rids e os diferenciais de juros nominais (nids em choques nominais e reais. Sob certas condições de identificação, modelos autorregressivos bivariados são estimados com tratamento adequado para as quebras estruturais identificadas e as funções de resposta ao impulso e a decomposição da variância dos erros de previsão são obtidas, resultando em evidências favoráveis a que os choques reais são a causa mais provável dos rids.

  1. Ensemble empirical model decomposition and neuro-fuzzy conjunction model for middle and long-term runoff forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting the runoff over longer periods, such as months and years, is one of the important tasks for hydrologists and water resource managers to maximize the potential of the limited water. However, due to the nonlinear and nonstationary characteristic of the natural runoff, it is hard to forecast the middle and long-term runoff with a satisfactory accuracy. It has been proven that the forecast performance can be improved by using signal decomposition techniques to product more cleaner signals as model inputs. In this study, a new conjunction model (EEMD-neuro-fuzzy) with adaptive ability is proposed. The ensemble empirical model decomposition (EEMD) is used to decompose the runoff time series into several components, which are with different frequencies and more cleaner than the original time series. Then the neuro-fuzzy model is developed for each component. The final forecast results can be obtained by summing the outputs of all neuro-fuzzy models. Unlike the conventional forecast model, the decomposition and forecast models in this study are adjusted adaptively as long as new runoff information is added. The proposed models are applied to forecast the monthly runoff of Yichang station, located in Yangtze River of China. The results show that the performance of adaptive forecast model we proposed outperforms than the conventional forecast model, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient can reach to 0.9392. Due to its ability to process the nonstationary data, the forecast accuracy, especially in flood season, is improved significantly.

  2. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor design. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This report supplements the final safety evaluation report (FSER) for the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design. The FSER was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff as NUREG-1503 in July 1994 to document the NRC staff's review of the US ABWR design. The US ABWR design was submitted by GE Nuclear Energy (GE) in accordance with the procedures of Subpart B to Part 52 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This supplement documents the NRC staff's review of the changes to the US ABWR design documentation since the issuance of the FSER. GE made these changes primarily as a result of first-of-a-kind-engineering (FOAKE) and as a result of the design certification rulemaking for the ABWR design. On the basis of its evaluations, the NRC staff concludes that the confirmatory issues in NUREG-1503 are resolved, that the changes to the ABWR design documentation are acceptable, and that GE's application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B to 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR design

  3. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor design. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report supplements the final safety evaluation report (FSER) for the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design. The FSER was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff as NUREG-1503 in July 1994 to document the NRC staff`s review of the US ABWR design. The US ABWR design was submitted by GE Nuclear Energy (GE) in accordance with the procedures of Subpart B to Part 52 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This supplement documents the NRC staff`s review of the changes to the US ABWR design documentation since the issuance of the FSER. GE made these changes primarily as a result of first-of-a-kind-engineering (FOAKE) and as a result of the design certification rulemaking for the ABWR design. On the basis of its evaluations, the NRC staff concludes that the confirmatory issues in NUREG-1503 are resolved, that the changes to the ABWR design documentation are acceptable, and that GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B to 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR design.

  4. Monitoring radioactive contamination in food, water sediments and other environmental samples in Egypt. Final report for the period 1 October 1992 - 31 July 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, M.

    1996-09-01

    A detailed survey for radioactivity content was carried out in the following materials: 1) Raw (from quarries) and finished (e.g., bricks, cement, ceramic tiles) building materials originating in central Egypt; 2) soils and plants (particularly cattle fodder) in upper Egypt, including soil to plant transfer factors; 3) water, bottom sediments and shore sediments from Lake Nasser and its immediate surroundings; 4) water, fish, bottom and shore sediments from the Lake Quaran region; 5) soil, plant, drinking water, bottom and shore sediments from the Sinai Peninsula. The concentrations of the following radionuclides were measured: K-40, Cs-137, Ra-226, Th-232 and U-238. Samples were sealed in Marinelli beakers for 4 weeks to allow complete ingrowth of Rn-222 and daughters. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure K-40 and Cs-137 directly and Ra-226, Th-232 and U-238 indirectly by means of daughter radioactivities. In addition, uranium measurements were also made after chemical decomposition of selected samples by laser fluorimetry and by alpha spectrometry techniques. The results were used for establishing a database of baseline radioactivity levels, for evaluating average doses to the population, for comparison with similar materials from other countries and for determining soil to plant transfer factors which can be used to estimate internal doses to the population. (author). Refs, figs, tabs

  5. Thermodynamic anomaly in magnesium hydroxide decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, T.A.

    1983-08-01

    The Origin of the discrepancy in the equilibrium water vapor pressure measurements for the reaction Mg(OH) 2 (s) = MgO(s) + H 2 O(g) when determined by Knudsen effusion and static manometry at the same temperature was investigated. For this reaction undergoing continuous thermal decomposition in Knudsen cells, Kay and Gregory observed that by extrapolating the steady-state apparent equilibrium vapor pressure measurements to zero-orifice, the vapor pressure was approx. 10 -4 of that previously established by Giauque and Archibald as the true thermodynamic equilibrium vapor pressure using statistical mechanical entropy calculations for the entropy of water vapor. This large difference in vapor pressures suggests the possibility of the formation in a Knudsen cell of a higher energy MgO that is thermodynamically metastable by about 48 kJ / mole. It has been shown here that experimental results are qualitatively independent of the type of Mg(OH) 2 used as a starting material, which confirms the inferences of Kay and Gregory. Thus, most forms of Mg(OH) 2 are considered to be the stable thermodynamic equilibrium form. X-ray diffraction results show that during the course of the reaction only the equilibrium NaCl-type MgO is formed, and no different phases result from samples prepared in Knudsen cells. Surface area data indicate that the MgO molar surface area remains constant throughout the course of the reaction at low decomposition temperatures, and no significant annealing occurs at less than 400 0 C. Scanning electron microscope photographs show no change in particle size or particle surface morphology. Solution calorimetric measurements indicate no inherent hgher energy content in the MgO from the solid produced in Knudsen cells. The Knudsen cell vapor pressure discrepancy may reflect the formation of a transient metastable MgO or Mg(OH) 2 -MgO solid solution during continuous thermal decomposition in Knudsen cells

  6. Technical procedures for water resources: Volume 4, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the water Resources Site Study Plan: including Collection, Preservation, and Shipment of Ground-Water Samples; Inventory Current Water Use and Estimating Projected Water Use; Estimation of Precipitation Depth, Duration, Frequence; Estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation; Calculation of Floodplains

  7. Towards improved water management in Haryana State; final report of the Indo-Dutch Operational Research Project on Hydrological Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, M.C.; Roest, C.J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Surface water and groundwater flow to the central inland depression, which causes rising water-tables, waterlogging and salinity problems. Technologies were developed for efficient on-farm water management, conjunctive use of saline and fresh water. Criteria were developed for drainage with a

  8. On the hadron mass decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2018-02-01

    We argue that the standard decompositions of the hadron mass overlook pressure effects, and hence should be interpreted with great care. Based on the semiclassical picture, we propose a new decomposition that properly accounts for these pressure effects. Because of Lorentz covariance, we stress that the hadron mass decomposition automatically comes along with a stability constraint, which we discuss for the first time. We show also that if a hadron is seen as made of quarks and gluons, one cannot decompose its mass into more than two contributions without running into trouble with the consistency of the physical interpretation. In particular, the so-called quark mass and trace anomaly contributions appear to be purely conventional. Based on the current phenomenological values, we find that in average quarks exert a repulsive force inside nucleons, balanced exactly by the gluon attractive force.

  9. On the hadron mass decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorce, Cedric [Universite Paris-Saclay, Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2018-02-15

    We argue that the standard decompositions of the hadron mass overlook pressure effects, and hence should be interpreted with great care. Based on the semiclassical picture, we propose a new decomposition that properly accounts for these pressure effects. Because of Lorentz covariance, we stress that the hadron mass decomposition automatically comes along with a stability constraint, which we discuss for the first time. We show also that if a hadron is seen as made of quarks and gluons, one cannot decompose its mass into more than two contributions without running into trouble with the consistency of the physical interpretation. In particular, the so-called quark mass and trace anomaly contributions appear to be purely conventional. Based on the current phenomenological values, we find that in average quarks exert a repulsive force inside nucleons, balanced exactly by the gluon attractive force. (orig.)

  10. Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2000-11-01

    Processes that occur during storage and final disposal of solid waste were studied, with emphasis on physical and chemical aspects and their effects on the water environment, within the New European Union perspective for landfilling (Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999). In the new scenario, landfilling is largely restricted; waste treatments such as incineration, composting, recycling, storage and transportation of materials are intensified. Landfill sites are seen as industrial facilities rather than merely final disposal sites. Four main issues were investigated within this new scenario, in field- and full-scale, mostly at Spillepeng site, southern Sweden. (1) Adequacy of storage piles: Regarding the increasing demand for waste storage as fuel, the adequacy of storage in piles was investigated by monitoring industrial waste (IND) fuel compacted piles. Intense biodegradation activity, which raised the temperature into the optimum range for chemical oxidation reactions, was noticed during the first weeks. After about six months of storage, self-ignition occurred in one IND pile and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) pile. Heat, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} distribution at different depths of the monitored IND pile suggested that natural convection plays an important role in the degradation process by supplying oxygen and releasing heat. Storage techniques that achieve a higher degree of compaction, such as baling, are preferable to storage in piles. ( 2) Discharge from landfill for special waste: Regarding changes in the composition of the waste sent to landfills and the consequences for its hydrological performance in active and capped landfills, discharge from a full-scale landfill for special/hazardous waste (predominantly fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration) was modelled using the U.S. EPA HELP model. Hydraulic properties of the special waste were compared with those from MSW. Lower practical field capacity and higher hydraulic conductivity at

  11. Solid waste and the water environment in the new European Union perspective. Process analysis related to storage and final disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2000-11-01

    Processes that occur during storage and final disposal of solid waste were studied, with emphasis on physical and chemical aspects and their effects on the water environment, within the New European Union perspective for landfilling (Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999). In the new scenario, landfilling is largely restricted; waste treatments such as incineration, composting, recycling, storage and transportation of materials are intensified. Landfill sites are seen as industrial facilities rather than merely final disposal sites. Four main issues were investigated within this new scenario, in field- and full-scale, mostly at Spillepeng site, southern Sweden. (1) Adequacy of storage piles: Regarding the increasing demand for waste storage as fuel, the adequacy of storage in piles was investigated by monitoring industrial waste (IND) fuel compacted piles. Intense biodegradation activity, which raised the temperature into the optimum range for chemical oxidation reactions, was noticed during the first weeks. After about six months of storage, self-ignition occurred in one IND pile and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) pile. Heat, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} distribution at different depths of the monitored IND pile suggested that natural convection plays an important role in the degradation process by supplying oxygen and releasing heat. Storage techniques that achieve a higher degree of compaction, such as baling, are preferable to storage in piles. ( 2) Discharge from landfill for special waste: Regarding changes in the composition of the waste sent to landfills and the consequences for its hydrological performance in active and capped landfills, discharge from a full-scale landfill for special/hazardous waste (predominantly fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration) was modelled using the U.S. EPA HELP model. Hydraulic properties of the special waste were compared with those from MSW. Lower practical field capacity and higher hydraulic conductivity at

  12. Abstract decomposition theorem and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grossberg, R; Grossberg, Rami; Lessmann, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Let K be an Abstract Elementary Class. Under the asusmptions that K has a nicely behaved forking-like notion, regular types and existence of some prime models we establish a decomposition theorem for such classes. The decomposition implies a main gap result for the class K. The setting is general enough to cover \\aleph_0-stable first-order theories (proved by Shelah in 1982), Excellent Classes of atomic models of a first order tehory (proved Grossberg and Hart 1987) and the class of submodels of a large sequentially homogenuus \\aleph_0-stable model (which is new).

  13. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of aluminium hydride: I-non-isothermal decomposition under vacuum and in inert atmosphere (argon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.M.K.; Hawkins, T.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, interest in aluminium hydride (alane) as a rocket propulsion ingredient has been renewed due to improvements in its manufacturing process and an increase in thermal stability. When alane is added to solid propellant formulations, rocket performance is enhanced and the specific impulse increases. Preliminary work was performed at AFRL on the characterization and evaluation of two alane samples. Decomposition kinetics were determined from gravimetric TGA data and volumetric vacuum thermal stability (VTS) results. Chemical analysis showed the samples had 88.30% (by weight) aluminium and 9.96% hydrogen. The average density, as measured by helium pycnometery, was 1.486 g/cc. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles were mostly composed of sharp edged crystallographic polyhedral such as simple cubes, cubic octahedrons and hexagonal prisms. Thermogravimetric analysis was utilized to investigate the decomposition kinetics of alane in argon atmosphere and to shed light on the mechanism of alane decomposition. Two kinetic models were successfully developed and used to propose a mechanism for the complete decomposition of alane and to predict its shelf-life during storage. Alane decomposes in two steps. The slowest (rate-determining) step is solely controlled by solid state nucleation of aluminium crystals; the fastest step is due to growth of the crystals. Thus, during decomposition, hydrogen gas is liberated and the initial polyhedral AlH 3 crystals yield a final mix of amorphous aluminium and aluminium crystals. After establishing the kinetic model, prediction calculations indicated that alane can be stored in inert atmosphere at temperatures below 10 deg. C for long periods of time (e.g., 15 years) without significant decomposition. After 15 years of storage, the kinetic model predicts ∼0.1% decomposition, but storage at higher temperatures (e.g. 30 deg. C) is not recommended

  14. Thermal decomposition of biphenyl (1963); Decomposition thermique du biphenyle (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The rates of formation of the decomposition products of biphenyl; hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethylene, as well as triphenyl have been measured in the vapour and liquid phases at 460 deg. C. The study of the decomposition products of biphenyl at different temperatures between 400 and 460 deg. C has provided values of the activation energies of the reactions yielding the main products of pyrolysis in the vapour phase. Product and Activation energy: Hydrogen 73 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Benzene 76 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Meta-triphenyl 53 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Biphenyl decomposition 64 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; The rate of disappearance of biphenyl is only very approximately first order. These results show the major role played at the start of the decomposition by organic impurities which are not detectable by conventional physico-chemical analysis methods and the presence of which accelerates noticeably the decomposition rate. It was possible to eliminate these impurities by zone-melting carried out until the initial gradient of the formation curves for the products became constant. The composition of the high-molecular weight products (over 250) was deduced from the mean molecular weight and the dosage of the aromatic C - H bonds by infrared spectrophotometry. As a result the existence in tars of hydrogenated tetra, penta and hexaphenyl has been demonstrated. (author) [French] Les vitesses de formation des produits de decomposition du biphenyle: hydrogene, methane, ethane, ethylene, ainsi que des triphenyles, ont ete mesurees en phase vapeur et en phase liquide a 460 deg. C. L'etude des produits de decomposition du biphenyle a differentes temperatures comprises entre 400 et 460 deg. C, a fourni les valeurs des energies d'activation des reactions conduisant aux principaux produits de la pyrolyse en phase vapeur. Produit et Energie d'activation: Hydrogene 73 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Benzene 76 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Metatriphenyle, 53 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Decomposition du biphenyle 64 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; La

  15. Comparing structural decomposition analysis and index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, Rutger; Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze and understand historical changes in economic, environmental, employment or other socio-economic indicators, it is useful to assess the driving forces or determinants that underlie these changes. Two techniques for decomposing indicator changes at the sector level are structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and index decomposition analysis (IDA). For example, SDA and IDA have been used to analyze changes in indicators such as energy use, CO 2 -emissions, labor demand and value added. The changes in these variables are decomposed into determinants such as technological, demand, and structural effects. SDA uses information from input-output tables while IDA uses aggregate data at the sector-level. The two methods have developed quite independently, which has resulted in each method being characterized by specific, unique techniques and approaches. This paper has three aims. First, the similarities and differences between the two approaches are summarized. Second, the possibility of transferring specific techniques and indices is explored. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate differences between the two approaches

  16. Radiolytic decomposition of organic C-14 released from TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Yuko; Noshita, Kenji; Kawasaki, Toru; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Sakuragi, Tomofumi; Asano, Hidekazu

    2007-01-01

    It has been found that metallic TRU waste releases considerable portions of C-14 in the form of organic molecules such as lower molecular weight organic acids, alcohols and aldehydes. Due to the low sorption ability of organic C-14, it is important to clarify the long-term behavior of organic forms under waste disposal conditions. From investigations on radiolytic decomposition of organic carbon molecules into inorganic carbonic acid, it is expected that radiation from TRU waste will decompose organic C-14 into inorganic carbonic acid that has higher adsorption ability into the engineering barriers. Hence we have studied the decomposition behavior of organic C-14 by gamma irradiation experiments under simulated disposal conditions. The results showed that organic C-14 reacted with OH radicals formed by radiolysis of water, to produce inorganic carbonic acid. We introduced the concept of 'decomposition efficiency' which expresses the percentage of OH radicals consumed for the decomposition reaction of organic molecules in order to analyze the experimental results. We estimated the effect of radiolytic decomposition on the concentration of organic C-14 in the simulated conditions of the TRU disposal system using the decomposition efficiency, and found that the concentration of organic C-14 in the waste package will be lowered when the decomposition of organic C-14 by radiolysis was taken into account, in comparison with the concentration of organic C-14 without radiolysis. Our prediction suggested that some amount of organic C-14 can be expected to be transformed into the inorganic form in the waste package in an actual system. (authors)

  17. Methyl Iodide Decomposition at BWR Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Mike; Bell, Merl

    2012-09-01

    Based on favourable results from short-term testing of methanol addition to an operating BWR plant, AREVA has performed numerous studies in support of necessary Engineering and Plant Safety Evaluations prior to extended injection of methanol. The current paper presents data from a study intended to provide further understanding of the decomposition of methyl iodide as it affects the assessment of methyl iodide formation with the application of methanol at BWR Plants. This paper describes the results of the decomposition testing under UV-C light at laboratory conditions and its effect on the subject methyl iodide production evaluation. The study as to the formation and decomposition of methyl iodide as it is effected by methanol addition is one phase of a larger AREVA effort to provide a generic plant Safety Evaluation prior to long-term methanol injection to an operating BWR. Other testing phases have investigated the compatibility of methanol with fuel construction materials, plant structural materials, plant consumable materials (i.e. elastomers and coatings), and ion exchange resins. Methyl iodide is known to be very unstable, typically preserved with copper metal or other stabilizing materials when produced and stored. It is even more unstable when exposed to light, heat, radiation, and water. Additionally, it is known that methyl iodide will decompose radiolytically, and that this effect may be simulated using ultra-violet radiation (UV-C) [2]. In the tests described in this paper, the use of a UV-C light source provides activation energy for the formation of methyl iodide. Thus is similar to the effect expected from Cherenkov radiation present in a reactor core after shutdown. Based on the testing described in this paper, it is concluded that injection of methanol at concentrations below 2.5 ppm in BWR applications to mitigate IGSCC of internals is inconsequential to the accident conditions postulated in the FSAR as they are related to methyl iodide formation

  18. Biological decomposition of aqueous solutions from soil cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniebusch, M.M.; Sekoulov, I.

    1993-01-01

    The biological cleaning of process water from soil cleaning and from contaminated groundwater required the development of new types of reaction systems. With the introduced membrane biofilm reactor, even substances difficult to decompose can be removed from contaminated water. Previous investigations of the elimination of pyrene in the presence of n-hexadecane show an optimum temperature at 30 C. An increase of scale is possible based on the invesstigations carried out on the aerobic biological decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (orig.) [de

  19. Lie bialgebras with triangular decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andruskiewitsch, N.; Levstein, F.

    1992-06-01

    Lie bialgebras originated in a triangular decomposition of the underlying Lie algebra are discussed. The explicit formulas for the quantization of the Heisenberg Lie algebra and some motion Lie algebras are given, as well as the algebra of rational functions on the quantum Heisenberg group and the formula for the universal R-matrix. (author). 17 refs

  20. Decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Oxides in powder form are obtained from aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates (e.g. U, Pu, Th, Ce) by thermal decomposition at 300 to 800 deg C in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal. (author)

  1. Probability inequalities for decomposition integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mesiar, Radko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 315, č. 1 (2017), s. 240-248 ISSN 0377-0427 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Decomposition integral * Superdecomposition integral * Probability inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0470959.pdf

  2. Thermal decomposition of ammonium hexachloroosmate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asanova, T I; Kantor, Innokenty; Asanov, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes of (NH4)2[OsCl6] occurring during thermal decomposition in a reduction atmosphere have been studied in situ using combined energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy (ED-XAFS) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). According to PXRD, (NH4)2[OsCl6] transforms directly to meta...

  3. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Research and development of water decomposition using mixture cycles composed by thermo-chemistry, photo-chemistry and electrochemistry; 1977 nendo netsukagaku, hikari kagaku, denki kagaku konsei cycle ni yoru suibunkai no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    Discussions are being made on manufacture of hydrogen and oxygen from water decomposition using mixture cycles composed by thermo-chemistry, photo-chemistry and electrochemistry using ferrous sulfate and iodine. Photo-chemical reaction produces Fe(OH)SO{sub 4} and HI, but due to difficulty of isolating Fe(OH)SO{sub 4}, photo-chemical reaction that can obtain the compound as Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} was introduced. A method was introduced that can perform HI isolation simultaneously while performing reaction to reduce Fe{sup 3+} and turn it into Fe{sup 2+} (generating oxygen) by means of electrolysing the liquid after the former reaction. The electrolytic process decomposes HI into hydrogen and iodine (discussions on thermo-chemical decomposition is also continued). Since the photo-chemical reaction can cause reverse reaction, discussions were given on the reaction process in order to suppress the reverse reaction and enhance the conversion efficiency. This paper describes the achievements during fiscal 1977. A quantification method was elucidated on individual iodine components so that it can be used for computerized control (measurement of absorbance of I{sub 3}{sup -}) . An electrolytic tank was discussed that decomposes and isolates photo-chemical reaction products before the reverse reaction occurs. Heat diffusion method was also discussed that isolates hydrogen from HI decomposition products. (NEDO)

  4. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. Research and development on water decomposition by using mixed cycle of thermo-chemistry, photo-chemistry and electrochemistry; 1979 nendo netsukagaku, hikari kagaku, denki kagaku konsei cycle ni yoru mizu bunkai no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    This paper describes achievements in research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979 on water decomposition by using mixed cycle of thermo-chemistry, photo-chemistry and electrochemistry. In research on the light irradiation electrolytic process, with an objective of improving the reaction efficiency, discussions were given by raising light intensity on the irradiated surface as high as 13 times that of the sunlight. The subsequent process is electrolysis of products from photo-chemical reaction, and the product concentration should be high enough to have HI decomposition (hydrogen acquisition) proceed with high efficiency. Experiments were carried out at 0.03 to 0.1M as iodine concentrations (product HI concentration at 3%). A photo-chemical reaction rate of 80% was obtained at light intensity as high as 12 times that of the sunlight, and iodine concentration of 0.07 mM. The efficiency was 15%. Raising temperature causes the reaction rate to decrease, but it can be supplemented by raising the light intensity, where high concentration HI content was obtained. Rate controlling process in the reaction was elucidated from activation energies in the reaction process of each element on the iodine concentrations from 3 to 30 mM used in the photo-chemical reaction. Experiments were performed on HI decomposition (hydrogen acquisition) by using a heat diffusion column. Separation performance in a filled type column was worse than that in an empty type column, which requires future discussions. (NEDO)

  5. Covariant Conformal Decomposition of Einstein Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgoulhon, E.; Novak, J.

    It has been shown1,2 that the usual 3+1 form of Einstein's equations may be ill-posed. This result has been previously observed in numerical simulations3,4. We present a 3+1 type formalism inspired by these works to decompose Einstein's equations. This decomposition is motivated by the aim of stable numerical implementation and resolution of the equations. We introduce the conformal 3-``metric'' (scaled by the determinant of the usual 3-metric) which is a tensor density of weight -2/3. The Einstein equations are then derived in terms of this ``metric'', of the conformal extrinsic curvature and in terms of the associated derivative. We also introduce a flat 3-metric (the asymptotic metric for isolated systems) and the associated derivative. Finally, the generalized Dirac gauge (introduced by Smarr and York5) is used in this formalism and some examples of formulation of Einstein's equations are shown.

  6. Generalized Benders’ Decomposition for topology optimization problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munoz Queupumil, Eduardo Javier; Stolpe, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    ) problems with discrete design variables to global optimality. We present the theoretical aspects of the method, including a proof of finite convergence and conditions for obtaining global optimal solutions. The method is also linked to, and compared with, an Outer-Approximation approach and a mixed 0......–1 semi definite programming formulation of the considered problem. Several ways to accelerate the method are suggested and an implementation is described. Finally, a set of truss topology optimization problems are numerically solved to global optimality.......This article considers the non-linear mixed 0–1 optimization problems that appear in topology optimization of load carrying structures. The main objective is to present a Generalized Benders’ Decomposition (GBD) method for solving single and multiple load minimum compliance (maximum stiffness...

  7. Technical procedures for water resources: Volume 3, Environmental Field Program, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    To ensure that the environmental field program comprehensively addresses the issues and requirements of the project, a site study plan (SSP) has been prepared for Water Resources (ONWI, 1987). This technical procedure (TP) has been developed to implement the field program described in the Water Resources Site Study Plan. This procedure provides the general method for the field collection of water and sediment samples from playa lakes using an Alpha horizontal type sampler or equivalent or a peristaltic pump for water and a KB-coring devise or ponar grab for sediments. The samples will be preserved and then shipped to a laboratory for analysis. The water quality and sediment samples will be collected as part of the surface-water quality field study described in the Site Plan for Water Resources. 15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Nitrogen deposition does not enhance Sphagnum decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, S; Kivimäki, S; Leith, I D; Leeson, S R; Sheppard, L J

    2016-11-15

    Long-term additions of nitrogen (N) to peatlands have altered bryophyte growth, species dominance, N content in peat and peat water, and often resulted in enhanced Sphagnum decomposition rate. However, these results have mainly been derived from experiments in which N was applied as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), neglecting the fact that in polluted areas, wet deposition may be dominated either by NO3(-) or NH4(+). We studied effects of elevated wet deposition of NO3(-) vs. NH4(+) alone (8 or 56kgNha(-1)yr(-1) over and above the background of 8kgNha(-1)yr(-1) for 5 to 11years) or combined with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on Sphagnum quality for decomposers, mass loss, and associated changes in hummock pore water in an ombrotrophic bog (Whim). Adding N, especially as NH4(+), increased N concentration in Sphagnum, but did not enhance mass loss from Sphagnum. Mass loss seemed to depend mainly on moss species and climatic factors. Only high applications of N affected hummock pore water chemistry, which varied considerably over time. Overall, C and N cycling in this N treated bog appeared to be decoupled. We conclude that moss species, seasonal and annual variation in climatic factors, direct negative effects of N (NH4(+) toxicity) on Sphagnum production, and indirect effects (increase in pH and changes in plant species dominance under elevated NO3(-) alone and with PK) drive Sphagnum decomposition and hummock C and N dynamics at Whim. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Domain of composition and finite volume schemes on non-matching grids; Decomposition de domaine et schemas volumes finis sur maillages non-conformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saas, L.

    2004-05-01

    This Thesis deals with sedimentary basin modeling whose goal is the prediction through geological times of the localizations and appraisal of hydrocarbons quantities present in the ground. Due to the natural and evolutionary decomposition of the sedimentary basin in blocks and stratigraphic layers, domain decomposition methods are requested to simulate flows of waters and of hydrocarbons in the ground. Conservations laws are used to model the flows in the ground and form coupled partial differential equations which must be discretized by finite volume method. In this report we carry out a study on finite volume methods on non-matching grids solved by domain decomposition methods. We describe a family of finite volume schemes on non-matching grids and we prove that the associated global discretized problem is well posed. Then we give an error estimate. We give two examples of finite volume schemes on non matching grids and the corresponding theoretical results (Constant scheme and Linear scheme). Then we present the resolution of the global discretized problem by a domain decomposition method using arbitrary interface conditions (for example Robin conditions). Finally we give numerical results which validate the theoretical results and study the use of finite volume methods on non-matching grids for basin modeling. (author)

  10. Chemotoxic materials in a final repository for high-level radioactive wastes. CHEMOTOX concept for defence in depth concerning ground water protection from chemotoxic materials in a final high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Sailer, Michael; Schmidt, Gerhard; Herbert, Horst-Juergen; Krone, Juergen; Tholen, Marion

    2009-01-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in a final repository includes chemotoxic materials. The chemotoxic materials are either part of the radioactive material or part of the packaging material, or the structures within the repository. In the frame of the licensing procedure it has to be demonstrated that no hazardous pollution of the ground water or other disadvantageous changes can occur. The report describes the common project of the Oeko-Institut e.V., the DBE Technology GmbH and the GRS mbH concerning the possible demonstration of a systematic protection of the groundwater against chemotoxic materials in case of a final high-level-radioactive waste repository in the host materials salt and clay stone.

  11. Investigating hydrogel dosimeter decomposition by chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The chemical oxidative decomposition of leucocrystal violet micelle hydrogel dosimeters was investigated using the reaction of ferrous ions with hydrogen peroxide or sodium bicarbonate with hydrogen peroxide. The second reaction is more effective at dye decomposition in gelatin hydrogels. Additional chemical analysis is required to determine the decomposition products

  12. OECM MCCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-2 final data report, Rev. 0 February 12, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M.T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.

    2011-01-01

    oxidized PWR corium melt containing 8 wt% siliceous concrete decomposition products. The melt was quenched at nominally atmospheric pressure. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and data reduction to obtain an estimate of the corrected heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool. A section of the report is devoted to calculations of the conduction-limited heat flux that accounts for heat losses to the crucible holding the corium. The remainder of the report describes post test examinations of the crust, which includes permeability and mechanical strength measurements, and chemical analysis.

  13. OECD MMCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-1 final data report, Rev. 1 February 10, 2003.; Report, Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M.T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.

    2011-01-01

    oxidized PWR corium melt containing 8 wt% limestone/common sand concrete decomposition products. The melt was quenched at nominally atmospheric pressure. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and data reduction to obtain an estimate of the corrected heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool. A section of the report is devoted to calculations of the conduction-limited heat flux that accounts for heat losses to the crucible holding the corium. The remainder of the report describes post test examinations of the crust, which includes permeability and mechanical strength measurements, and chemical analysis.

  14. Litter Decomposition Rate of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora apiculata in Pulau Dua Nature Reserve, Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriana Siska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Litter decomposition rate is useful method to determine forest fertility level. The aims of this study were to measure decomposition rate, and analyze the nutrient content released organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphor from Avicennia marina and Rhizophora apiculata litters during the decomposition process. The research was conducted in the Pulau Dua Nature Reserve, Serang-Banten on A. marina and R. apiculata forest communities. Litter decomposition rate measurements performed in the field. Litter that has been obtained with the trap system is inserted into litter bag and than tied to the roots or trees to avoid drifting sea water. Litter decomposition rate was measured every 15 days and is accompanied by analysis of the content of organic C , total N and P. Our research results showed decomposition rate of A. marina (k= 0.83 was higher than that of R. apiculata (k= 0.41. Differences of  leaf anatomical structure and sea water salinity  influenced to the rate of litter decomposition. Organic C released was declined with longer of litter decomposition, on the contrary of releasing N and P nutrients.

  15. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  16. Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    This study of water reclamation and waste disposal is directed toward a more efficient utilization of natural resources. From an ecological standpoint improved methods of land use, water processing equipment, and ideal population profiles are investigated. Methods are described whereby significant reduction in water usage can be achieved by the adoption of presently available and practically applied technological concepts. Allowances are made for social, natural, and economic contingencies which are likely to occur up to the year 2000.

  17. Demonstration of an advanced solar garden with a water ceiling. Final technical report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, R.; Riseng, C.; Thomas, G.; Mandeville, M.

    1980-09-01

    A history of the solar garden with the addition of the transparent water ceiling is presented, and a statement of the overall goals of the program is given. The objectives of the water ceiling grant are detailed. The rationale of the transparent water ceiling is developed and its implementation in the solar garden is described. The experimental procedures for evaluating the water ceiling as an integral part of an ongoing garden agricultural experiment are discussed and the results presented. The water ceiling has proven useful in providing extra thermal capacity to the solar garden. It provides heat at night after the water has been warmed during the day and retards overheating in the daytime by absorbing infrared energy into the water. In growing non-flowering plants, such as lettuce and Chinese cabbage, the water ceiling showed no noticeable degradation in yield or maturation rate. In flowering plants, such as tomatoes, the reduced light levels delayed yields by a couple of weeks but the total yield was only slightly diminished. In geographic areas where there is less cloud cover than in Michigan the water ceiling could be much more effective.

  18. Debromination and decomposition of bromoform by contact glow discharge electrolysis in an aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Panliang; Zhang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Bromoform (BF) is a stable and carcinogenic contaminant in water. In this study, efficient debromination and decomposition of BF induced by contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE) in a sodium sulfate solution were investigated. Intermediate byproducts were determined by ionic chromatography and gas chromatography, respectively. Experimental results showed that alkaline conditions and additions of organic additives to the solution were favorable for both the removal and the debromination of BF. Oxalic acid, formic acid, dibromomethane and bromate ion were determined as the major intermediate byproducts. Final products were inorganic carbon and bromide ion. Hydrated electrons may be the most likely active species responsible for the initiation of the debromination, and hydroxyl radicals may be the ones for the oxidation of the intermediate byproducts

  19. Numerical Investigation of AdBlue Droplet Evaporation and Thermal Decomposition in the Context of NOx-SCR Using a Multi-Component Evaporation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Nishad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the progressive tightening of the emission regulations, gasoline and diesel engines will continuously require highly improved exhaust after-treatment systems. In the case of diesel engines, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR appears as one of the widely adopted technologies to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides emissions. Thereby, with the help of available heat from exhaust gas, the injected urea–water solution (UWS turns inside the exhaust port immediately into gaseous ammonia (NH3 by evaporation of mixture and thermal decomposition of urea. The reaction and conversion efficiency mostly depend upon the evaporation and subsequent mixing of the NH3 into the exhaust gas, which in turn depends upon the engine loading conditions. Up to now, the aggregation of urea after evaporation of water and during the thermal decomposition of urea is not clearly understood. Hence, various scenarios for the urea depletion in the gaseous phase that can be envisaged have to be appraised under SCR operating conditions relying on an appropriate evaporation description. The objective of the present paper is therefore fourfold. First, a reliable multi-component evaporation model that includes a proper binary diffusion coefficient is developed for the first time in the Euler–Lagrangian CFD (computational fluid dynamics framework to account properly for the distinct evaporation regimes of adBlue droplets under various operating conditions. Second, this model is extended for thermal decomposition of urea in the gaseous phase, where, depending on how the heat of thermal decomposition of urea is provided, different scenarios are considered. Third, since the evaporation model at and around the droplet surface is based on a gas film approach, how the material properties are evaluated in the film influences the process results is reported, also for the first time. Finally, the impact of various ambient temperatures on the adBlue droplet depletion characteristics

  20. Decomposition characteristics of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes and their potential application as carbon resource in constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqing; He, Shengbing; Zhou, Weili; Gu, Jianya; Huang, Jungchen; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2017-12-01

    Decomposition of aquatic macrophytes usually generates significant influence on aquatic environment. Study on the aquatic macrophytes decomposition may help reusing the aquatic macrophytes litters, as well as controlling the water pollution caused by the decomposition process. This study verified that the decomposition processes of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes (water hyacinth, hydrilla and cattail) could exert significant influences on water quality of the receiving water, including the change extent of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, etc. The influence of decomposition on water quality and the concentrations of the released chemical materials both followed the order of water hyacinth > hydrilla > cattail. Greater influence was obtained with higher dosage of plant litter addition. The influence also varied with sediment addition. Moreover, nitrogen released from the decomposition of water hyacinth and hydrilla were mainly NH 3 -N and organic nitrogen while those from cattail litter included organic nitrogen and NO 3 - -N. After the decomposition, the average carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) in the receiving water was about 2.6 (water hyacinth), 5.3 (hydrilla) and 20.3 (cattail). Therefore, cattail litter might be a potential plant carbon source for denitrification in ecological system of a constructed wetland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This report contains the comments and responses received on the draft PEIS

  2. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts.

  3. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report

  4. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts

  5. Dictionary-Based Tensor Canonical Polyadic Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy Emile; Gillis, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    To ensure interpretability of extracted sources in tensor decomposition, we introduce in this paper a dictionary-based tensor canonical polyadic decomposition which enforces one factor to belong exactly to a known dictionary. A new formulation of sparse coding is proposed which enables high dimensional tensors dictionary-based canonical polyadic decomposition. The benefits of using a dictionary in tensor decomposition models are explored both in terms of parameter identifiability and estimation accuracy. Performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated on the decomposition of simulated data and the unmixing of hyperspectral images.

  6. Decomposition of diesel oil by various microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, A; Netzsch-Lehner, A

    1969-01-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated the decomposition of diesel oil in different soils. In this experiment the decomposition of /sup 14/C-n-Hexadecane labelled diesel oil by special microorganisms was studied. The results were as follows: (1) In the experimental soils the microorganisms Mycoccus ruber, Mycobacterium luteum and Trichoderma hamatum are responsible for the diesel oil decomposition. (2) By adding microorganisms to the soil an increase of the decomposition rate was found only in the beginning of the experiments. (3) Maximum decomposition of diesel oil was reached 2-3 weeks after incubation.

  7. Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maître, O P; Knio, O M; Moraes, A

    2015-06-28

    This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlögl, and Michaelis-Menten models.

  8. Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maître, O. P.; Knio, O. M.; Moraes, A.

    2015-06-01

    This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlögl, and Michaelis-Menten models.

  9. Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Maître, O. P., E-mail: olm@limsi.fr [LIMSI-CNRS, UPR 3251, Orsay (France); Knio, O. M., E-mail: knio@duke.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Moraes, A., E-mail: alvaro.moraesgutierrez@kaust.edu.sa [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-06-28

    This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlögl, and Michaelis-Menten models.

  10. Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maî tre, O. P.; Knio, O. M.; Moraes, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlögl, and Michaelis-Menten models.

  11. Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The manner in which current and advanced technology can be applied to develop practical solutions to existing and emerging water supply and waste disposal problems is evaluated. An overview of water resource factors as they affect new community planning, and requirements imposed on residential waste treatment systems are presented. The results of equipment surveys contain information describing: commercially available devices and appliances designed to conserve water; devices and techniques for monitoring water quality and controlling back contamination; and advanced water and waste processing equipment. System concepts are developed and compared on the basis of current and projected costs. Economic evaluations are based on community populations of from 2,000 to 250,000. The most promising system concept is defined in sufficient depth to initiate detailed design.

  12. Final report on the proficiency test on the determination of total arsenic concentration in water TC Project BGD/08/018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Rossbach, M.; Benesch, T.; Campbell, M.; Sansone, U.; Will, K.; Schorn, R.; Toervenyi, A.

    2005-02-01

    A proficiency test on the determination of arsenic in drinking water was organised within the frame of the TC project BGD/8/018 to evaluate the analytical performance of laboratories in Bangladesh. This report summarises the performance evaluation of the participating laboratories. Analytical data evaluation showed that 61% of data obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the accuracy and precision criteria applied to this exercise. (author)

  13. Excimer laser decomposition of silicone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, L.D.; Cochrane, C.; Dicara, Cl.; Dupas-Bruzek, C.; Kolev, K.

    2003-01-01

    Excimer laser irradiation of silicone foils is shown in this work to induce decomposition, ablation and activation of such materials. Thin (100 μm) laminated silicone foils are irradiated at 248 nm as a function of impacting laser fluence and number of pulsed irradiations at 1 s intervals. Above a threshold fluence of 0.7 J/cm 2 , material starts decomposing. At higher fluences, this decomposition develops and gives rise to (i) swelling of the irradiated surface and then (ii) emission of matter (ablation) at a rate that is not proportioned to the number of pulses. Taking into consideration the polymer structure and the foil lamination process, these results help defining the phenomenology of silicone ablation. The polymer decomposition results in two parts: one which is organic and volatile, and another part which is inorganic and remains, forming an ever thickening screen to light penetration as the number of light pulses increases. A mathematical model is developed that accounts successfully for this physical screening effect

  14. Mechanism and kinetics of thermal decomposition of ammoniacal complex of copper oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.

    2003-01-01

    A complex precursor has been synthesized by dissolving copper oxalate in liquor ammonia followed by drying. The thermal decomposition of the precursor has been studied in different atmospheres, air/nitrogen. The mechanism of decomposition of the precursor in air is not as simple one as in nitrogen. In nitrogen, it involves endothermic deammoniation followed by decomposition to finely divided elemental particles of copper. Whereas in air, decomposition and simultaneous oxidation of the residual products (oxidative decomposition), make the process complex and relatively bigger particle of cupric oxide are obtained as final product. The products of decomposition in different atmospheres have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and particle size analysis. The stoichiometric formula, Cu(NH 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 of the precursor is established from elemental analysis and TG measurements, and it is designated as copper amino oxalate (CAO). In nitrogen atmosphere, the deammoniation and decomposition have been found to be zero and first order, respectively. The values of activation energy have been found to be 102.52 and 95.38 kJ/mol for deammoniation and decomposition, respectively

  15. Analysis of Decomposition for Structure I Methane Hydrate by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Sun, Wan-Tong; Meng, Ying-Feng; Liu, An-Qi; Zhou, Shou-Wei; Guo, Ping; Fu, Qiang; Lv, Xin

    2018-05-01

    Under multi-nodes of temperatures and pressures, microscopic decomposition mechanisms of structure I methane hydrate in contact with bulk water molecules have been studied through LAMMPS software by molecular dynamics simulation. Simulation system consists of 482 methane molecules in hydrate and 3027 randomly distributed bulk water molecules. Through analyses of simulation results, decomposition number of hydrate cages, density of methane molecules, radial distribution function for oxygen atoms, mean square displacement and coefficient of diffusion of methane molecules have been studied. A significant result shows that structure I methane hydrate decomposes from hydrate-bulk water interface to hydrate interior. As temperature rises and pressure drops, the stabilization of hydrate will weaken, decomposition extent will go deep, and mean square displacement and coefficient of diffusion of methane molecules will increase. The studies can provide important meanings for the microscopic decomposition mechanisms analyses of methane hydrate.

  16. Preliminary final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternative systems for conducting the ground water program. One of these systems is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies, because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS presents multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, that could be used to implement all the alternatives presented in the PEIS except the no action alternative. The no action alternative must be considered by law. It consists of taking no action to meet EPA standards. Implementing all PEIS alternatives (except no action) means applying a ground water compliance strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  17. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The EPA standards allow the use of different strategies for achieving compliance with the standards. This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. Each of the four alternatives evaluated in the PEIS is based on a different mix of strategies to meet EPA ground water standards. The PEIS is intended to serve as a programmatic planning document that provides an objective basis for determining site-specific ground water compliance strategies and data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impact analyses more efficiently. DOE will prepare appropriate further National Environmental Policy Act documentation before making site-specific decisions to implement the Ground Water Project. Affected States, Tribes, local government agencies, and members of the public have been involved in the process of preparing this PEIS; DOE encourages their continued participation in the site-specific decision making process

  18. A 5 year longitudinal study of water quality for final rinsing in the single chamber washer-disinfector with a reverse osmosis plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetera, Yushi; Kishii, Kozue; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Kumada, Naohito; Moriya, Kyoji; Saito, Ryoichi; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Misawa, Yoshiki; Kawamura, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    This report deals with the construction and management of the reverse osmosis (RO) water system for final rinsing of surgical instruments in the washer-disinfector. Numerous operational challenges were encountered in our RO water system and these were analyzed utilizing the Ishikawa Fishbone diagram. The aim was to find potential problems and promote preventive system management for RO water. It was found that the measures that existed were inappropriate for preventing contamination in the heat-labile RO water system. The storage tank was found to be significantly contaminated and had to be replaced with a new one equipped with a sampling port and water drainage system. Additional filters and an UV treatment lamp were installed. The whole system disinfection started 1.5 years later using a peracetic acid-based compound after confirming the material compatibility. Operator errors were found when a new water engineer took over the duty from his predecessor. It was also found that there were some deficiencies in the standard operating procedures (SOPs), and that on-the-job training was not enough. The water engineer failed to disinfect the sampling port and water drainage system. The RO membrane had been used for 4 years, even though the SOP standard specified changing it as every 3 years. Various bacteria, such as Rothia mucilaginosa, were cultured from the RO water sampled from the equipment. Because Rothia mucilaginosa is a resident in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract, it is believed that the bacteria were introduced into the system by the maintenance personnel or working environment. Therefore, the presence of R. mucilaginosa implied the failure of sanitary maintenance procedures. This study suggests that water systems should be designed based on the plans for profound system maintenance. It also suggests that SOP and on-the job training are essential to avoid any operator errors. These results must be carefully considered when either constructing new

  19. Role of electrodes in ambient electrolytic decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Seng Koh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN solution with electrolytic decomposition method has attracted much attention in recent years due to its efficiencies and practicability. However, the phenomenon has not been well-studied till now. By utilizing mathematical model currently available, the effect of water content and power used for decomposition was studied. Experiment data shows that sacrificial material such as copper or aluminum outperforms inert electrodes in the decomposition of HAN solution. In the case of using copper wire to electrolyse HAN solutions, approximately 10 seconds is required to reach 100 °C regardless of concentration of HAN. In term of power consumption, 100 W–300 W was found to be the range in which decomposition could be triggered effectively using copper wire as electrodes.

  20. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography

  1. Application of solar energy to the supply of hot water for textile dyeing. Final report, CDRL/PA 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-01

    The design plan for a solar process hot water system for a textile dye beck at Riegel Textile Corporation's LaFrance, South Carolina, facilities is presented. The solar system consists of 396 GE model TC 100 evacuated tube collector modules arranged in a ground mounted array with a total collector area of 6680 square feet. The system includes an 8000-gallon hot water storage tank. Systems analyses, specification sheets, performance data, and an economic evaluation of the proposed system are presented. (WHK)

  2. Structural system identification based on variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abdollah; Ozbulut, Osman E.; Harris, Devin K.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new structural identification method is proposed to identify the modal properties of engineering structures based on dynamic response decomposition using the variational mode decomposition (VMD). The VMD approach is a decomposition algorithm that has been developed as a means to overcome some of the drawbacks and limitations of the empirical mode decomposition method. The VMD-based modal identification algorithm decomposes the acceleration signal into a series of distinct modal responses and their respective center frequencies, such that when combined their cumulative modal responses reproduce the original acceleration response. The decaying amplitude of the extracted modal responses is then used to identify the modal damping ratios using a linear fitting function on modal response data. Finally, after extracting modal responses from available sensors, the mode shape vector for each of the decomposed modes in the system is identified from all obtained modal response data. To demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm, a series of numerical, laboratory, and field case studies were evaluated. The laboratory case study utilized the vibration response of a three-story shear frame, whereas the field study leveraged the ambient vibration response of a pedestrian bridge to characterize the modal properties of the structure. The modal properties of the shear frame were computed using analytical approach for a comparison with the experimental modal frequencies. Results from these case studies demonstrated that the proposed method is efficient and accurate in identifying modal data of the structures.

  3. Managing Irrigation Water to Enhance Crop Productivity under Water-limiting Conditions: A Role for Isotopic Techniques. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents the outcome of an IAEA coordinated research project and provides research findings and isotopic methodologies to quantify the soil evaporation component of water losses and determine the transpiration efficiency for several important crop species under a variety of environments. The TECDOC also presents a simple, fast and portable vacuum distillation apparatus for extraction water from soil and plant samples for isotopic analyses for the separation of soil evaporation, which helped to reduce the bottleneck in sample throughput for many soil water and hydrology studies

  4. Thermic decomposition of biphenyl; Decomposition thermique du biphenyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    Liquid and vapour phase pyrolysis of very pure biphenyl obtained by methods described in the text was carried out at 400 C in sealed ampoules, the fraction transformed being always less than 0.1 per cent. The main products were hydrogen, benzene, terphenyls, and a deposit of polyphenyls strongly adhering to the walls. Small quantities of the lower aliphatic hydrocarbons were also found. The variation of the yields of these products with a) the pyrolysis time, b) the state (gas or liquid) of the biphenyl, and c) the pressure of the vapour was measured. Varying the area and nature of the walls showed that in the absence of a liquid phase, the pyrolytic decomposition takes place in the adsorbed layer, and that metallic walls promote the reaction more actively than do those of glass (pyrex or silica). A mechanism is proposed to explain the results pertaining to this decomposition in the adsorbed phase. The adsorption seems to obey a Langmuir isotherm, and the chemical act which determines the overall rate of decomposition is unimolecular. (author) [French] Du biphenyle tres pur, dont la purification est decrite, est pyrolyse a 400 C en phase vapeur et en phase liquide dans des ampoules scellees sous vide, a des taux de decomposition n'ayant jamais depasse 0,1 pour cent. Les produits provenant de la pyrolyse sont essentiellement: l' hydrogene, le benzene, les therphenyles, et un depot de polyphenyles adherant fortement aux parois. En plus il se forme de faibles quantites d'hydrocarbures aliphatiques gazeux. On indique la variation des rendements des differents produits avec la duree de pyrolyse, l'etat gazeux ou liquide du biphenyle, et la pression de la vapeur. Variant la superficie et la nature des parois, on montre qu'en absence de liquide la pyrolyse se fait en phase adsorbee. La pyrolyse est plus active au contact de parois metalliques que de celles de verres (pyrex ou silice). A partir des resultats experimentaux un mecanisme de degradation du biphenyle en phase

  5. Evaluation of water quality conditions near proposed fish production sites associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.d.; Mueller, R.P.; Martinson, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP

  6. Effects of water management practices on residue decomposition and degradation of Cry1Ac protein from crop-wild Bt rice hybrids and parental lines during winter fallow season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Manqiu; Dong, Shanshan; Li, Zhaolei; Tang, Xu; Chen, Yi; Yang, Shengmao; Wu, Chunyan; Ouyang, Dongxin; Fang, Changming; Song, Zhiping

    2015-12-01

    Rice is the staple diet of over half of the world's population and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing insecticidal Cry proteins is ready for deployment. An assessment of the potential impact of Bt rice on the soil ecosystem under varied field management practices is urgently required. We used litter bags to assess the residue (leaves, stems and roots) decomposition dynamics of two transgenic rice lines (Kefeng6 and Kefeng8) containing stacked genes from Bt and sck (a modified CpTI gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor) (Bt/CpTI), a non-transgenic rice near-isoline (Minghui86), wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) and crop-wild Bt rice hybrid under contrasting conditions (drainage or continuous flooding) in the field. No significant difference was detected in the remaining mass, total C and total N among cultivars under aerobic conditions, whereas significant differences in the remaining mass and total C were detected between Kefeng6 and Kefeng8 and Minghui86 under the flooded condition. A higher decomposition rate constant (km) was measured under the flooded condition compared with the aerobic condition for leaf residues, whereas the reverse was observed for root residues. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to monitor the changes in the Cry1Ac protein in Bt rice residues, indicated that (1) the degradation of the Cry1Ac protein under both conditions best fit first-order kinetics, and the predicted DT50 (50% degradation time) of the Cry1Ac protein ranged from 3.6 to 32.5 days; (2) the Cry1Ac protein in the residue degraded relatively faster under aerobic conditions; and (3) by the end of the study (~154 days), the protein was present at a low concentration in the remaining residues under both conditions. The degradation rate constant was negatively correlated with the initial carbon content and positively correlated with the initial Cry1Ac protein concentration, but it was only correlated with the mass decomposition rate constants under

  7. Decomposition performance of animals as an indicator of stress acting on beech-forest ecosystems - microcosmos experiments with carbon-14-labelled litter components. Final report. Die Zersetzungsleistung der Tiere als Indikator fuer die Belastung von Buchenwald-Oekosystemen - Mikrokosmosexperimente mit sup 14 C markierten Streukomponenten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, M.; Wolters, V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid rain and heavy metals on the biotic interactions in the soil of beech forest with mull, must, and limed must was investigated with the aid of close-to-nature microcosmos systems. Parameters made use of were the decomposition of carbon-14-labelled litter components and the turnover of the microflora in C, N, and P. As the results show, increased proton uptake will bear on rearly every stage of the decomposition process in mull soils. As a result, there may be litter accumulation on the ground and first signs of humus disintegration in the mineral soil of mull soils. A direct relation between the acidity of the environment and the extent of decomposition inhibition does not exist. Despite wide-ranging impairment of edaphic animals, the activity of the ground fauna still is to be considered as the most important buffer system of soils rich in bases. Acidic condition of the beech forest soils with the humus form 'must' led to drastic inhibition of litter decomposition, to a change of the effect of edaphic animals, and to an increase in N mineralization. The grazing animals frequently aggravate the decomposition inhibition resulting from acid precipitation. The comparision of the decomposition process in a soil containing must as compared to one containing mull showed acidic soils to be on a lower biological buffer level than soils rich in bases. The main buffer capacity of acidic soils lies in the microflora, which is adapted to sudden increases in acidity and which recovers quickly. In the opinion of the authors, simple liming is not enough to increase the long-term biogenic stability of a forest ecosystem. A stabilizing effect of the fauna, for instance on nitrogen storage, is possible only if forest care measuries are carried out, for instance careful loosening of the mineral soil, which will attract earthworm species penetrating deeply into the soil. (orig./MG) With 12 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Final air test results for the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.; Lai, W.

    1977-01-01

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a boiling-water reactor (BWR) power plant has never occurred. However, because this type of accident is particularly severe, it is used as a principal basis for design. During a hypothetical LOCA in a Mark I BWR, air followed by steam is injected from a drywell into a toroidal wetwell about half-filled with water. A series of consistent, versatile, and accurate air-water tests simulating LOCA conditions was completed in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory 1/5-Scale Mark I BWR Pressure Suppression Experimental Facility. Results from this test series were used to quantify the vertical loading function and to study the associated fluid dynamic phenomena. Detailed histories of vertical loads on the wetwell are shown. In particular, variations of hydrodynamic-generated vertical loads with changes in drywell pressurization rate, downcomer submergence, and the vent-line loss coefficient are established. Initial drywell overpressure, which partially preclears the downcomers of water, substantially reduces the peak vertical loads. Scaling relationships, developed from dimensional analysis and verified by bench-top experiments, allow the 1/5-scale results to be applied to a full-scale BWR power plant. This analysis leads to dimensionless groupings which are invariant. These groupongs show that if water is used as the working fluid, the magnitude of the forces in a scaled facility is reduced by the cube of the scale factor; the time when these forces occur is reduced by the square root of the scale factor

  9. Thermal Plasma Decomposition Of Nickel And Cobalt Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woch M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study on manufacturing of nickel and cobalt powders by thermal plasma decomposition of the carbonates of these metals. It was shown the dependence of process parameters and grain size of initial powder on the composition of final product which was ether metal powder, collected in the container as well as the nanopowder with crystallite size of 70 - 90 nm, collected on the inner wall of the reaction chamber. The occurrence of metal oxides in the final products was confirmed and discussed.

  10. Paper chromatographic behavior of tetranitronitrosylruthenate and its decomposition products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-01-01

    The paper chromatographic behavior of tetranitronitrosylruthenate was examined together with its decomposition products. First, Rf values at various eluting conditions were studied with five kinds of papers, since there was a discrepancy among the reported Rf values. Usually Rf of 0.9 was obtained by the recommended procedure of Wain, et al. Second, stability of the tetranitrosylruthenate in water was followed by paper chromatography. No change was found until 200 days passed. Third, the tetranitronitrosylruthenate was warmed in acid, and its decomposition products were studied through the paper chromatography. The paper chromatographic behavior showed that the sample kept in water more than 200 days seemed to contain a dinitro complex, and the sample warmed in acid seemed to be decomposed to a mononitro complex of further. (author)

  11. Kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by catalase: hydroxylic solvent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducan, Adina; Cantemir, Anca Ruxandra; Puiu, Mihaela; Oancea, Dumitru

    2012-11-01

    The effect of water-alcohol (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, ethane-1,2-diol and propane-1,2,3-triol) binary mixtures on the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in the presence of bovine liver catalase is investigated. In all solvents, the activity of catalase is smaller than in water. The results are discussed on the basis of a simple kinetic model. The kinetic constants for product formation through enzyme-substrate complex decomposition and for inactivation of catalase are estimated. The organic solvents are characterized by several physical properties: dielectric constant (D), hydrophobicity (log P), concentration of hydroxyl groups ([OH]), polarizability (α), Kamlet-Taft parameter (β) and Kosower parameter (Z). The relationships between the initial rate, kinetic constants and medium properties are analyzed by linear and multiple linear regression.

  12. Surface water/groundwater relationship in Chaj Doab. Final report for the period November 1985 - December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, S D [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1990-12-31

    In order to understand the relationship between surface water and groundwater in Chaj Doab area, isotopic and chemical studies were undertaken. Seven sets of water samples from hand pumps, tube wells, rivers and canals were collected during the period November 1985 to October 1988 and all the samples were analysed for environmental isotopes such as {sup 2}H, {sup 3}H, {sup 18}O and the dissolved chemical constituents like Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, Mg{sup ++}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup --} and TIC. Some of the water samples having very low tritium concentrations were analysed for {sup 14}C content. Analysis for {sup 13}C values for two sets of samples was also carried out. 8 refs, 13 figs, 6 tabs.

  13. Surface water/groundwater relationship in Chaj Doab. Final report for the period November 1985 - December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to understand the relationship between surface water and groundwater in Chaj Doab area, isotopic and chemical studies were undertaken. Seven sets of water samples from hand pumps, tube wells, rivers and canals were collected during the period November 1985 to October 1988 and all the samples were analysed for environmental isotopes such as 2 H, 3 H, 18 O and the dissolved chemical constituents like Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 -- and TIC. Some of the water samples having very low tritium concentrations were analysed for 14 C content. Analysis for 13 C values for two sets of samples was also carried out. 8 refs, 13 figs, 6 tabs

  14. The German Final Repository Konrad for Low and Intermediate Level Waste with Negligible Heat Generation - Water Law Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetsch, W.; Grundler, D.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Steyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    A survey on the conceptual realization of the requirements due to water law aspects within the license the KONRAD repository for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in Germany is given [1]. The regulatory decision for the implementation and operation of the repository KONRAD includes, among other things, water law issues. In particular, the KONRAD license includes waste requirements concerning non-radioactive hazardous material (waste package constituents) which have to be considered producing KONRAD waste packages. The intended philosophy of waste acceptance and waste package quality assurance measures to be considered by the KONRAD site operator as well as by the waste producer will be presented. It will demonstrate the selected procedure of the waste declaration and acceptance and describe the structure and logic of tools and aids to comply with the legal requirements of the license and its collateral clause issued under water law. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of the freeze-thaw/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters. Final report, August 1992--August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boysen, J.E.; Walker, K.L.; Mefford, J.L.; Kirsch, J.R. [Resource Technology Corp., Laramie, WY (United States); Harju, J.A. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1996-06-01

    The use of freeze-crystallization is becoming increasingly acknowledged as a low-cost, energy-efficient method for purifying contaminated water. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year round in regions where subfreezing temperatures seasonally occur. The climates typical of Colorado`s San Juan Basin and eastern slope, as well as the oil and gas producing regions of Wyoming, are well suited for application of these processes in combination. Specifically, the objectives of this research are related to the development of a commercially-economic FTE (freeze-thaw/evaporation) process for the treatment and purification of water produced in conjunction with oil and natural gas. The research required for development of this process consists of three tasks: (1) a literature survey and process modeling and economic analysis; (2) laboratory-scale process evaluation; and (3) field demonstration of the process. Results of research conducted for the completion of these three tasks indicate that produced water treatment and disposal costs for commercial application of the process, would be in the range of $0.20 to $0.30/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region. FTE field demonstration results from northwestern New Mexico during the winter of 1995--96 indicate significant and simultaneous removal of salts, metals, and organics from produced water. Despite the unusually warm winter, process yields demonstrate disposal volume reductions on the order of 80% and confirm the potential for economic production of water suitable for various beneficial uses. The total dissolved solids concentrations of the FTE demonstration streams were 11,600 mg/L (feed), 56,900 mg/L (brine), and 940 mg/L (ice melt).

  16. Kinetic model for predicting the concentrations of active halogens species in chlorinated saline cooling waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, W.R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic model has been developed for describing the speciation of chlorine-produced oxidants in seawater as a function of time. The model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions, including all pH range, salinities, temperatures, ammonia concentrations, organic amine concentrations, and chlorine doses likely to be encountered during power plant cooling water chlorination. However, the effects of sunlight are not considered. The model can also be applied to freshwater and recirculating water systems with cooling towers. The results of the model agree with expectation, however, complete verification is not feasible at the present because analytical methods for some of the predicted species are lacking

  17. Evaluation of Management of Water Releases for Painted Rocks Reservoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1983-1986, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoon, Ronald L. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1987-06-01

    This study was initiated in July, 1983 to develop a water management plan for the release of water purchased from Painted Rocks Reservoir. Releases were designed to provide optimum benefits to the Bitterroot River fishery. Fisheries, habitat, and stream flow information was gathered to evaluate the effectiveness of these supplemental releases in improving trout populations in the Bitterroot River. The study was part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program and was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report presents data collected from 1983 through 1986.

  18. Kinetic model for predicting the concentrations of active halogens species in chlorinated saline cooling waters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, W.R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic model has been developed for describing the speciation of chlorine-produced oxidants in seawater as a function of time. The model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions, including all pH range, salinities, temperatures, ammonia concentrations, organic amine concentrations, and chlorine doses likely to be encountered during power plant cooling water chlorination. However, the effects of sunlight are not considered. The model can also be applied to freshwater and recirculating water systems with cooling towers. The results of the model agree with expectation, however, complete verification is not feasible at the present because analytical methods for some of the predicted species are lacking.

  19. Evaluation and demonstration of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized services for new and rehabilitated multifamily buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkus, P. [Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (US); Tuluca, A. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (US)

    1993-06-01

    The general objective of this research was aimed at developing sufficient technical and economic know-how to convince the building and design communities of the appropriateness and energy advantages of decentralized space and water heating for multifamily buildings. Two main goals were established to guide this research. First, the research sought to determine the cost-benefit advantages of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized systems for multifamily applications based on innovative gas piping and appliance technologies. The second goal was to ensure that this information is made available to the design community.

  20. Radiation-induced decomposition of aqueous trichloroethylene solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Proksch, E.; Szinovatz, W.; Eschweiler, H.

    1988-01-01

    In air-saturated reagent grade water, 10 ppm trichloroethylene are decomposed by γ radiation in a roughly first-order reaction; the initial G-value being 5.4 molecules/100 eV. At sub-ppm concentrations the kinetics remain roughly first-order; the initial G-values decrease with decreasing concentration. The main decomposition products are Cl - , CO 2 and HCOOH. A tentative reaction scheme in accordance with these results is presented. (author)

  1. Dolomite decomposition under CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfa, F.; Bensouici, F.; Barama, S.E.; Harabi, A.; Achour, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Dolomite (MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 is one of the most abundant mineral species on the surface of the planet, it occurs in sedimentary rocks. MgO, CaO and Doloma (Phase mixture of MgO and CaO, obtained from the mineral dolomite) based materials are attractive steel-making refractories because of their potential cost effectiveness and world wide abundance more recently, MgO is also used as protective layers in plasma screen manufacture ceel. The crystal structure of dolomite was determined as rhombohedral carbonates, they are layers of Mg +2 and layers of Ca +2 ions. It dissociates depending on the temperature variations according to the following reactions: MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + CaO + 2CO 2 .....MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + Ca + CaCO 3 + CO 2 .....This latter reaction may be considered as a first step for MgO production. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) are used to control dolomite decomposition and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was used to elucidate thermal decomposition of dolomite according to the reaction. That required samples were heated to specific temperature and holding times. The average particle size of used dolomite powders is 0.3 mm, as where, the heating temperature was 700 degree celsius, using various holding times (90 and 120 minutes). Under CO 2 dolomite decomposed directly to CaCO 3 accompanied by the formation of MgO, no evidence was offered for the MgO formation of either CaO or MgCO 3 , under air, simultaneous formation of CaCO 3 , CaO and accompanied dolomite decomposition

  2. Microbial plant litter decomposition in aquatic and terrestrial boreal systems along a natural fertility gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, A. Margarida P. M.; Kritzberg, Emma S.; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Plant litter decomposition is a global ecosystem process, with a crucial role in carbon and nutrient cycling. The majority of litter processing occurs in terrestrial systems, but an important fraction also takes place in inland waters. Among environmental factors, pH impacts the litter decomposition through its selective influence on microbial decomposers. Fungal communities are less affected by pH than bacteria, possibly owing to a wider pH tolerance by this group. On the other hand, bacterial pH optima are constrained to a narrower range of pH values. The microbial decomposition of litter is universally nutrient limited; but few comparisons exist between terrestrial and aquatic systems. We investigated the microbial colonisation and decomposition of plant litter along a fertility gradient, which varied in both pH and N availability in both soil and adjacent water. To do this we installed litterbags with birch (Betula pendula) in streams and corresponding soils in adjacent riparian areas in a boreal system, in Krycklan, Sweden. During the four months covering the ice-free growth season we monitored the successional dynamics of fungal (acetate incorporation into ergosterol) and bacterial growth (thymidine incorporation), microbial respiration in leaf litter, and quantitative and qualitative changes in litter over time. We observed that bacterial growth rates were initially higher in litter decomposing in streams than those in soils, but differences between terrestrial and aquatic bacterial production converged towards the end of the experiment. In litter bags installed in soils, bacterial growth was lower at sites with more acidic pH and lower N availability, while aquatic bacteria were relatively unaffected by the fertility level. Fungal growth rates were two-fold higher for litter decomposing in streams than in soils. In aquatic systems, fungal growth was initially lower in low fertility sites, but differences gradually disappeared over the time course. Fungal

  3. Effect of the percentage of SF sub 6 (100%-10%-5%) on the decomposition of SF sub 6 -N sub 2 mixtures under negative dc coronas in the presence of water vapour or oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, J; Casanovas, J

    2003-01-01

    Low SF sub 6 content SF sub 6 -N sub 2 mixtures have recently been proposed as a replacement for pure SF sub 6 in the insulation of gas insulated lines (GIL). Among the areas of investigation of such gas mixtures, their electrical decomposition under corona discharges must be studied considering the possible occurrence of such stress in GIL. This paper presents data concerning the decomposition of high-pressure SF sub 6 -N sub 2 (5 : 95) mixtures (400 kPa) submitted to negative dc coronas in the absence or presence of 0.3% H sub 2 O or 0.3% O sub 2. The chemical stability of these mixtures is compared with that of SF sub 6 -N sub 2 (10 : 90) mixtures or undiluted SF sub 6 investigated in the same conditions in a previous paper. The corona discharges were generated with a point-to-plane set-up and the gaseous by-products were assayed by gas chromatography at the end of each run carried out over a range of transported charge covering 0-13 C. The following by-products were detected and assayed: SOF sub 4 , SO su...

  4. Spectral Tensor-Train Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Marzouk, Youssef M.

    2016-01-01

    The accurate approximation of high-dimensional functions is an essential task in uncertainty quantification and many other fields. We propose a new function approximation scheme based on a spectral extension of the tensor-train (TT) decomposition. We first define a functional version of the TT...... adaptive Smolyak approach. The method is also used to approximate the solution of an elliptic PDE with random input data. The open source software and examples presented in this work are available online (http://pypi.python.org/pypi/TensorToolbox/)....

  5. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated.

  6. City of Freeport, Florida, State Road 20 Water Main Installation, Final Environmental Assessment, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    If contamination, drought or natural disaster, such as a hurricane, impacted one water supply, an interconnection with neighboring municipalities...Scientific Name Sandhills Ecological Association Longleaf Pine Pinus palustris Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis Turkey Oak Quercus laevis...canadensis Flatwoods Ecological Association Longleaf Pine Pinus palustris Wood Duck Aix sponsa Runner Oak Quercus pumila Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius

  7. Disposal/recovery options for brine waters from oil and gas production in New York State. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Atkinson, J.F.; Bunn, M.D.; Hodge, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    Produced water from oil and gas operations, or brine as it is typically referred, may be characterized as being highly saline, with total dissolved solids greater than 100 g/L. If these bribes are disposed improperly there may be severe adverse environmental effects. Thus, it is important that brine be disposed using environmentally sound methods. Unfortunately, costs for the disposal of brine water are a significant burden to oil and gas producers in New York State. These costs and the relatively low market price of oil and natural gas have contributed to the decline in gas and oil production in New York State during the past 10 years. The objectives of this study were to evaluate new and existing options for brine disposal in New York State, examine the technical and economic merits of these options, and assess environmental impacts associated with each option. Two new disposal options investigated for New York State oil and gas producers included construction of a regional brine treatment facility to treat brine prior to discharge into a receiving water and a salt production facility that utilizes produced water as a feed stock. Both options are technically feasible; however, their economic viability depends on facility size and volume of brine treated

  8. Analysis of heavy metals pollutant in water on final disposal place (TPA) Bantar Gebang, Bekasi and its surroundings using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommy Hutabarat; E Ristin Pujiindiyati

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of heavy metal pollutants content from the leachate samples of landfill sites, water wells and the river water using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method has been done. This research was conducted to know the content of heavy metals in landfill sites, water wells of the population, and river water with INAA method and to see the level of pollution, especially in wells along the river population Ciketing, Bekasi. Samples taken from the landfill, the upstream and downstream from the landfill. The entire sample was filtered using a paper millipore and then activated in the reactor irradiation facility G.A. Siwabessy, Serpong. The measurement of samples were conducted using high resolution HPGe detector coupled with a multi channel analysis. The results showed that almost all the samples had concentrations of Hg, Cr, Co, Zn and Fe that exceeded the quality standard based on PP. 82 year 2001. The concentration of Co in some samples of rivers and wells are still under the standard limit. Further research is needed to be done on a regular basis with the involvement of natural stable isotope methods and chemical analysis to determine the origin of pollutants in order to obtain more comprehensive results. (author)

  9. 76 FR 3126 - Final Determination of the Assistant Administrator for Water Pursuant to Section 404(c) of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... macroinvertebrates, up to 46 species of amphibians and reptiles, 4 species of crayfish, and 5 species of fish, as... amphibians, reptiles, crayfish, and bird species that depend on downstream waters for food or habitat... be, in turn, substantial effects on fish, amphibian, and bird populations that rely on these...

  10. Comparison of water and infrared blanching methods for processing performance and final product quality of French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this work was to compare infrared blanching (IRB) with water blanching (WB) as a pretreatment method for producing lower calorie French fries. It was observed that complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme for 9.43 mm potato strips could be achieved in 200 s and 16 min...

  11. Technical procedures for water resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Volume 1: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Water Resources Site Study Plan including, determination of basin topographic characteristics, determination of channel and playa lake characteristics, operation of a stream gaging station, operation of a playa lake stage gaging system, and processing of data from a playa lake stage gaging system

  12. Efficient Method for the Determination of the Activation Energy of the Iodide-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, William; Lee, James; Abid, Nauman; DeMeo, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    An experiment is described that determines the activation energy (E[subscript a]) of the iodide-catalyzed decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide in a much more efficient manner than previously reported in the literature. Hydrogen peroxide, spontaneously or with a catalyst, decomposes to oxygen and water. Because the decomposition reaction is…

  13. Determination of Characteristic Peroids of Suppression of Thermal Decomposition Reaction of Forest Fuel Material by Specialized Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumerov Vladislav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies determining periods of suppression of thermal decomposition reaction of forest combustible materials was carried out by high-speed, cross-correlation cameras and panoramic techniques PIV and IPI under influence of water steam. Conditions and characteristics of reaction termination of thermal decomposition of forest combustible materials under reaction with steam cloud were defined.

  14. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 9. Current status of surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.A.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Brakke, D.F.; Herlihy, A.T.; Eilers, J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The report is based largely upon the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), augmented by numerous smaller state and university surveys and many detailed watershed studies. In describing the current status of surface waters, the authors go far beyond the description of population statistics, although some of this is necessary, and direct their attention to the interpretation of these data. They address the question of the sources of acidity to surface waters in order to determine the relative importance of acidic deposition compared with other sources, such as naturally produced organic acids and acid mine drainage. They also examine in some detail what they call 'high interest' populations-the specific groups of lakes and streams most likely to be impacted by acidic deposition. The authors then turn to the general question of uncertainty, and finally examine low alkalinity surface waters in several other parts of the world to develop further inferences about the acid-base status of surface waters in the United States

  15. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patel, Viral K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mandel, Bracha T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

  16. Decomposition of Multi-player Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dengji; Schiffel, Stephan; Thielscher, Michael

    Research in General Game Playing aims at building systems that learn to play unknown games without human intervention. We contribute to this endeavour by generalising the established technique of decomposition from AI Planning to multi-player games. To this end, we present a method for the automatic decomposition of previously unknown games into independent subgames, and we show how a general game player can exploit a successful decomposition for game tree search.

  17. Constructive quantum Shannon decomposition from Cartan involutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, Byron; Love, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here extends upon the best known universal quantum circuit, the quantum Shannon decomposition proposed by Shende et al (2006 IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 25 1000). We obtain the basis of the circuit's design in a pair of Cartan decompositions. This insight gives a simple constructive factoring algorithm in terms of the Cartan involutions corresponding to these decompositions

  18. Constructive quantum Shannon decomposition from Cartan involutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Byron; Love, Peter [Department of Physics, 370 Lancaster Ave., Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)], E-mail: plove@haverford.edu

    2008-10-03

    The work presented here extends upon the best known universal quantum circuit, the quantum Shannon decomposition proposed by Shende et al (2006 IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 25 1000). We obtain the basis of the circuit's design in a pair of Cartan decompositions. This insight gives a simple constructive factoring algorithm in terms of the Cartan involutions corresponding to these decompositions.

  19. Mathematical modelling of the decomposition of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Lev P

    2010-01-01

    Studies on mathematical modelling of the molecular and supramolecular structures of explosives and the elementary steps and overall processes of their decomposition are analyzed. Investigations on the modelling of combustion and detonation taking into account the decomposition of explosives are also considered. It is shown that solution of problems related to the decomposition kinetics of explosives requires the use of a complex strategy based on the methods and concepts of chemical physics, solid state physics and theoretical chemistry instead of empirical approach.

  20. Radiation decomposition of alcohols and chloro phenols in micellar systems; Descomposicion por irradiacion de alcoholes y clorofenoles en sistemas micelares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno A, J

    1999-12-31

    The effect of surfactants on the radiation decomposition yield of alcohols and chloro phenols has been studied with gamma doses of 2, 3, and 5 KGy. These compounds were used as typical pollutants in waste water, and the effect of the water solubility, chemical structure, and the nature of the surfactant, anionic or cationic, was studied. The results show that anionic surfactant like sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), improve the radiation decomposition yield of ortho-chloro phenol, while cationic surfactant like cetyl trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), improve the radiation decomposition yield of butyl alcohol. A similar behavior is expected for those alcohols with water solubility close to the studied ones. Surfactant concentrations below critical micellar concentration (CMC), inhibited radiation decomposition for both types of alcohols. However radiation decomposition yield increased when surfactant concentrations were bigger than the CMC. Aromatic alcohols decomposition was more marked than for linear alcohols decomposition. On a mixture of alcohols and chloro phenols in aqueous solution the radiation decomposition yield decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. Nevertheless, there were competitive reactions between the alcohols, surfactants dimers, hydroxyl radical and other reactive species formed on water radiolysis, producing a catalytic positive effect in the decomposition of alcohols. Chemical structure and the number of carbons were not important factors in the radiation decomposition. When an alcohol like ortho-chloro phenol contained an additional chlorine atom, the decomposition of this compound was almost constant. In conclusion the micellar effect depend on both, the nature of the surfactant (anionic or cationic) and the chemical structure of the alcohols. The results of this study are useful for wastewater treatment plants based on the oxidant effect of the hydroxyl radical, like in advanced oxidation processes, or in combined treatment such as

  1. Radiation decomposition of alcohols and chloro phenols in micellar systems; Descomposicion por irradiacion de alcoholes y clorofenoles en sistemas micelares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno A, J

    1998-12-31

    The effect of surfactants on the radiation decomposition yield of alcohols and chloro phenols has been studied with gamma doses of 2, 3, and 5 KGy. These compounds were used as typical pollutants in waste water, and the effect of the water solubility, chemical structure, and the nature of the surfactant, anionic or cationic, was studied. The results show that anionic surfactant like sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), improve the radiation decomposition yield of ortho-chloro phenol, while cationic surfactant like cetyl trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), improve the radiation decomposition yield of butyl alcohol. A similar behavior is expected for those alcohols with water solubility close to the studied ones. Surfactant concentrations below critical micellar concentration (CMC), inhibited radiation decomposition for both types of alcohols. However radiation decomposition yield increased when surfactant concentrations were bigger than the CMC. Aromatic alcohols decomposition was more marked than for linear alcohols decomposition. On a mixture of alcohols and chloro phenols in aqueous solution the radiation decomposition yield decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. Nevertheless, there were competitive reactions between the alcohols, surfactants dimers, hydroxyl radical and other reactive species formed on water radiolysis, producing a catalytic positive effect in the decomposition of alcohols. Chemical structure and the number of carbons were not important factors in the radiation decomposition. When an alcohol like ortho-chloro phenol contained an additional chlorine atom, the decomposition of this compound was almost constant. In conclusion the micellar effect depend on both, the nature of the surfactant (anionic or cationic) and the chemical structure of the alcohols. The results of this study are useful for wastewater treatment plants based on the oxidant effect of the hydroxyl radical, like in advanced oxidation processes, or in combined treatment such as

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  3. General and localized corrosion of carbon and low-alloy steels in oxygenated high-temperature water. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Smialowska, S.; Pednekar, S.

    1983-02-01

    The susceptibilities to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of two carbon steels, SA106-grB and SA333-gr6, which are used in seamless BWR piping, and a low-alloy pressure vessel steel, A508-C12, were studied in high purity water as a function of oxygen concentration (0.16 to 8 ppM) and temperature (50 to 288 0 C) . The susceptibility to SCC was measured using the slow strain rate technique. The fracture surfaces of the test specimens were also examined using SEM to determine the mode of failure. In water containing 1 and 8 ppM oxygen and at temperatures above 135 0 C, transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) was observed to occur in A508-C12, SA333-gr6 and SA106grB steels at very high stresses. The susceptibility to SCC increased with temperature

  4. Ambient water and sediment quality of Galveston Bay: Present status and historical trends. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, G.H.; Armstrong, N.E.

    1992-08-01

    For many years, data relating to the quality of water and sediment have been collected in the Galveston Bay system by a variety of organizations and individuals. The purpose of the project was to compile these data, and to perform a quantitative assessment of water and sediment quality of Galveston Bay and its evolution over time. The study focused on the following categories of parameters: temperature, salinity and related parameters, suspended sediments and turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients as measured by nitrogen, phosphorous and organic carbon, organics as measured by oil and grease, volatile solids and biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll-a, coliforms, metals (total and dissolved), and trace organics, including pesticides, herbicides, PAH's, PCB's, and priority pollutants.

  5. Bibliographical review about Na/Li geo-thermometry and lithium isotopes applied to worldwide geothermal waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.

    2009-09-01

    This study is performed within the framework of the FP6 European project HITI (High Temperature Instruments for supercritical geothermal reservoir characterization and exploitation). This research project, co-funded by EU and the different partners, aims to provide geophysical and geochemical sensors and methods to evaluate deep geothermal wells up to supercritical conditions (T > 370 deg. C), which are more cost-effective than those of the conventional wells. A deep geothermal well is currently being drilled for this purpose into the Krafla area, Iceland, as part of the IDDP ('Iceland Deep Drilling Project') and with joint funding from Icelandic industry and science Institutes. Another deep well will be drilled in the Reykjanes peninsula, Iceland, within the framework of the same project. This study, a bibliographical review about the Na/Li geo-thermometer and lithium isotopes applied on the world geothermal waters, is the first step of the task envisaged by BRGM to use and validate the sodium-lithium (Na-Li) chemical geo-thermometer on Icelandic geothermal waters at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500 deg. C. In this study, more than 120 temperature and chemical data from world geothermal and oil-fields, sedimentary basins, oceanic ridges, emerged rifts and island arcs have been collected and investigated. These additional data have allowed to confirm and refine the three existing Na/Li thermometric relationships. Moreover, a new Na/Li thermometric relationship relative to the processes of seawater or dilute seawater-basalt interaction occurring in the oceanic ridges and emerged rifts is proposed. Even if the running of Na/Li is still poorly understood, the existence of a new thermometric relationship confirms that the Na/Li ratios not only depend on the temperature but also on other parameters such as the fluid salinity and origin, or the nature of the reservoir rocks in contact with the geothermal fluids. For most of the geothermal waters in contact with

  6. Bibliographical review about Na/Li geo-thermometry and lithium isotopes applied to worldwide geothermal waters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.

    2009-09-15

    This study is performed within the framework of the FP6 European project HITI (High Temperature Instruments for supercritical geothermal reservoir characterization and exploitation). This research project, co-funded by EU and the different partners, aims to provide geophysical and geochemical sensors and methods to evaluate deep geothermal wells up to supercritical conditions (T > 370 deg. C), which are more cost-effective than those of the conventional wells. A deep geothermal well is currently being drilled for this purpose into the Krafla area, Iceland, as part of the IDDP ('Iceland Deep Drilling Project') and with joint funding from Icelandic industry and science Institutes. Another deep well will be drilled in the Reykjanes peninsula, Iceland, within the framework of the same project. This study, a bibliographical review about the Na/Li geo-thermometer and lithium isotopes applied on the world geothermal waters, is the first step of the task envisaged by BRGM to use and validate the sodium-lithium (Na-Li) chemical geo-thermometer on Icelandic geothermal waters at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500 deg. C. In this study, more than 120 temperature and chemical data from world geothermal and oil-fields, sedimentary basins, oceanic ridges, emerged rifts and island arcs have been collected and investigated. These additional data have allowed to confirm and refine the three existing Na/Li thermometric relationships. Moreover, a new Na/Li thermometric relationship relative to the processes of seawater or dilute seawater-basalt interaction occurring in the oceanic ridges and emerged rifts is proposed. Even if the running of Na/Li is still poorly understood, the existence of a new thermometric relationship confirms that the Na/Li ratios not only depend on the temperature but also on other parameters such as the fluid salinity and origin, or the nature of the reservoir rocks in contact with the geothermal fluids. For most of the geothermal waters in contact

  7. Economic analysis of wind-powered refrigeration cooling/water-heating systems in food processing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in refrigeration cooling and water heating systems in food processing plants. Types of plants included were meat and poultry, dairy, fruit and vegetable, and aquaculture.

  8. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  9. In Situ Monitoring of Dispersion in the Water Column, Final Product for the Detection and Mitigation of Oil within the Water Column Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Applied Response Technologies (SMART) protocol in remote locations. RDC started with market research of commercially available monitoring technologies...SLDMB), which can begin collecting data immediately after impact with the water surface. It transmits data to users via satellite communication ...frequently used as a platform to detect submerged oil. RDC performed a market research of commercially available unmanned vehicles. They come in

  10. Entrainment and deposition studies in two-phase cross flow: comparison between air-water and steam-water in a square horizontal duct. Technical report (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, R.J.; Ralph, J.C.; Wade, C.D.

    1981-03-01

    Air-water simulation studies of two phase steam water flow relevant to the upper plenum of a PWR during reflood situations have recently been undertaken at Harwell for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In order to give confidence that the simulation fluids were capable of modelling the important features of the actual system, a relatively basic comparison experiment has been carried out. Water entrainment and deposition tests have been carried out on a pair of 2.5 cm diameter vertical rods mounted in a cross flow of steam or air in a 10.2 cm x 10.2 cm tunnel. The air and steam systems exhibited similar characteristics to one another. A 'critical' film flowrate was identified for the rods which, once reached, either by injection through the sinters or by entrainment from the main two phase stream, was not exceeded with further water addition. The 'critical' film flowrate decreased with increase of cross flow velocity and was lower for air than steam at the same velocity. The results from the air and steam tests were found to be reasonably well correlated on the basis of the cross flow momentum flux of the air or steam

  11. Decomposition in pelagic marine ecosytems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    During the decomposition of plant detritus, complex microbial successions develop which are dominated in the early stages by a number of distinct bacterial morphotypes. The microheterotrophic community rapidly becomes heterogenous and may include cyanobacteria, fungi, yeasts and bactivorous protozoans. Microheterotrophs in the marine environment may have a biomass comparable to that of all other heterotrophs and their significance as a resource to higher trophic orders, and in the regeneration of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, that support 'regenerated' primary production, has aroused both attention and controversy. Numerous methods have been employed to measure heterotrophic bacterial production and activity. The most widely used involve estimates of 14 C-glucose uptake; the frequency of dividing cells; the incorporation of 3 H-thymidine and exponential population growth in predator-reduced filtrates. Recent attempts to model decomposition processes and C and N fluxes in pelagic marine ecosystems are described. This review examines the most sensitive components and predictions of the models with particular reference to estimates of bacterial production, net growth yield and predictions of N cycling determined by 15 N methodology. Directed estimates of nitrogen (and phosphorus) flux through phytoplanktonic and bacterioplanktonic communities using 15 N (and 32 P) tracer methods are likely to provide more realistic measures of nitrogen flow through planktonic communities

  12. Infrared multiphoton absorption and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.; McAlpine, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The discovery of infrared laser induced multiphoton absorption (IRMPA) and decomposition (IRMPD) by Isenor and Richardson in 1971 generated a great deal of interest in these phenomena. This interest was increased with the discovery by Ambartzumian, Letokhov, Ryadbov and Chekalin that isotopically selective IRMPD was possible. One of the first speculations about these phenomena was that it might be possible to excite a particular mode of a molecule with the intense infrared laser beam and cause decomposition or chemical reaction by channels which do not predominate thermally, thus providing new synthetic routes for complex chemicals. The potential applications to isotope separation and novel chemistry stimulated efforts to understand the underlying physics and chemistry of these processes. At ICOMP I, in 1977 and at ICOMP II in 1980, several authors reviewed the current understandings of IRMPA and IRMPD as well as the particular aspect of isotope separation. There continues to be a great deal of effort into understanding IRMPA and IRMPD and we will briefly review some aspects of these efforts with particular emphasis on progress since ICOMP II. 31 references

  13. Decomposition of Diethylstilboestrol in Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Hansen, Birte

    1964-01-01

    The rate of decomposition of DES-monoethyl-1-C14 in soil was followed by measurement of C14O2 released. From 1.6 to 16% of the added C14 was recovered as C14O2 during 3 months. After six months as much as 12 to 28 per cent was released as C14O2.Determination of C14 in the soil samples after the e...... not inhibit the CO2 production from the soil.Experiments with γ-sterilized soil indicated that enzymes present in the soil are able to attack DES.......The rate of decomposition of DES-monoethyl-1-C14 in soil was followed by measurement of C14O2 released. From 1.6 to 16% of the added C14 was recovered as C14O2 during 3 months. After six months as much as 12 to 28 per cent was released as C14O2.Determination of C14 in the soil samples after...

  14. Radon removal using point-of-entry water-treatment techniques. Final report, October 1988-June 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Malley, J.P.; Clement, J.A.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of the EPA Cooperative Agreement was to evaluate the performance of POE granular activated carbon (GAC), and diffused bubble and bubble place aeration systems treating a ground water supply containing radon (35,620 + or - 6,717 pCi/L). The pattern of loading to the units was designed to simulate daily demand in a household. Each of the systems was evaluated with respect to three primary factors: radon removal efficiency, potential problems, and economics. The radon removal efficiencies of the POE GAC units gradually deteriorated over time from 99.7% to 79% for the GAC without pretreatment and 99.7% to 85% for the units preceded by ion exchange. The bubble plate and diffused bubble POE units were very efficient (99%) at removing radon from the water. The resilience is primarly due to the high air to water ratios supplied by the aeration blowers. One major problem associated with the aeration techniques is iron oxidation/precipitation

  15. A Broad Spectrum Catalytic System for Removal of Toxic Organics from Water by Deep Oxidation - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ayusman

    2000-12-01

    A most pressing need for the DOE environmental management program is the removal of toxic organic compounds present in groundwater and soil at specific DOE sites. While several remediation procedures have been proposed, they suffer from one or more drawbacks. The objective of the present research was to develop new catalytic procedures for the removal of toxic organic compounds from the environment through their deep oxidation to harmless products. In water, metallic palladium was found to catalyze the deep oxidation of a wide variety of toxic organic compounds by dioxygen at 80-90 C in the presence of carbon monoxide or dihydrogen. Several classes of organic compounds were examined: benzene, phenol and substituted phenols, nitro and halo organics, organophosphorus, and organosulfur compounds. In every case, deep oxidation to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water occurred in high yields, resulting in up to several hundred turnovers over a 24 hour period. For substrates susceptible to hydrogenation, the conversions were generally high with dihydrogen than with carbon monoxide. It is clear from the results obtained that we have discovered an exceptionally versatile catalytic system for the deep oxidation of toxic organic compounds in water. This system possesses several attractive features not found simultaneously in other reported systems. These are (a) the ability to directly utilize dioxygen as the oxidant, (b) the ability to carry out the deep oxidation of a particularly wide range of functional organics, and (c) the ease of recovery of the catalyst by simple filtration.

  16. Technical procedures for water resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Volume 2: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains the following Technical Procedures pursuant to the Water Resources Site Study Plan operation of a Playa Lake conductivity monitoring station and processing of data from a Playa Lake conductivity monitoring station. This procedure defines steps and methods for the installation, operation, and maintenance of the Playa Lake conductivity monitoring stations. Conductivity measurements will be taken at six playa lakes in the site study area to record changes in total dissolved solids as a function of stage. Playa lake conductivity and stage (volume) measurements will be used, in conjunction with other water quality data collected at the Playa Lake and precipitation stations, to determine the mass of dissolved solids entering and leaving the playas. This baseline information on the pollutant mass balance of the playas will be used to assess potential changes in playa lake water quality and the magnitude of those changes due to site development. The pollutant mass balances will also be used on determining the source of pollutants. 2 refs., 5 figs

  17. Solving network design problems via decomposition, aggregation and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Bärmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Andreas Bärmann develops novel approaches for the solution of network design problems as they arise in various contexts of applied optimization. At the example of an optimal expansion of the German railway network until 2030, the author derives a tailor-made decomposition technique for multi-period network design problems. Next, he develops a general framework for the solution of network design problems via aggregation of the underlying graph structure. This approach is shown to save much computation time as compared to standard techniques. Finally, the author devises a modelling framework for the approximation of the robust counterpart under ellipsoidal uncertainty, an often-studied case in the literature. Each of these three approaches opens up a fascinating branch of research which promises a better theoretical understanding of the problem and an increasing range of solvable application settings at the same time. Contents Decomposition for Multi-Period Network Design Solving Network Design Problems via Ag...

  18. Decomposition for emission baseline setting in China's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Decomposition analysis is used to generate carbon dioxide emission baselines in China's electricity sector to the year 2020. This is undertaken from the vantage point of the final consumer of electricity, and therefore considers factors influencing electricity demand, efficiency of generation, sources of energy used for generation purposes, and the effectiveness of transmission and distribution. It is found that since 1980, gains in efficiency of generation have been the most important factor affecting change in the emission intensity of electricity generated. Based upon known energy and economic policy, efficiency gains will continue to contribute to reductions in the emission intensity of electricity generated, however, fuel shifts to natural gas and increases in nuclear generation will further these trends into the future. The analysis confirms other sources in the literature that decomposition is an appropriate technique available for baseline construction, thereby suitable for the emerging carbon market and its related mechanisms

  19. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-07-31

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (≤ 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  20. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-01-01

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water ((le) 0.1% by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m 2 s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  1. WATER-QUALITY CONDITIONS DURING LOW FLOW IN THE LOWER YOUGHIOGHENY RIVER BASIN, PENNSYLVANIA, OCTOBER 5-7, 1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James I. Sams, III, Karl T. Schroeder; Terry E. Ackman; J. Kent Crawford; Kim L. Otto

    2001-01-01

    In October 1998, a chemical synoptic survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, in the Lower Youghiogheny River Basin in Pennsylvania to give a snap-shot of present (1998) water quality during low-flow conditions. Water samples from 38 sites-12 mainstem sites, 22 tributaries, and 4 mine discharges that discharge directly to the Youghiogheny River-were used to identify sources of contaminants from mining operations. Specific conductance, water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at each site and concentrations of major ions and trace elements were measured in the laboratory. Unaccounted for gains and losses in streamflow were measured during the study. Unaccounted for losses in streamflow might be attributed to water loss through streambed fractures. Extensive mine tunnels are present in the basin and loss of water to these tunnels seems likely. Unaccounted for gains in streamflow may be from unmeasured tributaries or surface seeps, but most of the gains are suspected to come from artesian flow through fractures in the streambed from underground mine pools. Influent flows of rust-colored water were noted in some river sections. The pH values for all the samples collected during this survey were above 5.8, and most (33 of 38 samples) were above 7.0. Samples from the four mine-discharge sites also had pH values between 6.3 and 6.7. The lowest pH (5.8) was in a tributary, Galley Run. All 38 sampling sites had net alkalinity. The alkalinity load in the Youghiogheny River increased between Connellsville and McKeesport from 35 to 79 tons per day. Above Smithton, the measured alkalinity load in the Lower Youghiogheny River agreed well with the estimated alkalinity load. Below Smithton, measured alkalinity loads in the Lower Youghiogheny River are greater than calculated loads, resulting in unaccounted for gains in alkalinity. These gains are

  2. Effects of anthropogenic heavy metal contamination on litter decomposition in streams – A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Verónica; Koricheva, Julia; Duarte, Sofia; Niyogi, Dev K.; Guérold, François

    2016-01-01

    Many streams worldwide are affected by heavy metal contamination, mostly due to past and present mining activities. Here we present a meta-analysis of 38 studies (reporting 133 cases) published between 1978 and 2014 that reported the effects of heavy metal contamination on the decomposition of terrestrial litter in running waters. Overall, heavy metal contamination significantly inhibited litter decomposition. The effect was stronger for laboratory than for field studies, likely due to better control of confounding variables in the former, antagonistic interactions between metals and other environmental variables in the latter or differences in metal identity and concentration between studies. For laboratory studies, only copper + zinc mixtures significantly inhibited litter decomposition, while no significant effects were found for silver, aluminum, cadmium or zinc considered individually. For field studies, coal and metal mine drainage strongly inhibited litter decomposition, while drainage from motorways had no significant effects. The effect of coal mine drainage did not depend on drainage pH. Coal mine drainage negatively affected leaf litter decomposition independently of leaf litter identity; no significant effect was found for wood decomposition, but sample size was low. Considering metal mine drainage, arsenic mines had a stronger negative effect on leaf litter decomposition than gold or pyrite mines. Metal mine drainage significantly inhibited leaf litter decomposition driven by both microbes and invertebrates, independently of leaf litter identity; no significant effect was found for microbially driven decomposition, but sample size was low. Overall, mine drainage negatively affects leaf litter decomposition, likely through negative effects on invertebrates. - Highlights: • A meta-analysis was done to assess the effects of heavy metals on litter decomposition. • Heavy metals significantly and strongly inhibited litter decomposition in streams.

  3. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Research and development of water decomposition by using the thermo, photo and electro-chemistry mixed cycle; 1978 nendo netsukagaku, hikari kagaku, denki kagaku konsei cycle ni yoru suibunkai no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    This paper describes research achievements in fiscal 1978 on water decomposition by using the thermo, photo and electro-chemistry mixed cycle. Fundamental experiments were carried out in a photo-chemical and electrolytic reaction tank to electrolyse as quickly as possible HI and iron (III) produced by photo-chemical reaction in the iodine-iron (II) system, and separate the products therefrom. The photo-chemical reaction was analyzed by using the spectro-photometry, and the degree of reaction progress was quantified by using the change in absorbance of I{sub 3}{sup -}. Since temperature rise due to sun beam irradiation accelerates reverse reaction, the apparent equilibrium position under the beam irradiation was moved from the product system to the original system as the temperature rises. An expression showing the reaction efficiency was introduced to indicate that beam collection enhances the efficiency. There is no electrolytic electrode material that reduces only iron (III) preferably, and electrolysing the aqueous product solution as it is results in low energy efficiency. In addition, as a result of discussing factors affecting the effect of HI decomposition (to acquire hydrogen) by using a heat diffusion column, it was revealed that maximum separation effect can be derived if the material is fed from the center of the column. Discussions were given also on other factors. (NEDO)

  4. Canonical decomposition of magnetotelluric responses: Experiment on 1D anisotropic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ze-qiu; Wei, Wen-bo; Ye, Gao-feng; Jin, Sheng; Jing, Jian-en

    2015-08-01

    Horizontal electrical heterogeneity of subsurface earth is mostly originated from structural complexity and electrical anisotropy, and local near-surface electrical heterogeneity will severely distort regional electromagnetic responses. Conventional distortion analyses for magnetotelluric soundings are primarily physical decomposition methods with respect to isotropic models, which mostly presume that the geoelectric distribution of geological structures is of local and regional patterns represented by 3D/2D models. Due to the widespread anisotropy of earth media, the confusion between 1D anisotropic responses and 2D isotropic responses, and the defects of physical decomposition methods, we propose to conduct modeling experiments with canonical decomposition in terms of 1D layered anisotropic models, and the method is one of the mathematical decomposition methods based on eigenstate analyses differentiated from distortion analyses, which can be used to recover electrical information such as strike directions, and maximum and minimum conductivity. We tested this method with numerical simulation experiments on several 1D synthetic models, which turned out that canonical decomposition is quite effective to reveal geological anisotropic information. Finally, for the background of anisotropy from previous study by geological and seismological methods, canonical decomposition is applied to real data acquired in North China Craton for 1D anisotropy analyses, and the result shows that, with effective modeling and cautious interpretation, canonical decomposition could be another good method to detect anisotropy of geological media.

  5. Fate of mercury in tree litter during decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Pokharel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We performed a controlled laboratory litter incubation study to assess changes in dry mass, carbon (C mass and concentration, mercury (Hg mass and concentration, and stoichiometric relations between elements during decomposition. Twenty-five surface litter samples each, collected from four forest stands, were placed in incubation jars open to the atmosphere, and were harvested sequentially at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Using a mass balance approach, we observed significant mass losses of Hg during decomposition (5 to 23 % of initial mass after 18 months, which we attribute to gaseous losses of Hg to the atmosphere through a gas-permeable filter covering incubation jars. Percentage mass losses of Hg generally were less than observed dry mass and C mass losses (48 to 63 % Hg loss per unit dry mass loss, although one litter type showed similar losses. A field control study using the same litter types exposed at the original collection locations for one year showed that field litter samples were enriched in Hg concentrations by 8 to 64 % compared to samples incubated for the same time period in the laboratory, indicating strong additional sorption of Hg in the field likely from atmospheric deposition. Solubility of Hg, assessed by exposure of litter to water upon harvest, was very low (<0.22 ng Hg g−1 dry mass and decreased with increasing stage of decomposition for all litter types. Our results indicate potentially large gaseous emissions, or re-emissions, of Hg originally associated with plant litter upon decomposition. Results also suggest that Hg accumulation in litter and surface layers in the field is driven mainly by additional sorption of Hg, with minor contributions from "internal" accumulation due to preferential loss of C over Hg. Litter types showed highly species-specific differences in Hg levels during decomposition suggesting that emissions, retention, and sorption of Hg are dependent on litter type.

  6. Basic dye decomposition kinetics in a photocatalytic slurry reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-H.; Chang, H.-W.; Chern, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater effluent from textile plants using various dyes is one of the major water pollutants to the environment. Traditional chemical, physical and biological processes for treating textile dye wastewaters have disadvantages such as high cost, energy waste and generating secondary pollution during the treatment process. The photocatalytic process using TiO 2 semiconductor particles under UV light illumination has been shown to be potentially advantageous and applicable in the treatment of wastewater pollutants. In this study, the dye decomposition kinetics by nano-size TiO 2 suspension at natural solution pH was experimentally studied by varying the agitation speed (50-200 rpm), TiO 2 suspension concentration (0.25-1.71 g/L), initial dye concentration (10-50 ppm), temperature (10-50 deg. C), and UV power intensity (0-96 W). The experimental results show the agitation speed, varying from 50 to 200 rpm, has a slight influence on the dye decomposition rate and the pH history; the dye decomposition rate increases with the TiO 2 suspension concentration up to 0.98 g/L, then decrease with increasing TiO 2 suspension concentration; the initial dye decomposition rate increases with the initial dye concentration up to a certain value depending upon the temperature, then decreases with increasing initial dye concentration; the dye decomposition rate increases with the UV power intensity up to 64 W to reach a plateau. Kinetic models have been developed to fit the experimental kinetic data well

  7. Interacting effects of insects and flooding on wood decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Ulyshen

    Full Text Available Saproxylic arthropods are thought to play an important role in wood decomposition but very few efforts have been made to quantify their contributions to the process and the factors controlling their activities are not well understood. In the current study, mesh exclusion bags were used to quantify how arthropods affect loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. decomposition rates in both seasonally flooded and unflooded forests over a 31-month period in the southeastern United States. Wood specific gravity (based on initial wood volume was significantly lower in bolts placed in unflooded forests and for those unprotected from insects. Approximately 20.5% and 13.7% of specific gravity loss after 31 months was attributable to insect activity in flooded and unflooded forests, respectively. Importantly, minimal between-treatment differences in water content and the results from a novel test carried out separately suggest the mesh bags had no significant impact on wood mass loss beyond the exclusion of insects. Subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Reticulitermes spp. were 5-6 times more active below-ground in unflooded forests compared to flooded forests based on wooden monitoring stakes. They were also slightly more active above-ground in unflooded forests but these differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, seasonal flooding had no detectable effect on above-ground beetle (Coleoptera richness or abundance. Although seasonal flooding strongly reduced Reticulitermes activity below-ground, it can be concluded from an insignificant interaction between forest type and exclusion treatment that reduced above-ground decomposition rates in seasonally flooded forests were due largely to suppressed microbial activity at those locations. The findings from this study indicate that southeastern U.S. arthropod communities accelerate above-ground wood decomposition significantly and to a similar extent in both flooded and unflooded forests

  8. Approaches to Improvement of Crop Genotypes with High Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Water Scarce Environments. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    Projected global population increase and the impacts of climate change on agriculture highlight the importance of the use of improved crop varieties coupled with better soil, water and fertilizer management practices designed to protect the natural resource base. This publication is the outcome of a coordinated research project (CRP) and focuses on the practical application of nuclear and related techniques, such as mutation induction and the use of stable isotopes of nitrogen [N-15] and carbon [C-13]. The use of such techniques can improve crop productivity with mutant varieties and best-fit soil management practices in diverse agro-ecological zones affected by drought, high temperatures, water scarcity, soil acidity and soil salinity. The findings of the CRP will be highly valuable to agricultural scientists and laboratory technicians of national agricultural research organizations in Member States as a resource for improving soil and crop productivity.

  9. Thermophysical properties database of materials for light water reactors and heavy water reactors. Final report of a coordinated research project 1999-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Establishment of a Thermo-physical Properties Database for Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) started in 1999. It was included in the IAEA's Nuclear Power Programme following endorsement in 1997 by the IAEA's Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for LWRs and HWRs (the TWG-LWR and the TWG-HWR). Furthermore, the TWG on Fuel Performance and Technology (TWG-FPT) also expressed its support. This CRP was conducted as a joint task within the IAEA's project on technology development for LWRs and HWRs in its nuclear power programme. Improving the technology for nuclear reactors through better computer codes and more accurate materials property data can contribute to improved economics of future plants by helping to remove the need for large design margins, which are currently used to account for limitations of data and methods. Accurate representations of thermo-physical properties under relevant temperature and neutron fluence conditions are necessary for evaluating reactor performance under normal operation and accident conditions. The objective of this CRP was to collect and systematize a thermo-physical properties database for light and heavy water reactor materials under normal operating, transient and accident conditions and to foster the exchange of non-proprietary information on thermo-physical properties of LWR and HWR materials. An internationally available, peer reviewed database of properties at normal and severe accident conditions has been established on the Internet. This report is intended to serve as a useful source of information on thermo-physical properties data for water cooled reactor analyses. The properties data have been initially stored in the THERSYST data system at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, which was subsequently developed into an internationally available Internet database named THERPRO at Hanyang University, Republic of Korea

  10. Decomposition kinetics of plutonium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, J.M.; Stakebake, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic data for decomposition of PuH/sub 1/ /sub 95/ provides insight into a possible mechanism for the hydriding and dehydriding reactions of plutonium. The fact that the rate of the hydriding reaction, K/sub H/, is proportional to P/sup 1/2/ and the rate of the dehydriding process, K/sub D/, is inversely proportional to P/sup 1/2/ suggests that the forward and reverse reactions proceed by opposite paths of the same mechanism. The P/sup 1/2/ dependence of hydrogen solubility in metals is characteristic of the dissociative absorption of hydrogen; i.e., the reactive species is atomic hydrogen. It is reasonable to assume that the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are controlled by the surface concentration of atomic hydrogen, (H/sub s/), that K/sub H/ = c'(H/sub s/), and that K/sub D/ = c/(H/sub s/), where c' and c are proportionality constants. For this surface model, the pressure dependence of K/sub D/ is related to (H/sub s/) by the reaction (H/sub s/) reversible 1/2H/sub 2/(g) and by its equilibrium constant K/sub e/ = (H/sub 2/)/sup 1/2//(H/sub s/). In the pressure range of ideal gas behavior, (H/sub s/) = K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/ and the decomposition rate is given by K/sub D/ = cK/sub e/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. For an analogous treatment of the hydriding process with this model, it can be readily shown that K/sub H/ = c'K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. The inverse pressure dependence and direct temperature dependence of the decomposition rate are correctly predicted by this mechanism which is most consistent with the observed behavior of the Pu--H system.

  11. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR section 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE's application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design

  12. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR section 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE's application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design

  13. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  14. An Efficient Local Correlation Matrix Decomposition Approach for the Localization Implementation of Ensemble-Based Assimilation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqin; Tian, Xiangjun

    2018-04-01

    Ensemble-based data assimilation methods often use the so-called localization scheme to improve the representation of the ensemble background error covariance (Be). Extensive research has been undertaken to reduce the computational cost of these methods by using the localized ensemble samples to localize Be by means of a direct decomposition of the local correlation matrix C. However, the computational costs of the direct decomposition of the local correlation matrix C are still extremely high due to its high dimension. In this paper, we propose an efficient local correlation matrix decomposition approach based on the concept of alternating directions. This approach is intended to avoid direct decomposition of the correlation matrix. Instead, we first decompose the correlation matrix into 1-D correlation matrices in the three coordinate directions, then construct their empirical orthogonal function decomposition at low resolution. This procedure is followed by the 1-D spline interpolation process to transform the above decompositions to the high-resolution grid. Finally, an efficient correlation matrix decomposition is achieved by computing the very similar Kronecker product. We conducted a series of comparison experiments to illustrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed local correlation matrix decomposition approach. The effectiveness of the proposed correlation matrix decomposition approach and its efficient localization implementation of the nonlinear least-squares four-dimensional variational assimilation are further demonstrated by several groups of numerical experiments based on the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model.

  15. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R.

    1959-01-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [fr

  16. Spinodal decomposition in fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Kyozi; Koga, Tsuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    We study the late stage dynamics of spinodal decomposition in binary fluids by the computer simulation of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation. We obtain a temporary linear growth law of the characteristic length of domains in the late stage. This growth law has been observed in many real experiments of binary fluids and indicates that the domain growth proceeds by the flow caused by the surface tension of interfaces. We also find that the dynamical scaling law is satisfied in this hydrodynamic domain growth region. By comparing the scaling functions for fluids with that for the case without hydrodynamic effects, we find that the scaling functions for the two systems are different. (author)

  17. Early stage litter decomposition across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ika Djukic; Sebastian Kepfer-Rojas; Inger Kappel Schmidt; Klaus Steenberg Larsen; Claus Beier; Björn Berg; Kris Verheyen; Adriano Caliman; Alain Paquette; Alba Gutiérrez-Girón; Alberto Humber; Alejandro Valdecantos; Alessandro Petraglia; Heather Alexander; Algirdas Augustaitis; Amélie Saillard; Ana Carolina Ruiz Fernández; Ana I. Sousa; Ana I. Lillebø; Anderson da Rocha Gripp; André-Jean Francez; Andrea Fischer; Andreas Bohner; Andrey Malyshev; Andrijana Andrić; Andy Smith; Angela Stanisci; Anikó Seres; Anja Schmidt; Anna Avila; Anne Probst; Annie Ouin; Anzar A. Khuroo; Arne Verstraeten; Arely N. Palabral-Aguilera; Artur Stefanski; Aurora Gaxiola; Bart Muys; Bernard Bosman; Bernd Ahrends; Bill Parker; Birgit Sattler; Bo Yang; Bohdan Juráni; Brigitta Erschbamer; Carmen Eugenia Rodriguez Ortiz; Casper T. Christiansen; E. Carol Adair; Céline Meredieu; Cendrine Mony; Charles A. Nock; Chi-Ling Chen; Chiao-Ping Wang; Christel Baum; Christian Rixen; Christine Delire; Christophe Piscart; Christopher Andrews; Corinna Rebmann; Cristina Branquinho; Dana Polyanskaya; David Fuentes Delgado; Dirk Wundram; Diyaa Radeideh; Eduardo Ordóñez-Regil; Edward Crawford; Elena Preda; Elena Tropina; Elli Groner; Eric Lucot; Erzsébet Hornung; Esperança Gacia; Esther Lévesque; Evanilde Benedito; Evgeny A. Davydov; Evy Ampoorter; Fabio Padilha Bolzan; Felipe Varela; Ferdinand Kristöfel; Fernando T. Maestre; Florence Maunoury-Danger; Florian Hofhansl; Florian Kitz; Flurin Sutter; Francisco Cuesta; Francisco de Almeida Lobo; Franco Leandro de Souza; Frank Berninger; Franz Zehetner; Georg Wohlfahrt; George Vourlitis; Geovana Carreño-Rocabado; Gina Arena; Gisele Daiane Pinha; Grizelle González; Guylaine Canut; Hanna Lee; Hans Verbeeck; Harald Auge; Harald Pauli; Hassan Bismarck Nacro; Héctor A. Bahamonde; Heike Feldhaar; Heinke Jäger; Helena C. Serrano; Hélène Verheyden; Helge Bruelheide; Henning Meesenburg; Hermann Jungkunst; Hervé Jactel; Hideaki Shibata; Hiroko Kurokawa; Hugo López Rosas; Hugo L. Rojas Villalobos; Ian Yesilonis; Inara Melece; Inge Van Halder; Inmaculada García Quirós; Isaac Makelele; Issaka Senou; István Fekete; Ivan Mihal; Ivika Ostonen; Jana Borovská; Javier Roales; Jawad Shoqeir; Jean-Christophe Lata; Jean-Paul Theurillat; Jean-Luc Probst; Jess Zimmerman; Jeyanny Vijayanathan; Jianwu Tang; Jill Thompson; Jiří Doležal; Joan-Albert Sanchez-Cabeza; Joël Merlet; Joh Henschel; Johan Neirynck; Johannes Knops; John Loehr; Jonathan von Oppen; Jónína Sigríður Þorláksdóttir; Jörg Löffler; José-Gilberto Cardoso-Mohedano; José-Luis Benito-Alonso; Jose Marcelo Torezan; Joseph C. Morina; Juan J. Jiménez; Juan Dario Quinde; Juha Alatalo; Julia Seeber; Jutta Stadler; Kaie Kriiska; Kalifa Coulibaly; Karibu Fukuzawa; Katalin Szlavecz; Katarína Gerhátová; Kate Lajtha; Kathrin Käppeler; Katie A. Jennings; Katja Tielbörger; Kazuhiko Hoshizaki; Ken Green; Lambiénou Yé; Laryssa Helena Ribeiro Pazianoto; Laura Dienstbach; Laura Williams; Laura Yahdjian; Laurel M. Brigham; Liesbeth van den Brink; Lindsey Rustad; al. et

    2018-01-01

    Through litter decomposition enormous amounts of carbon is emitted to the atmosphere. Numerous large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process in order to understand the controls on the terrestrial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. However, previous studies were mostly based on site-specific litter and methodologies...

  18. Nutrient Dynamics and Litter Decomposition in Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient contents and rate of litter decomposition were investigated in Leucaena leucocephala plantation in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Litter bag technique was used to study the pattern and rate of litter decomposition and nutrient release of Leucaena leucocephala. Fifty grams of oven-dried ...

  19. Climate history shapes contemporary leaf litter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Strickland; Ashley D. Keiser; Mark A. Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is mediated by multiple variables, of which climate is expected to be a dominant factor at global scales. However, like other organisms, traits of decomposers and their communities are shaped not just by the contemporary climate but also their climate history. Whether or not this affects decomposition rates is underexplored. Here we source...

  20. The decomposition of estuarine macrophytes under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the decomposition characteristics of the most dominant submerged macrophyte and macroalgal species in the Great Brak Estuary. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different temperature regimes on the rate of decomposition of 3 macrophyte species ...

  1. Decomposition and flame structure of hydrazinium nitroformate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, J.; Parr, T.; Hanson-Parr, D.

    1999-01-01

    The decomposition of hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) was studied in a hot quartz cell and by dropping small amounts of HNF on a hot plate. The species formed during the decomposition were identified by ultraviolet-visible absorption experiments. These experiments reveal that first HONO is formed. The

  2. Multilevel index decomposition analysis: Approaches and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Y.; Ang, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing interest in using the technique of index decomposition analysis (IDA) in energy and energy-related emission studies, such as to analyze the impacts of activity structure change or to track economy-wide energy efficiency trends, the conventional single-level IDA may not be able to meet certain needs in policy analysis. In this paper, some limitations of single-level IDA studies which can be addressed through applying multilevel decomposition analysis are discussed. We then introduce and compare two multilevel decomposition procedures, which are referred to as the multilevel-parallel (M-P) model and the multilevel-hierarchical (M-H) model. The former uses a similar decomposition procedure as in the single-level IDA, while the latter uses a stepwise decomposition procedure. Since the stepwise decomposition procedure is new in the IDA literature, the applicability of the popular IDA methods in the M-H model is discussed and cases where modifications are needed are explained. Numerical examples and application studies using the energy consumption data of the US and China are presented. - Highlights: • We discuss the limitations of single-level decomposition in IDA applied to energy study. • We introduce two multilevel decomposition models, study their features and discuss how they can address the limitations. • To extend from single-level to multilevel analysis, necessary modifications to some popular IDA methods are discussed. • We further discuss the practical significance of the multilevel models and present examples and cases to illustrate

  3. Feasibility of geothermal space/water heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California. Final report, September 1976--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.; Racine, W.C.

    1977-12-01

    Results of a study to determine the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of geothermal district heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California are reported. The geothermal district heating system selected is technically feasible and will use existing technology in its design and operation. District heating can provide space and water heating energy for typical customers at lower cost than alternative sources of energy. If the district heating system is investor owned, lower costs are realized after five to six years of operation, and if owned by a nonprofit organization, after zero to three years. District heating offers lower costs than alternatives much sooner in time if co-generation and/or DOE participation in system construction are included in the analysis. During a preliminary environmental assessment, no potential adverse environmental impacts could be identified of sufficient consequence to preclude the construction and operation of the proposed district heating system. A follow-on program aimed at implementing district heating in Mammoth is outlined.

  4. Early Decomposition of Retained Heavy Silicone Oil Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touka Banaee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of early decomposition of retained heavy silicone oil droplets. Case Report: The single highly myopic eye of a 16-year-old boy with history of scleral buckling and buckle revision developed redetachment due to inferior retinal dialysis. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy and injection of heavy silicone oil. Early emulsification of the silicone oil was observed following surgery, which was removed 4 weeks later in another operation. Retained heavy silicone droplets lost their heavier- than-water specific gravity within 2 months together with extensive iris depigmentation, and release of pigment granules into the anterior chamber and vitreous cavity. Conclusion: This case report demonstrates that heavy silicone oil droplets can undergo in vivo chemical decomposition with possible toxic effects on ocular tissues.

  5. Effects of simulated acid precipitation and liming on pine litter decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishac, Y.Z.; Hovland, J.

    1976-01-01

    The decomposition of withered lodgepole pine needles (Pinus contorta douglas) has been studied in a laboratory experiment. The needles were picked from trees that have been irrigated with simulated acid rain at pH 5.6 or 3.0. The soil beneath some of the trees was limed. The decomposition of the needles increased with temperature and incubation period. Liming of the soil retarded the decomposition of the needles that have been given rain at pH 3, while irrigation with 50 mm of water per month at pH 3 increased the decomposition compared with 25 mm/month. When needles were incubated in dilute sulphuric acid, the decomposition was reduced at pH 1.8 compared to the decomposition at pH 3.5. At pH 1.0 no decomposition occurred. Fungi were isolated from the needles. The different treatments did not seem to affect the composition of the fungal flora of the needles. The fungi were tested for their ability to decompose cellulose. The four most active cellulose decomposeres were Trichoderma harzianum, Coniothyrium sp., Cladosporium macrocarpum, and a sterile white mycelium. T. harzianum seemed to be more tolerant to acid conditions than the other fungi.

  6. Pulse frequency and soil-litter mixing alter the control of cumulative precipitation over litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, François-Xavier; Kurupas, Kelsey L; Throop, Heather L

    2017-09-01

    Macroclimate has traditionally been considered the predominant driver of litter decomposition. However, in drylands, cumulative monthly or annual precipitation typically fails to predict decomposition. In these systems, the windows of opportunity for decomposer activity may rather depend on the precipitation frequency and local factors affecting litter desiccation, such as soil-litter mixing. We used a full-factorial microcosm experiment to disentangle the relative importance of cumulative precipitation, pulse frequency, and soil-litter mixing on litter decomposition. Decomposition, measured as litter carbon loss, saturated with increasing cumulative precipitation when pulses were large and infrequent, suggesting that litter moisture no longer increased and/or microbial activity was no longer limited by water availability above a certain pulse size. More frequent precipitation pulses led to increased decomposition at high levels of cumulative precipitation. Soil-litter mixing consistently increased decomposition, with greatest relative increase (+194%) under the driest conditions. Collectively, our results highlight the need to consider precipitation at finer temporal scale and incorporate soil-litter mixing as key driver of decomposition in drylands. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Nutrient-enhanced decomposition of plant biomass in a freshwater wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodker, James E.; Turner, Robert Eugene; Tweel, Andrew; Schulz, Christopher; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied soil decomposition in a Panicum hemitomon (Schultes)-dominated freshwater marsh located in southeastern Louisiana that was unambiguously changed by secondarily-treated municipal wastewater effluent. We used four approaches to evaluate how belowground biomass decomposition rates vary under different nutrient regimes in this marsh. The results of laboratory experiments demonstrated how nutrient enrichment enhanced the loss of soil or plant organic matter by 50%, and increased gas production. An experiment demonstrated that nitrogen, not phosphorus, limited decomposition. Cellulose decomposition at the field site was higher in the flowfield of the introduced secondarily treated sewage water, and the quality of the substrate (% N or % P) was directly related to the decomposition rates. We therefore rejected the null hypothesis that nutrient enrichment had no effect on the decomposition rates of these organic soils. In response to nutrient enrichment, plants respond through biomechanical or structural adaptations that alter the labile characteristics of plant tissue. These adaptations eventually change litter type and quality (where the marsh survives) as the % N content of plant tissue rises and is followed by even higher decomposition rates of the litter produced, creating a positive feedback loop. Marsh fragmentation will increase as a result. The assumptions and conditions underlying the use of unconstrained wastewater flow within natural wetlands, rather than controlled treatment within the confines of constructed wetlands, are revealed in the loss of previously sequestered carbon, habitat, public use, and other societal benefits.

  8. Multilinear operators for higher-order decompositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2006-04-01

    We propose two new multilinear operators for expressing the matrix compositions that are needed in the Tucker and PARAFAC (CANDECOMP) decompositions. The first operator, which we call the Tucker operator, is shorthand for performing an n-mode matrix multiplication for every mode of a given tensor and can be employed to concisely express the Tucker decomposition. The second operator, which we call the Kruskal operator, is shorthand for the sum of the outer-products of the columns of N matrices and allows a divorce from a matricized representation and a very concise expression of the PARAFAC decomposition. We explore the properties of the Tucker and Kruskal operators independently of the related decompositions. Additionally, we provide a review of the matrix and tensor operations that are frequently used in the context of tensor decompositions.

  9. The effect of intake of water on the final values of body composition parameters in active athletes using two different bioimpedance analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kutáč

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:The method of bioelectrical impedance (BIA is frequently used to estimate body composition in sports. The total body water (TBW is the basic variable that BIA measures. That implies the degree of sensitivity of BIA to the hydration of the organism, which is also demonstrated by the principles of measurement that primarily relate to the hydration of the organism. It is difficult to provide standard hydration of the organism of subjects prior to measurements when taking the measurements in the field. Objective:The objective of the study is to assess the changes in the final values of the selected body composition parameters in soccer players caused by intake of water, using two devices commonly used in the field. Methods:The research was performed in a group of 33 soccer players (mean age 20.30 ± 1.18 years. The measurements were taken using Tanita BC 418 MA (frequency 50 kHz and Nutriguard-M (frequency 100 kHz. To evaluate the effect of water intake, we took two measurements before and after the intake of 500 ml of water. The parameters measured by Tanita BC 418 MA were body weight (BW, total body water (TBW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM. Nutriguard-M was used to measure total body water (TBW, intra and extracellular water (ICW and ECW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM, intra and extracellular mass (BCM and ECM. The differences in the means (M1 and M2 of the monitored parameters were evaluated using the Paired Samples t-test. In statistically significant differences in the mean, the practical significance was also verified using the effect of size (Cohen's d. Results:The Tanita device showed statistically significant differences after the intake of 500 ml in parameters BW (+0.42 kg, BF (+0.39 kg, +0.53% and TBW (-0.38%. As for the Nutriguard device, statistically significant differences were found in parameters TBW (+0.77 kg, ICW (+0.83 kg, FFM (+1.05 kg, BCM (+0.79 kg and ECM/BCM (-0.01. Conclusion

  10. Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A. Stuart; Reed, Sasha; Cleveland, Cory

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptual models predict that changes in plant litter chemistry during decomposition are primarily regulated by both initial litter chemistry and the stage-or extent-of mass loss. Far less is known about how variations in decomposer community structure (e.g., resulting from different ecosystem management types) could influence litter chemistry during decomposition. Given the recent agricultural intensification occurring globally and the importance of litter chemistry in regulating soil organic matter storage, our objectives were to determine the potential effects of agricultural management on plant litter chemistry and decomposition rates, and to investigate possible links between ecosystem management, litter chemistry and decomposition, and decomposer community composition and activity. We measured decomposition rates, changes in litter chemistry, extracellular enzyme activity, microarthropod communities, and bacterial versus fungal relative abundance in replicated conventional-till, no-till, and old field agricultural sites for both corn and grass litter. After one growing season, litter decomposition under conventional-till was 20% greater than in old field communities. However, decomposition rates in no-till were not significantly different from those in old field or conventional-till sites. After decomposition, grass residue in both conventional- and no-till systems was enriched in total polysaccharides relative to initial litter, while grass litter decomposed in old fields was enriched in nitrogen-bearing compounds and lipids. These differences corresponded with differences in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate that agricultural intensification can increase litter decomposition rates, alter decomposer communities, and influence litter chemistry in ways that could have important and long-term effects on soil organic matter dynamics. We suggest that future

  11. Evaluation of juvenile salmonid bypass facilities and passage at water diversions on the lower Umatilla River. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.A.; Knapp, S.M.; Carmichael, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    Outdated juvenile and adult fish passage facilities were recently reconstructed at the five major irrigation dams on the lower Umatilla River, Oregon to meet National marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design standards. Changes in design at juvenile fish bypass facilities included reduced mesh size on the rotating drum screens, larger screening area, a more oblique orientation of the drum screens to canal flow, improved screen seals, replacement of bypass portals with vertical slot bypass channels, and increased bypass pipe diameters. Weir-and-pool adult fish ladders and jump pools were replaced with vertical-slot ladders. From 1991--1995, they investigated injury and travel rate of juvenile fish moving through the facilities, and efficiency of screens in preventing fish entry into the canals. Water velocities in front of canal screens, at bypass channel entrances, and at ladder diffusers were measured to assess adherence to NMFS criteria and identify hydraulic patterns. Biological evaluations were conducted by releasing and recapturing marked yearling summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), yearling spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and subyearling fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in varying locations within the fish passage facilities

  12. Development of a pulsed coal combustor fired with CWM (coal-water mixture): Phase 3, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, M.N.; Durai-Swamy, K.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of an R and D program aimed at developing a new burner technology for coal-water mixture (CWM) fuels to enable the substitution of these new fuels in utility and industrial boilers and process heaters currently firing oil and gas. The application of pulse combustion to CWM fuels is chosen to alleviate many of the physical plant and environmental constraints presently associated with the direct use of these fuels in equipment designed for oil and gas firing. Pulse combustion has been shown to be capable of high-intensity burning of coal for acceptably complete combustion within relatively small equipment volumes. It also has the inherent capability to agglomerate ash particles, thus rendering ash more easily separable from the combustion gas prior to its entrance into the convective section of the boiler or heater, thereby reducing ash buildup and pluggage. Pulse combustion is also well-suited to staged combustion for NO/sub x/ control and has excellent potential for enhanced in-furnace SO/sub 2/ removal due to the enhanced levels of mass transfer brought about by the vigorous flow oscillations. The primary objective of the Phase 2 work was to develop a detailed program for laboratory development and evaluation of the pulse CWM combustor and system design concepts. 112 refs., 40 figs., 94 tabs.

  13. Ground water dating on the basis of the 14C content of dissolved humic and fulvic acids. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Artinger, R.; Buckau, G.; Kardinal, C.; Geyer, S.; Wolf, M.; Halder, H.; Fritz, P.

    1995-05-01

    The groundwater dating on the basis of the 14 C content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is studied. Fulvic acids (FA) and humic acids (HA) are used as DOC fractions. In addition, the groundwaters are dated with the 14 C content of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The isotopic contents of 2 H, 3 H, 13 C, 15 N, 18 O, and 34 S of groundwater and humic substances are alse determined. The isolated humic substances are characterized with regard to their chemical composition as well as their molecular size and spectroscopic properties. For aquifer systems which have a neglectable content of sedimentary organic carbon (SOC), the 14 C dating of FA show plausible groundwater ages. In aquifer systems with a high SOC content, the mixing of 14 C free FA from sediment partly falsifies the 14 C groundwater age as determined by dissolved FA. Due to the high transfer of HA from sediment to groundwater, HA are less suitable for groundwater dating. The FA characterization allows the distinction between FA of sedimentary origin and FA which infiltrate with seepage water. Several starting points for a correction of the calculated 14 C ages of FA exist. The results indicate, 14 C groundwater dating with fulvic acids is a valuable expansion of groundwater dating methods. (orig.) [de

  14. Trace Norm Regularized CANDECOMP/PARAFAC Decomposition With Missing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Shang, Fanhua; Jiao, Licheng; Cheng, James; Cheng, Hong

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, low-rank tensor completion (LRTC) problems have received a significant amount of attention in computer vision, data mining, and signal processing. The existing trace norm minimization algorithms for iteratively solving LRTC problems involve multiple singular value decompositions of very large matrices at each iteration. Therefore, they suffer from high computational cost. In this paper, we propose a novel trace norm regularized CANDECOMP/PARAFAC decomposition (TNCP) method for simultaneous tensor decomposition and completion. We first formulate a factor matrix rank minimization model by deducing the relation between the rank of each factor matrix and the mode- n rank of a tensor. Then, we introduce a tractable relaxation of our rank function, and then achieve a convex combination problem of much smaller-scale matrix trace norm minimization. Finally, we develop an efficient algorithm based on alternating direction method of multipliers to solve our problem. The promising experimental results on synthetic and real-world data validate the effectiveness of our TNCP method. Moreover, TNCP is significantly faster than the state-of-the-art methods and scales to larger problems.

  15. Impact of Water Use by Utility-Scale Solar on Groundwater Resources of the Chuckwalla Basin, CA: Final Modeling Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chaopeng [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering; Fang, Kuai [US Forest Services, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie, WA (United States); Ludwig, Noel [S Forest Services, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie, WA (United States); Godfrey, Peter [Bureau of Land Management, WY (United States). Wyoming State Office; Doughty, Christine A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences

    2017-06-01

    The DOE and BLM identified 285,000 acres of desert land in the Chuckwalla valley in the western U.S., for solar energy development. In addition to several approved solar projects, a pumped storage project was recently proposed to pump nearly 8000 acre-ft-yr of groundwater to store and stabilize solar energy output. This study aims at providing estimates of the amount of naturally-occurring recharge, and to estimate the impact of the pumping on the water table. To better provide the locations and intensity of natural recharge, this study employs an integrated, physically-based hydrologic model, PAWS+CLM, to calculate recharge. Then, the simulated recharge is used in a parameter estimation package to calibrate spatially-distributed K field. This design is to incorporate all available observational data, including soil moisture monitoring stations, groundwater head, and estimates of groundwater conductivity, to constrain the modeling. To address the uncertainty of the soil parameters, an ensemble of simulations are conducted, and the resulting recharges are either rejected or accepted based on calibrated groundwater head and local variation of the K field. The results indicate that the natural total inflow to the study domain is between 7107 and 12,772 afy. During the initial-fill phase of pumped storage project, the total outflow exceeds the upper bound estimate of the inflow. If the initial-fill is annualized to 20 years, the average pumping is more than the lower bound of inflows. The results indicate after adding the pumped storage project, the system will nearing, if not exceeding, its maximum renewable pumping capacity. The accepted recharges lead to a drawdown range of 24 to 45 ft for an assumed specific yield of 0.05. However, the drawdown is sensitive to this parameter, whereas there is insufficient data to adequately constrain this parameter.

  16. Identification method for gas-liquid two-phase flow regime based on singular value decomposition and least square support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Bin; Zhou Yunlong; Zhao Peng; Guan Yuebo

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the non-stationary characteristics of differential pressure fluctuation signals of gas-liquid two-phase flow, and the slow convergence of learning and liability of dropping into local minima for BP neural networks, flow regime identification method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Least Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) is presented. First of all, the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method is used to decompose the differential pressure fluctuation signals of gas-liquid two-phase flow into a number of stationary Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) components from which the initial feature vector matrix is formed. By applying the singular vale decomposition technique to the initial feature vector matrixes, the singular values are obtained. Finally, the singular values serve as the flow regime characteristic vector to be LS-SVM classifier and flow regimes are identified by the output of the classifier. The identification result of four typical flow regimes of air-water two-phase flow in horizontal pipe has shown that this method achieves a higher identification rate. (authors)

  17. Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts. Final technical progress report, September 12, 1991--December 11, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Deemer, M.; Richards-Babb, M.; Carr, T.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate sulfur-resistant catalysts for the conversion of synthesis gas having H{sub 2}/CO {le} 1 into C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohols, especially ethanol, by a highly selective and efficient pathway, while also promoting the water gas shift reaction (WGSR). The catalysts chosen are bifunctional, base-hydrogenation, sulfur-tolerant transition metal sulfides with heavy alkali, e.g. Cs{sup +}, promoter dispersed on their surfaces. The modes of activation of H{sub 2} and CO on MoS{sub 2} and alkali-doped MoS{sub 2} were considered, and computational analyses of the thermodynamic stability of transition metal sulfides and of the electronic structure of these sulfide catalysts were carried out. In the preparation of the cesium-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts, a variety of preparation methods using CsOOCH were examined. In all cases, doping with CsOOCH led to a lost of surface area. The undoped molybdenum disulfide catalyst only produced hydrocarbons. Cs-doped MoS{sub 2} catalysts all produced linear alcohols, along with smaller amounts of hydrocarbons. With a 20 wt% CsOOCH/MoS{sub 2} catalyst, temperature, pressure, and flow rate dependences of the synthesis reactions were investigated in the presence and absence of H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}/CO = 1/1 synthesis gas during short term testing experiments. It was shown that with a carefully prepared 10 wt% CsOOCH/MoS{sub 2} catalyst, reproducible and high alcohol synthesis activity could be obtained. For example, at 295 C with H{sub 2}/CO = 1 synthesis gas at 8.3 MPa and with GHSV = 7,760 l/kg cat/hr, the total alcohol space time yield was ca 300 g/kg cat/hr (accompanied with a hydrocarbon space time yield of ca 60 g/kg cat/hr). Over a testing period of ca 130 hr, no net deactivation of the catalyst was observed. 90 refs., 82 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. LMDI decomposition approach: A guide for implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Since it was first used by researchers to analyze industrial electricity consumption in the early 1980s, index decomposition analysis (IDA) has been widely adopted in energy and emission studies. Lately its use as the analytical component of accounting frameworks for tracking economy-wide energy efficiency trends has attracted considerable attention and interest among policy makers. The last comprehensive literature review of IDA was reported in 2000 which is some years back. After giving an update and presenting the key trends in the last 15 years, this study focuses on the implementation issues of the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition methods in view of their dominance in IDA in recent years. Eight LMDI models are presented and their origin, decomposition formulae, and strengths and weaknesses are summarized. Guidelines on the choice among these models are provided to assist users in implementation. - Highlights: • Guidelines for implementing LMDI decomposition approach are provided. • Eight LMDI decomposition models are summarized and compared. • The development of the LMDI decomposition approach is presented. • The latest developments of index decomposition analysis are briefly reviewed.

  19. Thermal decomposition of beryllium perchlorate tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezkina, L.G.; Borisova, S.I.; Tamm, N.S.; Novoselova, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of Be(ClO 4 ) 2 x4H 2 O was studied by the differential flow technique in the helium stream. The kinetics was followed by an exchange reaction of the perchloric acid appearing by the decomposition with potassium carbonate. The rate of CO 2 liberation in this process was recorded by a heat conductivity detector. The exchange reaction yielding CO 2 is quantitative, it is not the limiting one and it does not distort the kinetics of the process of perchlorate decomposition. The solid products of decomposition were studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopy, roentgenography, thermography and chemical analysis. A mechanism suggested for the decomposition involves intermediate formation of hydroxyperchlorate: Be(ClO 4 ) 2 x4H 2 O → Be(OH)ClO 4 +HClO 4 +3H 2 O; Be(OH)ClO 4 → BeO+HClO 4 . Decomposition is accompained by melting of the sample. The mechanism of decomposition is hydrolytic. At room temperature the hydroxyperchlorate is a thick syrup-like compound crystallizing after long storing

  20. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation