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Sample records for water content effects

  1. Effect of water deficit stress on proline contents, soluble sugars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of water deficit stress on proline contents, soluble sugars, chlorophyll and grain yield of sunflower ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2012) > ... The objective of the present work was to determine the mechanisms of tolerance of four ...

  2. Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker-Gramm, P.; Beddoe, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-√t dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from √t behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction γ is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

  3. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  4. Effect of water content on the water repellency for hydrophobized sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, S.; Kawamoto, K.; Kuroda, T.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

    2011-12-01

    Alternative earthen covers such as capillary barriers (CBs) and evapotranspirative covers are recognized as useful technical and low-cost solutions for limiting water infiltration and controlling seepage flow at solid waste landfills in semi-arid and arid regions. However, their application to the landfills at wet regions seems to be matter of concern due to loss of their impending capability under high precipitation. One of the possible techniques to enhance the impermeable properties of CBs is to alter soil grain surfaces to be water-repellent by mixing/coating hydrophobic agents (HAs). In order to examine a potential use of model sands hydrophobized with locally available and environmental-friendly HAs such as oleic acid (OA) and stearic acid (SA) for hydrophobic CBs. In the present study, we first characterized the effect of water content on the degree of water repellency (WR) for hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soil at different depth. Secondly, the time dependency of the contact angle in hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soils at different water content was evaluated. Further, the effects of hydrophobic organic matter contents on the WR of hydrophobized sands were investigated by horizontal infiltration test. We investigated the degree of WR as functions of volumetric water content (θ) of a volcanic ash soil samples from different depth and water adjusted hydrophobized sand samples with different ratio of HAs by using sessile drop method (SDM). The initial contact angle (αi) measured from SDM decreased gradually with increasing water content in OA and SA coated samples. Measured αi values for volcanic ash soils increased with increasing water content and reached a peak values of 111.7o at θ= 0.325 cm3 cm-3, where-after αi gradually decreased. Each test sample exhibited sharp decrease in contact angle with time at higher water content. Sorptivity values for oleic acid coated samples decreased with increasing HA content and reached the minimum

  5. Effect of water content on partial ternary phase diagram water-in-diesel microemulsion fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukayat, Hastinatun; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Raman, Ismail Ab.; Ramli, Suria

    2014-09-01

    Introduction of water in the fuel gave a significant effect to the reduction of pollutant such as NOx emission. In this work, water/diesel microemulsion fuels were prepared using compositional method by mixing water and diesel in the presence of non-ionic surfactant and co-surfactant. The effects of water composition on the partial ternary phase diagram were studied at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (w/w). The physical stability of the microemulsion was investigated at 45°C over a period of one month. The optimum formulae obtained were diesel/T80/1-penthanol/water 60:20:15:5 wt% (System 1), 55:20:15:10 wt% (System 2), 50:20:15:15 wt% (System 3) and 45:20:15:20 wt% (System 4). Physicochemical characterizations of optimum formulae were studied. The results showed that water content has a significant effect to the formation of microemulsion, its stability, droplet size and viscosity.

  6. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et......Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive...... the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...

  7. Effect of soil water stress on yield and proline content of four wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of soil water stress on yield and proline content of four wheat lines. ... This field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of drought stress after anthesis on proline accumulation and wheat yield during 2008 at ... from 32 Countries:.

  8. Modeled effects on permittivity measurements of water content in high surface area porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Or, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become an important measurement technique for determination of porous media water content and electrical conductivity due to its accuracy, fast response and automation capability. Water content is inferred from the measured bulk dielectric constant based on travel time analysis along simple transmission lines. TDR measurements in low surface area porous media accurately describe water content using an empirical relationship. Measurement discrepancies arise from dominating influences such as bound water due to high surface area, extreme aspect ratio particles or atypical water phase configuration. Our objectives were to highlight primary factors affecting dielectric permittivity measurements for water content determination in porous mixtures, and demonstrate the influence of these factors on mixture permittivity as predicted by a three-phase dielectric mixture model. Modeled results considering water binding, higher porosity, constituent geometry or phase configuration suggest any of these effects individually are capable of causing permittivity reduction, though all likely contribute in high surface area porous media

  9. The Effect of Water Content of Medium Containing Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae on Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocrealeswould effectively infect the target host on the appropriate medium water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of water content of medium on the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae in the laboratory. Fifty healthy third instar larvae of O. rhinoceros were  obtained from field. The M. anisopliae obtained from Estate Crop Protection Board in Salatiga. The conidia density and viability of M. anisopliae were examined before used. The medium for maintaining the larva was the sawdust that had been sterilized. A total of 50 plastic cups were prepared to place 50 larvae (1 larva/cup. Each cup was filled with 100 g medium  of sawdust plus 2 g of M. anisopliae which was then stirred until mixed, with different water content: P1 (20%, P2 (40%, P3 (60%, P4 (80% and P5 (98%. The result indicated that  the water content of the medium affected the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae. The water content influenced the duration of larval mortality at each treatment. An important finding in this study is that controlling O. rhineceros larvae  with M. anisopliae can be done by manipulating the water content of medium. The benefit of this study may be used for the recommendation of O. rhinoceros pest control using M. anisopliae  with an effective water media content.

  10. The long-term effects of alfalfa on soil water content in the Loess ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... affect the water content in deep soil and continuous growing alfalfa ... Wasteland, wheat field and six seeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grasslands with ... The crops (wheat, maize, potato, beans and millet) had been rainfed on all ..... Productivity dynamic of alfalfa and its effects on water eco-environment.

  11. Effect of water content nitrogen gross mineralization and immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil plant cycle. It is hypothesized that moisture regime may also play an important role on these processes. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization and immobilization of N, in and Ultisol soil, which was incubated at 25 o C, under two moisture regimes, field capacity (CC) (40% w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34% w/w): Using mirror image 15 N isotope dilution techniques, it was possible to determine gross nitrification and mineralization rates. The rates of gross mineralization and nitrification rate in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85% CC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  12. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  13. Effects of salinity on growth, water content and distribution of Na + ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of 4 different concentrations of NaCl on plant height, on water content and on the distribution of monovalent cations (Na + and K +) in organs of Avicennia germinans seedlings in semi-controlled conditions were investigated. After 4 weeks of cultivation, results showed that 200 mmoles sodium chloride reduced the ...

  14. The effect of water content on the magnetic and structural properties of goethite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancur, J.D.; Barrero, C.A.; Greneche, J.M.; Goya, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the effect of water content on the magnetic and structural properties of goethite. For that purpose, four samples were prepared using two different hydrothermal methods, one of them is derived on the Fe(II) precursors and the other one from Fe(III) precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), TGA, BET, FTIR, Moessbauer spectrometry at RT, 77 and 4.2 K and ZFC and FC curves. The results suggest that the goethites from the Fe(II) precursors are less crystalline, have higher water contents and do not show magnetic ordered structure at RT in comparison to the goethites from the Fe(III) precursors. The goethites from the last systems exhibit good crystallinity, low water content and magnetic ordering at room temperature. Our results suggest that both structural and adsorbed water contents reduce the magnetic hyperfine field at 4.2 K. A linear correlation with regression coefficient of 0.91 between the saturation hyperfine field and both the structural hydroxyl content and the surface area could be derived

  15. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMI ALI METWALLY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Metwally SA,Khalid KA, Abou-Leila BH. 2013. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 63-67. The effects of water regime on the growth, content of essential oil and proline of Calendula officinalis L. plants were investigated. Water regimes of 75% of field water capacity increased certain growth characters [i.e. plant height (cm, leaf area (cm2, flower diameter (cm and spike stem diameter] and vase life (day. Water regime promoted the accumulation of essential oil content and its main components as well as proline contents.

  16. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, O B

    1979-01-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl/sub 2/ solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. In-situ burning of emulsions: The effects of varying water content and degree of evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, C.; Sveum, P.; Buist, I.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ burning of oil is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for rapid removal of large quantities of oil at sea, particularly in ice-infested waters. A series of field experiments was conducted in Spitsbergen, circular basins cut in sea ice, to study the effect of water content, evaporation, thickness of the emulsion layer, and environmental factors on the burn efficiency of Statfjord crude oil and emulsions. Results from the experiments are presented along with preliminary results concerning the dynamics of burning emulsions and the efficiency of conventional and novel igniters. Water-in-oil emulsions with 40% water content could be burned. However, for oils evaporated more than 18% and with a water content of over 20%, conventional gelled gasoline was not a very effective igniter. Ignition success was improved when gelled crude oil was used as the igniter. The results imply that for practical in-situ burning, the igniter technology needs to be improved. 5 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Effect of water content on dispersion of transferred solute in unsaturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latrille, C. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/L3MR, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2013-07-01

    Estimating contaminant migration in the context of waste disposal and/or environmental remediation of polluted soils requires a complete understanding of the underlying transport processes. In unsaturated porous media, water content impacts directly on porous solute transfer. Depending on the spatial distribution of water content, the flow pathway is more complex than in water saturated media. Dispersivity is consequently dependent on water content. Non-reactive tracer experiments performed using unsaturated sand columns confirm the dependence of dispersivity with pore velocity; moreover, a power law relationship between dispersivity and water content is evidenced. (authors)

  19. Alkaline anion exchange membrane water electrolysis: Effects of electrolyte feed method and electrode binder content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Kyung; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Lim, Ahyoun; Henkensmeier, Dirk; Yoo, Sung Jong; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, So Young; Park, Hyun S.; Jang, Jong Hyun

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we investigate the effects of catholyte feed method and anode binder content on the characteristics of anion exchange membrane water electrolysis (AEMWE) to construct a high-performance electrolyzer, revealing that the initial AEMWE performance is significantly improved by pre-feeding 0.5 M aqueous KOH to the cathode. The highest long-term activity during repeated voltage cycling is observed for AEMWE operation in the dry cathode mode, for which the best long-term performance among membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) featuring polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder-impregnated (5-20 wt%) anodes is detected for a PTFE content of 20 wt%. MEAs with low PTFE content (5 and 9 wt%) demonstrate high initial performance, rapid performance decay, and significant catalyst loss from the electrode during long-term operation, whereas the MEA with 20 wt% PTFE allows stable water electrolysis for over 1600 voltage cycles. Optimization of cell operating conditions (i.e., operation in dry cathode mode at an optimum anode binder content following an initial solution feed) achieves an enhanced water splitting current density (1.07 A cm-2 at 1.8 V) and stable long-term AEMWE performance (0.01% current density reduction per voltage cycle).

  20. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number density of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Vaughan, M.; McClain, C.; Behrenfeld, M.; Maring, H.; Anderson, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Flittner, D.; Huang, J.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.; Weimer, C.; Trepte, C.; Kuehn, R.

    2007-03-01

    This study presents an empirical relation that links layer integrated depolarization ratios, the extinction coefficients, and effective radii of water clouds, based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations. Combined with cloud effective radius retrieved from MODIS, cloud liquid water content and effective number density of water clouds are estimated from CALIPSO lidar depolarization measurements in this study. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water content and effective number density are presented.

  1. The effect of different water managements on rice arsenic content in two arsenic-spiked soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang H. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing rice on arsenic (As-contaminated paddy fields may induce high As level grain production. In order to reduce the food contamination risk, the pot experiments containing two As-spiked aging soils and four water managements were conducted to evaluate the effects of water managements on rice As content. The results indicated that As concentration of Erlin soil solution was 10 to 20 times (210-520 μg/L higher than that of Pinchen soil solution (5-20 μg/L at early stage of experiment (0-60 days. Aerobic water treatment will decrease As level to 30-50% (108-220 μg/L of original As concentration in Erlin soil solution. Statistic results indicated that water management was effective to reduce the rice grain As level in Erlin soil. However, the management impact was not obvious in Pinchen soil, which may be attributed to high clay or free Fe and Al content in the soil. This study suggested that keeping soil under aerobic condition for 3 weeks before rice heading can reduce the risk of rice grown at the As-contamination soil.

  2. Effect of water content on strontium retardation factor and distribution coefficient in Chinese loess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lijuan; Qian, Tianwei; Hao, Junting; Liu, Hongfang; Zhao, Dongye

    2013-12-01

    Geological burial and landfill are often employed for disposal of nuclear wastes. Typically, radionuclides from nuclear facilities transport through the unsaturated zone before reaching the groundwater aquifer. However, transport studies are often conducted under saturated and steady-state flow conditions. This research aimed to examine the effects of unsaturated flow conditions and soil water content (θ) on Sr sorption and retardation in Chinese loess through 1D column transport experiments. Reagent SrCl2 was used as a surrogate for the radioactive isotope ((90)Sr) in the experiment because of their analogous adsorption and transportation characteristics. The spatial distribution of Sr along the column length was determined by segmenting the soil bed and analysing the Sr content in each soil segment following each column breakthrough test. The single-region (SR) and two-region (TR) models were employed to interpret the transport data of Sr as well as a tracer (Br(-)), which resulted in the dispersion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (Rd) under a given set of unsaturated flow conditions. For the tracer, the SR and TR models offered nearly the same goodness of fitting to the breakthrough curves (R(2) ≈ 0.97 for both models). For the highly sorptive Sr, however, the TR model provided better fitting (R(2), 0.80-0.96) to the Sr retention profiles than the SR model (R(2), 0.20-0.89). The Sr retention curves exhibited physical non-equilibrium characteristics, particularly at lower water content of the soil. For the unsaturated soil, D and the pore water velocity (v) displayed a weak linear correlation, which is attributed to the altering dispersivity as the water content varies. A much improved linear correlation was observed between D and v/θ. The retardation factor of Sr increased from 69.1 to 174.2 as θ decreased from 0.46 to 0.26 (cm(3) cm(-3)), while the distribution coefficient (Kd) based on Rd remained nearly unchanged at various θ levels. These

  3. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  4. Effect of water content on specific heat capacity of porcine septum cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yongseok; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Wong, Brian J.

    2002-06-01

    The effect of water content on specific heat capacity was examined using temperature modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC). This research was motivated in part by the development laser cartilage reshaping operations, which use photothermal heating to accelerate stress relaxation and shape change. Deposition of thermal energy leads to mechanical stress relaxation and redistribution of cartilage internal stresses, which may lead to a permanent shape change. The specific heat of cartilage specimens (dia: 3 mm and thickness 1-2 mm) was measured using a heating rate of 2 degree(s)C/min for conventional DSC and 2 degree(s)C/min with an amplitude 0.38-0.45 degree(s)C and a period 60-100 sec for TMDSC. The amount of water in cartilaginous tissue was determined using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) under ambient conditions. In order to correlate changes in heat flow with alterations in cartilage mechanical behavior, dynamic mechanical temperature analysis (DMTA) was used to estimate the specific transition temperatures where stress relaxation occurs. With decreasing water content, we identified a phase transition that shifted to a higher temperature after 35-45% water content was measured. The phase transition energy increased from 0.12 J/g to 1.68 J/g after a 45% weight loss. This study is a preliminary investigation focused on understanding the mechanism of the stress relaxation of cartilage during heating. The energy requirement of such a transition estimated using TMDSC and temperature range, where cartilage shape changes likely occur, was estimated.

  5. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  6. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  7. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number concentration of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Vaughan, M.; McClain, C.; Behrenfeld, M.; Maring, H.; Anderson, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Flittner, D.; Huang, J.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.; Weimer, C.; Trepte, C.; Kuehn, R.

    2007-06-01

    This study presents an empirical relation that links the volume extinction coefficients of water clouds, the layer integrated depolarization ratios measured by lidar, and the effective radii of water clouds derived from collocated passive sensor observations. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations, this method combines the cloud effective radius reported by MODIS with the lidar depolarization ratios measured by CALIPSO to estimate both the liquid water content and the effective number concentration of water clouds. The method is applied to collocated CALIPSO and MODIS measurements obtained during July and October of 2006, and January 2007. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water content and effective number concentration are presented.

  8. The effect of water content on the persistence of 14C- lindane in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, R.; Mesquita, T.B.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The effect to the water content on the behaviour of 14 C-lindane was determined under laboratory conditions in two soil samples from the state of Parana, differing in organic matter and clay content. In Brunizem soil, richer in organic matter, the rate of degradation of 14 C-lindane, as measured by 14 CO 2 evolution, was twice under 3/3 field capacity and flooded condition as compared with 2/3 field capacity. The percentage of 14 CO 2 envolved from the Dark Red Latosol soil practically the same for the three levels of moisture content and about equal to the Brunizem soil at 2/3 field capacity. Although after 240 days of incubation with 14 C-lindane about 5% of the applied activity could be extracted from both soils, between 20 to 36% of the parent radiocarbon was yet bound to the soils. The degradation of 14 C-lindage into 14 CO 2 , the volatization of 14 C-lindage, and the radiocarbon probably lost as volatile metabolites were the main routes of dissipation of the insecticide from both soils. (Author) [pt

  9. Effects of feeding frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in healthy adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Iwazaki, E; Suchy, S A; Pallotto, M R; Swanson, K S

    2014-03-01

    Low physical activity has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of feline obesity and diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increased meal frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in cats fed to maintain BW. Ten adult lean neutered male cats were used in 2 tests, both crossover studies composed of a 14-d adaptation period, followed by a 7-d measurement of physical activity from d 15 to d 22 using Actical activity collars. Cats were group housed for most of the day, except for times when they were individually housed in cages to access their diet under a 16:8 h light:dark cycle. In Exp. 1, the difference in voluntary physical activity among cats fed 1, 2, 4, or a random number of meals per day were tested in a 4 × 4 Latin square design in 4 individual rooms. In Exp. 2, the effect of increasing dietary water content on voluntary physical activity was tested in a crossover design including a 5-d phase for fecal and urine collection from d 22 to 27. Cats were randomly assigned to 2 rooms and fed a dry commercial diet with or without added water (70% hydrated) twice daily. Activity levels were expressed as "activity counts" per epoch (15 s). In Exp. 1, average daily activity level for 1-meal-fed cats was lower than 4-meal-fed (P = 0.004) and random-meal-fed (P = 0.02) cats, especially during the light period. The activity level of cats during the dark period was greater in 1-meal-fed cats compared with cats fed 2 meals (P = 0.008) or 4 meals (P = 0.007) daily. Two-hour food anticipatory activity (FAA) before scheduled meal times for 1-meal-fed cats was lower (P meal-fed cats. In Exp. 2, average daily activity level of cats fed the 70% hydrated diet tended to be higher (P = 0.06) than cats fed the dry diet, especially during the dark period (P = 0.007). Two-hour FAA before the afternoon meal for cats fed the 70% hydrated diet was lower (P frequency and dietary water content, without changing energy intake or

  10. What is the effect of local controls on the temporal stability of soil water contents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Vereecken, H.; Vanderlinden, K.; Hardelauf, H.; Herbst, M.

    2012-04-01

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) reflects the spatio-temporal organization of SWC. Factors and their interactions that control this organization, are not completely understood and have not been quantified yet. It is understood that these factors should be classified into groups of local and non-local controls. This work is a first attempt to evaluate the effects of soil properties at a certain location as local controls Time series of SWC were generated by running water flow simulations with the HYDRUS6 code. Bare and grassed sandy loam, loam and clay soils were represented by sets of 100 independent soil columns. Within each set, values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were generated randomly assuming for the standard deviation of the scaling factor of ln Ks a value ranging from 0.1 to 1.0. Weather conditions were the same for all of the soil columns. SWC at depths of 0.05 and 0.60 m, and the average water content of the top 1 m were analyzed. The temporal stability was characterized by calculating the mean relative differences (MRD) of soil water content. MRD distributions from simulations, developed from the log-normal distribution of Ks, agreed well with the experimental studies found in the literature. Generally, Ks was the leading variable to define the MRD rank for a specific location. Higher MRD corresponded to the lowest values of Ks when a single textural class was considered. Higher MRD were found in the finer texture when mixtures of textural classes were considered and similar values of Ks were compared. The relationships between the spread of the MRD distributions and the scaling factor of ln Ks were nonlinear. Variation in MRD was higher in coarser textures than in finer ones and more variability was seen in the topsoil than in the subsoil. Established vegetation decreased variability of MRD in the root zone and increased variability below. The dependence of MRD on Ks opens the possibility of using SWC sensor networks to

  11. Water Content Effect on Oxides Yield in Gas and Liquid Phase Using DBD Arrays in Mist Spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingyan; Zhu Changping; He Xiang; Yin Cheng; Fei Juntao; Wang Yuan; Jiang Yongfeng; Chen Longwei; Gao Yuan; Han Qingbang

    2016-01-01

    Electric discharge in and in contact with water can accompany ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electron impact, which can generate a large number of active species such as hydroxyl radicals (OH), oxygen radical (O), ozone (O 3 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In this paper, a nonthermal plasma processing system was established by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) arrays in water mist spray. The relationship between droplet size and water content was examined, and the effects of the concentrations of oxides in both treated water and gas were investigated under different water content and discharge time. The relative intensity of UV spectra from DBD in water mist was a function of water content. The concentrations of both O 3 and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in DBD room decreased with increasing water content. Moreover, the concentrations of H 2 O 2 , O 3 and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in treated water decreased with increasing water content, and all the ones enhanced after discharge. The experimental results were further analyzed by chemical reaction equations and commented by physical principles as much as possible. At last, the water containing phenol was tested in this system for the concentration from 100 mg/L to 9.8 mg/L in a period of 35 min. (paper)

  12. The Effect of Preservative Methods on the Yield, Water Content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .niger, A.aureous and Fusarium spp. A. flavipes was isolated from samples of water activity at 0.33 while A.niger was isolated from samples of water activity at 0.11. It was recommended that the reduction in moisture content of smoke-dried ...

  13. Role of Water Vapor Content in the Effects of Aerosol on the Electrification of Thunderstorms: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We explored the role of the water vapor content below the freezing level in the response of idealized supercell storm electrical processes to increased concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with parameterizations electrification and discharging, we performed 30 simulations by varying both the CCN concentration and water vapor content below the freezing level. The sensitivity simulations showed a distinct response to increased concentrations of CCN, depending on the water vapor content below the freezing level. Enhancing CCN concentrations increased electrification processes of thunderstorms and produced a new negative charge region above the main positive charge center when there were ample amounts of water vapor below the freezing level. Conversely, there were weak effects on electrification and the charge structure in numerical experiments initialized with lower water vapor content below the freezing level.

  14. Effect of miscibility and soil water content in movement of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Since commercial low-level waste sites will not accept mixed low level wastes for disposal any longer, safer disposal of these wastes as well as hazardous waste becomes the growing concern. The objective of this study were to estimate the effect of some characteristics of organic material, such as solubility, density and volatility, on the movement in soil under various moisture contents. Attempts were made to fit the measured data to theoretical models for the movement of aqueous and airborne components through the vadose zone. Four different C-14 labeled organic materials, Methyl Alcohol, Toluene, Formic Acid, and Bromobenzene, differing in density, solubility, and volatility, were injected into test columns packed with a mixture of sands having known particles sizes and porosity. The method employed to make calibrated unsaturated conditions proved to be adequate for four different designated moisture contents, permitting sampling of both airborne and aqueous components at the same time. Significant solubility and density effects were found for the different organic materials associated with movement through water channels or air-filled pores, which became available at various unsaturated conditions. To analyze this mobility mechanism as a function of inherent properties of organic materials, a couple of mathematical equations were presented to describe both airborne release and aqueous migration and their wider applicability was discussed

  15. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number density of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Hu; M. Vaughan; C. McClain; M. Behrenfeld; H. Maring; D. Anderson; S. Sun-Mack; D. Flittner; J. Huang; B. Wielicki; P. Minnis; C. Weimer; C. Trepte; R. Kuehn

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study presents an empirical relation that links layer integrated depolarization ratios, the extinction coefficients, and effective radii of water clouds, based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations. Combined with cloud effective radius retrieved from MODIS, cloud liquid water content and effective number density of water clouds are estimated from CALIPSO lidar depolarization measurements in this study. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water...

  16. Effect of Soil Water Content on the Distribution of Diuron into Organomineral Aggregates of Highly Weathered Tropical Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitano, Jussara B; Rocha, Wadson S D; Bonfleur, Eloana J; Milori, Debora; Alleoni, Luís R F

    2016-05-25

    We evaluated the effects of soil water content on the retention of diuron and its residual distribution into organomineral aggregates in four Brazilian oxisols. (14)C-Diuron was incubated for days at 25, 50, and 75% of maximum water-holding capacity for each soil. After 42 days, the physical fractionation method was used to obtain >150, 53-150, 20-53, 2-20, and retention increased with increasing soil water content for all soils. At lower soil water content, diuron's retention was higher in the sandier soil. It was mostly retained in the fine (retention was higher in the coarse aggregates (>53 μm). The sorption coefficients (Kd and Koc) generated by batch studies should be carefully used because they do not provide information about aggregation and diffusion effects on pesticides soil sorption.

  17. [Effect of irregular bedrock topography on the soil profile pattern of water content in a Karst hillslope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jin Tian; Fu, Zhi Yong; Chen, Hong Song; Wang, Ke Lin; Zhou, Wei Jun

    2016-06-01

    Based on three manually excavated trenches (projection length of 21 m, width of 1 m) along a typical Karst hillslope, the changing trends for soil-bedrock structure, average water content of soil profile and soil-bedrock interface water content along each individual trench were studied. The effect of irregular bedrock topography on soil moisture distribution was discussed. The results showed that the surface topography was inconsistent with the bedrock topography in the Karst hill-slopes. The bedrock topography was highly irregular with a maximum variation coefficient of 82%. The distribution pattern of soil profile of moisture was significantly affected by the underlying undulant bedrock. The soil water content was related to slope position when the fluctuation was gentle, and displayed a linear increase from upslope to downslope. When the bedrock fluctuation increased, the downslope linear increasing trend for soil water content became unapparent, and the spatial continuity of soil moisture was weakened. The soil moisture was converged in rock dents and cracks. The average water content of soil profile was significantly positively correlated with the soil-bedrock interface water content, while the latter responded more sensitively to the bedrock fluctuation.

  18. Effects of different irrigation practices using treated wastewater on tomato yields, quality, water productivity, and soil and fruit mineral contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Azize Dogan; Sahin, Ustun

    2017-11-01

    Wastewater use in agricultural irrigation is becoming a common practice in order to meet the rising water demands in arid and semi-arid regions. The study was conducted to determine the effects of the full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation practices using treated municipal wastewater (TWW) and freshwater (FW) on tomato yield, water use, fruit quality, and soil and fruit heavy metal concentrations. The TWW significantly increased marketable yield compared to the FW, as well as decreased water consumption. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE) in the TWW was significantly higher than in the FW. Although the DI and the PRD practices caused less yields, these practices significantly increased WUE values due to less irrigation water applied. The water-yield linear relationships were statistically significant. TWW significantly increased titratable acidity and vitamin C contents. Reduced irrigation provided significantly lower titratable acidity, vitamin C, and lycopene contents. TWW increased the surface soil and fruit mineral contents in response to FW. Greater increases were observed under FI, and mineral contents declined with reduction in irrigation water. Heavy metal accumulation in soils was within safe limits. However, Cd and Pb contents in fruits exceeded standard limits given by FAO/WHO. Higher metal pollution index values determined for fruits also indicated that TWW application, especially under FI, might cause health risks in long term.

  19. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Bore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling.

  20. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Delepine Lesoille, Sylvie; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling. PMID:27096865

  1. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors--Air Gap Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Lesoille, Sylvie Delepine; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-04-18

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling.

  2. Effect of churning temperature on water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter during four weeks of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Madsen, Ann Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain

    2014-01-01

    The effect of churning temperature (10 °C vs. 22 °C) is evaluated with respect to water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter produced using the batch churning method with a temperature ramp of 4 °C/min. Using pulsed-nuclear magnetic resonance, an increase in relative solid fat...... content from 44% to 49.5% was observed when decreasing the churning temperature. Due to lower solid fat content formed upon churning at high temperatures, average water droplet size significantly increased from 5.5 μm to 18.5 μm and less water could be incorporated into the butter during mixing. Using...... differential scanning calorimetry, it was observed that water addition as well as churning at low temperatures induced a transition toward more stable crystal structures, as the melting point in the high melting fraction was slightly lower for butter churned at high temperature. This did, however, not reflect...

  3. Compared performance of penetrometers and effect of soil water content on penetration resistance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Aparecido Mome Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture techniques have a great impact on crops and soil quality, especially by the increased machinery traffic and weight. Several devices have been developed for determining soil properties in the field, aimed at managing compacted areas. Penetrometry is a widely used technique; however, there are several types of penetrometers, which have different action modes that can affect the soil resistance measurement. The objective of this study was to compare the functionality of two penetrometry methods (manual and automated mode in the field identification of compacted, highly mechanized sugarcane areas, considering the influence of soil water volumetric content (θ on soil penetration resistance (PR. Three sugarcane fields on a Rhodic Eutrudrox were chosen, under a sequence of harvest systems: one manual harvest (1ManH, one mechanized harvest (1MH and three mechanized harvests (3MH. The different degrees of mechanization were associated to cumulative compaction processes. An electronic penetrometer was used on PR measurements, so that the rod was introduced into the soil by hand (Manual and by an electromechanical motor (Auto. The θ was measured in the field with a soil moisture sensor. Results showed an effect of θ on PR measurements and that regression models must be used to correct data before comparing harvesting systems. The rod introduction modes resulted in different mean PR values, where the "Manual" overestimated PR compared to the "Auto" mode at low θ.

  4. Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, J.I.; Saleem, F.

    2003-01-01

    A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

  5. Effects of season on the bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens: water content, respiration, and excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller-Adams, Page; Childress, James J.

    1983-06-01

    Water contents, oxygen consumption rates and ammonia excretion rates of individuals of the large bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens were measured as a function of size and season (winter and summer). Individuals of the sizes studied live permanently beneath the euphotic zone. Water content, as a percent of wet weight, is higher in winter than in summer, suggesting seasonal variability in the midwater environment. Our data suggest that the seasonal change in water content increases with increasing size. We suggest that the changes are due in part to seasonal changes in food intake. Seasonal differences were not observed in wet-weight-specific rates of either respiration or ammonia excretion. Both rates decrease with increasing size. The constancy of the atomic O:N ratio and its high value (geometric mean = 44.3) indicate that the average proportions of lipid and protein metabolized by individuals were independent of size and season and that lipid stores were not sufficiently depleted, even in small animals, to cause a shift to predominantly protein metabolism in winter or summer. On the average, metabolic rates of individuals were unaffected by seasonal variation in the midwater environment.

  6. Effects of soil water content on the external exposure of fauna to radioactive isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2016-01-01

    Within a recent model intercomparison about radiological risk assessment for contaminated wetlands, the influence of soil saturation conditions on external dose rates was evidenced. This issue joined concerns of assessors regarding the choice of the soil moisture value to input in radiological assessment tools such as the ERICA Tool. Does it really influence the assessment results and how? This question was investigated under IAEA's Modelling and Data for Radiological Impacts Assessments (MODARIA) programme via 42 scenarios for which the soil water content varied from 0 (dry soil) to 100% (saturated soil), in combination with other parameters that may influence the values of the external dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) calculated for terrestrial organisms exposed in soil. A set of α, β, and γ emitters was selected in order to cover the range of possible emission energies. The values of their external DCCs varied generally within a factor 1 to 1.5 with the soil water content, excepted for β emitters that appeared more sensitive (DCCs within a factor of about 3). This may be of importance for some specific cases or for upper tiers of radiological assessments, when refinement is required. But for the general purpose of screening assessment of radiological impact on fauna and flora, current approaches regarding the soil water content are relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating water stress is well documented. In order to study the effects of water stress and two different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower, a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted in the Research Field Station, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran in 2011. Water stress treatments included control as 90% of field capacity (W1, 70% field capacity (W2 and 50% field capacity (W3 assigned to the main plots and two different mycorrhiza species, consisting of M1 = control (without any inoculation, M2 = Glumus mossea and M3 = Glumus etanicatum as sub plots. Results showed that by increasing water stress from control (W1 to W3 treatment, grain yield was significantly decreased. The reduction in the level of W3 was 15.05%. The content of potassium in seeds significantly decreased due to water stress but water stress upto W2 treatment increased the content of phosphorus, nitrogen and oil content of seeds. In between two species of mycorrhiza in sunflower plants, Glumus etanicatum had the highest effect on grain yield and these elements in seeds and increased both.

  8. Water content of aged aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Engelhart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008. A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during most of the measurement campaign, which likely contributed to the water uptake at low RH. The water content observations were compared to the thermodynamic model E-AIM, neglecting any contribution of the organics to aerosol water content. There was good agreement between the water measurements and the model predictions. Adding the small amount of water associated with the organic aerosol based on monoterpene water absorption did not change the quality of the agreement. These results strongly suggest that the water uptake by aged organic aerosol is relatively small (a few percent of the total water for the conditions during FAME-08 and generally consistent with what has been observed in laboratory experiments. The water concentration measured by a Q-AMS was well correlated with the DAASS measurements and in good agreement with the predicted values for the RH of the Q-AMS inlet. This suggests that, at least for the conditions of the study, the Q-AMS can provide valuable information about the aerosol water concentrations if the sample is not dried.

  9. Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Because of water's importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P H2O ) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P H2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site's environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes

  10. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number concentration of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical relation that links the volume extinction coefficients of water clouds, the layer integrated depolarization ratios measured by lidar, and the effective radii of water clouds derived from collocated passive sensor observations. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations, this method combines the cloud effective radius reported by MODIS with the lidar depolarization ratios measured by CALIPSO to estimate both the liquid water content and the effective number concentration of water clouds. The method is applied to collocated CALIPSO and MODIS measurements obtained during July and October of 2006, and January 2007. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water content and effective number concentration are presented.

  11. Desiccation resistance: effect of cuticular hydrocarbons and water content in Drosophila melanogaster adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Ferveur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The insect cuticle covers the whole body and all appendages and has bi-directionnal selective permeability: it protects against environmental stress and pathogen infection and also helps to reduce water loss. The adult cuticle is often associated with a superficial layer of fatty acid-derived molecules such as waxes and long chain hydrocarbons that prevent rapid dehydration. The waterproofing properties of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs depend on their chain length and desaturation number. Drosophila CH biosynthesis involves an enzymatic pathway including several elongase and desaturase enzymes. Methods The link between desiccation resistance and CH profile remains unclear, so we tested (1 experimentally selected desiccation-resistant lines, (2 transgenic flies with altered desaturase expression and (3 natural and laboratory-induced CH variants. We also explored the possible relationship between desiccation resistance, relative water content and fecundity in females. Results We found that increased desiccation resistance is linked with the increased proportion of desaturated CHs, but not with their total amount. Experimentally-induced desiccation resistance and CH variation both remained stable after many generations without selection. Conversely, flies with a higher water content and a lower proportion of desaturated CHs showed reduced desiccation resistance. This was also the case in flies with defective desaturase expression in the fat body. Discussion We conclude that rapidly acquired desiccation resistance, depending on both CH profile and water content, can remain stable without selection in a humid environment. These three phenotypes, which might be expected to show a simple relationship, turn out to have complex physiological and genetic links.

  12. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Water Stress on Protein and Phenolic Contents in Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Muhammad, S.; Murtaza, G.; Ahmad, I.; Shakeel, A.; Islam, M.; Ahmad, M.; Abdullah, M.

    2015-01-01

    Crop quality and production are affected by various fertilizers and water stress. In present research, the response of cotton variety CIM-496 to water stress and phosphorus fertilizer was investigated. Samples were collected after 90 days of planting. Kjeldahl method and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were used for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of total protein and phenolic compounds, respectively. Proteins were greatly affected by fertilizer treatment and water stress, but phenolic compounds remained unchanged upon fertilizer treatment. However, they were greatly affected by irrigation and water stress. Crop treated with 100 kg ha/sup -1/ P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ under water stress maintained high protein content as compared to unfertilized and no water stress treatments. However, phenolic compounds were found higher in fully irrigated plants as compared to water stress ones. Fertilizer treatments had no considerable effect on phenolic compounds. (author)

  13. The Effect of Preservative Methods on the Yield, Water Content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    treatments in relation to storage life of the dairy products was determined. All samples were ... Key Words: Meat, Microrganisms, Smoking, Water activity. The development of .... may be due to the effect of nitrite as reported by Obanu (1988).

  14. Effect of Drought Stress and Methanol on Chlorophyll Parameters, Chlorophyll Content and Relative Water Content of Soybean (Glycine max L., var. L 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mirakhori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the effects of methanol application on some physiological properties of soybean under low water stress, a factorial experiment was conducted at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University-Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran, during 2008, based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was consisted of different levels of methanol equal to 0 (control, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 volumetric percentage (v/v, which were used as foliar applications at three times during growth season of soybean, with 15 days intervals. The second factor was water stress conditions in two levels, based on depletion of 40 and 70% of available soil moisture. Some traits such as grain yield (GY, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and chlorophyll content were measured, one day before and after the third methanol application. Results showed that chlorophyll content (Chl, GY, electrolytes leakage (EL at second sampling, photochemical capacity of PSII (Fv/Fm, maximum and variable fluorescence (Fm and FV, respectively were affected by water stress significantly (p

  15. Effects of input data information content on the uncertainty of simulating water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Carla; Julich, Stefan; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological models like the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) demand a large variety of spatial input data. These are commonly available in different resolutions and result from different preprocessing methodologies. Effort is made to apply the most specific data as possible for the study area, which features heterogeneous landscape elements. Most often, modelers prefer to use regional data, especially with fine resolution, which is not always available. Instead, global datasets are considered that are more general. This study investigates how the use of global and regional input datasets may affect the simulation performance and uncertainty of the model. We analyzed eight different setups for the SWAT model, combining two of each Digital Elevation Models (DEM), soil and land use maps of diverse spatial resolution and information content. The models were calibrated to discharge at two stations across the mesoscale Haute-Sûre catchment, which is partly located in the north of Luxembourg and partly in the southeast of Belgium. The region is a rural area of about 743 km2 and mainly covered by forests and complex agricultural system and arable lands. As part of the catchment, the Upper-Sûre Lake is an important source of drinking water for Luxembourgish population, satisfying 30% of the country's demand. The Metropolis Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm implemented in the SPOTPY python package was used to infer posterior parameter distributions and assess parameter uncertainty. We are optimizing the mean of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and the logarithm of NSE. We focused on soil physical, groundwater, main channel, land cover management and basin physical process parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the model has the best performance when using the regional DEM and land use map and the global soil map, indicating that SWAT cannot necessarily make use of additional soil information if they are not substantially effecting soil hydrological fluxes

  16. Effect of drought stress on leaf soluble sugar content, leaf rolling index and relative water content of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With respect to water shortage in arid and semi- arid regions, the study about drought stress effects on crop plants and selection of resistance cultivars, are among the most important goals in the agricultural researches. In order to examine drought stress effects on millet, an experiment was conducted in Birjand and Sarbisheh, simultaneously. In this experiment, five irrigation treatments (well-watered, drought stress in vegetative stage, in ear emergence stage, in seed filling stage and in vegetative and seed filling stage and five proso millet genotypes (Native, K-C-M.2, K-C-M.4, K-C-M.6 and K-C-M.9 were compared in a split plot design along with three replications. Drought stress increased grain protein content, leaf rolling index and soluble sugars concentration and decreased seed germination and leaf RWC. Although seed protein content and germination percentage of genotypes were not significantly different, there were some differences among leaf rolling index, RWC and soluble sugar content of these genotypes. The results of this study indicated that leaf sugar content, RWC and leaf rolling index can not be considered as the only parameters for selection of high yield genotypes. Therefore, it is recommended that some other factors should also be used apart from the above mentioned ones.

  17. Organic Tank Safety Project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water content of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-U-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy''s Hanford Site. Because of water''s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P H2O ) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P H2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site''s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. Webb et al. identified Tank U-105 as a Conditionally Safe saltcake tank. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that is currently safe based on waste classification criteria but could, if dried, be classified as open-quotes Unsafe.close quotes To provide information on the behavior of organic-bearing wastes, the Westinghouse Hanford Company provided us with four waste samples taken from Tank 241-U-105 (U-105) to determine the effect of P H2O on their equilibrium water content

  18. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  19. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2009-10-01

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  20. Effect of Water Content Components on Desiccation and Recovery in Sphagnum Mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, Tomáš; Beckett, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The basic parameters of water relations were measured in Sphagnum mosses. The relationships of these parameters to the photosynthetic response to desiccation and the ecology of these mosses were then tested. Methods The water relations parameters of six Sphagnum species (mosses typical of wet habitats) and Atrichum androgynum (a moss more typical of mesophytic conditions) were calculated from pressure–volume isotherms. Photosynthetic properties during and after moderate desiccation were monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence. Key Results When desiccated, the hummock-forming species S. fuscum and S. magellanicum lost more water before turgor started dropping than other sphagna inhabiting less exposed habitats (73 % compared with 56 % on average). Osmotic potentials at full turgor were similar in all species, with an average value of −1·1 MPa. Hummock sphagna had clearly more rigid cell walls than species of wet habitats (ε = 3·55 compared with 1·93 MPa). As a result, their chlorophyllous cells lost turgor at higher relative water contents (RWCs) than species of wet habitats (0·61 compared with 0·46) and at less negative osmotic potentials (–2·28 compared with −3·00 MPa). During drying, ΦPSII started declining earlier in hummock species (at an RWC of 0·65 compared with 0·44), and Fv/Fm behaved similarly. Compared with other species, hummock sphagna desiccated to −20 or −40 MPa recovered more completely after rehydration. Atrichum androgynum responded to desiccation similarly to hummock sphagna, suggesting that their desiccation tolerance may have a similar physiological basis. Conclusions Assuming a fixed rate of desiccation, the higher water-holding capacities of hummock sphagna will allow them to continue metabolism for longer than other species. While this could be viewed as a form of ‘desiccation avoidance’, hummock species also recover faster than other species during rehydration, suggesting that they have higher

  1. Effect of Water Deficit-Induced at Vegetative and Reproductive Stages on Protein and Oil Content in Soybean Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane M. Mertz-Henning

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of the most common grain crops worldwide, representing an important protein and oil source. Although genetic variability in the chemical composition of grains is seen in soybean, the mean levels of proteins have remained stagnant or, in some cases, have decreased over time, arousing concern in the agricultural industry. Furthermore, environmental conditions influence the chemical composition of grains. Thus, the present study evaluated the effect of water deficit (WD induced at the vegetative period (vegetative stress (VS and reproductive period (reproductive stress (RS on the protein and oil contents of grains in different soybean genotypes. Yield and its components were evaluated to evaluate the interrelation of these traits. The experiment was completed over three crop seasons under field conditions in Londrina, Paraná (PR, Brazil. WD was induced using rainout shelters and then stress treatments with irrigated and non-irrigated conditions were compared. WD negatively affected yield and its components. All evaluated genotypes showed similar responses for oil and protein contents under different water conditions. Higher protein content and lower oil content were observed in grains under RS. Such a relationship was not equally established under VS. Additionally, negative relationships between protein and oil content and between protein content and yield were confirmed.

  2. The Effect of Static Magnetic Forces on Water Contents and Photosynthetic Pigments in Sweet Basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taia, Wafaa K; Kotbi, Abeer M [Alexandria Univ., Faculty of Science, Botany Dept., Alexandria (Egypt); AlZahrani, Hassan S [Faculty of Science, King AbdulAziz Univ., Biology Dept., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    Three different magnetic regimes; aerial, surface and buried; each with three different forces, have been used to investigate their effects on the water contents and photosynthetic pigments of sweet basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.). Two groups of sweet basil seeds, Ocimum basilicum L. have been cultivated, one under normal conditions and the second has been subdivided into three portion (aerial, surface and buried) to examine the effect of different magnetic forces coming from the three directions on the resulted plants. At all directions of magnets, water contents have been significantly affected by the magnetic forces. Chlorophyll A and carotene contents have been affected, as well, according to the three magnetic forces coming from soil surface regime only. Chlorophyll B did not significantly affected by differences magnetic forces in the three regimes, but it is affected by magnetism wherever its direction or force. But all the photosynthetic pigments contents (Chlorophyll A, B and Carotenes) decreased significantly than the control in the three magnetic regimes., but without any effect according to differences in the magnetic force in the aerial and burried regimes of magnetism. It was concluded that magnetism affects both water absorption and retention , the most influenced regime was the aerial magnets followed by the surface and buried ones. This result can be interpreted by the ionization of water which makes water ions respond to magnetic forces. Photosynthetic pigments have been decreased significantly by the exposure to magnetic fields, irrespective to its direction or force and this may be due to the effect of magnetic fields on the reduction in plastids inside the cells. (author)

  3. The Effect of Static Magnetic Forces on Water Contents and Photosynthetic Pigments in Sweet Basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taia, Wafaa K; Kotbi, Abeer M; AlZahrani, Hassan S

    2007-01-01

    Three different magnetic regimes; aerial, surface and buried; each with three different forces, have been used to investigate their effects on the water contents and photosynthetic pigments of sweet basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.). Two groups of sweet basil seeds, Ocimum basilicum L. have been cultivated, one under normal conditions and the second has been subdivided into three portion (aerial, surface and buried) to examine the effect of different magnetic forces coming from the three directions on the resulted plants. At all directions of magnets, water contents have been significantly affected by the magnetic forces. Chlorophyll A and carotene contents have been affected, as well, according to the three magnetic forces coming from soil surface regime only. Chlorophyll B did not significantly affected by differences magnetic forces in the three regimes, but it is affected by magnetism wherever its direction or force. But all the photosynthetic pigments contents (Chlorophyll A, B and Carotenes) decreased significantly than the control in the three magnetic regimes., but without any effect according to differences in the magnetic force in the aerial and burried regimes of magnetism. It was concluded that magnetism affects both water absorption and retention , the most influenced regime was the aerial magnets followed by the surface and buried ones. This result can be interpreted by the ionization of water which makes water ions respond to magnetic forces. Photosynthetic pigments have been decreased significantly by the exposure to magnetic fields, irrespective to its direction or force and this may be due to the effect of magnetic fields on the reduction in plastids inside the cells. (author)

  4. Effect of water-soluble carbohydrate content in orchardgrass pasture on grazing time and rumen fermentation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to clarify the effect of water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in orchardgrass pasture on the diurnal distribution of grazing time. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on either of two pastures with different orchardgrass cultivars containing low WSC (LWSC; cultivar: 'Hokkai 28') or high WSC (HWSC; cultivar: 'Harunemidori'). The cows were grazed in morning and evening sessions in experiment 1, whereas the cows were grazed throughout the day in experiment 2. In experiment 1, grazing time of the cows on HWSC was longer than that of the cows on LWSC (P content. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Seasonal Effects on the Relationships Between Soil Water Content, Pore Water Pressure and Shear Strength and Their Implications for Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    A soil's shear resistance is mainly dependent upon the magnitude of effective stress. For small to medium height slopes (up to 10m) in clay soils the total stress acting along potential failure planes will be low, therefore the magnitude of effective stress (and hence soil shear strength) will be dominated by the pore-water pressure. The stability of slopes on this scale through periods of increased precipitation is improved by the generation of negative pore pressures (soil suctions) during preceding, warmer, drier periods. These negative pore water pressures increase the effective stress within the soil and cause a corresponding increase in shearing resistance. The relationships between soil water content and pore water pressure (soil water retention curves) are known to be hysteretic, but for the purposes of the majority of slope stability assessments in partially saturated clay soils, these are assumed to be consistent with time. Similarly, the relationship between shear strength and water content is assumed to be consistent over time. This research presents a laboratory study in which specimens of compacted Glacial Till (typical of engineered slopes within the UK) were subjected to repeated cycles of wetting and drying to simulate seasonal cycles. At predetermined water contents, measurements of soil suction were made using tensiometer and dewpoint potentiometer methods. The undrained shear strength of the specimens was then measured using triaxial strength testing equipment. Results indicate that repeated wetting and drying cycles caused a change in the soil water retention behaviour. A reduction in undrained shear strength at corresponding water contents along the wetting and drying paths was also observed. The mechanism for the change in the relationship is believed to be a deterioration in the soil physical structure due to shrink/swell induced micro-cracking. The non-stationarity of these relationships has implications for slope stability assessment.

  6. Effect of inflow discharges on the development of matric suction and volumetric water content for dike during overtopping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Ismail, Mohd A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The point of this review is to depict the impact of various inflow discharge rate releases on the instruments of matric suction and volumetric water content during an experimental test of spatial overtopping failure at school of civil engineering in universiti Sains of Malaysia. A dry sand dike was conducted inside small flume channel with twelve sensors of tensiometer and Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR). Instruments are installed in the soil at different locations in downstream and upstream slopes of the dike for measuring the response of matric suction and volumetric water content, respectively. Two values of inflow discharge rates of 30 and 40 L/min are utilized as a part of these experiments to simulate the effectiveness of water reservoirs in erosion mechanism. The outcomes demonstrate that the matric suction and volumetric water content are decreased and increased, respectively for both inflow discharges. The higher inflow discharges accelerate the saturation of dike soil and the erosion process faster than that for the lower inflow discharges.

  7. Effects of coal gangue content on water movement and solute transport in a China loess plateau soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beibei, Zhou; Quanjiu, Wang [Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-electric Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an (China); State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); Ming' an, Shao; Mingxia, Wen [State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); Horton, Robert [Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The mining industry has grown strongly in China in recent decades, resulting in large amounts of coal gangues, which cause water and soil pollution, soil erosion, and various other environmental problems. They are often used in reclamation projects in attempts to restore land damaged by mining, hence they are frequently present (in widely varying proportions) in the topsoil in areas around mines. Their presence can strongly affect key soil variables, including its bulk density, structure, water retention, water movement, and solute transport rates. In the study presented here, the effects of gangue contents on infiltration, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and solute transport parameters of a Chinese Loess plateau soil were examined. The results show that infiltration rates and saturated hydraulic conductivity decreased with increasing gangue content. The Peck-Watson equation modeled these relationships well, but Bouwer-Rice equations provided poorer matches with the acquired data. Cumulative infiltration over time was described well by both the Philip equation and Kostiakov equation. Both the simplified convection-dispersion equation and a two-region model described the solute transport processes well. In addition, the dispersion increased, while both the Peclet number and mobile water fraction decreased, with increases in gangue contents. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Water content of aged aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. Engelhart; L. Hildebrandt; E. Kostenidou; N. Mihalopoulos; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis

    2010-01-01

    The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008). A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS) was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH) as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during mo...

  9. Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picq, Christian; Asplanato, Marion; Bernillon, Noémie; Fabre, Claudie; Roubeix, Mathilde; Ricort, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we determined, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the potassium amount leached by soaking or boiling foods identified by children suffering from chronic renal failure as "pleasure food" and that they cannot eat because of their low-potassium diet, and evaluated whether addition of sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin (i.e. Kayexalate®) during soaking or boiling modulated potassium loss. A significant amount of potassium content was removed by soaking (16% for chocolate and potato, 26% for apple, 37% for tomato and 41% for banana) or boiling in a large amount of water (73% for potato). Although Kayexalate® efficiently dose-dependently removed potassium from drinks (by 48% to 73%), resin addition during soaking or boiling did not eliminate more potassium from solid foods. Our results therefore provide useful information for dietitians who elaborate menus for people on potassium-restricted diets and would give an interesting alternative to the systematic elimination of all potassium-rich foods from their diet.

  10. Radioactivity content of Shiraz water supplies and its related effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, S.; Derakhshan, Sh.

    2004-01-01

    We are exposed naturally to ionizing radiation from cosmic rays and natural radionuclides in the air, ground, food and drinking water. When invested, naturally and radionuclides are distributed among body organs. The average concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water are used to estimated the annual effective dose equivalents. In this work, during October of 2002 to October of 2003, 37 samples from 29 different wells and Doroodzan dam were gathered in winter and summer and the gross Alfa and Beta, total uranium and Ra-226 activity in each sample were determined. The activity of Ra-226 was measured by Radon Emanation method and total uranium was determined using laser Fluorimetry. The mean concentration of Ra-226 was higher in summer but the uranium had higher concentration in winter. The mean concentration of Ra-226 and Uranium were 15.72±1.12 mBq.1 -1 and 9.44±1.14μg.1 -1 in winter ±μ and 29.46 2.18 mBq.1 -1 and 7.37 1.1 g.1 -1 in summer respectively. The average annual effective doses (Ra-226) of different age groups (Adults, children and infants) were equal to 2.37± 0.22, 5.42 ±0.43, 2.66±0.24, mSv.y 1 -1 and 0.136±0.02, 0.18±0.027 and 0.171±0.026 mSv.y -1 due to existence of uranium in drinking water. The results of this survey showed that the radioactive concentration of the radionuclides and their related effective doses are in the normal range and permissible levels. These results are comparable with those found by Atomic Energy Organization of Iran but different with the results of the limited project done during 1999 at Shiraz

  11. Biomass burning and its effects on fine aerosol acidity, water content and nitrogen partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Nenes, Athanasios; Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Fourtziou, Luciana; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Liakakou, Eleni; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Daskalakis, Nikos; Weber, Rodney; Kanakidou, Maria; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol acidity is an important property that drives the partitioning of semi-volatile species, the formation of secondary particulate matter and metal and nutrient solubility. Aerosol acidity varies considerably between aerosol types, RH, temperature, the degree of atmospheric chemical aging and may also change during transport. Among aerosol different sources, sea salt and dust have been well studied and their impact on aerosol acidity and water uptake is more or less understood. Biomass burning (BB) on the other hand, despite its significance as a source in a regional and global scale, is much less understood. Currently, there is no practical and accurate enough method, to directly measure the pH of in-situ aerosol. The combination of thermodynamic models, with targeted experimental observations can provide reliable predictions of aerosol particle water and pH, using as input the concentration of gas/aerosol species, temperature (T), and relative humidity (RH). As such an example, ISORROPIA-II (Fountoukis and Nenes, 2007) has been used for the thermodynamic analysis of measurements conducted in downtown Athens during winter 2013, in order to evaluate the effect of BB on aerosol water and acidity. Biomass burning, especially during night time, was found to contribute significantly to the increased organics concentrations, but as well to the BC component associated with wood burning, particulate nitrates, chloride, and potassium. These increased concentrations were found to impact on fine aerosol water, with Winorg having an average concentration of 11±14 μg m-3 and Worg 12±19 μg m-3 with the organic component constituting almost 38% of the total calculated submicron water. When investigating the fine aerosol acidity it was derived that aerosol was generally acidic, with average pH during strong BB influence of 2.8±0.5, value similar to the pH observed for regional aerosol influenced by important biomass burning episodes at the remote background site of

  12. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  13. Water content differences have stronger effects than plant functional groups on soil bacteria in a steppe ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Zhang

    Full Text Available Many investigations across natural and artificial plant diversity gradients have reported that both soil physicochemical factors and plant community composition affect soil microbial communities. To test the effect of plant diversity loss on soil bacterial communities, we conducted a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China. We found that the number and composition type of plant functional groups had no effect on bacterial diversity and community composition, or on the relative abundance of major taxa. In contrast, bacterial community patterns were significantly structured by soil water content differences among plots. Our results support researches that suggest that water availability is the key factor structuring soil bacterial communities in this semi-arid ecosystem.

  14. Content of 226Ra in tap and mineral waters of the Republic of Croatia and possible health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the study of the content of 222 Ra in drinking water of Croatia: tap water from the public supply system of several major urban centres and bottled mineral water from two mineral water springs. 222 Ra was determined by alpha-spectrometric measurement after radiochemical separation. The study showed that 222 Ra concentrations for investigated categories of waters are below the levels at which any unacceptable dose due to ingestion would arise. (author)

  15. Effect of water content on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 in iodine-alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2005-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 (UNS R60804) was studied in 10 g/L iodine dissolved in various alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 1 propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-octanol. SCC was observed in all the systems studied and it was found that the higher the size of alcohol molecule, the lower the SCC susceptibility. The existence of intergranular attack -controlled by the diffusion of the active species- is a condition for the SCC process to occur. In the present work the inhibiting effect of water on the SCC susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 in iodine-alcoholic solutions was also investigated and the results showed that the minimum water content to inhibit the SCC process depends on the type of alcohol used as a solvent. (author) [es

  16. Effect of water content on the glass transition temperature of mixtures of sugars, polymers, and penetrating cryoprotectants in physiological buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Andrew C; Lee, Youngjoo; Burgess, Emma M; Karlsson, Jens O M; Eroglu, Ali; Higgins, Adam Z

    2018-01-01

    Long-term storage of viable mammalian cells is important for applications ranging from in vitro fertilization to cell therapy. Cryopreservation is currently the most common approach, but storage in liquid nitrogen is relatively costly and the requirement for low temperatures during shipping is inconvenient. Desiccation is an alternative strategy with the potential to enable viable cell preservation at more convenient storage temperatures without the need for liquid nitrogen. To achieve stability during storage in the dried state it is necessary to remove enough water that the remaining matrix forms a non-crystalline glassy solid. Thus, the glass transition temperature is a key parameter for design of cell desiccation procedures. In this study, we have investigated the effects of moisture content on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of mixtures of sugars (trehalose or raffinose), polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone or Ficoll), penetrating cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, or dimethyl sulfoxide), and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutes. Aqueous solutions were dried to different moisture contents by equilibration with saturated salt solutions, or by baking at 95°C. The glass transition temperatures of the dehydrated samples were then measured by differential scanning calorimetry. As expected, Tg increased with decreasing moisture content. For example, in a desiccation medium containing 0.1 M trehalose in PBS, Tg ranged from about 360 K for a completely dry sample to about 220 K at a water mass fraction of 0.4. Addition of polymers to the solutions increased Tg, while addition of penetrating cryoprotectants decreased Tg. Our results provide insight into the relationship between relative humidity, moisture content and glass transition temperature for cell desiccation solutions containing sugars, polymers and penetrating cryoprotectants.

  17. Effect of residual water content on the physico-chemical properties of sucralfate dried gel obtained by microwave drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Alessandro; Losi, Elena; Bettini, Ruggero; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio; Baroni, Daniela; Santi, Patrizia; Colombo, Gaia

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical characteristics of sucralfate humid gel dried by microwaves, in relation to the residual water content. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) allowed for the determination of the water state in sucralfate samples. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the changes in sucralfate gel structure induced by the microwave drying. A boundary value of total water content for sucralfate gel samples was found at 42% (w/w). Below this value only bound water was present, whereas above this value, the increase in total water was due to free water. In the physical form of gel, the strength of the coordination between sulfate anions and the positively charged aluminum hydroxide was dependent on the residual water content. The study of the sedimentation behavior of water suspensions prepared with dried sucralfate allowed for the evaluation of the retention of gel properties. We found that the microwave drying process affected the sedimentation of sucralfate dried gel suspensions independent of the residual water content: when suspensions were prepared from sucralfate dried gel powders containing more than 42% (w/w) of residual water, the sedimentation ratio was higher than 0.9. The non-gel powder suspension showed a sedimentation ratio of 0.68 +/- 0.02, whereas the sucralfate humid gel suspension did not sediment.

  18. Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods

    OpenAIRE

    Picq, Christian; Asplanato, M.; Bernillon, N.; Fabre, C.; Roubeix, M.; Ricort, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the potassium amount leached by soaking or boiling foods identified by children suffering from chronic renal failure as "pleasure food'' and that they cannot eat because of their low-potassium diet, and evaluated whether addition of sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin (i.e. Kayexalate (R)) during soaking or boiling modulated potassium loss. A significant amount of potassium content was removed by soaking (16% for chocolate a...

  19. Effects of water deficit and nitrogen levels on grain yield and oil and protein contents of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in 2014, to evaluate the effects of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield, oil and protein contents of maize (cv. double Cross 303. The experiment was arranged as split-plot based on Randomized Complete Block design (RCB with three replications. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation and nitrogen levels (0, 46 and 92 kg N/ha were located in the main and sub plots, respectively. Mean grain yield per unit area decreased with decreasing water availability, but it was improved with increasing nitrogen fertilizer. Grain oil percentage significantly decreased, but protein percentage slightly increased as a result of water deficit. In general, oil and protein yields significantly decreased under moderate and severe water stress, mainly because of decreasing grain yield under these conditions. Nitrogen application decreased oil percentage, but increased protein percentage significantly. Nevertheless, nitrogen fertilizer enhanced oil and protein yields per unit area, with no significant difference between nitrogen rates. These results were positively related with grain yield per unit area in maize.

  20. Substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Baptista Gordin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Niger is an oleaginous species whose cultivation has been spreading, but there is not much information on the adverse conditions during its seedling establishment. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination. Seeds were moistened using the humid atmosphere method for 0; 24; 48; and 72 hours, obtaining the water contents of 7.0 %, 12.8 %, 16.8 % and 32.2 %. Then, they were sown in substrate moistened with PEG 6000 solutions with different osmotic potentials: 0.0 MPa (control, -0.1 MPa, -0.2 MPa, -0.3 MPa and -0.4 MPa. A completely randomized design, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme (water content x osmotic potential, with four replications of 50 seeds, was used. First count and germination percentage, germination speed index and mean time, shoot and root length and seedlings dry weight were evaluated. The reduction in the substrate osmotic potential decreases the niger seed germination and seedling growth, regardless of water content, but with a higher evidence in seed water contents below 32.2 % and 12.8 %, respectively.

  1. Effect of soil water stress on yield and proline content of four wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Four lines of bread wheat (N-82-9, N-83-5, ... Key words: Water stress, Triticum aestivum, yield, proline, TSS. .... Numbers in the columns followed by the same letters are not significantly different at P .... constituents, Acta Bot.

  2. EFFECTS TO MODIFY THE CALORIC CONTENT OF WATER ON BODY WEIGHT, WATER, FOOD AND CALORIES CONSUMPTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMA GABRIELA MARTÍNEZ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Six albino rats were divided in two experimental groups and one control. The experiment began withfifteen days of free access; subsequently experimental groups maintained available three concentrationsof glucose: high, middle and low. First group received high-middle-low-high-middle-low sequence andsecond group received low-middle-high-low-middle-high sequence during six days. Control group notreceived glucose concentrations. Caloric concentration of food never changed. Results suggest thatmodification of caloric concentration in water affects feeding behavior. Nevertheless, water with glucoseconsumption did not change body weight.

  3. Effects of water content on reactive transport of Sr in Chernobyl sand columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szenknect, S.; Dewiere, L.; Ardois, C.; Gaudet, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: While transport of non-reactive solutes has been studied extensively in unsaturated porous media, much less is known about the factors that control the transport of sorbing solutes in unsaturated conditions. Three laboratory techniques were used to analyze the transport of Sr in the aeolian sand from Chernobyl Pilot Site [1] in both saturated and unsaturated flow conditions. Batch experiments were performed to study the chemical equilibrium state of the soil/solution system. Stirred flow-through reactor (SFTR) experiments were performed to study the kinetics and reversibility of sorption reactions at the surface of solid particles. Column experiments were also performed in saturated and unsaturated steady flow conditions. Experimental data pointed out a non-linear, instantaneous and reversible sorption process of Sr. A suitable cation-exchange model was used to describe the solute/soil reaction. The former model was coupled with transport models to describe behavior of Sr in saturated [2] and unsaturated flow conditions. Transport properties of sand packed columns have been determined with an inert tracer (HTO). BTCs obtained under saturated conditions exhibit a small amount of dispersion compared to those obtained under unsaturated conditions. Classical advection-dispersion model described successfully saturated tritium breakthrough curves (BTCs), whereas a mobile-immobile model (MIM) was required to described asymmetrical unsaturated BTCs. The MIM assumes that the porous medium contains a mobile water phase in which convective-dispersive transport occurs, and a immobile water phase with which solutes can exchange with a first order kinetic. In our experiments, transport by advection in the mobile phase is the predominant process whatever the flow conditions and mass transfer rate between the mobile and immobile regions is the predominant process for broadening the BTCs. Since dispersion is blurred by mass transfer resistance, the

  4. Effects of Cultivating Conditions on the Water Soluble Polysaccharides Content of Ganoderma lucidum Mycelium in Submerged Flask Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyida, V. T.; Hayati, S. N.; Apriyana, W.; Darsih, C.; Hernawan; Poeloengasih, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    The carcinostatic substance in Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst (Polyporaceae) is a water soluble polysaccharides (WSP) which might be useful in immunotherapy. Attempt to produce effective substances from cultured mycelia is important to carry out since solid cultivation is a time consuming and quality fluctuating. The effects of cultivating conditions on the water soluble polysaccharides content of G. Lucidum mycelium were investigated in submerged flask cultures. Culture from fruiting bodies was maintained on potato dextrose-agar slope. Slopes were inoculated and incubated at 30°C for 7 days, and stored at 4°C. The flask experiments were performed in 100 ml erlenmeyer flasks containing 20 ml of the sterilized media. Actively growing mycelia (1 piece, 5 mm X 5 mm) from a newly prepared slant culture (about 7 days incubation at 30°C) were inoculated into the flask. The pH was measured and adjusted to the desired value by addition of either 4 M HCl or 2.5 M NaOH. Incubation temperature were 20, 25, and 30°C. At the end of inoculation period (14 days) mycelium consisting of individual pellets was harvested and wash for the analysis. WSP content was analysed using phenol-sulfuric acid method. The optimal initial pH for metabolite production would depend on the culture medium. Generally, high values of pH, such as 9, negatively affect both cell growth and WSP production. The optimum temperature range for the high G. lucidum mycelium and WSP production were found to be 25 - 30 °C at pH values 5 - 7 in both of media.

  5. Effects of Input Data Content on the Uncertainty of Simulating Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Camargos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The widely used, partly-deterministic Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT requires a large amount of spatial input data, such as a digital elevation model (DEM, land use, and soil maps. Modelers make an effort to apply the most specific data possible for the study area to reflect the heterogeneous characteristics of landscapes. Regional data, especially with fine resolution, is often preferred. However, such data is not always available and can be computationally demanding. Despite being coarser, global data are usually free and available to the public. Previous studies revealed the importance for single investigations of different input maps. However, it remains unknown whether higher-resolution data can lead to reliable results. This study investigates how global and regional input datasets affect parameter uncertainty when estimating river discharges. We analyze eight different setups for the SWAT model for a catchment in Luxembourg, combining different land-use, elevation, and soil input data. The Metropolis–Hasting Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to infer posterior model parameter uncertainty. We conclude that our higher resolved DEM improves the general model performance in reproducing low flows by 10%. The less detailed soil-map improved the fit of low flows by 25%. In addition, more detailed land-use maps reduce the bias of the model discharge simulations by 50%. Also, despite presenting similar parameter uncertainty (P-factor ranging from 0.34 to 0.41 and R-factor from 0.41 to 0.45 for all setups, the results show a disparate parameter posterior distribution. This indicates that no assessment of all sources of uncertainty simultaneously is compensated by the fitted parameter values. We conclude that our result can give some guidance for future SWAT applications in the selection of the degree of detail for input data.

  6. Evaluation Effects of Different Planting Systems on Water Use Efficiency, Relative Water Content and some Plant Growth Parameters in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa IZADKHAH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different sowing methods on water use efficiency, relative water content and some vegetative growth parameters of onion a study was carried out in the Agriculturalr research Center of East Azarbayjan in 2007-2008 cropping season. The experiment was a factorial by using the randomized complete block design with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The first factor was consistting of two sowing methods, dirct sowing (DS and the transplanting method (TM, the second factor was including two onion cultivars �Azarshahr� (red hull and later maturing and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan� (bright-red, early maturing. Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that except for the relative water content (RWC, other traits were significant influenced by the sowing methods. TM had higher values of water use efficiency (WUE, bulbing ratio (BR, aerial leaves length (ALL, leaf area (LA, leaf area index (LAI, leaves dry weight (LDW, leaves fresh weight (LFW and leaves saturation weight (LSW than the DS methods. Maximum WUE (6.07 kg m3 and minimum WU (9381 m3 ha-1 were obtained in TM. However, the lowest WUE (4.19 kg m3 and the highest WU (115921 m3 ha-1 was obtained with DS. In other words, in TM water economizing was 1.5 tim, amount of yield was increased up 15% (in comparison with DS. Also among the cultivars except for the RWC, WUE and BR other traits were significantly. The sowing method x cultivar interaction were not significant. For the studied traits, TM and red �Azarshahr� cv. were better than the DS and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan�, thus thy were identified the best treatments for experiment therefore it is recommended for the places with the same environmental conditions of this experiment.

  7. The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

    2012-04-01

    Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

  8. The effect of water content on gross mineralization and immobilization of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videla C, Ximena; Parada C, Ana Maria; Nario M, Adriana; Pino N, Ines; Hood, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the accompanying mineralization and immobilization of inorganic N, are key processes in the soil-plant N cycle. It is hypothesised that moisture regime may also play an important role on this processes of soils. Two laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the effect of moisture regime on gross mineralization, nitrification and immobilization, in a Ultisol soil, was incubated at 25 a C, under two moisture regime, field capacity (40%w/w) and 85% of field capacity (34%w/w). Using mirror image 15N isotope dilution techniques it was possible to determine that both gross nitrification and mineralization rates were greater with 85%FC, the direct nitrification rates in this soil was extremely rapid and efficient, specially with 85%FC. The immobilization and the amount of the microbial biomass N in the soil was greater with FC. The N transformations varied with moisture regime (author)

  9. Effect of water content on thermal oxidation of oleic acid investigated by combination of EPR spectroscopy and SPME-GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongjian; Cao, Peirang; Li, Bo; Sun, Dewei; Wang, Yong; Li, Jinwei; Liu, Yuanfa

    2017-04-15

    Promotion of water to the thermal oxidation of oleic acid was detected by the combination of EPR, SPME-GC-MS/MS and GC. Spin-trapping technique was used to identify and quantify the radical species formed during thermal oxidation of oleic acid by using DMPO as electron spin trap. The most abundant radical species were identified as DMPO-alkyl radical adducts. EPR intensity plateau of the samples with 5% water content was 140% higher than the samples without water. It implies oleic acid samples with high water content had high level of oxidation rates. The proportion of aldehydes of the samples with 2% water content was the maximum about 59.97%. Among the formed products, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal has genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, whose percentage was nearly twice comparing with that of 5-0% water content. This study demonstrated that higher water content in frying systems would contribute to seriously oxidation and degradation of oleic acids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of soaking in water and rumen digeta solutions on metabolizable energy content and chemical composition of barley seeds for use in poultry diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabee, S N; Sadeghi, G H; Tabeidian, S A

    2007-03-15

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of soaking in water and different rumen digesta solutions on nutritional value of dry barley seeds. Treatments were included distilled water as control and rumen digesta that diluted with distilled water to obtain 20, 40 and 60% digesta solutions. Solutions have added to 10 kg of barley seed samples to achieve final 30% moisture content. After 21 days the chemical composition and energy content of barley seed were determined. Gross energy of barley seeds did not affected by different experimental treatments. Use of 20% rumen digesta solution resulted to a significant (pcontent of barley seeds. Barley seed that treated with 40% of rumen digesta solution had highest TME and TMEn content and its different from seeds that treated with 60 and 100% rumen digesta solutions was significant (prumen digesta solutions increased crud protein, ether extract, crude fiber and ash content of barley seeds numerically.

  11. The effect of soll water conditions on carbon isotope discrimination and minerals contents in spring-planted wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lin; Liang Zongsuo; Xu Xing; Li Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (triangle open 13 C) has been proposed as indirect selection criterion for transpiration efficiency and grain yield in wheat. However, because of high cost for triangle open 13 C analysis, attempts have been made to identify alternative screening criteria. Ash content (m a ) has been proposed as an alternative criterion for triangle open 13 C in wheat and barley. A pot experiment with three water treatments (45% ± 5% FC, 55% ± 5% FC and 75% ± 5%FC) was conducted and flag leaf triangle open 13 C (triangle openL a ), contents of ash, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were measured to study the relationships between triangle open, mineral composition in spring planted bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the light of the results obtained in this research, the traits measured showed significant differences among the three water treatments. There were variations in triangle openL a between the genotypes derived from contrasting environments. The improved varieties or advanced lines bred in irrigated areas displayed higher triangle open 13 C values, while the improved and local varieties bred in rain-fed areas exhibited lower triangle open 13 C values Significant positive correlations were found between triangle open 13 C and m a in seedlings and second fully developed leaves at elongation stage and in flag leaves at anthesis stage in severe drought treatment (T 1 ) (r=0.790, P 13 C was negatively associated with potassium (K) content in flag leaves in T 2 (r=0.813, P 2 and T 3 (r=0.725, P 13 C and calcium (Ca) content in flag leaves in T 3 (r=0.708, P a is a possible alternative criterion of triangle open 13 C in vegetative organs especially in stressed environments. K, Mg and Ca contents in flag leaf under moderate water stress or feasible water conditions might be new predictive criteria of triangle openL a . (authors)

  12. Effect of water content and temperature on inactivation kinetics of myrosinase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, T; Verkerk, R; Van Boekel, M A J S; Dekker, M

    2014-11-15

    Broccoli belongs to the Brassicaceae plant family consisting of widely eaten vegetables containing high concentrations of glucosinolates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by endogenous myrosinase (MYR) can form isothiocyanates with health-promoting activities. The effect of water content (WC) and temperature on MYR inactivation in broccoli was investigated. Broccoli was freeze dried obtaining batches with WC between 10% and 90% (aw from 0.10 to 0.96). These samples were incubated for various times at different temperatures (40-70°C) and MYR activity was measured. The initial MYR inactivation rates were estimated by the first-order reaction kinetic model. MYR inactivation rate constants were lower in the driest samples (10% WC) at all studied temperatures. Samples with 67% and 90% WC showed initial inactivation rate constants all in the same order of magnitude. Samples with 31% WC showed intermediate initial inactivation rate constants. These results are useful to optimise the conditions of drying processes to produce dried broccoli with optimal MYR retention for human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    measurement affects irrigation amount, while in the atmospheric-based methods, the soil water content affects evapotranspiration. Most ... stem water potential, leaf water potential, and .... cells. No tillage plots were weeded by hand pulling of weeds; whereas hoes were used in ..... based on soil electrical conductivity and.

  14. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  15. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  16. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  17. Effect of water content in a canned food on voluntary food intake and body weight in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Alfreda; Fascetti, Andrea J; Villaverde, Cecilia; Wong, Raymond K; Ramsey, Jon J

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether water content in a canned food diet induces decreases in voluntary energy intake (EI) or body weight (BW) in cats fed ad libitum. 16 sexually intact male domestic shorthair cats. Maintenance EI was determined for 2 months in 10 weight-stable cats consuming a control diet (typical colony diet). Cats were allocated into 2 groups of equal BW and fed a canned diet (with-water [WW] diet) or a freeze-dried version of the canned diet (low-water [LW] diet) twice daily. Diets were identical in nutrient profile on a dry-matter basis. Each dietary treatment period of the crossover experiment lasted 3 weeks, with a 3-week washout period between diets. Body composition measurements were determined by use of deuterium oxide at the end of each dietary treatment. Daily food intake was measured for determination of dry-matter intake and EI. Six other cats were used in preference tests for the 3 diets. EI was significantly decreased for the WW diet (mean ± SD, 1,053.0 ± 274.9 kJ/d), compared with EI for the LW diet (1,413.8 ± 345.8 kJ/d). Cats had a significant decrease in BW during consumption of the WW diet. Body composition was unaltered by diet. In short-term preference tests, cats ate significantly more of the WW than the LW diet. Bulk water in the WW diet stimulated decreases in EI and BW in cats. The impact of water content on energy density and food consumption may help promote weight loss in cats.

  18. Effect of UV-C radiation and hot water on the calcium content and postharvest quality of apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmaty, S.; Moallemi, N.; Naseri, L.

    2007-01-01

    To increase the storage shelf life of 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious' apples they were treated with UV-C irradiation at doses of 0, 5 and 15 min irradiation at 1.435 x 10 -4 W/square cm - and with hot water containing 4% CaCl 2 at four levels (control, dipping at 25 deg C for 10 min, dipping at 38 deg C for 5 min and dipping in 54 deg C for 1 min) in a factorial design with 4 replicates. The results showed that UV-C irradiation and dipping of fruit in hot water increased the storage life and improved fruit quality factors in 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious' apples at the end of cold storage. Both UV-C and hot water treatments decreased pH and total soluble solids/titratable acids ratio and increased fruit titratable acids and firmness. UV-C and hot water treatment increased fruit Ca content during storage. The results showed that UV-C and hot water treatment can retard fruit ripening and maintain fruit quality in cold storage. These treatments can also increase Ca concentration of fruit flesh and thus increase the nutritional value of the apples. (author) [es

  19. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  20. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  1. Terahertz Measurement of the Water Content Distribution in Wood Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalem, M.; Sommier, A.; Mindeguia, J. C.; Batsale, J. C.; Pradere, C.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, THz waves have been shown to be an effective technique for investigating the water diffusion within porous media, such as biomaterial or insulation materials. This applicability is due to the sufficient resolution for such applications and the safe levels of radiation. This study aims to achieve contactless absolute water content measurements at a steady state case in semi-transparent solids (wood) using a transmittance THz wave range setup. First, a calibration method is developed to validate an analytical model based on the Beer-Lambert law, linking the absorption coefficient, the density of the solid, and its water content. Then, an estimation of the water content on a local scale in a transient-state case (drying) is performed. This study shows that THz waves are an effective contactless, safe, and low-cost technique for the measurement of water content in a porous medium, such as wood.

  2. The effect of strobilurins on leaf gas exchange, water use efficiency and ABA content in grapevine under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Cuevas, María Victoria; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Flexas, Jaume; Martorell, Sebastian; Fernández, José Enrique

    2012-03-01

    Strobilurins are one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides. In addition to their anti-fungal effect, strobilurins have been reported to produce simultaneous effects in plant physiology. This study investigated whether the use of strobilurin fungicide improved water use efficiency in leaves of grapevines grown under field conditions in a Mediterranean climate in southern Spain. Fungicide was applied three times in the vineyard and measurements of leaf gas exchange, plant water status, abscisic acid concentration in sap ([ABA]), and carbon isotope composition in leaves were performed before and after applications. No clear effect on stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and intrinsic water use efficiency was found after three fungicide applications. ABA concentration was observed to increase after fungicide application on the first day, vanishing three days later. Despite this transient effect, evolution of [ABA] matched well with the evolution of leaf carbon isotope ratio, which can be used as a surrogate for plant water use efficiency. Morning stomatal conductance was negatively correlated to [ABA]. Yield was enhanced in strobilurin treated plants, whereas fruit quality remained unaltered. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a

  4. Effects of the inoculations using bacteria producing ACC deaminase on ethylene metabolism and growth of wheat grown under different soil water contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guozhuang; Sun, Yonglin; Sheng, Hao; Li, Haichao; Liu, Xiping

    2018-04-01

    Crop growth and productivity are often impacted by the increased ethylene content induced by adverse environmental conditions such drought. Inoculations with bacteria producing ACC deaminase is considered as a potential biological approach to improve the growth and tolerance of stressed plants by lowering endogenous ethylene level. In this study, germinated wheat seeds were inoculated using three species of the rhizobacteria, which were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat growing in dryland, and sown in pots. After three weeks, wheat seedlings were exposed to non-limiting water condition, medium drought and severe drought, respectively, for six weeks. The results showed that, irrespective of rhizobacterial inoculations, decreased soil water contents stimulated wheat ethylene metabolism, which was reflected by the significantly increased activity of ACC synthetase and ACC oxidase, besides an increased content of ACC both in the roots and leaves, and an enhanced capacity of leaves to release ethylene, concomitant with a significant decline in shoot and roots biomass. The inoculations of all three rhizobacterial species under each water condition reduced ACC content in wheat leaves, but effects of the inoculations on ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activity in the leaves and roots, ACC content in the roots, the capacity of leaves to release ethylene, and wheat growth varied with water conditions and bacterial species. Hence, both soil water conditions and rhizobacterial inoculations acted on all the processes of ethylene metabolism, with the former being dominant. The inoculations under non-limiting water condition and medium drought promoted shoot and root growth of wheat plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining the water content in concrete by gamma scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyada, P.; Ramar, R.; Shivaramu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gamma scattering technique for estimation of water content in concrete is given. • The scattered intensity increases with the volumetric water content. • Attenuation correction is provided to the scattered intensities. • Volumetric water content of 137 Cs radioactive source and a high resolution HPGe detector based energy dispersive gamma ray spectrometer. Concrete samples of uniform density ≈2.4 g/cm 3 are chosen for the study and the scattered intensities found to vary with the amount of water present in the specimen. The scattered intensities are corrected for attenuation effects and the results obtained with reference to a dry sample are compared with those obtained by gravimetrical and gamma transmission methods. A good agreement is seen between gamma scattering results and those obtained by gravimetric and transmission methods within accuracy of 6% and <2% change in water content can be detected

  6. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  7. Water and deuterium content of chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Francois

    1978-01-01

    The main objective of this research thesis which deals with meteorite study, is to develop an experimental technique to measure the hydrogen isotopic rate in the case of very low quantities of hydrogen, notably in samples in which water content is hundred or thousand times less than in reported experiments, in order to study mechanisms of alteration of chondrites. The author reports an attempt to reconcile obtained results for isotopic rates as well as for water contents with those of the main existing models of chondrite formation. He proposes a detailed description of isotopic exchange mechanisms at low temperature, and shows that this mechanism is not in disagreement with literature published on chondrites

  8. Increased Cerebral Water Content in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, N. J.; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuro...

  9. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number concentration of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y.; Vaughan, M.; McClain, C.; Behrenfeld, M.; Maring, H.; Anderson, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Flittner, D.; Huang, J.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.; Weimer, C.; Trepte, C.; Kuehn, R.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study presents an empirical relation that links the volume extinction coefficients of water clouds, the layer integrated depolarization ratios measured by lidar, and the effective radii of water clouds derived from collocated passive sensor observations. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations, this method combines the cloud effective radius reported by MODIS with the lidar depolarization ratios measured by CALIPSO to estimate both the liqui...

  10. Effects of soil water content and grass recycling on N2O emission in an urban lawn under laboratory incubation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataningtyas, Dilin Rahayu; Morita, Shunsuke; Hatano, Ryusuke

    2017-12-01

    In the context of global warming, the increase of N2O gas production from the agricultural area has gained enhancing concern due to N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and an ozone depleted substance. While adding clipping grass has been accepted to replace N-fertilizer input in urban law management its effect on soil gas emission still questionable. A laboratory incubation study had been conducted to evaluate the effect of soil water content and grass recycling on greenhouse gas emission from an urban lawn. The soil samples were taken from Yurigahara Park, Sapporo, Hokkaido Japan. The 17 days at 25°C incubation study was started after adjusting soil water content to 35% and 50% with and without adding the clipping grass on soil surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions were higher with the addition of grass, however, for NO and N2O considerably higher in 35% than 50% water content. The denitrification process was responsible for the N2O increase in this action. Soil chemical and microbial properties, pH, WEOC, NO3--N, NH4+-N and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) as well as N-grass content were also measured to know their correlation with N2O emission. The fine-scale heterogeneity occurred in the soil has impact on the variability of soil chemical properties that influenced the N2O emission. In the other hand, the effect of grass recycling appeared to increased soil N-inorganic contents and stimulated the N-gaseous concentration.

  11. Radio requestable passive SAW water content sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reindl, L.; Ruppel, C.C.W.; Kirmayr, A.; Stockhausen, N.; Hilhorst, M.A.; Balendonk, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new passive sensor for remote measurement of water content in sandy soil was designed, using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line. Information from this sensor can be obtained by an interrogation device via a radio link operating in the European 434-MHz industrial-scientific-medical

  12. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stochastic Inversion of Geomagnetic Observatory Data Including Rigorous Treatment of the Ocean Induction Effect With Implications for Transition Zone Water Content and Thermal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, F. D.; Grayver, A. V.; Kuvshinov, A.; Khan, A.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we estimate and invert local electromagnetic (EM) sounding data for 1-D conductivity profiles in the presence of nonuniform oceans and continents to most rigorously account for the ocean induction effect that is known to strongly influence coastal observatories. We consider a new set of high-quality time series of geomagnetic observatory data, including hitherto unused data from island observatories installed over the last decade. The EM sounding data are inverted in the period range 3-85 days using stochastic optimization and model exploration techniques to provide estimates of model range and uncertainty. The inverted conductivity profiles are best constrained in the depth range 400-1,400 km and reveal significant lateral variations between 400 km and 1,000 km depth. To interpret the inverted conductivity anomalies in terms of water content and temperature, we combine laboratory-measured electrical conductivity of mantle minerals with phase equilibrium computations. Based on this procedure, relatively low temperatures (1200-1350°C) are observed in the transition zone (TZ) underneath stations located in Southern Australia, Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and North America. In contrast, higher temperatures (1400-1500°C) are inferred beneath observatories on islands, Northeast Asia, and central Australia. TZ water content beneath European and African stations is ˜0.05-0.1 wt %, whereas higher water contents (˜0.5-1 wt %) are inferred underneath North America, Asia, and Southern Australia. Comparison of the inverted water contents with laboratory-constrained water storage capacities suggests the presence of melt in or around the TZ underneath four geomagnetic observatories in North America and Northeast Asia.

  14. Aerosol chemistry and the effect of aerosol water content on visibility impairment and radiative forcing in Guangzhou during the 2006 Pearl River Delta campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jinsang; Lee, Hanlim; Kim, Young J; Liu, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhang; Gu, Jianwei; Fan, Shaojia

    2009-08-01

    Optical and chemical aerosol measurements were obtained from 2 to 31 July 2006 at an urban site in the metropolitan area of Guangzhou (China) as part of the Program of Regional Integrated Experiment of Air Quality over Pearl River Delta (PRIDE-PRD2006) to investigate aerosol chemistry and the effect of aerosol water content on visibility impairment and radiative forcing. During the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign, the average contributions of ammonium sulfate, organic mass by carbon (OMC), elemental carbon (EC), and sea salt (SS) to total PM(2.5) mass were measured to be 36.5%, 5.7%, 27.1%, 7.8%, and 3.7%, respectively. Compared with the clean marine period, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), NH(4)NO(3), and OMC were all greatly enhanced (by up to 430%) during local haze periods via the accumulation of a secondary aerosol component. The OMC dominance increased when high levels of biomass burning influenced the measurement site while (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and OMC did when both biomass burning and industrial emissions influenced it. The effect of aerosol water content on the total light-extinction coefficient was estimated to be 34.2%, of which 25.8% was due to aerosol water in (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 5.1% that in NH(4)NO(3), and 3.3% that in SS. The average mass-scattering efficiency (MSE) of PM(10) particles was determined to be 2.2+/-0.6 and 4.6+/-1.7m(2)g(-1) under dry (RHwater content, but MSE and SSA are also highly sensitive. It can be concluded that sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol, as well as aerosol water content, play important roles in the processes that determine visibility impairment and radiative forcing in the ambient atmosphere of the Guangzhou urban area.

  15. Effect of UV-C radiation and hot water on the calcium content and postharvest quality of apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmaty, S.; Moallemi, N.; Naseri, L.

    2007-12-15

    To increase the storage shelf life of 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious' apples they were treated with UV-C irradiation at doses of 0, 5 and 15 min irradiation at 1.435 x 10{sup -4} W/square cm{sup -} and with hot water containing 4% CaCl{sub 2} at four levels (control, dipping at 25 deg C for 10 min, dipping at 38 deg C for 5 min and dipping in 54 deg C for 1 min) in a factorial design with 4 replicates. The results showed that UV-C irradiation and dipping of fruit in hot water increased the storage life and improved fruit quality factors in 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious' apples at the end of cold storage. Both UV-C and hot water treatments decreased pH and total soluble solids/titratable acids ratio and increased fruit titratable acids and firmness. UV-C and hot water treatment increased fruit Ca content during storage. The results showed that UV-C and hot water treatment can retard fruit ripening and maintain fruit quality in cold storage. These treatments can also increase Ca concentration of fruit flesh and thus increase the nutritional value of the apples. (author) [Spanish] Con el fin de prolongar el periodo de vida útil durante la conservación frigorífica de manzanas ‘Red Delicious’ y ‘Golden Delicious’, éstas se trataron con radiación UV-C en tres dosis (0, 5 y 15 min de irradiación a 1,435 × 10{sup -4} W cm{sup -2}) y agua caliente con CaCl{sub 2} al 4% en cuatro niveles (control 0, inmersión a 25°C 10 min, 38°C 5 min ó 54°C 1 min), en un diseño factorial con 4 repeticiones por tratamiento. La irradiación con UV-C y la inmersión de los frutos en agua caliente permitió alargar el periodo de conservación y mejoró la calidad de manzanas ‘Red Delicious’ y ‘Golden Delicious’ tras el almacenamiento en frío. Ambos tratamientos aumentaron la acidez titulable y la firmeza de los frutos, también disminuyeron el pH y la relación sólidos solubles/acidez. El tratamiento con UV-C y agua caliente incrementó el contenido

  16. [The water content reference material of water saturated octanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhanyuan

    2011-03-01

    The national standards of biofuels specify the technique specification and analytical methods. A water content certified reference material based on the water saturated octanol was developed in order to satisfy the needs of the instrument calibration and the methods validation, assure the accuracy and consistency of results in water content measurements of biofuels. Three analytical methods based on different theories were employed to certify the water content of the reference material, including Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer volumetric titration and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The consistency of coulometric and volumetric titration was achieved through the improvement of methods. The accuracy of the certified result was improved by the introduction of the new method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, the certified value of reference material is 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  17. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  18. Examining the Effectiveness of Hacked, Commercial, Self-Tuning RFID Tags to Passively Sense the Volumetric Water Content of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, B. S.; Udell, C.; Selker, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Currently available soil volumetric water content (VWC) sensors have several drawbacks that pose certain challenges for implementation on large scale for farms. Such issues include cost, scalability, maintenance, wires running through fields, and single-spot resolution. The development of a passive soil moisture sensing system utilizing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) would allay many of these issues. The type of passive RFID tags discussed in this paper currently cost between 8 to 15 cents retail per tag when purchased in bulk. An incredibly cheap, scalable, low-maintenance, wireless, high-resolution system for sensing soil moisture would be possible if such tags were introduced into the agricultural world. This paper discusses both the use cases as well as examines one implementation of the tags. In 2015, RFID tag manufacturer SmarTrac started selling RFID moisture sensing tags for use in the automotive industry to detect leaks during quality assurance. We place those tags in soil at a depth of 4 inches and compared the moisture levels sensed by the RFID tags with the relative permittivity (ɛr) of the soil as measured by an industry-standard probe. Using an equation derived by Topp et al, we converted to VWC. We tested this over a wide range of moisture conditions and found a statistically significant, correlational relationship between the sensor values from the RFID tags and the probe's measurement of ɛr. We also identified a possible function for mapping vales from the RFID tag to the probe bounded by a reasonable margin of error.

  19. Effect of silica and water content on the glass transition of poly(ethylene glycol) monomethylether-silica gel-lithium perchlorate ormolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korwin, Rebecca S.; Masui, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The effect of silica and water content on the glass transition temperature, T g , of MPEG2000-silica-LiClO 4 ormolytes was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The sol-gel synthesized ormolytes consisted of various amounts of poly(ethylene glycol) monomethylether (M.W. 2000 g/mol; i.e., MPEG2000) tethered to silica gel through the hydroxyl terminus via a urethane linkage. DSC features corresponding to physisorbed and hydrogen-bonded water, as well as the glass transition of the polyether, were identified. Both silica and LiClO 4 raise the T g and suppress crystallization of the polyether component. Water plasticizes the polyether and stoichiometrically solvates and sequesters Li + , thereby, lowering T g

  20. Combined effects of copper and ultraviolet radiation on a microscopic green alga in natural soft lake waters of varying dissolved organic carbon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L. Jeanine A.; Li, Karen; Greenberg, Bruce M.; Mierle, Greg; Smith, Ralph E.H.

    2003-01-01

    Selenastrum capricornutum was grown in two lake waters of differing dissolved organic carbon content (1.8 vs. 9.1 mg DOC l -1 ) to determine the responses of population dynamics and photosynthesis to Cu, and to assess the modifying effects of varying ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. In the absence of UVR, the mean EC 50 for Cu effect on population growth rate was 2.3-2.6 μg l -1 in the low DOC water and 17.4-26.2 μg l -1 in the high DOC water. The variable chlorophyll a fluorescence ratio, F v /F m , decreased approximately in parallel with the diminished growth rates. Exposure of the higher DOC lake water to full spectrum artificial radiation caused an increase of Cu 2+ concentration, compared to samples held in darkness or in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) only. Full spectrum exposures also resulted in a lower (although not significantly so) EC 50 for Cu effect on growth rate, consistent with response to the moderately elevated Cu 2+ concentration. Cu 2+ concentration was unaffected by radiation exposure in the low DOC water, and EC 50 s for growth were also unaffected except in the most severe UVR treatment, which was >40% inhibited even in the absence of added Cu. Using F v /F m as an end-point, there was no evidence of interactions between UVR and Cu under the relatively low PAR exposures used here. Algal growth and photosynthesis was extremely sensitive to Cu in these soft lake waters, with EC 50 s close to current water quality standards in the low DOC water

  1. Effects of tillage on contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, water-stable aggregates and light fraction for four different long-term trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruschkewitsch, R.; Geisseler, D.; Koch, H.-J.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    biomass, presumably due to the higher biomass input via higher crop yields under CT and MT and the vertical distribution of the residue input by tillage. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis of the incubation experiment suggested that the Corg content was the driving factor of macro-aggregate formation. Microbial parameters like microbial activity, metabolic quotient, microbial carbon (Cmic)/Corg ratio and ergosterol/Cmic ratio were only of minor relevance for macro-aggregate formation. Differences in clay content revealed no clear effects on macro-aggregate formation, probably due to missing alterations of soil water content and therefore missing swelling or shrinkage of the soil. However, at early stages of the incubation the microbial activity was the main factor of macro-aggregate formation and on the long term the effect of saprotrophic fungi was increasing. The results of the incubation experiment are in line with findings of the field experiment, leading to the conclusion that the amount of available biomass has higher effects on macro-aggregate content and formation than the physical effect of the different tillage treatments.

  2. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  3. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  4. Effect of microwave drying and oven drying on the water activity, color, phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Carmona, Lourdes; Cortez-García, Rosa María; Plazola-Jacinto, Carla Patricia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    The coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) husk is basically composed by fiber and pith material and remained under-utilized. This is an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used as functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: oven-drying (OD) and microwave drying (MD), on the water activity, color, phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk. The OD was performed at 60 °C for 12 h and MD was performed at 900 W for 10 min. The total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh coconut husk was 64.2 mg GAE/g dry wt and significant higher than observed after OD and MD of 35.8 and 45.5 mg GAE/g dry wt, respectively. Ten phenols were identified in fresh and dehydrated coconut husks. The husk MD showed an increase in the content of gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and syringic acids and epicatechin compared with the fresh; while coconut husk OD and MD, showed a decrease in the content of vanillic acid, vanillin, catequin and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity decreased after both OD and MD. However, MD resulted in a better antioxidant activity in husk than OD. MD of husk resulted into better retention of preserved color, TPC and TFC than OD.

  5. Activated carbon oxygen content influence on water and surfactant adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Phillip; Wu, Sophie Hua; Badalyan, Alexander

    2002-02-15

    This research investigates the adsorption properties of three activated carbons (AC) derived from coconut, coal, and wood origin. Each carbon demonstrates different levels of resistance to 2 M NaOH treatment. The coconut AC offers the greatest and wood AC the least resistance. The influence of base treatment is mapped in terms of its effects on specific surface area, micropore volume, water adsorption, and dodecanoic acid adsorption from both water and 2 M NaOH solution. A linear relationship exists between the number of water molecules adsorbed at the B-point of the water adsorption isotherm and the oxygen content determined from elemental analysis. Surfactant adsorption isotherms from water and 2 M NaOH indicate that the AC oxygen content effects a greater dependence on affinity for surfactant than specific surface area and micropore volume. We show a linear relationship between the plateau amount of surfactant adsorbed and the AC oxygen content in both water and NaOH phases. The higher the AC oxygen content, the lower the amount of surfactant adsorbed. In contrast, no obvious relationship could be drawn between the surfactant amount adsorbed and the surface area.

  6. Effects of soil water content and elevated CO2 concentration on the monoterpene emission rate of Cryptomeria japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Amagai, Takashi; Tani, Akira

    2018-04-11

    Monoterpenes emitted from plants contribute to the formation of secondary pollution and affect the climate system. Monoterpene emission rates may be affected by environmental changes such as increasing CO 2 concentration caused by fossil fuel burning and drought stress induced by climate change. We measured monoterpene emissions from Cryptomeria japonica clone saplings grown under different CO 2 concentrations (control: ambient CO 2 level, elevated CO 2 : 1000μmolmol -1 ). The saplings were planted in the ground and we did not artificially control the SWC. The relationship between the monoterpene emissions and naturally varying SWC was investigated. The dominant monoterpene was α-pinene, followed by sabinene. The monoterpene emission rates were exponentially correlated with temperature for all measurements and normalized (35°C) for each measurement day. The daily normalized monoterpene emission rates (E s0.10 ) were positively and linearly correlated with SWC under both control and elevated CO 2 conditions (control: r 2 =0.55, elevated CO 2 : r 2 =0.89). The slope of the regression line of E s0.10 against SWC was significantly higher under elevated CO 2 than under control conditions (ANCOVA: P<0.01), indicating that the effect of CO 2 concentration on monoterpene emission rates differed by soil water status. The monoterpene emission rates estimated by considering temperature and SWC (Improved G93 algorithm) better agreed with the measured monoterpene emission rates, when compared with the emission rates estimated by considering temperature alone (G93 algorithm). Our results demonstrated that the combined effects of SWC and CO 2 concentration are important for controlling the monoterpene emissions from C. japonica clone saplings. If these relationships can be applied to the other coniferous tree species, our results may be useful to improve accuracy of monoterpene emission estimates from the coniferous forests as affected by climate change in the present and

  7. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  8. Mapping soil water content on golf course greens with GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be an effective and efficient method for high-resolution mapping of volumetric water content in the sand layer directly beneath the ground surface at a golf course green. This information could potentially be very useful to golf course superintendents for determi...

  9. Effect of hydric stress induced by PEG 6000 on water content of Musa spp. ‘Grande naine’ (AAA and ‘Pelipita’ (ABB in vitro plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J Moreno-Bermúdez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bananas and bananas are grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, by hence they are adapted to good humidity conditions. The productivity of these crops is affected by abiotic factors such as drought, which has increased in recent years due to the effects of climate change. In vitro selection of tolerant genotypes offers advantages over field selection as it saves time, resources and permit to work with larger plant volumes. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of in vitro water stress induced with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000 on water content (WC of Musa spp. ‘Grande naine’ (AAA and ‘Pelipita’ (ABB cultivars. In ‘Pelipita’ cultivar WC was not affected by PEG 6000 effect, but in ‘Grande naine’ this trait was significantly reduced in those plants under stress. Both, ‘Pelipita’ and ‘Grande naine’ cultivars differentially respond to water stress induced in vitro by PEG 6000 and could be used as reference in plants evaluation obtained by plant breeding for drought tolerance. Key words: banana, climate change, drought, in vitro selection

  10. Effects of abscisic acid or benzyladenine on pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chloroplast ultrastructure during water stress and after rehydration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haisel, Daniel; Pospíšilová, Jana; Synková, Helena; Schnablová, Renáta; Baťková, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2006), s. 606-614 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/04/0549 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Beta vulgaris * Nicotiana tabacum * Phaseolus vulgaris * starch content * Zea mays Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2006

  11. Effect of stocking density on water quality and (Growth, Body Composition and Plasma Cortisol Content) performance of pen-reared rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qun; Hou, Zhishuai; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; He, Feng; Wang, Jinhuan; Guan, Biao; Wang, Qinglong

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the effect of stocking density on the water quality of culture area, as well as the growth, body composition and cortisol content of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Pen-reared trout were stocked in densities of 40, 60, 80 fish individuals m-3 (4.6, 6.6, 8.6 kg m-3, SD1, SD2 and SD3 groups, respectively) for 300 days. Compared to the water from SD1 and SD2, that from SD3 exhibited significantly higher NH 4 + -N content and COD (chemical-oxygen-demand), and a significant reduction of dissolved oxygen in day 180 (40.6 kg m-3). Stocking density was significantly associated with body weight, standard length, VSI (viscerosomatic index), CF (condition factor) and FC (food coefficient) in group SD3, particularly in day 240 and day 300 (45 or 49.3 kg m-3). Increased crude fat and decreased crude protein were displayed in high density group when the density reached to 36 kg m-3. As a cumulative effect of density-related stress, VSI, CF, FC, moisture, and crude protein content varied over time in each density group (SD1, SD2, and SD3). In summary, trout exhibited a better growth performance in low density (26.3 kg m-3) than those reared in high densities (36 and 45 kg m-3). The results indicate that rainbow trout (114.44 g ± 6.21 g, 19.69 cm ± 0.31 cm) initially stocked in 6.6 or 8.6 kg m-3 should be lightened to less than 36 kg m-3 after an intensive rearing for 240 days.

  12. Effect of non-homogeneous spatial distributions of surfactants on the stability of high-content bitumen-in-water emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina-Villalba, German; Garcia-Sucre, Maximo

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the effects of non-homogeneous spatial distributions of surfactants on the drop size of high-content bitumen-in-water emulsions, a modification of a standard Brownian Dynamics algorithm was employed. The new algorithm is able to simulate the evolution of oil/water emulsions towards flocculation and coalescence. The simulation boxes contain 216 and 125 particles initially distributed in a homogeneous simple cubic arrangement, corresponding to bitumen/water volume fractions of 0.30 and 0.51, respectively. The particles interact through a DLVO potential dependent on the total surfactant concentration, spatial surfactant distribution, and the amount of surfactant adsorbed to the bitumen/water interface. As will be shown in this article, certain combinations of the referred variables can produce a wide variety of repulsive potentials between similar drops. The variation of the total number of drops with time does not obey the usual analytical formalisms developed for more diluted cases, and instead, a simple exponential decrease of the number of drops with time is found. Such behavior has already been confirmed by experiment. Some similarities between the present results and those previously published for more diluted systems are discussed [es

  13. Effects of soil water content and organic matter addition on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C.

    2012-01-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were evaluated in three soils amended with different organic materials for two moisture regimes. Agricultural and reclamation activities impose fresh inputs of organic matter on soil while intensive irrigation and rainstorm increase soil waterlogging incidence. Moreover, scarcity of irrigation water has prompted the use of greywater, which contain variable concentrations of organic compounds such as anionic surfactants. Soils added with hay, maize straw or peat at 1% w/w were irrigated, at field capacity (FC) or saturated (S), with an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant Aerosol 22 (A22), corresponding to an addition of 200 mg C/kg soil/day. Soil solution was extracted after one month and analysed for total soluble metals, dissolved soil organic matter and UV absorbance at 254 nm. Speciation analyses were performed with WHAM VI for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. For selected scenarios, metal uptake by barley was determined. Metal mobility increased for all treatments and soils (Pb > Cu > Cd ≥ Zn) compared to control assays. The increase was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with soil organic matter solubilisation for Cd (R = 0.68), Cu (R = 0.73) and Zn (R = 0.86). Otherwise, Pb release was related to aluminium solubilisation (R = 0.75), which suggests that Pb was originally co-precipitated with Al–DOC complexes in the solid phase. The effect of A22 in metal bioavailability, determined as free ion activities (FIA), was mainly controlled by soil moisture regime. For soil 3, metal bioavailability was up to 20 times lower for soil amended with hay, peat or maize compared to soil treated only with A22. When soil was treated with A22 at FC barley yield significantly decreased (p < 0.05) for the increase of Pb (R = 0.71) and Zn (R = 0.79) concentrations in shoot, while for saturated conditions such uptake was up to 3 times lower. Overall, metal bioavailability was controlled by solubilisation of soil

  14. Effects of soil water content and organic matter addition on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C., E-mail: maria.HernandezSoriano@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7619, 101 Derieux Street, 2232 Williams Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C. [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Purdue University, 201 S. University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were evaluated in three soils amended with different organic materials for two moisture regimes. Agricultural and reclamation activities impose fresh inputs of organic matter on soil while intensive irrigation and rainstorm increase soil waterlogging incidence. Moreover, scarcity of irrigation water has prompted the use of greywater, which contain variable concentrations of organic compounds such as anionic surfactants. Soils added with hay, maize straw or peat at 1% w/w were irrigated, at field capacity (FC) or saturated (S), with an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant Aerosol 22 (A22), corresponding to an addition of 200 mg C/kg soil/day. Soil solution was extracted after one month and analysed for total soluble metals, dissolved soil organic matter and UV absorbance at 254 nm. Speciation analyses were performed with WHAM VI for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. For selected scenarios, metal uptake by barley was determined. Metal mobility increased for all treatments and soils (Pb > Cu > Cd {>=} Zn) compared to control assays. The increase was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with soil organic matter solubilisation for Cd (R = 0.68), Cu (R = 0.73) and Zn (R = 0.86). Otherwise, Pb release was related to aluminium solubilisation (R = 0.75), which suggests that Pb was originally co-precipitated with Al-DOC complexes in the solid phase. The effect of A22 in metal bioavailability, determined as free ion activities (FIA), was mainly controlled by soil moisture regime. For soil 3, metal bioavailability was up to 20 times lower for soil amended with hay, peat or maize compared to soil treated only with A22. When soil was treated with A22 at FC barley yield significantly decreased (p < 0.05) for the increase of Pb (R = 0.71) and Zn (R = 0.79) concentrations in shoot, while for saturated conditions such uptake was up to 3 times lower. Overall, metal bioavailability was controlled by solubilisation of soil

  15. Stable isotope content of South African river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talma, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Variations of the isotopic ratios 18 O/ 16 O and D/H in natural waters reflect the variety of processes to which the water was subjected within the hydrological cycle. Time series of the 18 O content of the major South African rivers over a few years have been obtained in order to characterise the main features of these variations in both time and space. Regionally the average '1 8 O content of river water reflects that of the prevailing rains within the catchment. 18 O variations with time are mainly correlated with river flow rates. Impoundments upstream and management of river flows reduce this correlation. Isotope variations along the course of a river show the effects of inflow from smaller streams and evaporation in the river or its impoundments. These observations indicate the use of isotopic methods to study the evaporation and mixing of river water and its interaction with the surrounding environment

  16. Correction of temperature and bulk electrical conductivity effects on soil water content measurements using ECH2O EC-5, TE and 5TE sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Ulrike; Huisman, Sander; Vrba, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Bogena, Heye

    2010-05-01

    For a monitoring of dynamic spatiotemporal soil moisture patterns at the catchment scale, automated and continuously measuring systems that provide spatial coverage and high temporal resolution are needed. Promising techniques like wireless sensor networks (e.g. SoilNet) have to integrate low-cost electromagnetic soil water content sensors [1], [2]. However, the measurement accuracy of such sensors is often deteriorated by effects of temperature and soil bulk electrical conductivity. The objective of this study is to derive and validate correction functions for such temperature and electrical conductivity effects for the ECH2O EC-5, TE and 5TE sensors. We used dielectric liquids with known dielectric properties for two different laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the temperature of eight reference liquids with permittivity ranging from 7 to 42 was varied from 5 to 40°C. All sensor types showed an underestimation of permittivity for low temperatures and an overestimation for high temperatures. In the second experiment, the conductivity of the reference liquids was increased by adding NaCl. The highest deviations occurred for high permittivity and electrical conductivity between ~0.8 and 1.5 dS/m (underestimation from 8 to 16 permittivity units depending on sensor type). For higher electrical conductivity (2.5 dS/m), the permittivity was overestimated (10 permittivity units for the EC-5 and 7 for the 5TE sensor). Based on these measurements on reference liquids, we derived empirical correction functions that are able to correct thermal and conductivity effects on measured sensor response. These correction functions were validated using three soil samples (coarse sand, silty clay loam and bentonite). For the temperature correction function, the results corresponded better with theoretical predictions after correction for temperature effects on the sensor circuitry. It was also shown that the application of the conductivity correction functions improved

  17. Estimation of areal soil water content through microwave remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oevelen, van P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content

  18. Effect of iron content on the catalytic activity of Fe-MnOx electrodeposited films in water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Elizabeth; Ryczko, Kevin; Lopinski, Gregory; Armandi, Marco; Bonelli, Barbara; Tamblyn, Isaac

    We report on the experimental and computational optimization and characterization of an MnOx structure containing a small amount of Fe, used as a catalyst for the water oxidation reaction (WOR), the key limiting reaction in water splitting. MnOx materials are earth-abundant and known to be efficient for WOR, and the method of cathodically electrodepositing catalysts allows for quick synthesis and a homogeneous coverage of the substrate. We present an increase in WOR activity due to the presence of Fe in this MnOx catalyst structure. First, we explored the optimal range for Fe(NO3)3 concentration in an KMnO4 solution for electrodeposition and tested for WOR activity. The catalyst structure was then analyzed using FESEM, XPS, and a Kelvin probe. We then developed a computational model of this structure, using density functional theory to obtain adsorption energies, work functions, projected density of states, and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. In this theoretical framework, we explore how these observables change with respect to concentration of Fe, and compare the theoretical model with experiment. special acknowledgement to the Italian Cultural Centre of Durham scholarship program.

  19. Effect of chitosan nanoparticles and pectin content on mechanical properties and water vapor permeability of banana puree films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Milena R; Barros, Taís T; de Moura, Márcia R; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Assis, Odilio B G

    2013-01-01

    Puree prepared from over-ripe peeled bananas was used as raw material for films processing in a laboratory padder. Pectin and glycerol as plasticizer were added in small concentrations and chitosan nanoparticles (88.79 ± 0.42 nm medium size) incorporated at 0.2% (dry weight basis) as reinforcement material. The mechanical properties, water vapor transmission, thermal stability, and scanning electron microscopy of fractured film surfaces were characterized. Both pectin and glycerol demonstrated an important role in promoting elongation and film handability as was expected. The incorporation of nanoparticles promoted noticeable improvement of the mechanical properties and acted in reducing the water vapor permeation rate, by 21% for films processed with pectin and up to 38% for films processed without pectin, when compared to the control (puree films with no pectin and nanoparticles additions). Microscopic observation revealed a denser matrix when nanoparticles are incorporated into the films. The development of films from fruit purees head to a new strategy for plastic processing from natural resources. The over-ripe or even waste banana can be adequately prepared for batch films processed with reasonable mechanical and barrier properties, suitable for applications in the food segment. The addition of small fractions of chitosan nanoparticles, form nanocomposites enhancing mechanical and thermal stability broadening potential film applications. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Biodegradation in a Partially Saturated Sand Matrix: Compounding Effects of Water Content, Bacterial Spatial Distribution, and Motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Bazire, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    colonizing these zones or on pollutant mass transfer to neighboring zones containing degraders. In a model system, we quantified the role exerted by water on mineralization rate in the context of a heterogeneously distributed degradation potential. Alginate beads colonized by Pseudomonas putida KT2440 were......Bacterial pesticide degraders are generally heterogeneously distributed in soils, leaving soil volumes devoid of degradation potential. This is expected to have an impact on degradation rates because the degradation of pollutant molecules in such zones will be contingent either on degraders...... inserted at prescribed locations in sand microcosms so that the initial spatial distribution of the mineralization potential was controlled. The mineralization rate was strongly affected by the matric potential (decreasing rate with decreasing matric potential) and by the initial distribution...

  1. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement...... for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented...

  2. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, M., E-mail: kangm@ornl.gov [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bilheux, H.Z., E-mail: bilheuxhn@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Voisin, S. [Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, C.L.; Perfect, E. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Horita, J. [Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Warren, J.M. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-21

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  3. Effects of a 5-HT(3) antagonist, ondansetron, on fasting and postprandial small bowel water content assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, L; Wright, J; Foley, S; Hoad, C L; Totman, J J; Bush, D; Hartley, C; Armstrong, A; Manby, P; Blackshaw, E; Perkins, A C; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2010-09-01

    5-HT(3) antagonists have been shown to be effective in relieving the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D). Using a recently validated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, we have demonstrated reduced fasting small bowel water content (SBWC) in IBS-D associated with accelerated small bowel transit. We hypothesized that slowing of transit with ondansetron would lead to an increase in SBWC by inhibiting fasting motility. To assess the effects of ondansetron compared with placebo in healthy volunteers on SBWC and motility in two different groups of subjects, one studied using MRI and another using manometry. Healthy volunteers were given either a placebo or ondansetron on the day prior to and on the study day. Sixteen volunteers underwent baseline fasting and postprandial MRI scans for 270 min. In a second study, a separate group of n = 18 volunteers were intubated and overnight migrating motor complex (MMC) recorded. Baseline MRI scans were carried out after the tube was removed. Fasting SBWC was markedly increased by ondansetron (P fasting SBWC (P fasting small bowel water. This was associated with reduced fasting antroduodenal Motility Index which may explain the clinical benefit of such drugs. 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The effect of water stress on nitrate reductase activity and nitrogen and phosphorus contents in cuminum cyminum l

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehr, M F [Islamic Azad University, Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Biology; Amini, F [Tehran Shomal Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Biology

    2012-06-15

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is a plant with great medicinal importance cultivated in many regions such as Iran, India, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. In this research, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and nitrate reductase enzyme activity were studied in cumin under flooding stress. Cumin plants were cultivated in pots containing garden soil (in 1 cm depth, 15 -20 degree C, 14 h light and 10 h darkness). Germination took place after 2 weeks. Flooding stress was applied 6 weeks after germination on a number of pots according to their field capacity (FC) (2, 3, and 4 fold) for 1 week; a number of pots were also considered as controls with field capacity. Plants were then harvested and chemical analysis of the factors under study was done using roots and shoots of the plants exposed to flooding conditions and the control plants. The experiment had a completely randomized design in which four levels of water in the soil (2FC, 3FC, 4FC) were compared. Analysis of variance was carried out using SPSS software and means were compared by Duncan's test at [ greater or equal to = 0.05 significance level. The results showed that in comparison with control plants, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower in both shoots and roots of flooded plants. This decrease was more pronounced in treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions. Nitrogen concentration in roots and shoots of treated plants showed a significant decrease in comparison with control plants and this was more noticeable in treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions. Moreover, concentration of nitrite produced from nitrate reduction catalyzed by nitrate reductase enzyme in roots and shoots of treated plants had a significant increase in comparison with control plants. Treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions showed the most increase. Also the study showed that cumin seeds could survive in flooding environment for 14 days

  5. The effect of water stress on nitrate reductase activity and nitrogen and phosphorus contents in cuminum cyminum l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehr, M.F.; Amini, F.

    2012-01-01

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is a plant with great medicinal importance cultivated in many regions such as Iran, India, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey. In this research, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and nitrate reductase enzyme activity were studied in cumin under flooding stress. Cumin plants were cultivated in pots containing garden soil (in 1 cm depth, 15 -20 degree C, 14 h light and 10 h darkness). Germination took place after 2 weeks. Flooding stress was applied 6 weeks after germination on a number of pots according to their field capacity (FC) (2, 3, and 4 fold) for 1 week; a number of pots were also considered as controls with field capacity. Plants were then harvested and chemical analysis of the factors under study was done using roots and shoots of the plants exposed to flooding conditions and the control plants. The experiment had a completely randomized design in which four levels of water in the soil (2FC, 3FC, 4FC) were compared. Analysis of variance was carried out using SPSS software and means were compared by Duncan's test at [ greater or equal to = 0.05 significance level. The results showed that in comparison with control plants, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower in both shoots and roots of flooded plants. This decrease was more pronounced in treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions. Nitrogen concentration in roots and shoots of treated plants showed a significant decrease in comparison with control plants and this was more noticeable in treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions. Moreover, concentration of nitrite produced from nitrate reduction catalyzed by nitrate reductase enzyme in roots and shoots of treated plants had a significant increase in comparison with control plants. Treated plants exposed to 4 X field capacity conditions showed the most increase. Also the study showed that cumin seeds could survive in flooding environment for 14 days

  6. Effect of tidal volume on extravascular lung water content during one-lung ventilation for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutub, Hatem; El-Tahan, Mohamed R; Mowafi, Hany A; El Ghoneimy, Yasser F; Regal, Mohamed A; Al Saflan, AbdulHadi A

    2014-09-01

    The use of low tidal volume during one-lung ventilation (OLV) has been shown to attenuate the incidence of acute lung injury after thoracic surgery. To test the effect of tidal volume during OLV for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery on the extravascular lung water content index (EVLWI). A randomised, double-blind, controlled study. Single university hospital. Thirty-nine patients scheduled for elective video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 13 per group) to ventilate the dependent lung with a tidal volume of 4, 6 or 8 ml  kg(-1) predicted body weight with I:E ratio of 1:2.5 and PEEP of 5 cm H2O. The primary outcomes were perioperative changes in EVLWI and EVLWI to intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) ratio. Secondary outcomes included haemodynamics, oxygenation indices, incidences of postoperative acute lung injury, atelectasis, pneumonia, morbidity and 30-day mortality. A tidal volume of 4 compared with 6 and 8 ml  kg(-1) after 45 min of OLV resulted in an EVLWI of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5 to 4.7] compared with 7.7 (95% CI 6.7 to 8.6) and 8.6 (95% CI 7.5 to 9.7) ml  kg(-1), respectively (P tidal volume of 4 ml kg during OLV was associated with less lung water content than with larger tidal volumes of 6 to 8 ml kg(-1), although no patient developed acute lung injury. Further studies are required to address the usefulness of EVLWI as a marker for the development of postoperative acute lung injury after the use of a low tidal volume during OLV in patients undergoing pulmonary resection. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01762709.

  7. Effects of rainfall partitioning by Mediterranean vegetation on soil water content dynamics. Results from field studies along a climatic gradient in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Pilar; Latron, Jérôme; Muzylo, Aleksandra; Schnabel, Susanne; Domingo, Francisco; Cantón, Yolanda; Gallart, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    The role played by rainfall partitioning by vegetation is of paramount importance for the water balance both at local and catchment scales. Rainfall partitioning fluxes (throughfall and stemflow) have a large degree of temporal and spatial variability and may consequently lead to significant changes in the volume and composition of water that reach the understory vegetation and the soil. Throughfall affects the surface soils horizons and stemflow, channelled by branches and stems, can reach deeper soil layers and remain available for the roots. This work investigates the effect of rainfall partitioning on soil water content in three Mediterranean study areas covering a strong climatic gradient and different vegetation species. From Northern to Southern Spain the study areas are: The Vallcebre research catchments (42° 12'N, 1° 49'E) with forest patches of Pinus sylvestris and of Quercus pubescens, The Parapuños research catchment (39° 35'N, 6° 5'W ), a wooded rangeland with Quercus rotundifolia and annual grasses in open areas, and the Tabernas experimental area (37° 0'N, 2° 26'W) with disperse shrubs and a mixture of annual plants and biological soil crusts in open areas. Mean annual rainfall ranges between 862 and 235 mm (in Vallcebre and Tabernas respectively). For the studied tree species throughfall was the dominant flux and have a similar rate, being stemflow only a small part of the bulk rainfall. For the studied shrubs, measured throughfall as well as stemflow were highly variable between species. Superficial soil water content was on average lower under forest (Vallcebre) or individual trees (Parapuños) that in the open areas. Contrarily, in Tabernas soil was wetter under shrubs than in open areas, although with higher variability. Driest soils below continous forest covers, as in Vallcebre, or even in sparse covered areas as in the Parapuños catchment, may be explained by the dominant role of rainfall interception and transpiration. In Tabernas

  8. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 ev...

  9. Peatland water repellency: Importance of soil water content, moss species, and burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. A.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, with northern peat reserves expected to become more vulnerable to wildfire as climate change enhances the length and severity of the fire season. Recent research suggests that high water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands have been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate the effect of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a laboratory based drying experiment where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes including unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ∼1.4 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by burning. Based on soil water retention curves, we suggest that it is highly unlikely that Sphagnum will exhibit strong hydrophobic conditions under field conditions.

  10. Microbial community responses to 17 years of altered precipitation are seasonally dependent and coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Patrick O.; Germino, Matthew J.; Feris, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation amount and seasonal timing determine the duration and distribution of water available for plant and microbial activity in the cold desert sagebrush steppe. In this study, we sought to determine if a sustained shift in the amount and timing of precipitation would affect soil microbial diversity, community composition, and soil carbon (C) storage. Field plots were irrigated (+200 mm) during the dormant or growing-season for 17 years. Microbial community responses were assessed over the course of a year at two depths (15–20 cm, 95–100 cm) by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), along with co-occurring changes in plant cover and edaphic properties. Bacterial richness, Shannon Weaver diversity, and composition in shallow soils (15–20 cm) as well as evenness in deep soils (95–100 cm) differed across irrigation treatments during July. Irrigation timing affected fungal community diversity and community composition during the dormant season and most strongly in deep soils (95–100 cm). Dormant-season irrigation increased the ratio of shrubs to forbs and reduced soil C in shallow soils by 16% relative to ambient conditions. It is unclear whether or not soil C will continue to decline with continued treatment application or if microbial adaptation could mitigate sustained soil C losses. Future changes in precipitation timing will affect soil microbes in a seasonally dependent manner and be coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C.

  11. Radiation absorption, water content and contrast medium impregnation of gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Gallstones extracted by surgery were examined for CT density, which was compared with the X-ray film, floating performance and chemical analysis of the stones. So far, the water content of the biliary concrements - 14% on the average - has not been given much attention. Drying will considerably reduce the density; examination of the dried gallstones yields a false picture of direct ray absorption. Pure cholesterol stones do not float in water, and they show positive values on Hounsfield's scale (+30 - +60). The article discusses the question whether CT is suitable for effecting a better selection of gallstone patients who can be treated by drug therapy. (orig.) [de

  12. The Effect of Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L.) Population Density and Soil Water Content Interactions on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, A.K.; Gordon, A.M.; Thevathasan, N.V.; Demers, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms may have an influence on the production of N 2 O, a greenhouse gas, as a result of the ideal environment contained in their gut and casts for denitrifier bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L.) population density, soil water content and N 2 O emissions in a controlled greenhouse experiment based on population densities (90 to 270 individuals m-2) found at the Guelph Agroforestry Research Station (GARS) from 1997 to 1998. An experiment conducted at considerably higher than normal densities of earthworms revealed a significant relationship between earthworm density, soil water content and N 2 O emissions, with mean emissions increasing to 43.5 g ha-1day-1 at 30 earthworms 0.0333 m-2 at 35% soil water content. However, a second experiment, based on the density of earthworms at GARS, found no significant difference in N 2 O emissions (5.49 to 6.99 g ha-1day-1) aa a result of density and 31% soil water content

  13. Effects of inorganic substances on water splitting in ion-exchange membranes; II. Optimal contents of inorganic substances in preparing bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Moon-Sung; Choi, Yong-Jin; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2004-05-15

    An approach to enhancing the water-splitting performance of bipolar membranes (BPMs) is introducing an inorganic substance at the bipolar (BP) junction. In this study, the immobilization of inorganic matters (i.e., iron hydroxides and silicon compounds) at the BP junction and the optimum concentration have been investigated. To immobilize these inorganic matters, novel methods (i.e., electrodeposition of the iron hydroxide and processing of the sol-gel to introduce silicon groups at the BP junction) were suggested. At optimal concentrations, the immobilized inorganic matters significantly enhanced the water-splitting fluxes, indicating that they provide alternative paths for water dissociation, but on the other hand possibly reduce the polarization of water molecules between the sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium groups at high contents. Consequently, the amount of inorganic substances introduced should be optimized to obtain the maximum water splitting in the BPM.

  14. [The effect of alternating administration of aluminum chloride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on the concentration of fluoride in serum and its content in bones of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz; Machoy-Mokrzyniska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Fluorine and aluminum remain a very interesting research topic due to equivocal and relatively unknown toxic action, role in the etiology of various diseases, and interactions of both elements. Fluorine and aluminum compounds are absorbed by organisms through the gastric and respiratory systems, although the latter route operates only at very high concentrations in air. Chronic exposure to fluorine and aluminum leads to accumulation of both elements, especially in bones and teeth, but also in lung, brain, kidney, and liver. Organisms excrete these elements with urine, faeces, and to a minor extent with sweat and bile. In the light of reports suggesting that aluminum has protective properties against fluorine toxicity during exposure to both elements, we decided to examine the effect of alternating doses of aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride in drinking water on rats. Four female groups received: I--100 ppm fluorine ions during one month; II--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during one month; III--100 ppm fluoride ions during four months; IV--100 ppm fluorine ions alternating every two days with 300 ppm aluminum ions during four months. The respective male groups called IA, IIA, IIIA, and IVA were treated identically. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Blood was sampled from the heart and the right femur was removed for fluorine determination. Fluorine content in the femur and serum was determined with an ion-selective electrode (Orion). The results were analyzed statistically (Statistica 6). We observed higher fluoride concentrations in serum as compared with control values in all groups of female and male rats exposed to sodium fluoride only. Longer exposure time (4 months) did not result in further increase in serum fluoride concentration. However, longer exposure increased fluoride accumulation in the femur (p Fluorine content in the femur of rats exposed to NaF and AlCI3 for four months was

  15. CAMEX-4 CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  16. The effect of O{sub 2} content on the corrosion behaviour of X65 and 5Cr in water-containing supercritical CO{sub 2} environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Yong, E-mail: leo.huayong@gmail.com; Barker, Richard; Neville, Anne

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviour was evaluated in water-containing SC-CO{sub 2} with different O{sub 2} levels. • Corrosion was observed when no free water was present. • Localized corrosion was a fundamental consideration in water-containing CO{sub 2} systems. • O{sub 2} content plays a key role in influencing the critical water content. - Abstract: The general and localized corrosion behaviour of X65 carbon steel and 5Cr low alloy steel were evaluated in a water-saturated supercritical CO{sub 2} environment in the presence of varying concentrations of O{sub 2}. Experiments were performed at a temperature of 35 °C and a pressure of 80 bar to simulate the conditions encountered during CO{sub 2} transport and injection. Results indicated that increasing O{sub 2} concentration from 0 to 1000 ppm caused a progressive reduction in the general corrosion rate, but served to increase the extent of localized corrosion observed on both materials. Pitting (or localized attack) rates for X65 ranged between 0.9 and 1.7 mm/year, while for 5Cr rose from 0.3 to 1.4 mm/year as O{sub 2} concentration was increased from 0 to 1000 ppm. General corrosion rates were over an order of magnitude lower than the pitting rates measured. Increasing O{sub 2} content in the presence of X65 and 5Cr suppressed the growth of iron carbonate (FeCO{sub 3}) on the steel surface and resulted in the formation of a corrosion product consisting mainly of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). 5Cr was shown to offer more resistance to pitting corrosion in comparison to X65 steel over the conditions tested. At concentrations of O{sub 2} above 500 ppm 5Cr produced general corrosion rates less than 0.04 mm/year, which were half that recorded for X65. The improved corrosion resistance of 5Cr was believed to be at least partially attributed to the formation of a Cr-rich film on the steel surface which was shown using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to contain chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and chromium

  17. 4.2.1. Water content: nuclear radiation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooli, J.; Kasi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The radiometric methods of measuring the soil water distribution are presented. The neutron method consists of measuring the thermal neutron density around a fast neutron source. Since the moisture in the soil is usually the principle hydrogen compound the thermal neutron density is a function of the water content. The neutron gauge may be of the subsurface type, placed in a vertical access tube, or of the surface type, resting on the soil surface. Cf 252 is a useful neutron source, having low mean energy and being cheap. Tritium-target deuterium bombarded neutron generators may be used in large volume single or dual tube measurements. The hydrogen content of the dry soil matrix and the dry density profile should be determined. Epithermal measurements eliminate the effect of thermal neutron absorbers. The ideal access tube is of thin-walled aluminium, but this in many cases lacks the required strength and durability, and iron or stainless steel may be used. The measured volume ranges from 20cm to 110cm radius, and the resolution is limited to 30cm layers, with measurement intervals of 15cm. Gamma ray sources may also be used, both in single-well density gauges in conjunction with a neutron gauge, and in a dual-tube arrangement, measuring the water content by attenuation, using a Cs 137 source. This can give a resolution of down to 0.5cm, and an accuracy of 0.0015g/cm 3 . Finally radiation dose calculations are briefly discussed. (JIW)

  18. Formulation and make-up of simulate dilute water, low ionic content aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Dilute Water (SOW), a low-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50, Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of ten higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal times ten higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the effect of ionic concentrating due to elevated temperature water flowing through fractures where salts and minerals have been deposited due to evaporation and boiling

  19. Determination of water content in natural zeolites by reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria, Lopez P.; Desdin Garcia, V.; Freixas Lemus, V.; Dominguez Ley, O.; Csikai, G.

    1989-01-01

    Water content in natural zeolites collected from different site places in Cuba has been determined by neutron reflection method. Results show that it is possible to separate the minerals abundant in zeolite from the surrounding barren rocks. Water content of about 10% can be determined with 2-3% relative accuracy for different matrices, using 10 m measuring time

  20. [Virtual water content of livestock products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Jun-hong

    2006-04-01

    The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year. Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: (1) The virtual water content of livestock products is increasing rapidly in China recently, especially poultry eggs and pork. (2) The distribution of virtual water content of livestock products is not balanced, mainly lies in North China, East China and so on; (3) The increasing production of livestock in Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei, Nei Monggol, Liaononing, Jilin, Shandong, Henan and Ningxia province and autonom ous region will bring pressure to local water shortage.

  1. Monitoring water content in Opalinus Clay within the FE-Experiment: Test application of dielectric water content sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, T.; Vogt, T.; Komatsu, M.; Müller, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of water content in the near field rock around repository tunnels for radioactive waste in clay formations is one of the essential quantities to be monitored for safety assessment in many waste disposal programs. Reliable measurements of water content are important not only for the understanding and prediction of coupled hydraulic-mechanic processes that occur during tunnel construction and ventilation phase, but also for the understanding of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes that take place in the host rock during the post closure phase of a repository tunnel for spent fuel and high level radioactive waste (SF/HLW). The host rock of the Swiss disposal concept for SF/HLW is the Opalinus Clay formation (age of approx. 175 Million years). To better understand the THM effects in a full-scale heater-engineered barrier-rock system in Opalinus Clay, a full-scale heater test, namely the Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) experiment, was initiated in 2010 at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in north-western Switzerland. The experiment is designed to simulate the THM evolution of a SF/HLW repository tunnel based on the Swiss disposal concept in a realistic manner during the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure phases. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors. The sensors will be distributed in the host rock, the tunnel lining, the engineered barrier, which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks, and on the heaters. The excavation is completed and the tunnel is currently being ventilated. Measuring water content in partially saturated clay-rich high-salinity rock with a deformable grain skeleton is challenging. Therefore, we use the ventilation phase (before backfilling and heating) to examine the applicability of commercial water content sensors and to

  2. Effect of the water content on the retention and enantioselectivity of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides using amylose-based chiral stationary phases in organic-aqueous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materazzo, Sabrina; Carradori, Simone; Ferretti, Rosella; Gallinella, Bruno; Secci, Daniela; Cirilli, Roberto

    2014-01-31

    Four commercially available immobilized amylose-derived CSPs (Chiralpak IA-3, Chiralpak ID-3, Chiralpak IE-3 and Chiralpak IF-3) were used in the HPLC analysis of the chiral sulfoxides albendazole (ABZ-SO) and fenbendazole (FBZ-SO) and their in vivo sulfide precursor (ABZ and FBZ) and sulfone metabolite (ABZ-SO2 and FBZ-SO2) under organic-aqueous mode. U-shape retention maps, established by varying the water content in the acetonitrile- and ethanol-water mobile phases, were indicative of two retention mechanisms operating on the same CSP. The dual retention behavior of polysaccharide-based CSPs was exploited to design greener enantioselective and chemoselective separations in a short time frame. The enantiomers of ABZ-SO and FBZ-SO were baseline resolved with water-rich mobile phases (with the main component usually being 50-65% water in acetonitrile) on the IF-3 CSP and ethanol-water 100:5 mixture on the IA-3 and IE-3 CSPs. A simultaneous separation of ABZ (or FBZ), enantiomers of the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone was achieved on the IA-3 using ethanol-water 100:60 (acetonitrile-water 100:100 for FBZ) as a mobile phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Water Content on Pullout Behaviour of Geogrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Song, Yang-yang; Hao, Dong-xue; Gao, Yu-cong

    2017-06-01

    The interaction between geogrid and soil is fundamental and crucial factor on safety and stability of geogrid-reinforced earth structure. Therefore, the interface index between geogrid and soil is of vital importance in the design of reinforced earth structures. The pullout behaviour of geogrid in soil is studied, an experimental investigation is conducted using geogrid in four groups of soil with 20%, 24%, 28%, 32% water contents, which correspond to normal stresses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 kPa respectively. The results indicate that the geogrid embedded in soil mainly represents pullout failure, and the ultimate pullout force is sensitive to water content. It decreases with the increase of the water content firstly. Besides, the water content influences the process of the pullout behaviour. The increase of water content leads to the ultimate pullout force soon.

  4. Shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water requirement for crops in resource limited areas is challenging, yet worsened by the common assumption that all crop varieties within a species have similar water requirements. The objective of the study was to indirectly determine crop evapotranspiration of soybean varieties, using reference ...

  5. Active THz inspection of water content in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Palacios, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2010-04-01

    The THz range offers the possibility of measuring water content. This can be useful in wine industry to control plants water levels and also to decrease irrigation costs. This paper presents a THz imaging system used to characterise water content in leaves using frequency and time domain methods from 0.14 to 0.22 THz. Our results show the possibility of getting useful information out of the preformed measurements.

  6. DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  7. Effect of lipolytic activity of Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Yamadazyma terventina on the acidity of extra-virgin olive oil with a different polyphenol and water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A

    2015-05-01

    Previous microbiological research demonstrated the presence of a rich micro-flora composed mainly of yeasts in the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oil. Some of the yeasts are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the olive oil through the hydrolysis of the triacylglycerols. Present research has demonstrated that the lipolytic activity of some lipase-producer strains belonging to a yeast species called Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Yamadazyma terventina can be modulated by the water and the polyphenol content of olive oil. Laboratory tests highlighted a substantial increase in free fatty acid in the inoculated olive oil characterized by high water content and low polyphenol concentration. The acidity of the olive oil samples containing 0.06% and 0.31% of water increased significantly by 33% in the lipase-producer yeast strains tested during a period of 2 weeks of incubation at 30 °C. All other yeasts showed strong lipolytic activity in the presence of 1.31% of water - the only exception to this was the C. adriatica 1985 strain. The phenolic compounds typical of olive oil represent another important factor able to condition the viability and the lipolytic activity of the lipase-producer yeasts. From the tests performed on the olive oil characterized by an increasing content of total polyphenols equal to 84, 150 and 510 mg per kg of oil, the percentage of the lipase-producer yeasts able to hydrolyse the triacylglycerols was respectively 100%, 67% and 11%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ground penetrating radar water content mapping of golf course green sand layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the spatial distribution of water content across the sand layer component of a golf course green can be important to golf course superintendents for evaluating drainage effectiveness and scheduling irrigation. To estimate the bulk water content of the sand layer at point locations ac...

  9. Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Kasbohm, J.

    2001-10-01

    A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m 3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is

  10. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    20

    Soil water retention, Dry lands, Western India, Pedotransfer functions, Soil moisture calculator. 1. 2. 3. 4 ..... samples although it is known that structure and macro-porosity of the sample affect water retention (Unger ..... and OC content has positive influence on water retention whereas interaction of clay and OC has negative ...

  11. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B

    1999-01-01

    CBF) SPECT-scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO as flow tracer was performed in the patients. Mean water content (SD) in the infarct area was 37.7 (5.1); 41.8 (4.8); 35.2 (5.4); and 39.3 (5.1) mol x [kg wet weight](-1) at 0-3; 4-7; 8-21; and >180 days after stroke, respectively. Water content increased between Day 0......CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water...... as an internal standard in stroke patients....

  12. Sensing the water content of honey from temperature-dependent electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wenchuan; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Xinhua; Zhuang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    In order to predict the water content in honey, electrical conductivity was measured on blossom honey types milk-vetch, jujube and yellow-locust with the water content of 18–37% between 5 and 40 °C. The regression models of electrical conductivity were developed as functions of water content and temperature. The results showed that increases in either water content or temperature resulted in an increase in the electrical conductivity of honey with greater changes at higher water content and/or higher temperature. The linear terms of water content and temperature, a quadratic term of water content, and the interaction effect of water content and temperature had significant influence on the electrical conductivity of honey (p < 0.0001). Regardless of blossom honey type, the linear coefficient of the determination of measured and calculated electrical conductivities was 0.998 and the range error ratio was larger than 100. These results suggest that the electrical conductivity of honey might be used to develop a detector for rapidly predicting the water content in blossom honey

  13. shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Based on a work ... Determination of water requirement for crops in resource limited areas is challenging, yet ... study was to indirectly determine crop evapotranspiration of soybean .... monitored, have been commended as the best option (Fernández, 2014) as they measure the ..... and climate change/ : Impacts on Kenyan.

  14. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  15. Vegetation Water Content Mapping for Agricultural Regions in SMAPVEX16

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. A.; Cosh, M. H.; McKee, L.; Berg, A. A.; McNairn, H.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation water content impacts the ability of L-band radiometers to measure surface soil moisture. Therefore it is necessary to quantify the amount of water held in surface vegetation for an accurate soil moisture remote sensing retrieval. A methodology is presented for generating agricultural vegetation water content maps using Landsat 8 scenes for agricultural fields of Iowa and Manitoba for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiments in 2016 (SMAPVEX16). Manitoba has a variety of row crops across the region, and the study period encompasses the time frame from emergence to reproduction, as well as a forested region. The Iowa study site is dominated by corn and soybeans, presenting an easier challenge. Ground collection of vegetation biomass and water content were also collected to provide a ground truth data source. Errors for the resulting vegetation water content maps ranged depending upon crop type, but generally were less than 15% of the total plant water content per crop type. Interpolation is done between Landsat overpasses to produce daily vegetation water content maps for the summer of 2016 at a 30 meter resolution.

  16. Effect of Water Content, Temperature and NaCl on CO2 Corrosion of Carbon Steel (A106B in Iraqi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ahmed Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to determine the corrosion rate of carbon steel (A 106 GradeB as flow line in crude oil production with CO2 content employing three Iraqi crude oil (Kirkuk crude oil, Halfaya crude oil, and Rumalia crude oil with identical produced water (brine [1%NaCl,2%NaCl, and 3%NaCl]. Experiments were performed in an autoclave test apparatus, crude oilproduced water mixtures, water cuts were (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 100%, and temperature (20, 40, 60°C. For all experiments, CO2 partial pressure was maintained at 4bar and rotational speed 500 rpm. The corrosion rates were determined by the weight loss method. The results revealed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased by increasing water cut and temperature, but decreased with increasing salt concentration for all types of crude oil. Rumaila crude oil exhibited the highest corrosion rate and Kirkuk crude oil exhibits the lowest corrosion rate while Halfaya crude oil exhibits a moderate corrosion rate.

  17. Interactive effects of ozone and climate on water use, soil moisture content and streamflow in a southern Appalachian forest in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. McLaughlin; S.D. Wullschleger; G. Sun; M. Nosal

    2007-01-01

    Documentation of the degree and direction of effects of ozone on transpiration of canopies of mature forest trees is critically needed to model ozone effects on forest water use and growth in a warmer future climate.Patterns of sap flow in stems and soil moisture in the rooting zones of mature trees, coupled with late-season...

  18. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy's law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  19. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-06-11

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy\\'s law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  20. Deuterium content on surface waters VI to X Chile regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena C, R; Pollastri J, A.; Suzuki S, O.

    1984-01-01

    One important parameter on any sitting study for a heavy water plant installation is the deuterium content of the feed water. Deuterium data on surface waters from differents areas located in the south of Chile, are presented. These results allow to idently some potential areas for a future heavy water plant. One of these areas, Lago Llanquihue, was sampled more in detail to study the vertical distribution and spatial variations. (Author)

  1. Decoupling Seasonal Changes in Water Content and Dry Matter to Predict Live Conifer Foliar Moisture Content.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, W. M.; Hadlow, A. M.; Huguet, K.

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples fromPinus contorta for two growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC quantifies the amou...

  2. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  3. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyabrata Santra

    2018-03-27

    Mar 27, 2018 ... of the global population (Millennium Ecosystem. Assessment 2005). Likewise, there is a .... Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop PTFs for arid soils of India to estimate soil water content at FC and PWP.

  4. Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. A sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde is being developed to meet a directly related need...

  5. Influence of free water content on the compressive mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tars with different water content, the upward section of the stress–strain curve ..... Recent work by Zhou & Hao (2008) also provide computational confirmation ... these volume change may be closely related to micro-capillarity action in the ...

  6. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker; Schenk, Jochen; Neeb, Heiko; Koblenz Univ.

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T 1 , T * 2 and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T * 2 decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T * 2 curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T Emax of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T 1 , T * 2 , total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  7. Determining the in situ water content of the Geysers Graywacke of Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, A.

    1994-12-01

    The water content, porosity and permeability measurements of the Northern California Geysers rocks are used to predict the lifetime of the geothermal resource, which provides 10% of Northern California`s electricity. The Geysers rock was drilled from defunct well SB-15-D, and some cores wee sealed in aluminum tubes to preserve the in situ water content. These cores were sent to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to measure the water content. Humidity measurements were taken of the air around a one and a half foot encased core, recovered from a depth of 918.9 feet. Over a seven day period, the humidity reached almost 100% indicating that the air around the core was saturated in water vapor. We believe the sealing method is effective, preserving the in-situ water content. To measure water content, I will use Archimede`s principle to determine the density of the core before and after drying in an oven. Ultrasonic measurements will be taken of the core upon removal from aluminum tube to determine the change of p-wave velocity with change in water content. Water in the pores increases the effective compressibility of the rock therefore increasing the p-velocity. The measured p-wave velocities can then be used in the field to determine in-situ water content. Three dimensional x-ray images will be used to determine the deviations from average density within individual cores. Since the density depends on water content as well as mineralogy, images can show the location of pore fluid and drilling mud. Archimede`s principle, humidity detection, ultrasonics and x-ray scanning are viable methods to measure the in-situ water content and pore water distribution in the graywacke.

  8. Problems of estimation of water content history of loesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendell, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The estimation of 'mean water content' is a major source of error in the TL dating of many sediments. The engineering behaviour of loesses can be used, under certain circumstances, to interfer their content history. The construction of 'stress history' for particular loesses is therefore proposed in order to establish the critical conditions of moisture and applied stress (overburden) at which irreversible structural change occurs. A programme of field and laboratory tests should enable more precise estimates of water content history to be made. (author)

  9. Wheat dough rheology at low water contents and the influence of xylanases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of low water contents and xylanases on wheat dough rheology is reported. Farinograph, dynamic oscillation, and creep-recovery measurements were performed using water concentrations from 34 to 44.8% (total basis). A water reduction from 43.5–44.8% to 34% increased resistance upon mixing as

  10. Assessment of water vapor content from MIVIS TIR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of land remotely sensed images is to derive biological, chemical and physical parameters by inverting sample sets of spectral data. For the above aim hyperspectral scanners on airborne platform are a powerful remote sensing instrument for both research and environmental applications because of their spectral resolution and the high operability of the platform. Fine spectral information by MIVIS (airborne hyperspectral scanner operating in 102 channels ranging from VIS to TIR allows researchers to characterize atmospheric parameters and their effects on measured data which produce undesirable features on surface spectral signatures. These effects can be estimated (and remotely sensed radiances corrected if atmospheric spectral transmittance is known at each image pixel. Usually ground-based punctual observations (atmospheric sounding balloons, sun photometers, etc. are used to estimate the main physical parameters (like water vapor and temperature profiles which permit us to estimate atmospheric spectral transmittance by using suitable radiative transfer model and a specific (often too strong assumption which enable atmospheric properties measured only in very few points to be extended to the whole image. Several atmospheric gases produce observable absorption features, but only water vapor strongly varies in time and space. In this work the authors customize a self-sufficient «split-window technique» to derive (at each image pixel atmospheric total columnar water vapor content (TWVC using only MIVIS data collected by the fourth MIVIS spectrometer (Thermal Infrared band. MIVIS radiances have been simulated by means of MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code and the coefficients of linear regression to estimate TWVC from «split-windows» MIVIS radiances, based on 450 atmospheric water vapor profiles obtained by radiosonde data provided by NOAANESDIS. The method has been applied to produce maps describing the spatial variability of

  11. Field, laboratory and estimated soil-water content limits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-01-21

    Jan 21, 2005 ... silt (0.002 to 0.05 mm) percentage to estimate the soil-water content at a given soil-water .... ar and br are the intercept and slope values of the regres- .... tions use the particle size classification of the South African Soil.

  12. Effect of H2O on Upper Mantle Phase Transitions in MgSiO3: is the Seismic X-discontinuity an Indicator of Mantle Water Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Jacobsen; Z Liu; T Boffa Ballaran; E Littlefield; L Ehm; R Hemley

    2011-12-31

    The mantle X-discontinuity, usually assigned to positive seismic velocity reflectors in the 260-330 km depth range, has proved difficult to explain in terms of a single mineralogical phase transformation in part because of its depth variability. The coesite to stishovite transition of SiO{sub 2} matches deeper X-discontinuity depths but requires 5-10% free silica in the mantle to match observed impedance contrast. The orthoenstatite (OEn) to high-pressure clinoenstatite (HPCen) transformation of MgSiO{sub 3} also broadly coincides with depths of the X but requires chemically depleted and orthoenstatite-rich lithology at 300 km depth in order to match observed seismic impedance contrast. On the basis of high-pressure infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy, we show that 1300 ppm variation of H{sub 2}O content in MgSiO{sub 3} can displace the transition of low-pressure clinoenstatite (LPCen) to HPCen by up to 2 GPa, similar to previous quench experiments on the OEn to HPCen phase transition, where about 30-45 km (1.0-1.5 GPa) of deflection could occur per 0.1 wt% H{sub 2}O. If the mantle X-discontinuity results from pyroxene transitions in a depleted harzburgite layer, because of the strong influence of minor amounts of water on the transformation boundary, the depth of the mantle X-discontinuity could serve as a potentially sensitive indicator of water content in the uppermantle.

  13. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

  14. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  15. Influence of water content on the inactivation of P. digitatum spores using an air-water plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youyi, HU; Weidong, ZHU; Kun, LIU; Leng, HAN; Zhenfeng, ZHENG; Huimin, HU

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate whether an air-water plasma jet is beneficial to improve the efficiency of inactivation, a series of experiments were done using a ring-needle plasma jet. The water content in the working gas (air) was accurately measured based on the Karl Fischer method. The effects of water on the production of OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) and O (3p5P-3s5S) were also studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that the water content is in the range of 2.53-9.58 mg l-1, depending on the gas/water mixture ratio. The production of OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) rises with the increase of water content, whereas the O (3p5P-3s5S) shows a declining tendency with higher water content. The sterilization experiments indicate that this air-water plasma jet inactivates the P. digitatum spores very effectively and its efficiency rises with the increase of the water content. It is possible that OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) is a more effective species in inactivation than O (3p5P-3s5S) and the water content benefit the spore germination inhibition through rising the OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) production. The maximum of the inactivation efficacy is up to 93% when the applied voltage is -6.75 kV and the water content is 9.58 mg l-1.

  16. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  17. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Schenk, Jochen [Radiologisches Institut, Koblenz (Germany); Neeb, Heiko [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Engineering and Information Processing - MTI Mittelrhein

    2012-07-01

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2} and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T{sup *}{sub 2} decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T{sup *}{sub 2} curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T {sub Emax} of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2}, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  18. Effect of irradiation on carbohydrates content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantharasakul, S.

    1971-01-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C and total acidity contents of Hom Tong banana was described. There was a slight decrease in vitamin C contents in both irradiated and non-irradiated banana during storage. No difference was detected in term of vitamin C contents between irradiated and non-irradiated banana at any storage time. The total acidity of the banana increased with increasing time of storage owing to the ripening effect of the fruit. Higher total acidity content of non-irradiated banana during storage indicated the faster rate of ripening of the fruit

  19. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  20. From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elena, Galan-del-Castillo; Esther, Velazquez

    2010-01-01

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

  1. From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elena, Galan-del-Castillo [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Esther, Velazquez [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

  2. From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan-del-Castillo, Elena [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Velazquez, Esther, E-mail: evelalo@upo.e [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

  3. Volumetric water content measurement probes in earth-dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardanis Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two frequency domain reflectometry (FDR probes have been used. They were used on compacted soils both in the laboratory and in the field. Measurements in the laboratory were intended for calibration. The range of densities and types of materials where insertion of the probes can be achieved was investigated first. The effect of sporadic presence of coarser grains and density on these calibrations, once insertion could be achieved, were investigated second. Measurements on laboratory prepared samples with the same moisture content were different when the sample was kept in the mould from when it was extruded from it. Also both these measurements were different from that in a sample of the same density but significantly larger in diameter. It was found that measurements with these probes are affected by dilation exhibited by soil around the rods of the probes during insertion. Readings immediately after insertion of the sensors on samples extruded from their moulds were the ones closer to measured values. These readings combined with total volume and mass obtained from sand-cone tests during the construction of an earth-dam allowed fairly accurate estimation of the dry unit weight but not the gravimetric water content.

  4. Density and water content measurement with two dual detector probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, J.; Menard, J.

    1980-01-01

    The ''Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussees'' have developed an electronic device for geological prospections. This system includes gamma-gamma and neutron-neutron probes for continuous measurement in borehole down to one hundred meters. It is used, as well to measure the density and the water content in the field of soil mechanic engineering. When the diameter is not constant all along the borehole the two probes have to use a dual detector procedure. When constant, a simple detector procedure is sufficient to obtain density and water content. Two examples show the possibilities of this apparatus, particularly to control the borehole diameter and the soil chemical composition [fr

  5. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven-Hangoor, van der E.; Rademaker, C.; Paton, N.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter

  6. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage

  7. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

  8. Influence of water air content on cavitation erosion in distilled water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Auret, JG

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of increased air content of the cavitating liquid (distilled water) was studied in a rotating disk test rig. A rise in the total air content including dissolved and entrained air of the water in the under saturated range resulted...

  9. Physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    domestic water with few exceptions. .... river water and groundwater quality in the area is needed ... effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A total of forty (40) sampling sites were ..... of domestic waste containing Pb from human activities at.

  10. The virtual water content of major grain crops and virtual water flows between regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Kun; Wu, Pu-Te; Wang, Yu-Bao; Zhao, Xi-Ning

    2013-04-01

    The disproportionate distribution of arable land and water resources has become a bottleneck for guaranteeing food security in China. Virtual water and virtual water trade theory have provided a potential solution to improve water resources management in agriculture and alleviate water crises in water-scarce regions. The present study evaluates the green and blue virtual water content of wheat, maize and rice at the regional scale in China. It then assesses the water-saving benefits of virtual water flows related to the transfer of the three crops between regions. The national average virtual water content of wheat, maize and rice were 1071 m(3) per ton (50.98% green water, 49.02% blue water ), 830 m(3) per ton (76.27% green water, 23.73% blue water) and 1294 m(3) per ton (61.90% green water, 38.10% blue water), respectively. With the regional transfer of wheat, maize and rice, virtual water flows reached 30.08 Gm(3) (59.91% green water, 40.09% blue water). Meanwhile, China saved 11.47 Gm(3) green water, while it consumed 7.84 Gm(3) more blue water than with a no-grain transfer scenario in 2009. In order to guarantee food security in China, the government should improve water productivity (reduce virtual water content of crops) during the grain production process. Meanwhile, under the preconditions of economic feasibility and land-water resources availability, China should guarantee the grain-sown area in southern regions for taking full advantage of green water resources and to alleviate the pressure on water resources. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. influence of molding water content on shear strength characteristic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    INFLUENCE OF MOLDING WATER CONTENT ON SHEAR STRENGTH OF COMPACTED CEMENT KILN DUST, K. J. Osinub. K. J. Osinub. K. J. Osinubi, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology,. Vol. 34, No. 2, April 2015 267 pavements or as waste containment materials. Therefore, recent studies have been geared towards.

  12. Variation in foliar water content and hyperspectral reflectance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sirex noctilio, the Eurasian wood wasp, is one of the major pests responsible for declining forest health in pine forests located in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Researchers have shown that stress induced by S. noctilio causes a rapid decrease in foliar water content, with the foliage of the tree changing from a dark green to a ...

  13. BOLE WATER CONTENT SHOWS LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATION IN CENTURY-OLD DOUGLAS-FIR TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purportedly, large Douglas-fir trees in the American Pacific Northwest use water stored in bole tissues to ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought, the water content of bole tissues being drawn down over the summer months and replenished during the winter. Continuous mo...

  14. Seasonal patterns of bole water content in old growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, old conifer trees in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), USA purportedly ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought by drawing down the water content of bole tissues over the summer months and refilling during the winter. Continuous monitoring of bole relative water conten...

  15. Estimates of Leaf Relative Water Content from Optical Polarization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plant canopies remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Existing approaches to remotely sensing canopy water status, such as the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) and the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), have limitations. The CWSI, based upon remotely sensing canopy radiant temperature in the thermal infrared spectral region, does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWT is based upon the physics of water-light interaction in the 900-2000nm spectral region, not plant physiology. Our goal, development of a remote sensing technique for estimating plant water status based upon measurements in the VIS/NIR spectral region, would potentially provide remote sensing access to plant dehydration physiology - to the cellular photochemistry and structural changes associated with water deficits in leaves. In this research, we used optical, crossed polarization filters to measure the VIS/NIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, for 78 corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) leaves having relative water contents (RWC) between 0.60 and 0.98. Our results show that as RWC decreases R increases while T decreases. Our results tie R and T changes in the VIS/NIR to leaf physiological changes - linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf - and perhaps of a plant canopy - might be possible in the future.

  16. The water content of recurring slope lineae on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Piqueux, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Observations of recurring slope lineae (RSL) from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment have been interpreted as present-day, seasonally variable liquid water flows; however, orbital spectroscopy has not confirmed the presence of liquid H2O, only hydrated salts. Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) temperature data and a numerical heat transfer model definitively constrain the amount of water associated with RSL. Surface temperature differences between RSL-bearing and dry RSL-free terrains are consistent with no water associated with RSL and, based on measurement uncertainties, limit the water content of RSL to at most 0.5–3 wt %. In addition, distinct high thermal inertia regolith signatures expected with crust-forming evaporitic salt deposits from cyclical briny water flows are not observed, indicating low water salinity (if any) and/or low enough volumes to prevent their formation. Alternatively, observed salts may be preexisting in soils at low abundances (i.e., near or below detection limits) and largely immobile. These RSL-rich surfaces experience ~100 K diurnal temperature oscillations, possible freeze/thaw cycles and/or complete evaporation on time scales that challenge their habitability potential. The unique surface temperature measurements provided by THEMIS are consistent with a dry RSL hypothesis or at least significantly limit the water content of Martian RSL.

  17. [Foliar water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis sapling under different soil water contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Yu, Xin Xiao; Chen, Li Hua; Jia, Guo Dong; Zhao, Na; Li, Han Zhi; Chang, Xiao Min

    2017-07-18

    The determination of plant foliar water use efficiency will be of great value to improve our understanding about mechanism of plant water consumption and provide important basis of regional forest ecosystem management and maintenance, thus, laboratory controlled experiments were carried out to obtain Platycladus orientalis sapling foliar water use efficiency under five different soil water contents, including instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE gs ) derived from gas exchange and short-term water use efficiency (WUE cp ) caculated using carbon isotope model. The results showed that, controlled by stomatal conductance (g s ), foliar net photosynthesis rate (P n ) and transpiration rate (T r ) increased as soil water content increased, which both reached maximum va-lues at soil water content of 70%-80% field capacity (FC), while WUE gs reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Both δ 13 C of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material achieved maximum values at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Besides, δ 13 C values of leaf water-soluble compounds were significantly greater than that of phloem exudates, indicating that there was depletion in 13 C in twig phloem compared with leaf water-soluble compounds and no obvious fractionation in the process of water-soluble material transportation from leaf to twig. Foliar WUE cp also reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). There was some difference between foliar WUE gs and WUE cp under the same condition, and the average difference was 0.52 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 . The WUE gs had great space-time variability, by contrast, WUE cp was more representative. It was concluded that P. orientalis sapling adapted to drought condition by increasing water use efficiency and decreasing physiological activity.

  18. Effects of aminoisobutyric acid on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid uptake, ethylene production and content of ACC in water-stressed tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantari, Kh.M.; Bolourani, P.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of water stress on the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis has not yet clearly been established. Both the formation and utilization of aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC, are considered to be major regulatory points in ethylene biosynthesis. There is evidence that ACC synthase is the key control enzyme in response to various stimuli associated with the induction of ethylene biosynthesis. It has been reported that aminoisobutyric acid, AIB, inhibits ethylene production in some plants and AIB may inhibit the conversion of ACC to ethylene. For this reason, the possibility of inhibition of ACC uptake in the presence of AIB was examined. It was observed that the rate of 14 C-ACC uptake decreased with an increase in the concentration of AIB in the solution. Calculating the percentage of ACC converted to ethylene on the basis of uptake shows that AIB inhibits the conversion of 14 C-ACC to ethylene and that this inhibition is increased with an increase in the concentration of AIB in the solution. This suggests that a portion of the inhibition of the conversion of ACC to ethylene in the presence of AIB is partly due to the competition for absorption. However, the ability of AIB to inhibit ethylene production in leaf tissue without an exogenous supply of ACC clearly indicates that AIB inhibits ethylene production. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in water-stressed plants and the results are discussed

  19. The effects of the calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate content in thermal mineral water on chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáti, Tamás; Tefner, Ildikó Katalin; Kovács, Lajos; Hodosi, Katalin; Bender, Tamás

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balneotherapy on chronic low back pain. This is a minimized, follow-up study evaluated according to the analysis of intention to treat. The subjects included in the study were 105 patients suffering from chronic low back pain. The control group ( n = 53) received the traditional musculoskeletal pain killer treatment, while the target group ( n = 52) attended thermal mineral water treatment for 3 weeks for 15 occasions on top of the usual musculoskeletal pain killer treatment. The following parameters were measured before, right after, and 9 weeks after the 3-week therapy: the level of low back pain in rest and the level during activity are tested using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS); specific questionnaire on the back pain (Oswestry); and a questionnaire on quality of life (EuroQual-5D). All of the investigated parameters improved significantly ( p low back pain.

  20. The effects of the calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate content in thermal mineral water on chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Gáti; Katalin, Tefner Ildikó; Lajos, Kovács; Katalin, Hodosi; Tamás, Bender

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balneotherapy on chronic low back pain. This is a minimized, follow-up study evaluated according to the analysis of intention to treat. The subjects included in the study were 105 patients suffering from chronic low back pain. The control group (n = 53) received the traditional musculoskeletal pain killer treatment, while the target group (n = 52) attended thermal mineral water treatment for 3 weeks for 15 occasions on top of the usual musculoskeletal pain killer treatment. The following parameters were measured before, right after, and 9 weeks after the 3-week therapy: the level of low back pain in rest and the level during activity are tested using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS); specific questionnaire on the back pain (Oswestry); and a questionnaire on quality of life (EuroQual-5D). All of the investigated parameters improved significantly (p chronic low back pain.

  1. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, E.; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Soil texture, in particular the clay fraction, governs numerous environmental, agricultural and engineering soil processes. Traditional measurement methods for clay content are laborious and impractical for large-scale soil surveys. Consequently, clay prediction models that are based on water...... within a RH range from 3 to 93%. The clay contents, which ranged between 1 and 56%, were measured with a combination of sieving and sedimentation methods. Two regression models were developed for both adsorption and desorption at 10 RH levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%). While the first...

  2. Water contents of clinopyroxenes from sub-arc mantle peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael; Turner, Simon; Blatter, Dawnika; Maury, Rene; Perfit, Michael; Yogodzinski, Gene

    2017-01-01

    One poorly constrained reservoir of the Earth's water budget is that of clinopyroxene in metasomatised, mantle peridotites. This study presents reconnaissance Sensitive High-Resolution, Ion Microprobe–Stable Isotope (SHRIMP–SI) determinations of the H2O contents of (dominantly) clinopyroxenes in rare mantle xenoliths from four different subduction zones, i.e. Mexico, Kamchatka, Philippines, and New Britain (Tabar-Feni island chain) as well as one intra-plate setting (western Victoria). All of the sub-arc xenoliths have been metasomatised and carry strong arc trace element signatures. Average measured H2O contents of the pyroxenes range from 70 ppm to 510 ppm whereas calculated bulk H2O contents range from 88 ppm to 3 737 ppm if the variable presence of amphibole is taken into account. In contrast, the intra-plate, continental mantle xenolith from western Victoria has higher water contents (3 447 ppm) but was metasomatised by alkali and/or carbonatitic melts and does not carry a subduction-related signature. Material similar to the sub-arc peridotites can either be accreted to the base of the lithosphere or potentially be transported by convection deeper into the mantle where it will lose water due to amphibole breakdown.

  3. Study of the effects of Cobalt 60 gamma radiations on the seeds of two textile hibiscus species. Influence of seed water content on their radiosensitivity. Mutagenic effects on two plantlet generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahama, Adamou.

    1980-10-01

    This work on textile hibiscus was undertaken for two reasons: to contribute by physical mutagenesis methods to the genetic improvement of these species and especially to obtain the genetic diversity which is seriously lacking in the species sabdariffa var. altissima; to add to research on the effects of mutagenic seed treatments and thus to help towards a better definition of optimum seed irradiation conditions. These two purposes have been fulfilled. The main results may be summed up as follows. - Concerning the improvement of textile hibiscus. Many strains with various new features were selected at the second generation and may lead either to new varieties or at least to interesting precursors for selection programmes. In the second generation derived from Hibiscus saddariffa var. THS 22 some plants were observed with one or more of the following characteristics specific to the edible form: ramified bearing - fleshy calix - smooth leaf. - Concerning the study of mutagenic seed treatment effects. Our experiments showed up the importance of the seed water content and its effect on the response of first-generation plantlets to cobalt 60 γ-ray treatments [fr

  4. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  5. Tritium content in tissue free water of Japanese bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujeno, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Aoki, T.; Kurihara, N.

    1986-01-01

    The tritium content of tissue free water was measured in fresh, non-diseased organs (brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and muscle) removed by forensic autopsy from 4 male and 4 female bodies. Tissue free water was extracted by freeze drying and distillation and tritium measured in the absence of background radon gas. A typical count was approximately 2.70 cpm. The mean tritium content of tissue free water in all the organs examined was 2.50 + - 0.67 Bq.1/sup -1/ (67.6 + -18.2 pCi1/sup -1/). This value was much lower than that obtained for tissues from Italian bodies: the value was, however, similar to that obtained for tap water (70.2 + -28.0 pCi.1/sup -1/), rain water (77.8 + - 47.4 pCi.1/sup -1/) and tissue free water of foods (55.6 + - 26.2 pCi.1/sup -1/).

  6. Inactivation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in rumen content- or feces-contaminated drinking water for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; West, Joe W; Bernard, John K; Cross, Heath G; Doyle, Michael P

    2006-05-01

    Cattle drinking water is a source of on-farm Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission. The antimicrobial activities of disinfectants to control E. coli O157:H7 in on-farm drinking water are frequently neutralized by the presence of rumen content and manure that generally contaminate the drinking water. Different chemical treatments, including lactic acid, acidic calcium sulfate, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, caprylic acid, ozone, butyric acid, sodium benzoate, and competing E. coli, were tested individually or in combination for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in the presence of rumen content. Chlorine (5 ppm), ozone (22 to 24 ppm at 5 degrees C), and competing E. coli treatment of water had minimal effects (rumen content at water-to-rumen content ratios of 50:1 (vol/wt) and lower. Four chemical-treatment combinations, including (i) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.05% caprylic acid (treatment A); (ii) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.1% sodium benzoate (treatment B); (iii) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.5% butyric acid (treatment C); and (iv) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 100 ppm chlorine dioxide (treatment D); were highly effective (>3 log CFU/ml reduction) at 21 degrees C in killing E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:NM in water heavily contaminated with rumen content (10:1 water/rumen content ratio [vol/wt]) or feces (20:1 water/feces ratio [vol/wt]). Among them, treatments A, B, and C killed >5 log CFU E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:NM/ml within 30 min in water containing rumen content or feces, whereas treatment D inactivated approximately 3 to 4 log CFU/ml under the same conditions. Cattle given water containing treatment A or C or untreated water (control) ad libitum for two 7-day periods drank 15.2, 13.8, and 30.3 liters/day, respectively, and cattle given water containing 0.1% lactic acid plus 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate (pH 2.1) drank 18.6 liters/day. The

  7. Stabilization of Aley river water content by forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Paramonov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aley river basin is one of the most developed territories in West Siberia. Initially, the development here was related to the development of ore mining in the Altai. Currently it is associated mainly with the agricultural orientation of economic development. The intensive involvement of basin lands into the economic turnover for the last 100 years contributed to the formation of a number of environmental problems, such as water and wind erosion, loss of soil fertility and salinization, and desertification of the territory. Besides, the decrease of Aley river water content due to natural and anthropogenic reasons was observed. A specific feature of water management in Aley river basin is a significant amount of water resources used for irrigation purposes and agricultural water supply. To ensure the economic and drinking water supply, two reservoirs and a number of ponds have been constructed and operate in the basin. Forest ecosystems of the basin are considered from the viewpoint of preservation and restoration of small rivers. The ability of forest to accumulate solid precipitation and intercept them during the snowmelt for a longer time reduces the surface drainage and promotes transfer into the subsurface flow, significantly influencing the water content of permanent watercourses, is shown. The state of protective forest plantations in Aley river basin is analyzed. Aley river tributaries are compared by area, the length of water flow, and forest coverage of the basin. It is proposed to regulate the runoff through drastic actions on the increase of forest cover in the plain and especially in the mountainous parts of the basin. Measures to increase the forest cover within water protection zones, afforestation of temporary and permanent river basins, and the protection of agricultural soil fertility are worked out.

  8. Empirical model to estimate the thermal conductivity of granite with various water contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Win Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Lee, Jae Owan

    2010-01-01

    To obtain the input data for the design and long-term performance assessment of a high-level waste repository, the thermal conductivities of several granite rocks which were taken from the rock cores from the declined borehole were measured. The thermal conductivities of granite were measured under the different conditions of water content to investigate the effects of the water content on the thermal conductivity. A simple empirical correlation was proposed to predict the thermal conductivity of granite as a function of effective porosity and water content which can be measured with relative ease while neglecting the possible effects of mineralogy, structure and anisotropy. The correlation could predict the thermal conductivity of granite with the effective porosity below 2.7% from the KURT site with an estimated error below 10%.

  9. Advertising effectiveness: the role of content

    OpenAIRE

    Becker , Maren

    2017-01-01

    Despite its long-standing history and many strong findings, research on advertising effectiveness still ranks high on the academic and practitioner agenda. With respect to the influence of advertising on sales, existing econometric response models mostly focus on the impact of advertising spending and scheduling. Comparatively less attention has been devoted to the specific advertising content. Even though, choosing appropriate content cues that grab consumers’ attention and persuade them bec...

  10. Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz

    2014-12-01

    The freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of

  11. Quality of Water Content, Diastase Enzyme Activity and Hidroximetilfurfural (HMF in Rubber and Rambutan Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulis Setio Toto Harjo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the water content, diastase enzyme activity and HMF of the rubber and rambutan honey. The method was a laboratory experiments with statistical analysis unpaired student t-test by two treatments and fifteen replications. The variable of this research were water content, diastase enzyme activity and HMF. The results of rubber and rambutan honey showed that there were significant difference effect (P0.05 that is 11 DN and there is a highly significant difference (P<0.01 on the HMF content of 17.23±0.54 mg/kg and 7.61±0.23 mg/kg. Rubber and rambutan honey have good quality based on the water content, diastase enzyme activity and HMF. It was concluded that the rubber and rambutan honey used were of good quality because it has met the requirements of SNI.

  12. Biochemical effects of heat shock and caffeine on post-irradiation oxic and anoxic damage in barley seeds of low and high water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Wet heat shock (60 o C, 90s) and caffeine (3.8 x 10 -4 M) afford significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O 2 -dependent damage which develops in seeds of ∼ 3.5% moisture content. The damage was assessed in terms of seedling injury on the eighth day of growth. An increase in seedling injury is clearly seen, associated with a parallel increase in the peroxidase activity. There is a concomitant decrease in the content of total peroxides. Both these post-irradiation treatments potentiate the O 2 -independent component of seedling injury, irrespective of the seed moisture content. Analysis of the peroxidase activity in the seedlings using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that two additional bands appear with the post-irradiation oxic damage. Radioprotection against this damage by caffeine, heat shock and O 2 -free post-irradiation hydration is accompanied by the disappearance of these two additional bands. (author)

  13. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yochim, April, E-mail: ayochim@regionofwaterloo.ca [Region of Waterloo Waste Management Division, 925 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2J 3Z4 (Canada); Zytner, Richard G., E-mail: rzytner@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); McBean, Edward A., E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Endres, Anthony L., E-mail: alendres@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable

  14. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yochim, April; Zytner, Richard G.; McBean, Edward A.; Endres, Anthony L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable

  15. Water content estimated from point scale to plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Binley, A. M.; Demir, G.; Abgarmi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture controls the portioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff. Here we investigate measurements of soil moisture using a range of techniques spanning different spatial scales. In order to understand soil water content in a test basin, 512 km2 in area, in the south of Turkey, a Cosmic Ray CRS200B soil moisture probe was installed at elevation of 1459 m and an ML3 ThetaProbe (CS 616) soil moisture sensor was established at 5cm depth used to get continuous soil moisture. Neutron count measurements were corrected for the changes in atmospheric pressure, atmospheric water vapour and intensity of incoming neutron flux. The calibration of the volumetric soil moisture was performed, from the laboratory analysis, the bulk density varies between 1.719 (g/cm3) -1.390 (g/cm3), and the dominant soil texture is silty clay loam and silt loamThe water content reflectometer was calibrated for soil-specific conditions and soil moisture estimates were also corrected with respect to soil temperature. In order to characterize the subsurface, soil electrical resistivity tomography was used. Wenner and Schlumberger array geometries were used with electrode spacing varied from 1m- 5 m along 40 m and 200 m profiles. From the inversions of ERT data it is apparent that within 50 m distance from the CRS200B, the soil is moderately resistive to a depth of 2m and more conductive at greater depths. At greater distances from the CRS200B, the ERT results indicate more resistive soils. In addition to the ERT surveys, ground penetrating radar surveys using a common mid-point configuration was used with 200MHz antennas. The volumetric soil moisture obtained from GPR appears to overestimate those based on TDR observations. The values obtained from CS616 (at a point scale) and CRS200B (at a mesoscale) are compared with the values obtained at a plot scale. For the field study dates (20-22.06.2017) the volumetric moisture content obtained from CS616 were 25.14%, 25.22% and 25

  16. The modelling influence of water content to mechanical parameter of soil in analysis of slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusman, M.; Nazki, A.; Putra, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    One of the parameters in slope stability analysis is the shear strength of the soil. Changes in soil shear strength characteristics lead to a decrease in safety factors on the slopes. This study aims to see the effect of increased moisture content on soil mechanical parameters. The case study study was conducted on the slopes of Sitinjau Lauik Kota Padang. The research method was done by laboratory analysis and simple liniear regression analysis and multiple. Based on the test soil results show that the increase in soil water content causes a decrease in cohesion values and internal shear angle. The relationship of moisture content to cohesion is described in equation Y = 55.713-0,6X with R2 = 0.842. While the relationship of water content to shear angle in soil is described in the equation Y = 38.878-0.258X with R2 = 0.915. From several simulations of soil water level improvement, calculation of safety factor (SF) of slope. The calculation results show that the increase of groundwater content is very significant affect the safety factor (SF) slope. SF slope values are in safe condition when moisture content is 50% and when it reaches maximum water content 73.74% slope safety factor value potentially for landslide.

  17. Variations of free gas content in water during pressure fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, A.; Zielke, W.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper an experimental programme is described in order to determine the influence of the cavitation nuclei distribution on cavitation inception. This programme has been used to measure air bubbles dimensions and number and particularly to determine the influence of quick pressure variations on the size on the number of bubbles in a pipe. An optical device counting scattered light is used as a measuring technique. Gas bubbles go through an optical control volume where they receive a high intensity light beam and scatter the light, then led to a photomultiplier; the signals are sorted and counted according to their size. If the number of nuclei, the dimensions of the control volume and the velocity of the water are known, it is possible to determine bubbles concentrations and the bulk modulus of the water. This measuring technique has been applied to a flow in a 140 mm diameter pipe with quick pressure variations from 2 bar to 0-10 bar. During the variations, the void fraction depends on the Reynolds number of the flow and on the gas content of the water. The bulk modulus has been computed with different conditions. Most results concern pressures slightly over the vapor pressure. Air content has a strong influence on cavitation and on water compressibility after a vapor cavity collapse

  18. Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, I.A.

    1976-04-01

    The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2γ is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, α, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author) [pt

  19. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  20. Radioactive contents in water Galleries Tenerife, Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Duarte Rodriguez, X.; Triguero Perez, M.; Hernandez Armas, J.; Catalan Acosta, A.

    2011-01-01

    Water consumption by humans leads to the possible incorporation into the body of existing radionuclides in it and can cause undesirable effects on human health. To avoid or reduce them, various agencies have established limits for the concentration of radioactive substances in the water so that it can be used for human consumption. (Author)

  1. Biochemical effects of heat shock and caffeine on post-irradiation oxic and anoxic damage in barley seeds of low and high water content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1991-05-01

    Wet heat shock (60{sup o}C, 90s) and caffeine (3.8 x 10{sup -4}M) afford significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O{sub 2}-dependent damage which develops in seeds of {similar to} 3.5% moisture content. The damage was assessed in terms of seedling injury on the eighth day of growth. An increase in seedling injury is clearly seen, associated with a parallel increase in the peroxidase activity. There is a concomitant decrease in the content of total peroxides. Both these post-irradiation treatments potentiate the O{sub 2}-independent component of seedling injury, irrespective of the seed moisture content. Analysis of the peroxidase activity in the seedlings using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that two additional bands appear with the post-irradiation oxic damage. Radioprotection against this damage by caffeine, heat shock and O{sub 2}-free post-irradiation hydration is accompanied by the disappearance of these two additional bands. (author).

  2. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  3. [Estimation of vegetation canopy water content using Hyperion hyperspectral data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Ning; Ma, Jian-Wei; Li, Xiao-Tao; Leng, Pei; Zhou, Fang-Cheng; Li, Shuang

    2013-10-01

    Vegetation canopy water content (VCWC) has widespread utility in agriculture, ecology and hydrology. Based on the PROSAIL model, a novel model for quantitative inversion of vegetation canopy water content using Hyperion hyperspectral data was explored. Firstly, characteristics of vegetation canopy reflection were investigated with the PROSAIL radiative transfer model, and it was showed that the first derivative at the right slope (980 - 1 070 nm) of the 970 nm water absorption feature (D98-1 070) was closely related to VCWC, and determination coefficient reached to 0.96. Then, bands 983, 993, 1 003, 1 013, 1 023, 1 033, 1 043, 1 053 and 1 063 nm of Hyperion data were selected to calculate D980-1 070, and VCWC was estimated using the proposed method. Finally, the retrieval result was verified using field measured data in Yingke oasis of the Heihe basin. It indicated that the mean relative error was 12.5%, RMSE was within 0.1 kg x m(-2) and the proposed model was practical and reliable. This study provides a more efficient way for obtaining VCWC of large area.

  4. How to quench your thirst. The effect of water-based products varying in temperature and texture, flavour, and sugar content on thirst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, van L.; Postma, E.M.; Postma, E.M.; Postma, E.M.; Boesveldt, S.

    2017-01-01

    The sensation of thirst plays an important role in the consumption of water or other fluids to rehydrate the body in order to keep bodily functions working properly. An increase in saliva secretion, wetting the mouth by ingestion of liquids, and cooling and sour components in products can alleviate

  5. The Effect of Micro-Channels in the MPL on the Predicted Membrane Water Content in a PEMFC – A Modeling Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The micro-porous layer (MPL) in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is frequently believed to constitute a barrier for the liquid water owing to its low hydraulic permeability compared to the porous substrate. When micro-channels are carved into the MPL on the side facing the catalyst layer, liq...

  6. Liquid water content variation with altitude in clouds over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cloud water content is one of the most fundamental measurements in cloud physics. Knowledge of the vertical variability of cloud microphysical characteristics is important for a variety of reasons. The profile of liquid water content (LWC) partially governs the radiative transfer for cloudy atmospheres, LWC profiles improves our understanding of processes acting to form and maintain cloud systems and may lead to improvements in the representation of clouds in numerical models. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote sensing techniques. The aim of this paper was to analyze the liquid water content (LWC) measurements in clouds, in time of the aircraft flights. The aircraft and its platform ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research is property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania. The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 m). The processed and analyzed measurements are acquired during 4 flights from Romania (Bucharest, 44°25'57″N 26°06'14″E) to Germany (Berlin 52°30'2″N 13°23'56″E) above the same region of Europe. The flight path was starting from Bucharest to the western part of Romania above Hungary, Austria at a cruse altitude between 6000-8500 m, and after 5 hours reaching Berlin. In total we acquired data during approximately 20 flight hours and we presented the vertical and horizontal LWC variations for different cloud types. The LWC values are similar for each type of cloud to values from literature. The vertical LWC profiles in the atmosphere measured during takeoff and landing of the aircraft have shown their

  7. Effect of sugar and water contents on non-expanded cassava flour extrudates Efeitos dos teores de açúcar e água em produtos extrusados não expandidos de farinha de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Ruano Ortiz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sucrose and water contents on cassava flour processed by extrusion at varied concentrations of sucrose (0-20% w/w and water (28-42% w/w were studied by applying response surface methodology. The extrusion of the mixtures was performed in a twin screw extruder fitted to a torque rheometer. The specific mechanical energy (SME dissipated inside a conical twin-screw extruder was measured. Water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and paste viscosity readings (cold viscosity (CV, peak viscosity (PV, breakdown (BD and set back (SB during a gelatinization-retrogradation cycle measured in a Rapid Visco Analyzer were determined on non-directly extruded products. The results indicated that SME and WSI decreased as a function of water and sucrose contents. WAI and pasting properties were influenced by water content. A non antiplasticizing effect of the sucrose content was observed on pasting properties, suggesting that sucrose did not reduce the availability of water available for gelatinizing cassava flour during the extrusion process. The nature of the optimum point was characterized as a saddle point for WAI, WSI, PV and BD, whereas SME showed a maximum and CV and SB a minimum. The results indicated to be valuable for the production of non-expanded cassava flour extrudates with desirable functional properties for specific end users.Foram estudados os efeitos da sacarose e da água de mistura no processamento de farinha de mandioca por extrusão. As variações de sacarose (0-20% p/p e água (28-42% p/p foram estudadas empregando-se metodologia de superfície de resposta. O processo de extrusão foi conduzido em uma extrusora de dupla rosca acoplado a um reômetro de torque. A energia mecânica específica (SME dissipada no final da extrusora foi calculada. As amostras extrusadas foram analisadas quanto aos índices de absorção de água (WAI e de solubilidade em água (WSI, e quanto às propriedades de pasta durante o

  8. The Effect of Supplemental Irrigation on Canopy Temperature Depression, Chlorophyll Content, and Water Use Efficiency in Three Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum Desf. Varieties Grown in Dry Regions of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latief A. Al-Ghzawi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One critical challenge facing the world is the need to satisfy the food requirements of the dramatically growing population. Drought stress is one of the main limiting factors in the wheat-producing regions; therefore, wheat yield stability is a major objective of wheat-breeding programs in Jordan, which experience fluctuating climatic conditions in the context of global climate change. In the current study, a two-year field experiment was conducted for exploring the effect of four different water regimes on the yield, yield components, and stability of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; T. durum Desf. Jordanian cultivars as related to Canopy Temperature Depression (CTD, and Chlorophyll Content (measured by Soil-Plant Analysis Development, SPAD. A split plot design was used in this experiment with four replicates. Water treatment was applied as the main factor: with and without supplemental irrigation; 0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of field capacity were applied. Two durum wheat cultivars and one bread wheat cultivar were split over irrigation treatments as a sub factor. In both growing seasons, supplemental irrigation showed a significant increase in grain yield compared to the rain-fed conditions. This increase in grain yield was due to the significantly positive effect of water availability on yield components. Values of CTD, SPAD, harvest index, and water use efficiency (WUE were increased significantly with an increase in soil moisture and highly correlated with grain yield. Ammon variety produced the highest grain yield across the four water regimes used in this study. This variety was characterized by the least thermal time to maturity and the highest values of CTD and SPAD. It was concluded that Ammon had the highest stability among the cultivars tested. Furthermore, CTD and SPAD can be used as important selection parameters in breeding programs in Jordan to assist in developing high-yielding genotypes under drought and heat stress conditions.

  9. Effects of biocides on chlorophyll contents of detached basil leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titima Arunrangsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides and insecticides have been widely and intensively used in agricultural areas worldwide to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides cause serious environmental problems. In addition, the biocides may also have some effects on the treated agricultural crops. To study effects of biocides on chlorophyll content in detached basil leaves, 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (2,4 D-Amine, paraquat, carbosulfan, and azadirachtin, were chosen as representatives of biocide. After applying the chemicals to detached basil leaves overnight in darkness, chlorophyll contents were determined. Only treatment with 2,4 D-Amine resulted in reduction of chlorophyll contents significantly compared to treatment with deionized (DI water. In the case of paraquat and carbosulfan, chlorophyll contents were not significantly changed, while slightly higher chlorophyll contents, compared to DI water, after the treatment with azadirachtin, were observed. The results indicated that 2,4 D-Amine shows an ability to accelerate chlorophyll degradation, but azadirachtin helps to retard chlorophyll degradation, when each biocide is used at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.

  10. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Nevzorov Total Condensed Water Content Sensor dataset was collected by the Nevzorov total condensed water content sensor which was used to measure...

  11. Water solubility in monzogranite melts: experimental and calculated water contents at 6 kbar

    OpenAIRE

    García Moreno, Olga; Castro Dorado, Antonio; Corretgé, Luis Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Several piston-cylinder crystallisation experiments have been performed with a synthetic monzogranitic glass with different initial water contents at 6 kbar. Comparison with calculated water contents shows: 1) some differences of the order of 10% of XH2Q; 2) "non-linear" behaviour in XH2C/T curves; and 3) similar pattern in the XH2JT curves in both measured and calculated data. Resumen Se han realizado varios experimentos de cristalización en aparatos "piston-cylinder" a 6 kbar, u...

  12. THE STUDIES OF METAL CONTENT IN PRECIPITATION WATER IN LUBELSKIE AND LUBUSKIE VOIVODESHIPS IN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Malec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the studies of metal content in precipitation water in 2013, recorded at measuring points within Lubelskie and Lubuskie Voivodeships. It provides a detailed description of the method of collecting and analysing water samples in respect of light- and heavy-metal determination. Based on the results, a general assessment was made of the condition of the environment in the areas in question. Also, the sources of pollution in wet precipitation, and the effects of their introduction into the environment, were determined. It was found that the main pollution elements of precipitation water were linked to anthropogenic sources. The study also established that precipitation water, especially in the sparsely industrialised Włodawa region in the Lubelskie Voivodeship, had generally low pollution levels. It was also noted that in 2013, due to low total precipitation, the environmental impact of metal content was lower than in the preceding years.

  13. Application of Titanium Compounds to Reduce Fluoride Ion in Water Resources with High Fluoride Ion Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Riahi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes studies on the sorption of fluoride ions from water by titanium compounds used in water treatment to reduce fluoride content in water resources. There are different methods of reducing fluoride ion in water, each associated with specific problems such as secondary contamination, environmental contamination, high costs, or the need for primary and secondary treatment. In this study, application of titanium sulfate and Metatitanic acid produced from titanium ore concentrate (ileminite is investigated in the removal of fluoride ion and the possibility of complete purification of fluorine containing wastewater is examined to determine the optimal conditions. Metatitanic acid has a great sorption property for fluoride ion. Also titanium sulfate is a suitable and more effective material for this purpose. Efficiency of this material in reducing fluoride ion content is 99.9% and it is possible to refresh sorbet material for reuse without problems arising from Ti+4 ion contamination.

  14. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  15. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p < 0.0001). Moreover, bottled water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p < 0.05). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  16. Effects of oxygen and water content on microbial distribution in the polyurethane foam cubes of a biofilter for SO2 removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingying; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin; Wang, Yanjie

    2018-01-01

    The performance of a biofilter for off-gas treatment relies on the activity of microorganisms and adequate O 2 and H 2 O. In present study, a microelectrode was applied to analyze O 2 in polyurethane foam cubes (PUFCs) packed in a biofilter for SO 2 removal. The O 2 distribution varied with the density and water-containing rate (WCR) of PUFCs. The O 2 concentration dropped sharply from 10.2 to 0.8mg/L from the surface to the center of a PUFC with 97.20% of WCR. The PUFCs with high WCR presented aerobic-anoxic-aerobic areas. Three-dimensional simulated images demonstrated that the structure of PUFCs with high WCR consisted of an aerobic "shell" and an anoxic "core", with high-density PUFCs featuring a larger anoxic area than low-density PUFCs. Moreover, the H 2 O distribution in the PUFC was uneven and affected the O 2 concentration. Whereas aerobic bacteria were observed in the PUFC surface, facultative anaerobic microorganisms were found at the PUFC core, where the O 2 concentration was relatively low. O 2 and H 2 O distributions differed in the PUFCs, and the distribution of microorganisms varied accordingly. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Propagation of errors from a null balance terahertz reflectometer to a sample's relative water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Zafiropoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    The THz water content index of a sample is defined and advantages in using such metric in estimating a sample's relative water content are discussed. The errors from reflectance measurements performed at two different THz frequencies using a quasi-optical null-balance reflectometer are propagated to the errors in estimating the sample water content index.

  18. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  19. Increases in soil water content after the mortality of non-native trees in oceanic island forest ecosystems are due to reduced water loss during dry periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuto; Kachi, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The control of dominant, non-native trees can alter the water balance of soils in forest ecosystems via hydrological processes, which results in changes in soil water environments. To test this idea, we evaluated the effects of the mortality of an invasive tree, Casuarina equisetifolia Forst., on the water content of surface soils on the Ogasawara Islands, subtropical islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, using a manipulative herbicide experiment. Temporal changes in volumetric water content of surface soils at 6 cm depth at sites where all trees of C. equisetifolia were killed by herbicide were compared with those of adjacent control sites before and after their mortality with consideration of the amount of precipitation. In addition, the rate of decrease in the soil water content during dry periods and the rate of increase in the soil water content during rainfall periods were compared between herbicide and control sites. Soil water content at sites treated with herbicide was significantly higher after treatment than soil water content at control sites during the same period. Differences between initial and minimum values of soil water content at the herbicide sites during the drying events were significantly lower than the corresponding differences in the control quadrats. During rainfall periods, both initial and maximum values of soil water contents in the herbicided quadrats were higher, and differences between the maximum and initial values did not differ between the herbicided and control quadrats. Our results indicated that the mortality of non-native trees from forest ecosystems increased water content of surface soils, due primarily to a slower rate of decrease in soil water content during dry periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying the effects of green waste compost application, water content and nitrogen fertilization on nitrous oxide emissions in 10 agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xia; Silva, Lucas C R; Doane, Timothy A; Wu, Ning; Horwath, William R

    2013-01-01

    Common management practices, such as the application of green waste compost, soil moisture manipulation, and nitrogen fertilization, affect nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from agricultural soils. To expand our understanding of how soils interact with these controls, we studied their effects in 10 agricultural soils. Application of compost slightly increased NO emissions in soils with low initial levels of inorganic N and low background emission. For soils in which compost caused a decrease in emission, this decrease was larger than any of the observed increases in the other soils. The five most important factors driving emission across all soils, in order of increasing importance, were native dissolved organic carbon (DOC), treatment-induced change in DOC, native inorganic N, change in pH, and soil iron (Fe). Notable was the prominence of Fe as a regulator of NO emission. In general, compost is a viable amendment, considering the agronomic benefits it provides against the risk of producing a small increase in NO emissions. However, if soil properties and conditions are taken into account, management can recognize the potential effect of compost and thereby reduce NO emissions from susceptible soils, particularly by avoiding application of compost under wet conditions and together with ammonium fertilizer. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  2. Relating soil microbial activity to water content and tillage-induced differences in soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Petersen, Søren O

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have identified optima in soil water content for aerobic microbial activity, and this has been ascribed to a balance between gas and solute diffusivity as limiting processes. We investigated the role of soil structure, as created by different tillage practices (moldboard ploughing......, MP, or shallow tillage, ST), in regulating net nitrification, applied here as an index of aerobic microbial activity. Intact soil cores were collected at 0–4 and 14–18 cm depth from a fine sandy (SAND) and a loamy (LOAM) soil. The cores were drained to one of seven matric potentials ranging from − 15...... content to a maximum and then decreased. This relationship was modelled with a second order polynomium. Model parameters did not show any tillage effect on the optimum water content, but the optimum coincided with a lower matric potential in ST (SAND: − 140 to –197 hPa; LOAM: − 37 to − 65 hPa) than in MP...

  3. The use of Wenner configuration to monitor soil water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agodzo, S.K.; Okyere, P.Y.; Kusi-Appiah, K.

    2004-01-01

    A field investigation of the relationship between soil resistivity R s and soil water content WC was conducted using the 4-probe Wenner Configuration Method WCM. The WCM is traditionally used by electrical engineers for earth testing but was adapted for use as a soil water monitor in this study. Calibration curves were established between R s and WC, demonstrating that the earth tester can be used for such measurements. Power correlation (R s = k WC n ) with r 2 values of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.97 were obtained for electrode spacing of 1400, 1300 and 1200 cm respectively. Linear correlation (R s = c WC + d) yielded r 2 values 0.68, 0.87 and 0.99 for 1400, 1300 and 1200 cm, respectively. Generally, both the linear and power relationships get weaker with increasing spacing between electrodes. However, the power relationship holds better at higher electrode spacing while the linear relationship holds better at lower electrode spacing. The bulky nature of the equipment rendered the measurements cumbersome. It must be noted that electrode spacing of between 12 to 14 m will affect the spatial variability of the soil. This must have accounted for the weaker correlation as the electrode spacing increased, considering that the theory on which the earth tester is based assumes a homogeneous soil. (author)

  4. Multiscale Bayesian neural networks for soil water content estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Raghavendra B.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Springer, Everett P.

    2008-08-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been used for some time now to estimate soil hydraulic parameters from other available or more easily measurable soil properties. However, most such uses of ANNs as pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been at matching spatial scales (1:1) of inputs and outputs. This approach assumes that the outputs are only required at the same scale as the input data. Unfortunately, this is rarely true. Different hydrologic, hydroclimatic, and contaminant transport models require soil hydraulic parameter data at different spatial scales, depending upon their grid sizes. While conventional (deterministic) ANNs have been traditionally used in these studies, the use of Bayesian training of ANNs is a more recent development. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian framework to derive soil water retention function including its uncertainty at the point or local scale using PTFs trained with coarser-scale Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO)-based soil data. The approach includes an ANN trained with Bayesian techniques as a PTF tool with training and validation data collected across spatial extents (scales) in two different regions in the United States. The two study areas include the Las Cruces Trench site in the Rio Grande basin of New Mexico, and the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) hydrology experimental region in Oklahoma. Each region-specific Bayesian ANN is trained using soil texture and bulk density data from the SSURGO database (scale 1:24,000), and predictions of the soil water contents at different pressure heads with point scale data (1:1) inputs are made. The resulting outputs are corrected for bias using both linear and nonlinear correction techniques. The results show good agreement between the soil water content values measured at the point scale and those predicted by the Bayesian ANN-based PTFs for both the study sites. Overall, Bayesian ANNs coupled with nonlinear bias correction are found to be very suitable tools for deriving soil

  5. A global sensitivity analysis of crop virtual water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Tuninetti, M.; D'Odorico, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2015-12-01

    The concepts of virtual water and water footprint are becoming widely used in the scientific literature and they are proving their usefulness in a number of multidisciplinary contexts. With such growing interest a measure of data reliability (and uncertainty) is becoming pressing but, as of today, assessments of data sensitivity to model parameters, performed at the global scale, are not known. This contribution aims at filling this gap. Starting point of this study is the evaluation of the green and blue virtual water content (VWC) of four staple crops (i.e. wheat, rice, maize, and soybean) at a global high resolution scale. In each grid cell, the crop VWC is given by the ratio between the total crop evapotranspiration over the growing season and the crop actual yield, where evapotranspiration is determined with a detailed daily soil water balance and actual yield is estimated using country-based data, adjusted to account for spatial variability. The model provides estimates of the VWC at a 5x5 arc minutes and it improves on previous works by using the newest available data and including multi-cropping practices in the evaluation. The model is then used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, in order to evaluate the role of model parameters in affecting the VWC and to understand how uncertainties in input data propagate and impact the VWC accounting. In each cell, small changes are exerted to one parameter at a time, and a sensitivity index is determined as the ratio between the relative change of VWC and the relative change of the input parameter with respect to its reference value. At the global scale, VWC is found to be most sensitive to the planting date, with a positive (direct) or negative (inverse) sensitivity index depending on the typical season of crop planting date. VWC is also markedly dependent on the length of the growing period, with an increase in length always producing an increase of VWC, but with higher spatial variability for rice than for

  6. Evaluation of surface nuclear magnetic resonance-estimated subsurface water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Petke, M; Dlugosch, R; Yaramanci, U

    2011-01-01

    The technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has found widespread use in geophysical applications for determining rock properties (e.g. porosity and permeability) and state variables (e.g. water content) or to distinguish between oil and water. NMR measurements are most commonly made in the laboratory and in boreholes. The technique of surface NMR (or magnetic resonance sounding (MRS)) also takes advantage of the NMR phenomenon, but by measuring subsurface rock properties from the surface using large coils of some tens of meters and reaching depths as much as 150 m. We give here a brief review of the current state of the art of forward modeling and inversion techniques. In laboratory NMR a calibration is used to convert measured signal amplitudes into water content. Surface NMR-measured amplitudes cannot be converted by a simple calibration. The water content is derived by comparing a measured amplitude with an amplitude calculated for a given subsurface water content model as input for a forward modeling that must account for all relevant physics. A convenient option to check whether the measured signals are reliable or the forward modeling accounts for all effects is to make measurements in a well-defined environment. Therefore, measurements on top of a frozen lake were made with the latest-generation surface NMR instruments. We found the measured amplitudes to be in agreement with the calculated amplitudes for a model of 100 % water content. Assuming then both the forward modeling and the measurement to be correct, the uncertainty of the model is calculated with only a few per cent based on the measurement uncertainty.

  7. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  8. Effect of the scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuhua; Liu, Zhenfa; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Haihua

    2017-09-01

    A scale inhibitor was synthesized from polysuccinimide with 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid and aspartic acid. The effect of scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination was studied. The results showed that the ion content of permeate water is lower with the scale inhibitor added in RO system for seawater desalination than without scale inhibitor. On the contrary, the ion content of concentrate water is higher when with scale inhibitor in RO system.

  9. Spatio-temporal variability of soil water content on the local scale in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, North Eastern Spain). How different spatio-temporal scales reflect mean soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Antonio J.; Latron, Jérôme; Rubio, Carles M.; Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    As a result of complex human-land interactions and topographic variability, many Mediterranean mountain catchments are covered by agricultural terraces that have locally modified the soil water content dynamic. Understanding these local-scale dynamics helps us grasp better how hydrology behaves on the catchment scale. Thus, this study examined soil water content variability in the upper 30 cm of the soil on a Mediterranean abandoned terrace in north-east Spain. Using a dataset of high spatial (regular grid of 128 automatic TDR probes at 2.5 m intervals) and temporal (20-min time step) resolution, gathered throughout a 84-day period, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water content at the local scale and the way that different spatio-temporal scales reflect the mean soil water content were investigated. Soil water content spatial variability and its relation to wetness conditions were examined, along with the spatial structuring of the soil water content within the terrace. Then, the ability of single probes and of different combinations of spatial measurements (transects and grids) to provide a good estimate of mean soil water content on the terrace scale was explored by means of temporal stability analyses. Finally, the effect of monitoring frequency on the magnitude of detectable daily soil water content variations was studied. Results showed that soil water content spatial variability followed a bimodal pattern of increasing absolute variability with increasing soil water content. In addition, a linear trend of decreasing soil water content as the distance from the inner part of the terrace increased was identified. Once this trend was subtracted, resulting semi-variograms suggested that the spatial resolution examined was too high to appreciate spatial structuring in the data. Thus, the spatial pattern should be considered as random. Of all the spatial designs tested, the 10 × 10 m mesh grid (9 probes) was considered the most suitable option for a good

  10. Saline-boron stress in northern Chile olive accessions: water relations, B and Cl contents and impact on plant growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Hugo; Lara, Nelson; Zapata, Yubinza; Urbina, Camilo; Rodriguez, Manuel; Figueroa, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    H. Escobar, N. Lara, Y. Zapata, C. Urbina, M. Rodriguez, and L. Figueroa. 2013. Saline-boron stress in northern Chile olive accessions: water relations, B and Cl contents and impact on plant growth. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(3): 597-607. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of saline-boron stress on the vegetative growth, dry leaf weight, water potential (Ψw), relative water content, and leaf and root B and Cl- contents in 8 accessions of olive. Rooted one-year-old plants were culti...

  11. Thermo physical properties of lateritic soil bricks: Influence of water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, P.; Noumowe, A.; Kofane, T.C.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental study carried out in order to determine the properties of local materials used as construction materials. Cement stabilized compressed bricks were tested. The thermal properties of lateritic soil based materials were determined. The objectives of work reported in this paper are to determine the effect of addition of pozzolan or sawdust in lateritic soil brick on the thermal properties. It was shown that the effect of the incorporation of pozzolan or sawdust is the decreasing of the thermal conductivity and density. The moisture content of these materials can modify their thermal performance. Thus a study of the influence of the water content on the thermal conductivity k and the thermal diffusivity a is presented. The thermal conductivity, as a function of water content, increases rapidly between O% and 12% for lateritic soil. The thermal diffusivity curve presents a maximum for values of water content of 15% for lateritic soil and 8% for lateritic soil-pozzolan or lateritic soil- sawdust. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Relationships between Chlorophyll a, b and Chlorophyll Content Index under Water Stress in Olea europaea cv. Dezful

    OpenAIRE

    E. Khaleghi; K. Arzani; N. Moallemi; M. Barzegar

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine effect of water stress on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter in young `Dezful- olive trees. Three irrigation regimes (40% ETcrop, 65% ETcrop and 100% ETcrop) were used. After irrigation treatments were applied, some of biochemical parameters including chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence and also chlorophyll content index (C.C.I) were measured. Results of Analysis of variance showed that irrigation treatmen...

  13. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  14. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; Rademaker, C J; Paton, N D; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-07-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter were evaluated as additional quality measures. The dietary treatments consisted of nonstarch polysaccharide content (NSP; corn vs. wheat), particle size of insoluble fiber (coarse vs. finely ground oat hulls), viscosity of a nonfermentable fiber (low- and high-viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose), inclusion of a clay mineral (sepiolite), and inclusion of a laxative electrolyte (MgSO4). The 8 treatments were randomly assigned to cages within blocks, resulting in 12 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Limited effects of the dietary treatments were noted on excreta and litter water activity, and indications were observed that this measurement is limited in high-moisture samples. Increasing dietary NSP content by feeding a corn-based diet (low NSP) compared with a wheat-based diet (high NSP) increased water intake, excreta moisture and free water, and litter moisture content. Adding insoluble fibers to the wheat-based diet reduced excreta and litter moisture content, as well as litter water activity. Fine grinding of the oat hulls diminished the effect on litter moisture and water activity. However, excreta moisture and free water content were similar when fed finely or coarsely ground oat hulls. The effects of changing viscosity and adding a clay mineral or laxative deviated from results observed in previous studies. Findings of the current experiment indicate a potential for excreta free water measurement as an additional parameter to assess excreta quality besides total moisture. The exact implication of this parameter warrants further investigation. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Measuring Leaf Water Content Using Multispectral Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, S.; Vastaranta, M.; Linnakoski, R.; Sugano, J.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppä, H.; Hyyppä, J.

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is increasing the amount and intensity of disturbance events, i.e. drought, pest insect outbreaks and fungal pathogens, in forests worldwide. Leaf water content (LWC) is an early indicator of tree stress that can be measured remotely using multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (MS-TLS). LWC affects leaf reflectance in the shortwave infrared spectrum which can be used to predict LWC from spatially explicit MS-TLS intensity data. Here, we investigated the relationship between LWC and MS-TLS intensity features at 690 nm, 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths with Norway spruce seedlings in greenhouse conditions. We found that a simple ratio of 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths was able to explain 84 % of the variation (R2) in LWC with a respective prediction accuracy of 0.0041 g/cm2. Our results showed that MS-TLS can be used to estimate LWC with a reasonable accuracy in environmentally stable conditions.

  16. MEASURING LEAF WATER CONTENT USING MULTISPECTRAL TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Junttila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is increasing the amount and intensity of disturbance events, i.e. drought, pest insect outbreaks and fungal pathogens, in forests worldwide. Leaf water content (LWC is an early indicator of tree stress that can be measured remotely using multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (MS-TLS. LWC affects leaf reflectance in the shortwave infrared spectrum which can be used to predict LWC from spatially explicit MS-TLS intensity data. Here, we investigated the relationship between LWC and MS-TLS intensity features at 690 nm, 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths with Norway spruce seedlings in greenhouse conditions. We found that a simple ratio of 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths was able to explain 84 % of the variation (R2 in LWC with a respective prediction accuracy of 0.0041 g/cm2. Our results showed that MS-TLS can be used to estimate LWC with a reasonable accuracy in environmentally stable conditions.

  17. Honey irradiation: effect on hydroxymethylfurfural content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cova, M. C.; Narvaiz, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiations can be used to inactivate thermo resistant microorganisms in honey, improving its hygienic and sanitary quality. 'American foulbrood' is a disease caused by the sporulated bacteria Paenibacillus larvae larvae which affects bees, diminishes honey production and impairs trade. Clostridium botulinum spores can also be present in honey and cause the disease in very young children. Considering that ionizing radiation can modify molecules, this work was undertaken to evaluate its effect on hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content along storage time. HMF is an aldehyde produced as sugars degrade due to excessive heating and/or time, so it is regulated as a freshness indicator in honey. Two varieties of honey, one fluid and the other creamy, of a commercial high quality brand were packaged in polypropylene recipes and stored at room temperature for 14 months. Irradiation was carried out at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre, about 600,000 Ci of activity, at doses of 0, 10, 20 and 40 kilo Grays, dose rate: 10 kGy/h, dose uniformity:1.1. HMF values, measured according to White ´s spectrophotometric method, increased along storage time in every sample. Irradiation initially diminished HMF content irrespective of dose, trend which was maintained throughout the storage period in creamy honey. Instead, in fluid honey since the fourth month the slopes corresponding to the irradiated samples curves were greater than that of the control one, as a function of dose, rendering higher HMF values in the 40 kGy sample as compared with control since the 10 th storage month. Possibly the prevailing first irradiation effect during storage time is HMF breakdown, followed by enhanced synthesis. (author) [es

  18. [Spectrum Variance Analysis of Tree Leaves Under the Condition of Different Leaf water Content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Tai-sheng; Pan, Li-xin

    2015-07-01

    Leaf water content is an important factor affecting tree spectral characteristics. So Exploring the leaf spectral characteristics change rule of the same tree under the condition of different leaf water content and the spectral differences of different tree leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content are not only the keys of hyperspectral vegetation remote sensing information identification but also the theoretical support of research on vegetation spectrum change as the differences in leaf water content. The spectrometer was used to observe six species of tree leaves, and the reflectivity and first order differential spectrum of different leaf water content were obtained. Then, the spectral characteristics of each tree species leaves under the condition of different leaf water content were analyzed, and the spectral differences of different tree species leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content were compared to explore possible bands of the leaf water content identification by hyperspectral remote sensing. Results show that the spectra of each tree leaf have changed a lot with the change of the leaf water content, but the change laws are different. Leaf spectral of different tree species has lager differences in some wavelength range under the condition of same leaf water content, and it provides some possibility for high precision identification of tree species.

  19. Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface

  20. Pressure drop, steam content and turbulent cross exchange in water/steam flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichel, H.

    1978-01-01

    For describing the behaviour of two-phase flows of water and steam with the help of calculating patterns, a number of empirical correlations are required. - In this article, correlations for the friction pressure drop in water/steam flows are compared, as well as for the steam mass and the volumetric steam content with each other and with the test results on simple geometries. As the mutual effect between cooling chanels plays an important part at the longitudinal flow through bar bundles, the appertaining equations are evaluated, in addition. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  1. Remote sensing of leaf, canopy and vegetation water contents for satellite climate data records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar water content is a dynamic quantity depending on water losses from transpiration and water uptake from the soil. Absorption of shortwave radiation by water is determined by various frequency overtones of fundamental bending and stretching molecular transitions. Leaf water potential and rela...

  2. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2017-10-26

    There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC). Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWP fat . Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWP protein . For NWP Fe, Zn and Ca , dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant ( p > 0.05). While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density), climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  3. Organic matter and soil water content influence on BRS 188 castor bean growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has been highlighted due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) were used regressions. The castor bean cultivar height was significantly influenced by the organic matter content only after 80 days. Castor bean height increased significantly with the soil water content after 40 days of growing. (author)

  4. Fluoride content in water in and around heavy water plant Manuguru colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Dubey, S.K.; Reddy, A.R.; Ravi Kumar, T.S.P.; Selvaraj, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fluoride concentration in water used for human consumption has significant importance with respect to its toxic effects. Hence there was a need for analysing fluoride concentration in drinking water primarily used at Heavy water Plant, Manuguru (HWP (M)) colony and its nearby villages. We found that at HWP (M) colony there is not much variation in the fluoride concentration. However, nearby villages are having wide variation from 0.79 to 5.1 ppm. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  5. Modeling soil water content for vegetation modeling improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfrani, Carmen; Buri, Aline; Zingg, Barbara; Vittoz, Pascal; Verrecchia, Eric; Guisan, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is known to be important for plants as it affects the physiological processes regulating plant growth. Therefore, SWC controls plant distribution over the Earth surface, ranging from deserts and grassland to rain forests. Unfortunately, only a few data on SWC are available as its measurement is very time consuming and costly and needs specific laboratory tools. The scarcity of SWC measurements in geographic space makes it difficult to model and spatially project SWC over larger areas. In particular, it prevents its inclusion in plant species distribution model (SDMs) as predictor. The aims of this study were, first, to test a new methodology allowing problems of the scarcity of SWC measurements to be overpassed and second, to model and spatially project SWC in order to improve plant SDMs with the inclusion of SWC parameter. The study was developed in four steps. First, SWC was modeled by measuring it at 10 different pressures (expressed in pF and ranging from pF=0 to pF=4.2). The different pF represent different degrees of soil water availability for plants. An ensemble of bivariate models was built to overpass the problem of having only a few SWC measurements (n = 24) but several predictors to include in the model. Soil texture (clay, silt, sand), organic matter (OM), topographic variables (elevation, aspect, convexity), climatic variables (precipitation) and hydrological variables (river distance, NDWI) were used as predictors. Weighted ensemble models were built using only bivariate models with adjusted-R2 > 0.5 for each SWC at different pF. The second step consisted in running plant SDMs including modeled SWC jointly with the conventional topo-climatic variable used for plant SDMs. Third, SDMs were only run using the conventional topo-climatic variables. Finally, comparing the models obtained in the second and third steps allowed assessing the additional predictive power of SWC in plant SDMs. SWC ensemble models remained very good, with

  6. A scheme for parameterizing ice cloud water content in general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Donner, Leo J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for specifying ice water content in GCMs is developed, based on theory and in-cloud measurements. A theoretical development of the conceptual precipitation model is given and the aircraft flights used to characterize the ice mass distribution in deep ice clouds is discussed. Ice water content values derived from the theoretical parameterization are compared with the measured values. The results demonstrate that a simple parameterization for atmospheric ice content can account for ice contents observed in several synoptic contexts.

  7. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate information on the dry end (matric potential less than −1500 kPa) of soil water retention curves (SWRCs) is crucial for studying water vapor transport and evaporation in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of the Oswin model for describing the water adsorption...... curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...... for soils dominated by 2:1 and 1:1 clays, respectively. Comparison of the Oswin model combined with the Kelvin equation, with water potential estimated from θRH50 (Oswin-KRH50), CS model combined with the Arthur equation (CS-A), and CS-K model, with water potential obtained from θRH50 (CS-KRH50) indicated...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of sodium vanadium oxide gels: the effects of water (n) and sodium (x) content on the electrochemistry of Na(x)V2O5·nH2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Marschilok, Amy C; Subramanian, Aditya; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2011-10-28

    Sodium vanadium oxide gels, Na(x)V(2)O(5)·nH(2)O, of varying sodium content (0.12 n > 0.01) and interlayer spacing were found to be inversely proportional to the sodium level (x), thus control of sodium (x) content provided a direct, chimie douce approach for control of hydration level (n) and interlayer spacing, without the need for high temperature treatment to affect dehydration. Notably, the use of high temperatures to modify hydration levels can result in crystallization and collapse of the interlayer structure, highlighting the distinct advantage of our novel chimie douce synthesis strategy. Subsequent to synthesis and characterization, results from an electrochemical study of a series of Na(x)V(2)O(5)·nH(2)O samples highlight the significant impact of interlayer water on delivered capacity of the layered materials. Specifically, the sodium vanadium oxide gels with higher sodium content and lower water content provided higher capacities in lithium based cells, where capacity delivered to 2.0 V under C/20 discharge ranged from 170 mAh/g for Na(0.12)V(2)O(5)·0.23H(2)O to 300 mAh/g for Na(0.32)V(2)O(5)·0.01H(2)O. The capacity differences were maintained as the cells were cycled. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  9. Observation and Modelling of Soil Water Content Towards Improved Performance Indicators of Large Irrigation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbassi, Kamal; Akdim, Nadia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation performance may be evaluated for different objectives such as equity, adequacy, or effectiveness. We are using two performance indicators: IP2 measures the consistency of the allocation of the irrigation water with gross Crop Water requirements, while IP3 measures the effectiveness of irrigation by evaluating the increase in crop transpiration between the case of no irrigation and the case of different levels of irrigation. To evaluate IP3 we need to calculate the soil water balance for the two cases. We have developed a system based on the hydrological model SWAP (Soil Water atmosphere Plant) to calculate spatial and temporal patterns of crop transpiration T(x, y, t) and of the vertical distribution of soil water content θ(x, y, z, t). On one hand, in the absence of ground measurement of soil water content to validate and evaluate the precision of the estimated one, a possibility would be to use satellite retrievals of top soil water content, such as the data to be provided by SMAP. On the other hand, to calculate IP3 we need root zone rather than top soil water content. In principle, we could use the model SWAP to establish a relationship between the top soil and root zone water content. Such relationship could be a simple empirical one or a data assimilation procedure. In our study area (Doukkala- Morocco) we have assessed the consistency of the water allocation with the actual irrigated area and crop water requirements (CWR) by using a combination of multispectral satellite image time series (i,e RapidEye (REIS), SPOT4 (HRVIR1) and Landsat 8 (OLI) images acquired during the 2012/2013 agricultural season). To obtain IP2 (x, y, t) we need to determine ETc (x, y, t). We have applied two (semi)empirical approaches: the first one is the Kc-NDVI method, based on the correlation between the Near Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the value of crop coefficient (kc); the second one is the analytical approach based on the direct application of Penman

  10. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391  mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

  11. Capillary and sorbed water content in wood as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olek, W.; Baranowska, H.M.; Guzenda, R.; Olszewski, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Water content in wood has been studied by NMR technique. The spin-spin relaxation time has been measured for distinguish the capillary and sorbed water. The qualitative and quantitative determination have been possible by means of proposed method

  12. Advective and atmospheric forced changes in heat and fresh water content in the Norwegian Sea, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Kjell Arne; Skagseth, Øystein; Ivshin, Victor; Ozhigin, Vladimir; Hughes, Sarah L.; Valdimarsson, Hédinn

    2014-09-01

    Climate variability in the Norwegian Sea was investigated in terms of ocean heat and fresh water contents of Atlantic water above a reference surface, using hydrographic data during spring 1951-2010. The main processes acting on this variability were examined and then quantified. The area-averaged water mass cooled and freshened, but a deepening of the reference surface resulted in a positive trend in the heat content of 0.3 W m-2. Air-sea heat fluxes explained about half of the interannual variability in heat content. The effect of the advection of Atlantic and Arctic waters on the variability varied with time, apparently due to large-scale changes in the ocean circulation. The data are consistent with the explanation that changing wind patterns caused buffering and then release of Arctic water in the Iceland Sea during the late 1960s to early 1970s, and this caused large hydrographic changes in the Norwegian Sea.

  13. Heavy metal contents and other physical quality indices of sewerage, canal and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Sattar, A.; Ihsanullash; Atta, S.; Arif, S. University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Cd, Pb and Cu in canal, sewerage and drinking water by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) is described. Other quality indices of water such as temperature, pH, EC and total solid were also determined. The levels of heavy metal contents of sewerage, canal and drinking water revealed marked differences and wide coefficient of variability (CV). Generally Cd and Pb contents were higher in sewerage than canal and drinking water. However, Cu content of drinking waters was higher than other water tested. The total solids were found to be generally higher in sewerage and canal water than drinking water tested. The total solids were found to be generally higher in sewerage and canal water than drinking water The variations in temperature, pH and EC were marginal to marked depending upon the source and the location. (author)

  14. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    silicon content in water is of great importance because of various effects of silicon species (corrodibility and toxicity and the selection of methods for the efficient removal of silicon from water.

  15. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  16. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  17. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  18. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part F. Water content in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Oka, Takamitsu; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2005-01-01

    As part of the DS02 studies to reevaluate neutrons from the atomic bomb, we cored rock samples from a pillar of Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 128 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima, and measured the depth profile of induced 152 Eu radioactivity in the rock (Hasai et al. 1987). By use of the MCNP neutron transport calculation code, the depth profile of 152 Eu in the rock was calculated, assuming a neutron distribution at the given location around the pillar based on the DS86 calculations. The depth profile was then compared with the distribution of measurements (Endo et al. 1999). For the calculation, it is necessary to know the major components of the rock. It is also necessary to estimate the water content correctly, since the cross section of hydrogen-neutron reactions is large, and neutron moderation effects of hydrogen are significant. For this purpose, the basic characteristics of water content in rock were studied, based on a few characteristic experiments to estimate the water content, which was then used in neutron transport calculations. The following describes our concepts and methods. (author)

  19. Radiative heat transfer and water content in atmosphere of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarov, M.Y.; Gal'stev, A.P.; Shari, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors present the procedure for calculating optical characteristics of the main components and the effective fluxes in the atmosphere of Venus, and concrete results of the calculations. They are compared to the results of other authors and to the experimantal data. Integration was carried out by the Simpson method with automatic selection of the step or interval for a given relative integrating accuracy delta. The calculations were done with a BESM-6 computer. Using this procedure and data on absorbtion coefficients, calculations of the spectrum of effective flux were carried out for a pure carbon dioxide atmosphere and for an atmosphere containing water vapor at various relative admixtures, for different altitude profiles of temperature and cloudiness albedo. Thus, the comparisons made, enable the authors to judge about the degree of agreement of the F(z) altitude profile, in some regions of the planet where measurements have been made, rather than about the absolute values of the heat fluxes. In conclusion, the authors point out that the task of calculating in detail the radiation balance in Venus' lower atmosphere, as also the problem of a more reliable interpretation of the experimantal data, is coupled with the necessity of elaborating reliable models of the atmospheric components' optical characteristics, which determine the radiative transfer of heat

  20. Correlation between subacute sensorimotor deficits and brain water content after surgical brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Wang, Yuechun; Sherchan, Prativa; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2015-09-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome and reduced quality of life after surgical brain injury (SBI). Although SBI pathophysiology is well-known, the correlation between cerebral edema and neurological deficits has not been thoroughly examined in the rat model of SBI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between brain edema and deficits in standard sensorimotor neurobehavior tests for rats subjected to SBI. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or surgical brain injury via partial frontal lobectomy. All animals were tested for neurological deficits 24 post-SBI and fourteen were also tested 72 h after surgery using seven common behavior tests: modified Garcia neuroscore (Neuroscore), beam walking, corner turn test, forelimb placement test, adhesive removal test, beam balance test, and foot fault test. After assessing the functional outcome, animals were euthanized for brain water content measurement. Surgical brain injury resulted in significantly elevated frontal lobe brain water content 24 and 72 h after surgery compared to that of sham animals. In all behavior tests, significance was observed between sham and SBI animals. However, a correlation between brain water content and functional outcome was observed for all tests except Neuroscore. The selection of behavior tests is critical to determine the effectiveness of therapeutics. Based on this study's results, we recommend using beam walking, the corner turn test, the beam balance test, and the foot fault test since correlations with brain water content were observed at both 24 and 72 h post-SBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation between subacute sensorimotor deficits and brain water content after surgical brain injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W.; Wang, Yuechun; Sherchan, Prativa; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome and reduced quality of life after surgical brain injury (SBI). Although SBI pathophysiology is well-known, the correlation between cerebral edema and neurological deficits has not been thoroughly examined in the rat model of SBI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between brain edema and deficits in standard sensorimotor neurobehavior tests for rats subjected to SBI. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or surgical brain injury via partial frontal lobectomy. All animals were tested for neurological deficits 24 post-SBI and fourteen were also tested 72 hours after surgery using seven common behavior tests: modified Garcia neuroscore (Neuroscore), beam walking, corner turn test, forelimb placement test, adhesive removal test, beam balance test, and foot fault test. After assessing the functional outcome, animals were euthanized for brain water content measurement. Surgical brain injury resulted in a significantly elevated frontal lobe brain water content 24 and 72 hours after surgery compared to that of sham animals. In all behavior tests, significance was observed between sham and SBI animals. However, a correlation between brain water content and functional outcome was observed for all tests except Neuroscore. The selection of behavior tests is critical to determine the effectiveness of therapeutics. Based on this study’s results, we recommend using beam walking, the corner turn test, the beam balance test, and the foot fault test since correlations with brain water content were observed at both 24 and 72 hours post-SBI. PMID:25975171

  2. Virtual water content of temperate cereals and maize: Present and potential future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rost, Stefanie; Müller, Christoph; Bondeau, Alberte; Gerten, Dieter

    2010-04-01

    SummaryKnowledge of the virtual water content (VWC) of crops and especially its possible future developments is helpful for improvements in water productivity and water management, which are necessary at global scale due to rising demand for food, the necessity to ease present and future water scarcity, and the reduction of poverty. Using a dynamic global vegetation and water balance model (LPJmL), this study quantifies the VWC of two of the most important crop types worldwide, temperate cereals and maize, at high spatial resolution (0.5°). We analyzed present conditions (1999-2003) and also for the first time also for scenarios of future climate and increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (2041-2070; HadCM3, ECHAM5 and CCSM3 climate models, A2 emissions scenario). VWC presently differs significantly among regions: highest values are common in large parts of Africa (>2 m 3 kg -1), and lowest values were found e.g. for Central Europe (Europe, South Africa, Argentina, Australia and South East Asia—are projected to become less water efficient (higher VWC) for at least one of the crop types. CO 2 fertilisation was simulated to generally reduce VWC, though realisation of this effect in the field will depend, for example, on the intensity of nutrient management in the future. The potentially adverse future changes in VWC found here pose a challenge to water management efforts and eventually global trade policies.

  3. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  4. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  5. Enhancement of Protein and Pigment Content in Two Chlorella Species Cultivated on Industrial Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Uldall Nørregaard, Patrick; Ljubic, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris were cultivated in pre-gasified industrial process water with high concentration of ammonia representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of growth media and cultivation duration on the nutritional...... pyrenoidosa produced the highest concentrations of protein (65.2% ± 1.30% DW) while Chlorella vulgaris accumulated extremely high concentrations of lutein and chlorophylls (7.14 ± 0.66 mg/g DW and 32.4 ± 1.77 mg/g DW, respectively). Cultivation of Chlorella species in industrial process water...... composition of biomass. Variations in proteins, lipid, fatty acid composition, amino acids, tocopherols, and pigments were studied. Both species grew well in industrial process water. The contents of proteins were affected significantly by the growth media and cultivation duration. Microalga Chlorella...

  6. Use of in situ volumetric water content at field capacity to improve prediction of soil water retention properties

    OpenAIRE

    Al Majou , Hassan; Bruand , Ary; Duval , Odile

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Use of in situ volumetric water content at field capacity to improve prediction of soil water retention properties. Most pedotransfer functions (PTFs) developed over the last three decades to generate water retention characteristics use soil texture, bulk density and organic carbon content as predictors. Despite of the high number of PTFs published, most being class- or continuous-PTFs, accuracy of prediction remains limited. In this study, we compared the performance ...

  7. Lead Content of Well Water in Enugu South-East Nigeria | Ogbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the lead content of well water in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Method: Wells (101) were located using the multistage sampling procedure and samples were collected into clean plastic containers. Analysis was done using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Result: The means lead content of well water ...

  8. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil water content (SWC) variability within agricultural fields is useful to improve crop management. Spatial patterns of soil water contents can be characterized using the temporal stability analysis, however high density sampling is required. Soil apparent electrical c...

  9. Flux-gradient relationships and soil-water diffusivity from curves of water content versus time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nofziger, D.L.; Ahuja, L.R.; Swartzendruber, D.

    Direct analysis of a family of curves of soil-water content vs. time at different fixed positions enables assessment of the flux-gradient relationship prior to the calculations of soil-water diffusivity. The method is evaluated on both smooth and random-error data generated from the solution of the horizontal soil-water intake problem with a known diffusivity function. Interpolation, differentiation, and intergration are carried out by least-squares curve fitting based on the 2 recently developed techniques of parabolic splines and sliding parabolas, with all computations performed by computer. Results are excellent for both smooth and random-error input data, whether in terms of recovering the original known diffusivity function, assessing the nature of the flux-gradient relationship, or in making the numerous checks and validations at various intermediate stages of computation. The method applies for any horizontal soil-wetting process independently of the specific boundary conditions, including water entry through a nonzero inlet resistance. It should be adaptable to horizontal dewatering, and extendable to vertical flow. (11 refs.)

  10. Application of acoustical methods to the measurement of water content in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, V.E.; Radostin, A.V.; Stepanyants, Y.A.

    2000-10-01

    Results of laboratory experiments on the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves (f = 100 kHz) in a glass tube, filled with river sand are presented. Several sand samples have been used with different water content: dry, unsaturated and completely water saturated. It is shown that the dissipative coefficient of acoustic waves decreases with increasing wave amplitude. This 'self-brightening' phenomenon takes place over the whole range of moisture content, from zero to 100%, but its degree of manifestation depends on the moisture content. The exponent of the dissipative nonlinearity α, is found to be the most sensitive parameter to the moisture content and is determined on the basis of measurements. It is considered to be a good indicator of water content in porous media and provides an opportunity to measure water content in such materials indirectly by means of an acoustic method. A simple phenomenological model is presented to explain the experimental results

  11. Technological advances in cosmogenic neutron detectors for measuring soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreda, M. G.; Schrön, M.; Köhli, M.

    2017-12-01

    The cosmic-ray neutron probe is used for measuring area-average soil water content at the hectometer scale. Early work showed a simple exponential decrease with distance of the instrument's sensitivity and a footprint 300 m in radius. Recent research suggested a much higher sensitivity to local neutrons and reduced footprint. We show results confirming the high sensitivity to local neutrons, describe two ways to reduce local and increase far-field effects, and propose ways of measuring neutrons at different spatial scales. Measurements with moderated detectors across a 10-m-wide creek and a 2-m-wide water tank show a decrease by 30% and 20%, respectively, of neutron intensity over water compared to that over land nearby. These results mean that the detector is sensitive to meter-scale heterogeneities of water content. This sensitivity can be reduced by rising the detector or by shielding it from local neutrons. The effect of local water distributions on the measured neutron intensity decreases with height. In the water tank experiment it disappeared almost completely at the height of 2 m, leading to the conjecture that the height roughly equal to the horizontal scale of heterogeneity would eliminate the sensitivity. This may or may not be practical. Shielding the detector below by a hydrogenous material removes a substantial fraction of the local neutrons. The shielded detector has a reduced count rate, reduced sensitivity to local neutrons and increased sensitivity to neutrons farther afield, and a larger footprint. Such a detector could be preferable to the current cosmogenic-neutron probe under heterogeneous soil water conditions. The shielding experiments also inspired the development of a local-area neutron detector. It has hydrogenous neutron shields on all sides except the bottom, substantially blocking the neutrons coming from afar, while allowing the neutrons coming directly from below. Its footprint is equal to its physical dimension when the detector is

  12. Seasonal changes in water content and turnover in cattle, sheep and goats grazing under humid tropical conditions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggrey, E.K.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of seasonal changes on water content and water turnover of cattle, sheep and goats at pasture under humid tropical conditions was studied. Measurement of total body water and water turnover was based on the tritium dilution technique. Total body water was significantly higher in all three species of animal during the dry season, while water turnover was significantly lower in the dry season than in the wet season. In all seasons water turnover was highest in cattle, followed by sheep and then goat. Changes in body weight, body water, body solids and water turnover were associated with seasonal variations in nutrition. The indication was that the goat would be a more suitable animal for production under dry conditions than cattle and sheep. (author)

  13. Laser-light backscattering response to water content and proteolysis in dry-cured ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulladosa, E.; Rubio-Celorio, M.; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2017-01-01

    on the acquisition conditions used. Laser backscattering was influenced by both dryness and proteolysis intensity showing an average light intensity decrease of 0.2 when decreasing water content (1% weight loss) and increasing proteolysis (equivalent to one-hour enzyme action). However, a decrease of scattering area...... was only detected when the water content was decreased (618 mm(2) per 1% weight loss). Changes on scattering of light profiles were only observed when the water content changed. Although there is a good correlation between water content and LBI parameters when analysing commercial samples, proteolysis...... of laser incidence) and to analyse the laser-light backscattering changes caused by additional hot air drying and proteolysis of dry-cured ham slices. The feasibility of the technology to determine water content and proteolysis (which is related to textural characteristics) of commercial sliced dry...

  14. Story Presentation Effects on Children's Retell Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Phyllis; Dube, Rita Vis

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that the amount of content children include in their stories is affected by how stories are presented. Simple stories were presented to kindergarten and Grade 2 children in 3 conditions: orally (oral only), pictorially (pictures only), and combined oral and pictures. The kindergarteners recalled more content…

  15. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  16. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    20

    available scarce water resources in dry land agriculture, but direct measurement thereof for multiple locations in the field is not always feasible. Therefore, pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed to estimate soil water retention at FC and PWP for dryland soils of India. A soil database available for Arid Western India ...

  17. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  18. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  19. [Dynamics and modeling of water content of ten shrub species in their growth period in Maoershan Mountain region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sen; Yan, Xue-Jiao

    2012-12-01

    Based on the two successive years observation of the water content of ten representative shrub species in Maoershan Mountain region of Northeast China, this paper studied the dynamics of the water content of these shrub species during their growth period and related affecting factors, with the prediction models of the shrub water content established. For the ten shrub species, their minimal water content during growth period was higher than 100% , and most of the species had a water content higher than 200% within the period from the late phase of leaf-unfolding to early phase of leaf-falling. Euonymus verrucosus, Sorbaria sorbifolia, and Sambucus williamsii were incombustible in their whole growth period due to the extremely high water content, while Syringa reticulate, Philadelphus schrenkii, Euonymus verrucosus, Spiraea chamaedryfolia, Lonicera maackii, Lonicera ruprechtiana, and Rhamnus parvifolia were combustible only in the phases of budding and leaf-falling. Soil moisture content and daily maximum temperature had effects on the water content of most (7) of the ten shrubs, and canopy drought severity index affected the water content of 5 of the ten shrubs. The established 9 prediction models could explain more than 35% of the water content variance of the shrub species, with a mean MRE of 35.9% and a mean MRE of 13.4%.

  20. Measuring water content in soil using TDR: A state-of-the-art in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, G.C.; Ferre, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, the development and continuing refinement of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique for in-situ, nondestructive measurement of water content has revolutionized the study and management of the transfer and storage of water within the soil profile. The principles for the application of TDR to water content are now well accepted and straight forward. For many mineral soils, the calibration for water content has a linear relationship with the square root of the relative permittivity measured by TDR. This allows a two-point calibration. TDR-measured water content has been applied successfully to water balance studies ranging from the km scale of small watersheds to the nun scale of the root-soil interface. Soil probes can be designed to meet many and varied requirements. The performance of a number of probe geometries is presented, including some of their strengths and weaknesses. Although coated soil probes allow measurement in more conductive soils, the probe coatings alter the water-content calibration both in sensitivity and linearity. Three general options are available for determining profiles of soil water content from the soil surface to a depth of 1 m. Soil probes of differing total depths extending to the surface are the most accessible. Soil probes buried at selected depths provide easily repeatable values. The vertically installed single probe, Aith depth segments separated by diodes, allows repeated measurement in a single vertical slice. The portability of TDR instrumentation coupled with the simplicity and flexibility of probes has allowed the mapping of spatial patterns of water content and field-based spatial and temporal soil water content distributions. The usefulness and power of the TDR technique for characterizing soil water content is increasing rapidly through continuing improvements in instrument operating range, probe design, multiplexing and automated data collection. (author)

  1. MR-based Water Content Estimation in Cartilage: Design and Validation of a Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Design and validation of an MR-based method that allows the calculation of the water content in cartilage tissue. Material and Methods We modified and adapted to cartilage tissue T1 map based water content MR sequences commonly used in the neurology field. Using a 37 Celsius degree stable...... was costumed and programmed. Finally, we validated the method after measuring and comparing 3 more cartilage samples in a living animal (pig). The obtained data was analyzed and the water content calculated. Then, the same samples were freeze-dried (this technique allows to take out all the water that a tissue...... contains) and we measured the water they contained. Results We could reproduce twice the 37 Celsius degree system and could perform the measurements in a similar way. We found that the MR T1 map based water content sequences can provide information that, after being analyzed with a special software, can...

  2. MR-based water content estimation in cartilage: design and validation of a method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Kristiansen, Maja Sophie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    Purpose: Design and validation of an MR-based method that allows the calculation of the water content in cartilage tissue. Methods and Materials: Cartilage tissue T1 map based water content MR sequences were used on a 37 Celsius degree stable system. The T1 map intensity signal was analyzed on 6...... cartilage samples from living animals (pig) and on 8 gelatin samples which water content was already known. For the data analysis a T1 intensity signal map software analyzer used. Finally, the method was validated after measuring and comparing 3 more cartilage samples in a living animal (pig). The obtained...... map based water content sequences can provide information that, after being analyzed using a T1-map analysis software, can be interpreted as the water contained inside a cartilage tissue. The amount of water estimated using this method was similar to the one obtained at the dry-freeze procedure...

  3. Variation in VIP latrine sludge contents | Bakare | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated variations in the characteristics of the sludge content from different ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines and variation in these characteristics at specific depths within each pit. Faecal sludge from 16 VIP latrines within the eThekwini Municipality was collected and laboratory characterisation including ...

  4. The Mediterranean Water content in the Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Angela; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Neves, Filipe

    2014-05-01

    Distribution of the Mediterranean Water (MW) in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic [20-50o N, 5-40o W] was studied using Optimum Multiparameter analysis (OMP) applied to the World Ocean Atlas (http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/) and MEDTRANS climatologies (http://co.fc.ul.pt/en/). The areas of influence of water masses in the study region were obtained from literature and from analysis of individual TS-diagrams. The analysis permitted to divide the water column between 500 to 2000 m into 5 vertical layers. The boundaries of the layers separated different expected sets of the dominant water masses; their depth varied across the study region. For the OMP we used the following water masses: the central fraction of the North Atlantic Central Water (H), the lower fraction of the North Atlantic Central Water (NACWl), the Mediterranean Water (MW), the Sub-Artic Intermediate Water (SAIW), the modified Antarctic Intermediate Water (AA), the Labrador Sea Water (LSW) and the upper fraction of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADWu). The characteristics of the water masses were obtained from Perez et al. (2001), Alvarez et al. (2004) and Barbero et al. (2010), taken at the places where the water masses entered the study region. For each of the layers and each of the grid-points OMP was applied for estimation of the percentage of the each of the water masses in the observed mixture. The analysis of sensitivity of the results to the definition of water mass proprieties showed that their percentages were derived within the average error of 10%. The percentages of water masses obtained in this study compared well with the previous OMP results at some individual sections across our region (Hinrichsen and Tomczak, 1993; Alvarez et al., 2004 and Barbero et al., 2010). In this work we specifically focused on distribution of the MW. The results showed that the MW reached its maximum of 50% at 1200 m depth in the Gulf of Cadiz. The percentage decreased to about 40% along the Iberian continental

  5. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential ( 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  6. Determining water content and other impurities in Siparuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... and thermodynamic parameters, became necessary. (Santos, 2004; Dantas, 2006). ... oil in 80 min distillation (after the first sign of boiling). The essential .... Khankari RK, Law D, Grant DJW (1992). Determination of water ...

  7. Study Effect of Salt Washing Process on Content and Iodium Stability of Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Saksono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Salt Washing Process on Content and Iodium Stability of Salt. Salt washing process should increase the saltquality. It should clean the salt from sludge or clay and also reduce the impurity compound such as Mg, Ca and the reductor content. The objective of these reseach is to assess the effect of washing process on the content og hygroscopic impurities compound (Ca and Mg, and reductor content of salt. The research also investigate the water absorbing, pH, KIO3 content as function of time to obtain effect of washing process on KIO3 stability in salt. The experiment result shows that the lowest content of Mg and reductor compound 0.016 % wt and 2.65 ppm respectively which is reached at the fi ne salt washing process using 27 % wt brine. The analysis of water content indicates an increase the Ca and Mg content, causing an water absorbtion in salt , However the effect on pH the is not clear.

  8. Effect of water purification process in radioactive content: analysis on small scale purification plants; Efecto del proceso de purificacion de agua en el contenido radiactivo: analisis en plantas purificadoras a pequena escala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Quiroga S, J. C.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000, Zacatecas (Mexico)], e-mail: hlopez@uaz.edu.mx

    2009-10-15

    Water from small scale purification plants is a low cost alternative for consumers in comparison to the bottled commercial presentations. Because of its low cost per liter, the consumption of this product has increased in recent years, stimulating in turn the installation of purification systems for these small businesses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficiency of small scale purification systems located in the cities of Zacatecas and Guadalupe, Zacatecas, to reduce the radioactive content of water. It was measured the total alpha and beta activity in water samples of entry and exit to process, through the liquid scintillation technique. In general it was observed that the process is more efficient in removing alpha that beta activity. The fraction of total alpha activity removed varied between 27 and 100%, while between 0 and 77% of the total beta activity was removed by the analyzed plants. In all cases, the total radioactivity level was lower than the maximum permissible value settled by the official mexican standard for drinking water. (Author)

  9. Study of copper (Cu) contents in blood cockles (Anadara sp.) at Surabaya coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfionita, S.; Pursetyo, K. T.; Sahidu, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution categorized as harmful effect on the environment. This study aims to determine the content and the rate of accumulation of heavy metals copper (Cu) in the mussel of cockles (Anadara sp.) This study uses observation method with descriptive analysis. The test results Cu in sea water was pollution classification 49.98 mg Cu/kg. The results of shells fur Cu on Wonokromo was 1.833 mg/kg and Dadapan was 1.352 mg/kg. According to the MOH Decree No.0375/B/SK/1989 about Quality Standard Biota Consumption of Metals to the maximum limit of the existing Cu concentrations in marine biota was 20 ppm or 20 mg / kg so that the content of Cu in shellfish feathers still below the limit of existing quality standards.

  10. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  11. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... conclusion is that GERG-water must be used with caution outside its specified working range. For some selected natural gas mixtures the two models also perform very much alike. The water content of the mixtures decreases with increasing amount of heavier components, and it seems that both models slightly...

  12. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  13. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  14. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W

    2003-06-01

    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  15. Remote sensing of atmospheric water content from Bhaskara SAMIR data. [using statistical linear regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, B. S.; Hariharan, T. A.; Sharma, A. K.; Pandey, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    The 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz passive microwave radiometers (SAMIR) on board the Indian satellite Bhaskara have provided very useful data. From these data has been demonstrated the feasibility of deriving atmospheric and ocean surface parameters such as water vapor content, liquid water content, rainfall rate and ocean surface winds. Different approaches have been tried for deriving the atmospheric water content. The statistical and empirical methods have been used by others for the analysis of the Nimbus data. A simulation technique has been attempted for the first time for 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz radiometer data. The results obtained from three different methods are compared with radiosonde data. A case study of a tropical depression has been undertaken to demonstrate the capability of Bhaskara SAMIR data to show the variation of total water vapor and liquid water contents.

  16. Correlation between magnetic resonance image and content of water and fat in experimental tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tachio; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Hishinuma, Takashi; Abe, Yoshinao; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ogata, Yuko.

    1987-01-01

    Water and fat are considered to be major protons contributing to magnetic resonance (MR) signals in living tissues. This study compared proton density and T1 and T2 relaxation times with content of water and fat in tumor bearing rabbits. MR scans were performed using a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence with short and long repetition times. There was a strong correlation between proton density and the content of water and fat. The correlation of the content of water and fat to T1 and T2 relaxation times was not so strong as that to proton density. Viable tumor tissues had significantly shorter T2 relaxation time than the surrounding edematous tissues (p < 0.005), although the content of water and fat did not differ in the two types of tissues. T1 relaxation time did not differ in viable tumorous and edematous tissues. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  18. Gas exchange and leaf contents in bell pepper under energized water and biofertilizer doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca R. M. Borges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of energized water and bovine biofertilizer doses on the gas exchange and NPK contents in leaves of yellow bell pepper plants. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Federal University of Ceará, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, from June to November 2011. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme; the plots were composed of treatments with energized and non-energized water and the subplots of five doses of liquid biofertilizer (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mL plant-1 week-1. The following variables were analyzed: transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and leaf contents of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K. Water energization did not allow significant increases in the analyzed variables. The use of biofertilizer as the only source of fertilization was sufficient to provide the nutrients N, P and K at appropriate levels for the bell pepper crop.

  19. A New Method for Sensing Soil Water Content in Green Roofs Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Natalia F; Rojas, Claudia; Bonilla, Carlos A; Vargas, Ignacio T

    2017-12-28

    Green roofs have many benefits, but in countries with semiarid climates the amount of water needed for irrigation is a limiting factor for their maintenance. The use of drought-tolerant plants such as Sedum species, reduces the water requirements in the dry season, but, even so, in semiarid environments these can reach up to 60 L m -2 per day. Continuous substrate/soil water content monitoring would facilitate the efficient use of this critical resource. In this context, the use of plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) emerges as a suitable and more sustainable alternative for monitoring water content in green roofs in semiarid climates. In this study, bench and pilot-scale experiments using seven Sedum species showed a positive relationship between current generation and water content in the substrate. PMFC reactors with higher water content (around 27% vs. 17.5% v / v ) showed larger power density (114.6 and 82.3 μW m -2 vs. 32.5 μW m -2 ). Moreover, a correlation coefficient of 0.95 (±0.01) between current density and water content was observed. The results of this research represent the first effort of using PMFCs as low-cost water content biosensors for green roofs.

  20. Transesterification of triacetin, tributyrin, and soybean oil with methanol over hydrotalcites with different water contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Park, Se Min; Seo, Gon [School of Applied Chemical Engineering and the Research Institute for Catalysis, Chonnam National University, Yungbong-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Chang, Duck Rae [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 1110-9 Oryoung-Dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-480 (Korea)

    2010-06-15

    Transesterification of triacetin, tributyrin and soybean oil with methanol was examined over rehydrated hydrotalcites (HT-reh), which were previously calcined at 550 C and exposed to an ambient atmosphere, in order to investigate the effect of the water content on their catalytic activity. Rehydration of a calcined hydrotalcite at 25 C produced uniform mesopores of around 4 nm diameter, while the removal of water from the HT-reh by pretreatment at 500 C, formed large heterogeneous mesopores. Methanol was adsorbed and desorbed rapidly in the mesopores of the HT-reh filled with water. The pretreatment of the HT-reh at 500 C removed both water and carbon dioxide, producing strong basic sites. The high activity of fully rehydrated hydrotalcite in the transesterification of three triglycerides was explained by the generation of Broensted basic sites and the rapid migration of methanol in the mesopores, while the improved activity of the rehydrated hydrotalcite pretreated at 500 C by the generation of strong basic sites and empty mesopores due to the removal of water and carbon dioxide. (author)

  1. Hydrogen production from high moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Xu, X. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1998-08-01

    By mixing wood sawdust with a corn starch gel, a viscous paste can be produced that is easily delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Mixtures of about 10 wt% wood sawdust with 3.65 wt% starch are employed in this work, which the authors estimate to cost about $0.043 per lb. Significant reductions in feed cost can be achieved by increasing the wood sawdust loading, but such an increase may require a more complex pump. When this feed is rapidly heated in a tubular flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22 MPa), the sawdust paste vaporizes without the formation of char. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at about 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. The temperature and history of the reactor`s wall influence the hydrogen-methane product equilibrium by catalyzing the methane steam reforming reaction. The water effluent from the reactor is clean. Other biomass feedstocks, such as the waste product of biodiesel production, behave similarly. Unfortunately, sewage sludge does not evidence favorable gasification characteristics and is not a promising feedstock for supercritical water gasification.

  2. Viability study of photodiodes utilization in determination of soil water content by gamma transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.A.P.; Khoury, H.; Carneiro, C.J.G.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to verify the viability of using silicon photodetectors in a sup(241)Am γ-ray spectroscopy system for measuring soil water content was carried out in disturbed soil cores. The good correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor and the water content, r sup(2)=0.99, proves that the low efficiency of these detectors is not a limiting factor in measuring the water content. Furthermore, the small dimensions of the silicon photodetectors and associate electronic equipment are important characteristics that could permit the construction of a portable gammametry system to be used under field conditions. (author)

  3. Mechanical impedance of soil crusts and water content in loamy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josa March, Ramon; Verdú, Antoni M. C.; Mas, Maria Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Soil crust development affects soil water dynamics and soil aeration. Soil crusts act as mechanical barriers to fluid flow and, as their mechanical impedance increases with drying, they also become obstacles to seedling emergence. As a consequence, the emergence of seedling cohorts (sensitive seeds) might be reduced. However, this may be of interest to be used as an effective system of weed control. Soil crusting is determined by several factors: soil texture, rain intensity, sedimentation processes, etc. There are different ways to characterize the crusts. One of them is to measure their mechanical impedance (MI), which is linked to their moisture level. In this study, we measured the evolution of the mechanical impedance of crusts formed by three loamy soil types (clay loam, loam and sandy clay loam, USDA) with different soil water contents. The aim of this communication was to establish a mathematical relationship between the crust water content and its MI. A saturated soil paste was prepared and placed in PVC cylinders (50 mm diameter and 10 mm height) arranged on a plastic tray. Previously the plastic tray was sprayed with a hydrophobic liquid to prevent the adherence of samples. The samples on the plastic tray were left to air-dry under laboratory conditions until their IM was measured. To measure IM, a food texture analyzer was used. The equipment incorporates a mobile arm, a load cell to apply force and a probe. The arm moves down vertically at a constant rate and the cylindrical steel probe (4 mm diameter) penetrates the soil sample vertically at a constant rate. The equipment is provided with software to store data (time, vertical distance and force values) at a rate of up to 500 points per second. Water content in crust soil samples was determined as the loss of weight after oven-drying (105°C). From the results, an exponential regression between MI and the water content was obtained (determination coefficient very close to 1). This methodology allows

  4. Drift velocity studies at a time projection chamber for various water contents in the gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, F.W.

    2007-03-01

    For the answer of different open questions in high energy physics the construction of a linear e + e - collider with a c. m. energy of up to one TeV is prepared. With this is connected a comprehensive development on detectors, which must satisfy the requirements of the planned experiments. For the track chamber a TPC is considered. Hereby it deals with a gas-based concept, which has already been proved in past experiments and which is at time further developed by means of test chambers. The composition of the gas mixtureplays hereby an important role. Impurities of the gas mixture, especially by oxygen and water from the ambient air are a fact, which occurs every time in the development phase and can scarcely be avoided. From this arose the motivation to study directly the effects of this impurities. The object of the present thesis are correlations between drift velocity and water content in the chamber gas of a TPC

  5. Monitoring Landscape Scale Soil Water Content with Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors: Validation and Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahbi, Ammar; Avery, William A.; Dercon, Gerd; Heng, Lee; Weltin, Georg; Franz, Trenton E.; Strauss, Peter; Oismueller, Markus; Desilets, Darin

    2017-01-01

    Increasing populations growth combined with climate change are putting pressure on water resources and agricultural systems around the world. The need for effective water management strategies designed to maximize water use efficiency has made access to soil water content (SWC) information crucial to the global community. This work builds upon ongoing research that began in December 2013 in which a stationary Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) was used to monitor SWC within an agricultural system located in north central Austria. Past work at this study site at Petzenkirchen, Austria (100 km west of Vienna) has focused on the calibration and validation of the CRNS technology, and has shown the CRNS to reliably estimate SWC on a large scale (circle with radius of cca. 250 m) when compared to other methods of estimating SWC. This was determined via comparisons of insitu soil sampling, time domain reflectometry (TDR), and time domain transmissivity (TDT) of SWC with estimates of SWC determined from the CRNS. However, questions remain regarding the effective use of the CRNS technology.

  6. Optimization of Water Content for the Cryopreservation Of Allium sativum In Vitro Cultures by Encapsulation-Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P T; Souch, G R; Zamecnik, J; Harding, K

    There is a general requirement to determine and correlate water content to viability for the standardization of conservation protocols to facilitate effective cryostorage of plant germplasm. This study examined water content as a critical factor to optimize the cryostorage of Allium sativum. Stem discs were excised from post-harvest, stored bulbs prior to cryopreservation by encapsulation-dehydration and water content was determined gravimetrically. Survival of cryopreserved stem discs was 42.5 %, with 22.5 % exhibiting shoot regrowth following 6 h desiccation. Gravimetric data demonstrated a correlation between water content corresponding with survival / regrowth from desiccated, cryopreserved stem discs. For encapsulated stem discs a 25 % residual moisture and corresponding water content of 0.36 g H2O g -1 d.wt correlated with maximal survival following ~6.5 h of desiccation. The data concurs with the literature suggesting the formation of a stable vitrified state and a 'window' for optimal survival and regrowth that is between 6 - 10 h desiccation. Further studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are suggested to substantiate these findings.

  7. The Quality of Rambak Cracker from Rabbit Skin (Water Content and Swelling Power using The Different Technique of Fur Picking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedes Amertaningtyas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This objective of this researchwas to compare the different technique of fur picking (liming and boiling inthe quality rambak cracker from rabbit skin on water content and swelling power.Materials of this research were 20 drying rabbit skin 5 – 6 months old. The tTest was using to compare the different technique of fur picking. Theindependent variables of this research were water content and swelling power onrambak cracker from rabbit skin. The result showed that the different techniqueof fur picking had highly significant effect (P<0.01 on water content and  expanding rate. The best result was limingtechnique of fur picking. It had the following properties: Water content of 1.5922% and expending rate of 855.3798 %. The conclusion showed that the use limingof 4% produced high quality of rambak cracker from rabbit skin or anotheranimal skin (cow, buffalo, chicken or fish. Keywords: rambak cracker, rabbit skin, water content,expanding rate

  8. Fluoride Content of Bottled Waters in Hong Kong and Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Hessa I; Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the F concentration of bottled waters that was available in Hong Kong and Qatar. The F concentrations of bottled waters collected from Hong Kong (n=81) and Qatar (n=32) were analysed. The F ion selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in the samples. Three measurements were obtained for every sample to ensure reproducibility and appropriate statistical analyses were employed. Qatar group: F concentrations ranged from 0.06 ppm to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm. The F concentrations displayed on the labels of the samples (60%) were significantly lower than the measured F concentration (p Qatar. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were not consistent with the measured F concentrations.

  9. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrejos, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated). However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike's flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of "ratholes". The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  10. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrejos Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated. However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike’s flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of “ratholes”. The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  11. Components of variance involved in estimating soil water content and water content change using a neutron moisture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, D.F.; Williams, J.

    1979-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and use of neutron moisture meters since Hewlett et al.(1964) investigated the sources of variance when using this instrument to estimate soil moisture. There appears to be little in the literature, however, which updates these findings. This paper aims to isolate the components of variance when moisture content and moisture change are estimated using the neutron scattering method with current technology and methods

  12. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  13. Simple, fast, and low-cost camera-based water content measurement with colorimetric fluorescent indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seok-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Il; Kim, Youngmi; Nam, Hyoungsik

    2018-05-01

    Recently, a simple, sensitive, and low-cost fluorescent indicator has been proposed to determine water contents in organic solvents, drugs, and foodstuffs. The change of water content leads to the change of the indicator's fluorescence color under the ultra-violet (UV) light. Whereas the water content values could be estimated from the spectrum obtained by a bulky and expensive spectrometer in the previous research, this paper demonstrates a simple and low-cost camera-based water content measurement scheme with the same fluorescent water indicator. Water content is calculated over the range of 0-30% by quadratic polynomial regression models with color information extracted from the captured images of samples. Especially, several color spaces such as RGB, xyY, L∗a∗b∗, u‧v‧, HSV, and YCBCR have been investigated to establish the optimal color information features over both linear and nonlinear RGB data given by a camera before and after gamma correction. In the end, a 2nd order polynomial regression model along with HSV in a linear domain achieves the minimum mean square error of 1.06% for a 3-fold cross validation method. Additionally, the resultant water content estimation model is implemented and evaluated in an off-the-shelf Android-based smartphone.

  14. Profiling water content in soils with TDR: Comparison with the neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In November 1996, at a site on the Grenoble campus a 1.2-m-long neutron access tube, a 0.8-m fibreglass Trime access tube and three sets of 1-m twin-rod TDR probes were installed. Weekly measurements were made over a 9-month period. In addition, soil samples were taken from time to time with an auger, to determine gravimetric water-contents. The soil bulk density profile was initially characterised by gammametry using a Campbell TM probe. A Troxler TM 4300 was used for the neutron-probe measurements. The TDR signals, for further processing by TDR-SSI, were logged using a Trase 2000 from Soil Moisture Equipment Corporation TM . TDR methods were employed without any special calibration of the permittivity/water-content relationship: standard internal calibrations of the devices or Topp polynomial relation were always applied. The results of all these water-content profiling methods were compared in three ways: (i) the water-content profiles were plotted directly on the same graph for different dates; (ii) all the water contents measured at all dates and all depths were plotted against a corresponding 'reference', namely neutron probe or gravimetry; (iii) water balances were calculated for each method and their respective time-profiles analysed. There was fairly good agreement among the three profiling methods, indicating that TDR is now a viable alternative to nuclear techniques for soil water-content profiling. (author)

  15. Radon content in various types of ground water in south-eastern Sweden. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, G.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of investigation has been to study the radon content and its seasonal fluctuations in different types of ground water. The investigation was carried out in an area where the hydrogeological conditions are fairly well known. The geology is dominated by granitic bedrock and till. Water samples were collected from drilled wells in different rocks and from dug wells and springs in till and gravel. The seasonal fluctuations were studied in a small area. All radon measurements were made in the laboratory. The main results are following.(1) The highest radon content (max. 40 nCi/l) was observed in water from wells drilled granite. (2) The radon content in ground water from till never exceeds 8 nCi/l; the highest amount is normally found in springs situated in drumlin terrain with basel till and gravel lenses and beds (3-5 nCi/l) the contents in dug wells are 0.5-3.5 nCi/l.(3) Waters from gravel deposits have constantly low radon contents (0.1-3 nCi/l), and surface water has no radon.(4) The seasonal fluctuations in radon content are rather high and show a similar pattern to that of the fluctuations of the ground-water levels in till in the same area. (author)

  16. Impact of Conventional and Integrated Management Systems on the Water-Soluble Vitamin Content in Potatoes, Field Beans, and Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Sabine; Verrall, Susan R; Pont, Simon D A; McRae, Diane; Sungurtas, Julia A; Palau, Raphaëlle; Hawes, Cathy; Alexander, Colin J; Allwood, J William; Foito, Alexandre; Stewart, Derek; Shepherd, Louise V T

    2018-01-31

    The reduction of the environmental footprint of crop production without compromising crop yield and their nutritional value is a key goal for improving the sustainability of agriculture. In 2009, the Balruddery Farm Platform was established at The James Hutton Institute as a long-term experimental platform for cross-disciplinary research of crops using two agricultural ecosystems. Crops representative of UK agriculture were grown under conventional and integrated management systems and analyzed for their water-soluble vitamin content. Integrated management, when compared with the conventional system, had only minor effects on water-soluble vitamin content, where significantly higher differences were seen for the conventional management practice on the levels of thiamine in field beans (p water-soluble vitamin content of the crops analyzed here.

  17. Relationships between Xanthohumol and Polyphenol Content in Hop Leaves and Hop Cones with Regard to Water Supply and Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čeh, Barbara; Kač, Milica; Košir, Iztok J.; Abram, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water supply – especially of drought stress – on the content of some secondary metabolites in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was studied. The experiment took place in 2006. Some relevant data from 2005 were included for comparison. Leaves and cones of nine hop cultivars grown under field conditions as well as in a pot experiment under three water regimes were analyzed. The cultivars ranged from those most grown in Slovenia to promising crossbreed being tested. Leaves were sampled from July 18, 2006 to August 18, 2006, while cones were picked in the time of technological maturity. Standard analytical methods were applied to determine the contents of xanthohumol, polyphenols and α-acids in hop leaves and hop cones. The contents of the secondary metabolites in question depended more on the cultivar under investigation than on the water supply, at least as far the growing conditions for a relatively normal development of the plant were met.

  18. Effects of formation water from the Urucu petroleum plant on hematological parameters and ionic content of Colossoma macropomum and Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus; Influencia da agua de formacao da extracao de petroleo do Rio Urucu sobre aspectos hematologicos e conteudo ionico de Colossoma macropomum e Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Jose Teodoro Maco

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum plant activities in the Amazon result in a series of negative impacts on the natural resources. The formation water, a secondary product of oil production, carries high salt levels and its environmental release results in salinization of several water bodies in the Amazon. The effect of formation water on vegetal and animal physiology is unknown. This paper estimated the effects of formation water from the Urucu petroleum plant at different dilutions on the haematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, mean hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen content, partial pressure of oxygen, glucose and lactate levels, plasma and intra erythrocytic levels of Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, Phe and p Hi of Colossoma macropomum (Branchial breather) and Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus (facultative air breather). To maintain tissue oxygen supply the studied species adjusted several of these parameters. Cell swelling, high lactate levels, decrease in p He and p Hi have been observed in G. joselimaianus exposed to formation water. The decrease in p Hi result in a decrease of Hb-O{sub 2} affinity in the erythrocytes. On the other hand, an increase in p He and p Hi were observed in C. macropomum. Significant changes in ionic content, in particular plasma and erythrocytic levels of sodium, have been observed for both species exposed to formation water. A decrease of plasma potassium was observed in G. joselimaianus. The intra erythrocytic levels of calcium increased in Colossoma and Glyptoperichthys but no significant change in plasma levels of calcium was observed. The disturbance in blood ion levels resulted in a decreased of blood oxygen content. Colossoma seems to better buffer the effects of formation water exposure than Glyptoperichthys. (author)

  19. Assessment of the soil water content temporal variations in an agricultural area of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Paz-González, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The direct and continuous assessment of the temporal variation on soil water content is of paramount importance for agricultural practices and, in particular, for the management of water resources. Soil water content is affected by many factors such as topography, particle size, clay and organic matter contents, and tillage systems. There are several techniques to measure or estimate soil water content. Among them, Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) stands out. It is based on measuring the dielectrical constant of the soil environment. This technique allows to describe water dynamics in time and space, to determine the main patterns of soil moisture, the water uptake by roots, the evapotranspiration and the drainage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the daily variation of soil water content in the root-influenced zone in plots devoted to maize and grassland as a function of the soil water volumetric content. The studied site is located in an experimental field of the Centre for Agricultural Research (CIAM) in Mabegondo located in the province of A Coruña, Spain (43°14'N, 8°15'W; 91 masl). The study was carried out from June 2008 to September 2009 in a field devoted to maize (Zea mays, L.) and another field devoted to grassland. The soil of these sites is silt-clay textured. Long-term mean annual temperature and rainfall figures are 13.3 °C and 1288 mm, respectively. During the study period, maize crop was subjected to conventional agricultural practices. A weekly evaluation of the phenological stage of the crop was performed. An EnviroSCAN FDR equipment, comprising six capacitance sensors, was installed in the studied sites following the manufacturer's recommendations, thus assuring a proper contact between the probe and the soil. Soil water content in the root-influenced zone (40 cm depth in grassland and 60 cm depth in maize were considered) was hourly monitored in 20 cm ranges (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm) using FDR. Evaluations were

  20. Estimating respiration of roots in soil: interactions with soil CO2, soil temperature and soil water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Eissenstat, D.M.; Lynch, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the variability of the dynamics of the actual and observed root respiration rate in relation to abiotic factors. In this study, we describe I) interactions between soil CO2 concentration, temperature, soil water content and root respiration, and II) the effect of

  1. Impact of Soil Water Content on Landmine Detection Using Radar and Thermal Infrared Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Sung-ho

    2001-01-01

    .... The most important of these is water content since it directly influences the three other properties in this study, the ground penetrating radar and thermal infrared sensors were used to identify non...

  2. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nevzorov probe is an instrument that measures the total water content of the sample of air which passes through it. It flew on the NASA DC-8 during the CAMEX-4...

  3. Activity of water content and storage temperature on the seed-borne mycoflora of lens culinaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, S.; Dawar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Storage of seeds with high water content and temperatures favors the growth of mould fungi which in turn affect the germination of seeds while low temperature with low water content prevent the growth of storage fungi and help in maintaining seed viability for longer duration of time. Seed sample from Sukkur district was stored at 4 degree C and room temperature (25-30 degree C) with water content of 8, 13 and 17% for about 80 days. The fungi were isolated at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 days intervals. Highest infection percentage of fungi was observed at 13 and 17% water contents at room temperature after 20 days of storage. High infection percentage of storage fungi affected the germination of seeds. Aspergillus spp were the most dominant fungi. (author)

  4. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken

    2010-01-01

    by the so-called Dexter index) is useful for predicting if soils are likely to exhibit WR. Expression of soil water repellency depends on soil water content; however, only a limited amount of predictive description is available to date. In this study, based on experimental data, a simple two-region model...

  5. The effect of silica in washing with geothermal water, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindal, B.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial washing operation using geothermal water in Iceland are reported and testing designed to explain the beneficial effect of geothermal water for washing described. The findings indicate, that the silica content of the water may be the principal component for a superior washing quality

  6. Magmatic water contents determined through clinopyroxene: Examples from the Western Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Franz A.; Skogby, Henrik; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Dahren, Börje

    2015-07-01

    Water is a key parameter in magma genesis, magma evolution, and resulting eruption styles, because it controls the density, the viscosity, as well as the melting and crystallization behavior of a melt. The parental water content of a magma is usually measured through melt inclusions in minerals such as olivine, a method which may be hampered, however, by the lack of melt inclusions suitable for analysis, or postentrapment changes in their water content. An alternative way to reconstruct the water content of a magma is to use nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), such as pyroxene, which take up low concentrations of hydrogen as a function of the magma's water content. During magma degassing and eruption, however, NAMs may dehydrate. We therefore tested a method to reconstruct the water contents of dehydrated clinopyroxene phenocrysts from the Western Canary islands (n = 28) through rehydration experiments followed by infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Employing currently available crystal/melt partitioning data, the results of the experiments were used to calculate parental water contents of 0.71 ± 0.07 to 1.49 ± 0.15 wt % H2O for Western Canary magmas during clinopyroxene crystallization at upper mantle conditions. This H2O range is in agreement with calculated water contents using plagioclase-liquid-hygrometry, and with previously published data for mafic lavas from the Canary Islands and comparable ocean island systems elsewhere. Utilizing NAMs in combination with hydrogen treatment can therefore serve as a proxy for pre-eruptive H2O contents, which we anticipate becoming a useful method applicable to mafic rocks where pyroxene is the main phenocryst phase.

  7. The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of some medicinal plants and their water extracts from South East Serbia is determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. The two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts, to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in them. Content of investigated metals in both water extracts is markedly lower then in medicinal plants, but were higher in water extract prepared by method (I, with exception of lead content. The coefficients of extraction for the observed metal can be represented in the following order: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. Correlation coefficients between the metal concentration in the extract and total metal content in plant material vary in the range from 0.6369 to 0.9956. This indicates need the plants to be collected and grown in the unpolluted area and to examine the metal content. The content of heavy metals in the investigated medicinal plants and their water extracts is below the maximum allowable values, so they are safe to use.

  8. Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency - Coupling Effects between Growth Stage Specific Soil Water Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of tomato yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to soil water content at different growth stages, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed in a five-factor-five-level pot experiment under regulated deficit irrigation. Two regression models concerning...... the effects of stage-specific soil water content on tomato yield and WUE were established. The results showed that the lowest available soil water (ASW) content (around 28%) during vegetative growth stage (here denoted θ1) resulted in high yield and WUE. Moderate (around 69% ASW) during blooming and fruit...... effects of ASW in two growth stages were between θ2 and θ5, θ3. In both cases a moderate θ2 was a precondition for maximum yield response to increasing θ5 and θ3. Sensitivity analysis revealed that yield was most sensitive to soil water content at fruit maturity (θ5). Numerical inspection...

  9. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per

    2010-01-01

    Soil-water content (θ) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with θ, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive...... conditions for 19 soils were used to test the model. The beta function successfully reproduced all the measured soil-water repellency characteristic, α(θ), curves. Significant correlations were found between model parameters and SOC content (1%-14%). The model was independently tested against data...

  10. [Analysis of spectral features based on water content of desert vegetation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Li, Xia; Yin, Ye-biao; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Sheng-bin

    2010-09-01

    By using HR-768 field-portable spectroradiometer made by the Spectra Vista Corporation (SVC) of America, the hyper-spectral data of nine types of desert plants were measured, and the water content of corresponding vegetation was determined by roasting in lab. The continuum of measured hyperspectral data was removed by using ENVI, and the relationship between the water content of vegetation and the reflectance spectrum was analyzed by using correlation coefficient method. The result shows that the correlation between the bands from 978 to 1030 nm and water content of vegetation is weak while it is better for the bands from 1133 to 1266 nm. The bands from 1374 to 1534 nm are the characteristic bands because of the correlation between them and water content is the best. By using cluster analysis and according to the water content, the vegetation could be marked off into three grades: high (>70%), medium (50%-70%) and low (<50%). The research reveals the relationship between water content of desert vegetation and hyperspectral data, and provides basis for the analysis of area in desert and the monitoring of desert vegetation by using remote sensing data.

  11. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Nitrogen Content for Spatially Explicit Carbon and Water Cycle Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, J. R.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Foliage nitrogen concentration is a determinant of photosynthetic capacity of leaves, thereby an important input to ecological models for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. Recently, spectrally continuous airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has proven to be useful for retrieving an important related parameter, total chlorophyll content at both leaf and canopy scales. Thus remote sensing of vegetation biochemical parameters has promising potential for improving the prediction of global carbon and water balance patterns. In this research, we explored the feasibility of estimating leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral remote sensing data for spatially explicit estimation of carbon and water budgets. Multi-year measurements of leaf biochemical contents of seven major boreal forest species were carried out in northeastern Ontario, Canada. The variation of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content in response to various growth conditions, and the relationship between them,were investigated. Despite differences in plant type (deciduous and evergreen), leaf age, stand growth conditions and developmental stages, leaf nitrogen content was strongly correlated with leaf chlorophyll content on a mass basis during the active growing season (r2=0.78). With this general correlation, leaf nitrogen content was estimated from leaf chlorophyll content at an accuracy of RMSE=2.2 mg/g, equivalent to 20.5% of the average measured leaf nitrogen content. Based on this correlation and a hyperspectral remote sensing algorithm for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval, the spatial variation of leaf nitrogen content was inferred from the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery acquired by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). A process-based ecological model Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. In contrast to the scenario with leaf nitrogen content assigned as a constant value without

  12. Change of deuterium volume content in heavy water during carbon dioxide dissolution in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, T.I.; Kapitanov, V.F.; Levchenko, G.V.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon dioxide solution density in heavy water at increased temperature and pressure is measured and the influence of carbon dioxide solubility in heavy water on volumetric content of deuterium in it is determined. Investigations were conducted in the temperature range of 303-473 K and pressure range of 3-20 MPa by the autoclave method. Volumetric content of deuterium in heavy water decreases sufficiently with CO 2 dissolved in it in comparison with pure D 2 O under the similar conditions, and this decrease becomes more sufficient with the pressure increase. With the temperature increase the volumetric content of deuterium both for heavy water and for saturated carbon solution in heavy water decreases

  13. Monitoring of Water Content in Building Materials Using a Wireless Passive Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stojanović

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative design of a wireless, passive LC sensor and its application for monitoring of water content in building materials. The sensor was embedded in test material samples so that the internal water content of the samples could be measured with an antenna by tracking the changes in the sensor’s resonant frequency. Since the dielectric constant of water was much higher compared with that of the test samples, the presence of water in the samples increased the capacitance of the LC circuit, thus decreasing the sensor’s resonant frequency. The sensor is made up of a printed circuit board in one metal layer and water content has been determined for clay brick and autoclaved aerated concrete block, both widely used construction materials. Measurements were conducted at room temperature using a HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer instrument.

  14. Effect of Water Content on Properties of Homogeneous [bmim]Fe(IIICl4–H2O Mixtures and Their Application in Oxidative Absorption of H2S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate ([bmim]Fe(IIICl4 for replacing an iron(III chelate catalytic solution in the catalytic oxidation of H2S is attributed to its no side reaction and no degradation of the chelating agent. The catalytic oxidation product of water in non-aqueous [bmim]Fe(IIICl4 possibly has an influence on the oxidative absorption of H2S. Water and hydrophobic [bmim]Fe(IIICl4 mixtures at water volume percents from 40% to 70% formed separate phases after srirring, without affecting the oxidative absorption of hydrogen sulfide. Then, studies on the properties of homogeneous [bmim]Fe(IIICl4–H2O mixtures at water volume percents in the range of 5.88–30% and above 80% reveal that these mixtures are both Brønsted and Lewis acids at vol % (H2O ≤ 30%, and only Lewis acids at vol % (H2O ≥ 80%. Raman spectra showed that [bmim]Fe(IIICl4 was the dominating species at vol % (H2O ≤ 30%, in contrast, [bmim]Fe(IIICl4 decomposed into FeCl3·2H2O and [bmim]Cl at vol % (H2O ≥ 80%. Further research on oxidative absorption of H2S by homogeneous [bmim]Fe(IIICl4–H2O mixtures demonstrated that [bmim]Fe(IIICl4 was reduced by H2S to [bmim]Fe(IICl4H and FeCl3·2H2O was reduced to FeCl2, at the same time, H2S was oxidized to S8. In addition, the decrease in acidity caused by increasing the water content increased the weight percent of absorbed H2S, and decreased volatile HCl emissions. However, it is difficult to prevent the suspended S8 generated at vol % (H2O ≥ 80% from the formation of sulfur blockage. Therefore, oxidative absorption of H2S by [bmim]Fe(IIICl4–H2O mixtures is feasible at vol % (H2O < 80% without sulfur blockage.

  15. Estimating the Relative Water Content of Single Leaves from Optical Polarization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long-term goals of remote sensing research. For monitoring canopy water status, existing approaches such as the Crop Water Stress Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness have limitations. The CWSI does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWI is based upon the physics of water-light interaction, not plant physiology. In this research, we applied optical polarization techniques to monitor the VISNIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both changed nonlinearly as each leaf dried, R increasing and T decreasing. Our results tie changes in the VISNIR R and T to leaf physiological changes linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf and perhaps of a plant canopy might be possible in the future. However, using our approach to estimate the water status of a leaf does not appear possible at present, because our results display too much variability that we do not yet understand.

  16. Changes of Chlorophyll Index (SPAD, Relative Water Content, Electrolyte Leakage and Seed Yield in Spring Safflower Genotypes under Irrigation Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Moosavifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation termination and genotype on chlorophyll index (SPAD, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and seed yield in spring safflower, an experiment was conducted, in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, during 2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation (whole season irrigation, irrigation until grain filling, flowering and heading-bud and genotypes (Mahali Isfahan (a local variety, Isfahan28 and IL111 were arranged in main and subplots, respectively. Results showed chlorophyll content, relative water content, cell membrane stability and seed yield were influenced by irrigation termination. Provided that with terminating irrigation at an earlier stage, an increase in electrolyte leakage and reduction in relative water content and seed yield was observed in plants. There were negative relations between electrolyte leakage from plants leaf cells and seed yield. Plants which experienced irrigation termination in an earlier growth stage, suffered more damage to their cell membranes, leading to depression of their production potential. Based on the results, Mahali Isfahan and Isfahan28 can be introduced as drought resistant genotypes, because of their lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content. But, in general, Mahali Isfahan had the highest seed yield due to its nativeness and high adaptation to arid conditions southern of Khorasan, and therefore this genotype suggests for planting in the region.

  17. Biological effects of deuterium - depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, I.; Titescu, Gh.; Croitoru, Cornelia; Saros-Rogobete, Irina

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) is represented by water that has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D + H). DDW production technique consists in the separation of deuterium from water by a continuous distillation process under pressure of about 133.3 mbar. The water used as raw material has a isotopic content of 145 ppm D/(D + H) and can be demineralized water, distillated water or condensed-steam. DDW results as a distillate with an isotopic deuterium content of 15-80 ppm, depending on the level we want to achieve. Beginning with 1996 the Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, DDW producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for studying the biological effects of DDW. The role of naturally occurring D in living organisms was examined by using DDW instead of natural water. These investigations led to the following conclusions: - DDW caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tone and vascular reactivity produced by the DDW persists after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action by the stimulation of non-specific immune defense mechanisms; - DDW stimulates immuno-defense reactions represented by the opsonic, bactericidal and phagocyte capacity of the immune system together with an increase in the number of poly-morphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed favorable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance and following growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character variability in plants; one can remark the favorable influence of DDW on biological processes in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  18. Determining the water-cement ratio, cement content, water content and degree of hydration of hardened cement paste: Method development and validation on paste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the initial cement content, water content and free water/cement ratio (w/c) of hardened cement-based materials made with Portland cements that have unknown mixture proportions and degree of hydration. This method first quantifies the composition of the hardened cement paste, i.e. the volumetric fractions of capillary pores, hydration products and unreacted cement, using high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) in the backscattered electron (BSE) mode and image analysis. From the obtained data and the volumetric increase of solids during cement hydration, we compute the initial free water content and cement content, hence the free w/c ratio. The same method can also be used to calculate the degree of hydration. The proposed method has the advantage that it is quantitative and does not require comparison with calibration graphs or reference samples made with the same materials and cured to the same degree of hydration as the tested sample. This paper reports the development, assumptions and limitations of the proposed method, and preliminary results from Portland cement pastes with a range of w/c ratios (0.25-0.50) and curing ages (3-90 days). We also discuss the extension of the technique to mortars and concretes, and samples made with blended cements.

  19. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  20. Effect of alloy content on microstructure and microchemistry of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the microstructural evolution in 9Cr reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels during short term thermal exposures. Since the microstructure is strongly influenced by the alloying additions, mainly W, Ta and C contents, the effect of varying W and Ta contents on ...

  1. Measurement of water content and density of soil using photon multiplescattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.; Haselberger, N.

    1981-04-01

    A gamma-backscatter gauge for field and laboratory applications was set up for the measurement of density and water content of soil at the same time. The method works successfully between 0-40 cm depth of the soil and is superior to the neutron gauge between 0-30 cm depth. The system is extremely simple and practical and can be installed on a tractor during ploughing. The developed method also works for absolute values of densities and moisture content and is able to distinguish the bulk density changes due to vacancies in the soil or the water content taken inside the soil grains

  2. Comparison of neutron scattering, gravimetric and tensiometric methods for measuring soil water content in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, R.L.; Das, D.K.; Naskar, G.C.

    1975-01-01

    Water content of a sandy clay loam soil was measured by neutron scattering, gravimetric and tensiometric methods. Tensiometric measurement based on laboratory moisture retention curve gave comparatively higher moisture content than those obtained by other methods. No significant differences were observed among neutron meter, gravimetric and tensiometric measurement based on field calibration curve. Though for irrigation purposes all the methods can be used equally, use of tensiometric method with field calibration curve is suggested for easy and more accurate soil water content measurement where neutron meter is not available. (author)

  3. Precision of neutron scattering and capacitance type soil water content gauges from field calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evett, S.R.; Steiner, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Soil water content gauges based on neutron scattering (NS) have been a valuable tool for soil water investigations for some 40 yr. However, licensing, training, and safety regulations pertaining to the radioactive source in these gauges makes their use expensive and prevents use in some situations such as unattended monitoring. A capacitance probe (CP) gauge has characteristics that would seem to make it an ideal replacement for NS gauges. We determined the relative precision of two brands of NS gauges (three gauges of each) and a brand of CP gauge (four gauges) in a field calibration exercise. Both brands of NS gauges were calibrated vs. volumetric soil water content with coefficients of determination (r2) ranging from 0.97 to 0.99 and root mean squared errors (RMSE) 0.012 m3 m-3 water content. Calibrations for the CP gauges resulted in r2 ranging from 0.68 to 0.71 and RMSE of 0.036 m3 m-3 water content. Average 95% confidence intervals on predictions were three to five times higher for the CP gauges than for the NS gauges, ranging from 0.153 to 0.161 and 0.032 to 0.052 m3 m-3, respectively. Although poorly correlated with soil water content, readings were reproducible among the four CP gauges. The poor correlation for CP gauges may be due to small-scale soil water content variations within the measurement volume of the gauge. The NS gauges provide acceptable precision but the CP gauge has poor precision and is unacceptable for routine soil water content measurements

  4. Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

  5. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-05-29

    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  6. Water content of acacia honey dertermined by two established methods and by optothermal window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szopos, S.; Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Ajtony, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of the research study described here was to explore the potential of the optothermal window (OW) technique as a new approach towards a simple, rapid determination of water content in honey. Water, major component of foods, influences their physical and chemical properties. Single

  7. Detecting leaf-water content in Mediterranean trees using high-resolution spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven M.; Addink, Elisabeth A.; Doelman, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Water content of the vegetation canopy or individual leaves is an important variable in physiological plant processes. In Mediterranean regions where water availability is an important production limiting factor, it is a strong indicator of vegetation stress. Spectroscopic earth-observation

  8. Modeling the release of E. coli D21g with transients in water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transients in water content are well known to mobilize colloids that are retained in the vadose zone. However, there is no consensus on the proper model formulation to simulate colloid release during drainage and imbibition. We present a model that relates colloid release to changes in the air-water...

  9. CALCULATED AND MEASURED VALUES OF LIQUID WATER CONTENT IN CLEAN AND POLLUTED ENVIRONMENTS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Řezáčová, Daniela; Mattanen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2006), s. 121-130 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3042301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : liquid water content * visibility * air pollutant * fog /cloud water Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2006

  10. The Calibration and Use of Capacitance Sensors to Monitor Stem Water Content in Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Ashley M; Garrity, Steven R; Bohrer, Gil

    2017-12-27

    Water transport and storage through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum is critical to the terrestrial water cycle, and has become a major research focus area. Biomass capacitance plays an integral role in the avoidance of hydraulic impairment to transpiration. However, high temporal resolution measurements of dynamic changes in the hydraulic capacitance of large trees are rare. Here, we present procedures for the calibration and use of capacitance sensors, typically used to monitor soil water content, to measure the volumetric water content in trees in the field. Frequency domain reflectometry-style observations are sensitive to the density of the media being studied. Therefore, it is necessary to perform species-specific calibrations to convert from the sensor-reported values of dielectric permittivity to volumetric water content. Calibration is performed on a harvested branch or stem cut into segments that are dried or re-hydrated to produce a full range of water contents used to generate a best-fit regression with sensor observations. Sensors are inserted into calibration segments or installed in trees after pre-drilling holes to a tolerance fit using a fabricated template to ensure proper drill alignment. Special care is taken to ensure that sensor tines make good contact with the surrounding media, while allowing them to be inserted without excessive force. Volumetric water content dynamics observed via the presented methodology align with sap flow measurements recorded using thermal dissipation techniques and environmental forcing data. Biomass water content data can be used to observe the onset of water stress, drought response and recovery, and has the potential to be applied to the calibration and evaluation of new plant-level hydrodynamics models, as well as to the partitioning of remotely sensed moisture products into above- and belowground components.

  11. Course transformation: Content, structure and effectiveness analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuHadway, Linda P.

    The organization of learning materials is often limited by the systems available for delivery of such material. Currently, the learning management system (LMS) is widely used to distribute course materials. These systems deliver the material in a text-based, linear way. As online education continues to expand and educators seek to increase their effectiveness by adding more effective active learning strategies, these delivery methods become a limitation. This work demonstrates the possibility of presenting course materials in a graphical way that expresses important relations and provides support for manipulating the order of those materials. The ENABLE system gathers data from an existing course, uses text analysis techniques, graph theory, graph transformation, and a user interface to create and present graphical course maps. These course maps are able to express information not currently available in the LMS. Student agents have been developed to traverse these course maps to identify the variety of possible paths through the material. The temporal relations imposed by the current course delivery methods have been replaced by prerequisite relations that express ordering that provides educational value. Reducing the connections to these more meaningful relations allows more possibilities for change. Technical methods are used to explore and calibrate linear and nonlinear models of learning. These methods are used to track mastery of learning material and identify relative difficulty values. Several probability models are developed and used to demonstrate that data from existing, temporally based courses can be used to make predictions about student success in courses using the same material but organized without the temporal limitations. Combined, these demonstrate the possibility of tools and techniques that can support the implementation of a graphical course map that allows varied paths and provides an enriched, more informative interface between the educator

  12. Metrologically Traceable Determination of the Water Content in Biopolymers: INRiM Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, F.; Beltramino, G.; Fernicola, V.; Sega, M.; Verdoja, A.

    2017-03-01

    Water content in materials is a key factor affecting many chemical and physical properties. In polymers of biological origin, it influences their stability and mechanical properties as well as their biodegradability. The present work describes the activity carried out at INRiM on the determination of water content in samples of a commercial starch-derived biopolymer widely used in shopping bags (Mater-Bi^{circledR }). Its water content, together with temperature, is the most influencing parameter affecting its biodegradability, because of the considerable impact on the microbial activity which is responsible for the biopolymer degradation in the environment. The main scope of the work was the establishment of a metrologically traceable procedure for the determination of water content by using two electrochemical methods, namely coulometric Karl Fischer (cKF) titration and evolved water vapour (EWV) analysis. The obtained results are presented. The most significant operational parameters were considered, and a particular attention was devoted to the establishment of metrological traceability of the measurement results by using appropriate calibration procedures, calibrated standards and suitable certified reference materials. Sample homogeneity and oven-drying temperature were found to be the most important influence quantities in the whole water content measurement process. The results of the two methods were in agreement within the stated uncertainties. Further development is foreseen for the application of cKF and EWV to other polymers.

  13. Effects of ageing and moisture content on thermal properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ageing and moisture content on thermal properties of cassava roots ... after harvest coupled with non-‐availability of acceptable storage alternatives. ... the properties simultaneously based on the transient line heat source method.

  14. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Zubair; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

  15. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  16. Investigation of water content in primary upper shield of high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Mogi, Haruyoshi; Itahashi, Shuuji; Kitami, Toshiyuki; Akutu, Youichi; Fuchita, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Toru; Moriya, Masahiro

    1999-09-01

    A primary upper shield of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is composed of concrete (grout) which is packed into iron frames. The main function of the primary upper shield is to attenuate neutron and gamma ray from the core, that leads to satisfy dose equivalent rate limit of operating floor and stand-pipe room. Water content in the concrete is one of the most important things because it strongly affects neutron-shielding ability. Then, we carried out out-of-pile experiments to investigate relationship between temperature and water content in the concrete. Based on the experimental results, a hydrolysis-diffusion model was developed to investigate water release behavior from the concrete. The model showed that water content used for shielding design in the primary upper shield of the HTTR will be maintained if temperature during operating life is under 110degC. (author)

  17. Non-destructive evaluation of the water content of concretes by low energy gamma backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

    1983-01-01

    A method of estimating the water content of various concretes mixed with neutron absorbers like boron or rare earths is described. This makes use of the fact that a large buildup of low energy photons in the 20 - 100 keV range is observed in the backscattered spectrum from water when compared to conrete. A 4.36 mCi 137 Cs (662 keV) source is used with a 1 mm thick NaI scintillator as the detector to measure the backscattered radiation in the energy range. Calibration curves for evaluating the water content in borated concretes, ordinary conretes of different thickness, and a mortar brick are reported. It has been possible to estimate the water content to within 0.25% (by weight) by this method. (orig.)

  18. Non-destructive evaluation of the water content of concretes by low energy gamma backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, V M; Bhatnagar, P K; Meenakshisundaram, V [Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India). Safety Research Lab.

    1983-02-15

    A method of estimating the water content of various concretes mixed with neutron absorbers like boron or rare earths is described. This makes use of the fact that a large buildup of low energy photons in the 20 - 100 keV range is observed in the backscattered spectrum from water when compared to concrete. A 4.36 mCi /sup 137/Cs (662 keV) source is used with a 1 mm thick NaI scintillator as the detector to measure the backscattered radiation in the energy range. Calibration curves for evaluating the water content in borated concretes, ordinary concretes of different thickness, and a mortar brick are reported. It has been possible to estimate the water content to within 0.25% (by weight) by this method.

  19. Origin and Distribution of Water Contents in Continental and Oceanic Lithospheric Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    The water content distribution of the upper mantle will be reviewed as based on the peridotite record. The amount of water in cratonic xenoliths appears controlled by metasomatism while that of the oceanic mantle retains in part the signature of melting events. In both cases, the water distribution is heterogeneous both with depth and laterally, depending on localized water re-enrichments next to melt/fluid channels. The consequence of the water distribution on the rheology of the upper mantle and the location of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary will also be discussed.

  20. Phytochemical content of hot and cold water extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habboo, Maysam Dahham; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2018-04-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Lamiaceae) is a plant with ethnobotanical applications including antifungal and antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical contents of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves water extract prepared in cold and hot distilled water. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phytochemicals components such as a flavonoid, terpenoid and steroid in both extracts. Cold water extract has two extra components: saponin and alkaloid that may be destroyed by the exposure to heat.

  1. Influence of packaging and conditions of storaging on content of mineral water Guber-Srebrenica

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Dragana D.; Lazić Dragica; Škundrić Branko; Škundrić Jelena; Vukić Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Mineral waters are found in nature in greater depths most often in reduction conditions, so after surfacing their content alters in contact with oxygen, which is caused by oxidation of certain components. Due to this, efforts were made to make these waters more stabile so they could be used after certain time. This work monitors the stability of Guber (Argentaria)-Srebrenica water exposed to light and with addition of ascorbic acid. The methods of analysis and the parameters analyzed are: gra...

  2. The main microelements and phosphorus content of sediments formed in a drinking water supply system

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Valentukeviciene; Ramune Zurauskiene; Jonas Satkunas

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the only source for drinking water supply in Lithuania. Twenty water intakes exploiting Quaternary aquifers are operating in Vilnius City. The main aim of this study was to characterize the heavy metal content of internal pipeline sediments in the water supply network. It also provides a new insight into the accumulation of phosphorus and its variation in pipeline sediments in the study area. The results of this research reflect the level of heavy metals that accumulated during...

  3. The effects of gamma radiation on soybean isoflavones contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br, e-mail: mrramos@ipen.br; Mandarino, Jose M.G. [EMBRAPA Soybean, Londrina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: jmarcos@cnpso.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is the most common source of isoflavones in human feeding. It was suggested that there is a correlation among antioxidant activity of flavonoids and total phenolics content. Plants use isoflavones and their derivatives as part of the plant's defensive arsenal, to ward off disease-causing pathogenic fungi and other microbes. Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, with the exception of fermented miso, which has increased levels. Little is known about the influence of oxidative stress induced by radiation on the isoflavones contents. In the present paper, the effects of gamma irradiation on soybean isoflavones contents are presented. Samples from several Brazilian soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 kGy, dose rate about 3 kGy/h in a {sup 60}Co (Gammacell 220 - AECL). Isoflavones contents were determined after extraction with 70% ethanol containing 0.1% acetic acid by an HPLC method. The total isoflavone content remained almost unchanged with the increase of radiation dose up to 10 kGy. Although a general correlation among total isoflavone content and radiation dose was not found, some data suggest that for a few of the isoflavones from specific cultivars, the increase in the radiation dose induced a decrease in their content as for glucosyl glucosides and malonyl isoflavones, as well as an increase in their aglycone content. (author)

  4. Human Milk Macronutrients Content: Effect of Advanced Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Sever, Orna; Mimouni, Francis B; Mandel, Dror

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of advanced maternal age upon macronutrients of human milk. This study was designed to study contents of macronutrients (fat, lactose, and protein) in human milk collected in the first 2 weeks of life in older (≥35 years) compared with younger (Macronutrient contents were measured at 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days after delivery using infrared transmission spectroscopy. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal prepregnancy weight, height, and diet or infant birth weight or gestational age. They differed significantly in terms of maternal age and maternal weight after pregnancy. Fat content in colostrum and carbohydrate content in mature milk were significantly higher in the older mothers group. Moreover, carbohydrates in mature milk correlated positively with maternal age. Fat content at an infant age of 7 days and 2 weeks was not affected by maternal age. There was no significant relationship between maternal body weight for height (or body mass index) and energy, protein, fat or lactose content at any stage. Fat content of colostrum and carbohydrate content of mature milk obtained from mothers with advanced age are elevated compared with those of younger mothers. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between maternal age and carbohydrate content in mature milk. The biological significance of our findings is yet to be determined.

  5. The effects of gamma radiation on soybean isoflavones contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Mandarino, Jose M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is the most common source of isoflavones in human feeding. It was suggested that there is a correlation among antioxidant activity of flavonoids and total phenolics content. Plants use isoflavones and their derivatives as part of the plant's defensive arsenal, to ward off disease-causing pathogenic fungi and other microbes. Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, with the exception of fermented miso, which has increased levels. Little is known about the influence of oxidative stress induced by radiation on the isoflavones contents. In the present paper, the effects of gamma irradiation on soybean isoflavones contents are presented. Samples from several Brazilian soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 kGy, dose rate about 3 kGy/h in a 60 Co (Gammacell 220 - AECL). Isoflavones contents were determined after extraction with 70% ethanol containing 0.1% acetic acid by an HPLC method. The total isoflavone content remained almost unchanged with the increase of radiation dose up to 10 kGy. Although a general correlation among total isoflavone content and radiation dose was not found, some data suggest that for a few of the isoflavones from specific cultivars, the increase in the radiation dose induced a decrease in their content as for glucosyl glucosides and malonyl isoflavones, as well as an increase in their aglycone content. (author)

  6. Development of a new medium frequency EM device: Mapping soil water content variations using electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessouri, P.; Buvat, S.; Tabbagh, A.

    2012-12-01

    permittivity is used. Variations of water content detected by the EM prototype are confirmed by additional DC electrical profiling and direct mass water content measurements along depth. For the clay-loam soil, containing more than 20% of clay, the relative dielectric permittivity values, ranging from 63 to 138, are much higher than those expected in the high frequency range (above 20 MHz, the highest measured permittivity is equal to 81 for water). In the medium frequency range, those values are very likely due to interfacial polarization. This effect, also known as Maxwell-Wagner polarization, should increase with the soil clay content. The first measuring trial is coherent with the gravimetric water content as well as DC electrical profiling measurements. For a clay rich soil, the EM prototype is able to detect water content variations for an investigation depth close to 1m with both electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity in the medium frequency range. Other field experiments are scheduled to confirm these results on other types of soils.

  7. 99 Tc NMR determination of the oxygen isotope content in 18 O-enriched water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Valerii P; Kirakosyan, Gayana А; German, Konstantin E

    2018-03-01

    99 Tc NMR has been suggested as an original method of evaluating the content of oxygen isotopes in oxygen-18-enriched water, a precursor for the production of radioisotope fluorine-18 used in positron emission tomography. To this end, solutions of NH 4 TcO 4 or NaTcO 4 (up to 0.28 mol/L) with natural abundance of oxygen isotopes in virgin or recycled 18 O-enriched water have been studied by 99 Tc NMR. The method is based on 16 O/ 17 O/ 18 O intrinsic isotope effects in the 99 Tc NMR chemical shifts, and the statistical distribution of oxygen isotopes in the coordination sphere of TcO 4 - and makes it possible to quantify the composition of enriched water by measuring the relative intensities of the 99 Tc NMR signals of the Tc 16 O 4-n 18 O n - isotopologues. Because the oxygen exchange between TcO 4 - and enriched water in neutral and alkaline solutions is characterized by slow kinetics, gaseous HCl was bubbled through a solution for a few seconds to achieve the equilibrium distribution of oxygen isotopes in the Tc coordination sphere without distortion of the oxygen composition of the water. Pertechnetate ion was selected as a probe due to its high stability in solutions and the significant 99 Tc NMR shift induced by a single 16 O→ 18 O substitution (-0.43 ± 0.01 ppm) in TcO 4 - and spin coupling constant 1 J( 99 Tc- 17 O) (131.46 Hz) favourable for the observation of individual signals of Tc 16 O 4-n 18 O n - isotopologues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A rapid method for measuring soil water content in the field with a areometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calbo Adonai Gimenez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of a rapid method to evaluate the soil water content (U can be an important tool to determine the moment to irrigate. The soil areometer consists of an elongated hydrostatic balance with a weighing pan, a graduated neck, a float and a pynometric flask. In this work an areometer was adapted to rapidly measure soil water content without the need of drying the soil. The expression U = (M A - M AD/(M M -M A was used to calculate the soil water content. In this equation M M is the mass to level the areometer with the pycnometric flask filled with water, M A the mass to level the areometer with a mass M M of soil in the pycnometer, the volume being completed with water, and similarly M AD the mass added to the pan to level the areometer with a mass M M of dried soil in the pycnometric flask. The convenience of this method is that the values M M and M AD are known. Consequently, the decision on irrigation can be made after a measurement that takes, about, ten minutes. The procedure involves only stirring the soil with water for at least 2 minutes to remove the adhered air. The soil water content data obtained with the areometric method were similar to those obtained weighing the soil before and after drying to constant weight, in an oven at 105º C.

  9. Enhancement of Protein and Pigment Content in Two Chlorella Species Cultivated on Industrial Process Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Safafar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris were cultivated in pre-gasified industrial process water with high concentration of ammonia representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of growth media and cultivation duration on the nutritional composition of biomass. Variations in proteins, lipid, fatty acid composition, amino acids, tocopherols, and pigments were studied. Both species grew well in industrial process water. The contents of proteins were affected significantly by the growth media and cultivation duration. Microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa produced the highest concentrations of protein (65.2% ± 1.30% DW while Chlorella vulgaris accumulated extremely high concentrations of lutein and chlorophylls (7.14 ± 0.66 mg/g DW and 32.4 ± 1.77 mg/g DW, respectively. Cultivation of Chlorella species in industrial process water is an environmentally friendly, sustainable bioremediation method with added value biomass production and resource valorization, since the resulting biomass also presented a good source of proteins, amino acids, and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry.

  10. Microbial degradation of high nitrogen contents (primarily nitrate) in industrial waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Kutzner, H.J.

    1984-04-01

    This study deals with the denitrification of industrial waste water of high nitrate content, including waste water from the recovery process for nuclear material. At first the autotrophic process employing Thiob. denitrificans was investigated: kinetics, stoichiometry, application of a packed bed reactor; effect of nitrate concentration, retention time, loading and height of the reactor on denitrification. The system proved to be useful for waste water with nitrate up to 4.5 g/L; the highest rate of denitrification achieved was 1.5 g/L.h when the retention time was 2.5 h and the nitrate concentration (in-flow) 4.3 g/L (i.e. reactor loadung 41 kg NO 3 - /m 3 .d). Equally good results were obtained by the heterotrophic process: ethanol allowed a reactor loading of 60 kg NO 3 - /m 3 .d; however, in this case bacterial growth tended to clog the column. - Enrichments made with ethanol yielded Ps. aeruginosa as main component of the population; in contrast, those with methanol resulted in a mixture of Hyphomicrobium spec. and Paracoccus denitrificans; this bacterial culture was used to determine the stoichiometry of denitrification in continuous culture; it was also employed to denitrify a diluted solution of nitric acid (0.1 ml HNO 3 /L) which could be achieved in continuous culture using a retention time of 25 h. (orig.) [de

  11. Changes in the content of water-soluble vitamins in Actinidia chinensis during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of cold storage on nine water-soluble vitamins in 7 cultivars of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were collected at three time points during cold storage: one day, 30 days, and when edible. We found that vitamin C in most cultivars was raised with cold storage, but there was no consistent increased or decreased trend for other water-soluble vitamins across cultivars in storage. After one day of cold storage, vitamins B1 and B2 were the most prevalent vitamins in Control (wild fruit, while vitamins B5 and B6 were most prevalent in the Hongyang and Qihong cultivars. However, B12 was the most prevalent vitamin in the Qihong cultivar after 30 days of cold storage. Vitamins B3, B7, B9, and C were detected at the edible time point in Huayou, Hongyang, Jinnong-2, and Control fruit. Vitamin contents varied significantly among cultivars of kiwifruit following different durations of cold storage. Out of the three durations tested, a period of 30 days in cold storage was the most suitable for the absorption of water-soluble vitamins by A. chinensis.

  12. Water content within the oceanic upper mantle of the Southwest Indian Ridge: a FTIR analysis of orthopyroxenes of abyssal peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Li, H.; Tao, C.; Jin, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Water can be present in the oceanic upper mantle as structural OH in nominally anhydrous minerals. Such water has marked effects on manlte melting and rheology properties. However, the water content of MORB source is mainly inferred from MORB glass data that the water budget of oceanic upper mantle is poorly constrained. Here we present water analysis of peridotites from different sites on the Southwest Indian Ridge. The mineral assemblages of these peridotites are olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel. As the peridotites have been serpentinized to different degrees, only water contents in orthopyroxnene can be better determined by FTIR spectrometry. The IR absorption bands of all measured orthopyroxenes can be devided into four different groups: (1)3562-3596 cm-1, (2)3515-3520 cm-1, (3)3415-3420 cm-1, (4)3200-3210 cm-1. The positions of these absorption bands are in good agreement with perivious reports. Hydrogen profile measurements performed on larger opx grains in each suite of samples show no obvious variations between core and rims regions, indicating that diffusion of H in orthopyroxene is insignificant. Preliminary measured water contents of orthopyroxene differ by up to one order of magnitude. Opx water contents (80-220 ppm) of most samples are within the range of those found in mantle xenoliths of contentinal settings [1]. Opx water contents of one sample (VM-21V-S9-D5-2: 38-64 ppm) are similar to those from Gakkel Ridge abyssal peridotites (25-60 ppm) [2] but higher than those from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ODP-Leg 209(~15 ppm) [3]. Two other samples show high water concentrations (VM-19ΙΙΙ-S3-TVG2-4: 260-275 ppm, Wb-18-b: 190-265 ppm) which compare well with those from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ODP-Leg 153(160-270 ppm) [4]. Most opx water contents decrease with increasing depletion degree (spl Cr#) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water during partial melting. Recalculated bulk water contents (27-117 ppm) of these peridotites overlap

  13. Using near infrared spectrum analysis to predict water and chlorophyll content in tomato leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanyu; Ying, Yibin; Liu, Yande

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive way to analyze water and chlorophyll content in tomato leaves. A total of 200 leaves were collected as experimental materials, 120 of them were used to form a calibration data set. Drying chest, SPAD meter and NIR spectrometer were used to get water content, chlorophyll content and spectrums of tomato leaves respectively. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTNIR) method with a smart Near-IR Updrift was used to test spectrums, and partial least squares (PLS) technique was used to analyze the data we get by normal experimentation and near infrared spectrometer, set up a calibration model to predict the leaf water and chlorophyll content based on the characteristics of diffuse reflectance spectrums of tomato leaves. Three different mathematical treatments were used in spectrums processing: different wavelength range, different smoothing points, first and second derivative. We can get best prediction model when we select full range (800-2500nm), 3 points for spectrums smoothing and spectrums by baseline correction, the best model of chlorophyll content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 8.16 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.89452 and the best model of water content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0214 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.91043.

  14. Computation of porosity and water content from geophysical logs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron and density logs acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to determine porosity and water content as a function of depth. Computation of porosity requires an estimate of grain density, which is provided by core data, mineralogical data, or is inferred from rock type where neither core nor mineralogy are available. The porosity estimate is merged with mineralogical data acquired by X-ray diffraction to compute the volumetric fractions of major mineral groups. The resulting depth-based portrayal of bulk rock composition is equivalent to a whole rock analysis of mineralogy and porosity. Water content is computed from epithermal and thermal neutron logs. In the unsaturated zone, the density log is required along with a neutron log. Water content can also be computed from dielectric logs, which were acquired in only a fraction of the boreholes, whereas neutron logs were acquired in all boreholes. Mineralogical data are used to compute a structural (or bound) water estimate, which is subtracted from the total water estimate from the neutron-density combination. Structural water can be subtracted only from intervals where mineralogical analyses are available; otherwise only total water can be reported. The algorithms and procedures are applied to logs acquired during 1979 to 1984 at Yucca Mountain. Examples illustrate the results. Comparison between computed porosity and core measurements shows systematic differences ranging from 0.005 to 0.04. These values are consistent with a sensitivity analysis using uncertainty parameters for good logging conditions. Water content from core measurements is available in only one borehole, yielding a difference between computed and core-based water content of 0.006

  15. Unsaturated flow characterization utilizing water content data collected within the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters based on detailed water content profiles, which can be readily acquired during hydrological investigations. Core samples taken through the unsaturated zone allow for the acquisition of gravimetrically determined water content data as a function of elevation at 3 inch intervals. This dense spacing of data provides several measurements of the water content within the capillary fringe, which are utilized to determine capillary pressure function parameters via least-squares calibration. The water content data collected above the capillary fringe are used to calculate dimensionless flow as a function of elevation providing a snapshot characterization of flow through the unsaturated zone. The water content at a flow stagnation point provides an in situ estimate of specific yield. In situ determinations of capillary pressure function parameters utilizing this method, together with particle-size distributions, can provide a valuable supplement to data libraries of unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters. The method is illustrated using data collected from plots within an agricultural research facility in Wisconsin.

  16. On the detection and monitoring of reduced water content in plants using spectral responses in the visible domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Van Leeuwen, Spencer; Chen, Tenn F.

    2016-05-01

    The water status of cultivated plants can have a significant impact not only on food production, but also on the appropriate usage of increasingly scarce freshwater supplies. Accordingly, the cost-effective detection and monitoring of changes in their water content are longstanding remote sensing goals. Existing procedures employed to achieve these goals are largely based on the spectral responses of plant leaves in the infrared domain where the light absorption within the foliar tissues is dominated by water. Recently, it has been suggested that such procedures could be implemented using spectral responses, more specifically spectral subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios, obtained in the visible domain. The basis for this proposition resides on the premise that a reduced water content (RWC) can result in histological changes whose effects on the foliar optical properties may not be limited to the infrared domain. However, the experiments leading to this proposition were performed on detached leaves, which were not influenced by the whole plant's adaptation mechanisms to water stress. In this work, we investigate whether the spectral responses of living plant leaves in the visible domain can lead to reliable RWC estimations. We employ measured biophysical data and predictive light transport simulations in order to extend qualitatively and quantitatively the scope of previous studies in this area. Our findings indicate that the living specimens' physiological responses to water stress should be taken into account in the design of new procedures for the cost-effective RWC estimation using visible subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios.

  17. Changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after an application of straw and elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after the application of straw and elemental sulphur (ES were explored in a 2-year vegetation pot experiment. The following variants were included in the experiment: 1 unfertilised control; 2 wheat straw; 3 rape straw; 4 ES; 5 wheat straw + ES; 6 rape straw + ES. The two types of straw were applied in a dose of 32 g of dry matter and elemental sulphur was applied in a dose of 0.42 g per pot, i.e. 6 kg of soil. The unsatisfactory C:N ratio in the straw was optimised to 25:1 by adding nitrogen in urea. Soil samples were taken prior to sowing of the model plant (spring wheat in 2005 and white mustard in 2006 and then in regular monthly intervals until harvesting (5 times a year. The content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil was evaluated by multifactorial analysis of variance monitoring the effect of the crop, date of soil sampling, application of straw and elemental sulphur.The contents of water-soluble sulphur differed statistically significantly (P > 0.999 when growing the individual model plants. When growing white mustard in 2006 the amount of available sulphur was by 1/5 higher and could have been partly affected by the warm year 2006, as compared to 2005 when spring wheat was grown. Significant differences (P > 0.999 were also discovered among the dates of soil sampling; higher values were detected before the sowing of model plants, i.e. after incubation in the winter, during vegetation the content of water-soluble sulphur decreased and sulphur showed the significantly highest values at the harvest of model plants. When wheat straw was applied the sulphur content did not increase and this may be associated with the wide C:S ratio, whereas after the application of rape straw the content of water-soluble sulphur increased by one third more than in the unfertilised control. The application of elemental sulphur also significantly increased the amount of water-soluble sulphur in

  18. The impact of fibre orientation on T1-relaxation and apparent tissue water content in white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyboll, Felix; Jaekel, Uwe; Weber, Bernd; Neeb, Heiko

    2018-02-20

    Recent MRI studies have shown that the orientation of nerve fibres relative to the main magnetic field affects the R 2 *(= 1/T 2 *) relaxation rate in white matter (WM) structures. The underlying physical causes have been discussed in several studies but are still not completely understood. However, understanding these effects in detail is of great importance since this might serve as a basis for the development of new diagnostic tools and/or improve quantitative susceptibility mapping techniques. Therefore, in addition to the known angular dependence of R 2 *, the current study investigates the relationship between fibre orientation and the longitudinal relaxation rate, R 1 (= 1/T 1 ), as well as the apparent water content. For a group of 16 healthy subjects, a series of gradient echo, echo-planar and diffusion weighted images were acquired at 3T from which the decay rates, the apparent water content and the diffusion direction were reconstructed. The diffusion weighted data were used to determine the angle between the principle fibre direction and the main magnetic field to examine the angular dependence of R 1 and apparent water content. The obtained results demonstrate that both parameters depend on the fibre orientation and exhibit a positive correlation with the angle between fibre direction and main magnetic field. These observations could be helpful to improve and/or constrain existing biophysical models of brain microstructure by imposing additional constraints resulting from the observed angular dependence R 1 and apparent water content in white matter.

  19. Optimization and modeling of reduction of wastewater sludge water content and turbidity removal using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong-Ha; Han, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Economic and rapid reduction of sludge water content in sewage wastewater is difficult and requires special advanced treatment technologies. This study focused on optimizing and modeling decreased sludge water content (Y1) and removing turbidity (Y2) with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MION) using a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). CCD and RSM were applied to evaluate and optimize the interactive effects of mixing time (X1) and MION concentration (X2) on chemical flocculent performance. The results show that the optimum conditions were 14.1 min and 22.1 mg L(-1) for response Y1 and 16.8 min and 8.85 mg L(-1) for response Y2, respectively. The two responses were obtained experimentally under this optimal scheme and fit the model predictions well (R(2) = 97.2% for Y1 and R(2) = 96.9% for Y2). A 90.8% decrease in sludge water content and turbidity removal of 29.4% were demonstrated. These results confirm that the statistical models were reliable, and that the magnetic flocculation conditions for decreasing sludge water content and removing turbidity from sewage wastewater were appropriate. The results reveal that MION are efficient for rapid separation and are a suitable alterative to sediment sludge during the wastewater treatment process.

  20. Efficient quantification of water content in edible oils by headspace gas chromatography with vapour phase calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2018-06-01

    An automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyse the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapour phase calibration technique with an external vapour standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e. the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%. The present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of humidity content and direction of the flow of reactant gases on water management in the 4-serpentine and 1-serpentine flow channel in a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaee, I.; Sabadbafan, H.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell depends on design and operating parameters such as relative humidity, operation pressure, and number of channels and direction of the flow of reactant gases. In this study, a three-dimensional, two-phase model has been established to investigate the water management and performance of PEM fuel cell with rectangular geometry and 1-serpentine and 4-serpentine with parallel flow, counter flow and cross flow for hydrogen and oxygen. The numerical simulation was realized with a PEM fuel cell model based on the FLUENT. The active area of each cell is 24.8 cm 2 that its weight is 1300 gr. The material of the gas diffusion layer is carbon clothes, the membrane is nafion117 and the catalyst layer is a plane with 0.004 g cm −2 platinum. Pure hydrogen is used on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. Simulation results are obtained for voltage as a function of current density at different humidity. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data, and the agreement is found to be good. The results show that the cell performance at lower voltages increases with increasing humidity in cell with 4-Serpentine flow channel and also in cell with 1-Serpentine flow channel, cell performance at all voltages increases with increasing humidity. In cell with 4-Serpentine and parallel flow channel cell performance is better than counter and cross flow in low voltage and in cell with 1-Serpentine and parallel flow, performance is better than counter and cross flow in high voltage. - Highlights: • Investigation new geometries of a fuel cell. • The effect of geometry on current density, oxygen and water distribution. • The effect of humidity on current density, oxygen and water distribution. • Seeing the interacting and complex electrochemical phenomena.

  2. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Tyburcy; Patrycja Wasiak; Aneta Cegiełka

    2010-01-01

    Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content) applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki). Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelati...

  3. Field estimation of soil water content. A practical guide to methods, instrumentation and sensor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    During a period of five years, an international group of soil water instrumentation experts were contracted by the International Atomic Energy Agency to carry out a range of comparative assessments of soil water sensing methods under laboratory and field conditions. The detailed results of those studies are published elsewhere. Most of the devices examined worked well some of the time, but most also performed poorly in some circumstances. The group was also aware that the choice of a water measurement technology is often made for economic, convenience and other reasons, and that there was a need to be able to obtain the best results from any device used. The choice of a technology is sometimes not made by the ultimate user, or even if it is, the main constraint may be financial rather than technical. Thus, this guide is presented in a way that allows the user to obtain the best performance from any instrument, while also providing guidance as to which instruments perform best under given circumstances. That said, this expert group of the IAEA reached several important conclusions: (1) the field calibrated neutron moisture meter (NMM) remains the most accurate and precise method for soil profile water content determination in the field, and is the only indirect method capable of providing accurate soil water balance data for studies of crop water use, water use efficiency, irrigation efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency, with a minimum number of access tubes; (2) those electromagnetic sensors known as capacitance sensors exhibit much more variability in the field than either the NMM or direct soil water measurements, and they are not recommended for soil water balance studies for this reason (impractically large numbers of access tubes and sensors are required) and because they are rendered inaccurate by changes in soil bulk electrical conductivity (including temperature effects) that often occur in irrigated soils, particularly those containing

  4. Decomposition of atmospheric water content into cluster contributions based on theoretical association equilibrium constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Water vapor is treated as an equilibrium mixture of water clusters (H 2 O)/sub i/ using quantum-chemical evaluation of the equilibrium constants of water associations. The model is adapted to the conditions of atmospheric humidity, and a decomposition algorithm is suggested using the temperature and mass concentration of water as input information and used for a demonstration of evaluation of the water oligomer populations in the Earth's atmosphere. An upper limit of the populations is set up based on the water content in saturated aqueous vapor. It is proved that the cluster population in the saturated water vapor, as well as in the Earth's atmosphere for a typical temperature/humidity profile, increases with increasing temperatures

  5. Landscape-scale variation in canopy water content of giant sequoias during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Kagan, Tarin; Vaughn, Nicolas R.; Martin, Roberta E.; Brodrick, Philip G.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian; Nydick, Koren R.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2018-01-01

    Recent drought (2012–2016) caused unprecedented foliage dieback in giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum), a species endemic to the western slope of the southern Sierra Nevada in central California. As part of an effort to understand and map sequoia response to droughts, we studied the patterns of remotely sensed canopy water content (CWC), both within and among sequoia groves in two successive years during the drought period (2015 and 2016). Our aims were: (1) to quantify giant sequoia responses to severe drought stress at a landscape scale using CWC as an indicator of crown foliage status, and (2) to estimate the effect of environmental correlates that mediate CWC change within and among giant sequoia groves. We utilized airborne high fidelity imaging spectroscopy (HiFIS) and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to assess giant sequoia foliage status during 2015 and 2016 of the 2012–2016 droughts. A series of statistical models were generated to classify giant sequoias and to map their location in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) and vicinity. We explored the environmental correlates and the spatial patterns of CWC change at the landscape scale. The mapped CWC was highly variable throughout the landscape during the two observation years, and proved to be most closely related to geological substrates, topography, and site-specific water balance. While there was an overall net gain in sequoia CWC between 2015 and 2016, certain locations (lower elevations, steeper slopes, areas more distant from surface water sources, and areas with greater climate water deficit) showed CWC losses. In addition, we found greater CWC loss in shorter sequoias and those growing in areas with lower sequoia stem densities. Our results suggest that CWC change indicates sequoia response to droughts across landscapes. Long-term monitoring of giant sequoia CWC will likely be useful for modeling and predicting their population

  6. Relationship between arsenic content of food and water applied for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugár, Eva; Tatár, Enikő; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G

    2013-12-01

    As part of a survey conducted by the Central Agricultural Office of Hungary, 67 food samples including beverages were taken from 57 food industrial and catering companies, 75% of them being small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Moreover, 40% of the SMEs were micro entities. Water used for food processing was simultaneously sampled. The arsenic (As) content of solid food stuff was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after dry ashing. Food stuff with high water content and water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The As concentration exceeded 10 μg/L in 74% of the water samples taken from SMEs. The As concentrations of samples with high water content and water used were linearly correlated. Estimated As intake from combined exposure to drinking water and food of the population was on average 40% of the daily lower limit of WHO on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5) for As. Five settlements had higher As intake than the BMDL0.5. Three of these settlements are situated in Csongrád county and the distance between them is less than 55 km. The maximum As intake might be 3.8 μg/kg body weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of water content in the leaves of fruit trees using infra-red images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, N.; Hiraoka, K.

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed to evaluate water contents of fruit trees using infra-red photography. The irrigation of potted satsuma mandarin trees and grapevines was suppressed to induce water stress. During the drought treatment the leaf edges of basal parts of the shoots of grapevines became necrotic and the area of necrosis extended as the duration of stress increased. Necrosis was clearly distinguished from the viable areas on infra-red images. In satsuma mandarin, an abscission layer formed at the basal part of the petiole, then the leaves fell. Thus, detailed analysis was indispensable for detecting of the leaf water content. After obtaining infra-red images of satsuma mandarin leaves with or without water stress, a background treatment (subtraction of the background image) was performed on the images, then the average brightness of the leaf was determined using image analyzing software (Image Pro-plus). Coefficient correlation between the water status index using the infra-red camera and water content determined from dry weight and fresh weight of leaves was significant (r = 0.917 for adaxial surface data and r = 0.880 for abaxial surface data). These data indicate that infra-red photography is useful for detecting the degree of plant water stress

  8. Investigation of water content in electrolyte solution on electrochromic properties of WO3 thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten oxide thin films were prepared by a cathodic electrodeposition method at -0.450 mV in order to investigate how water content affects their electrochromic properties. FESEM images exhibit that WO3 thin films consist of 65 nm uniform grains. Thin Films were electrochemically investigated in 0.1M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate electrolyte with and without 5vol% water content by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results indicate that tungsten oxide thin films exhibit faster switching time between coloration and bleaching states and also higher coloration efficiency in hydrated electrolyte.  

  9. Development of a differential infrared absorption method to measure the deuterium content of natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessio, Enrique; Bonadeo, Hernan; Karaianev de Del Carril, Stiliana.

    1975-07-01

    A system to measure the deuterium content of natural water using differential infrared spectroscopy is described. Parameters conducing to an optimized design are analyzed, and the construction of the system is described. A Perkin Elmer 225 infrared spectrometer, to which a scale expansion system has been added, is used. Sample and reference waters are alternatively introduced by a pneumatical-mechanical system into a unique F Ca thermostatized infrared cell. Results and calibration curves shown prove that the system is capable of measuring deuterium content with a precision of 1 part per million. (author)

  10. Corn seed response to gamma radiation as a function of water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viccini, Lyderson Facio; Saraiva, Luiz Sergio; Cruz, Cosme Damiao

    1997-01-01

    The study of the factors that affect the radiation efficiency is important, because it makes easier to get mutants that may be used as source of variability on improvement programs or as structural chromosomic aberrations for cytogenetics studies. The main of this research was to investigate the influence of corn seed water content on gamma radiation response. As a rule, the damage caused by irradiation was more evident on seeds with higher water content. Also, increased damages were observed with higher radiation doses. (author)

  11. Resolving precipitation-induced water content profiles through inversion of dispersive GPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangel, A. R.; Moysey, S. M.; Van Der Kruk, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has become a popular tool for monitoring hydrologic processes. When monitoring infiltration, the thin wetted zone that occurs near the ground surface at early times may act as a dispersive waveguide. This low-velocity layer traps the GPR waves, causing specific frequencies of the signal to travel at different phase velocities, confounding standard traveltime analysis. In a previous numerical study we demonstrated the potential of dispersion analysis for estimating the depth distribution of waveguide water contents. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of the methodology when applying it to experimental time-lapse dispersive GPR data collected during a laboratory infiltration experiment in a relatively homogenous soil. A large sand-filled tank is equipped with an automated gantry to independently control the position of 1000 MHz source and receiver antennas. The system was programmed to repeatedly collect a common mid-point (CMP) profile at the center of the tank followed by two constant offset profiles (COP) in the x and y direction. Each collection was completed in 30 s and repeated 50 times during a 28 min experiment. Two minutes after the start of measurements, the surface of the sand was irrigated at a constant flux rate of 0.006 cm/sec for 23 minutes. Time-lapse COPs show increases in traveltime to reflectors in the tank associated with increasing water content, as well as the development of a wetting front reflection. From 4-10 min, the CMPs show a distinct shingling characteristic that is indicative of waveguide dispersion. Forward models where the waveguide is conceptualized as discrete layers and a piece-wise linear function were used to invert picked dispersion curves for waveguide properties. We show the results from both inversion approaches for multiple dispersive CMPs and show how the single layer model fails to represent the gradational nature of the wetting front.

  12. Determining the water cut and water salinity in an oil-water flowstream by measuring the sulfur content of the produced oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for detecting water cut and water salinity in an oil/water flowstream in petroleum refining and producing operations is described. The fluid is bombarded with fast neutrons which are slowed down and then captured producing gamma spectra characteristic of the fluid material. Analysis of the spectra indicates the relative presence of the elements sulfur, hydrogen and chlorine and from the sulfur measurement, the oil cut (fractional oil content) of the fluid is determined, enabling the water cut to be found. From the water cut, water salinity can also be determined. (U.K.)

  13. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, red grape, red wine, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, resveratrol, ranging from 11.10 mg GAE/100 mL to 92.19 mg GAE/100 mL was observed. Consequently, large dispersion of total flavonoids (TF content (8.89 mg to 61.75 mg CTE/100 mL was also observed. Since phenols have been mostly responsible for antioxidant activity of extracts, in most cases, antioxidant activity followed the TP content. That was proven by estimation of correlation coefficient between the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. Correlation coefficients between investigated parameters ranged from 0.5749 to 0.9604. During storage of 5 weeks at room temperature loss of phenols and flavonoids occurred. Antioxidant activity decreased with the decrease of TP and TF content. Degradations of phenols and flavonoids were more pronounced in samples stored at light.

  14. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  15. Effects of oxygen on the re-injection characteristics of thermal water with high salinity and a high iron content; Zum Einfluss von Sauerstoff auf das Reinjektionsverhalten hochsalinarer, eisenhaltiger Thermalwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.; Koeckritz, V. [TU BA Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bohrtechnnik und Fluidbergbau; Seibt, A. [GeoForschungsZentrum PB 4.4, Neubrandenburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    For reasons of environmental protection and in order to maintain a constant pressure level, hydrogeothermal water must be re-injected into the reservoir after use. However, human interception in the natural fluid/rock system will change the thermodynamic parameters and also the pH and redox potential. This may cause interactions between bedrock, underground water, and the re-injected fluid and have negatives effects on injectivity. Research is going on in this field on the basis of the experience gained in geothermal heating stations in north eastern Germany. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei einer energetischen und/oder stofflichen Nutzung hydrogeothermaler Ressourcen muessen die Waesser aus Gruenden des Umweltschutzes und der Druckerhaltung im Speicher wieder in das Reservoir verbracht werden. Durch den Eingriff in das natuerliche System Fluid/Gestein werden nicht nur thermodynamische Zustandsgroessen veraendert, sondern es sind auch pH- und Redoxpotentialaenderungen z.B. durch Gasentloesungen zu erwarten. Dies kann beim Reinjizieren zu Wechselwirkungen zwischen dem Speichergestein, dem Schichtwasser und dem injizierten Fluid fuehren, was negative Auswirkungen auf die Injektivitaetsentwicklung haben kann. Eine geeignete Methode zur Aufklaerung von Einzeleffekten und zur Abschaetzung von chemischen Wechselwirkungen stellen Kerndurchstroemungsversuche dar. Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchungen sind die Erfahrungen aus dem Betrieb Geothermischer Heizzentralen Nordostdeutschlands. (orig.)

  16. Study of the radioactive contents in Barcelona's water supply during 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.; Valles, I.

    1988-01-01

    Throughout 1986 several determinations were carried out of the contents in α and β radioactivity transmitters of different samples of the Barcelona water supply. It could be verified that beta radioactivity was ten times higher in the waters collected in the basin of Llobregat river than water from Ter river. Both rivers are the main sources of Barcelona supply. The reason for this unbalanced result is the high potassic content of the first river, coming from the mining exploitation of the basin. On the other hand, the contamination that could be measured in May, due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident, showed that the supply system from Llobregat river was more sensitive to the incorporation of contaminants carried down by the rain, whereas in the case of Ter river, owing to the presence of impounding regulation, a higher retention time of these waters was obtained. (author)

  17. Gamma transmission gauge for assay of integral water content in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, A.; Notea, A.; Segal, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A photon transmission gauge applied for integral water content measurement in a soil layer was analyzed. The gauge may be used as a control unit for automatic irrigation in a field, or as a scanner employed for establishing an irrigation policy. The characteristic functions of the gauge: response and relative resolving power were developed. The functions provide parameter study at the design stage and interpretational ability at the operational stage. The model led to a design which eliminates sensitivity to water distribution in the examined soil. It is shown that a resolving power of 2% was obtained for a 2.3 mCi 137 Cs source at 53 cm below surface, in measuring water content of 0.2 g water/cm 3 soil during 1000 s. (orig.)

  18. TDR water content inverse profiling in layered soils during infiltration and evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, R.; Guida, A.

    2009-04-01

    During the last three decades, time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become one of the most commonly used tools for soil water content measurements either in laboratory or in the field. Indeed, TDR provides easy and cheap water content estimations with relatively small disturbance to the investigated soil. TDR measurements of soil water content are based on the strong correlation between relative dielectric permittivity of wet soil and its volumetric water content. Several expressions of the relationship between relative dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content have been proposed, empirically stated (Topp et al., 1980) as well as based on semi-analytical approach to dielectric mixing models (Roth et al., 1990; Whalley, 1993). So far, TDR field applications suffered the limitation due to the capability of the technique of estimating only the mean water content in the volume investigated by the probe. Whereas the knowledge of non homogeneous vertical water content profiles was needed, it was necessary to install either several vertical probes of different length or several horizontal probes placed in the soil at different depths, in both cases strongly increasing soil disturbance as well as the complexity of the measurements. Several studies have been recently dedicated to the development of inversion methods aimed to extract more information from TDR waveforms, in order to estimate non homogeneous moisture profiles along the axis of the metallic probe used for TDR measurements. A common feature of all these methods is that electromagnetic transient through the wet soil along the probe is mathematically modelled, assuming that the unknown soil water content distribution corresponds to the best agreement between simulated and measured waveforms. In some cases the soil is modelled as a series of small layers with different dielectric properties, and the waveform is obtained as the result of the superposition of multiple reflections arising from impedance

  19. Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents).

  20. Sulphate content of the Muntimpa dam water and its impact on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tembo, F; Shitumbanuma, V; Simukanga, S; Mudenda, G; Chileshe, P; Mulenga, S; Phiri, Y

    2004-01-01

    This article presents results of a study of the quality of water from Muntimpa Dam, a reservior of waste mine water released from the processing of copper and cobalt ores by Konkola Copper Mines(KCM) Plc in Chingola. The mine water is discharged into the local Muntimpa stream, a possible source of drinking and domestic water for the local population. The purpose of the study was to determine levels of sulphate in the dam and stream water and recommend possible methods of partial sulphate removal to levels below the recommended statutory limits and secondly, to assess the impact of high sulphate levels on water quality. Study methods included the sampling of water from the Muntimpa dam and catchment area. Stream water samples were collected about 5m from the stream banks while water samples from the dam were randomly collected from the near the centre of the dam at a depth of 50cm. Laboratory methods involved the determination of physical and chemical properties of the water using standard analytical techniques. Results of the study indicate that both total (2470mg/l) and available (1965mg/l) sulphate concentrations are higher than the recommended statutory limit for the discharge of sulphates into natural streams of 1500mg/l. From the study it is concluded that water in Muntimpa dam and stream is not suitable for drinking and other domestic use due to the high sulphate levels. From theorectical considerations, it was established that sulphate reduction could be achieved by addition of lime, which however had the consquence of increasing the pH of the water in excess of the recommended Zambian statutory value of nine, and would thus require an additional process to reduce the pH. (author)

  1. Uptake of radioactive strontium by fishes in relation to the calcium content of the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosila, J.

    1975-01-01

    The study attempts to compare experimental results obtained with pseudorasbora parava with regard to 85 Sr uptake at various Ca concentrations of the water (4.20 and 50 mg/l Ca) and also to compare these results with natural conditions. The water was contaminated with 500 pCi/ml 85 SrCl 2 only at the onset of the experiments. Radiostrontium uptake is much higher with a very low calcium content of the water; maximum values are reached in about 10 days. - With low or optimum calcium contents of the water, the values are 3-5 times lower and are not reached until 30 days after radioactive contamination. The fish in this Danube water experiment took up somewhat less radioactivity than in an experiment with the same amounts of Ca and Mg in a control medium. The uptake of 85 Sr in fish in dependence of the Ca content of the water varies according to the formula F.C = 2.505 x Casup(-0.909), with Ca given in Mg/l. (orig.) [de

  2. The effects of trace element content on pyrite oxidation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. D.; Lyons, T.; Cliff, J. B.; Perea, D. E.; Johnson, A.; Romaniello, S. J.; Large, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrite acts as both an important source and sink for many different metals and metalloids in the environment, including many that are toxic. Oxidation of pyrite can release these elements while at the same time producing significant amounts of sulfuric acid. Such issues are common in the vicinity of abandoned mines and smelters, but, as pyrite is a common accessory mineral in many different lithologies, significant pyrite oxidation can occur whenever pyritic rocks are exposed to oxygenated water or the atmosphere. Accelerated exposure to oxygen can occur during deforestation, fracking for petroleum, and construction projects. Geochemical models for pyrite oxidation can help us develop strategies to mitigate these deleterious effects. An important component of these models is an accurate pyrite oxidation rate; however, current pyrite oxidation rates have been determined using relatively pure pyrite. Natural pyrite is rarely pure and has a wide range of trace element concentrations that may affect the oxidation rate. Furthermore, the position of trace elements within the mineral lattice can also affect the oxidation rate. For example, elements such as Ni and Co, which substitute into the pyrite lattice, are thought to stabilize the lattice and thus prevent pyrite oxidation. Alternatively, trace elements that are held within inclusions of other minerals could form a galvanic cell with the surrounding pyrite, thus enhancing pyrite oxidation rates. In this study, we present preliminary analyses from three different pyrite oxidation experiments each using natural pyrite with different trace element compositions. These results show that the pyrite with the highest trace element concentration has approximately an order of magnitude higher oxidation rate compared to the lowest trace element sample. To further elucidate the mechanisms, we employed microanalytical techniques to investigate how the trace elements are held within the pyrite. LA-ICPMS was used to determine the

  3. Predicting Soil-Water Characteristics from Volumetric Contents of Pore-Size Analogue Particle Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    *-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter...... and clay). It performed reasonably well for the dry-end (above a pF value of 2.0; pF = log(|Ψ|), where Ψ is the matric potential in cm), but did not do as well closer to saturated conditions. The Xw*-model gives the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric content of particle size fractions...... (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p...

  4. Microbial and trace metal content of well water in three rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial and trace metal content of well water in three rural communities in Bauchi State, Nigeria*. E Ikeh, PN Durfee, RH Glew, R Amato, FJ Frost, DJ Vanderjagt. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: 66-70. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  6. Release of E.coli D21g with transients in water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transients in water content are well known to mobilize microorganisms that are retained in the vadose zone. However, there is no consensus on the relative importance of drainage and imbibition events on microorganism release. To overcome this limitation, we have systematically studied the release o...

  7. Changes of liquid Water content in fog at Milešovka Observatory (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2008), s. 5-8 ISSN 1335-339X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042301; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : fog * liquid water content * month changes * Observatory Milešovka * visibility Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  8. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  9. Impact of soil water content on landmine detection using radar and thermal infared sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.-H.; Miller, T.W.; Tobin, H.; Borchers, B.; Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Lensen, H.A.; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Land mines are a major problem in many areas of the world. In spite of the fact that many different types of land mines sensors have been developed, the detection of non-metallic land mines remains very difficult. Most landmine detection sensors are affected by soil properties such as water content,

  10. Time-lapse monitoring of soil water content using electromagnetic conductivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The volumetric soil water content (VWC) is fundamental to agriculture. Unfortunately, the universally accepted thermogravimetric method is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have proven to be useful in mapping the spatio-...

  11. Radioactivity in surface waters and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeber, I.

    1987-01-01

    In consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl, the State Office for Water and Waste Disposal of North-Rhine Westphalia implemented immediate programmes for monitoring radioactivity in surface waters, including their sediments and organisms. Of the initially-measured radionuclides, only cesium-137, with its long half-life of 30 years, is of interest. Only trace amounts of the almost equally long-lived strontium 90 (half-life 28 years) were present in rainfall. Cs-137 is a non-natural-radionuclide, occurring solely as a by-product of nuclear installations and atomic bomb tests. Following the ban on surface testing of nuclear weapons, the Cs-137 content of surface waters had fallen significantly up to April 1986. The load due to the reactor disaster is of the same order of magnitude as that produced by atomic testing at the end of the nineteen-sixties. The paper surveys radioactive pollution of surface waters in North-Rhine Westphalia and its effects on water use, especially in regard to potable water supplies and the fish population. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Effect of the Silica Content of Diatoms on Protozoan Grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwen Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect that silica content in diatom cells has on the behavior of protists. The diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and T. pseudonana were cultured in high or low light conditions to achieve low and high silica contents, respectively. These cells were then fed to a heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and a ciliate Euplotes sp. in single and mixed diet experiments. Our results showed that in general, N. scintillans and Euplotes sp. both preferentially ingested the diatoms with a low silica content rather than those with a high silica content. However, Euplotes sp. seemed to be less influenced by the silica content than was N. scintillans. In the latter case, the clearance and ingestion rate of the low silica diatoms were significantly higher, both in the short (6-h and long (1-d duration grazing experiments. Our results also showed that N. scintillans required more time to digest the high silica-containing cells. As the high silica diatoms are harder to digest, this might explain why N. scintillans exhibits a strong preference for the low silica prey. Thus, the presence of high silica diatoms might limit the ability of the dinoflagellate to feed. Our findings suggest that the silica content of diatoms affects their palatability and digestibility and, consequently, the grazing activity and selectivity of protozoan grazers.

  13. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey E. Krauklis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer–Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  14. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauklis, Andrey E; Gagani, Abedin I; Echtermeyer, Andreas T

    2018-04-11

    Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer-Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  15. Effect of factory effluents on physiological and biochemical contents of Gossypium hirsutum l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, A; Jayabalan, N

    2001-10-01

    The effect of sago and sugar factory effluents was studied on Gossypium hirsutum L. var. MCU 5 and MCU 11. Plants were irrigated with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of effluents of both factories. At lower concentration (25%) of sugar factory effluents had stimulatory effect on all biochemical contents observed. Moreover, all concentration of sago factory effluents were found to have inhibitory effect on all biochemical contents except proline content which increased with increasing concentration of both the effluents. Plants growing on adjacent to sago and sugar factories or they irrigated with such type of polluted water, may accumulate the heavy metals found in both the effluents, at higher levels in plant products and if consumed may have similar effect on living organisms.

  16. Influences of Multimedia Lesson Contents On Effective Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Yavuz Ozdemir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the information era that we experience today, there is a rapid change in the methods, techniques and materials used for education and teaching. The usage of information and communication technology-assisted teaching materials are becoming more commonplace. Parallel to these developments, the Ministry of National Education took steps to develop IT substructures of all schools in the country and implemented many projects. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the multimedia lesson content used by teachers affect effective learning. This study is a qualitative study, conducted with 45 teachers working in primary schools during the 2011-2012 academic year. According to the study findings, participants believe that using multimedia lesson content during lectures increases student motivation, makes students more curious and interested, and think that using multimedia lesson content has positive effects.

  17. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of

  18. Uranium bone content as an indicator of chronic environmental exposure from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Dominic; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Kochermin, Vera; Johnson, Sonia

    2013-07-01

    Uranium (U) is an ubiquitous radioelement found in drinking water and food. As a consequence of its prevalence, most humans ingest a few micrograms (μg) of this element daily. It is incorporated in various organs and tissues. Several studies have demonstrated that ingested U is deposited mainly in bones. Therefore, U skeletal content could be considered as a prime indicator for low-level chronic intake. In this study, 71 archived vertebrae bone samples collected in seven Canadian cities were subjected to digestion and U analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These results were correlated with U concentrations in municipal drinking water supplies, with the data originating from historical studies performed by Health Canada. A strong relationship (r(2) = 0.97) was observed between the averaged U total skeletal content and averaged drinking water concentration, supporting the hypothesis that bones are indeed a good indicator of U intake. Using a PowerBASIC compiler to process an ICRP systemic model for U (ICRP, 1995a), U total skeletal content was estimated using two gastrointestinal tract absorption factors (ƒ1 = 0.009 and 0.03). Comparisons between observed and modelled skeletal contents as a function of U intake from drinking water tend to demonstrate that neither of the ƒ1 values can adequately estimate observed values. An ƒ1value of 0.009 provides a realistic estimate for intake resulting from food consumption only (6.72 μg) compared to experimental data (7.4 ± 0.8 μg), whereas an ƒ1value of 0.03 tends to better estimate U skeletal content at higher levels of U (1-10 μg L(-1)) in drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulse radiolysis study on solvated electrons in ionic liquid with controlling water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinfeng; Kondoh, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Nagaishi, R.

    2006-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids, which are nonvolatile and nonflammable, have been proposed as 'green solvents' for new applications in chemical synthesis, separation chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. In the separation chemistry, the hydrophobic ionic liquids have been practically expected to be alternative to traditional organic solvents for solvent extraction of 4f and 5f elements from the viewpoints of the immiscibility in water, especially in the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. However, the chemical reaction or kinetics studies are important to apply the ionic liquids for various processes. To understand the effects of ionic liquids on chemical reactions, pulse radiolysis studies of ionic liquid have been carried out on nanosecond scale by using a 27 MeV electron beam and an analyzing light source of xenon lamp. In the experiment, a hydrophobic ionic liquid of diethylmethyl(2-methoxy)ammonium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (DEMMA-TFSI) salt was used. The ionic liquid of DEMMA-TFSI was prepared by reacting equimolar amounts of diethylmethyl(2-methoxy)ammonium chloride (C 10 H 20 F 6 N 2 O 5 S 2 Cl, >98%, Nisshinbo) with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiN(SO 2 CF 3 ) 2 , SynQuest Labs., Inc.) in aqueous solutions at room temperature. The ionic liquid was separated from the aqueous phase, purified by repeated extractions with water to LiCl and excess reagent, and finally dried at 110 degree C under vacuum. The transient absorptions of the ionic liquid were measured at wavelengths from 350 to 1400 nm, in which two photodiodes of silicon ( 1000 nm) were used. The spectrum of solvated electrons in the ionic liquid of DEMMA-TFSI was obtained with an absorption peak of 1060 nm and a wide bandwidth of about 600 nm (FWHM). The decay constant of the solvated electrons in the ionic liquid was 1.54 x 10 7 s -1 , which is independent on the wavelength. The absorption peak of the spectrum was blue-shifted from 1060 to 780 nm with increasing water

  20. Considering Organic Carbon for Improved Predictions of Clay Content from Water Vapor Sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    Accurate determination of the soil clay fraction (CF) is of crucial importance for characterization of numerous environmental, agricultural, and engineering processes. Because traditional methods for measurement of the CF are laborious and susceptible to errors, regression models relating the CF...... to water vapor sorption isotherms that can be rapidly measured with a fully automated vapor sorption analyzer are a viable alternative. In this presentation we evaluate the performance of recently developed regression models based on comparison with standard CF measurements for soils with high organic...... carbon (OC) content and propose a modification to improve prediction accuracy. Evaluation of the CF prediction accuracy for 29 soils with clay contents ranging from 6 to 25% and with OC contents from 2.0 to 8.4% showed that the models worked reasonably well for all soils when the OC content was below 2...

  1. Novel Calibration Technique for a Coulometric Evolved Vapor Analyzer for Measuring Water Content of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S. A.; Miao, P.; Carroll, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    Evolved vapor coulometry is a measurement technique that selectively detects water and is used to measure water content of materials. The basis of the measurement is the quantitative electrolysis of evaporated water entrained in a carrier gas stream. Although this measurement has a fundamental principle—based on Faraday's law which directly relates electrolysis current to amount of substance electrolyzed—in practice it requires calibration. Commonly, reference materials of known water content are used, but the variety of these is limited, and they are not always available for suitable values, materials, with SI traceability, or with well-characterized uncertainty. In this paper, we report development of an alternative calibration approach using as a reference the water content of humid gas of defined dew point traceable to the SI via national humidity standards. The increased information available through this new type of calibration reveals a variation of the instrument performance across its range not visible using the conventional approach. The significance of this is discussed along with details of the calibration technique, example results, and an uncertainty evaluation.

  2. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  3. Absolute measurement of the isotopic ratio of a water sample with very low deuterium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, R.; Nief, G.; Roth, E.

    1968-01-01

    The presence of H 3+ ions which are indistinguishable from HD + ions presents the principal difficulty encountered in the measurement of isotopic ratios of water samples with very low deuterium contents using a mass spectrometer. Thus, when the sample contains no deuterium, the mass spectrometer does not indicate zero. By producing, in situ, from the sample to be measured, water vapor with an isotopic ratio very close to zero using a small distilling column, this difficulty is overcome. This column, its operating parameters, as well as the way in which the measurements are made are described. An arrangement is employed in which the isotopic ratios can be measured with a sensitivity better than 0.01 x 10 -6 . The method is applied to the determination of the isotopic ratios of three low deuterium content water samples. The results obtained permit one to assign to the sample with the lowest deuterium content an absolute value equal to 1.71 ± 0.03 ppm. This water sample is a primary standard from which is determined the isotopic ratio of a natural water sample which serves as the laboratory standard. (author) [fr

  4. Evolved-Lithology Clasts in Lunar Breccias: Relating Petrogenetic Diversity to Measured Water Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Simon, J. J.; Ross, D. K.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the inventory and distribution of water in lunar rocks have recently begun to focus on alkali suite samples as possible water repositories, particularly the most highly evolved granitoid lithologies. Although H analyses of feldspars in these rocks have so far pointed to 'low' (less than 20 ppm) H2O contents, there is sufficient variability in the dataset (e.g., 2-20 ppm) to warrant consideration of the petrogenetic factors that may have caused some granitoid-to-intermediate rocks to be dryer or wetter than others. Given that all examples of these rocks occur as clasts in complex impact breccias, the role of impact and other factors in altering water contents established by primary igneous processes becomes a major factor. We are supporting our ongoing SIMS studies of water in evolved lunar lithologies with systematic SEM and EPMA observations. Here we report a synthesis of the observations as part of developing discriminating factors for reconstructing the thermal, crystallization and shock history of these samples as compared with their water contents.

  5. The role of water content in triboelectric charging of wind-blown sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhaolin; Wei, Wei; Su, Junwei; Yu, Chuck Wah

    2013-01-01

    Triboelectric charging is common in desert sandstorms and dust devils on Earth; however, it remains poorly understood. Here we show a charging mechanism of sands with the adsorbed water on micro-porous surface in wind-blown sand based on the fact that water content is universal but usually a minor component in most particle systems. The triboelectric charging could be resulted due to the different mobility of H(+)/OH(-) between the contacting sands with a temperature difference. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) were used to demonstrate the dynamics of the sand charging. The numerically simulated charge-to-mass ratios of sands and electric field strength established in wind tunnel agreed well with the experimental data. The charging mechanism could provide an explanation for the charging process of all identical granular systems with water content, including Martian dust devils, wind-blown snow, even powder electrification in industrial processes.

  6. DIURNAL CHANGES IN LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATIVE WATER CONTENT OF GRAPEVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Variation in light intensity, air temperature and relative air humidity leads to diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and leaf relative water content. In order to determine the diurnal changes in net photosynthetic rate of vine plants and influence of the main environmental factors, gas exchange in the vine leaves were measure using a portable plant CO2 analysis package. The results show that diurnal changes in photosynthetic rate could be interpreted as single-peak curve, with a maximum at noon (10.794 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Leaf relative water content has maximum value in the morning; the values may slightly decrease during the day (day of June, with normal temperature, no rain, no water restriction in soil.

  7. Water deficit during pit hardening enhances phytoprostanes content, a plant biomarker of oxidative stress, in extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-González, Jacinta; Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón, M Carmen; Medina, Sonia; Durand, Thierry; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Ferreres, Federico; Torrecillas, Arturo; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-04-15

    No previous information exists on the effects of water deficit on the phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) content in extra virgin olive oil from fruits of mature olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Cornicabra) trees during pit hardening. PhytoPs profile in extra virgin olive oil was characterized by the presence of 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-D1t-PhytoP, 9-D1t-PhytoP, 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP, and 9-L1-PhytoP + ent-9-L1-PhytoP. The qualitative and quantitative differences in PhytoPs content with respect to those reported by other authors indicate a decisive effect of cultivar, oil extraction technology, and/or storage conditions prone to autoxidation. The pit hardening period was critical for extra virgin olive oil composition because water deficit enhanced the PhytoPs content, with the concomitant potential beneficial aspects on human health. From a physiological and agronomical point of view, 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, and 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP could be considered as early candidate biomarkers of water stress in olive tree.

  8. Study on Relationship between Dielectric Constant and Water Content of Rock-Soil Mixture by Time Domain Reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daosheng Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to test water content of rock-soil mixtures efficiently and accurately to ensure both the quality control of compaction and assessment of the geotechnical engineering properties. To overcome time and energy wastage and probe insertion problems when using the traditional calibration method, a TDR coaxial test tube calibration arrangement using an upward infiltration method was designed. This arrangement was then used to study the influence of dry density, pore fluid conductivity, and soil/rock ratio on the relationship between water content and the dielectric constant of rock-soil mixtures. The results show that the empirical calibration equation forms for rock-soil mixtures can be the same as for soil materials. The effect of dry density on the calibration equation has the most significance and the influence of pore fluid conductivity can be ignored. The impact of variation of the soil/rock ratio can be neutralized by considering the effect of dry density in the calibration equation for the same kind of soil and rock. The empirical equations proposed by Zhao et al. show a good accuracy for rock-soil mixtures, indicating that the TDR method can be used to test gravimetric water content conveniently and efficiently without calibration in the field.

  9. Element Content of Surface and Underground Water Sources around a Cement Factory Site in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Richard Egbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cement production is associated with heavy metal emissions and environmental pollution by cement dust. The degree of contamination of drinking water sources by major and trace elements present in cement dust generated by united cement factory (UNICEM is still uncertain. This study estimated the element content of ground and surface water samples (hand-dug wells, boreholes and streams around the factory site to determine the impact of cement dust exposure on the water levels of these elements. Methods: This study was conducted at UNICEM at Mfamosing, Akamkpa local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Drinking water samples (5 from each location were collected from the cement factory quarry site camp, 3 surrounding communities and Calabar metropolis (45 km away from factory serving as control. The lead (Pb, copper (Cu, manganes (Mn, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, selenium (Se, chromium (Cr, zinc (Zn and arsenic (As levels of samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD post hoc at P = 0.05. Results: As and Pb content of samples from camp were above the WHO recommendations of 0.01mg/l and 0.01mg/l respectively. Chromium and cadmium content of all water samples were above and others below WHO recommendations. Water levels of Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ca and Si were significantly elevated (though below WHO recommendations in camp than other locations (P<0.05. Conclusion: Production of cement results in As, Pb, Cr and cd contamination of drinking water sources near the factory. Treatment of all drinking water sources is recommended before public use to avert deleterious health consequences.

  10. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on heavy metals content of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was carried out at John Ker Nigeria Organo-Mineral Company site at Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of nitrogen enrichment on contents of heavy metals in cattle dung/poultry manure compost and the growth of maize. Cattle dung was mixed with poultry manure in the ratio of 3:1 ...

  11. Effective 226Ra-content of some Hungarian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Feher, I.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyse the effective 226 Ra content of building- and back filling materials used in Hungary. The quantity of radon was determined by ionization chambers connected to vibrating-reed electrometers, as well as by a scintillation radon counter. The radon measuring instruments were calibrated by known 222 Rn quantities given off from standard RaCl 2 solutions. The overall uncertainty of the data obtained is estimated as being 25%. The minimum measurable effective 226 Ra concentration due to a 10 4 g building material source is calculated as 16 fCi/g for the ionization chambers and 8 fCi/g for the scintillation counter. 68 building material samples and 11 backfill (concrete made by fly-ashes) samples have been studied and it has been found, that the effective 226 Ra contents of the tested building materials are 2 to 9 times greater than those found in the Soviet Union though none exceeds the recommended 600 fCi/g level. Among the back filling materials made with fly-ash the maximum 226 Ra content was 3300 fCi/g. The effective 226 Ra content measurements are well suited for a priori radon escape qualification of building materials. (K.A.)

  12. The Effects of Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mechanical properties were determined for four varieties of soybean (TGX 297-129C, Samsoy1, TGX 306-636C and TGX 536-02D). The hardness, compressive and tensile strength determination were carried out using a Rockwell Hardness machine and tensometer. The effect of moisture content on the hardness ...

  13. The effects of seasons on cholesterol content and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of the present study is the determination of the effects of seasonal variations on the proximate analysis, cholesterol content and fatty acid compositions of Helix aspersa. Materials and Methods: Garden snails (Helix aspersa) were picked up by hand from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, in autumn ...

  14. Effect Of Sprouting On Available Lysine Content Of Cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of sprouting on available Lysine content of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour and the performance of the flour used for producing “moi – moi” (steamed bean cake). Cowpea seed was subjected to sprouting for different periods of 1 day, 2 days and 3 days for samples B, C and ...

  15. The Effect of Music on Children's Writing Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, David; Imig, Scott

    A study explored the effect of different kinds of music on children's writing content. Nineteen students from a second grade class in Charlottesville, Virginia, participated in 10 15-minute writing sessions, accompanied in each session by one type of background music (classical, jazz, popular, or country) or by silence. All writing was analyzed…

  16. Validation of methods for determination of free water content in poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Žítková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for determination of free water content in poultry meat are described in Commission Regulation EEC No 1538/91 as amended and in ČSN 57 3100. Two of them (method A and D have been validated in conditions of a Czech poultry processing plant. The capacity of slaughtering was 6000 pieces per hour and carcasses were chilled by air with spraying. All determinations were carried out in the plant’s lab and in the lab of the Institute of Food Technology. Method A was used to detect the amount of water lost from frozen chicken during thawing in controlled conditions. Twenty carcasses from six weight groups (900 g–1400 g were tested. The average values of thaw loss water contents ranged between 0.46% and 1.71%, the average value of total 120 samples was 1.16%. The results were compared with the required maximum limit value of 3.3%. The water loss content was in negative correlation with the weight of chicken (r = –0.56. Method D (chemical test has been applied to determine the total water content of certain poultry cuts. It involved the determination of water and protein contents of 62 representative samples in total. The average values of ratio of water weight to proteins weight WA/RPA were in breast fillets 3.29, in legs with a portion of the back 4.06, legs 4.00, thighs 3.85 and drumsticks 4.10. The results corresponded to the required limit values for breast fillets 3.40 and for leg cuts 4.15. The ratio of water weight to proteins weight WA/RPA was correlated with the weight of chicken for breast fillets negatively (r = –0.61 and for leg cuts positively (r = 0.70. Different correlations can be explained by the distribution of water, protein and fat in carcasses. The evaluation of methods in the parameter of percentage ratio of the average value to the limit showed that method D (results were at the level of 97% of the limit was more exact than method A (results were at the level 32% of the limit but it is more expensive. Both methods

  17. Dielectric properties of clay-rock and their influence on water content measurement with TDR probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bore, T.; Coelho, D.; Robinet, J.C.; Delepine-Lesoille, S.; Placko, D.; Gatabin, C.; Sabouroux, P.; Six, G.; Taillade, F.

    2012-01-01

    the scattering matrix is realized using the software EpsiMu R developed at the Fresnel Institute. The process combines two-ports de-embedding and a basic Nicolson-Ross- Weir (NWR) algorithm. The upper frequency limit of the line is given by the lower non Transverse-Electromagnetic mode, TE11 mode in our case. This frequency decreases as the transversal dimension of the cell increases: the dimensions of the cell were determined in order to respect this trade-off. The cell should be big enough to make shaping easy and sample size representative, meanwhile small enough to obtain a large frequency range. Moreover, the inner dimensions of the cell are determined in order to match the impedance of the source yielding a condition over the value of the ratio of the radius: b/a=2.302. Our cell is characterized by inner radii a = 6.52 mm and outer radii b1=15 mm. When air-filled, the cut-off frequency of the cell is closed to f = 4.4 GHz. Concerning clay electromagnetic properties, questions to address were twofold. First, given that the TDR sensing chain makes use of a short pulse, hence a large spectrum, are the properties homogeneous whatever the working frequency? Second, what are the effects of water content on the clay dielectric properties? Clay samples were first shaped clay into a torque, conditioned then into a climatic chamber with controlled humidity and finally characterized. We present here the results of the first study concerning 12 samples of clay-rock obtained from a core extracted from the Andra underground research laboratory. We observe a strong dependence of permittivity with working frequency, especially around 0.1 GHz. This is confirmed whatever the saturation degree of the sample. This dependency is averaged by the chosen TDR sensing line with the step-pulse, degrading sensitivity and performances. For the tested frequency range, the complex permittivity evolves linearly with the degrees of saturation. The relationship between complex permittivity and

  18. Estimating the relative water content of leaves in a cotton canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Kupinski, Meredith; Bradley, Christine; French, Andrew; Bronson, Kevin; Chipman, Russell; Dahlgren, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Remotely sensing plant canopy water status remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Established approaches to estimating canopy water status — the Crop Water Stress Index, the Water Deficit Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness — involve measurements in the thermal or reflective infrared. Here we report plant water status estimates based upon analysis of polarized visible imagery of a cotton canopy measured by ground Multi-Spectral Polarization Imager (MSPI). Such estimators potentially provide access to the plant hydrological photochemistry that manifests scattering and absorption effects in the visible spectral region.

  19. The Effect of Moisture Content on Physical Properties of Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Velayati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the mechanization level of harvest and post-harvest operations of Berberis fruit, as one of the major and local crops of south Khorasan province, some of its physical properties were investigated. Different dimensions, geometrical mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, mass of thousand fruit, true density, bulk density, porosity, static coefficient of friction and the repose angles were determined. The properties and the effect of moisture content on them were studied by the completely randomized designs statistical method. Analysis of data indicated that the change of moisture content caused significant difference (P

  20. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  1. Towards Estimating Water Stress through Leaf and Canopy Water Content Derived from Optical and Thermal Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Amie; Timmermans, Joris; van der Tol, Christiaan; Verhoef, Wout

    2015-04-01

    A competition for available (drinkable) water has arisen. This competition originated due to increasing global population and the respective needs of this population. The water demand for human consumption and irrigation of food producing crops and biofuel related vegetation, has led to early indication of drought as a key issue in many studies. However, while drought monitoring systems might provide some reasonable predictions, at the time of visible symptoms of plant stress, a plant may already be critically affected. Consequently, pre-symptomatic non-destructive monitoring of plants is needed. In many studies of plant stress, this is performed by examining internal plant physiology through existing remote sensing techniques, with varying applications. However, a uniform remote sensing method for identifying early plant stress under drought conditions is still developing. In some instances, observations of vegetation water content are used to assess the impact of soil water deficit on the health of a plant or canopy. When considering water content as an indicator of water stress in a plant, this comments not only on the condition of the plant itself, but also provides indicators of photosynthetic activity and the susceptibility to drought. Several indices of canopy health currently exists (NDVI, DVI, SAVI, etc.) using optical and near infrared reflectance bands. However, these are considered inadequate for vegetation health investigations because such semi-empirical models result in less accuracy for canopy measurements. In response, a large amount of research has been conducted to estimate canopy health directly from considering the full spectral behaviour. In these studies , the canopy reflectance has been coupled to leaf parameters, by using coupling leaf radiative transfer models (RTM), such as PROSPECT, to a canopy RTM such as SAIL. The major shortcomings of these researches is that they have been conducted primarily for optical remote sensing. Recently

  2. The effect of moisture content within multilayer protective clothing on protection from radiation and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Guowen

    2018-06-01

    The moisture from skin sweat and atmospheric water affects the thermal protective performance provided by multilayer protective clothing. Four levels of moisture content were selected to evaluate the impact of moisture on thermal protection under dry (thermal radiation) and wet (thermal radiation and low-pressure steam) heat exposure. Also, the role of moisture and its relationship with exposure time were analyzed based on skin heat flux and Henriques integral value. The addition of moisture to a fabric system was found to result in differences in second-degree and third-degree skin burn times. When moisture is added to a fabric system, it both acts as a thermal conductor to present a negative effect and provides a positive effect owing to thermal storage of water and evaporative heat loss. The positive or negative effects of moisture are mainly dependent on the thermal exposure time, the moisture content and the presence of hot steam.

  3. Content and distribution of fluorine in rock, clay and water in fluorosis area Zhaotong, Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.; Li, H.; Feng, F. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-04-15

    About 160 samples of coal, pyritic coal balls, coal seam gangue, clay, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin county, China to determine the fluorine content, distribution pattern and source in this fluorosis area. The study shows that the average fluorine content in the coal samples collected from 3 coal mines of the Late Permian coals in Zhenxiong and Weixin county, Zhaotong City, which are the main mining coals there, is 77.13 mg/kg. The average fluorine content coals collected form thee typical fluorosis villages in 72.56 mg/kg. Both of them are close to the world average and little low than the Chinese average. The fluorine content of drinking water is lower than 0.35 mg/L, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binfer in briquette-making by local residents has a high content of fluorine, ranging from 367-2,435 mg/kg, with the majority higher than 600 mg/kg and an average of 1,084.2 mg/kg. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Effect of SrO content on Zeolite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiarti, N.; Sari, U. S.; Mahatmanti, F. W.; Harjito; Kurniawan, C.; Prasetyoko, D.; Suprapto

    2018-04-01

    The aims of current studies is to investigate the effect of strontium oxide content (SrO) on synthesized zeolite. Zeolite was synthesized from Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursors of SiO2 and aluminum isopropoxide (AIP) precursors. The mixture was aged for 3 days and hydrothermally treated for 6 days. The SrO content was added by impregnation method. The products were then characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The diffractogram confirmed the formation of Faujasite-like zeolite. However, after the addition of SrO, the crystallinity of zeolite was deformed. The diffractograms shows the amorphous phase of zeolite were decrease as the SrO content is increase. The structural changes was also observed from FTIR spectra which shows the shifting and peak formation. The surface area analysis showed that the increasing loading of SrO/Zeolites reduced the catalyst surface area.

  5. Dissolved oxygen content as an index of water quality in San Vicente Bay, Chile (36 degrees 45'S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anny; Ahumada, Ramón; Pérez, Claudio

    2002-08-01

    The present report describes some effects of industrial and municipal effluents on the waters of San Vicente Bay. Analyses of the main substances contained in the fishing industry effluent suggest rating criteria based on the oxygen saturation of the water as an assessment of organic pollution. Six cruises were carried out throughout the Bay, from June to December 1996. Water samples were analyzed for dissolved oxygen, oil and grease content, and sediment samples for organic matter content. Water parameters (salinity, temperature) were used to characterize the Bay's hydrography, and to calculate values for oxygen saturation. The measurements demonstrated a local broad range of oxygen deficit, with a maximum of 45% in the winter to 95% in the spring. In November more than 65% of the Bay's area showed oxygen deficits greater than 40%. Organic matter was unusually high in sediments along the northern sector of the Bay. The results suggest that the oxygen depletion was a representative parameter for establishing a relative scale of water quality in this Bay.

  6. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  7. Advances in estimation methods of vegetation water content based on optical remote sensing techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of vegetation water content(VWC) using optical remote sensing techniques is helpful in forest fire as-sessment,agricultural drought monitoring and crop yield estimation.This paper reviews the research advances of VWC retrieval usin