Sample records for water content components

  1. Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing. (United States)

    Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S


    Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing.

  2. Effect of Water Content Components on Desiccation and Recovery in Sphagnum Mosses (United States)

    Hájek, Tomáš; Beckett, Richard P.


    Background and Aims The basic parameters of water relations were measured in Sphagnum mosses. The relationships of these parameters to the photosynthetic response to desiccation and the ecology of these mosses were then tested. Methods The water relations parameters of six Sphagnum species (mosses typical of wet habitats) and Atrichum androgynum (a moss more typical of mesophytic conditions) were calculated from pressure–volume isotherms. Photosynthetic properties during and after moderate desiccation were monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence. Key Results When desiccated, the hummock-forming species S. fuscum and S. magellanicum lost more water before turgor started dropping than other sphagna inhabiting less exposed habitats (73 % compared with 56 % on average). Osmotic potentials at full turgor were similar in all species, with an average value of −1·1 MPa. Hummock sphagna had clearly more rigid cell walls than species of wet habitats (ε = 3·55 compared with 1·93 MPa). As a result, their chlorophyllous cells lost turgor at higher relative water contents (RWCs) than species of wet habitats (0·61 compared with 0·46) and at less negative osmotic potentials (–2·28 compared with −3·00 MPa). During drying, ΦPSII started declining earlier in hummock species (at an RWC of 0·65 compared with 0·44), and Fv/Fm behaved similarly. Compared with other species, hummock sphagna desiccated to −20 or −40 MPa recovered more completely after rehydration. Atrichum androgynum responded to desiccation similarly to hummock sphagna, suggesting that their desiccation tolerance may have a similar physiological basis. Conclusions Assuming a fixed rate of desiccation, the higher water-holding capacities of hummock sphagna will allow them to continue metabolism for longer than other species. While this could be viewed as a form of ‘desiccation avoidance’, hummock species also recover faster than other species during rehydration, suggesting that they have higher

  3. The contribution of component variation and phytoplankton growth to the distribution variation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter content in a mid-latitude subtropical drinking water source reservoir for two different seasons. (United States)

    Sun, Qiyuan; Jiang, Juan; Zheng, Yuyi; Wang, Feifeng; Wu, Chunshan; Xie, Rong-Rong


    The distribution variation in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) content in mid-latitude subtropical drinking water source reservoirs (MDWSRs) has great significance in the security of aquatic environments and human health. CDOM distribution is heavily influenced by biogeochemical processes and anthropogenic activity. However, little is known regarding the impact of component variation and phytoplankton growth on CDOM distribution variation in MDWSR. Therefore, samples were collected from a representative MDWSR (the Shanzai Reservoir) for analysis. CDOM absorption and fluorescence coupling with parallel factor analysis were measured and calculated. The results indicated that only two CDOM components were found in the surface water of Shanzai Reservoir, fulvic acid, and high-excitation tryptophan, originating from terrestrial and autochthonous sources, respectively. The types of components did not change with the season. The average molecular weight of CDOM increased in proportion to its fulvic acid content. The distribution variation in CDOM content mainly resulted from the variation in two CDOM components in summer and from high-excitation tryptophan in winter. Phytoplankton growth strongly influenced the distribution variation of CDOM content in summer; the metabolic processes of Cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta consumed fulvic acid, while that of Cryptophyta produced high-excitation tryptophan.

  4. Independent component analysis for understanding multimedia content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenda, Thomas; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan


    classification rates increase if based on multimedia components relative to single media analysis. For this purpose a simple probabilistic supervised classifier which works from unsupervised ICA features is invoked. In addition, we demonstrate the suggested framework for automatic annotation of descriptive key...

  5. Review of water footprint components of grain (United States)

    Ahmad, Wan Amiza Amneera Wan; Meriam Nik Sulaiman, Nik; Zalina Mahmood, Noor


    Burgeoning global population, economic development, agriculture and prevailing climate pattern are among aspects contributed to water scarcity. In low and middle income countries, agriculture takes the highest share among water user sector. Demand for grain is widespread all over the globe. Hence, this study review published papers regarding quantification of water footprint of grain. Review shows there are various methods in quantifying water footprint. In ascertaining water footprint, three (green, blue, grey) or two (green, blue) components of water footprint involved. However, there was a study introduced new term in evaluating water footprint, white water footprint. The vulnerability of varying methods is difficulty in conducting comparative among water footprint. Salient source in contributing high water footprint also varies. In some studies, green water footprint play major role. Conversely, few studies found out blue water footprint most contributing component in water footprint. This fluctuate pattern influenced by various aspects, namely, regional climatic characteristics, crop yield and crop types.

  6. shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    is the slope of saturation vapour pressure curve at air temperature T (kPa °C-1), T is air temperature (°C). Crop coefficient. Shoot water content was assumed to be crop coefficient, as crop evapotranspiration is always determined under unlimited water supply (Pereira et al., 2015), and hence the shoot water content reflects ...

  7. Component dry masses and carbohydrate contents in honeybush II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Component dry masses and carbohydrate contents in honeybush II: Cyclopia subternata. J Wooldridge, ME Joubert, M Booyse. Abstract. A four-year reconnaissance-level survey was carried out in a honeybush (Cyclopia subternata; Cs) population to obtain information concerning this new South African horticultural crop.

  8. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.


    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites

  9. shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Penmann-Monteith equation and finally calculation of crop evapotranspiration. The objective of this study was to establish crop coefficients and evapotranspiration of different soybean varieties using shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration (ET0). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Reference evapotranspiration.

  10. [Ethanol content of Kefir water]. (United States)

    Rabl, W; Liniger, B; Sutter, K; Sigrist, T


    The question of the influence of kefir on blood-alcohol-level has been asked in a legal proceeding. The questioned recipe consisted of 21 water, 6 soup-spoons of kefir granules (about 120 g), 150 g sugar, 2 figs and one lemon. The consumption took place after two days of fermentation. Experimentally we found, that one liter of this kefir product may contain up to 38 g/l ethanol after 7 to 10 days. On the second day we measured up to 16 g/l ethanol. Our results may be import for expert appraisements concerning unability of driving.

  11. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  12. Fluoride content of tank water in Australia. (United States)

    Cochrane, N J; Hopcraft, M S; Tong, A C; Thean, H l; Thum, Y S; Tong, D E; Wen, J; Zhao, S C; Stanton, D P; Yuan, Y; Shen, P; Reynolds, E C


    The aims of this study were to: (1) analyse the fluoride content of tank water; (2) determine whether the method of water collection or storage influenced fluoride content; and (3) survey participant attitudes towards water fluoridation. Plastic tubes and a questionnaire were distributed through dentists to households with water tanks in Victoria. A midstream tank water sample was collected and fluoride analysed in triplicate using ion chromatography All samples (n = 123) contained negligible amounts of fluoride, with a mean fluoride concentration of fluoride content and variables investigated such as tank material, tank age, roof material and gutter material. Most people did not know whether their tank water contained fluoride and 40.8% preferred to have access to fluoridated water. The majority thought fluoride was safe and more than half of the respondents supported fluoridation. Fluoride content of tank water was well below the optimal levels for caries prevention. People who rely solely on tank water for drinking may require additional exposure to fluoride for optimal caries prevention. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  13. [Effects of soil factors on active component content of Chrysanthemum morifolium]. (United States)

    Wang, Yanru; Guo, Qiaosheng; Shao, Qingsong; Zhang, Zhiyuan


    To study the effects of soil factors on the active component content of Chrysanthemum morifolium and screen out the leading factors. The active component of water soluble extracts, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and mineral elements were determined and chemical properties and mineral elements of soil were analyzed for studying the effects on Ch. morifolium through correlation, stepwise regression, path and grey correlation analysis. Soil available P and K were the most important factors that affected the active component content of Ch. morifolium, followed by urease, phosphatase and invertase activities and organic matter. The mineral elements in Ch. morifolium and in soil correlated well, P and K were enriched in the plant mostly, followed by Cd, Ca, Zn, Cu. The main leading factors of mineral elements in soil were P and K, followed by Fe, Cu and Zn. Soil was one of the important factors which affected the active component content of Ch. morifolium.

  14. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.


    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these

  15. Systematic analysis of components and contents in Houttuynia cordata Thunb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yi Dong


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to provide the material basis for the molecular mechanism of Yuxingcao (Houttuynia cordata Thunb, HCT through the method of evidence-based study to summarize the natural constituents isolated from HCT. Methods: We searched CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, Pubmed and relevant conference compilations. The keywords were “Yuxingcao or Houttuynia cordata Thunb” and “components” or “ingredients” or “constituent” or “volatile oil” or “flavonoids” or “terpene” or “content”, both in Chinese and English. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the reported compositions and contents have been summarized, and SPSS software was used to draw the boxplot of contents. Results: A total of 603 natural compounds in 11 categories were obtained from pooled articles. In the diverse components, the number of aliphatic compounds (n = 259 and terpenoids (n = 158 are more than those of flavonoids (n = 26, alkaloids (n = 42 and aromatics (n = 42. While, in the part of volatile oils of HCT, the largest components are aliphatic compounds (mainly distributed on the ground and terpenoids (mainly distributed in the underground. Although, methyl n-nonylketone is distributed in the whole herb plant, a large proportion is present in the underground parts. As for non-volatiles, the flavonoid content (mainly distributed on the ground was the highest, among which quercetin and its glycosyl derivatives were the prominent. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a more comprehensive material basis for the further study of HCT. It is also helpful to explain the mechanisms of anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects from the molecular target and molecular network levels.

  16. Substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Baptista Gordin


    Full Text Available Niger is an oleaginous species whose cultivation has been spreading, but there is not much information on the adverse conditions during its seedling establishment. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination. Seeds were moistened using the humid atmosphere method for 0; 24; 48; and 72 hours, obtaining the water contents of 7.0 %, 12.8 %, 16.8 % and 32.2 %. Then, they were sown in substrate moistened with PEG 6000 solutions with different osmotic potentials: 0.0 MPa (control, -0.1 MPa, -0.2 MPa, -0.3 MPa and -0.4 MPa. A completely randomized design, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme (water content x osmotic potential, with four replications of 50 seeds, was used. First count and germination percentage, germination speed index and mean time, shoot and root length and seedlings dry weight were evaluated. The reduction in the substrate osmotic potential decreases the niger seed germination and seedling growth, regardless of water content, but with a higher evidence in seed water contents below 32.2 % and 12.8 %, respectively.

  17. Determination of the water content of foods: I. Indirect determination of the water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reith, J.F.; Mossel, D.A.A.; Kamer, J.H. van de


    The indirect determination of the water content of foods is dealt witli on the basis of tlie following general considerations: A. The absolute vapour pressure of the water in the substance to be desiccated ; B. The absolute vapour pressure of the water in the surrounding air, C.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the NAMMA CVI Cloud Condensed Water Content dataset the counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in...

  19. A microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for the detection of toxic components in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.


    ContentPlaceholder1">content">In a microbial fuel cell bacteria produce electricity. When water with a constant quality is lead passed the bacteria, a constant current will be measured. When toxic components enter the cell with the water, the bacteria are affected

  20. Qualitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Medina-Gutiérrez, C.; Sato-Berrú, R.; Sahagún, L. R.


    Using Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation radiation source of 514.5 nm, and principal component analysis (PCA) was elaborated a method to study qualitatively the ethanol content in tequila samples. This method is based in the OH region profile (water) of the Raman spectra. Also, this method, using the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra, can be used to distinguish silver tequila from aged tequilas. The first three PCs of the Raman spectra, that provide the 99% of the total variance of the data set, were used for the samples classification. The PCA1 and PCA2 are related with the water (or ethanol) content of the sample, whereas the PCA3 is related with the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra.

  1. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product (United States)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.


    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.


    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2009 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Removal Action with funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). This paper summarizes the history prior to 2009, the major D&D activities, and final end state of the facility at completion of decommissioning in June 2011. The HWCTR facility was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. In 2009 the $1.6 billion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for site footprint reduction at SRS reopened the doors to HWCTR - this time for final decommissioning. Alternative studies concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning was to remove the reactor vessel, both steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. The transfer coffin, originally above grade, was to be placed in the cavity vacated by the reactor vessel and the remaining below grade spaces would be grouted. Once all above equipment

  3. Are high-water-content contact lenses safe? (United States)

    Bhatia, R P; Panday, Kshama; Srivastava, Rashmi; Indolia, Hitendra Singh


    We examined the role of tear secretion on contact lens water content during selection. Tear secretion was estimated using Schirmer's tests. High-water-content contact lenses compromised the tear film more than low-water-content contact lenses, hence they should not be advised in low or marginal Schirmer's test cases.

  4. Estimation of areal soil water content through microwave remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oevelen, van P.J.


    In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content

  5. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming


    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement...

  6. Water balance components and climate change in Croatia (United States)

    Vucetic, V.


    The openness of the continental part of Croatia towards the north and the separation of the Pannonian flatland from coastline by relative high mountain barrier of the Dinaric Alps produce a continental, mountain and Mediterranean climate in Croatia. Climate change has become an important issue for agriculture in recent years since agricultural production is highly sensitive to weather and water scarcity and consequently to climate change. The special problem with drought and difficulties in water supply and water management exist in the eastern and southern Croatia in the summer. The soil with karst porous base and unsuitable annual distribution of precipitation amount make the mid-Adriatic coast and islands the driest region in Croatia. Therefore, the main goal is to research the secular variations of water balance components using the Palmer method in the most vulnerable dry region in Croatia vs. wet region. The results have been established the intensity of regional impact of climate change on regime of precipitation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. The increase in potential evapotranspiration and decrease in runoff and soil water content were observed in both regions which mostly became significant in the 1980s. However, contrary linear trends (negative in the dry region and positive in the wet region) were noticed in actual evapoptranspiration, moisture loss from the soil and recharge. The reason of that is a significant and faster decrease in annual precipitation and deficit of rainfall in dry region than in wet region in warmer season. Thus, combined influence of precipitation and air temperature affects the decrease in soil water content and runoff that it could have negative consequences on vegetation and agricultural production, particularly in the driest and most vulnerable region in Croatia - in the mid-Adriatic area.

  7. Water contents and OH speciation in pyroxenes (United States)

    Bégaudeau, K.; Morizet, Y.; Mercier, J.


    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as pyroxene contain trace amounts of hydrogen which reside in structural defects. Dissolved water (hydroxyls species OH) plays a crucial role in modifying the physical and chemical properties of the Earth’s mantle and attests a significant water reservoir inside. For a series of natural clino- and orthopyroxenes (cpx and opx) from large suite mantle xenoliths, we investigated the total water (H2Otot) in pyroxenes using micro-FTIR so as to constrain the OH dissolution mechanisms. Samples studied have been brought up either by 1) alkaline basalts magmas, Mont Briançon, Maar de Borée , Barges (France), Dreiser Weiher (Germany), San Carlos (Arizona), Black Rock Sumitt (Nevada), Kilbourne Hole (New Mexico), or by 2) kimberlite magmas, Letseng-la-Terae (South Africa). Crystal chemistry from the different xenoliths was determined by microprobe analyses. Pyroxenes have high Mg number (about 0.9) and spinels contain 0.19 Fe3+/Fetot. Equilibrium P, T conditions were determined by geothermobarometry. P-T conditions were estimated between 700 and 1400°C and between 0.5 and 6.3 GPa. Polarized FTIR spectra acquired on natural cpx and opx are consistent with previous studies, showing the main absorption bands attributed to OH species in the region between 3000-3800 cm-1. H2Otot was estimated by the Beer-Lambert law using the calibration of Libowitzky and Rossman (1997) and gives about 300 ppm and 100 ppm H2O for cpx and opx, respectively. Partionning coefficient between cpx and opx is estimated to 2.1, similar to those from literature data on pyroxenes of alkali-basalt and kimberlitic xenoliths. The H2Otot does not show significant correlation with crystal chemistry, therefore contrasting with previous studies. However, we observe a good linear correlation between the cpx/opx water content and the physical conditions (P, T and fO2 determined from Fe3+/Fetot in spinel) recorded by the mantle xenoliths: ppm H2Ocpx=522.89-119.38*P-0.195*T+484

  8. Water content and its effect on ultrasound propagation in concrete--the possibility of NDE (United States)

    Ohdaira; Masuzawa


    It is known that water content or moisture affects the strength of concrete. The purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of the NDE of concrete from a knowledge of the relationship between water content and ultrasonic propagation in concrete. The results of measurements made on the ultrasound velocity and the frequency component on ultrasonic propagation as a function of the water content in concrete are reported. Test pieces of concrete made from common materials were made for the fundamental studies. The test piece dimensions were 10 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length. Test pieces were immersed in water for about 50 days to saturate them. To measure the effect of different water contents, test pieces were put in a drying chamber to change the amount of water between measurements. This procedure was repeated until the concrete was completely dried and the weight no longer changed. Water contents were defined as weight percentage to full dried state. Thus water content could be changed from 8% to 0%. Using the pulse transmission method, ultrasonic propagation in the frequency range 20 to 100 kHz was measured as a function of water content. The sound velocity varied gradually from 3000 m/s to 4500 m/s according to the water content. The frequency of maximum transmission also depended on the water content in this frequency range. It is considered that the ultrasonic NDE of concrete strength is feasible.

  9. Simultaneous determination of contents of three active components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contents of catechin, baicalin and berberine in Jiejia tincture were determined at the wavelength of 276 nm and a column temperature of 30 ℃. The results revealed that catechin showed a good linear relationship at the range of 100~800 μg/mL (r=0.9997); baicalin showed a good linear relationship at the range of ...

  10. [Analysis on water-soluble components in roots of Changium smyrnioides among different populations by HPLC]. (United States)

    Wang, Changlin; Guo, Qiaosheng; Cheng, Boxing; Yang, Liwen; Zhou, Tinghui


    To analyze water-soluble components in the roots of Ch. smyrnioides among different populations that distributed in the main areas and give a reference for germplasm evaluation and quality control. Water-soluble components were extracted with the cold-soaking method and analyzed by HPLC, similarity coefficient was calculated by included angle cosine method according to relative content of major water-soluble components, and systematic relationships were constructed based on UPGMA method. There was significant difference in water-soluble components in root among population. Jiuhuashan population had the highest content of water-soluble extract. The content of water-soluble extract was below the pharmacopoeia standard in the root of Dalongshan population and Fushan population. There was significant difference in the HPLC chromatogram of water-soluble components in the root of Ch. smyrnioides from different populations, and the number of common peak was small. Similarity coefficient significantly ranged from 0.0306 to 0.9995 among 10 populations of Ch. smymrnioides. Water-soluble components in the root of Zijinshan population was the most unique, similarity coefficients were relatively small among Zijinshan population and the other seven populations except Hongshan population, and similarity coefficient was in a higher level of 0.9697 between Zijinshan population and Hongshan population. Water-soluble components were extremely similar in four populations that were Laoshan, Maoshan, Qinglongshan and Langyashan, and similarity coefficients among them were in a high level exceeded 0.99. 10 populations were divided into 3 groups according to clustering results. Water-soluble components show a high diversity in the roots of Ch. smyrnioides among different populations, and can be clearly divided into 3 types.

  11. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content. (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.


    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  12. Recreational runners with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated patella water content. (United States)

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Hu, Houchun H; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M


    Increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint overloading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP). To date, it remains unknown whether persons with PFP exhibit elevated bone water content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recreational runners with PFP exhibit elevated patella water content when compared to pain-free controls. Ten female recreational runners with a diagnosis of PFP (22 to 39years of age) and 10 gender, age, weight, height, and activity matched controls underwent chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify patella water content (i.e., water-signal fraction). Differences in bone water content of the total patella, lateral aspect of the patella, and medial aspect of the patella were compared between groups using independent t tests. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated significantly greater total patella bone water content (15.4±3.5% vs. 10.3±2.1%; P=0.001), lateral patella water content (17.2±4.2% vs. 11.5±2.5%; P=0.002), and medial patella water content (13.2±2.7% vs. 8.4±2.3%; Prunners with PFP is suggestive of venous engorgement and elevated extracellular fluid. In turn, this may lead to an increase in intraosseous pressure and pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  15. Water content of acacia honey dertermined by two established methods and by optothermal window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szopos, S.; Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Ajtony, Z.


    The major objective of the research study described here was to explore the potential of the optothermal window (OW) technique as a new approach towards a simple, rapid determination of water content in honey. Water, major component of foods, influences their physical and chemical properties. Single

  16. Modelling unfrozen water content in a silty clay permafrost deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas


    of a calibration equation for determining the unfrozen water content of a Greenlandic silty clay permafrost deposit. Calibration experiments have been conducted for water contents in the interval 0 – 10 % at both 5 °C and 22 °C. Calibration equations are verified against permittivity data from a permafrost core...

  17. [Effects of snow cover on water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest]. (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ya; Yang, Wan-Qin; Li, Han; Ni, Xiang-Yin; He, Jie; Wu, Fu-Zhong


    Seasonal snow cover may change the characteristics of freezing, leaching and freeze-thaw cycles in the scenario of climate change, and then play important roles in the dynamics of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in the alpine forest. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was conducted in an alpine forest in western Sichuan, China. The foliar litterbags of typical tree species (birch, cypress, larch and fir) and shrub species (willow and azalea) were placed on the forest floor under different snow cover thickness (deep snow, medium snow, thin snow and no snow). The litterbags were sampled at snow formation stage, snow cover stage and snow melting stage in winter. The results showed that the content of water soluble components from six foliar litters decreased at snow formation stage and snow melting stage, but increased at snow cover stage as litter decomposition proceeded in the winter. Besides the content of organic solvent soluble components from azalea foliar litter increased at snow cover stage, the content of organic solvent soluble components from the other five foliar litters kept a continue decreasing tendency in the winter. Compared with the content of organic solvent soluble components, the content of water soluble components was affected more strongly by snow cover thickness, especially at snow formation stage and snow cover stage. Compared with the thicker snow covers, the thin snow cover promoted the decrease of water soluble component contents from willow and azalea foliar litter and restrain the decrease of water soluble component content from cypress foliar litter. Few changes in the content of water soluble components from birch, fir and larch foliar litter were observed under the different thicknesses of snow cover. The results suggested that the effects of snow cover on the contents of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during litter decomposition would be controlled by

  18. Influence of Water Content on Pullout Behaviour of Geogrid (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Song, Yang-yang; Hao, Dong-xue; Gao, Yu-cong


    The interaction between geogrid and soil is fundamental and crucial factor on safety and stability of geogrid-reinforced earth structure. Therefore, the interface index between geogrid and soil is of vital importance in the design of reinforced earth structures. The pullout behaviour of geogrid in soil is studied, an experimental investigation is conducted using geogrid in four groups of soil with 20%, 24%, 28%, 32% water contents, which correspond to normal stresses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 kPa respectively. The results indicate that the geogrid embedded in soil mainly represents pullout failure, and the ultimate pullout force is sensitive to water content. It decreases with the increase of the water content firstly. Besides, the water content influences the process of the pullout behaviour. The increase of water content leads to the ultimate pullout force soon.

  19. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.


    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... conclusion is that GERG-water must be used with caution outside its specified working range. For some selected natural gas mixtures the two models also perform very much alike. The water content of the mixtures decreases with increasing amount of heavier components, and it seems that both models slightly...

  20. shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Determination of water requirement for crops in resource limited areas is challenging, yet worsened by the common assumption that all crop varieties within a species have similar water requirements. The objective of the study was to indirectly determine crop evapotranspiration of soybean varieties, using reference ...

  1. SI-Traceable Water Content Measurements in Solids, Bulks, and Powders (United States)

    Østergaard, Peter; Nielsen, Jan


    Methods such as Karl Fischer titration and Loss-on-Drying, commonly used for estimating moisture content in samples, have been in existence for many years, but have difficulties obtaining a direct calibration chain toward water content. In recognition of this challenge, the joint research project, METefnet, was funded by the European Metrology Research Programme in 2012. The goal of METefnet is to establish a European metrology infrastructure for water content measurement and to develop primary standards for unambiguous determination of water mass fraction in materials. Here, we describe the primary standard developed by Danish Technological Institute in METefnet. This standard establishes traceability of the water content of a sample to dewpoint temperature. The standard only measures water, and the measurement result is not affected by other components.

  2. Pb and Cd Contents in Soil, Water, and Trees at an Afforestation Site, South China. (United States)

    Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Liu, Shuguang


    Pb and Cd contents in 13 plantation tree species (leaf and branch components), soil, water (groundwater and river water) at a young (3-5 year-old) seashore afforestation stand were investigated in Nansha district, Guangzhou city in southern China. The results showed that (1) soil, rather than water or trees, had the highest content of both Pb (averagely 48.79 mg/kg) and Cd (0.50 mg/kg), demonstrating that soil might function as a major reservoir for extraneously derived heavy metals; (2) Pb content was higher in branches than in leaves, but Cd content appeared similar in both components, implying possibly different accumulation mechanisms in trees; (3) Pb and Cd appeared to accumulate differently among some tree taxa, whereas almost no significant difference was detected between introduced and indigenous species. The study indicated that trees were potentially useful to remediate sites contaminated with Pb and Cd in the urbanized areas.


    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  4. Components of the total water balance of an urban catchment. (United States)

    Mitchell, V Grace; McMahon, Thomas A; Mein, Russell G


    A daily model was used to quantify the components of the total urban water balance of the Curtin catchment, Canberra, Australia. For this catchment, the mean annual rainfall was found to be three times greater than imported potable water, and the sum of the output from the separate stormwater and wastewater systems exceeded the input of imported potable water by some 50%. Seasonal and annual variations in climate exert a very strong influence over the relative magnitude of the water balance components; this needs to be accounted for when assessing the potential for utilizing stormwater and wastewater within an urban catchment.

  5. Water quality of the Chhoti Gandak River using principal component ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The principal components of water quality are controlled by lithology, gentle slope gradient, poor drainage, long residence .... minimizes container pollution and promotes the ...... China – Weathering processes and chemical fluxes;. J. Hydrol.

  6. Use spectral derivatives for estimating canopy water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.


    Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper the spectral information provided by the canopy water

  7. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Metwally SA,Khalid KA, Abou-Leila BH. 2013. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 63-67. The effects of water regime on the growth, content of essential oil and proline of Calendula officinalis L. plants were investigated. Water regimes of 75% of field water capacity increased certain growth characters [i.e. plant height (cm, leaf area (cm2, flower diameter (cm and spike stem diameter] and vase life (day. Water regime promoted the accumulation of essential oil content and its main components as well as proline contents.

  8. Terahertz Measurement of the Water Content Distribution in Wood Materials (United States)

    Bensalem, M.; Sommier, A.; Mindeguia, J. C.; Batsale, J. C.; Pradere, C.


    Recently, THz waves have been shown to be an effective technique for investigating the water diffusion within porous media, such as biomaterial or insulation materials. This applicability is due to the sufficient resolution for such applications and the safe levels of radiation. This study aims to achieve contactless absolute water content measurements at a steady state case in semi-transparent solids (wood) using a transmittance THz wave range setup. First, a calibration method is developed to validate an analytical model based on the Beer-Lambert law, linking the absorption coefficient, the density of the solid, and its water content. Then, an estimation of the water content on a local scale in a transient-state case (drying) is performed. This study shows that THz waves are an effective contactless, safe, and low-cost technique for the measurement of water content in a porous medium, such as wood.

  9. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi


    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  10. Shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversely,water use efficiency (WUE) was 0.58 in SB19, 0.52 in Nyala, and 0.47 in SB20.Validation of the calculated ETC using a crop production function showed a correlation of r = 0.97 between the observed and predicted yields of the three varieties. Furthermore, the normalised root mean square error (NRMSE) and ...

  11. [Zinc and copper content in individual components used to prepare pediatric total nutrition mixtures]. (United States)

    Menéndez, A M; Weisstaub, A R; Montemerlo, H; Rusi, F; Guidoni, Ma E; Piñeiro, A; Pita Martín de Portela, Ma L


    1) to determine zinc and copper levels of contamination in the individual component solutions used to prepare the pediatric total parenteral nutrition mixtures in Argentina; 2) to compare zinc and copper amounts prescribed by the physician with the true amount given to a neonate weighing 1.2 kg and to a child weighing 10 kg, who would receive total parenteral nutrition formulas prepared with those component solutions. Zn and Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 59 individual solutions belonging to 14 components chosen between the commercial products available in Argentina. zinc and copper, as contaminants, were found neither in the sterile water, nor in the potassium chloride or in the vitamin solutions. Zinc, but no copper, was detected in sodium chloride, manganese sulfate, chromium chloride and seleniose acid solutions. Zinc and copper were detected in dextrose, amino acids, calcium gluconate and lipid solutions at variable levels. Zinc sulfate solutions contained between 90.4% and 140% of the declared content and a variable contamination with copper. Copper sulfate solutions presented between 4% and 18% less the declared copper concentration and a variable contamination with zinc. Dextrose and lipid solutions presented the highest amount of zinc and copper. Therefore, the total parenteral mixtures prepared with the analyzed solutions must have had an excess of zinc and copper in relation to the prescription: ranging between 103% and 161% and between 7%-426% higher than the Zn and Cu amounts prescribed for neonates, respectively; the excess in the total parenteral nutrition for a child weighing 10 kg would ranged between 105% and 189% and between 7%-365% higher than the prescribed for Zn and Cu, respectively. 1) Nine components presented Zn and five Cu, both of them not declared in the label; 2) the usually prescribed total parenteral nutrition mixtures must have had a zinc and copper amount higher than the prescribed one according to

  12. The main components of the content of physical training education in secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaskov U.V.


    Full Text Available On the basis of general scientific concept of curriculum content of the specified physical training education. Developed a didactic model of a subject "Physical Culture", which includes two parts: the main (substantive and procedural. Fleshed out the composition of each block. In the first block included the theoretical component, the methods of intellectual and practical problems. In the second unit - teaching methods, organizational forms and training aids. The basic components of the theoretical knowledge and methods of intellectual and practical (exercise. Functions of each component of the content of physical training education.

  13. Nitrates and nitrites content of water boreholes and packaged water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrate and nitrite levels were determined in forty-three water samples obtained from different locations in Calabar using colorimetric methods. Twenty-three of these samples were packaged water while twenty were borehole water. Nitrate levels were found to be 24.28 ± 9.30μg/ml and 34.57 ± 14.56µ/ml for packaged water ...

  14. Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. A sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde is being developed to meet a directly related need...

  15. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The water content of clouds, whether in liquid or ice form, is a key variable to be measured when either calibrating remote sensing systems or when calculating the...

  16. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The measurement of cloud water content is of great importance in understanding the formation of clouds, their structure, and their radiative properties which in turn...

  17. Soil water and mineral nitrogen content as influenced by crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and wheat–medic rotation (McWMcW) and tillage, conventional-till (CT), minimum-till (MT), no-till (NT) and zero-till (ZT) were studied. Crop rotation did not influence soil moisture content. Soil water content in CT tended to be lower compared ...

  18. Effect of water and salt content on protein solubility and water retention of meat preblends. (United States)

    Kenney, P B; Hunt, M C


    Different preblend water contents at a constant ionic strength were investigated to determine if increasing water availability would increase protein solubility and water retention in meat preblends. Four salt levels (0, 2, 4 and 8%) and four water levels (0, 20, 40 and 80% formulation water) were used with ground bovine semimembranosus muscle that had been frozen once. Ground muscle was mixed with either NaCl alone (0% formulation water) or NaCl and brine (20, 40 and 80% formulation water) for the 2, 4 and 8% NaCl treatments. Distilled water was used for the 0% NaCl treatment. The mixtures were stored at 5°C for 12 h. Following storage, the water/brine content was standardized, and protein solubility and water retention were measured. Elevating the water content of preblends, in which the salt concentration had been standardized, increased the water retained during centrifugation (P water retention. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing (United States)

    The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...

  20. Field, laboratory and estimated soil-water content limits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the field method involved measuring simultaneously the soil-water content (using a frequency domain reflectometer with the PR1 profile probe that relies on changes in the dielectric constant of soil), and soil-water potential (using Watermark granular matrix sensors and tensiometers) at three depths (100, 300 ...

  1. Spectroscopic determination of leaf water content using linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to detect crop water status with fast, non-destructive monitoring based on its spectral characteristics, this study measured 33 groups of peach tree leaf reflectance spectra (350 to 1075 nm). Linear regression and backpropagation artificial neural network methods were used to establish peach tree leaf water content ...

  2. Estimating canopy water content using hyperspectral remote sensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.; Schaepman, M.E.


    Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper, in particular the spectral information provided by the

  3. Nutrient content of water spinach ( Ipomoea aquatica ) under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water spinach is very perishable and it does not store well even in the refrigerator. It requires special processing treatments to reduce post-harvest losses. Nutrient content analysis of the water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) was carried out at different harvest stages and under different preservation methods. Standard ...

  4. Time lapse imaging of water content with geoelectrical methods: on the interest of working with absolute water content data (United States)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Robert, Tanguy; Hermans, Thomas; Garré, Sarah; Nguyen, Frederic


    The electrical resistivity tomography is a suitable method to estimate the water content of a waste material and detect changes in water content. Various ERT profiles, both static data and time-lapse, where acquired on a landfill during the Minerve project. In the literature, the relative change of resistivity (Δρ/ρ) is generally computed. For saline or heat tracer tests in the saturated zone, the Δρ/ρ can be easily translated into pore water conductivity or underground temperature changes (provided that the initial salinity or temperature condition is homogeneous over the ERT panel extension). For water content changes in the vadose zone resulting of an infiltration event or injection experiment, many authors also work with the Δρ/ρ or relative changes of water content Δθ/θ (linked to the change of resistivity through one single parameter: the Archie's law exponent "m"). This parameter is not influenced by the underground temperature and pore fluid conductivity (ρ¬w) condition but is influenced by the initial water content distribution. Therefore, you never know if the loss of Δθ/θ signal is representative of the limit of the infiltration front or more humid initial condition. Another approach for the understanding of the infiltration process is the assessment of the absolute change of water content (Δθ). This requires the direct computation of the water content of the waste from the resistivity data. For that purpose, we used petrophysical laws calibrated with laboratory experiments and our knowledge of the in situ temperature and pore fluid conductivity parameters. Then, we investigated water content changes in the waste material after a rainfall event (Δθ= Δθ/θ* θ). This new observation is really representatives of the quantity of water infiltrated in the waste material. However, the uncertainty in the pore fluid conductivity value may influence the computed water changes (Δθ=k*m√(ρw) ; where "m" is the Archie's law exponent

  5. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water


    Prabhakar A; Raju O; Kurthukoti A; Vishwas T


    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, bo...

  6. Oceanographic controls over sediment water content: northern Bermuda rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.; Laine, E.P.


    Cores taken from the plateaus of Northern Bermuda Rise show that the region is underlain at depths of 1-5 m by a 1-3 m thick layer of hemipelagic lutites with anomalously high water contents. The lack of visually apparent textural and lithological changes in this extremely fine grained sediment rule out these common causes for variation in water content. The water content averages 175% within this layer and 100% immediately above and below it. This is an increase of 9.5% in porosity. The high water content sediment is confined to a period between 12 and 16 ka. Current work on the mineralogy of the sediments which comprise this layer suggest two oceanographic factors that may have influenced its formation. A meltwater spike associated with deglaciation may have altered the ecological conditions above the thermocline sufficiently to promote the increased production of radiolaria, resulting in the deposition of silica enriched sediment on the sea floor. A combination of textural and perhaps chemical factors caused by the silica enrichment may have influenced the increase in water content. Intensified bottom currents at this time also may have eroded smectite rich sediments from exposures of Neogene age and deposited them on the plateaus. An increase in smectite would increase the water content due to the extremely fine grain size and the chemistry of the clay. Thus, the lateral continuity and isochroniety of this layer, combined with its mineralogical characteristics suggests that oceanographic changes can influence water content and perhaps other geotechnical properties on a regional scale.

  7. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil]. (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming


    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  8. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan


    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  9. Dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf


    The moisture storage characteristic is a basic material property of moisture transport modeling. It is measured under equilibrium conditions for adsorption and desorption. One commonly accepted assumption is that this equilibrium data is also applicable for transient conditions. This paper provid...... evidence on the limitations of this assumptions obtained during transient adsorption and desorption experiments where moisture content and moisture potential was measured simultaneously at different sample positions versus time....

  10. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert


    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  11. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, E.; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per


    Soil texture, in particular the clay fraction, governs numerous environmental, agricultural and engineering soil processes. Traditional measurement methods for clay content are laborious and impractical for large-scale soil surveys. Consequently, clay prediction models that are based on water...... for estimating clay content from hygroscopic water at different relative humidity (RH) levels while considering hysteresis and organic matter content. Continuous adsorption/desorption vapour sorption isotherm loops were measured for 150 differently textured soils with a state-of-the-art vapour sorption analyser...... within a RH range from 3 to 93%. The clay contents, which ranged between 1 and 56%, were measured with a combination of sieving and sedimentation methods. Two regression models were developed for both adsorption and desorption at 10 RH levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%). While the first...

  12. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B


    Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate...... brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (r......CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water...

  13. Galaxy Makers Exhibition: Re-engagement, Evaluation and Content Legacy through an Online Component (United States)

    Borrow, J.; Harrison, C.


    For the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2016, Durham University's Institute of Computational Cosmology created the Galaxy Makers exhibit to communicate our computational cosmology and astronomy research. In addition to the physical exhibit we created an online component to foster re-engagement, create a permanent home for our content and allow us to collect important information about participation and impact. Here we summarise the details of the exhibit and the degree of success attached to the online component. We also share suggestions for further uses and improvements that could be implemented for the online components of other science exhibitions.

  14. The Integration of Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge Components in Teaching Linear Equation (United States)

    Yusof, Yusminah Mohd.; Effandi, Zakaria


    This qualitative research aimed to explore the integration of the components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in teaching Linear Equation with one unknown. For the purpose of the study, a single local case study with multiple participants was used. The selection of the participants was made based on various criteria: having more than 5 years…

  15. Water content or water activity: what rules crispy behavior in bread crust? (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, N H; Primo-Martín, C; Meinders, M B J; Tromp, R H; Hamer, R J; van Vliet, T


    A dry crust loses its crispness when water migrates into the crust. It is not clear if it is the amount of water absorbed or the water activity ( a w) that leads to a loss of crispness. The hysteresis effect observed when recording a water sorption isotherm allowed us to study the effects of a w and moisture content separately. All experiments were carried out on model bread crusts made from Soissons bread flour. The effect of water content and water activity on the glass transition of model bread crusts was studied in detail using two complimentary techniques: phase transition analysis (PTA) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results were compared with sensory data and results from a puncture test, which provided data on acoustic emission and fracture mechanics during breaking of the crusts. The water content of the crust was found to be decisive for the transition point as measured by PTA and NMR. However, both water content and water activity had an effect on perceived crispness and number of force and sound peaks. From this may be concluded that the distribution of the water in the samples with a history of high water content is more inhomogeneous, which results in crispy and less crispy regions, thus making them overall more crispy than samples with the same water content but higher a w.

  16. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B


    CBF) SPECT-scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO as flow tracer was performed in the patients. Mean water content (SD) in the infarct area was 37.7 (5.1); 41.8 (4.8); 35.2 (5.4); and 39.3 (5.1) mol x [kg wet weight](-1) at 0-3; 4-7; 8-21; and >180 days after stroke, respectively. Water content increased between Day 0......Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate...... brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (r...

  17. Robust principal component analysis in water quality index development (United States)

    Ali, Zalina Mohd; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Mengersen, Kerrie; Shitan, Mahendran; Juahir, Hafizan


    Some statistical procedures already available in literature are employed in developing the water quality index, WQI. The nature of complexity and interdependency that occur in physical and chemical processes of water could be easier explained if statistical approaches were applied to water quality indexing. The most popular statistical method used in developing WQI is the principal component analysis (PCA). In literature, the WQI development based on the classical PCA mostly used water quality data that have been transformed and normalized. Outliers may be considered in or eliminated from the analysis. However, the classical mean and sample covariance matrix used in classical PCA methodology is not reliable if the outliers exist in the data. Since the presence of outliers may affect the computation of the principal component, robust principal component analysis, RPCA should be used. Focusing in Langat River, the RPCA-WQI was introduced for the first time in this study to re-calculate the DOE-WQI. Results show that the RPCA-WQI is capable to capture similar distribution in the existing DOE-WQI.

  18. Influence of water air content on cavitation erosion in distilled water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Auret, JG


    Full Text Available The influence of increased air content of the cavitating liquid (distilled water) was studied in a rotating disk test rig. A rise in the total air content including dissolved and entrained air of the water in the under saturated range resulted...

  19. Modelling raster-based monthly water balance components for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmen, C.


    The terrestrial runoff component is a comparatively small but sensitive and thus significant quantity in the global energy and water cycle at the interface between landmass and atmosphere. As opposed to soil moisture and evapotranspiration which critically determine water vapour fluxes and thus water and energy transport, it can be measured as an integrated quantity over a large area, i.e. the river basin. This peculiarity makes terrestrial runoff ideally suited for the calibration, verification and validation of general circulation models (GCMs). Gauging stations are not homogeneously distributed in space. Moreover, time series are not necessarily continuously measured nor do they in general have overlapping time periods. To overcome this problems with regard to regular grid spacing used in GCMs, different methods can be applied to transform irregular data to regular so called gridded runoff fields. The present work aims to directly compute the gridded components of the monthly water balance (including gridded runoff fields) for Europe by application of the well-established raster-based macro-scale water balance model WABIMON used at the Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany. Model calibration and validation is performed by separated examination of 29 representative European catchments. Results indicate a general applicability of the model delivering reliable overall patterns and integrated quantities on a monthly basis. For time steps less then too weeks further research and structural improvements of the model are suggested. (orig.)

  20. Development of a 5-Component Balance for Water Tunnel Applications (United States)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.


    The principal objective of this research/development effort was to develop a multi-component strain gage balance to measure both static and dynamic forces and moments on models tested in flow visualization water tunnels. A balance was designed that allows measuring normal and side forces, and pitching, yawing and rolling moments (no axial force). The balance mounts internally in the model and is used in a manner typical of wind tunnel balances. The key differences between a water tunnel balance and a wind tunnel balance are the requirement for very high sensitivity since the loads are very low (typical normal force is 90 grams or 0.2 lbs), the need for water proofing the gage elements, and the small size required to fit into typical water tunnel models. The five-component balance was calibrated and demonstrated linearity in the responses of the primary components to applied loads, very low interactions between the sections and no hysteresis. Static experiments were conducted in the Eidetics water tunnel with delta wings and F/A-18 models. The data were compared to forces and moments from wind tunnel tests of the same or similar configurations. The comparison showed very good agreement, providing confidence that loads can be measured accurately in the water tunnel with a relatively simple multi-component internal balance. The success of the static experiments encouraged the use of the balance for dynamic experiments. Among the advantages of conducting dynamic tests in a water tunnel are less demanding motion and data acquisition rates than in a wind tunnel test (because of the low-speed flow) and the capability of performing flow visualization and force/moment (F/M) measurements simultaneously with relative simplicity. This capability of simultaneous flow visualization and for F/M measurements proved extremely useful to explain the results obtained during these dynamic tests. In general, the development of this balance should encourage the use of water tunnels for a

  1. Determining water content and other impurities in Siparuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siparuna guianensis Aublet is a predominant species in the Brazilian Cerrado. Some studies found that its essential oil has properties that could be useful for manufacturing new products. Its quality depends on physicochemical properties, since its degradation, as well as water content and other volatile materials may ...

  2. Influence of Molding Water Content on Shear Strength Characteristic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory investigation was carried out to determine the shear strength characteristics of compacted cement kiln dust treated lateritic soils for use in liners and covers with up to 12.5% cement kiln dust by dry weight of soil. Specimens were prepared at molding water contents of -2, 0, +2 and +4% of the optimum moisture ...

  3. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point in hot Arid Western India. 1*Priyabrata Santra, 1Mahesh Kumar, 1R N Kumawat, 1D K Painuli, 2K M Hati,. 3G B M Heuvelink and 3N H Batjes. 1ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Jopdhpur, Rajasthan, India ...

  4. influence of molding water content on shear strength characteristic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    well as water content, clays compacted dry of optimum are initially stronger than when compacted wet of optimum. Compacted soil strength can be evaluated in terms of confined compression strength,. [1] selected minimum unconfined compressive strength of 200kN/m2. (200kPa) to represent adequate shear strength for ...

  5. Equilibrium water content and glistenings in acrylic intraocular lenses. (United States)

    Miyata, Akira; Yaguchi, Shigeo


    To investigate the possible relationship between temperature and water absorption in acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). Laboratory setting, Miyata Eye Clinic, Hiroshima, Japan. The equilibrium water content (amount of water absorbed per weight of the resin x 100) in 2 hydrophobic acrylic IOLs (AcrySof MA60BM [Alcon] and Sensar AR40 [AMO]) was calculated at 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, and 50 degrees C. The 2 IOLs were also subjected to 3 changes in temperature: from 37 degrees C to 35 degrees C, 39 degrees C to 35 degrees C, and 41 degrees C to 35 degrees C. They were incubated in physiological saline at the higher temperature for 2 hours and at the lower temperature for 30 days before being examined for glistening formation. The water content was higher in the AR40 IOL than in the MA60BM IOL at all temperatures. A temperature-dependent increase in water content was seen in both IOLs, greater in the MA60BM. With a temperature change from 37 degrees C to 35 degrees C, glistening formation was not observed in either IOL. With a temperature change from 39 degrees C to 35 degrees C, glistenings were observed in the MA60BM IOL, and with a temperature change from 41 degrees C to 35 degrees C, they were observed in both IOLs. The change in the equilibrium water content caused by temperature changes between 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C is an important factor in glistening formation, and thus an IOL featuring less temperature-dependent water absorption is less likely to form glistenings.

  6. Fluoride content of bottled waters available in Northern Greece. (United States)

    Ahiropoulos, V


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride content of bottled drinking waters commercially available in northern Greece and to report on the accuracy of the labelling of fluoride concentration. Twenty-two randomly selected commercial brands of bottled water were obtained from three supermarkets in Thessaloniki, Greece. Three bottles of each brand were purchased. Following calibration, six tests were conducted on each bottle using a combination fluoride-ion selective electrode (Orion, 96-09-00, MA, USA). The average reading for each brand was estimated and also compared with the fluoride content printed on the label. The mean (+/- SD) fluoride content of the bottled water samples was 0.35 (+/- 1.00) mg F/L with a range from 0.05 to 4.8 mg F/L. Only 18% (N = 4) of brands tested mention the fluoride concentration on the label, and 90% (N = 22) had a tested fluoride between 0.05 and 0.21 mg F/L. Of the remaining two brands, one was found to contain 0.3 mg F/L without having the fluoride concentration indicated on the label, and the other was labelled at 6 mg F/L, whereas the concentration was estimated as 4.8 mg F/L. The use of bottled water may be a significant source of systemic fluoride and therefore be considered as a risk factor for dental fluorosis in young children. This article shows that bottled drinking waters contain differing concentrations of fluoride. The manufacturers' labelling of fluoride concentrations may be inaccurate. When prescribing fluoride supplements, dentists should be aware of the fluoride content of bottled waters used by paediatric patients, especially brands with a concentration higher than 0.3 mg F/L. In view of the wide variation of fluoride concentration in the tested bottled waters, regulatory guidelines for controlling concentration in order to prevent dental fluorosis are recommended.

  7. A Novel Principal Component Analysis Method for the Reconstruction of Leaf Reflectance Spectra and Retrieval of Leaf Biochemical Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyun Liu


    Full Text Available Vegetation variable retrieval from reflectance data is typically grouped into three categories: the statistical–empirical category, the physical category and the hybrid category (physical models applied to statistical models. Based on the similarities between the spectra of leaves in the optical domain, the leaf reflectance spectra can be linearly modelled using a very limited number of principal components (PCs if the PCA (principal component analysis transformation is carried out at the sample dimension. In this paper, we present a novel data-driven approach that uses the PCA transformation to reconstruct leaf reflectance spectra and also to retrieve leaf biochemical contents. First, the PCA transformation was carried out on a training dataset simulated by the PROSPECT-5 model. The results showed that the leaf reflectance spectra can be accurately reconstructed using only a few leading PCs, as the ten leading PCs contained 99.999% of the total information in the 3636 training samples. The spectral error between the simulated or measured reflectance and the reconstructed spectra was also investigated using the simulated and measured datasets (ANGERS and LOPEX’93. The mean root mean squared error (RMSE values varied from 5.56 × 10−5 to 6.18 × 10−3, which is about 3–10 times more accurate than the PROSPECT simulation method for measured datasets. Secondly, the relationship between PCs and leaf biochemical components was investigated, and we found that the PCs are closely related to the leaf biochemical components and to the reflectance spectra. Only when the weighting coefficient of the most sensitive PC was employed to retrieve the leaf biochemical contents, the coefficients of determination for the PCA data-driven model were 0.69, 0.99, 0.94 and 0.68 for the specific leaf weight (SLW, equivalent water thickness (EWT, chlorophyll content (Cab and carotenoid content (Car, respectively. Finally, statistical models for the retrieval of

  8. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.


    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  9. Effect of Cooling Water on Stability of NLC Linac Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pimpec, Frederic


    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  10. Water content and glycosaminoglycan disaccharide concentration of the canine meniscus. (United States)

    Stephan, J S; McLaughlin, R M; Griffith, G


    To determine the regional composition of water and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) disaccharides of the canine meniscus. 52 menisci from the stifle of dogs. Regional sections of each meniscus were weighed, dried, and reweighed to determine water content. Dried tissue specimens were subjected to enzymatic digestion. Analysis and quantification of disaccharide degradation products were performed, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Water content was approximately 65% in polar and central regions of the canine meniscus. Water content of the central region of the lateral meniscus was significantly higher than that of the medial meniscus (P = 0.0090). Chondroitinase digestion of canine meniscal tissue yielded detectable delta Di-HA, delta Di-4S, and delta Di-6S GAG disaccharides. Disaccharides specific to dermatan sulfate and chondroitin D or E sulfate were not detected. Concentrations of delta Di-4S and delta Di-6S were significantly greater in the lateral central region, compared with the medial central region (P = 0.0005 and 0.0002, respectively). Water content and delta Di-4S and delta Di-6S concentrations were significantly lower in the central region of the medial meniscus, compared with the central region of the lateral meniscus. Reduced tissue hydration of the medial central region may have been a direct result of its overall decrease in total GAG content. The ability to evaluate subtle differences in tissue GAG composition by analytical measurement of their constituent disaccharides may aid in the understanding of the complex material properties of the normal and diseased meniscus, which may be applied to the study of meniscal healing and biomechanics.

  11. The water content of recurring slope lineae on Mars (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Piqueux, Sylvain


    Observations of recurring slope lineae (RSL) from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment have been interpreted as present-day, seasonally variable liquid water flows; however, orbital spectroscopy has not confirmed the presence of liquid H2O, only hydrated salts. Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) temperature data and a numerical heat transfer model definitively constrain the amount of water associated with RSL. Surface temperature differences between RSL-bearing and dry RSL-free terrains are consistent with no water associated with RSL and, based on measurement uncertainties, limit the water content of RSL to at most 0.5–3 wt %. In addition, distinct high thermal inertia regolith signatures expected with crust-forming evaporitic salt deposits from cyclical briny water flows are not observed, indicating low water salinity (if any) and/or low enough volumes to prevent their formation. Alternatively, observed salts may be preexisting in soils at low abundances (i.e., near or below detection limits) and largely immobile. These RSL-rich surfaces experience ~100 K diurnal temperature oscillations, possible freeze/thaw cycles and/or complete evaporation on time scales that challenge their habitability potential. The unique surface temperature measurements provided by THEMIS are consistent with a dry RSL hypothesis or at least significantly limit the water content of Martian RSL.

  12. Total Water Content Measurements with an Isokinetic Sampling Probe (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Miller, Dean R.; Bidwell, Colin S.


    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a Total Water Content (TWC) Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument is comprised of the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Analysis and testing have been conducted on the subsystems to ensure their proper function and accuracy. End-to-end bench testing has also been conducted to ensure the reliability of the entire instrument system. A Stokes Number based collection efficiency correction was developed to correct for probe thickness effects. The authors further discuss the need to ensure that no condensation occurs within the instrument plumbing. Instrument measurements compared to facility calibrations from testing in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel are presented and discussed. There appears to be liquid water content and droplet size effects in the differences between the two measurement techniques.

  13. Snow water equivalent modeling components in NewAge-JGrass (United States)

    Formetta, G.; Kampf, S. K.; David, O.; Rigon, R.


    This paper presents a package of modified temperature-index-based snow water equivalent models as part of the hydrological modeling system NewAge-JGrass. Three temperature-based snow models are integrated into the NewAge-JGrass modeling system and use many of its components such as those for radiation balance (short wave radiation balance, SWRB), kriging (KRIGING), automatic calibration algorithms (particle swarm optimization) and tests of goodness of fit (NewAge-V), to build suitable modeling solutions (MS). Similarly to all the NewAge-JGrass components, the models can be executed both in raster and in vector mode. The simulation time step can be daily, hourly or sub-hourly, depending on user needs and availability of input data. The MS are applied on the Cache la Poudre River basin (CO, USA) using three test applications. First, daily snow water equivalent is simulated for three different measurement stations for two snow model formulations. Second, hourly snow water equivalent is simulated using all the three different snow model formulae. Finally, a raster mode application is performed to compute snow water equivalent maps for the whole Cache la Poudre Basin.

  14. [Determination of film thickness, component and content based on glass surface by using XRF spectrometry]. (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Ma, Mi-Xia; Nie, Zuo-Ren


    Film thickness, component and content based on glass surface were determined by using XRF technic, measure condition and instrument work condition in every layer were set and adjusted for the best measure effect for every element. Background fundamental parameter (BG-FP) method was built up. Measure results with this method were consistent with the actual preparation course and the method could fit to production application.

  15. Tritium content in tissue free water of Japanese bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujeno, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Aoki, T.; Kurihara, N.


    The tritium content of tissue free water was measured in fresh, non-diseased organs (brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and muscle) removed by forensic autopsy from 4 male and 4 female bodies. Tissue free water was extracted by freeze drying and distillation and tritium measured in the absence of background radon gas. A typical count was approximately 2.70 cpm. The mean tritium content of tissue free water in all the organs examined was 2.50 + - 0.67 Bq.1/sup -1/ (67.6 + -18.2 pCi1/sup -1/). This value was much lower than that obtained for tissues from Italian bodies: the value was, however, similar to that obtained for tap water (70.2 + -28.0 pCi.1/sup -1/), rain water (77.8 + - 47.4 pCi.1/sup -1/) and tissue free water of foods (55.6 + - 26.2 pCi.1/sup -1/).

  16. Impact of water content and decomposition stage on the soil water repellency of peat soils (United States)

    Dettmann, Ullrich; Sokolowsky, Liv; Piayda, Arndt; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bachmann, Jörg


    Soil water repellency is widely reported for all kinds of soils and mainly caused by hydrophobic organic compounds. It has a substantial influence on soil hydraulic processes such as water infiltration, preferential flow paths and evaporation and therefore on hydrological processes in general. The severity of soil water repellency strongly depends on the soil water content and the amount of soil organic carbon. Although peat soils are characterized by high soil organic carbon contents, studies about peat soils are rare and mostly available for horticultural substrates. Here, we present soil water repellency measurements for peat soils with varying porosities, bulk densities and stages of decomposition. The peat soils were sampled at two different sites in a bog complex. The sites have been drained for 1 and 100 years. Samples were taken from each soil layer and, additionally, in a vertical resolution of 0.03 m. To determine the soil water contents at which the peat becomes water repellent, we applied the commonly used water drop penetration time test on progressively dewatered samples. In order to identify the influence of the decomposition stage as determined by the depth within the soil profile and duration of drainage, the potential soil water repellency was measured at air-dried sieved samples by the sessile drop method. First results show that the soil water repellency of peat soils is strongly dependent on the soil water content. For air-dried peat samples, the influence of different decomposition stages of the bog peat is negligible. All air-dried samples are extremely water repellent with contact angles > 130°. However, comparing the results with the soil organic matter content shows a slightly tendency of increasing soil water repellency with increasing soil organic matter contents.

  17. Leaching of Heavy Metals from Water Bottle Components into the Drinking Water of Rodents (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Otto, Kevin J; Artwohl, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D


    Providing high-quality, uncontaminated drinking water is an essential component of rodent husbandry. Acidification of drinking water is a common technique to control microbial growth but is not a benign treatment. In addition to its potential biologic effects, acidified water might interact with the water-delivery system, leading to the leaching of heavy metals into the drinking water. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification and autoclaving on water-bottle assemblies. The individual components of the system (stainless-steel sipper tubes, rubber stoppers, neoprene stoppers, and polysulfone water bottles) were acid-digested and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc to quantify the metal composition of each material. In addition the amounts of these metals that leached into tap and acidified water with and without autoclaving were quantified after 1 wk of contact time. On a weight basis, sipper tubes contained the largest quantities of all metals except magnesium and zinc, which were greatest in the neoprene stoppers. Except for cadmium and selenium, all metals had leached into the water after 1 wk, especially under the acidified condition. The quantities of copper, lead, and zinc that leached into the drinking water were the most noteworthy, because the resulting concentrations had the potential to confound animal experiments. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that water-quality monitoring programs include heavy metal analysis at the level of water delivery to animals. PMID:23562029

  18. Presbyopia and the water content of the human crystalline lens (United States)

    Fisher, R. F.; Pettet, Barbara E.


    1. The water content of the human crystallaline lens nucleus is 63·4% S.D. ± 2·9%, and cortex 68·6% S.D. ± 4·3%. 2. Neither the total water content of the cortex, nor that of the nucleus show any significant changes with age, so `sclerosis' of the lens due to loss of water is not a cause of presbyopia. 3. The initial loss of water from the nucleus of the lens substance obtained by drying in vacuo at 20° C for 2 hr is related to age (P = 0·05) and deformability (0·02 > P > 0·01). 4. The lens fibres of the ageing nucleus have an increased resistance to deformation associated with a decrease in initial water loss. These characteristics can be explained by a common physical property of the fibres, namely increased adhesion to each other as the lens nucleus ages. The newly formed cortical fibres do not appear to show these changes. PMID:4767060

  19. [Radiation absorption, water content and contrast medium impregnation of gallstones]. (United States)

    Schmitt, W G


    Gallstones extracted by surgery were examined for CT density, which was compared with the x-ray-film, floating performance and chemical analysis of the stones. So far, the water content of the biliary concrements--14% on the average--has not been given much attention. Drying will considerably reduce the density; examination of dried gallstones yields a false picture of direct ray absorption. Pure cholesterol stones do not float in water, and they show positive values on Hounsfield's scale (+30--+60). The article discusses the question whether CT is suitable for effecting a better selection of gallstone patients who can be treated by drug therapy.

  20. Modeling root water uptake with root mediated soil water content redistribution (United States)

    Dohnal, M.; Votrubova, J.; Vogel, T.; Tesar, M.


    The main objective of this study was to develop and test a simple root water uptake parameterization applicable in numerical models of soil water movement. The suggested approach was implemented in a one-dimensional dual-continuum model of soil water flow based on Richards' equation. The model was used to simulate soil water movement at an experimental forest site. The performance of the model was evaluated using observed soil water pressure and soil water content data. Several episodes, during which the root mediated soil water content redistribution effects played an important role, were detected. Differences between the model responses and observations, as well as differences between the traditional and newly developed root water uptake modeling approaches, were analyzed. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation project No. 205/08/1174.

  1. Certified reference material to water content determination in bioethanol fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína M. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Bioethanol is a strategic biofuel in Brazil. Thus, a strong metrological basis for its measurements is required to ensure the quality and promote its exportation. Recently, Inmetro certified a reference material for water content in bioethanol. This paper presents the results of these studies. The characterization, homogeneity, short-term stability and long-term stability uncertainty contributions values were 0.00500, 0.0166, 0.0355 and 0.0391 mg g-1, respectively. The certificated value for water content of bioethanol fuel was (3.65 ± 0.11 mg g-1. This CRM is the first and up to now the unique in the world.

  2. Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content. (United States)

    Waller, Laura; Kim, Jungik; Shao-Horn, Yang; Barbastathis, George


    We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered backprojection tomographic algorithm, we are able to incorporate a priori information about the object distribution into a fast reconstruction algorithm which is suitable for real-time monitoring.

  3. Impact of diurnal variation in vegetation water content on radar backscatter from maize during water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Emmerik, T.H.M.; Dunne, S.C.; Judge, J.; van de Giesen, N.C.


    Microwave backscatter from vegetated surfaces is influenced by vegetation structure and vegetation water content (VWC), which varies with meteorological conditions and moisture in the root zone. Radar backscatter observations are used for many vegetation and soil moisture monitoring applications

  4. Monitoring water content in Opalinus Clay within the FE-Experiment: Test application of dielectric water content sensors (United States)

    Sakaki, T.; Vogt, T.; Komatsu, M.; Müller, H. R.


    The spatiotemporal variation of water content in the near field rock around repository tunnels for radioactive waste in clay formations is one of the essential quantities to be monitored for safety assessment in many waste disposal programs. Reliable measurements of water content are important not only for the understanding and prediction of coupled hydraulic-mechanic processes that occur during tunnel construction and ventilation phase, but also for the understanding of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes that take place in the host rock during the post closure phase of a repository tunnel for spent fuel and high level radioactive waste (SF/HLW). The host rock of the Swiss disposal concept for SF/HLW is the Opalinus Clay formation (age of approx. 175 Million years). To better understand the THM effects in a full-scale heater-engineered barrier-rock system in Opalinus Clay, a full-scale heater test, namely the Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) experiment, was initiated in 2010 at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in north-western Switzerland. The experiment is designed to simulate the THM evolution of a SF/HLW repository tunnel based on the Swiss disposal concept in a realistic manner during the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure phases. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors. The sensors will be distributed in the host rock, the tunnel lining, the engineered barrier, which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks, and on the heaters. The excavation is completed and the tunnel is currently being ventilated. Measuring water content in partially saturated clay-rich high-salinity rock with a deformable grain skeleton is challenging. Therefore, we use the ventilation phase (before backfilling and heating) to examine the applicability of commercial water content sensors and to

  5. Textbooks Content Analysis of Social Studies and Natural Sciences of Secondary School Based on Emotional Intelligence Components (United States)

    Babaei, Bahare; Abdi, Ali


    The aim of this study is to analyze the content of social studies and natural sciences textbooks of the secondary school on the basis of the emotional intelligence components. In order to determine and inspect the emotional intelligence components all of the textbooks content (including texts, exercises, and illustrations) was examined based on…

  6. Review of Suction Water Content Relationship of Bentonite-Sand Mixtures Considering Temperature Effects (United States)

    Rawat, Abhishek; Zhi Lang, Lin; Baille, Wiebke


    Bentonite-sand mixture is one of the candidate sealing/ buffer material for landfills, hazardous and high level radioactive waste repository. The long term satisfactory performance of bentonite sand mixture in terms of load bearing function, sealing function and buffer function is governed by hydro-mechanical response of material under elevated temperature conditions. The suction-water content relationship is one of the key parameter, which govern the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of compacted bentonite-sand mixture. This paper presents brief review of suction water content relationships of bentonite-sand mixture considering temperature effects. Numerous parametric models or equations have been developed for representing the soil water characteristics curve i.e. SWCC for isothermal conditions. The most frequently used equations for representing the SWCC are the van Genuchten (1980) and Fredlund and Xing (1994) SWCC equations. Various researchers (Romero et al. 2000; Villar and Lloret, 2004; Tang and Cui, 2005; Agus, 2005; Arifin, 2008) have reported the temperature effect on the water retention behavior of compacted bentonite-sand mixtures. The testing program, results and major conclusions made by above mentioned researchers were discussed in this paper. The changes in hydro-mechanical behavior due to elevated temperature are also discussed based on the suction components of soil which are influenced by temperature. As a general conclusion, total suction of the bentonite-sand mixtures is a function of mixture water content and mixture bentonite content or collectively a function of bentonite water content both at room temperature and at elevated temperature. At a constant temperature, different techniques for measuring suction results in different values of suction depending on accuracy of the sensor and calibration technique used as founded earlier by Agus (2005). The change in total suction due to change in temperature lower than 100 degree C is reversible

  7. Intra-abdominal pressure correlates with extracellular water content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Dąbrowski

    Full Text Available Secondary increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP may result from extra-abdominal pathology, such as massive fluid resuscitation, capillary leak or sepsis. All these conditions increase the extravascular water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between IAP and body water volume.Adult patients treated for sepsis or septic shock with acute kidney injury (AKI and patients undergoing elective pharyngolaryngeal or orthopedic surgery were enrolled. IAP was measured in the urinary bladder. Total body water (TBW, extracellular water content (ECW and volume excess (VE were measured by whole body bioimpedance. Among critically ill patients, all parameters were analyzed over three consecutive days, and parameters were evaluated perioperatively in surgical patients.One hundred twenty patients were studied. Taken together, the correlations between IAP and VE, TBW, and ECW were measured at 408 time points. In all participants, IAP strongly correlated with ECW and VE. In critically ill patients, IAP correlated with ECW and VE. In surgical patients, IAP correlated with ECW and TBW. IAP strongly correlated with ECW and VE in the mixed population. IAP also correlated with VE in critically ill patients. ROC curve analysis showed that ECW and VE might be discriminative parameters of risk for increased IAP.IAP strongly correlates with ECW.

  8. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems (United States)

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe


    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  9. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water. (United States)

    Prabhakar, A R; Raju, O S; Kurthukoti, A J; Vishwas, T D


    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  10. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A


    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  11. Seismic Design of ITER Component Cooling Water System-1 Piping (United States)

    Singh, Aditya P.; Jadhav, Mahesh; Sharma, Lalit K.; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Patel, Nirav; Ranjan, Rakesh; Gohil, Guman; Patel, Hiren; Dangi, Jinendra; Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, A. G. A.


    The successful performance of ITER machine very much depends upon the effective removal of heat from the in-vessel components and other auxiliary systems during Tokamak operation. This objective will be accomplished by the design of an effective Cooling Water System (CWS). The optimized piping layout design is an important element in CWS design and is one of the major design challenges owing to the factors of large thermal expansion and seismic accelerations; considering safety, accessibility and maintainability aspects. An important sub-system of ITER CWS, Component Cooling Water System-1 (CCWS-1) has very large diameter of pipes up to DN1600 with many intersections to fulfill the process flow requirements of clients for heat removal. Pipe intersection is the weakest link in the layout due to high stress intensification factor. CCWS-1 piping up to secondary confinement isolation valves as well as in-between these isolation valves need to survive a Seismic Level-2 (SL-2) earthquake during the Tokamak operation period to ensure structural stability of the system in the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) event. This paper presents the design, qualification and optimization of layout of ITER CCWS-1 loop to withstand SSE event combined with sustained and thermal loads as per the load combinations defined by ITER and allowable limits as per ASME B31.3, This paper also highlights the Modal and Response Spectrum Analyses done to find out the natural frequency and system behavior during the seismic event.

  12. Investigating real work situations in translation agencies. Work content and its components


    Kuznik, Anna


    Background of INCASI Project H2020-MSCA-RISE-2015 GA 691004. WP1: Compilation The aim of this article is to analyze work content and its components in translation agencies. In the conceptual part of the article, we refer to concepts taken from the sociology of work and translation studies. In the analytical part, we use data produced by Stelmach in her study carried out in a small translation agency in Poland using the technique of self-observation (Stelmach 2000). The aim of Stelmach’s st...

  13. Spectral estimation of soil water content in visible and near infra-red range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Nagy


    Full Text Available Soils can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using such methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds small spectral channel (some nm. Based on the spectral characteristics of the soils, or the different index numbers calculated from hyperspectral data water content of soils can be well characterized. The examined soil samples were coming from different apple orchards of which soils had different physical characteristics (sandy loamy and clay. The goals of my experiments were the evaluation of spectral measurement method for soil content detection, and to carry out algorithms for fast field scale spectral evaluation of different soil water content. The spectral measuring was carried out by laboratory scale AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer at 400 – 1000 nm wavelength interval with 0.6 nm spectral resolutions and by ASD FieldSpec Junior at 350 – 2500 nm. After drying, dry soil samples were watered by 2.5 m/m% till maximal saturation, and each wetting was measured spectrally. Based on spectral properties, reflectances were decreased in the whole spectral range within the continuous wetting due to the high absorption characteristics of water. The most water sensitive spectral ranges were selected by principal component, and such algorithms were created, with which the water content can be detectable in the certain soil. The algorithms can facilitate farmers for irrigation scheduling of their orchards. These results can also be utilizable in precision water management, since it can be a basis for such integrated active sensors with LED or laser light source, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can facilitate real time water status assessment of orchards.

  14. A content analysis of preconception health education materials: characteristics, strategies, and clinical-behavioral components. (United States)

    Levis, Denise M; Westbrook, Kyresa


    Many health organizations and practitioners in the United States promote preconception health (PCH) to consumers. However, summaries and evaluations of PCH promotional activities are limited. We conducted a content analysis of PCH health education materials collected from local-, state-, national-, and federal-level partners by using an existing database of partners, outreach to maternal and child health organizations, and a snowball sampling technique. Not applicable. Not applicable. Thirty-two materials were included for analysis, based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. A codebook guided coding of materials' characteristics (type, authorship, language, cost), use of marketing and behavioral strategies to reach the target population (target audience, message framing, call to action), and inclusion of PCH subject matter (clinical-behavioral components). The self-assessment of PCH behaviors was the most common material (28%) to appear in the sample. Most materials broadly targeted women, and there was a near-equal distribution in targeting by pregnancy planning status segments (planners and nonplanners). "Practicing PCH benefits the baby's health" was the most common message frame used. Materials contained a wide range of clinical-behavioral components. Strategic targeting of subgroups of consumers is an important but overlooked strategy. More research is needed around PCH components, in terms of packaging and increasing motivation, which could guide use and placement of clinical-behavioral components within promotional materials.

  15. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythri H


    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  16. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors (United States)

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  17. Peatland water repellency: Importance of soil water content, moss species, and burn severity (United States)

    Moore, P. A.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.


    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, with northern peat reserves expected to become more vulnerable to wildfire as climate change enhances the length and severity of the fire season. Recent research suggests that high water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands have been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate the effect of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a laboratory based drying experiment where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes including unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ∼1.4 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by burning. Based on soil water retention curves, we suggest that it is highly unlikely that Sphagnum will exhibit strong hydrophobic conditions under field conditions.

  18. Aluminum bioavailability from drinking water is very low and is not appreciably influenced by stomach contents or water hardness. (United States)

    Yokel, R A; Rhineheimer, S S; Brauer, R D; Sharma, P; Elmore, D; McNamara, P J


    The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intragastric 26Al in the absence and presence of food in the stomach and with or without concomitant calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) at concentrations found in hard drinking water. The use of 26Al enables the study of Al pharmacokinetics at physiological Al concentrations without interference from 27Al in the environment or the subject. 27Al was intravenously administered throughout the study. Repeated blood withdrawal enabled determination of oral 26Al bioavailability from the area under its serum concentrationxtime curve compared to serum 27Al concentration in relation to its infusion rate. Oral Al bioavailability averaged 0.28%. The presence of food in the stomach and Ca and Mg in the water that contained the orally dosed 26Al appeared to delay but not significantly alter the extent of 26Al absorption. The present and published results suggest oral bioavailability of Al from drinking water is very low, about 0.3%. The present results suggest it is independent of stomach contents and water hardness.

  19. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin


    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  20. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintentance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice


    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessonslearned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  1. Liquid water content variation with altitude in clouds over Europe (United States)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan


    Cloud water content is one of the most fundamental measurements in cloud physics. Knowledge of the vertical variability of cloud microphysical characteristics is important for a variety of reasons. The profile of liquid water content (LWC) partially governs the radiative transfer for cloudy atmospheres, LWC profiles improves our understanding of processes acting to form and maintain cloud systems and may lead to improvements in the representation of clouds in numerical models. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote sensing techniques. The aim of this paper was to analyze the liquid water content (LWC) measurements in clouds, in time of the aircraft flights. The aircraft and its platform ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research is property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania. The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 m). The processed and analyzed measurements are acquired during 4 flights from Romania (Bucharest, 44°25'57″N 26°06'14″E) to Germany (Berlin 52°30'2″N 13°23'56″E) above the same region of Europe. The flight path was starting from Bucharest to the western part of Romania above Hungary, Austria at a cruse altitude between 6000-8500 m, and after 5 hours reaching Berlin. In total we acquired data during approximately 20 flight hours and we presented the vertical and horizontal LWC variations for different cloud types. The LWC values are similar for each type of cloud to values from literature. The vertical LWC profiles in the atmosphere measured during takeoff and landing of the aircraft have shown their

  2. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel


    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  3. Flow-induced vibration of component cooling water heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Y.S.; Chen, S.S. (Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))


    This paper presents an evaluation of flow-induced vibration problems of component cooling water heat exchangers in one of Taipower's nuclear power stations. Specifically, it describes flow-induced vibration phenomena, tests to identify the excitation mechanisms, measurement of response characteristics, analyses to predict tube response and wear, various design alterations, and modifications of the original design. Several unique features associated with the heat exchangers are demonstrated, including energy-trapping modes, existence of tube-support-plate (TSP)-inactive modes, and fluidelastic instability of TSP-active and -inactive modes. On the basis of this evaluation, the difficulties and future research needs for the evaluation of heat exchangers are identified. 11 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf


    a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water contentwater potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between...... static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et...... the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content in the subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hendricks; T. Yao; A. Kearns


    Previous theoretical and experimental studies indicated that surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has the potential to provide cost-effective water content measurements in the subsurface and is a technology ripe for exploitation in practice. The objectives of this investigation are (a) to test the technique under a wide range of hydrogeological conditions and (b) to generalize existing NMR theories in order to correctly model NMR response from conductive ground and to assess properties of the inverse problem. Twenty-four sites with different hydrogeologic settings were selected in New Mexico and Colorado for testing. The greatest limitation of surface NMR technology appears to be the lack of understanding in which manner the NMR signal is influenced by soil-water factors such as pore size distribution, surface-to-volume ratio, paramagnetic ions dissolved in the ground water, and the presence of ferromagnetic minerals. Although the theoretical basis is found to be sound, several advances need to be made to make surface NMR a viable technology for hydrological investigations. There is a research need to investigate, under controlled laboratory conditions, how the complex factors of soil-water systems affect NMR relaxation times.

  6. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels (United States)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Nevzorov Total Condensed Water Content Sensor dataset was collected by the Nevzorov total condensed water content sensor which was used to measure...

  8. 76 FR 74831 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY...- ISG-2011-01, ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water... management of stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated borated water. In response to a...

  9. 77 FR 27815 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY..., ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water.'' This LR-ISG... stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated borated water. The NRC published Revision 2 of...

  10. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.


    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  11. Assessment of water vapor content from MIVIS TIR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli


    Full Text Available The main objective of land remotely sensed images is to derive biological, chemical and physical parameters by inverting sample sets of spectral data. For the above aim hyperspectral scanners on airborne platform are a powerful remote sensing instrument for both research and environmental applications because of their spectral resolution and the high operability of the platform. Fine spectral information by MIVIS (airborne hyperspectral scanner operating in 102 channels ranging from VIS to TIR allows researchers to characterize atmospheric parameters and their effects on measured data which produce undesirable features on surface spectral signatures. These effects can be estimated (and remotely sensed radiances corrected if atmospheric spectral transmittance is known at each image pixel. Usually ground-based punctual observations (atmospheric sounding balloons, sun photometers, etc. are used to estimate the main physical parameters (like water vapor and temperature profiles which permit us to estimate atmospheric spectral transmittance by using suitable radiative transfer model and a specific (often too strong assumption which enable atmospheric properties measured only in very few points to be extended to the whole image. Several atmospheric gases produce observable absorption features, but only water vapor strongly varies in time and space. In this work the authors customize a self-sufficient «split-window technique» to derive (at each image pixel atmospheric total columnar water vapor content (TWVC using only MIVIS data collected by the fourth MIVIS spectrometer (Thermal Infrared band. MIVIS radiances have been simulated by means of MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code and the coefficients of linear regression to estimate TWVC from «split-windows» MIVIS radiances, based on 450 atmospheric water vapor profiles obtained by radiosonde data provided by NOAANESDIS. The method has been applied to produce maps describing the spatial variability of

  12. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison. (United States)

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi


    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400-1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR.

  13. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison* (United States)

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi


    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

  14. Sensing the water content of honey from temperature-dependent electrical conductivity (United States)

    In order to predict water content in honey, electrical conductivity was measured on blossom honey types of milk-vetch, jujube and yellow-locust with water content of 18%-37% between 5-40ºC. Regression models of electrical conductivity were developed as functions of water content and temperature. The...

  15. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel


    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  16. Neurology Health Advocacy Curriculum: Needs Assessment, Curricular Content and Underlying Components. (United States)

    Abuzinadah, Ahmad Rida; Cooke, Lara


    Lack of a health advocacy curriculum and clarity are obstacles for effectively teaching neurology health advocacy (NHA) to neurology residents. Our purpose is to assess the need and develop content for a NHA curriculum and to describe its underlying components. This is a cross-sectional study with two steps. In step one, neurologists and neurology residents at University of Calgary were surveyed about their perception of teaching NHA and asked to rank 56 neurological diseases on a Likert scale based on how well they lend themselves to teaching health advocacy. In step two, curricular items were developed for the top five neurological diseases, using a modified Delphi procedure. The reliability of the survey instrument was determined by Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the underlying components of NHA. Forty-six neurologists and 14 neurology residents were surveyed, with a response rate of 88.33%. Fifty-six percent of neurologists and 85% of residents believe that NHA curriculum is needed. The top five neurological presentations, that lend themselves easily to teaching NHA were: stroke/transient ischemic attacks, alcoholism, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The survey instrument reliability was 0.97. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors that can explain the variability in the survey instrument: multidisciplinary approach to neurological disorders, prevention of recurrence of neurological disease, collaboration with other medical subspecialties, and communication with professions outside the medical field. Neurologists' and residents' responses support that NHA curriculum is needed. Four components of NHA were identified that can be used for teaching NHA as well as health advocacy in general practice.

  17. Antiradical activity of water soluble components in common diet vegetables. (United States)

    Racchi, Marco; Daglia, Maria; Lanni, Cristina; Papetti, Adele; Govoni, Stefano; Gazzani, Gabriella


    The antiradical activity of water-soluble components contained in mushrooms (Psalliota campestris), onions (Allium cepa), white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. alba), and yellow bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) against hydroxyl radicals was tested in a chemical and biological system. The vegetable juices were obtained by centrifugation of a vegetable homogenate processed at 2 degrees C or heated at 102 degrees C. The chemical system consisted of a buffered reaction mixture composed of Fe(III)-EDTA, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, ascorbic acid, and H(2)O(2) generating the hydroxyl radical. The antiradical activity was expressed as an inhibition of deoxyribose degradation. The biological system consisted of IMR32 neuroblastoma cells exposed to H(2)O(2) in the presence or absence of the vegetable juices. Cells were pretreated for either 24 h or 1 h with the vegetable juices, and reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used as a cell viability assay. All vegetable juices inhibited the degradation of deoxyribose and increased the viability of H(2)O(2) treated cells. Raw mushroom juice proved to be the most active in both cases. Boiling significantly affected the activity of mushroom juice, but did not change significantly the effect on onions and yellow bell peppers, and partially increased the activity of white cabbage juice. Mushroom antiradical activity was also confirmed by a cytofluorimetric analysis.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of water balance components due to a bottomland hedgerow (United States)

    Thomas, Z.; Ghazavi, G.; Merot, P.


    content is not limited and can exceed the potential evapotranspiration. Spatial and temporal variations of water balance components is highly related to climatic conditions Such research suggests that the impact of the destruction of the wooded linear structures on the water cycle and water resources had been underestimated. Moreover, these results support the urgent need to improve hydrological models to predict the impact of climatic changes on water cycle by including the impact of land use and land cover. Keywords: spatial and temporal variations, climatic context, hedgerow, water balance, transpiration, drainage, capillary rise.

  19. Volumetric water content measurement probes in earth-dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardanis Michael


    Full Text Available Two frequency domain reflectometry (FDR probes have been used. They were used on compacted soils both in the laboratory and in the field. Measurements in the laboratory were intended for calibration. The range of densities and types of materials where insertion of the probes can be achieved was investigated first. The effect of sporadic presence of coarser grains and density on these calibrations, once insertion could be achieved, were investigated second. Measurements on laboratory prepared samples with the same moisture content were different when the sample was kept in the mould from when it was extruded from it. Also both these measurements were different from that in a sample of the same density but significantly larger in diameter. It was found that measurements with these probes are affected by dilation exhibited by soil around the rods of the probes during insertion. Readings immediately after insertion of the sensors on samples extruded from their moulds were the ones closer to measured values. These readings combined with total volume and mass obtained from sand-cone tests during the construction of an earth-dam allowed fairly accurate estimation of the dry unit weight but not the gravimetric water content.

  20. Fitting probability distributions to component water quality data from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of water is carried out to make the available water meet the standards for its intended use. Such use may be for drinking and other household needs, industries,livestock rearing or fisheries etc. poor quality water is commonly treated to ensure potability. Potable water should be free from unpleasant tastes and ...

  1. Performance evaluation of volumetric water content and relative permittivity models. (United States)

    Mukhlisin, Muhammad; Saputra, Almushfi


    In recent years many models have been proposed for measuring soil water content (θ) based on the permittivity (ε) value. Permittivity is one of the properties used to determine θ in measurements using the electromagnetic method. This method is widely used due to quite substantial differences in values of ε for air, soil, and water, as it allows the θ value to be measured accurately. The performance of six proposed models with one parameter (i.e., permittivity) and five proposed models with two or more parameters (i.e., permittivity, porosity, and dry bulk density of soil) is discussed and evaluated. Secondary data obtained from previous studies are used for comparison to calibrate and evaluate the models. The results show that the models with one parameter proposed by Roth et al. (1992) and Topp et al. (1980) have the greatest R² data errors, while for the model with two parameters, the model proposed by Malicki et al. (1996) agrees very well with the data compared with other models.

  2. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium (United States)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  3. Spatial and temporal variation of total electron content as revealed by principal component analysis (United States)

    Talaat, Elsayed R.; Zhu, Xun


    Eleven years of global total electron content (TEC) data derived from the assimilated thermosphere-ionosphere electrodynamics general circulation model are analyzed using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition and the corresponding principal component analysis (PCA) technique. For the daily averaged TEC field, the first EOF explains more than 89 % and the first four EOFs explain more than 98 % of the total variance of the TEC field, indicating an effective data compression and clear separation of different physical processes. The effectiveness of the PCA technique for TEC is nearly insensitive to the horizontal resolution and the length of the data records. When the PCA is applied to global TEC including local-time variations, the rich spatial and temporal variations of field can be represented by the first three EOFs that explain 88 % of the total variance. The spectral analysis of the time series of the EOF coefficients reveals how different mechanisms such as solar flux variation, change in the orbital declination, nonlinear mode coupling and geomagnetic activity are separated and expressed in different EOFs. This work demonstrates the usefulness of using the PCA technique to assimilate and monitor the global TEC field.

  4. Terahertz-dependent evaluation of water content in high-water-cut crude oil using additive-manufactured samplers (United States)

    Guan, LiMei; Zhan, HongLei; Miao, XinYang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Kun


    The evaluation of water content in crude oil is of significance to petroleum exploration and transportation. Terahertz (THz) waves are sensitive to fluctuations in the dipole moment of water. However, due to the strong absorption of water in the THz range, it is difficult for the THz spectrum to determine high water content with the common sampler. In this research, micron-grade samplers for THz detection were designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing (AM) technology. Oil-water mixtures with water content from 1.8% to 90.6% were measured with the THz-TDS system using sample cells. In addition, a detailed analysis was performed of the relationships among THz parameters such as signal peak, time delay, and refractive index as well as absorption coefficient and high water content (>60%). Results suggest that the combination of THz spectroscopy and AM technique is effective for water content evaluation in crude oil and can be further applied in the petroleum industry.

  5. In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim


    Full Text Available An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  6. Influence of packaging and conditions of storaging on content of mineral water Guber-Srebrenica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Dragana D.


    Full Text Available Mineral waters are found in nature in greater depths most often in reduction conditions, so after surfacing their content alters in contact with oxygen, which is caused by oxidation of certain components. Due to this, efforts were made to make these waters more stabile so they could be used after certain time. This work monitors the stability of Guber (Argentaria-Srebrenica water exposed to light and with addition of ascorbic acid. The methods of analysis and the parameters analyzed are: gravimetric (SO2-4, suspended solids, total dry residue at 180°C, conductometry (electric conductivity, volumetric (Al3+, spectrometric (SiO2 and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, K+, Ca2+, Na+ i Cu2+. Obtained results of water analysis, after retaining water in PET (polyethylentereftalate and glass bottles, in certain time intervals, show that significant changes of concentration of Fe2+, Al3+, K+, Ca2+, pH value and electric conductivity occurred. Concentration of iron Fe2+ has been slightly changed after 120 days, in sample stabilized with 0,2 g ascorbic acid, while concentrations of Al and K+ were changing the same as without adding of stabilizer. Samples of water in glass packaging without added stabilizer are less stable compared to samples which were retained in PET packaging.

  7. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han


    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy\\'s law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  8. Effect of soil water stress on yield and proline content of four wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 4, 2010 ... Tatar and Gevrek (2008) and Kameli and Losel (1996) showed that wheat dry mater production, relative water content (RWC) decreased and proline content increased under drought stress. Higher proline content in wheat plants after water stress has been reported by. Vendruscolo et al. (2007) and Patel ...

  9. Estimation water vapor content using the mixing ratio method and validated with the ANFIS PWV model (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Alhasa, K. M.; Singh, M. S. J.


    This study reported the comparison between water vapor content, the surface meteorological data (pressure, temperature, and relative humidity), and precipitable water vapor (PWV) produced by PWV from adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for areas in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi (UKMB) station. The water vapor content value was estimated with mixing ratio method and the surface meteorological data as the parameter inputs. The accuracy of water vapor content was validated with PWV from ANFIS PWV model for the period of 20-23 December 2016. The result showed that the water vapor content has a similar trend with the PWV which produced by ANFIS PWV model (r = 0.975 at the 99% confidence level). This indicates that the water vapor content that obtained with mixing ratio agreed very well with the ANFIS PWV model. In addition, this study also found, the pattern of water vapor content and PWV have more influenced by the relative humidity.

  10. [Spectrum Variance Analysis of Tree Leaves Under the Condition of Different Leaf water Content]. (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Tai-sheng; Pan, Li-xin


    Leaf water content is an important factor affecting tree spectral characteristics. So Exploring the leaf spectral characteristics change rule of the same tree under the condition of different leaf water content and the spectral differences of different tree leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content are not only the keys of hyperspectral vegetation remote sensing information identification but also the theoretical support of research on vegetation spectrum change as the differences in leaf water content. The spectrometer was used to observe six species of tree leaves, and the reflectivity and first order differential spectrum of different leaf water content were obtained. Then, the spectral characteristics of each tree species leaves under the condition of different leaf water content were analyzed, and the spectral differences of different tree species leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content were compared to explore possible bands of the leaf water content identification by hyperspectral remote sensing. Results show that the spectra of each tree leaf have changed a lot with the change of the leaf water content, but the change laws are different. Leaf spectral of different tree species has lager differences in some wavelength range under the condition of same leaf water content, and it provides some possibility for high precision identification of tree species.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Junttila


    Full Text Available Climate change is increasing the amount and intensity of disturbance events, i.e. drought, pest insect outbreaks and fungal pathogens, in forests worldwide. Leaf water content (LWC is an early indicator of tree stress that can be measured remotely using multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (MS-TLS. LWC affects leaf reflectance in the shortwave infrared spectrum which can be used to predict LWC from spatially explicit MS-TLS intensity data. Here, we investigated the relationship between LWC and MS-TLS intensity features at 690 nm, 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths with Norway spruce seedlings in greenhouse conditions. We found that a simple ratio of 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths was able to explain 84 % of the variation (R2 in LWC with a respective prediction accuracy of 0.0041 g/cm2. Our results showed that MS-TLS can be used to estimate LWC with a reasonable accuracy in environmentally stable conditions.

  12. Detection of Water Content in Rapeseed Leaves Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Nie


    Full Text Available The terahertz (THz spectra of rapeseed leaves with different water content (WC were investigated. The transmission and absorption spectra in the range of 0.3–2 THz were measured by using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The mean transmittance and absorption coefficients were applied to analyze the change regulation of WC. In addition, the Savitzky-Golay method was performed to preprocess the spectra. Then, the partial least squares (PLS, kernel PLS (KPLS, and Boosting-PLS were conducted to establish models for predicting WC based on the processed transmission and absorption spectra. Reliable results were obtained by these three methods. KPLS generated the best prediction accuracy of WC. The prediction coefficient correlation (Rval and root mean square error (RMSEP of KPLS based on transmission were Rval = 0.8508, RMSEP = 0.1015, and that based on absorption were Rval = 0.8574, RMSEP = 0.1009. Results demonstrated that THz spectroscopy combined with modeling methods provided an efficient and feasible technique for detecting plant physiological information.

  13. Use of principal component analysis to classify forages and predict their calculated energy content. (United States)

    Gallo, A; Moschini, M; Cerioli, C; Masoero, F


    A set of 180 forages (47 alfalfa hays, 26 grass hays, 52 corn silages, 35 small grain silages and 20 sorghum silages) were randomly collected from different locations of the Po Valley (Northern Italy) from 2009 to 2010. The forages were characterised for chemical composition (11 parameters), NDF digestibility (five parameters) and net energy for lactation (NEL). The latter was calculated according to the two approaches adopted by the 2001 Nutrient Research Council and based on chemical parameters either alone (NEL3x-Lig) or in combination with 48 h NDF degradability in the rumen (NEL3x-48h). Thereafter, a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define forage populations and limit the number of variables to those useful for obtaining a rapid forage quality evaluation on the basis of the calculated NEL content of forages. The PCA identified three forage populations: corn silage, alfalfa hay and a generic population of so-called 'grasses', consisting of grass hays, small grain and sorghum silages. This differentiation was also confirmed by a cluster analysis. The first three principal components (PC) together explained 79.9% of the total variation. PC1 was mainly associated with protein fractions, ether extract and lignin, PC2 with ash, starch, NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) and PC3 with NDF digestibility. Moreover, PC2 was highly correlated to both NEL3x-Lig (r = -0.84) and NEL3x-48h (r = -0.94). Subsequently, forage-based scores (FS) were calculated by multiplying the original standardised variables of ash, starch, NDF and iNDF with the scoring factors obtained from PCA (0.112, -0.141, 0.227 and 0.170, respectively). The FS showed a high determination coefficient for both NEL3x-Lig (R 2 = 0.86) and NEL3x-48h (R 2 = 0.73). These results indicate that PCA enables the distinction of different forage classes and appropriate prediction of the energy value on the basis of a reduced number of parameters. With respect to the rumen in situ parameters, iNDF was found

  14. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review (United States)


    Water Adequacy and Suitability of the Water Quality Laboratory. The panel also agreed that Quality Procedures Manual the potential for obtaining formal ... formally recognize the high level of work being performed 5 in LTRMP water quality and increase the national from the LTRMP field stations. However...transmission as the primary method for obtaining findings to external peer review is the final steptranmision s te prmar metod or otaiing in quality

  15. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David M; Houser, Jeffrey N


    ...) adequacy and suitability of the water quality procedures manual, (4) adequacy and efficiency of procedures for quality assurance and quality control in data collection and laboratory analyses, (5...

  16. Does water content or flow rate control colloid transport in unsaturated porous media? (United States)

    Knappenberger, Thorsten; Flury, Markus; Mattson, Earl D; Harsh, James B


    Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (θ - θr)/(θs - θr)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

  17. Application of principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses in the classification of Serbian bottled waters and a comparison with waters from some European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvejanov Jelena Đ.


    Full Text Available The contents of major ions in bottled waters were analyzed by principal component (PCA and hierarchical cluster (HCA analysis in order to investigate if these techniques could provide the information necessary for classifications of the water brands marketed in Serbia. Data on the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 - and total dissolved solids (TDS of 33 bottled waters was used as the input data set. The waters were separated into three main clusters according to their levels of TDS, Na+ and HCO3 -; sub-clustering revealed a group of soft waters with the lowest total hardness. Based on the determined chemical parameters, the Serbian waters were further compared with available literature data on bottled waters from some other European countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report applying chemometric classification of bottled waters from different European countries, thereby representing a unique attempt in contrast to previous studies reporting the results primarily on a country-to-country scale. The diverse character of Serbian bottled waters was demonstrated as well as the usefulness of PCA and HCA in the fast classification of the water brands based on their main chemical parameters. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172050

  18. Physical and chemical characteristics of ultrasonically-prepared water-in-diesel fuel: effects of ultrasonic horn position and water content. (United States)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Imazu, Hiroki; Nishida, Keiichi


    An ultrasonic technique was applied to preparation of two-phase water-in-oil (W/O) emulsified fuel of water/diesel oil/surfactant. In this study, an ultrasonic apparatus with a 28 kHz rod horn was used. The influence of the horn tip position during ultrasonic treatment, sonication time and water content (5 or 10 vol%) on the emulsion stability, viscosity, water droplet size and water surface area of emulsion fuels prepared by ultrasonication was investigated. The emulsion stability of ultrasonically-prepared fuel significantly depended on the horn tip position during ultrasonic irradiation. It was found that the change in the stability with the horn tip position was partly related to that in the ultrasonic power estimated by calorimetry. Emulsion stability, viscosity and sum of water droplets surface area increased and water droplet size decreased with an increase in sonication time, and they approached each limiting value in the longer time. The maximum values of the viscosity and water surface area increased with water content, while the limiting values of the emulsion stability and water droplet size were almost independent of water content. During ultrasonication of water/diesel oil mixture, the hydrogen and methane were identified and the cracking of hydrocarbon components in the diesel oil occurred. The combustion characteristics of ultrasonically-prepared emulsion fuel were studied and compared with those of diesel oil. The soot and NOx emissions during combustion of the emulsified fuel with higher water contents were significantly reduced compared with those during combustion of diesel oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Water quality assessment using SVD-based principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SVD) of hydrological data was tested for water quality assessment. Using two case studies of waste- and drinking water, PCA via SVD was able to find latent variables which explain 80.8% and 83.7% of the variance, respectively. By means of ...

  20. Effect Of Conjunctive Use Of Water On Yield Components And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deemed University, Allahabad, India in a randomized block design with three replications and four levels of sewage water i.e., 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were applied to radish crop by blending with fresh water. It was observed that the higher ...

  1. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot


    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  2. Deglacial changes in the strength of deep southern component water and sediment supply at the Argentine continental margin (United States)

    Warratz, Grit; Henrich, Rüdiger; Voigt, Ines; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Lantzsch, Hendrik


    The deep southern component water (SCW), comprising Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), is a major component of the global oceanic circulation. It has been suggested that the deep Atlantic water mass structure changed significantly during the last glacial/interglacial cycle. However, deep SCW source-proximal records remain sparse. Here we present three coherent deep SCW paleocurrent records from the deep Argentine continental margin shedding light on deep water circulation and deep SCW flow strength in the Southwest Atlantic since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Based on increased sortable silt values, we propose enhanced deep SCW flow strength from 14 to 10 cal ka B.P. relative to the early deglacial/LGM and the Holocene. We propose a direct influence of deep northern component water (NCW) on deep SCW flow strength due to vertical narrowing of deep SCW spreading, concurrent with a migration of the high-energetic LCDW/AABW interface occupying our core sites. We suggest a shoaled NCW until 13 cal ka B.P., thereby providing space for deep SCW spreading that resulted in reduced carbonate preservation at our core sites. Increased carbonate content from 13 cal ka B.P. indicates that the NCW expanded changing deep water properties at our core sites in the deep Southwest Atlantic. However, southern sourced terrigenous sediments continued to be deposited at our core sites, suggesting that deep SCW flow was uninterrupted along the Argentine continental margin since the LGM.

  3. Large Scale Evapotranspiration Estimates: An Important Component in Regional Water Balances to Assess Water Availability (United States)

    Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yepez, E. A.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Valdez-Torres, L. C.; Robles-Morua, A.


    Water security, can be defined as the reliable supply in quantity and quality of water to help sustain future populations and maintaining ecosystem health and productivity. Water security is rapidly declining in many parts of the world due to population growth, drought, climate change, salinity, pollution, land use change, over-allocation and over-utilization, among other issues. Governmental offices (such as the Comision Nacional del Agua in Mexico, CONAGUA) require and conduct studies to estimate reliable water balances at regional or continental scales in order to provide reasonable assessments of the amount of water that can be provided (from surface or ground water sources) to supply all the human needs while maintaining natural vegetation, on an operational basis and, more important, under disturbances, such as droughts. Large scale estimates of evapotranspiration (ET), a critical component of the water cycle, are needed for a better comprehension of the hydrological cycle at large scales, which, in most water balances is left as the residual. For operational purposes, such water balance estimates can not rely on ET measurements since they do not exist, should be simple and require the least ground information possible, information that is often scarce or does not exist at all. Given this limitation, the use of remotely sensed data to estimate ET could supplement the lack of ground information, particularly in remote regions In this study, a simple method, based on the Makkink equation is used to estimate ET for large areas at high spatial resolutions (1 km). The Makkink model used here is forced using three remotely sensed datasets. First, the model uses solar radiation estimates obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES); Second, the model uses an Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized to get an estimate for vegetation amount and land use which was

  4. Reliability of Blotting Techniques to Assess Contact Lens Water Content. (United States)

    Cañadas, Pilar; López-Miguel, Alberto; Gómez, Alba; López-de la Rosa, Alberto; Fernández, Itziar; González-García, María J


    To determine the reliability of wet and modified dry blotting techniques used in the gravimetric method to assess contact lens (CL) water content (WC), the accuracy of both techniques in comparison with the nominal WC, and also their agreement. We evaluated hydrated and dry CL mass values and WC using the gravimetric method in 440 daily disposable CLs. Samples assessed corresponded to Dailies Total 1, Dailies AquaComfort Plus, 1-Day Acuvue TruEye, and Biotrue ONEday. Back vertex power ranged from +3.00 diopters (D) to -6.00 D. Within-subject coefficient of variation (CVw) and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Bland-Altman analysis was also performed. The modified dry blotting technique yielded significantly (P≤0.0001) higher hydrated CL mass values. The wet blotting technique provided significantly (P≤0.04) better consistency than the modified dry one. Values of CVw for wet and modified dry blotting techniques ranged from 1.2% to 2.1% and from 3.7% to 5.4%, respectively. As for dry CL mass values, CVw values were not significantly different (P≥0.05) between wet (range: 1.1%-1.9%) and dry (range: 1.0%-5.1%) blotting techniques, except for Dailies AquaComfort Plus (P=0.03). Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the techniques. The wet blotting technique yielded WC values close (around 1%) to nominal ones, in contrast to modified dry blotting technique (≥2.5%). The wet blotting technique is not only more reliable than the modified dry one when obtaining hydrated CL mass but also provides more accurate nominal WC measurements. Agreement between the techniques was poor.

  5. Visualizing ocular lens fluid dynamics using MRI: manipulation of steady state water content and water fluxes. (United States)

    Vaghefi, Ehsan; Pontre, Beau P; Jacobs, Marc D; Donaldson, Paul J


    Studies using various MRI techniques have shown that a water-protein concentration gradient exists in the ocular lens. Because this concentration is higher in the core relative to the lens periphery, a gradient in refractive index is established in the lens. To investigate how the water-protein concentration profile is maintained, bovine lenses were incubated in different solutions, and changes in water-protein concentration ratio monitored using proton density weighted (PD-weighted) imaging in the absence and presence of heavy water (D(2)O). Lenses incubated in artificial aqueous humor (AAH) maintained the steady state water-protein concentration gradient, but incubating lenses in high extracellular potassium (KCl-AAH) or low temperature (Low T-AAH) caused a collapse of the gradient due to a rise in water content in the core of the lens. To visualize water fluxes, lenses were incubated in D(2)O, which acts as a contrast agent. Incubation in KCl-AAH and low T-AAH dramatically slowed the movement of D(2)O into the core but did not affect the movement of D(2)O into the outer cortex. D(2)O seemed to preferentially enter the lens cortex at the anterior and posterior poles before moving circumferentially toward the equatorial regions. This directionality of D(2)O influx into the lens cortex was abolished by incubating lenses in high KCl-AAH or low T-AAH, and resulted in homogenous influx of D(2)O into the outer cortex. Taken together, our results show that the water-protein concentration ratio is actively maintained in the core of the lens and that water fluxes preferentially enter the lens at the poles.

  6. Recovery of the water content of hydrogel contact lenses after use. (United States)

    Cabrera, Josefa Velasco; Velasco, María José García


    The aim of the present study is to determine the amount and time of water-content recovery of ionic contact lenses (Surevue and Acuvue) and non-ionic contact lenses (Soflens 38, Soflens 66 and Optima 38) when submerged in maintenance solution for 9 h. Using a hand-held refractometer, we measured the water content of the lenses upon removal from the eye, and after 15, 30, 45 min, 1, 2 and 9 h in soaking solution. Both ionic lenses presented pre-wear water content of 58%, while two of the non-ionic ones (Soflens 38 and Optima 38) registered 38.6% and the third (Soflens 66) had 66%. We found a significant increase (p 0.05) between ionic and non-ionic lenses, although the non-ionic lenses reached slightly higher water-content values at all the times studied. These results indicate that when the refractometer technique is used to measure water content, the lens types used in this study regain their initial water-content values after 9 h in soaking solution. These data indicate the time needed for hydrogel contact lenses to reach their maximum water content after removal from the eye and submersion in maintenance solution. By ensuring maximum water content and minimum reduction of oxygen for the cornea, the specialist can help avoid clinical signs and symptoms related to low water content in the lenses.

  7. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of commercial Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. juice and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski


    Full Text Available The plant Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been the focus of many recent studies due to its potential effects on treatment and prevention of several diseases. However, there are few in vivo and in vitro studies concerning its composition and antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine the total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidant capacity of a juice commercialized as noni juice, but containing grape, blueberry and noni fruits. Commercial noni juice was compared against its separate constituents of blueberry and grape juice. Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH• methods were used to determine the concentration of total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, respectively. Commercial noni juice presented higher values of TPC (91.90 mg of gallic acid/100 mL juice and antioxidant activity (5.85 mmol/L compared to its 5% diluted constituents. Concentrated blueberry juice presented higher TPC and antioxidant activity than the other juices analyzed. Considering that the blueberry and grape juices account for only 10% in the composition of commercial noni juice, it can be inferred that these two components contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity. Therefore, additional studies are necessary in order to elucidate the contribution of the noni juice as an antioxidant.A planta Morinda citrifolia L. tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas decorrente de seus efeitos benéficos no tratamento e prevenção de muitas doenças. No entanto, são escassos os estudos in vivo e in vitro sobre os compostos presentes e sua capacidade de atuar como antioxidante. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o índice de polifenóis totais (IPT e a capacidade antioxidante do suco de noni comercial, constituído de uva, mirtilo e a fruta do noni. O suco de noni comercial foi comparado com seus constituintes (mirtilo e suco de uva separadamente. Os métodos Folin-Ciocalteu e DPPH• foram utilizados para determinar a concentração de polifen

  8. Comparison and Assessment of Three Advanced Land Surface Models in Simulating Terrestrial Water Storage Components over the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Youlong [I. M. Systems Group at NOAA/NCEP/Environmental Modeling Center, College Park, Maryland; Mocko, David [Hydrological Science Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Li, Bailing [Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland; Rodell, Matthew [Hydrological Science Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Mitchell, Kenneth E. [Prescient Weather Ltd., State College, Pennsylvania; Cai, Xitian [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; Ek, Michael B. [NOAA/NCEP/Environmental Modeling Center, College Park, Maryland


    In preparation for next generation North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), 3 three advanced land surface models (CLM4.0, Noah-MP, and CLSM-F2.5) were run from 1979 4 to 2014 within the NLDAS-based framework. Monthly total water storage anomaly (TWSA) and 5 its individual water storage components were evaluated against satellite-based and in situ 6 observations, and reference reanalysis products at basin-wide and statewide scales. In general, all 7 three models are able to reasonably capture the monthly and interannual variability and 8 magnitudes for TWSA. However, contributions of the anomalies of individual water 9 components to TWSA are very dependent on the model and basin. A major contributor to the 10 TWSA is the anomaly of total column soil moisture content (SMCA) for CLM4.0 and Noah-MP 11 or groundwater storage anomaly (GWSA) for CLSM-F2.5 although other components such as 12 the anomaly of snow water equivalent (SWEA) also play some role. For each individual water 13 storage component, the models are able to capture broad features such as monthly and 14 interannual variability. However, there are large inter-model differences and quantitative 15 uncertainties in this study. Therefore, it should be thought of as a preliminary synthesis and 16 analysis.

  9. [Comparison of conductivity-water content curve and visual methods for ascertaintation of the critical water content of O/W microemulsions formation]. (United States)

    Xiang, Da-wei; Tang, Tian-tian; Peng, Jin-fei; Li, Lan-lin; Sun, Xiao-bo; Xiang, Da-xiong


    This study is to screen 23 blank O/W type microemulsion (ME) samples, that is 15 samples from our laboratory, and 8 samples from literature; compare the conductivity-water content curve (CWCC) method and visual method in determining the critical water content during O/W type MEs' formation, to analyze the deficiency and the feasibility of visual method and to exploxe scientific meanings of CWCC method in judging the critical water content of O/W type MEs during formation. The results show that there is a significant difference between the theoretical feasible CWCC method and visual method in determining the critical water content (Pcontent. Therefore, this article firmly confirmed the shortcomings of visual method and suggested that the eye-base "critical water content" may falls into continuous ME stage during O/W MEs' formation. Further more, the CWCC method has theoretical feasibility and scientific meanings in determining the critical water content of O/W type MEs during formation.

  10. Using the right slope of the 970 nm absorption feature for estimating canopy water content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.; Schaepman, M.E.


    Canopy water content (CWC) is important for understanding the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Biogeochemical processes like photosynthesis, transpiration and net primary production are related to foliar water. The first derivative of the reflectance spectrum at wavelengths corresponding to

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopic study of a water-in-supercritical CO2 microemulsion as a function of the water content. (United States)

    Takebayashi, Yoshihiro; Sagisaka, Masanobu; Sue, Kiwamu; Yoda, Satoshi; Hakuta, Yukiya; Furuya, Takeshi


    A water-in-supercritical CO(2) microemulsion is a reverse micelle encapsulating a nanometer-size water droplet dispersed in supercritical CO(2). In the microemulsion solution, water exists not only in the reverse micelle but also in the solvent CO(2). For quantitative analysis of the water distribution, near-infrared spectra of water + CO(2) and water + surfactant + CO(2) mixtures were measured over a wide range of water/CO(2) ratios from 0.1 to 1.0 wt% at 60 °C and 30.0 MPa. The stretching combination band of water was decomposed into two components, a sharp one peaked at 7194 cm(-1) assigned to monomeric water dissolved in CO(2) and a broad one around 7000 cm(-1) corresponding to aggregated water in the microemulsion. Integrated molar absorptivities of these types of water were negligibly different from each other, despite the different hydrogen-bonding environments. The spectral decomposition revealed that water is distributed mainly into CO(2) at water contents smaller than 0.5 wt% and then is introduced into the microemulsion after saturation of water in CO(2) and full hydration of the surfactant headgroup. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia


    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran


    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  13. 76 FR 69292 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY... structures and components exposed to treated borated water and adding reduction of heat transfer due to... Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR- ISG-2011-01, ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and...

  14. Physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The water quality examination in Ife–North Local Government of Osun State Nigeria was conducted by determining the physico–chemical parameters of 40 samples. Surface water, bore holes, wells and pipe borne water samples were collected from major towns in the Local Government Area and analyzed. Results showed ...

  15. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  16. Running-induced patellofemoral pain fluctuates with changes in patella water content. (United States)

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Hu, Houchun H; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M


    Although increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint loading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP), there is little data to support this mechanism. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether running results in increases in patella water content and pain and whether 48 hours of rest reduces patella water content and pain to pre-running levels. Ten female runners with a diagnosis of PFP (mean age 25.1 years) participated. Patella water content was quantified using a chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to quantify subjects' pain levels. MRI and pain data were obtained prior to running, immediately following a 40-minute running session, and 48 hours post-running. Pain and patella water content were compared among the 3 time points using one-way ANOVA's with repeated measures. Immediately post-running, persons with PFP reported significant increases in pain and exhibited elevated patella water content. Pain and patella water content decreased to pre-running levels following 48 hours of rest. Our findings suggest that transient changes in patella water content associated with running may, in part, contribute to patellofemoral symptoms.

  17. [Spectral reflectance characteristics and modeling of typical Takyr Solonetzs water content]. (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-hua; Jia, Ke-li


    Based on the analysis of the spectral reflectance of the typical Takyr Solonetzs soil in Ningxia, the relationship of soil water content and spectral reflectance was determined, and a quantitative model for the prediction of soil water content was constructed. The results showed that soil spectral reflectance decreased with the increasing soil water content when it was below the water holding capacity but increased with the increasing soil water content when it was higher than the water holding capacity. Soil water content presented significantly negative correlation with original reflectance (r), smooth reflectance (R), logarithm of reflectance (IgR), and positive correlation with the reciprocal of R and logarithm of reciprocal [lg (1/R)]. The correlation coefficient of soil water content and R in the whole wavelength was 0.0013, 0.0397 higher than r and lgR, respectively. Average correlation coefficient of soil water content with 1/R and [lg (1/R)] at the wavelength of 950-1000 nm was 0.2350 higher than that of 400-950 nm. The relationships of soil water content with the first derivate differential (R') , the first derivate differential of logarithm (lgR)' and the first derivate differential of logarithm of reciprocal [lg(1/R)]' were unstable. Base on the coefficients of r, lg(1/R), R' and (lgR)', different regression models were established to predict soil water content, and the coefficients of determination were 0.7610, 0.8184, 0.8524 and 0.8255, respectively. The determination coefficient for power function model of R'. reached 0.9447, while the fitting degree between the predicted value based on this model and on-site measured value was 0.8279. The model of R' had the highest fitted accuracy, while that of r had the lowest one. The results could provide a scientific basis for soil water content prediction and field irrigation in the Takyr Solonetzs region.

  18. Water management as a key component of integrated weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zanin


    Full Text Available Water management within the cropping system is a key factor for an integrated weed management. Soil moisture affects seed persistence and seed dormancy, thus influencing their germination, the establishment of seedlings as well as the competition at adult stage and the number, vitality and dormancy of the new seeds produced by the weeds. The interactions among water availability and competition are very complex and still not fully understood. A research effort in this sector should the be very relevant for the development of new approaches of weed management, such as “Ecological weed management”, aiming to reduce weed density and competitiveness and, in the medium term, to prevent undesired modifications of the weed flora.

  19. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet


    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Andrienko


    The new method of water content calculation based on relative oil saturation measurement is proposed, new method doesn’t depend from laboratory tests of limit oil saturation. The analysis of the practical monitoring data is made. Recommendations on the organization of the continuous monitoring of the water content and the interpretation of its results are performed

  1. Lead Content of Well Water in Enugu South-East Nigeria | Ogbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the lead content of well water in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Method: Wells (101) were located using the multistage sampling procedure and samples were collected into clean plastic containers. Analysis was done using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Result: The means lead content of well water ...

  2. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content (United States)

    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil water content (SWC) variability within agricultural fields is useful to improve crop management. Spatial patterns of soil water contents can be characterized using the temporal stability analysis, however high density sampling is required. Soil apparent electrical c...

  3. Dynamic Measurement of Air Permeability as a Function of Water Content (United States)

    Crenshaw, A. D.; Tyner, J. S.


    Determining the air permeability of a soil column as a function of water content is typically a tedious task because each measurement of permeability requires a constant water content over space and time. Between each individual measurement of permeability, the water content of the sample must be modified and allowed to equilibrate. A dynamic air permeability test is proposed that measures airflow rate, water content, and air pressure, while continually modifying the water content. Dry air is pumped into the inlet of an initially wet soil column, which slowly dries the soil within approximately 24-48 hours. A computer controlled gamma ray attenuation system measures and logs the water content along the length of the soil column over time. Hypodermic needles are inserted into the soil column and connected to pressure transducers, which measure the air pressure at multiple locations over time. An electronic flow meter logs the airflow rate over time. These measurements enable direct calculation of air permeability as a function of water content. Due to the large number of air pressure and water content measurements along the length of the soil column, the air permeability functions of individual layers can be distinguished from the remainder of the soil core. Because all measurements are computer controlled and logged, the system is completely autonomous.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  5. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison*


    Chia, Kim-seng; Herlina ABDUL RAHIM; Ruzairi ABDUL RAHIM


    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive sol...

  6. [The new method monitoring crop water content based on NIR-Red spectrum feature space]. (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Yang, Gui-jun; Li, Zhen-hai


    Moisture content is an important index of crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring of crop water content is of great significance for evaluating crop water deficit balance and guiding agriculture irrigation. The present paper was trying to build a new crop water index for winter wheat vegetation water content based on NIR-Red spectral space. Firstly, canopy spectrums of winter wheat with narrow-band were resampled according to relative spectral response function of HJ-CCD and ZY-3. Then, a new index (PWI) was set up to estimate vegetation water content of winter wheat by improveing PDI (perpendicular drought index) and PVI (perpendicular vegetation index) based on NIR-Red spectral feature space. The results showed that the relationship between PWI and VWC (vegetation water content) was stable based on simulation of wide-band multispectral data HJ-CCD and ZY-3 with R2 being 0.684 and 0.683, respectively. And then VWC was estimated by using PWI with the R2 and RMSE being 0.764 and 0.764, 3.837% and 3.840%, respectively. The results indicated that PWI has certain feasibility to estimate crop water content. At the same time, it provides a new method for monitoring crop water content using remote sensing data HJ-CCD and ZY-3.

  7. Water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane for advanced fuel cell system with liquid water supply. (United States)

    Tsushima, Shohji; Teranishi, Kazuhiro; Nishida, Kousuke; Hirai, Shuichiro


    To better understand the operation of a new fuel cell design, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the water content distribution in a polymer electrolyte membrane under fuel cell operation with and without a supply of liquid water. The supply of liquid water to the membrane improved the cell performance by increasing the water content in the membrane and thus reducing the electrical resistance of the membrane. The study also showed that MRI is a promising method to investigate the distribution of water in the membrane of a fuel cell under operating conditions.

  8. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts


    Kopjar, Mirela; Piližota, Vlasta; Hribar, J.; Simčić, M.


    Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP) content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, re...

  9. Examination of water phase transitions in Loblolly pine and cell wall components by differential scanning calorimetry (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Michael J. Lambrecht; Samuel V. Glass; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Daniel J. Yelle


    This paper examines phase transformations of water in wood and isolated wood cell wall components using differential scanning calorimetry with the purpose of better understanding "Type II water" or "freezable bound water" that has been reported for cellulose and other hydrophilic polymers. Solid loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  10. Content of certain mineral components in the thallus of lichens and the bark of roadside trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Kuziel


    Full Text Available The total N, P, Mg, Ca, K and Na contents were investigated in the thalli of several lichen species occurring on various trees, and in the bark and bark extracts from these trees. pH of the bark extracts was also determined. Wide differences were found in the content of the elements in point in the thalli of various lichen species on Acer platanoides and on the thalli of the same species on other trees. No relation was detected between the chemical composition of the bark and that of the lichen thalli occurring on it.

  11. Spectroscopic determination of leaf water content using linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 2, 2012 ... Key words: Spectroscopy, crop water, linear regression, artificial neural network. ... performed to ease shortages of water resources and .... Modeling. Simple linear regression. Simple linear regression is the most basic modeling approach; because the modeling construction is simple and the model is.

  12. Water content and other aspects of brittle versus normal fingernails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stern, Dana Kazlow; Diamantis, Stephanie; Smith, Elizabeth; Wei, Huachen; Gordon, Marsha; Muigai, Wangui; Moshier, Erin; Lebwohl, Mark; Spuls, Phyllis


    BACKGROUND: Previous authors have claimed that dehydration of the nail plate causes brittle nails. Some experts claim that normal nails contain 18% water, and brittle nails contain less than 16%. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test the hypothesis that brittle nails contain 2% less water than normal nails.

  13. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar. (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K


    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  14. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... over capillary forces, has also been used to estimate the soil specific surface area (SA, m2 kg-1). In the present study, the dry part of the SWRC was measured by dewpoint potentiameter on 41 Danish soils covering a wide range of clay (CL, kg kg-1) and organic carbon content (OC, kg kg-1). It was found...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...

  15. Development of Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Classroom Teachers on the Numbers in Terms of Two Components (United States)

    Gokkurt Ozdemir, Burcin; Sahin, Omer; Basibuyuk, Kani; Erdem, Emrullah; Soylu, Yasin


    The aim of the study is to examine whether classroom teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) on numbers develops in the period from their university education to their active teaching profession. Cross-sectional comparative study method was used in this research in order to examine what kind of development classroom teachers? pedagogical…

  16. Quantitative radial imaging of porous particles beds with varying water contents. (United States)

    Hills, B P; Babonneau, F


    Radial imaging protocols suitable for monitoring water transport in biopolymer and food materials during processes such as drying and rehydration are developed and tested on a well-characterized model sample. This model consisted of a randomly packed bed of Sephadex beads with varying water content. The results are interpreted with theoretical models for the dependence of the initial water magnetization, transverse relaxation, and diffusive attenuation on water content for two slice-selective radial imaging pulse sequences. It is shown that volume shrinkage and changes in packing density complicate the dependence of the initial magnetization on water content, so that the transverse relaxation rate provides the most reliable monitor of water content. Radial imaging is shown to offer many advantages over conventional two-dimensional imaging whenever the sample can be made with cylindrical symmetry.

  17. Content of Fluorine in Drinking Water in FYR Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carcev M.


    Full Text Available From all the methods applied in preventing dental caries, the most significant is the use of fluorides. Nowadays, 6 decades after its massive use, it can certainly be argued that it is the most efficient, cheapest and safest way of preventing dental caries, confirmed by more than 150 longitudinal studies. In order to determine the presence of fluorides in drinking water, in coordination with the Institute for Public Health of the FYR Macedonia in 2009, we conducted a research for determining the presence of fluorides in drinking water from the public water supply in the country.

  18. [Sensory evaluation test: odor component analysis and endotoxin content of Krestin and Carbocrin (generic drug) to compare palatability]. (United States)

    Miura, Yasuhiko; Miura, Masaru; Komatsu, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Toshimichi; Togo, Shinji


    We conducted a sensory evaluation test to demonstrate the difference in palatability between Krestin and Carbocrin (generic drugs). In addition,we analyzed the odorous components and endotoxin contents of the two products to clarify the difference in physicochemical properties. In the sensory evaluation test, questions were asked on the odor, taste, feeling on the tongue, and overall evaluation, to find out which is easier to swallow. Krestin is significantly superior to Carbocrin, showing a clear difference in palatability between the two products. In odor component analysis, chemicals estimated to be n-heptane and 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one or its isomer (ketone containing 6-carbon double bonding) were detected. In addition, endotoxin content was also different between the two products. According to the above results, Carbocrin is definitely different from Krestin. Prior to administration, it is necessary to give this information to patients and obtain consent before use.

  19. The Mediterranean Water content in the Northeast Atlantic (United States)

    Nascimento, Angela; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Neves, Filipe


    Distribution of the Mediterranean Water (MW) in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic [20-50o N, 5-40o W] was studied using Optimum Multiparameter analysis (OMP) applied to the World Ocean Atlas ( and MEDTRANS climatologies ( The areas of influence of water masses in the study region were obtained from literature and from analysis of individual TS-diagrams. The analysis permitted to divide the water column between 500 to 2000 m into 5 vertical layers. The boundaries of the layers separated different expected sets of the dominant water masses; their depth varied across the study region. For the OMP we used the following water masses: the central fraction of the North Atlantic Central Water (H), the lower fraction of the North Atlantic Central Water (NACWl), the Mediterranean Water (MW), the Sub-Artic Intermediate Water (SAIW), the modified Antarctic Intermediate Water (AA), the Labrador Sea Water (LSW) and the upper fraction of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADWu). The characteristics of the water masses were obtained from Perez et al. (2001), Alvarez et al. (2004) and Barbero et al. (2010), taken at the places where the water masses entered the study region. For each of the layers and each of the grid-points OMP was applied for estimation of the percentage of the each of the water masses in the observed mixture. The analysis of sensitivity of the results to the definition of water mass proprieties showed that their percentages were derived within the average error of 10%. The percentages of water masses obtained in this study compared well with the previous OMP results at some individual sections across our region (Hinrichsen and Tomczak, 1993; Alvarez et al., 2004 and Barbero et al., 2010). In this work we specifically focused on distribution of the MW. The results showed that the MW reached its maximum of 50% at 1200 m depth in the Gulf of Cadiz. The percentage decreased to about 40% along the Iberian continental

  20. Variation in VIP latrine sludge contents | Bakare | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated variations in the characteristics of the sludge content from different ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines and variation in these characteristics at specific depths within each pit. Faecal sludge from 16 VIP latrines within the eThekwini Municipality was collected and laboratory characterisation including ...

  1. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...

  2. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel


    curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...... combined with the Kelvin equation (CS-K) produced better fits to dry-end SWRCs of soils dominated by 2:1 clays but provided poor fits for soils dominated by 1:1 clays. The shape parameter α of the Oswin model was dependent on clay mineral type, and approximate values of 0.29 and 0.57 were obtained...... for soils dominated by 2:1 and 1:1 clays, respectively. Comparison of the Oswin model combined with the Kelvin equation, with water potential estimated from θRH50 (Oswin-KRH50), CS model combined with the Arthur equation (CS-A), and CS-K model, with water potential obtained from θRH50 (CS-KRH50) indicated...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Souza


    Full Text Available AbstractWater-in-oil (W/O emulsions are complex mixtures generally found in crude oil production in reservoirs and processing equipment. Sedimentation studies of water-oil emulsions enable the analysis of the fluid dynamic behavior concerning separation of this system composed of two immiscible liquids. Gravitational settling was evaluated in this article for a model emulsion system consisting of water and a Brazilian crude oil diluted in a clear mineral oil as organic phase. The effects of water content and temperature were considered in the study of sedimentation velocity of water-oil emulsions. Water contents between 10% and 50 % and temperatures of 25, 40 and 60 ºC were evaluated, and a Richardson-Zaki type correlation was obtained to calculate settling velocities as a function of the process variables investigated. Water contents and average droplet sizes were monitored at different levels in the settling equipment, thus enabling identification of the effect of these variables on the phenomena of sedimentation and coalescence of the emulsions studied. The results showed that the emulsion stability during sedimentation was governed by the emulsion water content, which yielded high settling velocities at low water contents, even when very small droplets were present. A quantitative analysis of the combined effects of drop size and droplet concentration supports the conclusion that a stronger effect is produced by the higher concentration of particles, compared with the relatively smaller effect of increasing the size of the droplets.

  4. Relations between basic milk components and free fatty acid content in Holstein cow milk as lipolysis parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in detail the relationship between the basic milk components (fat and protein percentage and the free fatty acids (FFA content, as indicators of spontaneous and/or induced lipolysis. The additional aim of the study was to compare the FFA content of milk with respect to spontaneous and induced lipolysis. Milking was carried out in herringbone parlour twice a day. In total, 540 milk samples were obtained for evaluation of spontaneous (n=240 and induced lipolysis (n=300. The milk samples for determination of basic milk components and FFA (li¬polysis levels were collected during four subsequent lactation weeks. Milk samples for spontaneous lipolysis detection were taken directly in parlour immediately after milking using the ICAR methodology and subsequently grouped. Induced lipolysis was observed from bulk milk in time 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after milking (T0-T4. The evaluation of basic components and FFA content was carried on MILKOSCAN F120 (Foss Electronic; Denmark. Statistical evaluation was carried out using SAS 9.3. (SAS/STAT® 9.3, 2011. An increase of one percentage of milk fat was equal to 0.318 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA decline (spontaneous lipolysis or from 0.232 to 0.370 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA decline (induced lipolysis T0-T4 respectively. One percentage increase of milk protein was equal to 1.219 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA increase (spontaneous lipolysis or 0.421 to 1.531 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA decrease (induced lipolysis T0 - T4 respectively. Significant differences (P<0.01 were detected among FFA content in relation to spontaneous and induced lipolysis evaluated during storage and cooling after milking. The minimal differences were detected between the FFA content during 4 hours cooling and storage of milk in the tank.

  5. Glacial melt content of water use in the tropical Andes (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Moulds, Simon; Acosta, Luis; De Bièvre, Bert; Olmos, Carlos; Villacis, Marcos; Tovar, Carolina; Verbist, Koen M. J.


    Accelerated melting of glaciers is expected to have a negative effect on the water resources of mountain regions and their adjacent lowlands, with tropical mountain regions being among the most vulnerable. In order to quantify those impacts, it is necessary to understand the changing dynamics of glacial melting, but also to map how glacial meltwater contributes to current and future water use, which often occurs at considerable distance downstream of the terminus of the glacier. While the dynamics of tropical glacial melt are increasingly well understood and documented, major uncertainty remains on how the contribution of tropical glacial meltwater propagates through the hydrological system, and hence how it contributes to various types of human water use in downstream regions. Therefore, in this paper we present a detailed regional mapping of current water demand in regions downstream of the major tropical glaciers. We combine these maps with a regional water balance model to determine the dominant spatiotemporal patterns of the contribution of glacial meltwater to human water use at an unprecedented scale and resolution. We find that the number of users relying continuously on water resources with a high (>25%) long-term average contribution from glacial melt is low (391 000 domestic users, 398 km2 of irrigated land, and 11 MW of hydropower production), but this reliance increases sharply during drought conditions (up to 3.92 million domestic users, 2096 km2 of irrigated land, and 732 MW of hydropower production in the driest month of a drought year). A large proportion of domestic and agricultural users are located in rural regions where climate adaptation capacity tends to be low. Therefore, we suggest that adaptation strategies should focus on increasing the natural and artificial water storage and regulation capacity to bridge dry periods.

  6. System Regulates the Water Contents of Fuel-Cell Streams (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo; Lazaroff, Scott


    An assembly of devices provides for both humidification of the reactant gas streams of a fuel cell and removal of the product water (the water generated by operation of the fuel cell). The assembly includes externally-sensing forward-pressure regulators that supply reactant gases (fuel and oxygen) at variable pressures to ejector reactant pumps. The ejector supply pressures depend on the consumption flows. The ejectors develop differential pressures approximately proportional to the consumption flow rates at constant system pressure and with constant flow restriction between the mixer-outlet and suction ports of the ejectors. For removal of product water from the circulating oxygen stream, the assembly includes a water/gas separator that contains hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes. The water separator imposes an approximately constant flow restriction, regardless of the quality of the two-phase flow that enters it from the fuel cell. The gas leaving the water separator is nearly 100 percent humid. This gas is returned to the inlet of the fuel cell along with a quantity of dry incoming oxygen, via the oxygen ejector, thereby providing some humidification.

  7. Sociocultural Component in the Content of Teaching Foreign Languages to Pre-school Children


    Harrer, I.A. Cheremisina; Kachalov, N.A.; Borodin, A. A.; Kachalova, O. I.


    The paper is aimed at studying efficiency of learning languages by pre-school children. Different types of memory that are at high level of its development at this age promote children's abilities to acquire languages. Also psychologically, pre-school children are fit to develop speech and communication skills by using adequate materials and tasks. A set of criteria are evaluated to introduce socio-cultural content for promoting effective language learning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková


    Full Text Available In this paper, the results obtained by bread products analysis made with the addition of oats and lentils, which increased its nutrition value are presented. Breads were prepared with addition of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 % which were analyzed for Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd content. Prepared products were evaluated also from viewpoint of their technological and nutritional value. Use of oat in bread increased with the addition of a quantity of 50 % content of nutritionally significant elements such as Fe (3.2 times, Mn (3.13 times, Zn (2.23 times, Cu (2.01 times and Cr (1.2 times. The addition of lentils increased particularly Cu content (3.55 times, Zn (2.96 times and Mn (1.29 times. None of the samples showed exceeded maximum limit (1.0 for lead. Based on the analysis results it was confirmed, that the most problematic element in our soils and subsequently in the foodstuffs is cadmium. Exceeded values (-1 were detected in 8 samples from 11, in finished products the values were within the limits ranging from 0.090 Cd to 0.180 Cd.doi:10.5219/42

  9. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.


    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  10. [Aluminum content in individual components, used to prepare adult total parenteral nutrition mixtures in Argentine, and in comparison with international regulation]. (United States)

    Menéndez, A M; Farías, S S; Servant, R; Morisio, Y; Misischia, Y; Simón, S; Weisstaub, A R; Martín de Portela, M L Pita


    Aluminum (Al) is a toxic element which may contaminate pharmaceutical products used as individual components to prepare total parenteral nutrition mixtures (TPN). 1) to determine Al levels in the individual components used to prepare TPN mixtures; 2) to compare detected Al levels with those imposed by international regulations (FDA); 3) to calculate the total amount of Al administered to adult and children receiving those typical TPN mixtures. Al was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) (Perkin Elmer OPTIMA 5100 DV) in 44 individual products, from different labs and lots, belonging to 16 components available in Argentina: dextrose and amino acids for adult formulas and for pediatric formulas: lípids; potassium chloride; sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate; sodium phosphate; calcium gluconate; sodium glycerophosphate, zinc sulfate; multitrace elements; steril water (ampoules and great volume presentations). Al levels were detected in 43 of the 44 the studied components, except sterile water. The components of large volume presented between 249 y 1,580 μg Al/ L, between 4 and 180 times FDA established levels (25 μg Al/ L). Small volume components presented Al levels between 85 y 4,909 g/ L, not declared in labels. The highest amounts of Al were detected in calcium gluconate, sodium phosphate and multitrace elements. 2) Usually prescribed TPN mixtures would have higher Al levels than those accepted by FDA regulation; 3) The highest aluminum concentration was provided by dextrose, amino acids and lipids in adult TPN mixtures. In neonate TPN mixtures, Al highest amounts were provided by dextrose and calcium gluconate. The calculated concentration of Al in TPN mixtures was higher than those stipulated by international regulation (5 μg Al/kg (body weight)/ d). It would be advisable for manufacturers to declare the content of aluminum in the label, with the aim of avoiding toxicities which would compromise the critical

  11. MR-based water content estimation in cartilage: design and validation of a method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Kristiansen, Maja Sophie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    cartilage samples from living animals (pig) and on 8 gelatin samples which water content was already known. For the data analysis a T1 intensity signal map software analyzer used. Finally, the method was validated after measuring and comparing 3 more cartilage samples in a living animal (pig). The obtained...... data was analyzed and the water content calculated. Then, the same samples were freeze-dried (this technique allows to take out all the water that a tissue contains) and we measured the water they contained. Results:The 37 Celsius degree system and the analysis can be reproduced in a similar way. MR T1...... map based water content sequences can provide information that, after being analyzed using a T1-map analysis software, can be interpreted as the water contained inside a cartilage tissue. The amount of water estimated using this method was similar to the one obtained at the dry-freeze procedure...

  12. The Effect of Water Content of Medium Containing Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae on Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti


    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocrealeswould effectively infect the target host on the appropriate medium water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of water content of medium on the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae in the laboratory. Fifty healthy third instar larvae of O. rhinoceros were  obtained from field. The M. anisopliae obtained from Estate Crop Protection Board in Salatiga. The conidia density and viability of M. anisopliae were examined before used. The medium for maintaining the larva was the sawdust that had been sterilized. A total of 50 plastic cups were prepared to place 50 larvae (1 larva/cup. Each cup was filled with 100 g medium  of sawdust plus 2 g of M. anisopliae which was then stirred until mixed, with different water content: P1 (20%, P2 (40%, P3 (60%, P4 (80% and P5 (98%. The result indicated that  the water content of the medium affected the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae. The water content influenced the duration of larval mortality at each treatment. An important finding in this study is that controlling O. rhineceros larvae  with M. anisopliae can be done by manipulating the water content of medium. The benefit of this study may be used for the recommendation of O. rhinoceros pest control using M. anisopliae  with an effective water media content.

  13. The Effect of Preservative Methods on the Yield, Water Content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water content (water activity) of the treatments in relation to storage life of the dairy products was determined. All samples were smoke-dried for five hours and each was equilibrated to water activities of 0.11, 0.33 and 0.75 for two weeks undisturbed. A control experiment was also prepared. Analysis of variance was ...

  14. Remote sensing of atmospheric water content from Bhaskara SAMIR data. [using statistical linear regression analysis (United States)

    Gohil, B. S.; Hariharan, T. A.; Sharma, A. K.; Pandey, P. C.


    The 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz passive microwave radiometers (SAMIR) on board the Indian satellite Bhaskara have provided very useful data. From these data has been demonstrated the feasibility of deriving atmospheric and ocean surface parameters such as water vapor content, liquid water content, rainfall rate and ocean surface winds. Different approaches have been tried for deriving the atmospheric water content. The statistical and empirical methods have been used by others for the analysis of the Nimbus data. A simulation technique has been attempted for the first time for 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz radiometer data. The results obtained from three different methods are compared with radiosonde data. A case study of a tropical depression has been undertaken to demonstrate the capability of Bhaskara SAMIR data to show the variation of total water vapor and liquid water contents.

  15. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. (United States)

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W


    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p water content of hydrogel lenses. However, with our sample of lenses, examiners tended to overestimate the nominal water content of hydrogel lenses. As discussed, this bias may be associated with the Brix scale used in refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  16. A New Method for Sensing Soil Water Content in Green Roofs Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia F. Tapia


    Full Text Available Green roofs have many benefits, but in countries with semiarid climates the amount of water needed for irrigation is a limiting factor for their maintenance. The use of drought-tolerant plants such as Sedum species, reduces the water requirements in the dry season, but, even so, in semiarid environments these can reach up to 60 L m−2 per day. Continuous substrate/soil water content monitoring would facilitate the efficient use of this critical resource. In this context, the use of plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs emerges as a suitable and more sustainable alternative for monitoring water content in green roofs in semiarid climates. In this study, bench and pilot-scale experiments using seven Sedum species showed a positive relationship between current generation and water content in the substrate. PMFC reactors with higher water content (around 27% vs. 17.5% v/v showed larger power density (114.6 and 82.3 μW m−2 vs. 32.5 μW m−2. Moreover, a correlation coefficient of 0.95 (±0.01 between current density and water content was observed. The results of this research represent the first effort of using PMFCs as low-cost water content biosensors for green roofs.

  17. A New Method for Sensing Soil Water Content in Green Roofs Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cells. (United States)

    Tapia, Natalia F; Rojas, Claudia; Bonilla, Carlos A; Vargas, Ignacio T


    Green roofs have many benefits, but in countries with semiarid climates the amount of water needed for irrigation is a limiting factor for their maintenance. The use of drought-tolerant plants such as Sedum species, reduces the water requirements in the dry season, but, even so, in semiarid environments these can reach up to 60 L m-2 per day. Continuous substrate/soil water content monitoring would facilitate the efficient use of this critical resource. In this context, the use of plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) emerges as a suitable and more sustainable alternative for monitoring water content in green roofs in semiarid climates. In this study, bench and pilot-scale experiments using seven Sedum species showed a positive relationship between current generation and water content in the substrate. PMFC reactors with higher water content (around 27% vs. 17.5% v/v) showed larger power density (114.6 and 82.3 μW m-2 vs. 32.5 μW m-2). Moreover, a correlation coefficient of 0.95 (±0.01) between current density and water content was observed. The results of this research represent the first effort of using PMFCs as low-cost water content biosensors for green roofs.

  18. Arsenic content in ground and canal waters of Punjab, North-West India. (United States)

    Hundal, H S; Singh, Kuldip; Singh, Dhanwinder


    Groundwater is the primary source of drinking water for more than 95% of the population in Punjab. The world health organization and US Environment Protection Agency recently established a new maximum contaminant level of 10 ppb for arsenic in drinking water. The arsenic concentration of deep water tube wells located in Amritsar city used for domestic supply for urban population ranged from 3.8 to 19.1 ppb with mean value of 9.8 ppb. Arsenic content in hand pump water varied from 9 to 85 ppb with a mean value of 29.5 ppb. According to the safe limit of As, 54% and 97%, water samples collected from deep water tube wells and hand pumps, respectively, were not fit for human consumption. Arsenic content in canal water varied from 0.3 to 8.8 ppb with a mean value of 2.89 ppb. Canal water has got higher oxidation potential followed by deep tube well and hand pump water. The present study suggests the regular monitoring of arsenic content in deep tube well and shallow hand pump waters by water testing laboratories. The consumption of water having elevated concentration of As above the safe limit must be discouraged. In south-western districts of Punjab, it recommends the use of canal water for drinking purposes and domestic use by rural and urban populations than ground water sources.

  19. Total water content in different areas of the human term placenta. (United States)

    Sala, M A; Jacomo, K H; Benedetti, W L; Alvarez, H


    The authors study the total water content in two different areas (parabasal and subchorial), in 40 normal, full-term placentas. The water content is found to be different in these two areas. As an average, it is 0.90% higher in the parabasal area. This difference persists even after washing off the fetal placental blood by perfusión with saline. The difference in the total water content between both areas, which is added to other differences previously demonstrated, must be related to a different functional role of the placental areas.

  20. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 18, 2008 ... and plant growth under drought and salinity stress of field condition have difficulties. Therefore, NaCl and polyethy- lene glycol (PEG) compounds have been used to simulate osmotic stress effects in Petri dishes to maintain uniform water potential throughout the experimental period for plants (Kulkarni and ...

  1. Hydrogen production from high moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Xu, X. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.


    By mixing wood sawdust with a corn starch gel, a viscous paste can be produced that is easily delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Mixtures of about 10 wt% wood sawdust with 3.65 wt% starch are employed in this work, which the authors estimate to cost about $0.043 per lb. Significant reductions in feed cost can be achieved by increasing the wood sawdust loading, but such an increase may require a more complex pump. When this feed is rapidly heated in a tubular flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22 MPa), the sawdust paste vaporizes without the formation of char. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at about 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. The temperature and history of the reactor`s wall influence the hydrogen-methane product equilibrium by catalyzing the methane steam reforming reaction. The water effluent from the reactor is clean. Other biomass feedstocks, such as the waste product of biodiesel production, behave similarly. Unfortunately, sewage sludge does not evidence favorable gasification characteristics and is not a promising feedstock for supercritical water gasification.

  2. Effect of water deficit stress on proline contents, soluble sugars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present work was to determine the mechanisms of tolerance of four sunflower hybrids; H1 = Azargol, H2 = Alstar, H3 = Hysun 33 and H4 = Hysun 25 to water stress under three different levels of irrigation regimes; WD1 = irrigation after 50 mm (normal irrigation), WD2 = 100 mm (mild stress) and WD3 ...

  3. Analysis of electrical property changes of skin by oil-in-water emulsion components. (United States)

    Jeong, C B; Han, J Y; Cho, J C; Suh, K D; Nam, G W


    As the 'Dry Skin Cycle' produces continuous deterioration, cosmetic xerosis (flaky, dry skin) is one of the major concerns to most consumers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisturizing effect of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion components. There are numerous types of oils, waxes, polyols and surfactants used as ingredients in skincare products. However, the moisturizing effect of each ingredient and understanding each use to make an effective moisturizing products are still not well understood. To provide answers to these questions, we investigated the moisturizing effect of widely used 41 components (four different classes) in a simple O/W emulsion using capacitance methods. 106 different single oils, and combinations of oil with oil, wax, humectants, and surfactant were formulated and tested. In this study, we found that most of the O/W emulsion components had hydration effects on the skin. (i) The average relative water content increase (RWCI) rate of a single oil-based emulsion was 11.8 ± 5.2% (SE) and 7.9 ± 6.0% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. (ii) An oil combination emulsion showed an average RWCI rate similar to that of a single oil-based emulsion, 12.6 ± 6.0% (SE) and 12.1 ± 6.4% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively (iii) A combination of waxes with oil showed an average RWCI rate of 16 ± 5.6% (SE) and 12.4 ± 4.5% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. (iv) Humectant combinations showed the highest average RWCI rate 28 ± 7.3% (SE) and 22.2 ± 7.5% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively (v) Surfactant combinations had an average RWCI of 10.8 ± 4.5% (SE) and 6.0 ± 4.0% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. Interestingly, it was difficult to find moisturizing power differences among samples in the same group. Only the humectants group showed significant differences among samples. Glycerine and urea showed significant skin hydration effects compared with other humectants. We also found a significant moisturizing effect by analysing the

  4. 77 FR 23513 - Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water... Management Criteria for PWR Reactor Vessel Internal Components.'' The original notice provided the ADAMS... published a notice requesting public comments on draft LR-ISG-2011-04, ``Updated Aging Management Criteria...

  5. Sociological Evaluation of Neighbour Countries’ Images as Perceived by Russian Students: Methodological and Content Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut


    Full Text Available The article identifies the methodological peculiarities and the results of the Sociology laboratory (PFUR “measurement” of stable stereotypes in the mass youth consciousness regarding those neighbor countries which are the closest to our country in the geopolitical context. Understanding and recognizing the arbitrariness and schematic nature of the applied instruments and the resulting content constructions, the authors, nevertheless, believe that the suggested “measurement” model may become a perfect basis in developing and implementing projects on a larger scale in terms of the questionnaire volume and sample stratification structure, the projects being aimed at the study of social representations and image-country comparisons, including other socio-cultural contexts.

  6. A new method for measuring unfrozen water content of frozen soil based on soil resistivity (United States)

    Tang, Liyun; Yang, Gengshe; Xi, Jiami; Jia, Hailiang; Qiu, Peiyong; Wang, Ke


    In the field of permafrost engineering, in order to determine the unfrozen water content of frozen soil in a more economical and quick way, a resistivity-based method is proposed to predict the unfrozen water content by building the relationship of resistivity (ρ), water content (θ) and temperature (T) through laboratory experiments. In the experiments, advanced Mile soil sample boxes are used to shape groups of soil samples with an initial water content of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% separately. The experiment is composed of two parts. In the first part, oven drying method is used to dry the soil sample until the water content is less than 1%, and the resistivity of samples is continuously measured for each decrease of 0.5g water in soil samples; the relationship between water content (ρ) and resistivity (θ) at normal temperatures is established and expressed as a ρ-θ mode, which accords with power function. In the second part, the freezing method is used to freeze soil samples. When soil samples' temperature decreases from 0°C to -25°C, the resistivity of samples is continuously measured for each decrease of 0.1°C; the relationship between resistivity (ρ) and temperature (T) at minus degrees is established and expressed as a ρ-T mode, which accords with power function. The ρ-θ model at normal temperature is introduced to indirectly reflect the ρ-θu model at negative degree of temperature, which has been verified through a series of experiments with the NMR method. Combined with the ρ-T mode at minus degree of temperature, the relationship between unfrozen water content and temperature is deduced and established as θu-T model. By contrastive analysis, the accuracy to measure unfrozen water content with the resistivity-based method is validated by the NMR method, which is used to obtain the relationship between the unfrozen water contents and temperature. Based on the research results, the surface model related to resistivity, temperature and

  7. Risk of false decision on conformity of a multicomponent material when test results of the components' content are correlated. (United States)

    Kuselman, Ilya; Pennecchi, Francesca R; da Silva, Ricardo J N B; Hibbert, D Brynn


    The probability of a false decision on conformity of a multicomponent material due to measurement uncertainty is discussed when test results are correlated. Specification limits of the components' content of such a material generate a multivariate specification interval/domain. When true values of components' content and corresponding test results are modelled by multivariate distributions (e.g. by multivariate normal distributions), a total global risk of a false decision on the material conformity can be evaluated based on calculation of integrals of their joint probability density function. No transformation of the raw data is required for that. A total specific risk can be evaluated as the joint posterior cumulative function of true values of a specific batch or lot lying outside the multivariate specification domain, when the vector of test results, obtained for the lot, is inside this domain. It was shown, using a case study of four components under control in a drug, that the correlation influence on the risk value is not easily predictable. To assess this influence, the evaluated total risk values were compared with those calculated for independent test results and also with those assuming much stronger correlation than that observed. While the observed statistically significant correlation did not lead to a visible difference in the total risk values in comparison to the independent test results, the stronger correlation among the variables caused either the total risk decreasing or its increasing, depending on the actual values of the test results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková


    Full Text Available The liquid organic fraction of pyrolytic tar has a high energy value which makes possible its utilization as an energy source. However, before utilization, it is crucial to remove water from the liquid fraction. The presence of water reduces the energy value of pyrolytic tars. Water separation from the organic tar fraction is a complex process, since an emulsion can be readily formed. Therefore, after phase separation, it is important to know the residual water content in the organic phase and whether it is necessary to further dry it. The results presented in this manuscript focus on a water determination in liquid products from coal and biomass pyrolysis by a coulometric Karl‑Fischer titration. The Coulometric Karl‑Fischer titration is often used for a water content determination in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. However, to date, this titration method has not been used for a water determination in tars. A new water determination method, which has been tested on different types of tar, has been developed. The Coulometric Karl‑Fischer titration is suitable for tar samples with a water content not greater than 5 wt. %. The obtained experimental results indicate that the new introduced method can be used with a very good repeatability for a water content determination in tars.

  9. Dynamics of leaf water relations components in co-occurring iso- and anisohydric conifer species (United States)

    Frederick Meinzer; David Woodruff; Danielle Marias; Katherine McCulloh; Sanna Sevanto


    Because iso- and anisohydric species differ in stomatal regulation of the rate and magnitude of fluctuations in shoot water potential, they may be expected to show differences in the plasticity of their shoot water relations components, but explicit comparisons of this nature have rarely been made. We subjected excised shoots of co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus...

  10. Origin of the water content of Europa : Evidence for pebble accretion ? (United States)

    Ronnet, T.; Mousis, O.; Vernazza, P.


    Despite the fact that the observed gradient in water content among the Galilean satellites is globally consistent with a formation in a circum-Jovian disk on both sides of the snowline, the mechanisms that led to a low water mass fraction in Europa (˜8%) are not yet understood. Here we show that the water mass fraction of pebbles, as they drift inward, is globally consistent with the current water content of the Galilean system. This opens the possibility that each satellite could have formed through pebble accretion within a delimited region whose boundaries were defined by the position of the snowline.

  11. Laser-light backscattering response to water content and proteolysis in dry-cured ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulladosa, E.; Rubio-Celorio, M.; Skytte, Jacob Lercke


    of laser incidence) and to analyse the laser-light backscattering changes caused by additional hot air drying and proteolysis of dry-cured ham slices. The feasibility of the technology to determine water content and proteolysis (which is related to textural characteristics) of commercial sliced dry...... was only detected when the water content was decreased (618 mm(2) per 1% weight loss). Changes on scattering of light profiles were only observed when the water content changed. Although there is a good correlation between water content and LBI parameters when analysing commercial samples, proteolysis...... index has an important effect on the response. This fact hinder estimation of dry-cured ham composition and textural characteristics of dry-cured ham. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. LBA-ECO ND-02 Soil Volumetric Water Content, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports monthly measured soil volumetric water content (VWC) from a rainfall exclusion experiment that was conducted from 1999-2001 at the km 67 Seca...

  13. LBA-ECO ND-02 Soil Gas and Water Content, Rainfall Exclusion, Tapajos National Forest (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations and soil volumetric water content (VWC) from a rainfall exclusion...

  14. Determining water content in human nails with a portable near-infrared spectrometer. (United States)

    Egawa, Mariko; Fukuhara, Tadao; Takahashi, Motoji; Ozaki, Yukihiro


    The water content of human nail plates was determined using a portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer with an InGaAs photodiode array detector. NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra were collected from 108 cut nail plates with different relative humidity and in vivo from fingernails. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression was applied to the NIR spectra in the 1115-1645 nm region to develop calibration models that determine the water content in the cut nail plates and fingernails. A good correlation was obtained between the NIR spectra and the water content measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the NIR measurement of both cut nail plates and fingernails. The results indicate that the water content in the nails can be determined very rapidly (1 s) by means of the portable NIR spectrometer and PLS regression.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nevzorov probe is an instrument that measures the total water content of the sample of air which passes through it. It flew on the NASA DC-8 during the CAMEX-4...

  16. LBA-ECO ND-02 Soil Gas and Water Content, Rainfall Exclusion, Tapajos National Forest (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations and soil volumetric water content (VWC) from a rainfall exclusion experiment...

  17. Fluoride content of still bottled waters available in the North-East of England, UK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zohouri, F V; Moynihan, P J; Maguire, A


    .... All samples were still spring, mineral or distilled waters, sold in plastic bottles. The fluoride content of all samples was determined, in duplicate, using a Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode. The mean (+/- SD...

  18. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva


    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the water content and transport in rat lenses. (United States)

    Dobretsov, Egor A; Snytnikova, Olga A; Koptyug, Igor V; Kaptein, Robert; Tsentalovich, Yuri P


    NMR micro-imaging technique has been used for the measurement of the water content distribution in lenses of senescence-accelerated OXYS rats and age-matched Wistar rats, as well as for the study of water and phosphate transport in rat lenses. The water content in the lens cortex is significantly higher than in the nucleus; the spatial gradient of the water content becomes steeper with age. No difference in the water content distribution has been found between Wistar and OXYS rat lenses of matching ages, although cataract onset in the OXYS rat lens occurs much earlier due to the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species associated with oxidative stress. This finding implies that cataract development does not lead to significant changes in water content distribution inside the lens. The water transport in rat lenses slows down with age, and in OXYS lenses it is somewhat faster than in lenses of Wistar rats, probably due to the compensatory response to oxidative stress. The application of (31)P MRI for the monitoring of phosphate penetration into a lens has been performed for the first time. It is found that phosphate transport in a lens is significantly slower than that of water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:; Veloso, Marcia C. da Cunha [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)); Santos, Gislaine Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia


    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 {+-} 5.7% and 63.3 {+-} 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 {+-} 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  1. Determining the virgin compression lines of reconstituted clays at different initial water contents


    ZENG, Ling-Ling; HONG, Zhenshun; CUI, Yu-Jun


    Forty-eight consolidometer tests were performed on various natural clays and a kaolinite clay reconstituted in the laboratory at different initial water contents using a modified consolidometer apparatus. These data together with those published previously allow a multi-regression analysis for the development of an approach for determining the intrinsic compression parameters that depend on initial water content and liquid limit. The approach proposed by Burland can be thereby extended to pro...

  2. A microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for the detection of toxic components in water


    Stein, N.E.


    In a microbial fuel cell bacteria produce electricity. When water with a constant quality is lead passed the bacteria, a constant current will be measured. When toxic components enter the cell with the water, the bacteria are affected and this will show as a decrease in current. In this way a microbial fuel cell can act as a sensor for toxic components in water. The research focused on the control of the sensor to reach a sensitive sensor. This was done by controlling the potential of the ano...

  3. The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša S.


    Full Text Available The quality of some medicinal plants and their water extracts from South East Serbia is determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. The two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts, to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in them. Content of investigated metals in both water extracts is markedly lower then in medicinal plants, but were higher in water extract prepared by method (I, with exception of lead content. The coefficients of extraction for the observed metal can be represented in the following order: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. Correlation coefficients between the metal concentration in the extract and total metal content in plant material vary in the range from 0.6369 to 0.9956. This indicates need the plants to be collected and grown in the unpolluted area and to examine the metal content. The content of heavy metals in the investigated medicinal plants and their water extracts is below the maximum allowable values, so they are safe to use.

  4. Component-resolved evaluation of the content of major allergens in therapeutic extracts for specific immunotherapy of honeybee venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Etzold, Stefanie; Darsow, Ulf


    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of honeybee venom (HBV) allergy, which is able to protect against further anaphylactic sting reactions. Recent analyses on a molecular level have demonstrated that HBV represents a complex allergen source that contains more relevant...... major allergens than formerly anticipated. Moreover, allergic patients show very diverse sensitization profiles with the different allergens. HBV-specific immunotherapy is conducted with HBV extracts which are derived from pure venom. The allergen content of these therapeutic extracts might differ due...... to natural variations of the source material or different down-stream processing strategies of the manufacturers. Since variations of the allergen content of therapeutic HBV extracts might be associated with therapeutic failure, we adressed the component-resolved allergen composition of different therapeutic...

  5. [Differential approach to spring water choice regarding fluoride content for caries prevention]. (United States)

    Makeeva, I M; Protsenko, A S; Svistunova, E G


    The research includes an investigation of the tap water in different districts of Moscow. It was found out that Moscow tap water contains little fluoride, the difference between districts and okrugs is of no consequence. There is no centralized water fluoridization in Moscow therefore the authors suggest using bottled potable water with sufficient fluoride level. The fluoride concentration in one hundred of the most popular and wide-spread bottled potable water labels was examined. High in fluoride and low in fluoride labels were identified as well as the labels with the optimal fluoride content. Some practical guidelines for selection of bottled potable water depending on the quantity of liquid consummation were elaborated.

  6. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per


    (θ) is based on measurement of WR on air-dry soil and three additional model parameters: the water contents at which the maximum WR (highest α) occurs and where WR ceases (α = 90 degrees), and the maximum α value. The MED data for three data sets from literature comprising WR measurements across moisture......Soil-water content (θ) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with θ, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive...... WR(θ) models is still lacking. In this study, a simple empirical beta function was suggested to describe the effect of changing soil-water content on the change of WR given as apparent contact angle (α) measured by the molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) method. The beta function for predicting α...

  7. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Nitrogen Content for Spatially Explicit Carbon and Water Cycle Estimation (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, J. R.; Chen, J. M.


    Foliage nitrogen concentration is a determinant of photosynthetic capacity of leaves, thereby an important input to ecological models for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. Recently, spectrally continuous airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has proven to be useful for retrieving an important related parameter, total chlorophyll content at both leaf and canopy scales. Thus remote sensing of vegetation biochemical parameters has promising potential for improving the prediction of global carbon and water balance patterns. In this research, we explored the feasibility of estimating leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral remote sensing data for spatially explicit estimation of carbon and water budgets. Multi-year measurements of leaf biochemical contents of seven major boreal forest species were carried out in northeastern Ontario, Canada. The variation of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content in response to various growth conditions, and the relationship between them,were investigated. Despite differences in plant type (deciduous and evergreen), leaf age, stand growth conditions and developmental stages, leaf nitrogen content was strongly correlated with leaf chlorophyll content on a mass basis during the active growing season (r2=0.78). With this general correlation, leaf nitrogen content was estimated from leaf chlorophyll content at an accuracy of RMSE=2.2 mg/g, equivalent to 20.5% of the average measured leaf nitrogen content. Based on this correlation and a hyperspectral remote sensing algorithm for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval, the spatial variation of leaf nitrogen content was inferred from the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery acquired by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). A process-based ecological model Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. In contrast to the scenario with leaf nitrogen content assigned as a constant value without

  8. Monitoring of Water Content in Building Materials Using a Wireless Passive Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stojanović


    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative design of a wireless, passive LC sensor and its application for monitoring of water content in building materials. The sensor was embedded in test material samples so that the internal water content of the samples could be measured with an antenna by tracking the changes in the sensor’s resonant frequency. Since the dielectric constant of water was much higher compared with that of the test samples, the presence of water in the samples increased the capacitance of the LC circuit, thus decreasing the sensor’s resonant frequency. The sensor is made up of a printed circuit board in one metal layer and water content has been determined for clay brick and autoclaved aerated concrete block, both widely used construction materials. Measurements were conducted at room temperature using a HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer instrument.

  9. Determination of Water Content in THF Based on Chemical Shift Differences in Solution NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Kyung; Park, Hey Rhee; Lee, Yunhee; Choi, Myung Gil; Chang, Suk-Kyu; Ahn, Sangdoo [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, H NMR chemical shift differences were used as a probe for water content in organic solvents. Changes in chemical shift differences reflecting the competition for hydrogen bondings between fluoride ions and water were linearly proportional to water content within certain ranges. Comparison between the results obtained using the developed sensor and Karl Fischer showed that this method could be useful to understand water sensing mechanisms of dye and that the probes were sensitive to water content in organic solvents. NMR spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and versatile analytical techniques for the analysis of molecular structures and properties. Chemical shifts can be regarded as the most important information that can be obtained from NMR in regard to molecular structures. Changes in chemical and/or physical environments affecting electronic distributions result in alterations in the chemical shifts of the nuclei involved.

  10. Estimating the Relative Water Content of Single Leaves from Optical Polarization Measurements (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert


    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long-term goals of remote sensing research. For monitoring canopy water status, existing approaches such as the Crop Water Stress Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness have limitations. The CWSI does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWI is based upon the physics of water-light interaction, not plant physiology. In this research, we applied optical polarization techniques to monitor the VISNIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both changed nonlinearly as each leaf dried, R increasing and T decreasing. Our results tie changes in the VISNIR R and T to leaf physiological changes linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf and perhaps of a plant canopy might be possible in the future. However, using our approach to estimate the water status of a leaf does not appear possible at present, because our results display too much variability that we do not yet understand.

  11. Estimating the Relative Water Content of Single Leaves from Optical Polarization Measurements. (United States)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Dahlgren, R. P.


    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. For monitoring canopy water status, existing approaches such as the Crop Water Stress Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness have limitations. The CWSI does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWI is based upon the physics of water-light interaction, not plant physiology. In this research, we applied optical polarization techniques to monitor the VIS/NIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both changed nonlinearly as each leaf dried, R increasing and T decreasing. Our results tie changes in the VIS/NIR R and T to leaf physiological changes - linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf - and perhaps of a plant canopy - might be possible in the future. However, using our approach to estimate the water status of a leaf does not appear possible at present, because our results display too much variability that we do not yet understand.

  12. Crack growth behaviour of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions (CASTOC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Materialpruefungsanstalt, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) (Spain); Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Inst. (NRI) (Czech Republic); Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) (Switzerland); Roth, A.; Devrient, B. [Framatome ANP GmbH (F ANP) (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland)


    The CASTOC project addresses environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) phenomena in low alloy steels used for pressure boundary components in both Western type boiling water reactors (BWR) and Russian type pressurised water reactors (VVER). It comprises the four work packages (WP): inter-laboratory comparison test (WP1); EAC behaviour under static load (WP2), EAC behaviour under cyclic load and load transients (WP3); evaluation of the results with regard to their relevance for components in practice (WP4). The use of sophisticated test facilities and measurement techniques for the on-line detection of crack advances have provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking and provided quantitative data of crack growth rates as a function of loading events and time, respectively. The effect of several major parameters controlling EAC was investigated with particular emphasis on the transferability of the results to components in service. The obtained crack growth rate data were reflected on literature data and on commonly applied prediction curves as presented in the appropriate Code. At relevant stress intensity factors it could be shown that immediate cessation of growing cracks occurs after changing from cyclic to static load in high purity oxygenated BWR water and oxygen-free VVER water corresponding to steady state operation conditions. Susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking under static load was observed for a heat affected zone material in oxygenated high purity water and also in base materials during a chloride transient representing BWR water condition below Action Level 1 of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines according to the lectrical conductivity of the water but in the range of Action Level 2 according to the content of chlorides. Time based crack growth was also observed in one Russian type base material in oxygenated VVER water and in one Western type base material in oxygenated high purity BWR

  13. Porous media matric potential and water content measurements during parabolic flight (United States)

    Norikane, Joey H.; Jones, Scott B.; Steinberg, Susan L.; Levine, Howard G.; Or, Dani


    Control of water and air in the root zone of plants remains a challenge in the microgravity environment of space. Due to limited flight opportunities, research aimed at resolving microgravity porous media fluid dynamics must often be conducted on Earth. The NASA KC-135 reduced gravity flight program offers an opportunity for Earth-based researchers to study physical processes in a variable gravity environment. The objectives of this study were to obtain measurements of water content and matric potential during the parabolic profile flown by the KC-135 aircraft. The flight profile provided 20-25 s of microgravity at the top of the parabola, while pulling 1.8 g at the bottom. The soil moisture sensors (Temperature and Moisture Acquisition System: Orbital Technologies, Madison, WI) used a heat-pulse method to indirectly estimate water content from heat dissipation. Tensiometers were constructed using a stainless steel porous cup with a pressure transducer and were used to measure the matric potential of the medium. The two types of sensors were placed at different depths in a substrate compartment filled with 1-2 mm Turface (calcined clay). The ability of the heat-pulse sensors to monitor overall changes in water content in the substrate compartment decreased with water content. Differences in measured water content data recorded at 0, 1, and 1.8 g were not significant. Tensiometer readings tracked pressure differences due to the hydrostatic force changes with variable gravity. The readings may have been affected by changes in cabin air pressure that occurred during each parabola. Tensiometer porous membrane conductivity (function of pore size) and fluid volume both influence response time. Porous media sample height and water content influence time-to-equilibrium, where shorter samples and higher water content achieve faster equilibrium. Further testing is needed to develop these sensors for space flight applications.

  14. An accurate retrieval of leaf water content from mid to thermal infrared spectra using continuous wavelet analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullah, S.; Skidmore, A.K.; Naeem, M.; Schlerf, M.


    Leaf water content determines plant health, vitality, photosynthetic efficiency and is an important indicator of drought assessment. The retrieval of leaf water content from the visible to shortwave infrared spectra is well known. Here for the first time, we estimated leaf water content from the mid

  15. Operational Experience of Cooling Water Systems for Accelerator Components at PLS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyungryul; Kim, Young-Chan; Lee, Bongho; Sik Han, Hong; Soo Ko In; Wha Chung, Chin


    The cooling water system has been utilized for absorbing heat generated by a multitude of electromagnetic power delivering networks at PLS. The separate cooling water distribution systems for the storage ring, beam transport line and linear accelerator have been operated with a different operating temperature of supplying water. All water used for heat removal from the accelerator components are deionised and filtered to provide with over 2 MO-cm specific resistance. The operating pressures and flows of input water are also controlled with flow balancing scheme at a specified range. The operating temperature of components in the accelerator is sustained as tight as below ±0.1 deg C to minimize the influence of temperature fluctuation on the beam energy and stability. Although the PLS cooling systems were initially installed with a high degree of flexibility to allow for easy maintenance, a number of system improvements have been employed to enhance operational reliability and to incorporate the newly...

  16. MR-based Water Content Estimation in Cartilage: Design and Validation of a Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Ringgaard, Steffen


    was costumed and programmed. Finally, we validated the method after measuring and comparing 3 more cartilage samples in a living animal (pig). The obtained data was analyzed and the water content calculated. Then, the same samples were freeze-dried (this technique allows to take out all the water that a tissue...

  17. Modeling the release of E. coli D21g with transients in water content (United States)

    Transients in water content are well known to mobilize colloids that are retained in the vadose zone. However, there is no consensus on the proper model formulation to simulate colloid release during drainage and imbibition. We present a model that relates colloid release to changes in the air-water...

  18. Ultrasensitive 4-methylumbelliferone fluorimetric determination of water contents in aprotic solvents. (United States)

    Kłucińska, Katarzyna; Jurczakowski, Rafał; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata


    A novel approach to the quantification of relatively small amounts of water present in low polarity, aprotic solvents is proposed. This method takes advantage of protolitic reaction of 4-methylumbelliferone dissolved in the solvent with water, acting as a base. The low emission intensity neutral 4-methylumbelliferone is transformed in reaction with water to a highly fluorescent anionic form. Thus the increase in emission intensity is observed for increasing water contents in aprotic solvents. For low water contents and highly lipophilic solvents, this method yields (in practical conditions) higher sensitivity compared to biamperometric Karl Fischer titration method in volumetric mode. It is also shown that organic compounds of protolitic character (amines, acids) not only interfere with water contents determination but increase the sensitivity of emission vs. water contents dependence. Introduction of aqueous solution of strong acid or base (HCl or NaOH) has similar effect on the system as introduction of pure water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of ice water content measurement techniques on the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Abel


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of ice water content (qi data from a variety of measurement techniques on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. Data are presented from a range of cloud types measured during the PIKNMIX field experiment that include mixed-phase stratocumulus, cumulus congestus and cirrus clouds. These measurements cover a broad range of conditions in which atmospheric ice particles are found in nature, such as the low-ice-water-content environments typically found in midlatitude cirrus and the environments with much higher ice water content often observed in cold convective clouds. The techniques include bulk measurements from (i a Nevzorov hot-wire probe, (ii the difference between the measured total water content (condensed plus vapour and the water vapour content of the atmosphere and (iii a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI (only for cirrus measurements. We also estimate the qi from integration of the measured particle size distribution (PSD with assumptions on how the density of ice particles varies as a function of size. The results show that the only bulk ice water content technique capable of measuring high qi values (several g m−3 was the method of total water content minus water vapour. For low ice water contents we develop a new parametrisation of the Nevzorov baseline drift that enables the probe to be sensitive to qi ± 0.002 g m−3. In cirrus clouds the agreement between the Nevzorov and other bulk measurements was typically better than a factor of 2 for the CVI (qi > 0.008 g m−3 and the method of total water content minus water vapour (qi > 0.02 g m−3. Good agreement with the bulk measurements for all cases could be obtained with the estimate from the PSD provided that appropriate a priori assumptions on the mass–dimension relationship were made. This is problematic in the convective clouds sampled because pristine ice particles, heavily rimed particles and

  20. Quality of Water Content, Diastase Enzyme Activity and Hidroximetilfurfural (HMF in Rubber and Rambutan Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulis Setio Toto Harjo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the water content, diastase enzyme activity and HMF of the rubber and rambutan honey. The method was a laboratory experiments with statistical analysis unpaired student t-test by two treatments and fifteen replications. The variable of this research were water content, diastase enzyme activity and HMF. The results of rubber and rambutan honey showed that there were significant difference effect (P0.05 that is 11 DN and there is a highly significant difference (P<0.01 on the HMF content of 17.23±0.54 mg/kg and 7.61±0.23 mg/kg. Rubber and rambutan honey have good quality based on the water content, diastase enzyme activity and HMF. It was concluded that the rubber and rambutan honey used were of good quality because it has met the requirements of SNI.

  1. Phytochemical components, total phenol and mineral contents and antioxidant activity of six major medicinal plants from Rayen, Iran. (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Sadat-Hosseini, Mohammad; Moghbeli, Mojtaba; Farajpour, Mostafa


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the phytochemical components, minerals, the antioxidant activity and total phenol contents of the essential oil from aerial parts of six major medicinal plants in Rayen, Iran. The plants included Ranunculus arvensis, Teucrium polium, Dracocephalum polychaetum, Kelussia odoratissima, Artemisia sieberi and Thymus kotschyanus. Total phenol content ranged from 0.03 to 0.158 mg/mL. A. sieberi showed the highest radical scavenging ability (IC 50  = 94 μg/mL). The amount of minerals ranged as follows: P (0.23-29%), K (1.08-4.76%), Ca (0.78-2.35%), Mg (0.24-0.94%), Cu (8.3-15 mg/kg), Cd (0.7-1.1 mg/kg), Pb (2-11.7 mg/kg) and Fe (250-1280 mg/kg). A total of 79 compounds were identified across all plants. The main components studied in the plants were l-perillaldehyde, biosol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol, terpinyl acetate and 1,2,3,6,7,7 a-hexahydro-5 h-inden 5-one.

  2. Novel method for the determination of water content and higher heating value of pyrolysis


    Mohammed, Isah; Kabir, Feroz Kazi; Abakr, Yousif; Yusuf, Suzana; Razzaque, Abdur


    This research provides a novel approach for the determination of water content and higher heating value of pyrolysis oil. Pyrolysis oil from Napier grass was used in this study. Water content was determined with pH adjustment using a Karl Fisher titration unit. An equation for actual water in the oil was developed and used, and the results were compared with the traditional Karl Fisher method. The oil was found to have between 42 and 64% moisture under the same pyrolysis condition depending o...

  3. Comparing electronic probes for volumetric water content of low-density feathermoss (United States)

    Overduin, P.P.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kane, D.L.; Harden, J.W.


    Purpose - Feathermoss is ubiquitous in the boreal forest and across various land-cover types of the arctic and subarctic. A variety of affordable commercial sensors for soil moisture content measurement have recently become available and are in use in such regions, often in conjunction with fire-susceptibility or ecological studies. Few come supplied with calibrations suitable or suggested for soils high in organics. Aims to test seven of these sensors for use in feathermoss, seeking calibrations between sensor output and volumetric water content. Design/methodology/approach - Measurements from seven sensors installed in live, dead and burned feathermoss samples, drying in a controlled manner, were compared to moisture content measurements. Empirical calibrations of sensor output to water content were determined. Findings - Almost all of the sensors tested were suitable for measuring the moss sample water content, and a unique calibration for each sensor for this material is presented. Differences in sensor design lead to changes in sensitivity as a function of volumetric water content, affecting the spatial averaging over the soil measurement volume. Research limitations/implications - The wide range of electromagnetic sensors available include frequency and time domain designs with variations in wave guide and sensor geometry, the location of sensor electronics and operating frequency. Practical implications - This study provides information for extending the use of electromagnetic sensors to feathermoss. Originality/value - A comparison of volumetric water content sensor mechanics and design is of general interest to researchers measuring soil water content. In particular, researchers working in wetlands, boreal forests and tundra regions will be able to apply these results. ?? Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  4. Metrologically Traceable Determination of the Water Content in Biopolymers: INRiM Activity (United States)

    Rolle, F.; Beltramino, G.; Fernicola, V.; Sega, M.; Verdoja, A.


    Water content in materials is a key factor affecting many chemical and physical properties. In polymers of biological origin, it influences their stability and mechanical properties as well as their biodegradability. The present work describes the activity carried out at INRiM on the determination of water content in samples of a commercial starch-derived biopolymer widely used in shopping bags (Mater-Bi^{circledR }). Its water content, together with temperature, is the most influencing parameter affecting its biodegradability, because of the considerable impact on the microbial activity which is responsible for the biopolymer degradation in the environment. The main scope of the work was the establishment of a metrologically traceable procedure for the determination of water content by using two electrochemical methods, namely coulometric Karl Fischer (cKF) titration and evolved water vapour (EWV) analysis. The obtained results are presented. The most significant operational parameters were considered, and a particular attention was devoted to the establishment of metrological traceability of the measurement results by using appropriate calibration procedures, calibrated standards and suitable certified reference materials. Sample homogeneity and oven-drying temperature were found to be the most important influence quantities in the whole water content measurement process. The results of the two methods were in agreement within the stated uncertainties. Further development is foreseen for the application of cKF and EWV to other polymers.

  5. [Survey on children's dental fluorosis and fluoride content in urine after defluridation to improve drinking water]. (United States)

    Wu, J; Zhang, J; Chen, Z; Du, G


    The authors surveyed the dental fluorosis and fluoride content in urine of 8-12 years old children's in 1993 to 1999 for the evaluation of the efficiency to prevent endemic fluorosis after defluoridation to change drinking water source in Guangdong Province. Three villages: slight fluorosis area in Dazhai village, middle fluorosis area in Hupi village and severe fluorosis area in Anquan village in Fengshun County were surveyed. The results showed that the fluoride contents in drinking water were 1 mg/L (or less) in Anquan village, at the same time the prevalence of dental fluorosis and indexes of dental fluorosis were decreasing as changing water time. Fluoride contents in urine were normal. But in other two villages, the fluoride contents in drinking water exceeded 1 mg/L, therefore the children's prevalence rates and indexes of dental fluorosis were higher than the national standards. It is important to keep fluoride contents in drinking water under 1 mg/L for preventing endemic fluorosis by defluoridation to improve drinking water.

  6. Polysaccharide components from the scape of Musa paradisiaca: main structural features of water-soluble polysaccharide component. (United States)

    Anjaneyalu, Y V; Jagadish, R L; Raju, T S


    Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca were purified from acetone powder of the scape by delignification followed by extraction with aqueous solvents into water soluble polysaccharide (WSP), EDTA-soluble polysaccharide (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) and alkali-insoluble polysaccharide (AISP) fractions. Sugar compositional analysis showed that WSP and EDTA-SP contained only D-Glc whereas ASP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 1:1:10 ratio, respectively, and AISP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 10:1:2 ratio, respectively. WSP was further purified by complexation with iso-amylalcohol and characterized by specific rotation, IR spectroscopy, Iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and methylation linkage analysis, and shown to be a amylopectin type alpha-D-glucan.

  7. Water content estimation of natural glasses and melt inclusions: a Raman spectroscopy study (United States)

    Sicola, Stefania; Di Genova, Danilo; Romano, Claudia; Vona, Alessandro; Fanara, Sara; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.; Landi, Patrizia


    Water is the most abundant volatile dissolved in silicate melts and strongly affects melt structure, magma transport and eruptive style. Raman spectroscopy can give insight into the silicate structure and water content of silicate melts. This technique presents several advantages such as: 1) high-spatial resolution; 2) non-destructive character; 3) minor sample preparation 4) crystals detection; and 5) the possibility to perform in-situ investigations at high temperature and pressure. Several approaches to estimate the water content of silicate glasses (mostly iron-free) and melt inclusions have been presented based on internal and/or external calibration. Here, we discuss these different approaches using a wide range of chemical composition of glasses, which has never been investigated so far. We used 25 natural samples from basaltic to rhyolitic composition and water content up to 7wt% (independently measured). By using two different Raman spectrometers we also explore potential causes for variations in the estimation of water content due to instrumental effects. Based on the results of this study, we show that the difference in instrumental response is the main factor against a unique calibration for the estimation of water content. On the other hand, the choice of the analytical procedure depends significantly on the iron content and its oxidation state. We applied the proposed model to a set of melt inclusions trapped in crystals belonging to the Green Tuff eruption (Pantelleria Island, Italy) in order to provide insights on magma pre-eruptive storage conditions (i.e. dissolved water content and iron oxidation state). Finally, we show a simple correlation between the glass structure as inferred by Raman spectroscopy and the glass transition temperature.

  8. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  9. The influence of changes in water content on the electrical resistivity of a natural unsaturated loess

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Castelblanco, José; Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu Jun


    Non-destructive methods of measuring water content in soils have been extensively developed in the last decades, especially in soil science. Among these methods, the measurements based on the electrical resistivity are simple and reliable thanks to the clear relationship between the water content and the electrical resistivity of soils. In this work, a new electrical resistivity probe was developed to monitor the change in local water content in the triaxial apparatus. The probe is composed of two-pair of electrodes, and an electrical current is induced through the soil at the vicinity of the contact between the probe and the specimen. Some experimental data on the changes in resistivity with the degree of saturation were obtained in specimens of a natural unsaturated loess from Northern France. Two theoretical models of resistivity were also used to analyze the obtained data. Results are finally discussed with respect to the loess's water retention properties.

  10. Assessment of a calibration procedure to estimate soil water content with Sentek Diviner 2000 capacitance probe (United States)

    Rallo, G.; Giordano, G.; Provenzano, G.


    In irrigated systems, soil water content is a major factor determining plant growth. Irrigation scheduling criteria are often related to measurements of soil water content or matric potential. Strategies to manage irrigation can be used to optimize irrigation water use or to maximize crop yield and/or quality, in order to increase the net return for the farmer. Of course, whatever criterion is adopted to schedule irrigation and in particular when crop water stress conditions are considered, the accurate monitoring of the water content in the soil profile, could allow to verify the exact irrigation timing, defined according to the crop response to water stress. Currently many methods are available for determining soil water content on a volume basis (m3m-3) or a tension basis (MPa), as described by Robinson (2008). Recently, distributed fiber optic temperature measurement, has been assessed as a new technique for indirect and precise estimation of soil water contents. Over the past decade Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) probes, allowing to measure the apparent dielectric constant of the soil (K), indirectly related to the volumetric water content (θv), have been improved, due to the good potentiality of capacitance based sensors to in situ measurements of soil water content. However, due to the high variability of K with soil minerals and dry plants tissues, it necessary to proceed to a specific calibration of the sensor for each soil (Baumhardt et al., 2000), even to take into account the effect of soil temperature, bulk density and water salinity (Al Ain et al., 2009). . According to Paltineanu and Starr (1997), the precision of the calibration equation, obtained with in situ measurements, mainly depends on the errors related to the sampling of the soil volume investigated by the sensor, that must be done accurately. For swelling/shrinking soils, the changes of soil bulk volume with water content cause modifications in the geometry of some if not all the

  11. Inactivation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Rumen Content- or Feces-Contaminated Drinking Water for Cattle


    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; West, Joe W.; Bernard, John K.; Cross, Heath G.; Doyle, Michael P.


    Cattle drinking water is a source of on-farm Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission. The antimicrobial activities of disinfectants to control E. coli O157:H7 in on-farm drinking water are frequently neutralized by the presence of rumen content and manure that generally contaminate the drinking water. Different chemical treatments, including lactic acid, acidic calcium sulfate, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, caprylic acid, ozone, butyric acid, sodium benzoate, and competing E. c...

  12. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region]. (United States)

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N


    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  13. A rapid method for measuring soil water content in the field with a areometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calbo Adonai Gimenez


    Full Text Available The availability of a rapid method to evaluate the soil water content (U can be an important tool to determine the moment to irrigate. The soil areometer consists of an elongated hydrostatic balance with a weighing pan, a graduated neck, a float and a pynometric flask. In this work an areometer was adapted to rapidly measure soil water content without the need of drying the soil. The expression U = (M A - M AD/(M M -M A was used to calculate the soil water content. In this equation M M is the mass to level the areometer with the pycnometric flask filled with water, M A the mass to level the areometer with a mass M M of soil in the pycnometer, the volume being completed with water, and similarly M AD the mass added to the pan to level the areometer with a mass M M of dried soil in the pycnometric flask. The convenience of this method is that the values M M and M AD are known. Consequently, the decision on irrigation can be made after a measurement that takes, about, ten minutes. The procedure involves only stirring the soil with water for at least 2 minutes to remove the adhered air. The soil water content data obtained with the areometric method were similar to those obtained weighing the soil before and after drying to constant weight, in an oven at 105º C.

  14. Chemical Characteristics and NaCl Component Behavior of Biochar Derived from the Salty Food Waste by Water Flushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Eun Lee


    Full Text Available Biochar is the product of the pyrolysis of organic materials in a reduced state. In recent years, biochar has received attention due to its applicability to organic waste management, thereby leading to active research on biochar. However, there have been few studies using food waste. In particular, the most significant difference between food waste and other organic waste is the high salinity of food waste. Therefore, in this paper, we compare the chemical characteristics of biochar produced using food waste containing low- and high-concentration salt and biochar flushed with water to remove the concentrated salt. In addition, we clarify the salt component behavior of biochar. Peak analysis of XRD confirms that it is difficult to find salt crystals in flushed char since salt remains in the form of crystals when salty food waste is pyrolyzed washed away after water flushing. In addition, the Cl content significantly decreased to 1–2% after flushing, similar to that of Cl content in the standard, non-salted food waste char. On the other hand, a significant amount of Na was found in pyrolyzed char even after flushing resulting from a phenomenon in which salt is dissolved in water while flushing and Na ions are adsorbed. FT-IR analysis showed that salt in waste affects the binding of aromatic carbons to compounds in the pyrolysis process. The NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the aromatic carbon content, which indicates the stability of biochar, is not influenced by the salt content and increases with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

  15. Water footprint components required to address the water-energy-food nexus, with the recent Urban Water Atlas for Europe as an example (United States)

    Vanham, Davy


    The first part of this presentation analyses which water footprint (WF) components are necessary in WF accounting to provide relevant information to address the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) water security (SDG 6), food security (SDG 2) and energy security (SDG 7) in a nexus setting. It is strongly based on the publication Vanham (2016) First, the nexus links between (1) the planetary boundary freshwater resources (green and blue water resources) and (2) food, energy and blue water security are discussed. Second, it is shown which water uses are mostly represented in WF accounting. General water management and WF studies only account for the water uses agriculture, industry and domestic water. Important water uses are however mostly not identified as separate entities or even included, i.e. green and blue water resources for aquaculture, wild foods, biofuels, hydroelectric cooling, hydropower, recreation/tourism, forestry (for energy and other biomass uses) and navigation. Third, therefore a list of essential separate components to be included within WF accounting is presented. The latter would be more coherent with the water-food-energy-ecosystem nexus. The second part of the presentation gives a brief overview of the recently published Urban Water Atlas for Europe. It shows for a selected city which WF components are represented and which not. As such, it also identifies research gaps.

  16. Assessing total body protein, mineral, and bone mineral content from total body water and body density. (United States)

    Siconolfi, S F; Gretebeck, R J; Wong, W W


    We hypothesized that investigators could assess bone mineral content (BMC), total body mineral (M), and protein (P) from body water (W) and density (DB) based on the theory of W. E. Siri (Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, 1956, p. 239-280 and Techniques for Measuring Body Composition, 1961, p. 223-224) for body composition analysis. Siri used one or more of the body components and the densities of the body, fat (F), W, M, and P to estimate one of the remaining fractional masses. We compared M, BMC, P. F, and fat-free mass (FFM) in 31 subjects (15 women and 16 men) computed from measurements of W and DB with [4-compartment (4C) model] and without [3-compartment (3C) model] BMC (from dual X-ray absorptiometry). 4C model P was calculated by difference (P = FFM - W - M). Mean difference (P > 0.05) ranged from 0.1 to 0.8%. Correlations [+/- standard error of estimate (%)] between 4C and 3C model values were significant (r = 0.907 +/- 8.8, 0.907 +/- 8.7, 0.969 +/- 6.6, 0.998 +/- 2.0, and 0.999 +/- 0.7% for M, BMC, P, F, and FFM, respectively). We concluded that investigators can assess M, BMC, and P from W and DB.

  17. Water Content or Water Activity: What Rules Crispy Behavior in Bread Crust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Tromp, R.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.


    A dry crust loses its crispness when water migrates into the crust. It is not clear if it is the amount of water absorbed or the water activity (aw) that leads to a loss of crispness. The hysteresis effect observed when recording a water sorption isotherm allowed us to study the effects of aw and

  18. Water content or water activity: What rules crispy behavior in bread crust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Primo-Martín, C.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Tromp, R.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van


    A dry crust loses its crispness when water migrates into the crust. It is not clear if it is the amount of water absorbed or the water activity (a w) that leads to a loss of crispness. The hysteresis effect observed when recording a water sorption isotherm allowed us to study the effects of aw and

  19. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  20. Application of principal component regression and partial least squares regression in ultraviolet spectrum water quality detection (United States)

    Li, Jiangtong; Luo, Yongdao; Dai, Honglin


    Water is the source of life and the essential foundation of all life. With the development of industrialization, the phenomenon of water pollution is becoming more and more frequent, which directly affects the survival and development of human. Water quality detection is one of the necessary measures to protect water resources. Ultraviolet (UV) spectral analysis is an important research method in the field of water quality detection, which partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis method is becoming predominant technology, however, in some special cases, PLSR's analysis produce considerable errors. In order to solve this problem, the traditional principal component regression (PCR) analysis method was improved by using the principle of PLSR in this paper. The experimental results show that for some special experimental data set, improved PCR analysis method performance is better than PLSR. The PCR and PLSR is the focus of this paper. Firstly, the principal component analysis (PCA) is performed by MATLAB to reduce the dimensionality of the spectral data; on the basis of a large number of experiments, the optimized principal component is extracted by using the principle of PLSR, which carries most of the original data information. Secondly, the linear regression analysis of the principal component is carried out with statistic package for social science (SPSS), which the coefficients and relations of principal components can be obtained. Finally, calculating a same water spectral data set by PLSR and improved PCR, analyzing and comparing two results, improved PCR and PLSR is similar for most data, but improved PCR is better than PLSR for data near the detection limit. Both PLSR and improved PCR can be used in Ultraviolet spectral analysis of water, but for data near the detection limit, improved PCR's result better than PLSR.

  1. Static and dynamic superheated water extraction of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L. (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota


    Superheated water extraction (SWE) performed in both static and dynamic condition (S-SWE and D-SWE, respectively) was applied for the extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L. The influence of extraction pressure, temperature, time, and flow rate on the total yield of essential oil and the influence of extraction temperature on the extraction of some chosen components are discussed in the paper. The SWE extracts are related to PLE extracts with n-hexane and essential oil obtained by steam distillation. The superheated water extraction in dynamic condition seems to be a feasible option for the extraction of essential oil components from T. vulgaris L.

  2. Computation of porosity and water content from geophysical logs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.H.


    Neutron and density logs acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to determine porosity and water content as a function of depth. Computation of porosity requires an estimate of grain density, which is provided by core data, mineralogical data, or is inferred from rock type where neither core nor mineralogy are available. The porosity estimate is merged with mineralogical data acquired by X-ray diffraction to compute the volumetric fractions of major mineral groups. The resulting depth-based portrayal of bulk rock composition is equivalent to a whole rock analysis of mineralogy and porosity. Water content is computed from epithermal and thermal neutron logs. In the unsaturated zone, the density log is required along with a neutron log. Water content can also be computed from dielectric logs, which were acquired in only a fraction of the boreholes, whereas neutron logs were acquired in all boreholes. Mineralogical data are used to compute a structural (or bound) water estimate, which is subtracted from the total water estimate from the neutron-density combination. Structural water can be subtracted only from intervals where mineralogical analyses are available; otherwise only total water can be reported. The algorithms and procedures are applied to logs acquired during 1979 to 1984 at Yucca Mountain. Examples illustrate the results. Comparison between computed porosity and core measurements shows systematic differences ranging from 0.005 to 0.04. These values are consistent with a sensitivity analysis using uncertainty parameters for good logging conditions. Water content from core measurements is available in only one borehole, yielding a difference between computed and core-based water content of 0.006.

  3. Study on the extraction of AP components in HTPB solid propellant by water/ethanol recovery (United States)

    Wang, Mingqi; Du, Shiguo; Yan, Jun


    In order to improve the recovery of ammonium perchlorate (AP) components in scrapped HTPB solid propellants, the AP in HTPB solid propellants were extracted by water/ethanol mixed solvent system. The effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, volume ratio of water/ethanol, ratio of liquid to material, thickness of sample and extraction rate on AP extraction rate were discussed. The extraction results were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the best process parameter for extracting AP components from HTPB solid propellants: the extraction temperature was 70°C, the extraction time was 6h, the volume ratio of water/ethanol was 1:1, the ratio of liquid to material was 6:1(water/ethanol volume and sample mass ratio, ml/g) and the extraction frequency was 2 times. Under this condition, the recovery of AP was 90.5% and the purity of AP was 91.1%.

  4. Pore-Scale Transport of Strontium During Dynamic Water Content Changes in the Unsaturated Zone (United States)

    Weaver, W.; Kibbey, T. C. G.; Papelis, C.


    Dynamic water content changes in the unsaturated zone caused by natural and manmade processes, such as evaporation, rainfall, and irrigation, have an effect on contaminant mobility. In general, in the unsaturated zone, evaporation causes an increase in contaminant concentrations, potentially leading to sorption of contaminants on aquifer materials or precipitation of crystalline or amorphous phases. On the other hand, increase of water content may result in dissolution of precipitated phases and increased mobility of contaminants. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative model for the transport of strontium through sand under dynamic water content conditions, as a function of strontium concentration, pH, and ionic strength. Strontium was selected as a surrogate for strontium-90, a by-product of nuclear reactions. The dynamic water content was determined using an automated device for rapidly measuring the hysteretic capillary pressure—saturation relationship, followed by ambient air evaporation, and gravimetric water content measurement. Strontium concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow interruption experiments were conducted to determine whether equilibrium conditions existed for a given flowrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize the treated quartz sand particles and the distribution of strontium on sand grains was determined using elemental maps created by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Strontium behavior appears to be pH dependent as well as ionic strength dependent under these conditions.

  5. Evaluation of Water Stress on Yield, Its Components and Some Physiological Traits at Different Growth Stages in Grain Sorghum Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Investigation on yield improvement and development under drought condition using breeding techniques is difficult, due to the association with low heritability of specific traits. Even more, investigation of physiological indicators (stomatal conductance, chlorophyll index, relative water content, chlorophyll fluorescence, canopy temperature, radiation use efficiency, stay-green etc. is of interest as they are more accessible, with a low cost, therefore these indicators of physiological traits can be used as good criteria in selecting valuable species. In order to evaluate the effects of water stress on grain yield, its components and some physiological traits of grain sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L., a field experiment using split plot design with three replications was carried. The main plots included three water stress treatments: normal irrigation as control, halting irrigation at the stage of terminal leaf emergence and halting irrigation at the stage of 50% flowering. The sub-plots included 10 genotypes of sorghum (‘KGS29’, ‘MGS2’, ‘Sepideh’, ‘KGFS27’, ‘MGS5’, ‘KGFS5’, ‘KGFS17’, ‘KGFS13’ and ‘KGFS30’. Results showed that water stress significantly decreased grain yield and its components (1,000 seed weight, number of seed per panicle and had various effects on physiological traits. The water stress increased canopy temperature and radiation use efficiency, while stomatal conductance, chlorophyll index (SPAD and stay-green of genotypes were decreased; the maximum efficiency of photosystem II of photosynthesis remained unchanged between the treatments. Genotypes turned out to have significantly different responses to the drought treatments for all the studied traits, indicating the existence of a high variability among them. In general, physiological traits could be used as good indicators in water stress investigations and might provide comprehensive information as compared with morphological traits.

  6. A study on the establishment of component/equipment performance criteria considering Heavy Water Reactor characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Kwon, Young Chul; Lee, Min Kyu; Lee, Yun Soo [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Seong Hoong; Ryo, Chang Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soong Pyung; Hwnag, Jung Rye; Chung, Chul Kee [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Foreign and domestic technology trends, regulatory requirements, design and researches for heavy water reactors are analyzed. Safety design guides of Canada industry and regulatory documents and consultative documents of Canada regulatory agency are reviewed. Applicability of MOST guidance 16 Revision 'guidance for technical criteria of nuclear reactor facility' is reviewed. Specific performance criteria are established for components and facilities for heavy water reactor.


    Barker, H A


    1. The denaturation rate of partially dried crystallizable egg albumin is greatly decreased by decreasing its water content. 2. The temperature of denaturation, defined as the temperature at which half of the protein becomes insoluble in distilled water after a definite time of heating, is a linear function of the relative humidity with which the protein is in equilibrium. 3. By applying the Arrhenius equation it is shown that the rate of heat denaturation at a given temperature is an exponential function of the relative humidity. 4. The application of the observed relations to the analysis of the mechanism of thermal death of microorganisms is suggested. 5. The water content of native and heat-denatured egg albumin is determined as a function of the relative humidity of water vapor. It is shown that the heat-denatured modification takes up approximately 80 per cent as much water at all relative humidities as does native egg albumin.

  8. Differential responses of plumbagin content in Plumbago zeylanica L. (Chitrak under controlled water stress treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharadi R.


    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted on Plumbago zeylanica L. (Chitrak under controlled water stress environment in greenhouse during the kharif season. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with five treatments of different water stress levels i.e. control, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% and four replications. Out of five stress levels, 80% water stress has influenced root length, dry herbage, plumbagin, potassium and proline content. In control conditions the plant height, number of leaf, total leaf area, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, photosynthesis, CO2 utilization, H2O utilization and chlorophyll were found to be maximum. The impact of water stress on plumbagin content has shown increase trend with respect to different water stress levels that is maximum at 80 % and minimum at control.

  9. Roles of Various Bitumen Components in the Stability of Water-in-Diluted-Bitumen Emulsions. (United States)

    Yan; Elliott; Masliyah


    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the various components of Athabasca bitumen in stabilizing water-in-diluted-bitumen emulsions. The solvent used to dilute the very viscous bitumen was a mixture of 50:50 by volume of hexane and toluene. The various bitumen components studied were asphaltenes, deasphalted bitumen, and fine solids. It was found that asphaltenes and fine solids were the main stabilizers of the water-in-diluted-bitumen emulsions. Individually, the two components can stabilize water-in-diluted-bitumen emulsions. However, when both are present the capacity of the diluted bitumen to stabilize water emulsions is greatest. Emulsion stabilization tests indicated that whole bitumen had less capacity to stabilize water emulsions than asphaltenes and solids. This would indicate that the presence of the small molecules within the whole bitumen tends to lower the emulsion stability. Deasphalted bitumen acts as a poor emulsion stabilizer. Although deasphalted bitumen led to the least emulsion stabilization capacity, interfacial tension measurements showed that diluted deasphalted bitumen gave a greater decrease in the interfacial tension of water with diluent. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Efficient quantification of water content in edible oils by headspace gas chromatography with vapour phase calibration. (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian


    An automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyse the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapour phase calibration technique with an external vapour standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e. the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%. The present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Nondestructive Measurement of Water Content and Moisture Migration of Unsaturated Red Clays in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Zhang


    Full Text Available To reveal the moisture migration mechanism of the unsaturated red clays, which are sensitive to water content change and widely distributed in South China, and then rationally use them as a filling material for highway embankments, a method to measure the water content of red clay cylinders using X-ray computed tomography (CT was proposed and verified. Then, studies on the moisture migrations in the red clays under the rainfall and ground water level were performed at different degrees of compaction. The results show that the relationship between dry density, water content, and CT value determined from X-ray CT tests can be used to nondestructively measure the water content of red clay cylinders at different migration time, which avoids the error reduced by the sample-to-sample variation. The rainfall, ground water level, and degree of compaction are factors that can significantly affect the moisture migration distance and migration rate. Some techniques, such as lowering groundwater table and increasing degree of compaction of the red clays, can be used to prevent or delay the moisture migration in highway embankments filled with red clays.

  12. Deuterium content of water increases depression susceptibility: the potential role of a serotonin-related mechanism. (United States)

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Evans, Matthew; Chernopiatko, Anton; Couch, Yvonne; Costa-Nunes, João; Cespuglio, Raymond; Chesson, Lesley; Vignisse, Julie; Steinbusch, Harry W; Anthony, Daniel C; Pomytkin, Igor; Lesch, Klaus-Peter


    Environmental factors can significantly affect disease prevalence, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. The ratio of deuterium to protium in water shows substantial geographical variation, which could affect disease susceptibility. Thus the link between deuterium content of water and depression was investigated, both epidemiologically, and in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. We performed a correlation analysis between deuterium content of tap water and rates of depression in regions of the USA. Next, we used a 10-day chronic stress paradigm to test whether 2-week deuterium-depleted water treatment (91 ppm) affects depressive-like behavior and hippocampal SERT. The effect of deuterium-depletion on sleep electrophysiology was also evaluated in naïve mice. There was a geographic correlation between a content of deuterium and the prevalence of depression across the USA. In the chronic stress model, depressive-like features were reduced in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water, and SERT expression was decreased in mice treated with deuterium-treated water compared with regular water. Five days of predator stress also suppressed proliferation in the dentate gyrus; this effect was attenuated in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water. Finally, in naïve mice, deuterium-depleted water treatment increased EEG indices of wakefulness, and decreased duration of REM sleep, phenomena that have been shown to result from the administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Our data suggest that the deuterium content of water may influence the incidence of affective disorder-related pathophysiology and major depression, which might be mediated by the serotoninergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Radar Vegetation Indices for Vegetation Water Content Estimation Using Data from a Ground-Based SMAP Simulator (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; O'Neill, Peggy; Cosh, Michael; Lang, Roger; Joseph, Alicia


    Vegetation water content (VWC) is an important component of microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms. This paper aims to estimate VWC using L band active and passive radar/radiometer datasets obtained from a NASA ground-based Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) simulator known as ComRAD (Combined Radar/Radiometer). Several approaches to derive vegetation information from radar and radiometer data such as HH, HV, VV, Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI), HH/VV ratio, HV/(HH+VV), HV/(HH+HV+VV) and Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) are tested for VWC estimation through a generalized linear model (GLM). The overall analysis indicates that HV radar backscattering could be used for VWC content estimation with highest performance followed by HH, VV, MPDI, RVI, and other ratios.

  14. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED


    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  15. Determination of water content in clay and organic soil using microwave oven (United States)

    Kramarenko, V. V.; Nikitenkov, A. N.; Matveenko, I. A.; Molokov, V. Yu; Vasilenko, Ye S.


    The article deals with the techniques of soil water content determination using microwave radiation. Its practical application would allow solving the problems of resource efficiency in geotechnical survey due to reduction of energy and resource intensity of laboratory analysis as well as its acceleration by means of decreasing labour intensity and, as a result, cost reduction. The article presents a detail analysis of approaches to soil water content determination and soil drying, considers its features and application. The study in soil of different composition, typical for Western Siberia including organic and organic-mineral ones, is a peculiarity of the given article, which makes it rather topical. The article compares and analyzes the results of the investigation into soil water content, which are obtained via conventional techniques and the original one developed by the authors, consisting in microwave drying. The authors also give recommendation on microwave technique application to dry soil.

  16. Management of corm size and soil water content for gladiolus flower production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bachin Mazzini-Guedes


    Full Text Available Gladiolus grandiflorus Andrews, in the family Iridaceae, is one of the most produced and marketed flowers in the world. In general, however, research results on gladioli production factors are scarce and divergent. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of corm size and soil water content on gladiolus flower production. The experimental design, using the early maturity cultivar ‘White Friendship’, was entirely randomized, arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme (five soil water contents: 25; 50; 75; 100; and 125% field capacity, combined with two corm sizes: medium and big, with four replications per treatment. Each replication, composed of one pot, comprised three corms, totaling 40 pots and 120 plants. Both vegetative and flowering characteristics were evaluated. Gladiolus cultivation at 80% soil field capacity presents best results for commercialization, generating longer flower stems with greater diameter and flower number, plus larger flowers. Furthermore, such soil water content promotes the shortest cultivation period

  17. Modified Liu-Carter Compression Model for Natural Clays with Various Initial Water Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Qian


    Full Text Available The initial water content has a significant effect on the compression behaviour of reconstituted clays. This effect has to be considered in the Liu-Carter model to ensure the addition voids ratio only related to soil structure. A modified Liu-Carter compression model is proposed by introducing the empirical equations for reconstituted clays at different initial water contents into the Liu-Carter model. The proposed model is verified against the experimental results from the literature. The simulations by the proposed method are also compared with that by old method where the influence of initial water content is not considered. The results show that the predicted virgin compression curves of natural clays are similar, but the values of b and Δey may be very different.

  18. An effect of liming on magnesium content in meadow vegetation and leachate water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacorzyk Piotr A.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate an effect of liming on chemical properties of the soil, magnesium content in the meadow vegetation and leachate water moving through the soil profile. The study was conducted in the growing seasons in the years 2012-2014. The study included three plots in two series: with lime and without lime. The plant material was subjected to dry digestion and ash was dissolved in HNO3 (1:3. The soil was mineralized in a muffle furnace and the ashes were dissolved in a mixture of HNO3 and HClO4 (3:1 v/v. In the obtained samples and in leaching water, estimated the content of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sodium by induction plasma emission spectrophotometer. In the soil content of assimilable phosphorus and potassium was determined by the Egner-Riehm method. The content of assimilable magnesium was determined by the Schachtschabel method and the pH of the soil by potentiometric method in water and in mol KC1·dm-3. Liming positively affected on soil pH and magnesium content in plants increasing its amount of about 15- 21% of dry matter with respect to not limed plots. In turn, lime fertilization negatively affected the content of magnesium in leachate water and the load eluted per unit area. Magnesium content in leachate water and the amount of loads eluted from limed plots were lower on average by 16-23% with respect to not limed plots.

  19. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloshenko, I A [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Tsiolko, V V [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Pogulay, S S [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Terent' yeva, A G [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazhenov, V Yu [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Shchedrin, A I [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Ryabtsev, A V [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46 Nauki Avenue, 03028, Kiev (Ukraine); Kuzmichev, A I [National Technical University ' KPI' , 37 Peremogy Avenue, KPI-2230, 03056, Kiev, (Ukraine)


    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O{sub 3}, HNO{sub 3}, HNO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} O{sub 5} and NO{sub 3} were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm{sup -3}. It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O{sub 3}, HNO{sub 3}, HNO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NO{sub 3} for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values.

  20. [Screening of water retention agent for moisture content regulation in the biocover of municipal landfill]. (United States)

    Lu, Wen-jing; Mou, Zi-shen; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Hong-tao; Zhao, Chen-xi


    Synthetic materials of polyacrylamide (PAM) are known as the flocculating agent as well as water retention agents. In this study, ten types of water-soluble PAM as well as four types of water-insoluble ones were selected and the influences of relative molecular weight, ion types, charge density and particle size on water retention and service life were determined. Based on the results, evaluation method for performance of water retention agent was established and two optimal PAM (water-insoluble JB and water-soluble WSN20) were screened for further study. It showed that JB increased the degree of hydration of testing soil for 32% compared with that of control. Moreover, multiple-step-outflow test using municipal waste showed that addition of JB (0.1%) had significantly effect on its moisture characteristic curve as evidenced by increasing of equilibrium moisture content over 12% under high matrix potential.

  1. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment during year 2009 was conducted in the research station of the University of Tehran, College of Abouraihan in Pakdasht region, Iran. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative traits of four sunflower hybrids namely Azargol, Alstar, ...

  2. Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents and Fuel Components (BTEX and MTBE) in Ground Water (United States)

    Monitored Natural Attenuation is widely used in the USA to deal with ground water contamination from fuel components such as the BTEX compounds or MTBE or TBA and from chlorinated solvents such as PCE, TCE, and TCA. This presentation reviews the theory and practice of MNA in the...

  3. 77 FR 16270 - Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Updated Aging Management Criteria for Reactor Vessel Internal Components of Pressurized Water... license renewal interim staff guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2011-04, ``Updated Aging Management Criteria for... Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report for the aging management of stainless steel structures and...

  4. Analysis of Removal Alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, M.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)


    This engineering study was developed to evaluate different options for decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) at the Savannah River Site. This document will be placed in the DOE-SRS Area reading rooms for a period of 30 days in order to obtain public input to plans for the demolition of HWCTR.

  5. Methane Production Explained Largely by Water Content in the Heartwood of Living Trees in Upland Forests (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Ping; Han, Shi-Jie; Li, Huan-Long; Deng, Feng-Dan; Zheng, Yan-Hai; Liu, Hai-Feng; Han, Xing-Guo


    Most forests worldwide are located in upland landscapes. Previous studies have mainly focused on ground methane (CH4) flux in upland forests, and living tree stem-based CH4 processes and fluxes are thus relatively poorly understood. This study investigated the relationship between CH4 concentration and water content in the heartwood of living trees in midtemperate, warm temperate, and subtropical upland forests and also measured seasonal changes of in situ stem CH4 flux and the CH4 concentration and water content in the heartwood of Populus davidiana Dode in a warm temperate upland forest. We found that approximately 4-13% of tree stems or approximately 8-31% of tree species had a substantial CH4 concentration of ≥10,000 μL L-1 in their heartwood across the three types of upland forests. The heartwood CH4 concentration was related to water content by a power function. A threshold of water content occurred beyond which CH4 was produced at high levels in the heartwood. The CH4 emissions from the breast height stems of P. davidiana ranged from 202.1 to 331.6 μg m-2 h-1 on a stem surface area basis during July-October 2016 and were significantly linearly correlated with the CH4 concentration or water content in the heartwood throughout the experimental period, but the linear correlation was not significant at daily and monthly scales. Temperature was not a limiting factor for CH4 production during July-October 2016, and thus, most of the CH4 production may be explained by water content in the heartwood of living trees in upland forests.

  6. 77 FR 74883 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water; Revision 1 (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water; Revision 1... Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water,'' which was announced in the Federal Register on May 11... Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-01, ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in...

  7. Gas phase dispersion in compost as a function of different water contents and air flow rates (United States)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.


    Gas phase dispersion in a natural porous medium (yard waste compost) was investigated as a function of gas flow velocity and compost volumetric water content using oxygen and nitrogen as tracer gases. The compost was chosen because it has a very wide water content range and because it represents a wide range of porous media, including soils and biofilter media. Column breakthrough curves for oxygen and nitrogen were measured at relatively low pore gas velocities, corresponding to those observed in for instance soil vapor extraction systems or biofilters for air cleaning at biogas plants or composting facilities. Total gas mechanical dispersion-molecular diffusion coefficients were fitted from the breakthrough curves using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the advection-dispersion equation and used to determine gas dispersivities at different volumetric gas contents. The results showed that gas mechanical dispersion dominated over molecular diffusion with mechanical dispersion for all water contents and pore gas velocities investigated. Importance of mechanical dispersion increased with increasing pore gas velocity and compost water content. The results further showed that gas dispersivity was relatively constant at high values of compost gas-filled porosity but increased with decreasing gas-filled porosity at lower values of gas-filled porosity. Results finally showed that measurement uncertainty in gas dispersivity is generally highest at low values of pore gas velocity.

  8. Component-resolved evaluation of the content of major allergens in therapeutic extracts for specific immunotherapy of honeybee venom allergy. (United States)

    Blank, Simon; Etzold, Stefanie; Darsow, Ulf; Schiener, Maximilian; Eberlein, Bernadette; Russkamp, Dennis; Wolf, Sara; Graessel, Anke; Biedermann, Tilo; Ollert, Markus; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B


    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of honeybee venom (HBV) allergy, which is able to protect against further anaphylactic sting reactions. Recent analyses on a molecular level have demonstrated that HBV represents a complex allergen source that contains more relevant major allergens than formerly anticipated. Moreover, allergic patients show very diverse sensitization profiles with the different allergens. HBV-specific immunotherapy is conducted with HBV extracts which are derived from pure venom. The allergen content of these therapeutic extracts might differ due to natural variations of the source material or different down-stream processing strategies of the manufacturers. Since variations of the allergen content of therapeutic HBV extracts might be associated with therapeutic failure, we adressed the component-resolved allergen composition of different therapeutic grade HBV extracts which are approved for immunotherapy in numerous countries. The extracts were analyzed for their content of the major allergens Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, Api m 5 and Api m 10. Using allergen-specific antibodies we were able to demonstrate the underrepresentation of relevant major allergens such as Api m 3, Api m 5 and Api m 10 in particular therapeutic extracts. Taken together, standardization of therapeutic extracts by determination of the total allergenic potency might imply the intrinsic pitfall of losing information about particular major allergens. Moreover, the variable allergen composition of different therapeutic HBV extracts might have an impact on therapy outcome and the clinical management of HBV-allergic patients with specific IgE to particular allergens.

  9. Experimental study on water content detection of traditional masonry based on infrared thermal image (United States)

    Zhang, Baoqing; Lei, Zukang


    Based on infrared thermal imaging technology for seepage test of two kinds of brick masonry, find out the relationship between the distribution of one-dimensional two brick surface temperature distribution and one-dimensional surface moisture content were determined after seepage brick masonry minimum temperature zone and water content determination method of the highest point of the regression equation, the relationship between temperature and moisture content of the brick masonry reflected the quantitative and establish the initial wet masonry building disease analysis method, then the infrared technology is applied to the protection of historic buildings in.

  10. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar


    Full Text Available Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, red grape, red wine, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, resveratrol, ranging from 11.10 mg GAE/100 mL to 92.19 mg GAE/100 mL was observed. Consequently, large dispersion of total flavonoids (TF content (8.89 mg to 61.75 mg CTE/100 mL was also observed. Since phenols have been mostly responsible for antioxidant activity of extracts, in most cases, antioxidant activity followed the TP content. That was proven by estimation of correlation coefficient between the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. Correlation coefficients between investigated parameters ranged from 0.5749 to 0.9604. During storage of 5 weeks at room temperature loss of phenols and flavonoids occurred. Antioxidant activity decreased with the decrease of TP and TF content. Degradations of phenols and flavonoids were more pronounced in samples stored at light.

  11. Effect of stone content on water flow velocity over Loess slope: Frozen soil (United States)

    Ban, Yunyun; Lei, Tingwu; Feng, Ren; Qian, Dengfeng


    Soils in high-altitude or -latitude regions are commonly rich in stone fragments, which are frequently frozen. The hydrodynamics of water flow over frozen, stony slopes must be investigated to understand soil erosion and sediment transportation. The objective of this laboratory experiments was to measure water flow velocity over frozen slopes with different stone contents by using electrolyte trace method. The experiments were performed under slope gradients of 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20°; flow discharge rates of 1, 2, 4, and 8 L/min; and stone contents of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 50% on mass basis. Nine equidistant sensors were used to measure flow velocity along flume from the top of the slope. Results indicated that stone content significantly affected flow velocity under increasing slope gradient. The increase in stone content rapidly reduced the flow velocity. The flow velocities over frozen slopes were 1.21 to 1.30 times of those over non-frozen slopes under different slope gradients and flow rates. When the stone content increased from 0% to 20%, proportions gradually decreased from 52% to 25% and 13%. Additionally, flow velocities over frozen and non-frozen soil slopes became gradually similar with increasing stone content. This study will help elucidate the hydrodynamics, soil erosion, and sediment transport behaviors of frozen or partially unfrozen hillslopes with different stone contents.

  12. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (United States)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy


    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  13. Mobile TDR for geo-referenced measurement of soil water content and electrical conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anton; Schelde, Kirsten; Drøscher, Per


    content and electrical conductivity within two research fields. Measurements made during the early or late season, when soil moisture levels are close to field capacity, are related to the amount of plant available water and soil texture. Combined measurements of water content and electrical conductivity...... analysis of the soil water measurements, recommendations are made with respect to sampling strategies. Depending on the variability of a given area, between 15 and 30 ha can be mapped with respect to soil moisture and electrical conductivity with sufficient detail within 8 h......The development of site-specific crop management is constrained by the availability of sensors for monitoring important soil and crop related conditions. A mobile time-domain reflectometry (TDR) unit for geo-referenced soil measurements has been developed and used for detailed mapping of soil water...

  14. [Preparation of water in oil type cream with high content of water containing Kochia scoparia fruit and Cnidium monnieri fruit]. (United States)

    Kohri, Naonori; Yamashita, Miki; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Kodera, Hajime


    Kikisui is a herbal lotion containing Kochia scoparia Fruit and Cnidium monnieri Fruit that is clinically used as an antipruritic for itchy dry skin. However, this formulation is unsuitable for inducing a prolonged effect. Here, we attempted to change the formulation from a lotion to a cream. The cream we chose was a water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsion for enhancing skin compatibility. In addition, the high water content imparts a sensation of coolness. However, it is difficult to prepare a stable W/O type cream with high water content using a mechanical mixing method. Instead, we prepared the W/O type emulsion using liquid crystals. Water containing cocamidopropyl betaine was added to a dispersed phase comprising an oil phase of oleic acid and liquid paraffin that was constantly stirred. Addition of an aqueous solution containing Kochia scoparia Fruit and Cnidium monnieri Fruit decreased the stability of the cream. However, addition of glycerin as a humectant, and ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate/n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate as preservatives enhanced the stability of the cream. The stability of the emulsion was correlated with the apparent viscosity of the cream. The final W/O type cream had a water content of 83% and was stable for more than 6 months at 4°C. Furthermore, ostol, which is one of the main biologically active herbal compounds, was also stable for more than 6 months.

  15. Impact of social media as an instructional component on content knowledge, attitudes, and public engagement related to global climate change (United States)

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    Social media (SM) are considered important avenues to reach citizens and engage them in social change. Given the widespread use of SM and their potential to enhance communication, they could also have significant influence when used as an educational tool. Educators are exploring whether classroom SM use has instructional benefits, such as enhancing interactivity and engagement. It is critical to understand the potential of SM for creating meaningful learning environments and public engagement pathways. Much work remains to understand the use of SM in this context and how to use them effectively. This study draws on active learning theory to examine the impact of SM as an instructional component with community college students learning to make connections among science, social responsibility, and global understanding in an environmental biology course (the Course). Using global climate change as a theme, the Course included a Facebook instructional component. A pretest--posttest, nonrandomized comparison group design was used to measure the impact of Facebook as an integrated component of the Course. The treatment and comparison groups were determined to be comparable based on demographics, access and ownership of digital devices, and SM use despite non-random assignment. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on these factors. The intervention consisted of semester-long required use of Facebook for the treatment group. The impact of the SM intervention was measured in three areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) attitudes toward climate change, and (c) public engagement actions and intentions to act. At the conclusion of the Course, no discernable difference was measured in content knowledge gains between the two groups. However, students who used Facebook experienced statistically significant differences in attitude, becoming increasingly concerned about global climate change. The comparison group demonstrated statistically significant

  16. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven-Hangoor, van der E.; Rademaker, C.; Paton, N.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.


    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter

  17. Modeling the release of E. coli D21g with transients in water content (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Wang, Yusong; Torkzaban, Saeed; Šimůnek, Jiri


    Transients in water content are well known to mobilize colloids that are retained in the vadose zone. However, there is no consensus on the proper model formulation to simulate colloid release during drainage and imbibition. We present a model that relates colloid release to changes in the air-water interfacial area (Aaw) with transients in water content. Colloid release from the solid-water interface (SWI) is modeled in two steps. First, a fraction of the colloids on the SWI partitions to the mobile aqueous phase and air-water interface (AWI) when the Aaw increases during drainage. Second, colloids that are retained on the AWI or at the air-water-solid triple line are released during imbibition as the AWI is destroyed. The developed model was used to describe the release of Escherichia coli D21g during cycles of drainage and imbibition under various saturation conditions. Simulations provided a reasonable description of experimental D21g release results. Only two model parameters were optimized to the D21g release data: (i) the cell fraction that was released from the SWI (fr) and (ii) the cell fraction that partitioned from the SWI to the AWI (fawi). Numerical simulations indicated that cell release was proportional to fr and the initial amount of retention on the SWI and AWI. Drainage to a lower water content enhanced cell release, especially during subsequent imbibition, because more bacteria on the SWI were partitioned to the AWI and/or aqueous phase. Imbibition to a larger water content produced greater colloid release because of higher flow rates, and more destruction of the AWI (smaller Aaw). Variation in the value of fawi was found to have a pronounced influence on the amount of cell release in both drainage and imbibition due to changes in the partitioning of cells from the SWI to the aqueous phase and the AWI.

  18. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water


    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C.; Brenhouse, Heather C.


    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water store...

  19. Anthropomorphic breast phantoms with physiological water, lipid, and hemoglobin content for near-infrared spectral tomography (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kelly E.; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Shenoy, Adele; Jordan, Emily; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.


    Abstract. Breast mimicking tissue optical phantoms with sufficient structural integrity to be deployed as stand-alone imaging targets are developed and successfully constructed with biologically relevant concentrations of water, lipid, and blood. The results show excellent material homogeneity and reproducibility with inter- and intraphantom variability of 3.5 and 3.8%, respectively, for water and lipid concentrations ranging from 15 to 85%. The phantoms were long-lasting and exhibited water and lipid fractions that were consistent to within 5% of their original content when measured 2 weeks after creation. A breast-shaped three-compartment model of adipose, fibroglandular, and malignant tissues was created with water content ranging from 30% for the adipose simulant to 80% for the tumor. Mean measured water content ranged from 30% in simulated adipose to 73% in simulated tumor with the higher water localized to the tumor-like material. This novel heterogeneous phantom design is composed of physiologically relevant concentrations of the major optical absorbers in the breast in the near-infrared wavelengths that should significantly improve imaging system characterization and optimization because the materials have stand-alone structural integrity and can be readily molded into the sizes and shapes of tissues commensurate with clinical breast imaging. PMID:24549438

  20. Precision Cleaning Verification of Fluid Components by Air/Water Impingement and Total Carbon Analysis (United States)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.


    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 m(exp 2). Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging-diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC-113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg-ft(exp 2) of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVR's impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 m(exp 2).

  1. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water. (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C


    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  2. Forcing variables in simulation of transpiration of water stressed plants determined by principal component analysis (United States)

    Durigon, Angelica; Lier, Quirijn de Jong van; Metselaar, Klaas


    To date, measuring plant transpiration at canopy scale is laborious and its estimation by numerical modelling can be used to assess high time frequency data. When using the model by Jacobs (1994) to simulate transpiration of water stressed plants it needs to be reparametrized. We compare the importance of model variables affecting simulated transpiration of water stressed plants. A systematic literature review was performed to recover existing parameterizations to be tested in the model. Data from a field experiment with common bean under full and deficit irrigation were used to correlate estimations to forcing variables applying principal component analysis. New parameterizations resulted in a moderate reduction of prediction errors and in an increase in model performance. Ags model was sensitive to changes in the mesophyll conductance and leaf angle distribution parameterizations, allowing model improvement. Simulated transpiration could be separated in temporal components. Daily, afternoon depression and long-term components for the fully irrigated treatment were more related to atmospheric forcing variables (specific humidity deficit between stomata and air, relative air humidity and canopy temperature). Daily and afternoon depression components for the deficit-irrigated treatment were related to both atmospheric and soil dryness, and long-term component was related to soil dryness.

  3. Microbial content of drinking water in Finnish and Russian Karelia - implications for atopy prevalence. (United States)

    von Hertzen, L; Laatikainen, T; Pitkänen, T; Vlasoff, T; Mäkelä, M J; Vartiainen, E; Haahtela, T


    The influence of microbial quality of drinking water from different sources on the occurrence of atopy has been poorly examined. This study was undertaken to clarify the association between the overall microbial content in drinking water and the occurrence of atopy among schoolchildren from two neighbouring areas with profound differences in living conditions and lifestyles. Drinking water samples were obtained from kitchens of nine schools in North Karelia, Finland and of nine schools from Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia. The pupils of these schools were participants of the Karelian Allergy Study. Occurrence of atopy, determined by skin prick test positivity (one or more) to 14 common airborne and food allergens, was measured in all 563 children, aged 7-16 years, from these 18 schools. Water samples were analysed using standard methods for drinking water analyses including viable counts for Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, total cell counts including both viable and nonviable bacteria, algae and protozoans were assessed using epifluorescence microscope with 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. In Finland, 29% of the children were sensitized to birch when compared with 2% of the Russian children (P water sources and treatment practices, the total numbers of microbial cells in drinking water were many-fold higher in Russia than in Finland. A dose-response relationship was found for occurrence of atopy and the DAPI value indicative of microbial cell content in the water (P 10(6) cells/ml) and intermediate (10(5)-10(6) cells/ml) DAPI values were associated with reduced risk of atopy (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.57 and 0.39, 0.23-0.69, respectively), independently from other factors. High overall content of micro-organisms in drinking water may be associated with reduced risk of atopy, independently from other determinants.

  4. Predicting Soil-Water Characteristics from Volumetric Contents of Pore-Size Analogue Particle Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    ) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter......Modelling water distribution and flow in partially saturated soils requires knowledge of the soil-water characteristic (SWC). However, measurement of the SWC is challenging and time-consuming, and in some cases not feasible. This study introduces two predictive models (Xw-model and Xw*-model...... and clay). It performed reasonably well for the dry-end (above a pF value of 2.0; pF = log(|Ψ|), where Ψ is the matric potential in cm), but did not do as well closer to saturated conditions. The Xw*-model gives the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric content of particle size fractions...

  5. Retrieval of leaf water content spanning the visible to thermal infrared spectra

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ullah, S


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the entire spectra (from visible to the thermal infrared; 0.390 µm -14.0 µm) to retrieve leaf water content in a consistent manner. Narrow-band spectral indices (calculated from all possible two band...

  6. Impact of water deficit stress on growth and alkaloid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of water deficit stress on the growth and alkaloid content of different organs of Spigelia anthelmia (L), a medicinal plant used locally as an anthelminthic. Plants were subjected to 6 days drought at the early (EV plants) and late (LV plants) vegetative stages (30-35 and 52-57 ...

  7. A complex permittivity model for field estimation of soil water contents using time domain reflectometry (United States)

    Accurate electromagnetic sensing of soil water contents (') under field conditions is complicated by the dependence of permittivity on specific surface area, temperature, and apparent electrical conductivity, all which may vary across space or time. We present a physically-based mixing model to pred...

  8. Complex permittivity model for time domain reflectometry soil water content sensing: II. Calibration (United States)

    Despite numerous applications of time domain reflectometry (TDR), serious difficulties in estimating accurate soil water contents under field conditions remain, especially in fine-textured soils. Our objectives were to calibrate a complex dielectric mixing model described by Schwartz et al. (this is...

  9. Complex permittivity model for time domain reflectometry soil water content sensing: I. Theory (United States)

    Despite numerous applications of time-domain reflectometry (TDR), serious difficulties exist in estimating accurate soil water contents under field conditions remain, especially in fine-textured soils. We developed a physically-based calibration model to predict the frequency and temperature depende...

  10. Impact of soil water content on landmine detection using radar and thermal infared sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.-H.; Miller, T.W.; Tobin, H.; Borchers, B.; Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Lensen, H.A.; Schwering, P.B.W.


    Land mines are a major problem in many areas of the world. In spite of the fact that many different types of land mines sensors have been developed, the detection of non-metallic land mines remains very difficult. Most landmine detection sensors are affected by soil properties such as water content,

  11. Building phenomenological models that relate proteolysis in pork muscles to temperature, water and salt content. (United States)

    Harkouss, Rami; Safa, Hassan; Gatellier, Philippe; Lebert, André; Mirade, Pierre-Sylvain


    Throughout dry-cured ham production, salt and water content, pH and temperature are key factors affecting proteolysis, one of the main biochemical processes influencing sensory properties and final quality of the product. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of these variables (except pH) on the time course of proteolysis in laboratory-prepared pork meat samples. Based on a Doehlert design, samples of five different types of pork muscle were prepared, salted, dried and placed at different temperatures, and sampled at different times for quantification of proteolysis. Statistical analysis of the experimental results showed that the proteolysis index (PI) was correlated positively with temperature and water content, but negatively with salt content. Applying response surface methodology and multiple linear regressions enabled us to build phenomenological models relating PI to water and salt content, and to temperature. These models could then be integrated into a 3D numerical ham model, coupling salt and water transfers to proteolysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A new wireless underground network system for continuous monitoring of soil water contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, Coen J.; Kuipers, Henk; Kleiboer, L.; Kleiboer, Leon; van den Elsen, Erik; Oostindie, Klaas; Wesseling, Jan G.; Wolthuis, Jan-Willem; Havinga, Paul J.M.


    A new stand-alone wireless embedded network system has been developed recently for continuous monitoring of soil water contents at multiple depths. This paper presents information on the technical aspects of the system, including the applied sensor technology, the wireless communication protocols,

  13. Time-lapse monitoring of soil water content using electromagnetic conductivity imaging (United States)

    The volumetric soil water content (VWC) is fundamental to agriculture. Unfortunately, the universally accepted thermogravimetric method is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have proven to be useful in mapping the spatio-...

  14. Potential use of aquarius scatterometer observations to estimate vegetation water content (United States)

    Information about vegetation water content (VWC) is useful in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. It will be also employed in several of the soil moisture retrieval algorithms. All of these algorithms utilize variations of the same radiative transfer equation that accounts for vegetation attenuatio...

  15. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...


    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  17. Release of E.coli D21g with transients in water content (United States)

    Transients in water content are well known to mobilize microorganisms that are retained in the vadose zone. However, there is no consensus on the relative importance of drainage and imbibition events on microorganism release. To overcome this limitation, we have systematically studied the release o...

  18. Conversion function between the Linke turbidity and the atmospheric water vapor and aerosol content


    Ineichen, Pierre


    This technical note presents a conversion function between the widely used Linke turbidity coefficient TL, the atmospheric water vapor and urban aerosol content. It takes into account the altitude of the application site. The function is based on radiative transfer calculations and validated with the help of an independent clear sky model. Its precision is around 0.12 units of TL.

  19. Tissue fusion bursting pressure and the role of tissue water content (United States)

    Cezo, James; Kramer, Eric; Taylor, Kenneth; Ferguson, Virginia; Rentschler, Mark


    Tissue fusion is a complex, poorly understood process which bonds collagenous tissues together using heat and pressure. The goal of this study is to elucidate the role of hydration in bond efficacy. Hydration of porcine splenic arteries (n=30) was varied by pre-fusion treatments: 24-48 hour immersion in isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic baths. Treated arteries were fused in several locations using Conmed's Altrus thermal fusion device and the bursting pressure was then measured for each fused segment. Artery sections were then weighed before and after lyophilization, to quantify water content. Histology (HE, EVG staining) enabled visualization of the bonding interface. Bursting pressure was significantly greater (p=4.17 E-ll) for the hypotonic group (607.6 +/- 83.2mmHg), while no significant difference existed between the isotonic (332.6 +/- 44.7mmHg) and hypertonic (348.7 +/- 44.0mmHg) treatment groups. Total water content varied (p=8.80 E-24) from low water content in the hypertonic samples (72.5% weight +/- 0.9), to high water content in the hypotonic samples (83.1% weight +/- 1.9), while the isotonic samples contained 78.8% weight +/- 1.1. Strength differences between the treated vessels imply that bound water driven from the tissue during fusion may reveal available collagen crosslinking sites to facilitate bond formation during the fusion process. Thus when the tissue contains greater bound water volumes, more crosslinking sites may become available during fusion, leading to a stronger bond. This study provides an important step towards understanding the chemistry underlying tissue fusion and the mechanics of tissue fusion as a function of bound water within the tissue.

  20. Relating soil microbial activity to water content and tillage-induced differences in soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Petersen, Søren O


    content to a maximum and then decreased. This relationship was modelled with a second order polynomium. Model parameters did not show any tillage effect on the optimum water content, but the optimum coincided with a lower matric potential in ST (SAND: − 140 to –197 hPa; LOAM: − 37 to − 65 hPa) than in MP......Several studies have identified optima in soil water content for aerobic microbial activity, and this has been ascribed to a balance between gas and solute diffusivity as limiting processes. We investigated the role of soil structure, as created by different tillage practices (moldboard ploughing...... to − 1500 hPa and subjected to measurements of gas diffusivity prior to incubation at 20 °C for 31 days. Net nitrification was calculated from nitrate accumulation during incubation. The upper layer of ST and MP soil had similar physical properties in terms of bulk density, pore size distribution...

  1. Effects of Foliar Applications of Sulfur, Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Castor Bean (Ricinus cmmunis L. Seed Yield and its Components under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mosavi


    Full Text Available To determine the effects of foliar applications of some macroelements on castor seed yield and its components under drought stress conditions, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Center of East Azerbaijan province. A factorial experiment, based on randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out during 2013 growing season. Treatment factors consisted of irrigations with two levels (no water deficit and water deficit during grain filling stage and of foliar applications of macroelements with four levels [control, wettable sulfur (0.2 percent, nitrogen (urea: 0.6 percent and phosphor (super phosphate triple: 0.4 percent. Traits studied were: plant height, number of inflorescence, number of lateral branches, number of leaves, leaf temperature, relative water content, number of seeds per plant, 1000-kernal weight and seed yield. All traits, except number of inflorescence, were affected significantly by drought stress. Water deficit reduced plant height, number of leaves, number of seeds per plant, 1000-kernal weight, seed yield, relative water content, while it increased leaf temperature. Number of lateral branches was affected significantly by interaction between factors. Maximum latral branches (1.86 were obtained under non-stress treatment with nitrogen foliar application. Moderate drought stress had significant effect on leaf temperature and relative water content. It seems that, these traits can be used in determination of water deficit effects on castor bean.

  2. Application of Tank Model for Predicting Water Balance and Flow Discharge Components of Cisadane Upper Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Mulyana Arifjaya


    Full Text Available The concept of hydrological tank model was well described into four compartments (tanks. The first tank (tank A comprised of one vertical (qA0 and two lateral (qA1 and qA2 water flow components and tank B comprised of one vertical (qB0 and one lateral (qB1 water flow components. Tank C comprised of one vertical (qC0 and one lateral (qC1 water flow components, whereas tank D comprised of one lateral water flow component (qD1.  These vertical water flows would also contribute to the depletion of water flow in the related tanks but would replenish tanks in the deeper layers. It was assumed that at all lateral water flow components would finally accumulate in one stream, summing-up of the lateral water flow, much or less, should be equal to the water discharge (Qo at specified time concerns. Tank A received precipitation (R and evapo-transpiration (ET which was its gradientof (R-ET over time would become the driving force for the changes of water stored in the soil profiles and thosewater flows leaving the soil layer.  Thus tank model could describe th vertical and horizontal water flow withinthe watershed. The research site was Cisadane Upper Catchment, located at Pasir Buncir Village of CaringinSub-District within the Regency of Bogor in West Java Province.  The elevations ranged 512 –2,235 m above sealevel, with a total drainage area of 1,811.5 ha and total length of main stream of 14,340.7 m.  The land cover wasdominated by  forest  with a total of 1,044.6 ha (57.67%,  upland agriculture with a total of 477.96 ha (26.38%,mixed garden with a total of 92.85 ha(5.13% and semitechnical irigated rice field with a total of 196.09 ha (10,8%.  The soil was classified as hydraquent (96.6% and distropept (3.4%.  Based on the calibration of tank model application in the study area, the resulting coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.72 with model efficiency (NSEof= 0.75, thus tank model could well illustrate the water flow distribution of

  3. Exogenous proline effects on water relations and ions contents in leaves and roots of young olive. (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, Ch; Magdich, S; Ben Rouina, B; Sensoy, S; Boukhris, M; Ben Abdullah, F


    The ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract salt inhibitory effects was investigated in 2-year-old olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) subjected to different saline water irrigation levels supplied or not with exogenous proline. Leaf water relations [relative water content (RWC), water potential], photosynthetic activity, leaf chlorophyll content, and starch contents were measured in young and old leaves. Salt ions (Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)), proline and soluble sugars contents were determined in leaf and root tissues. Supplementary proline significantly mitigated the adverse effects of salinity via the improvement of photosynthetic activity (Pn), RWC, chlorophyll and carotenoid, and starch contents. Pn of young leaves in the presence of 25 mM proline was at 1.18 and 1.38 times higher than the values recorded under moderate (SS1) and high salinity (SS2) treatments, respectively. Further, the proline supply seems to have a more important relaxing effect on the photosynthetic chain in young than in old leaves of salt-stressed olive plants. The differential pattern of proline content between young and old leaves suggests that there would be a difference between these tissues in distinguishing between the proline taken from the growing media and that produced as a result of salinity stress. Besides, the large reduction in Na(+) accumulation in leaves and roots in the presence of proline could be due to its interference in osmotic adjustment process and/or its dilution by proline supply. Moreover, the lower accumulation of Na(+) in proline-treated plants, compared to their corresponding salinity treatment, displayed the improved effect of proline on the ability of roots to exclude the salt ions from the xylem sap flowing to the shoot, and thus better growth rates.

  4. Uranium bone content as an indicator of chronic environmental exposure from drinking water. (United States)

    Larivière, Dominic; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Kochermin, Vera; Johnson, Sonia


    Uranium (U) is an ubiquitous radioelement found in drinking water and food. As a consequence of its prevalence, most humans ingest a few micrograms (μg) of this element daily. It is incorporated in various organs and tissues. Several studies have demonstrated that ingested U is deposited mainly in bones. Therefore, U skeletal content could be considered as a prime indicator for low-level chronic intake. In this study, 71 archived vertebrae bone samples collected in seven Canadian cities were subjected to digestion and U analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These results were correlated with U concentrations in municipal drinking water supplies, with the data originating from historical studies performed by Health Canada. A strong relationship (r(2) = 0.97) was observed between the averaged U total skeletal content and averaged drinking water concentration, supporting the hypothesis that bones are indeed a good indicator of U intake. Using a PowerBASIC compiler to process an ICRP systemic model for U (ICRP, 1995a), U total skeletal content was estimated using two gastrointestinal tract absorption factors (ƒ1 = 0.009 and 0.03). Comparisons between observed and modelled skeletal contents as a function of U intake from drinking water tend to demonstrate that neither of the ƒ1 values can adequately estimate observed values. An ƒ1value of 0.009 provides a realistic estimate for intake resulting from food consumption only (6.72 μg) compared to experimental data (7.4 ± 0.8 μg), whereas an ƒ1value of 0.03 tends to better estimate U skeletal content at higher levels of U (1-10 μg L(-1)) in drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolved-Lithology Clasts in Lunar Breccias: Relating Petrogenetic Diversity to Measured Water Content (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Simon, J. J.; Ross, D. K.


    Studies of the inventory and distribution of water in lunar rocks have recently begun to focus on alkali suite samples as possible water repositories, particularly the most highly evolved granitoid lithologies. Although H analyses of feldspars in these rocks have so far pointed to 'low' (less than 20 ppm) H2O contents, there is sufficient variability in the dataset (e.g., 2-20 ppm) to warrant consideration of the petrogenetic factors that may have caused some granitoid-to-intermediate rocks to be dryer or wetter than others. Given that all examples of these rocks occur as clasts in complex impact breccias, the role of impact and other factors in altering water contents established by primary igneous processes becomes a major factor. We are supporting our ongoing SIMS studies of water in evolved lunar lithologies with systematic SEM and EPMA observations. Here we report a synthesis of the observations as part of developing discriminating factors for reconstructing the thermal, crystallization and shock history of these samples as compared with their water contents.

  6. High-accuracy measurement of low-water-content in liquid using NIR spectral absorption method (United States)

    Peng, Bao-Jin; Wan, Xu; Jin, Hong-Zhen; Zhao, Yong; Mao, He-Fa


    Water content measurement technologies are very important for quality inspection of food, medicine products, chemical products and many other industry fields. In recent years, requests for accurate low-water-content measurement in liquid are more and more exigent, and great interests have been shown from the research and experimental work. With the development and advancement of modern production and control technologies, more accurate water content technology is needed. In this paper, a novel experimental setup based on near-infrared (NIR) spectral technology and fiber-optic sensor (OFS) is presented. It has a good measurement accuracy about -/+ 0.01%, which is better, to our knowledge, than most other methods published until now. It has a high measurement resolution of 0.001% in the measurement range from zero to 0.05% for water-in-alcohol measurement, and the water-in-oil measurement is carried out as well. In addition, the advantages of this method also include pollution-free to the measured liquid, fast measurement and so on.

  7. [Nitrate and nitrite contents in vegetable juice, tea beverage and mineral water on the market]. (United States)

    Murata, Mihoko; Ishinaga, Masataka


    The contents of nitrate and nitrite in vegetable juice (n = 63), tea beverage (n = 12) and mineral water (n = 15) were measured. The mean contents of nitrate were 0.73 +/- 14.57 mg/100 g, 0.61 +/- 1.12 mg/100 g and 0.25 +/- 0.33 mg/100 g as NO3-, respectively. The contents of the nitrite were 0.03 +/- 0.05 mg/100 g, 0.02 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g and 0.001 +/- 0.001 mg/100 g as NO2-, respectively. The content of nitrate is high in some vegetable juices, and warnings may be necessary for people who drink them frequently.

  8. Effect of temperature, water content and free fatty acid on reverse micelle formation of phospholipids in vegetable oil. (United States)

    Lehtinen, Olli-Pekka; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N; Lehtimaa, Tuula; Vierros, Sampsa; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Ruokolainen, Janne; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Österberg, Monika


    The self-assembly of phospholipids in oil, specifically lecithin in rapeseed oil, was investigated by combining experimental and computational methods The influence of temperature, water, and free fatty acids on the onset of lecithin aggregation in the rapeseed oil was determined using the 7,7,8,8 -tetracyanoquinodimethane dye (TCNQ) solubilization method and the size and shape of the self-assembled lecithin structures were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of excess water in the system (0.03wt-% water in oil), stable cylindrical lecithin reverse micelles were observed above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Comparing the aggregation response in room temperature and at 70°C revealed that CMC decreased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, already a modest amount of added water (0.3wt-% water in oil) was sufficient to induce the formation of lamellar lecithin structures, that phase separated from the oil. In low water content, oleic acid suppressed the formation of lecithin reverse micelles whereas in the presence of more water, the oleic acid stabilized the reverse micelles. Consequently, more water was needed to induce phase separation in the presence of oleic acid. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the stabilizing effect of oleic acid resulted from oleic acid enhancing phospholipid solubilization in the oil by forming a solvating shell around the phosphate head group. The findings showed that the response of the mixed surfactant system is a delicate interplay of the different components and variables. The significance of the observations is that multiple parameters need to be controlled for desired system response, for example towards vegetable oil purification or phospholipid based microemulsions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An accurate retrieval of leaf water content from mid to thermal infrared spectra using continuous wavelet analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Saleem, E-mail: [Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Skidmore, Andrew K. [Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Naeem, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan (AWKUM), KPK (Pakistan); Schlerf, Martin [Centre de Recherche Public-Gabriel Lippmann (CRPGL), L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)


    Leaf water content determines plant health, vitality, photosynthetic efficiency and is an important indicator of drought assessment. The retrieval of leaf water content from the visible to shortwave infrared spectra is well known. Here for the first time, we estimated leaf water content from the mid to thermal infrared (2.5-14.0 {mu}m) spectra, based on continuous wavelet analysis. The dataset comprised 394 spectra from nine plant species, with different water contents achieved through progressive drying. To identify the spectral feature most sensitive to the variations in leaf water content, first the Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) spectra were transformed into a wavelet power scalogram, and then linear relations were established between the wavelet power scalogram and leaf water content. The six individual wavelet features identified in the mid infrared yielded high correlations with leaf water content (R{sup 2} = 0.86 maximum, 0.83 minimum), as well as low RMSE (minimum 8.56%, maximum 9.27%). The combination of four wavelet features produced the most accurate model (R{sup 2} = 0.88, RMSE = 8.00%). The models were consistent in terms of accuracy estimation for both calibration and validation datasets, indicating that leaf water content can be accurately retrieved from the mid to thermal infrared domain of the electromagnetic radiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mid and thermal infrared spectra are sensitive to variation in leaf water content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous wavelet analysis detected the variation caused by leaf water content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The selected wavelet features are highly correlated with leaf water content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mid wave and thermal infrared spectra have the potential to estimate leaf water content.

  10. Assessing Variation in Water Balance Components in Mountainous Inland River Basin Experiencing Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenliang Yin


    Full Text Available Quantification of the changes of water balance components is significant for water resource assessment and management. This paper employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to estimate the water balance in a mountainous watershed in northwest China at different spatial scales over the past half century. The results showed that both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and determination coefficient (R2 were over 0.90 for the calibration and validation periods. The water balance components presented rising trends at the watershed scale, and the total runoff increased by 30.5% during 1964 to 2013 period. Rising surface runoff and rising groundwater flow contributed 42.7% and 57.3% of the total rising runoff, respectively. The runoff coefficient was sensitive to increasing precipitation and was not significant to the increase of temperature. The alpine meadow was the main landscape which occupied 51.1% of the watershed and contributed 55.5% of the total runoff. Grass land, forest land, bare land, and glacier covered 14.2%, 18.8%, 15.4%, and 0.5% of the watershed and contributed 8.5%, 16.9%, 15.9%, and 3.2% of the total runoff, respectively. The elevation zone from 3500 to 4500 m occupied 66.5% of the watershed area, and contributed the majority of the total runoff (70.7%. The runoff coefficients in the elevation zone from 1637 to 2800 m, 2800 to 3500 m, 3500 to 4000 m, 4000 to 4500 m, and 4500 to 5062 m were 0.20, 0.27, 0.32, 0.43, and 0.78, respectively, which tend to be larger along with the elevation increase. The quantities and change trends of the water balance components at the watershed scale were calculated by the results of the sub-watersheds. Furthermore, we characterized the spatial distribution of quantities and changes in trends of water balance components at the sub-watershed scale analysis. This study provides some references for water resource management and planning in inland river basins.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu


    Full Text Available Variation in light intensity, air temperature and relative air humidity leads to diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and leaf relative water content. In order to determine the diurnal changes in net photosynthetic rate of vine plants and influence of the main environmental factors, gas exchange in the vine leaves were measure using a portable plant CO2 analysis package. The results show that diurnal changes in photosynthetic rate could be interpreted as single-peak curve, with a maximum at noon (10.794 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Leaf relative water content has maximum value in the morning; the values may slightly decrease during the day (day of June, with normal temperature, no rain, no water restriction in soil.

  12. Evaluation of a method to measure water content in porous media by employing ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Leonardo Sáenz Cruz


    Full Text Available A method to measure water content in porous media, such as solis and grains, was developed as a real time nondestructive test. The method was based on piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers as a sensor system. Transmiters and receivers was developed to administrate the sensors system and ultrasonic signal. Transmiters and receivers are placed facing each other and located inside the porous media 10 cm apart. The method was evaluated in two porous meda, namely a column 30 cm coarse sand and a paddy rice variety Fedearroz 50, in order to evaluate the sensors system performance in two different porous media with different water holder capacity. Tools were developed for data acquisition, capacity of 16 analog signal, 12 bits resolution. Electronic circuits, C++ OPP programming and Matlab were used. The results showed a monotonically increment of millivolts as a response of the transducer as the water content was decreasing

  13. Element Content of Surface and Underground Water Sources around a Cement Factory Site in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Richard Egbe


    Full Text Available Background: Cement production is associated with heavy metal emissions and environmental pollution by cement dust. The degree of contamination of drinking water sources by major and trace elements present in cement dust generated by united cement factory (UNICEM is still uncertain. This study estimated the element content of ground and surface water samples (hand-dug wells, boreholes and streams around the factory site to determine the impact of cement dust exposure on the water levels of these elements. Methods: This study was conducted at UNICEM at Mfamosing, Akamkpa local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Drinking water samples (5 from each location were collected from the cement factory quarry site camp, 3 surrounding communities and Calabar metropolis (45 km away from factory serving as control. The lead (Pb, copper (Cu, manganes (Mn, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, selenium (Se, chromium (Cr, zinc (Zn and arsenic (As levels of samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD post hoc at P = 0.05. Results: As and Pb content of samples from camp were above the WHO recommendations of 0.01mg/l and 0.01mg/l respectively. Chromium and cadmium content of all water samples were above and others below WHO recommendations. Water levels of Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ca and Si were significantly elevated (though below WHO recommendations in camp than other locations (P<0.05. Conclusion: Production of cement results in As, Pb, Cr and cd contamination of drinking water sources near the factory. Treatment of all drinking water sources is recommended before public use to avert deleterious health consequences.

  14. Phytotoxic effects of fungicides, insecticides and nonpesticidal components on pepper depending on water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Vuković


    Full Text Available Modern agriculture relies on simultaneous application of fungicides, insecticides, fertilizers and adjuvants. The selection of compounds for tank-mixes has been rarely studied and it presents a risk in the application of pesticides but the quality of water should also be considered. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic effects of several fungicides, insecticides, a complex fertilizer, an adjuvant and their mixtures on pepper (Capsicum annuum L. as a test plant, depending on water quality. The effects of the pesticides: azoxystrobin (Quadris, 0.75 l/ha, mancozeb (Dithane M-70, 2.5 kg/ha, thiamethoxam (Actara 25-WG, 0.07 kg/ha and cypermethrin (Cipkord EC-20, 0.3 l/ha, a complex fertilizer (Mortonijc plus /hereinafter: M+/ 3kg/ha, an adjuvant (Sillwet 77-L, 0.1 l/ha and their mixtures, were assessed depending on the quality of water (well water – slightly alkaline, very hard and with high nitrite content; tap water – neutral and slightly hard; surface water – alkaline, slightly hard and with high content of nitrite and ammonia using a puncture method. The effects were assessed after seven days by measuring the diameter of chlorosis and/or necrosis around puncture sites, and were expressed in mm2. The significance of differences between treatments was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA (LSD 0.05 %. In the slightly alkaline and very hard well water, all spray liquids containing Dithane M-70 caused a significant increase in leaf chlorosis area (from 6.0 to 25.2 mm2, compared to the control and other treatments. In the neutral and slightly hard tap water, all spray liquids containing Dithane M-70 caused a significant increase in leaf chlorosis (5.3 to 7.9 mm2 compared to the control and the other spray liquids, although its phytotoxicity in that water was at a lower level than it was in well water. However, in the weakly alkaline and slightly hard surface water from the river Sava, Dithane M–70, Dithane M-70 + Actara WG-25, Dithane M

  15. Validation of methods for determination of free water content in poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Žítková


    Full Text Available Methods for determination of free water content in poultry meat are described in Commission Regulation EEC No 1538/91 as amended and in ČSN 57 3100. Two of them (method A and D have been validated in conditions of a Czech poultry processing plant. The capacity of slaughtering was 6000 pieces per hour and carcasses were chilled by air with spraying. All determinations were carried out in the plant’s lab and in the lab of the Institute of Food Technology. Method A was used to detect the amount of water lost from frozen chicken during thawing in controlled conditions. Twenty carcasses from six weight groups (900 g–1400 g were tested. The average values of thaw loss water contents ranged between 0.46% and 1.71%, the average value of total 120 samples was 1.16%. The results were compared with the required maximum limit value of 3.3%. The water loss content was in negative correlation with the weight of chicken (r = –0.56. Method D (chemical test has been applied to determine the total water content of certain poultry cuts. It involved the determination of water and protein contents of 62 representative samples in total. The average values of ratio of water weight to proteins weight WA/RPA were in breast fillets 3.29, in legs with a portion of the back 4.06, legs 4.00, thighs 3.85 and drumsticks 4.10. The results corresponded to the required limit values for breast fillets 3.40 and for leg cuts 4.15. The ratio of water weight to proteins weight WA/RPA was correlated with the weight of chicken for breast fillets negatively (r = –0.61 and for leg cuts positively (r = 0.70. Different correlations can be explained by the distribution of water, protein and fat in carcasses. The evaluation of methods in the parameter of percentage ratio of the average value to the limit showed that method D (results were at the level of 97% of the limit was more exact than method A (results were at the level 32% of the limit but it is more expensive. Both methods

  16. The influence of water and salt content on the thermal conductivity coefficient of red clay brick (United States)

    Bednarska, Dalia; Koniorczyk, Marcin


    This paper presents the results of experiments aimed at the determination of hygro-thermal properties of red clay brick containing water or salt. The main objective of the research is the determination of the relation between the apparent thermal conductivity of brick and its water or Na2SO4 in water solution content. The research is conducted using stationary technique for the dry specimens, as well as the ones containing 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% water or sodium sulphate solution. The experimental results confirm the negative influence of water or sodium sulphate solution on thermal properties of material. However we observe that the presence of Na2SO4 in pores slightly weakens this negative impact.

  17. Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out. (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; McAuley, Jim; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M


    Poultry grown on litter floors are in contact with their own waste products. The waste material needs to be carefully managed to reduce food safety risks and to provide conditions that are comfortable and safe for the birds. Water activity (Aw) is an important thermodynamic property that has been shown to be more closely related to microbial, chemical and physical properties of natural products than moisture content. In poultry litter, Aw is relevant for understanding microbial activity; litter handling and rheological properties; and relationships between in-shed relative humidity and litter moisture content. We measured the Aw of poultry litter collected throughout a meat chicken grow-out (from fresh pine shavings bedding material to day 52) and over a range of litter moisture content (10-60%). The Aw increased non-linearly from 0.71 to 1.0, and reached a value of 0.95 when litter moisture content was only 22-33%. Accumulation of manure during the grow-out reduced Aw for the same moisture content. These results are relevant for making decisions regarding litter re-use in multiple grow-outs as well as setting targets for litter moisture content to minimise odour, microbial risks and to ensure necessary litter physical conditions are maintained during a grow-out. Methods to predict Aw in poultry litter from moisture content are proposed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On-sample water content measurement for a complete local monitoring in triaxial testing of unsaturated soils

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Castelblanco, José; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Cui, Yu-Jun


    To provide a complete local monitoring of the state of an unsaturated soil sample during triaxial testing, a local water content measurement device was adapted to a triaxial device comprising the measurement of local displacements (Hall effect transducers) and suction (High capacity transducer). Water content was locally monitored by means of a resistivity probe. The water content/resistivity calibration curves of an intact natural unsaturated loess from Northern France extracted by block sampling at two depths (1 and 3.3 m) were carefully determined, showing good accuracy and repeatability. The validity of two models giving the resistivity of unsaturated soils with respect to their water content was examined.

  19. Effects of tissue water content on the propagation of laser light during low-level laser therapy. (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Shin, Sungho; Jeong, Sungho


    This work reports that the laser fluence rate inside porcine skin varied notably with the change of tissue water content under the same laser irradiation conditions. The laser fluence rate inside skin tissue samples with varying water content was measured using an optical fiber sensor, while the target was irradiated either by a low-level 635 or 830 nm laser (50 mW/cm2). It was demonstrated that the distribution of laser fluence rate inside the target is strongly affected by tissue water content and its profile is determined by the water content dependency of optical properties at the laser wavelength.

  20. A practitioner's guide for exploring water quality patterns using principal components analysis and Procrustes. (United States)

    Sergeant, C J; Starkey, E N; Bartz, K K; Wilson, M H; Mueter, F J


    To design sustainable water quality monitoring programs, practitioners must choose meaningful variables, justify the temporal and spatial extent of measurements, and demonstrate that program objectives are successfully achieved after implementation. Consequently, data must be analyzed across several variables and often from multiple sites and seasons. Multivariate techniques such as ordination are common throughout the water quality literature, but methods vary widely and could benefit from greater standardization. We have found little clear guidance and open source code for efficiently conducting ordination to explore water quality patterns. Practitioners unfamiliar with techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) are faced with a steep learning curve to summarize expansive data sets in periodic reports and manuscripts. Here, we present a seven-step framework for conducting PCA and associated tests. The last step is dedicated to conducting Procrustes analysis, a valuable but rarely used test within the water quality field that describes the degree of concordance between separate multivariate data matrices and provides residual values for similar points across each matrix. We illustrate the utility of these tools using three increasingly complex water quality case studies in US parklands. The case studies demonstrate how PCA and Procrustes analysis answer common applied monitoring questions such as (1) do data from separate monitoring locations describe similar water quality regimes, and (2) what time periods exhibit the greatest water quality regime variability? We provide data sets and annotated R code for recreating case study results and as a base for crafting new code for similar monitoring applications.

  1. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken


    [-ψ], where ψ is the soil water matric potential in centimeters of H2O) plot, with linear increase in WR from the moisture content where WR first occurs during drying to the maximum WR at pFWR-max, and a linear decrease from pFWR-max until ambient air-dried conditions. The van Genuchten soil water retention......Soil water repellency (WR) occurs worldwide and affects hydrologic processes such as infiltration, preferential flow, and surface erosion. The degree of WR varies with soil organic C (SOC) and water contents. In this study, we measured WR (by ethanol molarity) as a function of moisture conditions...... for two soil profiles (17 layers, of which 13 exhibited WR), representing different vegetation and SOC between 0.6 and 14%. Generally, WR was found at SOC ≥2%. Based on measured data, a two-region water repellency (TRWR) model was developed. The model assumes two linear regions in a WR vs. pF (=log...

  2. Towards Estimating Water Stress through Leaf and Canopy Water Content Derived from Optical and Thermal Hyperspectral Data (United States)

    Corbin, Amie; Timmermans, Joris; van der Tol, Christiaan; Verhoef, Wout


    A competition for available (drinkable) water has arisen. This competition originated due to increasing global population and the respective needs of this population. The water demand for human consumption and irrigation of food producing crops and biofuel related vegetation, has led to early indication of drought as a key issue in many studies. However, while drought monitoring systems might provide some reasonable predictions, at the time of visible symptoms of plant stress, a plant may already be critically affected. Consequently, pre-symptomatic non-destructive monitoring of plants is needed. In many studies of plant stress, this is performed by examining internal plant physiology through existing remote sensing techniques, with varying applications. However, a uniform remote sensing method for identifying early plant stress under drought conditions is still developing. In some instances, observations of vegetation water content are used to assess the impact of soil water deficit on the health of a plant or canopy. When considering water content as an indicator of water stress in a plant, this comments not only on the condition of the plant itself, but also provides indicators of photosynthetic activity and the susceptibility to drought. Several indices of canopy health currently exists (NDVI, DVI, SAVI, etc.) using optical and near infrared reflectance bands. However, these are considered inadequate for vegetation health investigations because such semi-empirical models result in less accuracy for canopy measurements. In response, a large amount of research has been conducted to estimate canopy health directly from considering the full spectral behaviour. In these studies , the canopy reflectance has been coupled to leaf parameters, by using coupling leaf radiative transfer models (RTM), such as PROSPECT, to a canopy RTM such as SAIL. The major shortcomings of these researches is that they have been conducted primarily for optical remote sensing. Recently

  3. Integrating principal component analysis and vector quantization with support vector regression for sulfur content prediction in HDS process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokri Saeid


    Full Text Available An accurate prediction of sulfur content is very important for the proper operation and product quality control in hydrodesulfurization (HDS process. For this purpose, a reliable data- driven soft sensors utilizing Support Vector Regression (SVR was developed and the effects of integrating Vector Quantization (VQ with Principle Component Analysis (PCA were studied on the assessment of this soft sensor. First, in pre-processing step the PCA and VQ techniques were used to reduce dimensions of the original input datasets. Then, the compressed datasets were used as input variables for the SVR model. Experimental data from the HDS setup were employed to validate the proposed integrated model. The integration of VQ/PCA techniques with SVR model was able to increase the prediction accuracy of SVR. The obtained results show that integrated technique (VQ-SVR was better than (PCA-SVR in prediction accuracy. Also, VQ decreased the sum of the training and test time of SVR model in comparison with PCA. For further evaluation, the performance of VQ-SVR model was also compared to that of SVR. The obtained results indicated that VQ-SVR model delivered the best satisfactory predicting performance (AARE= 0.0668 and R2= 0.995 in comparison with investigated models.

  4. Soil specific re-calibration of water content sensors for a field-scale sensor network (United States)

    Gasch, Caley K.; Brown, David J.; Anderson, Todd; Brooks, Erin S.; Yourek, Matt A.


    Obtaining accurate soil moisture data from a sensor network requires sensor calibration. Soil moisture sensors are factory calibrated, but multiple site specific factors may contribute to sensor inaccuracies. Thus, sensors should be calibrated for the specific soil type and conditions in which they will be installed. Lab calibration of a large number of sensors prior to installation in a heterogeneous setting may not be feasible, and it may not reflect the actual performance of the installed sensor. We investigated a multi-step approach to retroactively re-calibrate sensor water content data from the dielectric permittivity readings obtained by sensors in the field. We used water content data collected since 2009 from a sensor network installed at 42 locations and 5 depths (210 sensors total) within the 37-ha Cook Agronomy Farm with highly variable soils located in the Palouse region of the Northwest United States. First, volumetric water content was calculated from sensor dielectric readings using three equations: (1) a factory calibration using the Topp equation; (2) a custom calibration obtained empirically from an instrumented soil in the field; and (3) a hybrid equation that combines the Topp and custom equations. Second, we used soil physical properties (particle size and bulk density) and pedotransfer functions to estimate water content at saturation, field capacity, and wilting point for each installation location and depth. We also extracted the same reference points from the sensor readings, when available. Using these reference points, we re-scaled the sensor readings, such that water content was restricted to the range of values that we would expect given the physical properties of the soil. The re-calibration accuracy was assessed with volumetric water content measurements obtained from field-sampled cores taken on multiple dates. In general, the re-calibration was most accurate when all three reference points (saturation, field capacity, and wilting

  5. The water balance components of undisturbed tropical woodlands in the Brazilian cerrado (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.; Scott, R. L.; Rosolem, R.; da Rocha, H. R.


    Deforestation of the Brazilian cerrado region has caused major changes in hydrological processes. These changes in water balance components are still poorly understood but are important for making land management decisions in this region. To better understand pre-deforestation conditions, we determined the main components of the water balance for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso". We developed an empirical model to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) by using flux tower measurements and vegetation conditions inferred from the enhanced vegetation index and reference evapotranspiration. Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, surface runoff, and water table level were assessed from ground measurements. We used data from two cerrado sites, Pé de Gigante (PDG) and Instituto Arruda Botelho (IAB). Flux tower data from the PDG site collected from 2001 to 2003 were used to develop the empirical model to estimate ET. The other hydrological processes were measured at the field scale between 2011 and 2014 at the IAB site. The empirical model showed significant agreement (R2 = 0.73) with observed ET at the daily timescale. The average values of estimated ET at the IAB site ranged from 1.91 to 2.60 mm day-1 for the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Canopy interception ranged from 4 to 20 % and stemflow values were approximately 1 % of the gross precipitation. The average runoff coefficient was less than 1 %, while cerrado deforestation has the potential to increase that amount up to 20-fold. As relatively little excess water runs off (either by surface water or groundwater), the water storage may be estimated by the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Our results provide benchmark values of water balance dynamics in the undisturbed cerrado that will be useful to evaluate past and future land-cover and land-use changes for this region.

  6. Magnetization transfer studies of the fast and slow tissue water diffusion components in the human brain. (United States)

    Mulkern, Robert V; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Haker, Steven J; Maier, Stephan E


    Magnetization transfer (MT) properties of the fast and slow diffusion components recently observed in the human brain were assessed experimentally. One set of experiments, performed at 1.5 T in healthy volunteers, was designed to determine whether the amplitudes of fast and slow diffusion components, differentiated on the basis of biexponential fits to signal decays over a wide range of b-factors, demonstrated a different or similar magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). Another set of experiments, performed at 3 T in healthy volunteers, was designed to determine whether MTRs differed when measured from high signal-to-noise images acquired with b-factor weightings of 350 vs 3500 s/mm2. The 3 T studies included measurements of MTR as a function of off-resonance frequency for the MT pulse at both low and high b-factors. The primary conclusion drawn from all the studies is that there appears to be no significant difference between the magnetization transfer properties of the fast and slow tissue water diffusion components. The conclusions do not lend support to a direct interpretation of the 'components' of the biexponential diffusion decay in terms of the 'compartments' associated with intra- and extracellular water. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Content and distribution of fluorine in rock, clay and water in fluorosis area Zhaotong, Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.; Li, H.; Feng, F. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)


    About 160 samples of coal, pyritic coal balls, coal seam gangue, clay, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin county, China to determine the fluorine content, distribution pattern and source in this fluorosis area. The study shows that the average fluorine content in the coal samples collected from 3 coal mines of the Late Permian coals in Zhenxiong and Weixin county, Zhaotong City, which are the main mining coals there, is 77.13 mg/kg. The average fluorine content coals collected form thee typical fluorosis villages in 72.56 mg/kg. Both of them are close to the world average and little low than the Chinese average. The fluorine content of drinking water is lower than 0.35 mg/L, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binfer in briquette-making by local residents has a high content of fluorine, ranging from 367-2,435 mg/kg, with the majority higher than 600 mg/kg and an average of 1,084.2 mg/kg. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Dynamics of soil water content during depletion cycles in peach orchards in a semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paltineanu


    Full Text Available Due to the competition for water resources, increasing efforts are done in order to use more efficiently irrigation water in agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to find out daily soil water content (SWC dynamics during depletion cycles in order to emphasize its pattern and compare daylight vs. night (dark and morning vs. afternoon SWC dynamics in an irrigated peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch orchard under various soil water regimes. To do this, four depletion cycles were studied after irrigation application in two treatments: fully irrigated (T1 and water stressed (T2, in a semiarid region of Romania. Soil water potential was continuously measured with Watermark resistance blocks. Daylight soil water discharge (SWD is higher than night SWD (1.87 ratio in T1 and 1.50 in T2 mainly due to solar radiation (Rs, higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD, and wind speed (U, with crop transpiration and crop water uptake being higher during daylight vs. nighttime. SWD during 14:00-20:00 h is greater than 08:00-14:00 h due to higher afternoon values of air temperature (T, VPD, and U. The results help understand better the relations between the daily dynamics of SWC and Rs, T, VPD, and U, and could be utilized by fruit growers to improve water management and conservation in semiarid regions with similar environmental conditions.

  9. Impact of the geological substrate on the radiological content of Galician waters. (United States)

    Llerena, J J; Cortina, D; Durán, I; Sorribas, R


    Galicia (NW of Spain) is home to a highly-fractured soil rich in (238)U minerals, being the widest radon-prone area of the Iberian Peninsula. High precipitation levels confer a rich variety and abundance of both surface and groundwaters, which are extensively used for human consumption. Nevertheless, there exists no comprehensive body of information about the impact of the high environmental radioactivity on the radiological content of Galician waters. Measurements of (222)Rn, gross alpha/beta, (226, 224)Ra and (3)H activity were undertaken over a significant range of traditional springs, waters for spas and bottling plant wells. A seasonal survey was also performed for five network water suppliers to the largest Galician cities. The main outcome of this study has been the determination of statistical correlations between the water's radiological content and different environmental factors. Water measured at bottling plants reveal radiological values exceeding the U.E. limits, however this is eliminated in the industrial bottling process before reaching the consumer. Neither significant values nor seasonal variations were obtained for network waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Absorption and effect of the magnesium content of a mineral water in the human body. (United States)

    Kiss, Sandor A; Forster, Tamás; Dongó, Agnes


    The kinetics of magnesium (Mg) absorption, after drinking Magnesia mineral water (204 mg Mg/L), was investigated in healthy humans aged (23-60 yrs). Serum Mg, calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sodium (Na) content, blood hemoglobin, erythrocyte and white blood cell counts as well as urinary volume and urine Mg content were evaluated. Subjects drank 1.5 liters of Magnesia in 30 minutes; blood and the other tests were taken at 0, 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours, and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Serum ion quotient was calculated. Serum Mg levels increased in all cases, and returned to individual normal values after 48 hrs. Subjects drank copious amounts of the mineral water only on the first two days, later they consumed one glass of mineral water at a time, totalling 1-1.5 liters daily. Urinary volume and its Mg content significantly increased, with individual differences in urine Mg content depending on degrees of tissue Mg deficiency. For example, two subjects, who had the same initial serum Mg levels (79 m/M/L), responded to consumption of Magnesia mineral water similarly, with comparable rise of serum Mg but with different urinary Mg excretion, one rapidly excreting Mg, while the other lost less Mg over a longer period of time. The retention of more Mg in one than the other suggests that she had a "hidden" tissue Mg deficiency, despite a serum Mg level within normal limits. No subject experienced ECG or rhythm disturbance, and blood pressure remained unchanged during the study. One patient developed diarrhea. Magnesia's high Mg (204 mg/M) and low Na (5.4 mg/L) content makes it an excellent source of Mg for patients suffering from heart problems and/or high blood pressure.

  11. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance for the in vivo study of water content in trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, Jacob, E-mail: [Inorganic, Isotope and Actinide Chemistry, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Malone, Michael W.; Espy, Michelle A. [Applied Modern Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sevanto, Sanna [Earth Systems Observations, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)


    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging have long been used to study water content in plants. Approaches have been primarily based on systems using large magnetic fields (∼1 T) to obtain NMR signals with good signal-to-noise. This is because the NMR signal scales approximately with the magnetic field strength squared. However, there are also limits to this approach in terms of realistic physiological configuration or those imposed by the size and cost of the magnet. Here we have taken a different approach – keeping the magnetic field low to produce a very light and inexpensive system, suitable for bulk water measurements on trees less than 5 cm in diameter, which could easily be duplicated to measure on many trees or from multiple parts of the same tree. Using this system we have shown sensitivity to water content in trees and their cuttings and observed a diurnal signal variation in tree water content in a greenhouse. We also demonstrate that, with calibration and modeling of the thermal polarization, the system is reliable under significant temperature variation.

  12. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment. (United States)

    Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe


    There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC). Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWPfat. Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWPprotein. For NWPFe, Zn and Ca, dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant (p > 0.05). While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density), climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  13. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendai Polite Chibarabada


    Full Text Available There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS. The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP of selected major (groundnut, dry bean and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu. Yield and evapotranspiration (ET data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC. Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWPfat. Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWPprotein. For NWPFe, Zn and Ca, dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant (p > 0.05. While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density, climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  14. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content (United States)

    Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Bain, Robert E. S.; Lin, Yanzhao; Zhang, Ce; Wright, Jim A.


    Following the recent expiry of the United Nations’ 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census’s ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring. PMID:26986472

  15. Organic matter and soil water content influence on BRS 188 castor bean growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola


    The castor bean culture has been highlighted due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0{sup -1} e 25.0{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) were used regressions. The castor bean cultivar height was significantly influenced by the organic matter content only after 80 days. Castor bean height increased significantly with the soil water content after 40 days of growing. (author)

  16. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Yu

    Full Text Available Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring.

  17. Feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obtaining nucleus pulposus (NP) water content with changing postures. (United States)

    Nazari, Jalil; Pope, Malcolm H; Graveling, Richard A


    Opportunities to evaluate spinal loading in vivo are limited and a large majority of studies on the mechanical functions of the spine have been in vitro cadaveric studies and/or models based on many assumptions that are difficult to validate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obtaining nucleus pulposus (NP) water content measurements with changing postures. MRI studies were conducted on 25 healthy males with no history of low back pain (age 20-38). The L1 to S1 intradiscal levels were imaged in supine, sitting and standing postures using an upright 0.6 Tesla magnet, where a set of H2O: D2O7 phantoms were mounted on the back of the subjects. A calibration curve, provided from these phantoms, was applied to the absolute proton density image, yielding a pixel-by-pixel map of the water content of the NP. The NP at all levels showed a highly significant water loss (pNP in different postures are in agreement with those determined from published invasive disc pressure measurements. The result of study demonstrates the feasibility of using MRI to determine the water content of the NP with changing postures and to use these data to evaluate spinal loading in these postures. This measurement method of water content by quantitative MR imaging could become a powerful tool for both clinical and ergonomic applications. The proposed methodology does not require invasive pressure measurement techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of different radiative transfer model inversion methods for canopy water content retrieval (United States)

    Boren, E. J.; Boschetti, L.; Johnson, D.


    With near-future droughts predicted to become both more frequent and more intense (Allen et al. 2015, Diffenbaugh et al. 2015), the estimation of satellite-derived vegetation water content would benefit a wide range of environmental applications including agricultural, vegetation, and fire risk monitoring. No vegetation water content thematic product is currently available (Yebra et al. 2013), but the successful launch of the Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2A satellites, and the forthcoming Sentinel 2B, provide the opportunity for monitoring biophysical variables at a scale (10-30m) and temporal resolution (5 days) needed by most applications. Radiative transfer models (RTM) use a set of biophysical parameters to produce an estimated spectral response and - when used in inverse mode - provide a way to use satellite spectral data to estimate vegetation biophysical parameters, including water content (Zarco-Tejada et al. 2003). Using the coupled leaf and canopy level model PROSAIL5, and Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2A MSI optical satellite data, the present research compares the results of three model inversion techniques: iterative optimization (OPT), look-up table (LUT), and artificial neural network (ANN) training. Ancillary biophysical data, needed for constraining the inversion process, were collected from various crop species grown in a controlled setting and under different water stress conditions. The measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area, and spectral leaf transmittance and reflectance in the 350-2500 nm range. Plot-level data, collected coincidently with satellite overpasses during three summer field campaigns in northern Idaho (2014 to 2016), are used to evaluate the results of the model inversion. Field measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area index, plant height, and top of canopy reflectance in the 350-2500 nm range. The results of the model inversion intercomparison exercised are used to characterize the uncertainties of

  19. Detection of water soluble lectin and antioxidant component from Moringa oleifera seeds. (United States)

    Santos, A F S; Argolo, A C C; Coelho, L C B B; Paiva, P M G


    Seed flour from Moringa oleifera is widely used as a natural coagulant for water treatment in developing countries. Extracts obtained by water soaking of M. oleifera intact seeds were investigated for the presence of lectin, trypsin inhibitor, tannin as well as antioxidant activity. A water soluble M. oleifera lectin (WSMoL) detected was mainly active with rabbit cells at pH 4.5; heat treatment, pH 7.0, fructose and porcine thyroglobulin abolished HA of WSMoL. Trypsin inhibitor or tannins were not detected; the antioxidant component (WSMoAC) reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) was slower than catechin and was thermostable. The extracts showed a primary glycopolypeptide band of Mw 20,000; the main native acidic protein showed hemagglutinating activity. WSMoL may be involved in seed coagulant properties.

  20. Biodegradation of the water-soluble gasoline components in a novel hybrid bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De-Jesus, A.; Lara-Rodriguez, A.; Santoyo-Tepole, F.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Cristiani-Urbina, E.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N.; Galindez Mayer, J. [Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, ' ' Centro Operativo Naranjo' ' , Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    A novel hybrid bioreactor was designed to remove volatile organic compounds from water contaminated with water-soluble gasoline components, and the performance of this new bioreactor was investigated. It was composed of two biotrickling filter sections and one biofilter section. The liquid phase pollutants were removed by a mixed culture in the biotrickling filter sections and the gas phase pollutants stripped by air injection in the biofilter section. The specific rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained in the reactor were directly proportional to the pollutant-loading rate. A stable operation of the hybrid bioreactor was attained for long periods of time. The bioreactor had the potential to simultaneously treat a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds, e.g., those present in the water-soluble fraction of gasoline, as well as the capacity to readily adapt to changing operational conditions, such as an increased contaminant loading, and variations in the airflow rate. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Modelling of Cavitation of Wash-Out Water, Ammonia Water, Ammonia Water with Increased Content Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulphide, Tar Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef DOBEŠ


    Full Text Available The aim is to design and implement a procedure of numerical modelling of cavitation of working mixtures: wash-out water, ammonia water, ammonia water with an increased content of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia, tar condensate. The numeric modelling is designed in the program Ansys Fluent using Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model. The issue of these liquids modelling can be solved by the cavitation simulation of water admixtures. Working fluids contain the following main ingredients: water, ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Subsequently, a comparison of the amount of water vapor (reference liquid and given fluid vapor is executed. The Schnerr-Sauer model is chosen because of good results in previous simulations for water cavitation. As a geometry is selected Laval nozzle. Modelled liquid mixtures are used in the petrochemical industry, as a filling for fluid circuits where cavitation may occur and therefore the research is needed.

  2. Improved water balance component estimates through joint assimilation of GRACE water storage and SMOS soil moisture retrievals (United States)

    Tian, Siyuan; Tregoning, Paul; Renzullo, Luigi J.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Allgeyer, Sébastien


    The accuracy of global water balance estimates is limited by the lack of observations at large scale and the uncertainties of model simulations. Global retrievals of terrestrial water storage (TWS) change and soil moisture (SM) from satellites provide an opportunity to improve model estimates through data assimilation. However, combining these two data sets is challenging due to the disparity in temporal and spatial resolution at both vertical and horizontal scale. For the first time, TWS observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and near-surface SM observations from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) were jointly assimilated into a water balance model using the Ensemble Kalman Smoother from January 2010 to December 2013 for the Australian continent. The performance of joint assimilation was assessed against open-loop model simulations and the assimilation of either GRACE TWS anomalies or SMOS SM alone. The SMOS-only assimilation improved SM estimates but reduced the accuracy of groundwater and TWS estimates. The GRACE-only assimilation improved groundwater estimates but did not always produce accurate estimates of SM. The joint assimilation typically led to more accurate water storage profile estimates with improved surface SM, root-zone SM, and groundwater estimates against in situ observations. The assimilation successfully downscaled GRACE-derived integrated water storage horizontally and vertically into individual water stores at the same spatial scale as the model and SMOS, and partitioned monthly averaged TWS into daily estimates. These results demonstrate that satellite TWS and SM measurements can be jointly assimilated to produce improved water balance component estimates.

  3. Estimating the Relative Water Content of Leaves in a Cotton Canopy (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Kupinski, Meredith; French, Andrew; Chipman, Russell; Dahlgren, Robert


    Remotely sensing plant canopy water status remains a long-term goal of remote sensing research. Established approaches to estimating canopy water status the Crop Water Stress Index, the Water Deficit Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness involve measurements in the thermal or reflective infrared. Here we report plant water status estimates based upon analysis of polarized visible imagery of a cotton canopy measured by ground Multi-Spectral Polarization Imager (MSPI). Such estimators potentially provide access to the plant hydrological photochemistry that manifests scattering and absorption effects in the visible spectral region.Twice during one day, +- 3 hours from solar noon, we collected polarized imagery and relative water content data on a cotton test plot located at the Arid Land Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Maricopa, AZ. The test plot, a small portion of a large cotton field, contained stressed plants ready for irrigation. The evening prior to data collection we irrigated several rows of plants within the test plot. Thus, ground MSPI imagery from both morning and afternoon included cotton plants with a range of water statuses. Data analysis includes classifying the polarized imagery into sunlit reflecting, sunlit transmitting, shaded foliage and bare soil. We estimate the leaf surface reflection and interior reflection based upon the per pixel polarization and sunview directions. We compare our cotton results with our prior polarization results for corn and soybean leaves measured in the lab and corn leaves measured in the field.

  4. Quantitative modeling of the Water Footprint and Energy Content of Crop and Animal Products Consumption in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    felichesmi Selestine lyakurwa


    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the link between water footprint and energy content of crop and animal products is vitally important for the sound management of water resources. In this study, we developed a mathematical relationship between water content, and energy content of many crops and animal products by using an improved LCA approach (water footprint. The standard values of the water and energy contents of crops and animal products were obtained from the databases of Agricultural Research Service, UNESCO Institute for water education and Food, and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The water footprint approach was applied to analyze the relationship between water requirement and energy of content of crop and animal products, in which the uncertainty and sensitivity was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation technique that is contained in the Oracle Crystal Ball Fusion Edition v11. The results revealed significant water saving due to changes in food consumption pattern i.e. from consumption of more meat to vegetables. The production of 1kcal of crop and animal products requires about 98% of green, 4.8% blue water and 0.4% of gray water. In which changes in consumption pattern gave annual blue water saving of about 1605 Mm3 that is equivalent to 41.30m3/capita, extremely greater than the standard drinking water requirement for the whole population. Moreover, the projected results indicated, triple increase of dietary water requirement from 30.9 Mm3 in 2005 to 108 Mm3 by 2050. It was also inferred that, Tanzania has a positive virtual water balance of crop and animal products consumption with net virtual water import of 9.1 Mm3 that is the contribution margin to the water scarcity alleviation strategy. Therefore, developed relationship of water footprint and energy content of crops and animal products can be used by water resource experts for sustainable freshwater and food supply.

  5. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thippeswamy H


    Full Text Available Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19 F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06 F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05 F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  6. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.


    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  7. A geo-informatics approach for estimating water resources management components and their interrelationships

    KAUST Repository

    Liaqat, Umar Waqas


    A remote sensing based geo-informatics approach was developed to estimate water resources management (WRM) components across a large irrigation scheme in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. The approach provides a generalized framework for estimating a range of key water management variables and provides a management tool for the sustainable operation of similar schemes globally. A focus on the use of satellite data allowed for the quantification of relationships across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Variables including actual and crop evapotranspiration, net and gross irrigation, net and gross groundwater use, groundwater recharge, net groundwater recharge, were estimated and then their interrelationships explored across the Hakra Canal command area. Spatially distributed remotely sensed estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) rates were determined using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model and evaluated against ground-based evaporation calculated from the advection-aridity method. Analysis of ETa simulations across two cropping season, referred to as Kharif and Rabi, yielded Pearson correlation (R) values of 0.69 and 0.84, Nash-Sutcliffe criterion (NSE) of 0.28 and 0.63, percentage bias of −3.85% and 10.6% and root mean squared error (RMSE) of 10.6 mm and 12.21 mm for each season, respectively. For the period of study between 2008 and 2014, it was estimated that an average of 0.63 mm day−1 water was supplied through canal irrigation against a crop water demand of 3.81 mm day−1. Approximately 1.86 mm day−1 groundwater abstraction was estimated in the region, which contributed to fulfil the gap between crop water demand and canal water supply. Importantly, the combined canal, groundwater and rainfall sources of water only met 70% of the crop water requirements. As such, the difference between recharge and discharge showed that groundwater depletion was around −115 mm year−1 during the six year study period. Analysis indicated that

  8. Effects of shock and Martian alteration on Tissint hydrogen isotope ratios and water content (United States)

    Hallis, L. J.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Taylor, G. J.; Stöffler, D.; Smith, C. L.; Lee, M. R.


    The Tissint meteorite, a picritic shergottite, fell to Earth in Morocco on the 18th of July 2011, and is only the fifth Martian meteorite witnessed to fall. Hydrogen isotope ratios and water contents are variable within different minerals in Tissint. Ringwoodite and shock melt pockets contain elevated D/H ratios relative to terrestrial values (δD = 761-4224‰). These high ratios in recrystallized phases indicate significant implantation of hydrogen from the D-rich Martian atmosphere during shock. In contrast, although olivine has detectable water abundances (230-485 ppm), it exhibits much lower D/H ratios (δD = +88 to -150‰), suggesting this water was not implanted from the Martian atmosphere. The minimal terrestrial weathering experienced by Tissint gives confidence that the olivine-hosted water has a Martian origin, but its high concentration indicates direct inheritance from the parental melt is improbable, especially given the low pressure of olivine crystallisation. Incorporation of a low δD crustal fluid, or deuteric alteration during crystallisation, could explain the relatively high water contents and low D/H ratios in Tissint olivine.

  9. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy. (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook


    Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391  mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

  10. Water content monitoring for Flamanville 3 EPR trademark prestressed concrete containment. An application for TDR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Alexis; Clauzon, Timothee [EDF DPIH DTG, Lyon (France); Taillade, Frederic [EDF R and D, Chatou (France); Martin, Gregoire [EDF CNEN, Montrouge (France)


    Long term operation of nuclear power plant requires an appropriate monitoring of containment structures. For prestressed concrete containment vessels, a key parameter for ageing analysis is the evolution of the amount of water remaining within the concrete pores. EDF decides to launch a development program, in order to determine what sensor technologies are able to achieve such kind of monitoring on large concrete structures. One of the main parts of this program is to determine the maximum allowable uncertainty for the measurement. Another stake is the calibration process of sensors dedicated to water content measurement in concrete structures and the management of the parameters which have the largest influence on the measurement process.

  11. Composite Simulation of Dynamic Water Content and Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat


    Wang, Liming


    In order to forecast the effect of climate warming on agriculture, ENWATBAL model was used to simulate evapotranspiration of winter wheat due to the change of air temperature and precipitation in the coming decades. The effect of climate warming on winter wheat yield in the future decades was speculated by the past yield and climate data in last decades, and the possible water use efficiency in the future decades was calculated. The results indicate that climate warming would increase winter ...

  12. Aerobic Exercise Training Increases Muscle Water Content in Obese Middle-Age Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Sanchez-Roncero, Alicia; Fernández-Elías, Valentin Emilio


    PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine whether muscle water content (H2Omuscle) expands with training in deconditioned middle-age men and the effects of this expansion in other muscle metabolites. METHODS: Eighteen obese (BMI = 33 ± 3 kg⁻¹·m⁻²) untrained (V˙O2peak = 29 ± 7 m......L⁻¹·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) metabolic syndrome men completed a 4-month aerobic cycling training program. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were collected before and 72 h after the completion of the last training bout. Water content, total protein, glycogen concentration, and citrate synthase activity were measured in biopsy tissue....... Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and cardiometabolic fitness was measured during an incremental cycling test. RESULTS: Body weight and fat mass were reduced -1.9% and -5.4%, respectively (P

  13. Research and Design of Soil Water Content Sensor Based on High-frequency Capacitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing ZHEN


    Full Text Available Power supply and long distance cable are difficult in a field. Hence, a low power high-frequency capacitive soil water content sensor was developed. It consisted of an adjustable signal generating circuit, a signal attenuator, a true RMS detection circuit, a RC charge and discharge circuit, and two probe electrodes. The probe electrode was made up of PCB (Printed Circuit Board. In order to reduce entire energy consumption, the optimization design of sensor circuit was conducted. The results showed that the output voltage of the sensor had a positive linear correlation with soil volumetric moisture content, and the coefficient of determination R2 was 0.989. The stability and consistency of the soil moisture sensor met the needs of the long-term monitoring soil moisture content.

  14. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  15. Advanced three-component ZnO/Ag/CdS nanocomposite photoanode for photocatalytic water splitting (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Yang; Zhao, Junliang; Wang, Shuguo; Li, Yongdan; Dai, Haitao; Sun, Xiaowei


    In this work, Ag nanoparticles as co-catalysts are employed to modify the nanoscale ZnO/CdS interface to achieve a ZnO/Ag/CdS nanocomposite photoanode for photocatalytic water splitting. The three-component photoanode exhibits significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical properties as compared with the single-component (ZnO) and two-component (ZnO/Ag or ZnO/CdS) systems. The modification with Ag nanoparticles can significantly enhance the light absorption and facilitate the separation and transport of photogenerated carriers through the localized surface plasma resonance (LPSR) effect. The developed ZnO/Ag/CdS nanocomposite photoanode presents significantly improved water splitting performance, with a high hydrogen productivity up to 3.5 mL h-1 (∼155 umol h-1) at + 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode with an almost constant rate during 10 h. Even without any external bias, the photoanode can still exhibit a relatively high hydrogen productivity up to 0.5 mL h-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposite photoanode shows excellent photocorrosion resistance, which is ascribed to a considerable decrease of surface defect density on ZnO nanowires and the reduction of holes.

  16. Rivers and Floodplains as Key Components of Global Terrestrial Water Storage Variability (United States)

    Getirana, Augusto; Kumar, Sujay; Girotto, Manuela; Rodell, Matthew


    This study quantifies the contribution of rivers and floodplains to terrestrial water storage (TWS) variability. We use state-of-the-art models to simulate land surface processes and river dynamics and to separate TWS into its main components. Based on a proposed impact index, we show that surface water storage (SWS) contributes 8% of TWS variability globally, but that contribution differs widely among climate zones. Changes in SWS are a principal component of TWS variability in the tropics, where major rivers flow over arid regions and at high latitudes. SWS accounts for 22-27% of TWS variability in both the Amazon and Nile Basins. Changes in SWS are negligible in the Western U.S., Northern Africa, Middle East, and central Asia. Based on comparisons with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment-based TWS, we conclude that accounting for SWS improves simulated TWS in most of South America, Africa, and Southern Asia, confirming that SWS is a key component of TWS variability.

  17. Physiology and microbial community structure in soil at extreme water content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlířová, Eva; Elhottová, Dana; Tříska, Jan; Šantrůčková, Hana


    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2005), s. 161-166 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/1410; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/99/P033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : microbial community structure * soil s * extreme water content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005



    Tatiana Mitina; Nadejda Bondarenco; Diana Grigoras; Elena Botizat; Tudor Lupascu


    This paper reports on the influence of sodium ions on experimental determination of strontium ions concentration in waters with a high content of sodium ions by using emission flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. For the method of emission flame photometry it was shown that at a wavelength of 460.7 nm (spectral emission line of strontium) the emission is linearly dependent on the concentration of sodium ions. The greatest impact of high concentrations of sodium ions on the res...

  19. Estimation of water content gradient and concrete durability indicators using capacitive and electrical probes


    FARES, Mila; VILLAIN, Géraldine; FARGIER, Yannick; THIERY, Mickaël; DEROBERT, Xavier; PALMA-LOPES, Sergio


    Maintenance and inspection of concrete structures are increasingly important issues considering the high number of aging structures and infrastructures. Non-destructive techniques (NDT) are fast and allow monitoring the structure during all of its life service. NDT are sensitive to various concrete properties, among which is water content. This latter is a significant parameter of concrete pathologies, an accurate estimation of its value is therefore important. Our research focuses on two NDT...

  20. An accurate retrieval of leaf water content from mid to thermal infrared spectra using continuous wavelet analysis. (United States)

    Ullah, Saleem; Skidmore, Andrew K; Naeem, Mohammad; Schlerf, Martin


    Leaf water content determines plant health, vitality, photosynthetic efficiency and is an important indicator of drought assessment. The retrieval of leaf water content from the visible to shortwave infrared spectra is well known. Here for the first time, we estimated leaf water content from the mid to thermal infrared (2.5-14.0 μm) spectra, based on continuous wavelet analysis. The dataset comprised 394 spectra from nine plant species, with different water contents achieved through progressive drying. To identify the spectral feature most sensitive to the variations in leaf water content, first the Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) spectra were transformed into a wavelet power scalogram, and then linear relations were established between the wavelet power scalogram and leaf water content. The six individual wavelet features identified in the mid infrared yielded high correlations with leaf water content (R(2)=0.86 maximum, 0.83 minimum), as well as low RMSE (minimum 8.56%, maximum 9.27%). The combination of four wavelet features produced the most accurate model (R(2)=0.88, RMSE=8.00%). The models were consistent in terms of accuracy estimation for both calibration and validation datasets, indicating that leaf water content can be accurately retrieved from the mid to thermal infrared domain of the electromagnetic radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-related changes in local water and protein content of human eye lenses measured by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebinga, I.; Siebinga, I.; Vrensen, G.F.J.M.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Greve, Jan


    The Raman microspectroscopic method was used to determine the local water and protein content in human lenses. In 18 lenses of varying age position-defined water/protein content measurements were carried out along the visual and the equatorial axis. A main characteristic of the human lens is its

  2. Monitoring temporal development of spatial soil water content variation: comparison of ground penetrating radar and time domain reflectometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.A.; Snepvangers, J.J.J.C.; Bouten, W.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.


    We compare the capability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and time domain reflectometry (TDR) to assess the temporal development of spatial variation of surface volumetric water content. In the case of GPR, we measured surface water content with the ground wave, which is a direct wave between the

  3. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) (United States)

    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen


    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  4. Three-component U-Pu-Th fuel for plutonium irradiation in heavy water reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peel Ross


    Full Text Available This paper discusses concepts for three-component fuel bundles containing plutonium, uranium and thorium for use in pressurised heavy water reactors, and cases for and against implementation of such a nuclear energy system in the United Kingdom. Heavy water reactors are used extensively in Canada, and are deploying within India and China, whilst the UK is considering the use of heavy water reactors to manage its plutonium inventory of 140 tonnes. The UK heavy water reactor proposal uses a mixed oxide (MOX fuel of plutonium in depleted uranium, within the enhanced CANDU-6 (EC-6 reactor. This work proposes an alternative heterogeneous fuel concept based on the same reactor and CANFLEX fuel bundle, with eight large-diameter fuel elements loaded with natural thorium oxide and 35 small-diameter fuel elements loaded with a MOX of plutonium and reprocessed uranium stocks from UK MAGNOX and AGR reactors. Indicative neutronic calculations suggest that such a fuel would be neutronically feasible. A similar MOX may alternatively be fabricated from reprocessed <5% enriched light water reactor fuel, such as the fuel of the AREVA EPR reactor, to consume newly produced plutonium from reprocessing, similar to the DUPIC (direct use of PWR fuel in CANDU process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production components of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp subjected to irrigation with brackish water and different leaching fractions. The experiment was conducted in a lysimeter system of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife campus. The treatments, consisting of two water salinity levels (ECw (1.2 and 3.3 dS m - 1 and five leaching fractions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, were evaluated using a completely randomized design in a 2x5 factorial arrangement with four replications. The variables evaluated were: number of pods per plant, 100 - grain weight, number of grains per pod, grain and shoot dry weight, grain yield and harvest index. The soil salinity increased with increasing salinity of the water used for irrigation, and reduced with increasing leaching fraction. The salinity of the water used for irrigation influenced only the variables number of pods per plant and grain yield. The estimated leaching fractions of 9.1% and 9.6% inhibited the damage caused by salinity on the number of pods per plant and grain yield, respectively. Therefore, the production of V. unguiculata irrigated with brackish water, leaching salts from the plant root environment, is possible under the conditions evaluated.

  6. Mineral and water content of A. gigas scales determine local micromechanical properties and energy dissipation mechanisms (United States)

    Troncoso, Omar P.; Gigos, Florian; Torres, Fernando G.


    Arapaima gigas scales are natural laminated composite materials made of individual layers with different degrees of mineralization, accompanied of varying mechanical properties. This natural design provides scales with hardness and flexibility, and can serve as a source of inspiration for the development of new layered composites with a hard surface and flexible base. In this paper, we have carried out cyclic micro-indentation tests on both; the internal and the highly mineralized external surface of air dried and wet scales, in order to assess the variation of their local micromechanical properties with regard to the mineral and water content. The load-penetration (P-h) curves showed that creep takes place throughout the application of a constant force during the micro-indentation tests, confirming the time dependent response of A. gigas scales. A model that accounted for the elastic, plastic and viscous responses of the samples was used to fit the experimental results. The penetration depth during loading and creep, as well as the energy dissipated are dependent on the water content. The used model suggests that the viscous response of the internal layer increases with the water content.

  7. Modification of stool's water content in constipated infants: management with an adapted infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Marina M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated.

  8. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  9. ROBUST hot wire probe efficiency for total water content measurements in glaciated conditions (United States)

    Leroy, Delphine; Lilie, Lyle; Weber, Marc; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter


    During the two High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC, Dezitter et al. 2013)/High Ice Water Content (HIWC, Strapp et al., 2016a) international flight campaigns that investigated deep convection in the tropics, the French Falcon 20 research aircraft was equipped with two different devices measuring the Total Water Content (TWC): - the IKP-2 (Isokinetic Probe, Davison et al. 2008, 2016), - and the hot wire ROBUST probe (Strapp et al. 2008; Grandin et al. 2014). The IKP-2 probe is an evaporator that has been specifically designed to measure high ice water content (Strapp et al. 2016b) with a collection efficiency near unity. It has undergone extensive performance assessment in liquid and glaciated conditions in several wind tunnels. The Robust probe was initially developed by Science Engineering Associates to estimate high ice water content in a high speed wind tunnel, in harsh conditions where other hot-wires had been observed to suffer failures. It was known at the outset that, like other hot-wire TWC probes, it would measure only a quasi-constant fraction of the true ice water content. Early wind tunnel and flight experience with the ROBUST probe revealed that this fraction was the order of 40% for ice crystals. During the HAIC/HIWC campaigns (Leroy et al. 2016, 2017), supercooled liquid water conditions were documented according to a detailed analysis of a Rosemount Ice detector (RICE) and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) measurements, and were found to be rare. Thus, the HAIC/HIWC dataset represents a unique opportunity to study in more detail the ROBUST efficiency in glaciated conditions, using the IKP-2 values as a comparative reference. Comparison of IKP-2 and ROBUST measurements will show that the ROBUST behavior differs between low (below 1.5 g/m3) and high (above 2 g/m3) ice content conditions and is also sensitive to temperature. The sensitivity of the ROBUST collection efficiency to ice particles size could also be explored as optical imaging probes were part of the

  10. Long-term trends of metal content and water quality in the Belaya River Basin (United States)

    Fashchevskaia, Tatiana; Motovilov, Yuri


    The aim of this research is to identify the spatiotemporal regularities of iron, copper and zinc contents in the streams of the Belaya River basin. The Belaya River is situated in the South Ural region and it is one of the biggest tributary in the Volga River basin with catchment area of 142 000 km2. More than sixty years the diverse economic activities are carried out in the Belaya River basin, the intensity of this activity is characterized by high temporal variability. The leading industries in the region are metallurgy, oil production, petroleum processing, chemistry and petro chemistry, mechanical engineering, power industry. The dynamics of human activities in the catchment and intra and inter-annual changes in the water quality were analyzed for the period 1969-2007 years. Inter-annual dynamics of the metal content in the river waters was identified on the basis of the long-term hydrological monitoring statistics at the 32 sites. It was found that the dynamics of intensity of economic activities in the Belaya River basin was the cause statistically significant changes in the metal content of the river network. Statistically homogeneous time intervals have been set for each monitoring site. Within these time intervals there were obtained averaged reliable quantitative estimations of water quality. Calculations showed that the content of iron, copper and zinc did not change during the analyzed period at the sites, located in the mountain and foothill parts of the basin. At other sites, located on the plains areas of the Belaya River Basin and in the areas of functioning of large industrial facilities, metal content varies. A period of increased concentrations of metals is since the second half of 1970 until the end of the 1990s. From the end of 1990 to 2007 the average metal content for a long-term period in the river waters is reduced in comparison with the previous period: iron - to 7.4 times, copper - to 6.7 times, zinc - to 15 times. As a result, by the

  11. Virtual water content of temperate cereals and maize: Present and potential future patterns (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rost, Stefanie; Müller, Christoph; Bondeau, Alberte; Gerten, Dieter


    SummaryKnowledge of the virtual water content (VWC) of crops and especially its possible future developments is helpful for improvements in water productivity and water management, which are necessary at global scale due to rising demand for food, the necessity to ease present and future water scarcity, and the reduction of poverty. Using a dynamic global vegetation and water balance model (LPJmL), this study quantifies the VWC of two of the most important crop types worldwide, temperate cereals and maize, at high spatial resolution (0.5°). We analyzed present conditions (1999-2003) and also for the first time also for scenarios of future climate and increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (2041-2070; HadCM3, ECHAM5 and CCSM3 climate models, A2 emissions scenario). VWC presently differs significantly among regions: highest values are common in large parts of Africa (>2 m 3 kg -1), and lowest values were found e.g. for Central Europe (South Africa, Argentina, Australia and South East Asia—are projected to become less water efficient (higher VWC) for at least one of the crop types. CO 2 fertilisation was simulated to generally reduce VWC, though realisation of this effect in the field will depend, for example, on the intensity of nutrient management in the future. The potentially adverse future changes in VWC found here pose a challenge to water management efforts and eventually global trade policies.

  12. Transmittance and reflectance of crystalline quartz and highand low-water content fused silica from 2 microns to 1 mm (United States)

    Heaney, J. B.; Stewart, K. P.; Hass, G.


    The transmittances and reflectances of cultured crystalline quartz, Suprasil, Suprasil W, and Infrasil were compared over the wavelength region from 2 to 1000 microns. The high-water content of Suprasil and the low-water content of cultured crystalline quartz, Suprasil W, and Infrasil were determined by their transmittances measured at 2.73 microns where water content causes high absorption in optical materials. The fact that the fused silicas, both with high- and low-water content, had identical far-IR transmittances and that their transmittances were greatly inferior to that of crystalline quartz led to the conclusion that their inferior transmittance is due to their amorphous structure and not to their water content.

  13. Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J. [Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona (Spain)


    Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

  14. Age-related changes in local water and protein content of human eye lenses measured by Raman microspectroscopy


    Siebinga, I.; Siebinga, I.; Vrensen, G.F.J.M.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Greve, Jan


    The Raman microspectroscopic method was used to determine the local water and protein content in human lenses. In 18 lenses of varying age position-defined water/protein content measurements were carried out along the visual and the equatorial axis. A main characteristic of the human lens is its constant and relatively low protein content. In addition this constant nuclear value is reached within a short distance from the capsular surface. For statistical analysis of age-related changes the d...

  15. Reversible and irreversible low-pressure membrane foulants in drinking water treatment: Identification by principal component analysis of fluorescence EEM and mitigation by biofiltration pretreatment. (United States)

    Peldszus, Sigrid; Hallé, Cynthia; Peiris, Ramila H; Hamouda, Mohamed; Jin, Xiaohui; Legge, Raymond L; Budman, Hector; Moresoli, Christine; Huck, Peter M


    With the increased use of membranes in drinking water treatment, fouling--particularly the hydraulically irreversible type--remains the main operating issue that hinders performance and increases operational costs. The main challenge in assessing fouling potential of feed water is to accurately detect and quantify feed water constituents responsible for membrane fouling. Utilizing fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM), protein-like substances, humic and fulvic acids, and particulate/colloidal matter can be detected with high sensitivity in surface waters. The application of principal component analysis to fluorescence EEMs allowed estimation of the impact of surface water constituents on reversible and irreversible membrane fouling. This technique was applied to experimental data from a two year bench-scale study that included thirteen experiments investigating the fouling potential of Grand River water (Ontario, Canada) and the effect of biofiltration pre-treatment on the level of foulants during ultrafiltration (UF). Results showed that, although the content of protein-like substances in this membrane feed water (=biofiltered natural water) was much lower than commonly found in wastewater applications, the content of protein-like substances was still highly correlated with irreversible fouling of the UF membrane. In addition, there is evidence that protein-like substances and particulate/colloidal matter formed a combined fouling layer, which contributed to both reversible and irreversible fouling. It is suggested that fouling transitions from a reversible to an irreversible regime depending on feed composition and operating time. Direct biofiltration without prior coagulant addition reduced the protein-like content of the membrane feed water which in turn reduced the irreversible fouling potential for UF membranes. Biofilters also decreased reversible fouling, and for both types of fouling higher biofilter contact times were beneficial. Copyright

  16. Assessment of climate change impacts on water balance components of Heeia watershed in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkeba Tolessa Leta


    New hydrological insights for the study region: Compared to continental watersheds, the Heeia watershed showed high rainfall initial abstraction due to high initial infiltration capacity of the soils. The simulated and observed streamflows generally showed a good agreement and satisfactory model performance demonstrating the applicability of SWAT for small island watersheds with large topographic, precipitation, and land-use gradients. The study also demonstrates methods to resolve data scarcity issues. Predicted climate change scenarios showed that the decrease in rainfall during wet season and marginal increase in dry season are the main factors for the overall decrease in water balance components. Specifically, the groundwater flow component may consistently decrease by as much as 15% due to predicted rainfall and temperature changes by 2100, which may have serious implications on groundwater availability in the watershed.

  17. Estimation of available water capacity components of two-layered soils using crop model inversion: Effect of crop type and water regime (United States)

    Sreelash, K.; Buis, Samuel; Sekhar, M.; Ruiz, Laurent; Kumar Tomer, Sat; Guérif, Martine


    Characterization of the soil water reservoir is critical for understanding the interactions between crops and their environment and the impacts of land use and environmental changes on the hydrology of agricultural catchments especially in tropical context. Recent studies have shown that inversion of crop models is a powerful tool for retrieving information on root zone properties. Increasing availability of remotely sensed soil and vegetation observations makes it well suited for large scale applications. The potential of this methodology has however never been properly evaluated on extensive experimental datasets and previous studies suggested that the quality of estimation of soil hydraulic properties may vary depending on agro-environmental situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach on an extensive field experiment. The dataset covered four crops (sunflower, sorghum, turmeric, maize) grown on different soils and several years in South India. The components of AWC (available water capacity) namely soil water content at field capacity and wilting point, and soil depth of two-layered soils were estimated by inversion of the crop model STICS with the GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach using observations of surface soil moisture (SSM; typically from 0 to 10 cm deep) and leaf area index (LAI), which are attainable from radar remote sensing in tropical regions with frequent cloudy conditions. The results showed that the quality of parameter estimation largely depends on the hydric regime and its interaction with crop type. A mean relative absolute error of 5% for field capacity of surface layer, 10% for field capacity of root zone, 15% for wilting point of surface layer and root zone, and 20% for soil depth can be obtained in favorable conditions. A few observations of SSM (during wet and dry soil moisture periods) and LAI (within water stress periods) were sufficient to significantly improve the estimation of AWC

  18. Effect of water content on strontium retardation factor and distribution coefficient in Chinese loess. (United States)

    Huo, Lijuan; Qian, Tianwei; Hao, Junting; Liu, Hongfang; Zhao, Dongye


    Geological burial and landfill are often employed for disposal of nuclear wastes. Typically, radionuclides from nuclear facilities transport through the unsaturated zone before reaching the groundwater aquifer. However, transport studies are often conducted under saturated and steady-state flow conditions. This research aimed to examine the effects of unsaturated flow conditions and soil water content (θ) on Sr sorption and retardation in Chinese loess through 1D column transport experiments. Reagent SrCl2 was used as a surrogate for the radioactive isotope ((90)Sr) in the experiment because of their analogous adsorption and transportation characteristics. The spatial distribution of Sr along the column length was determined by segmenting the soil bed and analysing the Sr content in each soil segment following each column breakthrough test. The single-region (SR) and two-region (TR) models were employed to interpret the transport data of Sr as well as a tracer (Br(-)), which resulted in the dispersion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (Rd) under a given set of unsaturated flow conditions. For the tracer, the SR and TR models offered nearly the same goodness of fitting to the breakthrough curves (R(2) ≈ 0.97 for both models). For the highly sorptive Sr, however, the TR model provided better fitting (R(2), 0.80-0.96) to the Sr retention profiles than the SR model (R(2), 0.20-0.89). The Sr retention curves exhibited physical non-equilibrium characteristics, particularly at lower water content of the soil. For the unsaturated soil, D and the pore water velocity (v) displayed a weak linear correlation, which is attributed to the altering dispersivity as the water content varies. A much improved linear correlation was observed between D and v/θ. The retardation factor of Sr increased from 69.1 to 174.2 as θ decreased from 0.46 to 0.26 (cm(3) cm(-3)), while the distribution coefficient (Kd) based on Rd remained nearly unchanged at various θ levels. These

  19. Comparative investigations on the water content of the stratum corneum using different methods of measurement. (United States)

    Triebskorn, A; Gloor, M; Greiner, F


    Measurements of the water content of the stratum corneum were made on the flexor side of the forearm in healthy male volunteers using direct current resistance and alternating current (1.5 and 15 kHz) electric impedance measurements, capacity measurements and measurements of transepidermal water loss. In addition, infrared-spectroscopic investigations were made using a Frustrated Multiple Internal Reflection device on unstripped skin, then on the same skin area after five and ten strippings with adhesive tape. The tests showed (except for the measurements of transepidermal water loss) all of the aforementioned test methods led to relevant measurement values. While the direct current electrical resistance measurement yielded data on the water content of the most superficial layer of the stratum corneum, it was found that the capacitor measurements gave results from the deep layers of the stratum corneum. With the alternating current impedance measurement method, both superficial and deep layers of the stratum corneum were taken into account. Comparative measurements of direct current resistance and infrared absorption after occlusion treatment revealed that under certain circumstances using both methods can lead to contradictory results.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of water content across the Nafion membrane in an operational PEM fuel cell. (United States)

    Zhang, Ziheng; Martin, Jonathan; Wu, Jinfeng; Wang, Haijiang; Promislow, Keith; Balcom, Bruce J


    Water management is critical to optimize the operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. At present, numerical models are employed to guide water management in such fuel cells. Accurate measurements of water content variation in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are required to validate these models and to optimize fuel cell behavior. We report a direct water content measurement across the Nafion membrane in an operational polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, employing double half k-space spin echo single point imaging techniques. The MRI measurements with T2 mapping were undertaken with a parallel plate resonator to avoid the effects of RF screening. The parallel plate resonator employs the electrodes inherent to the fuel cell to create a resonant circuit at RF frequencies for MR excitation and detection, while still operating as a conventional fuel cell at DC. Three stages of fuel cell operation were investigated: activation, operation and dehydration. Each profile was acquired in 6 min, with 6 microm nominal resolution and a SNR of better than 15.

  1. Water content and porosity effect on hydrogen radiolytic yields of geopolymers (United States)

    Chupin, Frédéric; Dannoux-Papin, Adeline; Ngono Ravache, Yvette; d'Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste


    The behavior of geopolymers under irradiation is a topic that has not been thoroughly investigated so far. However, if geopolymers are considered to be used as radioactive waste embedding matrices, their chemical and mechanical stability under ionizing radiation as well as low hydrogen production must be demonstrated. For that purpose, a particular focus is put on water radiolysis. Various formulations of geopolymers have been irradiated either with γ-rays (60Co source) or 95 MeV/amu 36Ar18+ ions beams and the hydrogen production has been quantified. This paper presents the results of radiolytic gas analysis in order to identify important structural parameters that influence confined water radiolysis. A correlation between geopolymers nature, water content on the one side, and the hydrogen radiolytic yield (G(H2)) on the other side, has been demonstrated. For both types of irradiations, a strong influence of the water content on the hydrogen radiolytic yield G(H2) is evidenced. The geopolymers porosity effect has been only highlighted under γ-rays irradiation.

  2. Development of neutron measurement techniques in reactor diagnostics and determination of water content and water flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdic, Senada


    The present thesis deals with three comparatively different topics in neutron physics research. These topics are as follows: construction and experimental investigation of a new detector, capable of measuring the neutron current, and investigation of the possibility to use it for the localisation of a neutron source in a simple experimental arrangement; execution of neutron transmission measurements based on a stationary neutron generator, and the study of their suitability for determining the volume porosity of geological samples; study of the possibility for improving the accuracy of water flow measurements based on the pulsed neutron activation technique. The first subject of this thesis concerns the measurement of the neutron current by a newly constructed detector. The motivation for this work stems from a recent suggestion that the performance of core monitoring methods could be enhanced if, in addition to the scalar neutron flux, also the neutron current was measured. To this end, a current detector was based on a scintillator mounted on a fibre and a Cd layer on one side of the detector. The measurements of the 2-D neutron current were performed in an experimental system by using this detector. The efficiency of the detector in reactor diagnostics was illustrated by demonstrating that the position of a neutron source can be determined by measuring the scalar neutron flux and the neutron current in one spatial point. The results of measurement and calculation show both the suitability of the detector construction for the measurement of the neutron current vector and the use of the current in diagnostics and monitoring. The second subject of this thesis concerns fast neutron transmission measurements, based on a stationary neutron generator, for determining the volume porosity of a sample in a model experiment. Such a technique could be used in field measurements with obvious advantages in comparison with thermal neutron transmission techniques, which can

  3. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golodniuk Olena S.


    Full Text Available The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their results into management of competitive advantages of enterprises. It draws a conclusion about a necessity of: reducing evident and growth of a number of latent competitive advantages, based on intellectual technologies, and also development and realisation of a conceptual model of providing marketing innovations in the system of managing competitive advantages of enterprises; and formation of the system of monitoring marketing innovations with the aim of development of additional services and means of building competitive advantages of enterprises that produce mineral waters.

  4. Experimental Study of the Cooling of Electrical Components Using Water Film Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Harmand


    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer, which occur in the evaporation of a falling film of water, are studied experimentally. This evaporation allows the dissipation of the heat flux produced by twelve resistors, which simulate electrical components on the back side of an aluminium plate. On the front side of the plate, a falling film of water flows by the action of gravity. An inverse heat conduction model, associated with a spatial regularisation, was developed and produces the local heat fluxes on the plate using the measured temperatures. The efficiency of this evaporative process has been studied with respect to several parameters: imposed heat flux, inlet mass flow rate, and geometry. A comparison of the latent and sensible fluxes used to dissipate the imposed heat flux was studied in the case of a plexiglass sheet in front of the falling film at different distances from the aluminium plate.

  5. Characterization of Volume F Trash from Four Recent STS Missions: Weights, Categorization, Water Content (United States)

    Strayer, Richard F.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; McCoy, LaShelle E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Wheeler, Raymond M.


    The fate of space-generated solid wastes, including trash, for future missions is under consideration by NASA. Several potential treatment options are under consideration and active technology development. Potential fates for space-generated solid wastes are: Storage without treatment; storage after treatment(s) including volume reduction, water recovery, sterilization, and recovery plus recycling of waste materials. Recycling might be important for partial or full closure scenarios because of the prohibitive costs associated with resupply of consumable materials. For this study, we determined the composition of trash returned from four recent STS missions. The trash material was 'Volume F' trash and other trash, in large zip-lock bags, that accompanied the Volume F trash. This is the first of two submitted papers on these wastes. This one will cover trash content, weight and water content. The other will report on the microbial Characterization of this trash. STS trash was usually made available within 2 days of landing at KSC. The Volume F bag was weighed, opened and the contents were catalogued and placed into one of the following categories: food waste (and containers), drink containers, personal hygiene items - including EVA maximum absorbent garments (MAGs)and Elbow packs (daily toilet wipes, etc), paper, and packaging materials - plastic firm and duct tape. Trash generation rates for the four STS missions: Total wet trash was 0.602 plus or minus 0.089 kg(sub wet) crew(sup -1) d(sup -1) containing about 25% water at 0.154 plus or minus 0.030 kg(sub water) crew(sup -1) d(sup -1) (avg plus or minus stdev). Cataloguing by category: personal hygiene wastes accounted for 50% of the total trash and 69% of the total water for the four missions; drink items were 16% of total weight and 16% water; food wastes were 22% of total weight and 15% of the water; office waste and plastic film were 2% and 11% of the total waste and did not contain any water. The results can be

  6. Effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on yield, yield components and essential oil contents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki


    Full Text Available Introduction Fertilizers are the key components which provide plant nutrients' needs in recent years (Omid Jangir & Sing, 1996; Kapoor et al., 2007. In many cases, using chemical fertilizers has different negative environmental effects such as soil, water and air pollution, which increase environmental hazardous and production costs (Jangir & Sing, 1996; Kapoor et al., 2007. Biological activities are markedly enhanced by microbial interactions in the rhizosphere of plants (Kapoor et al., 2007. Many investigators have successfully used mycorrhiza to increase the availability of immobilized phosphate and thus minimize the use of mineral fertilizers. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF can better enable a plant to withstand environmental stresses such as drought and salinity. AMF interacts with pathogens and other rhizosphere inhabitants which affect plant health and nutrition. More importantly, mycorrhizal fungi are capable of dissolving weakly soluble soil minerals, especially phosphate, by releasing acids or increasing CO2 partial pressure (Gupta et al., 2002; Gosling et al., 2006; Kapoor et al., 2007. Therefore, they have the ability to enhance host plant uptake of relatively immobile nutrients particularly P, S and Zn. Limited water supply is also another major environmental constraint in the productivity of crop and medicinal plants. Moisture deficiency induces various physiological and metabolic responses such as stomatal closure, decline in growth rate and photosynthesis (Flexas and Medrano, 2002. The results of Baher et al. (2002 showed that greater soil water stress decreased plant height and total fresh and dry weight of Satureja hortensis. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on the growth, quantitative and qualitative yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L., a field experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized

  7. Robust spatialization of soil water content at the scale of an agricultural field using geophysical and geostatistical methods (United States)

    Henine, Hocine; Tournebize, Julien; Laurent, Gourdol; Christophe, Hissler; Cournede, Paul-Henry; Clement, Remi


    Research on the Critical Zone (CZ) is a prerequisite for undertaking issues related to ecosystemic services that human societies rely on (nutrient cycles, water supply and quality). However, while the upper part of CZ (vegetation, soil, surface water) is readily accessible, knowledge of the subsurface remains limited, due to the point-scale character of conventional direct observations. While the potential for geophysical methods to overcome this limitation is recognized, the translation of the geophysical information into physical properties or states of interest remains a challenge (e.g. the translation of soil electrical resistivity into soil water content). In this study, we propose a geostatistical framework using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) approach to assimilate geophysical and point-scale data. We especially focus on the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil water content using (1) TDR point-scale measurements of soil water content, which are considered as accurate data, and (2) soil water content data derived from electrical resistivity measurements, which are uncertain data but spatially dense. We used a synthetic dataset obtained with a vertical 2D domain to evaluate the performance of this geostatistical approach. Spatio-temporal simulations of soil water content were carried out using Hydrus-software for different scenarios: homogeneous or heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution, and continuous or punctual infiltration pattern. From the simulations of soil water content, conceptual soil resistivity models were built using a forward modeling approach and point sampling of water content values, vertically ranged, were done. These two datasets are similar to field measurements of soil electrical resistivity (using electrical resistivity tomography, ERT) and soil water content (using TDR probes) obtained at the Boissy-le-Chatel site, in Orgeval catchment (East of Paris, France). We then integrated them into a specialization

  8. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea


    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  9. Enhancement of Protein and Pigment Content in Two Chlorella Species Cultivated on Industrial Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Uldall Nørregaard, Patrick; Ljubic, Anita


    Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris were cultivated in pre-gasified industrial process water with high concentration of ammonia representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of growth media and cultivation duration on the nutritional composit......Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris were cultivated in pre-gasified industrial process water with high concentration of ammonia representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of growth media and cultivation duration on the nutritional...... composition of biomass. Variations in proteins, lipid, fatty acid composition, amino acids, tocopherols, and pigments were studied. Both species grew well in industrial process water. The contents of proteins were affected significantly by the growth media and cultivation duration. Microalga Chlorella...

  10. Water content determination of soil surface in an intensive apple orchard (United States)

    Riczu, Péter; Nagy, Gábor; Tamás, János


    Currently in Hungary, less than 100,000 hectares of orchards can be found, from which cultivation of apple is one of the most dominant ones. Production of marketable horticulture products can be difficult without employing advanced and high quality horticulture practices, which, in turn, depends on appropriate management and irrigation systems, basically. The got out water amount depend on climatic, edafic factors and the water demand of plants as well. The soil water content can be determined by traditional and modern methods. In order to define soil moisture content, gravimetry measurement is one of the most accurate methods, but it is time consuming and sometimes soil sampling and given results are in different times. Today, IT provides the farmers such tools, like global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). These tools develop in a great integration rapidly. RS methods are ideal to survey larger area quick and accurate. Laser scanning is a novel technique which analyses a real-world or object environment to collect structural and spectral data. In order to obtain soil moisture information, the Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial 3D laser scanner was used on an intensive apple orchard on the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen, near Pallag. Previously, soil samples from the study area with different moisture content were used as reference points. Based on the return intensity values of the laser scanner can be distinguished the different moisture content areas of soil surface. Nevertheless, the error of laser distance echo were examined and statistically evaluated. This research was realized in the frames of TÁMOP 4.2.4. A/2-11-1-2012-0001 "National Excellence Program - Elaborating and operating an inland student and researcher personal support system". The project was subsidized by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund.

  11. Experimental dehydration of natural obsidian and estimation of DH2O at low water contents (United States)

    Jambon, A.; Zhang, Y.; Stolper, E. M.


    Water diffusion experiments were carried out by dehydrating rhyolitic obsidian from Valles Caldera (New Mexico, USA) at 510-980 degrees C. The starting glass wafers contained approximately 0.114 wt% total water, lower than any glasses previously investigated for water diffusion. Weight loss due to dehydration was measured as a function of experiment duration, which permits determination of mean bulk water diffusivity, mean Dw. These diffusivities are in the range of 2.6 to 18 X 10(-14) m2/s and can be fit with the following Arrhenius equation: ln mean Dw (m2/s) = -(25.10 +/- 1.29) - (46,480 +/- 11,400) (J/mol) / RT, except for two replicate runs at 510 degrees C which give mean Dw values much lower than that defined by the above equation. When interpreted according to a model of water speciation in which molecular H2O is the diffusing species with concentration-independent diffusivity while OH units do not contribute to the transport but react to provide H2O, the data (except for the 510 degrees C data) are in agreement with extrapolation from previous results and hence extend the previous data base and provide a test of the applicability of the model to very low water contents. Mean bulk water diffusivities are about two orders of magnitude less than molecular H2O diffusivities because the fraction of molecular H2O out of total water is very small at 0.114 wt% total water and less. The 510 degrees C experimental results can be interpreted as due to slow kinetics of OH to H2O interconversion at low temperatures.

  12. Impact of climate change on water balance components in Mediterranean rainfed olive orchards under tillage or cover crop soil management (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carretero, María Teresa; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Dosio, Alessandro; Gómez, José A.


    The rainfed olive orchards in Southern Spain constitute the main socioeconomic system of the Mediterranean Spanish agriculture. These systems have an elevated level of complexity and require the accurate characterization of crop, climate and soil components for a correct management. It is common the inclusion of cover crops (usually winter cereals or natural cover) intercalated between the olive rows in order to reduce water erosion. Saving limited available water requires specific management, mowing or killing these cover crops in early spring. Thus, under the semi-arid conditions in Southern Spain the management of the cover crops in rainfed olive orchards is essential to avoid a severe impact to the olive orchards yield through depletion of soil water. In order to characterize this agricultural system, a complete water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for the semi-arid conditions of Southern Spain, called WABOL (Abazi et al., 2013). In this complex and fragile system, the climate change constitutes a huge threat for its sustainability, currently limited by the availability of water resources, and its forecasted reduction for Mediterranean environments in Southern Spain. The objective of this study was to simulate the impact of climate change on the different components of the water balance in these representative double cropping systems: transpiration of the olive orchard and cover crop, runoff, deep percolation and soil water content. Four climatic scenarios from the FP6 European Project ENSEMBLES were first bias corrected for temperatures and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) and, subsequently, used as inputs for the WABOL model for five olive orchard fields located in Southern Spain under different conditions of crop, climate, soils and management, in order to consider as much as possible of the variability detected in the Spanish olive orchards. The first results indicate the significant effect of the cover

  13. Content of inorganic solutes in lettuce grown with brackish water in different hydroponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alide M. W. Cova

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and accumulation of ions in lettuce grown in different hydroponic systems and recirculation frequencies. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 8 treatments and 4 replicates. The evaluated hydroponic systems were Nutrient Flow Technique (NFT and an adapted Deep Flow Technique (DFT, the latter with recirculation frequencies of 0.25, 2 and 4 h. Both systems used fresh water and brackish water. Plant growth, accumulation of inorganic solutes (Na+, K+, Cl- and NO3- and the correlation between dry matter production and Na+/K+ and Cl-/NO3- were evaluated. The salinity of the water used to prepare the nutrient solution caused decrease in growth and K+ and NO3- levels, and increased contents of Na+ and Cl- in the plants. When using fresh water the highest dry matter production was obtained in the NFT system. In case of brackish water the adapted DFT system increased the production, in relation to NFT system (at same recirculation frequency: 0.25 h. It was found that the choice of the type of hydroponic system and recirculation interval for the cultivation of lettuce depends on the quality of the water used to prepare the nutrient solution.

  14. Water color affects the stratification, surface temperature, heat content, and mean epilimnetic irradiance of small lakes (United States)

    Houser, J.N.


    The effects of water color on lake stratification, mean epilimnetic irradiance, and lake temperature dynamics were examined in small, north-temperate lakes that differed widely in water color (1.5-19.8 m -1). Among these lakes, colored lakes differed from clear lakes in the following ways: (i) the epilimnia were shallower and colder, and mean epilimnetic irradiance was reduced; (ii) the diel temperature cycles were more pronounced; (iii) whole-lake heat accumulation during stratification was reduced. The depth of the epilimnion ranged from 2.5 m in the clearest lake to 0.75 m in the most colored lake, and 91% of the variation in epilimnetic depth was explained by water color. Summer mean morning epilimnetic temperature was ???2??C cooler in the most colored lake compared with the clearest lake. In clear lakes, the diel temperature range (1.4 ?? 0.7??C) was significantly (p = 0.01) less than that in the most colored lake (2.1 ?? 1.0??C). Change in whole-lake heat content was negatively correlated with water color. Increasing water color decreased light penetration more than thermocline depth, leading to reduced mean epilimnetic irradiance in the colored lakes. Thus, in these small lakes, water color significantly affected temperature, thermocline depth, and light climate. ?? 2006 NRC.

  15. Nanoscaled Components for Improved Efficiency in a Multiplanel Photocatalytic Water-Splitting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Marye Anne [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Whitesell, James [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The goal of this program was to construct a multicell photochemical device for the direct conversion of solar energy directly to hydrogen by water splitting. We have fabricated a practical photolytic system for quantum efficient production of hydrogen. Our approach is based on the assembly of a multi-component integrated system for direct photocatalytic splitting of water for the efficient production of hydrogen. We propose to produce hydrogen as an energy source that is cost competitive with fossil fuels and without the concomitant production of greenhouse gases. The concept is quite straightforward. In order to achieve the over potential required for direct water splitting, the device is composed of multiple dye-sensitized cells directly linked in series, as illustrated in the figure below. The advantage of this concept is that each cell need contribute only a fraction of the overall potential required for water splitting, thus permitting device engineering to maximized efficiently without regard to electric potential. Progress and barriers to practical application will be described.

  16. Separation of cosmic-ray components in a single water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Villasenor, L. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    We describe the use of a water Cherenkov detector to study in detail the signals associated to secondary cosmic rays. In particular we describe a direct way to identify some of the components of secondary cosmic rays. It consists of a polyethylene tank of 1.54 m of diameter filled with water up to a height of 1.2 with one 8'' phototube looking downwards in the center of the tank at the level of the water. By collecting data using three different types of triggers, namely, vertical non-central muons, vertical central muons and arbitrary muons, we show the existence of very strong correlations among the voltage amplitudes, charge depositions, and rise times from 10% to 90% for isolated electrons, isolated muons and extended air showers using a single detector. The simple technique described also allows a clear identification of the muon interaction with the PMT glass envelope. We discuss a way in which our results can be used, in conjunction with a classification scheme such as neural networks, to form artificial signals for extensive air showers with the purpose to estimate the muon/EM ratio of air showers measured with large ground arrays of water Cherenkov detectors such as in the case of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  17. Challenges Associated with the Content of the Art History Component in the General Knowledge in Art Subject: Implications for Art History Education in West Africa (United States)

    Adom, Dickson; Kquofi, Steve; Agyem, Joe Adu


    The content of the Art History component in the General Knowledge in Art subject studied by various Senior High Schools in West Africa is largely of foreign art histories at the expense of the histories of African indigenous arts which are shallowly presented in the teaching syllabus to be taught students. This makes the students appreciate more…

  18. Development, Evaluation, and Validation of a Paper-and-Pencil Test for Measuring Two Components of Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Concerning the "Cardiovascular System" (United States)

    Schmelzing, Stephan; van Driel, Jan H.; Jüttner, Melanie; Brandenbusch, Stefanie; Sandmann, Angela; Neuhaus, Birgit J.


    One main focus of teacher education research concentrates on teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). It has been shown that teachers' PCK correlates with teaching effectiveness as well as with students' achievement gains. Teachers' PCK should be analyzed as one of the main important components to evaluate professional…

  19. The Nature of Relationships among the Components of Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Preservice Science Teachers: "Ozone Layer Depletion" as an Example (United States)

    Kaya, Osman N.


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among the components of preservice science teachers' (PSTs) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) involving the topic "ozone layer depletion". An open-ended survey was first administered to 216 PSTs in their final year at the Faculty of Education to determine their subject matter…

  20. The Nature of the Interplay among Components of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Reaction Rate and Chemical Equilibrium Topics of Novice and Experienced Chemistry Teachers (United States)

    Akin, Fatma Nur; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen


    We examined the interactions among pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) components of novice and experienced chemistry teachers in teaching reaction rate and chemical equilibrium topics in this qualitative multiple-case design study. For this aim, three chemistry teachers who had different levels of teaching experience in chemistry teaching were…

  1. Using passive fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing to estimate soil water content at a discontinuous permafrost site (United States)

    Wagner, A. M.; Lindsey, N.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Gelvin, A.; Saari, S.; Ekblaw, I.; Ulrich, C.; Dou, S.; James, S. R.; Martin, E. R.; Freifeld, B. M.; Bjella, K.; Daley, T. M.


    We present preliminary results from an experimental study targeting the use of passive fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) in a variety of geometries to estimate moisture content evolution in a dynamic permafrost system. A 4 km continuous 2D array of multi-component fiber optic cable (6 SM/6 MM) was buried at the Fairbanks Permafrost Experiment Station to investigate the possibility of using fiber optic distributed sensing as an early detection system for permafrost thaw. A heating experiment using 120 60 Watt heaters was conducted in a 140 m2 area to artificially thaw the topmost section of permafrost. The soils at the site are primarily silt but some disturbed areas include backfilled gravel to depths of approximately 1.0 m. Where permafrost exists, the depth to permafrost ranges from 1.5 to approximately 5 m. The experiment was also used to spatially estimate soil water content distribution throughout the fiber optic array. The horizontal fiber optic cable was buried at depths between 10 and 20 cm. Soil temperatures were monitored with a DTS system at 25 cm increments along the length of the fiber. At five locations, soil water content time-domain reflectometer (TDR) probes were also installed at two depths, in line with the fiber optic cable and 15 to 25 cm below the cable. The moisture content along the fiber optic array was estimated using diurnal effects from the dual depth temperature measurements. In addition to the horizontally installed fiber optic cable, vertical lines of fiber optic cable were also installed inside and outside the heater plot to a depth of 10 m in small diameter (2 cm) boreholes. These arrays were installed in conjunction with thermistor strings and are used to monitor the thawing process and to cross correlate with soil temperatures at the depth of the TDR probes. Results will be presented from the initiation of the artificial thawing through subsequent freeze-up. A comparison of the DTS measured temperatures and

  2. Valorization of MSWI bottom ash for biogas desulfurization: Influence of biogas water content. (United States)

    Fontseré Obis, Marta; Germain, Patrick; Troesch, Olivier; Spillemaecker, Michel; Benbelkacem, Hassen


    In this study an alternative valorization of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Bottom Ash (BA) for H2S elimination from landfill biogas was evaluated. Emphasis was given to the influence of water content in biogas on H2S removal efficiency by BA. A small-scale pilot was developed and implemented in a landfill site located in France. A new biogas analyzer was used and allowed real-time continuous measurement of CH4, CO2, O2, H2S and H2O in raw and treated biogas. The H2S removal efficiency of bottom ash was evaluated for different inlet biogas humidities: from 4 to 24gwater/m3. The biogas water content was found to greatly affect bottom ash efficiency regarding H2S removal. With humid inlet biogas the H2S removal was almost 3 times higher than with a dry inlet biogas. Best removal capacity obtained was 56gH2S/kgdryBA. A humid inlet biogas allows to conserve the bottom ash moisture content for a maximum H2S retention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ATR-IR study of skin components: Lipids, proteins and water. Part I: Temperature effect (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, S.; Pietruszka, A.; Kiełbowicz, Z.; Czarnecki, M. A.


    In this work we report the studies of the effect of temperature on skin components, such as lipids, proteins and water. Modifications of lipids structure induced by increasing temperature (from 20 to 90 °C) have been studied using ATR-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool for characterization of the molecular structure and properties of tissues, such as skin. Due to the small depth of penetration (0.6-5.6 μm), ATR-IR spectroscopy probes only the outermost layer of the skin, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC). The assignment of main spectral features of skin components allows for the determination of phase transitions from the temperature dependencies of band intensities [e.g. νas(CH2) and νs(CH2)]. The phase transitions were determined by using two methods: the first one was based on the first derivative of the Boltzmann function and the second one employed tangent lines of sigmoidal, aforementioned dependencies. The phase transitions in lipids were correlated with modifications of the structure of water and proteins.

  4. Spatiotemporal evolution of water content at the rainfall-event scale under soil surface sealing conditions (United States)

    Sela, S.; Svoray, T.; Assouline, S.


    Surface water content dynamics rules the partitioning between infiltration, runoff, and evaporation fluxes. Extending the knowledge on factors controlling top-soil water content temporal stability (TS) is needed to calibrate and validate various remote sensing technologies. Spatiotemporal evolution of water content is highly non-linear, being affected by various factors at different spatial and temporal scales. In semi-arid climates, this evolution is significantly affected by the formation of surface seals, shown in previous studies to significantly reduce both infiltration and evaporation fluxes from the soil. The drying regime in a natural sealed soil system exerts a sharp contrast in the soil profile - a very dry seal is superimposed on top of a wetter soil layer. One question is thus, whether seal layers contribute to or destroy temporal stability of top soil water content at the hillslope scale. To address this question, a typical hillslope (0.115 km2) was chosen at the LTER Lehavim site in the south of Israel (31020' N, 34045' E) offering different aspects and a classic geomorphologic banding. The annual rainfall is 297 mm, the soils are brown lithosols and arid brown loess and the dominant rock formations are Eocenean limestone and chalk with patches of calcrete. The vegetation is characterised by scattered dwarf shrubs (dominant species Sarcopoterium spinosum) and patches of herbaceous vegetation, mostly annuals, are spread between rocks and dwarf shrubs. An extensive spatial database of soil hydraulic and environmental parameters (e.g. slope, radiation, bulk density) was measured in the field and interpolated to continuous maps using geostatistical techniques and physically based modelling. To explore the effect of soil surface sealing, Mualem and Assouline [1989] model describing the change in hydraulic parameters resulting from soil seal formation were applied. This spatio-temporal database was used to characterise 8240 spatial cells (3X3m2) serving as

  5. Mechanical impedance of soil crusts and water content in loamy soils (United States)

    Josa March, Ramon; Verdú, Antoni M. C.; Mas, Maria Teresa


    Soil crust development affects soil water dynamics and soil aeration. Soil crusts act as mechanical barriers to fluid flow and, as their mechanical impedance increases with drying, they also become obstacles to seedling emergence. As a consequence, the emergence of seedling cohorts (sensitive seeds) might be reduced. However, this may be of interest to be used as an effective system of weed control. Soil crusting is determined by several factors: soil texture, rain intensity, sedimentation processes, etc. There are different ways to characterize the crusts. One of them is to measure their mechanical impedance (MI), which is linked to their moisture level. In this study, we measured the evolution of the mechanical impedance of crusts formed by three loamy soil types (clay loam, loam and sandy clay loam, USDA) with different soil water contents. The aim of this communication was to establish a mathematical relationship between the crust water content and its MI. A saturated soil paste was prepared and placed in PVC cylinders (50 mm diameter and 10 mm height) arranged on a plastic tray. Previously the plastic tray was sprayed with a hydrophobic liquid to prevent the adherence of samples. The samples on the plastic tray were left to air-dry under laboratory conditions until their IM was measured. To measure IM, a food texture analyzer was used. The equipment incorporates a mobile arm, a load cell to apply force and a probe. The arm moves down vertically at a constant rate and the cylindrical steel probe (4 mm diameter) penetrates the soil sample vertically at a constant rate. The equipment is provided with software to store data (time, vertical distance and force values) at a rate of up to 500 points per second. Water content in crust soil samples was determined as the loss of weight after oven-drying (105°C). From the results, an exponential regression between MI and the water content was obtained (determination coefficient very close to 1). This methodology allows

  6. Effects of the asphaltene and resin contents of the bitumens on the water-bitumen interface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jada, A.; Salou, M. [Institut de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, 15 rue Jean Starcky, B.P. 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France)


    The contact angles between various bitumen solid surfaces and aqueous solutions having pH values equal to 3, 6, 9 and 12 were measured. The objective of this work was to analyse the possible acid-base interactions at the water-bitumen interface for substrates having various asphaltenes and resins contents. In addition, the work of adhesion at a bitumen-water interface, W{sub A}, was calculated from the measured contact angle. This allows us to analyze the surface acidity and basicity of the bitumens. The results obtained indicate that the work of adhesion decreases when the bitumen asphaltenes content increases at any aqueous solution pH value. Further, the variation of the work of adhesion versus the pH for various bitumens shows the presence of acidic, basic and amphoteric groups in the surfaces of these components. The nature and the amount of acidic and basic functionalities present in the bulk bitumen were evaluated by a non-aqueous potentiometric titration method and by comparison with acid-base models compounds. No relationship was found between the acid and base contents of the bulk bitumens and the bitumen surface character determined from the work of adhesion. In order to find any correlation between the adhesion work and the stability of the bitumen aqueous dispersions, zeta potentials of the bitumen droplets dispersed in acidic aqueous solutions were measured. Stable bitumen dispersions having zeta potential values higher than 50 mV and work of adhesion values higher than 55 mJ/m{sup 2} were obtained with bitumens having high values of the resin/asphaltenes ratios. The determination of a surface's acidity and basicity by measuring the contact angles at a water-bitumen interface seems to be a more useful method than the non-aqueous potentiometric titration. Hence, a good correlation is found between the surface charge of the bitumen droplet as measured by zeta potential and the work of adhesion at water-bitumen interface.

  7. Initial development and chemical components of sugarcane under water stress associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

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    Carmem C. M. de Sousa


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water stress levels in the soil and a mix (or: a mixed inoculum of four species: Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Gigasporas rosea, Acaulospora longula, Fuscutata heterogama of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on initial vegetative growth, fresh and dry biomass production, root colonization, phosphorus, proteins, enzymes and amino acid of the sugarcane variety RB 857515 under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was set in a randomized block design in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme with four treatments (T1 - 50% PC - pot capacity, with AMF; T2 - 100% PC with AMF; T3 - 50% PC without AMF; T4 - 100% PC without AMF with 16 replicates. The water stress level of 50% PC decreased stem diameter and shoot and root fresh weight of sugarcane plants, as well as AMF in the soil and in plant roots. However, AMF and the water stress level of 50% PC, separately or combined, did not affect plant height, number of leaves, dry matter and contents of phosphorus, total soluble proteins, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase and proline of the sugarcane variety RB857515.

  8. Swelling in light water reactor internal components: Insights from computational modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, Roger E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barashev, Alexander V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Golubov, Stanislav I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    A modern cluster dynamics model has been used to investigate the materials and irradiation parameters that control microstructural evolution under the relatively low-temperature exposure conditions that are representative of the operating environment for in-core light water reactor components. The focus is on components fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. The model accounts for the synergistic interaction between radiation-produced vacancies and the helium that is produced by nuclear transmutation reactions. Cavity nucleation rates are shown to be relatively high in this temperature regime (275 to 325°C), but are sensitive to assumptions about the fine scale microstructure produced under low-temperature irradiation. The cavity nucleation rates observed run counter to the expectation that void swelling would not occur under these conditions. This expectation was based on previous research on void swelling in austenitic steels in fast reactors. This misleading impression arose primarily from an absence of relevant data. The results of the computational modeling are generally consistent with recent data obtained by examining ex-service components. However, it has been shown that the sensitivity of the model s predictions of low-temperature swelling behavior to assumptions about the primary damage source term and specification of the mean-field sink strengths is somewhat greater that that observed at higher temperatures. Further assessment of the mathematical model is underway to meet the long-term objective of this research, which is to provide a predictive model of void swelling at relevant lifetime exposures to support extended reactor operations.

  9. Clustering analysis of water distribution systems: identifying critical components and community impacts. (United States)

    Diao, K; Farmani, R; Fu, G; Astaraie-Imani, M; Ward, S; Butler, D


    Large water distribution systems (WDSs) are networks with both topological and behavioural complexity. Thereby, it is usually difficult to identify the key features of the properties of the system, and subsequently all the critical components within the system for a given purpose of design or control. One way is, however, to more explicitly visualize the network structure and interactions between components by dividing a WDS into a number of clusters (subsystems). Accordingly, this paper introduces a clustering strategy that decomposes WDSs into clusters with stronger internal connections than external connections. The detected cluster layout is very similar to the community structure of the served urban area. As WDSs may expand along with urban development in a community-by-community manner, the correspondingly formed distribution clusters may reveal some crucial configurations of WDSs. For verification, the method is applied to identify all the critical links during firefighting for the vulnerability analysis of a real-world WDS. Moreover, both the most critical pipes and clusters are addressed, given the consequences of pipe failure. Compared with the enumeration method, the method used in this study identifies the same group of the most critical components, and provides similar criticality prioritizations of them in a more computationally efficient time.

  10. Determination of Leaf Water Content by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectrometry and Multivariate Calibration in Miscanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Jin


    Full Text Available Leaf water content is one of the most common physiological parameters limiting efficiency of photosynthesis and biomass productivity in plants including Miscanthus. Therefore, it is of great significance to determine or predict the water content quickly and non-destructively. In this study, we explored the relationship between leaf water content and diffuse reflectance spectra in Miscanthus. Three multivariate calibrations including partial least squares (PLS, least squares support vector machine regression (LSSVR, and radial basis function (RBF neural network (NN were developed for the models of leaf water content determination. The non-linear models including RBF_LSSVR and RBF_NN showed higher accuracy than the PLS and Lin_LSSVR models. Moreover, 75 sensitive wavelengths were identified to be closely associated with the leaf water content in Miscanthus. The RBF_LSSVR and RBF_NN models for predicting leaf water content, based on 75 characteristic wavelengths, obtained the high determination coefficients of 0.9838 and 0.9899, respectively. The results indicated the non-linear models were more accurate than the linear models using both wavelength intervals. These results demonstrated that visible and near-infrared (VIS/NIR spectroscopy combined with RBF_LSSVR or RBF_NN is a useful, non-destructive tool for determinations of the leaf water content in Miscanthus, and thus very helpful for development of drought-resistant varieties in Miscanthus.

  11. Hydrogeologic framework refinement, ground-water flow and storage, water-chemistry analyses, and water-budget components of the Yuma area, southwestern Arizona and southeastern California (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Land, Michael; Faunt, Claudia C.; Leake, S.A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Fleming, John B.; Pool, D.R.


    The ground-water and surface-water system in the Yuma area in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California is managed intensely to meet water-delivery requirements of customers in the United States, to manage high ground-water levels in the valleys, and to maintain treaty-mandated water-quality and quantity requirements of Mexico. The following components in this report, which were identified to be useful in the development of a ground-water management model, are: (1) refinement of the hydrogeologic framework; (2) updated water-level maps, general ground-water flow patterns, and an estimate of the amount of ground water stored in the mound under Yuma Mesa; (3) review and documentation of the ground-water budget calculated by the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior (Reclamation); and (4) water-chemistry characterization to identify the spatial distribution of water quality, information on sources and ages of ground water, and information about the productive-interval depths of the aquifer. A refined three-dimensional digital hydrogeologic framework model includes the following hydrogeologic units from bottom to top: (1) the effective hydrologic basement of the basin aquifer, which includes the Pliocene Bouse Formation, Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and pre-Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic rocks; (2) undifferentiated lower units to represent the Pliocene transition zone and wedge zone; (3) coarse-gravel unit; (4) lower, middle, and upper basin fill to represent the upper, fine-grained zone between the top of the coarse-gravel unit and the land surface; and (5) clay A and clay B. Data for the refined model includes digital elevation models, borehole lithology data, geophysical data, and structural data to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units. The top surface of the coarse-gravel unit, defined by using borehole and geophysical data, varies similarly to terraces resulting from the down cutting of the Colorado River. Clay A

  12. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette


    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  13. Gas exchange and leaf contents in bell pepper under energized water and biofertilizer doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca R. M. Borges


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of energized water and bovine biofertilizer doses on the gas exchange and NPK contents in leaves of yellow bell pepper plants. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Federal University of Ceará, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, from June to November 2011. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme; the plots were composed of treatments with energized and non-energized water and the subplots of five doses of liquid biofertilizer (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mL plant-1 week-1. The following variables were analyzed: transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and leaf contents of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K. Water energization did not allow significant increases in the analyzed variables. The use of biofertilizer as the only source of fertilization was sufficient to provide the nutrients N, P and K at appropriate levels for the bell pepper crop.

  14. Role of Water Vapor Content in the Effects of Aerosol on the Electrification of Thunderstorms: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Zhao


    Full Text Available We explored the role of the water vapor content below the freezing level in the response of idealized supercell storm electrical processes to increased concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with parameterizations electrification and discharging, we performed 30 simulations by varying both the CCN concentration and water vapor content below the freezing level. The sensitivity simulations showed a distinct response to increased concentrations of CCN, depending on the water vapor content below the freezing level. Enhancing CCN concentrations increased electrification processes of thunderstorms and produced a new negative charge region above the main positive charge center when there were ample amounts of water vapor below the freezing level. Conversely, there were weak effects on electrification and the charge structure in numerical experiments initialized with lower water vapor content below the freezing level.

  15. Influence of water content on the ablation of skin with a 532 nm nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Eom, Tae Joong; Jeong, Sungho


    This work reports that the ablation volume and rate of porcine skin changed significantly with the change of skin water content. Under the same laser irradiation conditions (532 nm Nd:YAG laser, pulse width=11.5 ns, pulse energy=1.54 J, beam radius=0.54 mm), the ablation volume dropped by a factor of 4 as the skin water content decreased from 40 wt. % (native) to 19 wt. % with a change in the ablation rate below and above around 25 wt. %. Based on the ablation characteristics observed by in situ shadowgraph images and the calculated tissue temperatures, it is considered that an explosive rupture by rapid volumetric vaporization of water is responsible for the ablation of the high water content of skin, whereas thermal disintegration of directly irradiated surface layer is responsible for the low water content of skin.

  16. Mustiscaling Analysis applied to field Water Content through Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature sensing measurements (United States)

    Benitez Buelga, Javier; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sanchez, Raul; Gil, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.


    signal variation, or to see at which scales signals are most correlated. This can give us an insight into the dominant processes An alternative to both of the above methods has been described recently. Relative entropy and increments in relative entropy has been applied in soil images (Bird et al., 2006) and in soil transect data (Tarquis et al., 2008) to study scale effects localized in scale and provide the information that is complementary to the information about scale dependencies found across a range of scales. We will use them in this work to describe the spatial scaling properties of a set of field water content data measured in an extension of a corn field, in a plot of 500 m2 and an spatial resolution of 25 cm. These measurements are based on an optics cable (BruggSteal) buried on a ziz-zag deployment at 30cm depth. References Bird, N., M.C. Díaz, A. Saa, and A.M. Tarquis. 2006. A review of fractal and multifractal analysis of soil pore-scale images. J. Hydrol. 322:211-219. Kravchenko, A.N., R. Omonode, G.A. Bollero, and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:235-243. Lark, R.M., A.E. Milne, T.M. Addiscott, K.W.T. Goulding, C.P. Webster, and S. O'Flaherty. 2004. Scale- and location-dependent correlation of nitrous oxide emissions with soil properties: An analysis using wavelets. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:611-627. Lark, R.M., S.R. Kaffka, and D.L. Corwin. 2003. Multiresolution analysis of data on electrical conductivity of soil using wavelets. J. Hydrol. 272:276-290. Lark, R. M. and Webster, R. 1999. Analysis and elucidation of soil variation using wavelets. European J. of Soil Science, 50(2): 185-206. Mandelbrot, B.B. 1982. The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman, New York. Percival, D.B., and A.T. Walden. 2000. Wavelet methods for time series analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. Tarquis, A.M., N.R. Bird, A.P. Whitmore, M.C. Cartagena, and

  17. Virtual water content for meat and egg production through livestock farming in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Ouda, Omar K. M.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.


    The concept of virtual water content (VWC) may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i.e., Saudi Arabia. In this paper, VWC was estimated for different livestocks in the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The overall VWC for livestock in Saudi Arabia was about 10.5 and 8.9 billion m3 in 2006 and 2010, respectively. This study shows the decreasing trend of overall VWC in producing livestock in Saudi Arabia. The VWC were highest in Riyadh followed by Eastern region, Qaseem, Hail, and Makkah with ranges of 3587-4112, 1684-2044, 1007-1331, 644-810, and 504-715 million m3/year, respectively. The results demonstrate that a shift in diet from the high VWC meat to low VWC meat may reduce the overall VWC for livestock production. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.

  18. Virtual water content for meat and egg production through livestock farming in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Ouda, Omar K. M.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.


    The concept of virtual water content (VWC) may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i.e., Saudi Arabia. In this paper, VWC was estimated for different livestocks in the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The overall VWC for livestock in Saudi Arabia was about 10.5 and 8.9 billion m3 in 2006 and 2010, respectively. This study shows the decreasing trend of overall VWC in producing livestock in Saudi Arabia. The VWC were highest in Riyadh followed by Eastern region, Qaseem, Hail, and Makkah with ranges of 3587-4112, 1684-2044, 1007-1331, 644-810, and 504-715 million m3/year, respectively. The results demonstrate that a shift in diet from the high VWC meat to low VWC meat may reduce the overall VWC for livestock production. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.

  19. Interaction of water components in the semi-arid Huasco and Limarí river basins, North Central Chile (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Oyarzún, R.; Reinstorf, F.; Oyarzún, J.; Schirmer, M.; Knöller, K.


    For sustainable water resource management in semi-arid regions, sound information is required about interactions between the different components of the water system: rain/snow precipitation, surface/subsurface run-off, groundwater recharge. Exemplarily, the Huasco and Limarí river basins as water stressed river catchments have been studied by isotope and hydrochemical methods for (i) the origin of water, (ii) water quality, (iii) relations of surface and groundwater. Applying the complex multi-isotopic and hydrochemical methodology to the water components of the Huasco and Limarí basins, a differentiation of water components concerning subsurface flow and river water along the catchment area and by anthropogenic impacts are detected. Sulphate and nitrate concentrations indicate remarkable input from mining and agricultural activities along the river catchment. The 2H-18O relations of river water and groundwater of both catchments point to the behaviour of river waters originated in an arid to semi-arid environment. Consequently, the groundwater from several production wells in the lower parts of the catchments is related to the rivers where the wells located, however, it can be distinguished from the river water. Using the hydrological water balance and the isotope mixing model, the interaction between surface and subsurface flows and river flow is estimated.


    Kozubenko, O V; Turchaninov, D V; Boyarskaya, L A; Glagoleva, O N; Pogodin, I S; Luksha, E A


    Adequate, balanced nutrition is a precondition for the formation of health of the younger generation. The study of the dietary intake and peculiarities of the chemical composition offood is needed to substantiate measures aimed at the correction of the ration of adolescents. Hygienic evaluation of the content of water soluble vitamins in foods and the ration of teenage population of the Omsk region. TASKS OF THE STUDY: 1. To determine levels of water-soluble vitamins content in foods forming the basis of the ration of the population the Omsk region. 2. On the base of a study of the actual nutrition of adolescents to determine the levels of water-soluble vitamins consumption. 3. To give a hygienic assessment of adolescent nutrition in the Omsk region in terms of provision with water-soluble vitamins, and to identify priority directions of the alimentary correction of the revealed disorders. The analysis of 389 food samples for the content of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, PP C, folic acid) was performed with the use of reversed-phase HPLC high pressure on the Shimadzu LC-20 Prominence detector. The hygienic assessment of the actual nutrition of adolescents aged 13-17 years (sample survey; n = 250; 2012-2014) in the Omsk region was performed by the method of the analysis of food consumption frequency. There were noted significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B1 and B2 in the studied samples of cereals, bread and vegetables in comparison with reference data. Consumption levels of vitamins B1, B2, PP folic acid in the diet of adolescents in the Omsk region are lower than recommended values. In the structure of nutrition there is not enough milk dairy products--in 82.4 ± 2.4%, fish and sea products in 90.8 ± 1.8% of adolescents. The actual nutrition of the adolescent population of the Omsk region is irrational, unbalanced in quantitative and qualitative terms, and does not provide the necessary level of consumption of most important water-soluble vitamins

  1. Lipid and fatty acid contents in red tides from tropical fish ponds of the coastal water of South China Sea. (United States)

    Shamsudin, L


    Microplanktonic red tide blooms (dominated by dinoflagellates) were observed in brackish water fish ponds of Terengganu between March 1992 to January 1993. The first short-lived bloom (2-3 days) occurred in October 1992 while the second long-lived bloom (6-7 days) occurred in January 1993. The dominant dinoflagellate species comprised of Peridinium quinquecorne (> 90% total cell count) with considerable proportion of Protoperidinium excentricum. Ciliophora consisting of Tintinopsis sp. and Favella sp. were also present during the bloom period. The total ash, chlorophyll, phaeopigment, lipid and fatty acid content of the microplankton were studied. Considerable amounts (6-11% of the total fatty acid) of the polyunsaturated fatty acid 18:3w3 (linolenic acid) were present in the microplankton. However, high amounts of 20:5w3 (eicosapentanoic acid) and 22:6w3 (docosahexaenoic acid) were present with variable but usually high amounts of 22:4w6 and 22:5w6 acids. The latter microplankton bloom contained higher amounts of 20:5w3 and 22:6w3 acids than the earlier bloom. Lipid content were three to five times higher than chlorophyll a. There was an increase with successive day after bloom outbreak in the relative proportion of total C18, C20, and C22 fatty acid components. The algae microplankton contained the w3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) probably needed for the growth and survival rate of grazing pond animals.

  2. Enhanced communication and coordination in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System. (United States)

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam; Simon, Katie


    Effective communication and coordination are critical when investigating a possible drinking water contamination incident. A contamination warning system is designed to detect water contamination by initiating a coordinated, effective response to mitigate significant public health and economic consequences. This article describes historical communication barriers during water contamination incidents and discusses how these barriers were overcome through the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System, referred to as the "Cincinnati Pilot." By enhancing partnerships in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Pilot, information silos that existed in each organization were replaced with interagency information depots that facilitated effective decision making.

  3. High-resolution prediction of soil available water content within the crop root zone (United States)

    Haghverdi, Amir; Leib, Brian G.; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Ayers, Paul D.; Buschermohle, Michael J.


    A detailed understanding of soil hydraulic properties, particularly soil available water content (AWC) within the effective root zone, is needed to optimally schedule irrigation in fields with substantial spatial heterogeneity. However, it is difficult and time consuming to directly measure soil hydraulic properties. Therefore, easily collected and measured soil properties, such as soil texture and/or bulk density, that are well correlated with hydraulic properties are used as proxies to develop pedotransfer functions (PTF). In this study, multiple modeling scenarios were developed and evaluated to indirectly predict high resolution AWC maps within the effective root zone. The modeling techniques included kriging, co-kriging, regression kriging, artificial neural networks (NN) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The efficiency of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as proximal data in the modeling process was assessed. There was a good agreement (root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.052 cm3 cm-3 and r = 0.88) between observed and point prediction of water contents using pseudo continuous PTFs. We found that both GWR (mean RMSE = 0.062 cm3 cm-3) and regression kriging (mean RMSE = 0.063 cm3 cm-3) produced the best water content maps with these accuracies improved up to 19% when ECa was used as an ancillary soil attribute in the interpolation process. The maps indicated fourfold differences in AWC between coarse- and fine-textured soils across the study site. This provided a template for future investigations for evaluating the efficiency of variable rate irrigation management scenarios in accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic attributes.

  4. Investigation of Neutron Detector Response to Varying Temperature and Water Content for Geothermal Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkurt, Hatice [ORNL


    Nuclear logging techniques have been used for oil well logging applications for decades. The basic principle is to use a neutron and/or photon source and neutron and photon detectors for characterization purposes. Although the technology has matured, it is not directly applicable to geothermal logging due to even more challenging environmental conditions, both in terms of temperature and pressure. For geothermal logging, the operating temperature can go up to 376 C for depths up to 10,000 km. In this paper, the preliminary computational results for thermal neutron detector response for varying temperature and water content for geothermal applications are presented. In this summary, preliminary results for neutron detector response for varying formation temperature and water content are presented. The analysis is performed for a steady state source (AmBe) and time dependent source (PNG) in pulsed mode. The computational results show significant sensitivity to water content as well as temperature changes for both steady state and time dependent measurements. As expected, the most significant change is due to the temperature change for S({alpha}, {beta}) nuclear data instead of individual isotope cross sections for the formation. Clearly, this is partially because of the fact that strong absorbers (i.e., chlorine) are not taken into account for the analysis at this time. The computational analysis was performed using the temperature dependent data in the ENDF/B-VII libraries, supplied with MCNP. Currently, the data for intermediate temperatures are being generated using NJOY and validated. A series of measurements are planned to validate the computational results. Further measurements are planned to determine the neutron and photon detector response as a function of temperature. The tests will be performed for temperatures up to 400 C.

  5. The effects of basin morphology on soil water content and vegetation stress (United States)

    Pizzolla, T.; Acampora, A.; Manfreda, S.; Fiorentino, M.


    Soil water content plays an important role especially in water limited ecosystems. It controls the partition of net radiation into sensible and latent heat, the movement of solutes and pollutants, the soil temperature and affects the water stress of vegetation. All these processes are intimately interconnected and strongly influenced by the radiation balance. The available solar radiation, that depends on climatic conditions and morphology, may strongly modify hydrological processes at the local scale. Basin morphology in fact modifies the amount of direct solar radiation, and also the amount of diffuse and reflected solar radiation received by a given point in the basin. Using the analytical model developed by Allen et al. (2006), it is possible to describe the radiation balance taking in to consideration the effects of basin morphology. This approach is extremely useful to describe the spatial distribution of solar radiation and the maps of potential evapotranspiration during any phase of the year. Using this approach in cascade with the analytical form of the soil water balance equation proposed by Laio et al. (2001), we identified the main statistics of soil moisture dynamics as well as the dynamic water stress of the vegetation (Porporato et al., 2001) during the growing season. The model has been applied using three study cases: 1) a flat river basin under stationary climate; 2) a river basin with morphology under stationary climate; 3) a river basin with morphology under stationary climate with imposed initial conditions. It is necessary to specify that the initial conditions for the last study case were defined based on the climatic conditions during the dormant period, while the vegetation water stress refers to the growing season. Results show that basin morphology (case 2 and 3) significantly affects the spatial distribution of vegetation water stress increasing its variability. The variability of this index increases when taking into consideration the

  6. The Landlab OverlandFlow component: a Python library for computing shallow-water flow across watersheds


    Adams, Jordan M.; Gasparini, Nicole M.; Hobley, Daniel E. J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Hutton, Eric W. H.; Nudurupati, Sai S.; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan


    Hydrologic models and modeling components are used in a wide range of applications. Rainfall-runoff models are used to investigate the evolution of hydrologic variables, such as soil moisture and surface water discharge, throughout one or more rainfall events. Longer-term landscape evolution models also include aspects of hydrology, albeit in a highly simplified manner, in order to approximate how flowing water shapes landscapes. Here we illustrate how the OverlandFlow hydrologic component co...

  7. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and osmotic adjustment matter content of trifoliate orange seedling under water stress]. (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Xia, Ren-Xue


    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae on plant growth and osmotic adjustment matter content of trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] seedlings under water stress were studied in potted culture. The results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation could increase plant growth, such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and plant dry weight, when the water content of soil was 20%, 16% and 12%. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation also promoted active absorbing areas of plant root and absorption of P from plant rhizosphere, enhanced the accumulated quantities of soluble sugar content in leaves and roots, and reduced proline content of leaf. Plant inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhiza had higher plant water use efficiency than non-mycorrhizal plants. Drought tolerance of trifoliate orange seedling inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhiza was enhanced. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on trifoliate orange seedling under 20% and 16% water content of soil were more significant than under 12% water content of soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi infection was severely restrained by 12% water content of soil. Thus, effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant probably positively related to the arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculated percentage.

  8. Components of Appreciative Functioning: A Thematic Analysis of Relevant Literature and Content Analysis of Existing Measurement Scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rusk, Reuben D; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne A; Waters, Lea


    ... detail.A deductive thematic analysis of relevant literature was performed in Study 1 to identify psychological and social components of appreciative functioning within an empirically-based systems...

  9. Assessing the Performance of Thermal Inertia and Hydrus Models to Estimate Surface Soil Water Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Negm


    Full Text Available The knowledge of soil water content (SWC dynamics in the upper soil layer is important for several hydrological processes. Due to the difficulty of assessing the spatial and temporal SWC dynamics in the field, some model-based approaches have been proposed during the last decade. The main objective of this work was to assess the performance of two approaches to estimate SWC in the upper soil layer under field conditions: the physically-based thermal inertia and the Hydrus model. Their validity was firstly assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. Thermal inertia was firstly validated in laboratory conditions using the transient line heat source (TLHS method. Then, it was applied in situ to analyze the dynamics of soil thermal properties under two extreme conditions of soil-water status (well-watered and air-dry, using proximity remote-sensed data. The model performance was assessed using sensor-based measurements of soil water content acquired through frequency (FDR and time domain reflectometry (TDR. During the laboratory experiment, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was 0.02 m3 m−3 for the Hydrus model and 0.05 m3 m−3 for the TLHS model approach. On the other hand, during the in situ experiment, the temporal variability of SWCs simulated by the Hydrus model and the corresponding values measured by the TDR method evidenced good agreement (RMSE ranging between 0.01 and 0.005 m3 m−3. Similarly, the average of the SWCs derived from the thermal diffusion model was fairly close to those estimated by Hydrus (spatially averaged RMSE ranging between 0.03 and 0.02 m3 m−3.

  10. Near infrared index to assess the effect of soil tillage and fertilizer on soil water content. (United States)

    Soltani, Ines; Fouad, Youssef; Michot, Didier; Breger, Pascale; Dubois, Remy; Pichelin, Pascal; Cudennec, Christophe


    Characterization of soil hydraulic properties is important for assessing soil water regime in agricultural fields. In the laboratory, measurements of soil hydrodynamic properties are costly and time consuming. Numerous studies recently demonstrated that reflectance spectroscopy can give a rapid estimation of several soil properties including those related with soil water content. The main objective of this research study was to show that near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a useful tool to study the combined effect of soil tillage and fertilizer input on soil hydrodynamic properties. The study was carried out on soil samples collected from an experimental station located in Brittany, France. In 2000, the field was designed in a split-plot combining three tillage practices and four sources of fertilizers (mineral and organic). Undisturbed soil blocks were sampled in 2012 from three different depths of topsoil (0-7 cm, 7-15 cm and 15-20 cm) at each treatment. From each soil block, four aggregates with 3-4 cm diameter by 5-6 cm height were collected. Soil aggregates were first saturated and were then drained through 10 matric potential, from saturation up to permanent wilting point (pF=4.2), by successively using a suction table and a pressure chamber. Once the desired water pressure head was reached, soil samples were scanned to acquire reflectance spectra between 400-2500 nm using a handheld spectroradiometer equipped with a contact probe. Each spectrum was transformed into continuum removal, and an index based on the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the absorption feature around 1920 nm was calculated. This index showed a linear relationship (R2>0.9) with volumetric water content. Moreover our results showed that the slope of the line was well correlated with the range of treatment. Overall, our findings indicate that the absorption feature of continuum removal spectra around 1900 nm can be useful to study the effect, particularly, of tillage on hydrodynamic

  11. Soil water availability in rainfed cultivation affects more than cultivar some nutraceutical components and the sensory profile of virgin olive oil. (United States)

    Bucelli, Pierluigi; Costantini, Edoardo A C; Barbetti, Roberto; Franchini, Elena


    This research considered the varieties 'Frantoio' and 'Moraiolo' growing in rainfed olive trees (Olea europaea) and took place in Tuscany, central Italy. Soil moisture was monitored during the very meteorologically contrasting years 2002 and 2003 in two nearby olive groves. The plots had the same morphological and climatic conditions, but different soil types. Monocultivar oil samples were analyzed to determine fatty acids, minor polar compounds, and tocopherols content and were submitted to organoleptic analysis by a panel of trained tasters. The results highlighted that soil water regimen affects some nutraceutical components and the sensory evaluation of olive oil. Cultivar also affected yield components, polyphenols, and tocopherols content, but less than soil water availability. The plants on the soil inducing a relatively more intense and longer water deficit during summer (a Skeleti Calcaric Regosol) had an early ripening and gave the best results in terms of phenolic compounds and, consequently, antioxidant properties of the olive oil. The sensorial properties of the oil obtained from both cultivars on the Regosol were superior in both years of the trial.

  12. Influence of Water Content on the Flow Consistency of Dredged Marine Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman M. Z.


    Full Text Available In present time, dredged marine soils (DMS are generally considered as geo-waste in Malaysia. It is also known to contain high value of water and low shear strength. Lightly solidified soils such as soilcement slurry and flowable fill are known as controlled low strength materials (CLSM. On site, the CLSM was tested for its consistency by using an open-ended cylinder pipe. The vertical and lateral displacement from the test would determine the quality and workability of the CLSM. In this study, manufactured kaolin powder was mixed with different percentages of water. Cement was also added to compare the natural soil with solidified soil samples. There are two methods of flowability test used, namely the conventional lift method and innovative drop method. The lateral displacement or soil spread diameter values were recorded and averaged. Tests showed that the soil spread diameter corresponded almost linear with the increasing amount of water. The binder-added samples show no significant difference with non-binder sample. Also, the mixing water content and percentage of fines had influenced the soil spread diameter.

  13. Salt tolerance of Beta macrocarpa is associated with efficient osmotic adjustment and increased apoplastic water content. (United States)

    Hamouda, I; Badri, M; Mejri, M; Cruz, C; Siddique, K H M; Hessini, K


    The chenopod Beta macrocarpa Guss (wild Swiss chard) is known for its salt tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are still debated. In order to elucidate the processes involved, we grew wild Swiss chard exposed to three salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mm NaCl) for 45 days, and determined several physiological parameters at the end of this time. All plants survived despite reductions in growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plants exposed to salinity (100 and 200 mm NaCl). As expected, the negative effects of salinity were more pronounced at 200 mm than at 100 mm NaCl: (i) leaf apoplastic water content was maintained or increased despite a significant reduction in leaf water potential, revealing the halophytic character of B. macrocarpa; (ii) osmotic adjustment occurred, which presumably enhanced the driving force for water extraction from soil, and avoided toxic build up of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the mesophyll apoplast of leaves. Osmotic adjustment mainly occurred through accumulation of inorganic ions and to a lesser extent soluble sugars; proline was not implicated in osmotic adjustment. Overall, two important mechanisms of salt tolerance in B. macrocarpa were identified: osmotic and apoplastic water adjustment. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report


    MOVASEGHI, Farzaneh; SADEGHI, Heydar


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years,...

  15. Acid generation upon thermal concentration of natural water: The critical water content and the effects of ionic composition (United States)

    Pulvirenti, April L.; Needham, Karen M.; Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad A.; Marks, Charles R.; Gorman, Jeffrey A.; Shettel, Donald L.; Barkatt, Aaron


    Thermal evaporation of a variety of simulated pore waters from the region of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, produced acidic liquids and gases during the final stages of evaporation. Several simulated pore waters were prepared and then thermally distilled in order to collect and analyze fractions of the evolved vapor. In some cases, distillates collected towards the end of the distillation were highly acidic; in other cases the pH of the distillate remained comparatively unchanged during the course of the distillation. The results suggest that the pH values of the later fractions are determined by the initial composition of the water. Acid production stems from the hydrolysis of magnesium ions, especially at near dryness. Near the end of the distillation, magnesium nitrate and magnesium chloride begin to lose water of hydration, greatly accelerating their thermal decomposition to form acid. Acid formation is promoted further when precipitated calcium carbonate is removed. Specifically, calcium chloride-rich pore waters containing moderate (10-20 ppm) levels of magnesium and nitrate and low levels of bicarbonate produced mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, resulting in a precipitous drop in pH to values of 1 or lower after about 95% of the original volume was distilled. Waters with either low or moderate magnesium content coupled with high levels of bicarbonate produced slightly basic fractions (pH 7-9). If calcium was present in excess of bicarbonate, waters containing moderate levels of magnesium produced acid even in the presence of bicarbonate, due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Other salts such as halite and anhydrite promote the segregation of acidic vapors from residual basic solids. The concomitant release of wet acid gas has implications for the integrity of the alloys under consideration for containers at the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Condensed acid gases at very low pH, especially mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, are

  16. Systematized water content calculation in cartilage using T1-mapping MR estimations: design and validation of a mathematical model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiguetomi-Medina, J M; Ramirez-GL, J L; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H; Møller-Madsen, B

    .... In this study, a method that translates T1 values into water content data was tested statistically.To develop a predictive equation, T1 values were obtained for tissue-mimicking gelatin samples. 1.5...

  17. Sapflow+: a four‐needle heat‐pulse sap flow sensor enabling nonempirical sap flux density and water content measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Steppe, Kathy


    .... Moreover, existing sap flow methods require destructive wood core measurements to determine sapwood water content, necessary to convert heat velocity to sap flux density, not only damaging the tree...

  18. In-Line Measurement of Water Contents in Ethanol Using a Zeolite-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance. (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yamamoto, Takuji; Kim, Young Han


    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was utilized to measure the water content in ethanol. For the improvement of measurement sensitivity, the QCM was modified by applying zeolite particles on the surface with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) binder. The measurement performance was examined with ethanol of 1% to 5% water content in circulation. The experimental results showed that the frequency drop of the QCM was related with the water content though there was some deviation. The sensitivity of the zeolite-coated QCM was sufficient to be implemented in water content determination, and a higher ratio of silicon to aluminum in the molecular structure of the zeolite gave better performance. The coated surface was inspected by microscopy to show the distribution of zeolite particles and PMMA spread.

  19. The estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles and its effect on bisphenol A studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thigpen, Julius E; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Kissling, Grace E; Locklear, Jacqueline; Caviness, Gordon F; Whiteside, Tanya; Belcher, Scott M; Brown, Nadine M; Collins, Bradley J; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Camacho, Luísa; Adsit, Floyd G; Grant, Mary


    .... The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2...

  20. Effect of water content and temperature on inactivation kinetics of myrosinase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.


    Broccoli belongs to the Brassicaceae plant family consisting of widely eaten vegetables containing high concentrations of glucosinolates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by endogenous myrosinase (MYR) can form isothiocyanates with health-promoting activities. The effect of water content (WC)

  1. Bridging the connection between effective viscosity and electrical conductivity through water content in the upper mantle. (United States)

    Xu, Yixian; Zhang, Anqi; Yang, Bo; Bao, Xuewei; Wang, Qinyan; Xia, Jianghai; Yang, Wencai


    Upper mantle viscosity plays a key role in understanding plate tectonics and is usually extrapolated from laboratory-based creep measurements of upper mantle conditions or constrained by modeling geodetic and post-seismic observations. At present, an effective method to obtain a high-resolution viscosity structure is still lacking. Recently, a promising estimation of effective viscosity was obtained from a transform derived from the results of magnetotelluric imaging. Here, we build a relationship between effective viscosity and electrical conductivity in the upper mantle using water content. The contribution of water content to the effective viscosity is isolated in a flow law with reference to relatively dry conditions in the upper mantle. The proposed transform is robust and has been verified by application to data synthesized from an intraoceanic subduction zone model. We then apply the method to transform an electrical conductivity cross-section across the Yangtze block and the North China Craton. The results show that the effective viscosity structure coincides well with that estimated from other independent datasets at depths of 40 to 80 km but differs slightly at depths of 100 to 200 km. We briefly discussed the potentials and associated problems for application.

  2. Comfort, Ocular Dryness, and Equilibrium Water Content Changes of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses. (United States)

    Insua Pereira, Eduardo; Lira, Madalena


    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the level of comfort and ocular dryness during wear with six daily disposable contact lenses (DDCL) and also determine the changes in contact lens equilibrium water content (EWC) resulting from their wear. In this contralateral open trial, 27 subjects were randomly fitted with six DDCL (stenfilcon A, delefilcon A, nelfilcon A, narafilcon A, nesofilcon A, and omafilcon A). The evaluation of comfort and ocular dryness sensation was recorded by the participants at two moments of the day (11 AM and 5 PM) over a period of 10 days of contact lens wear. The assessment was made with the aid of visual analogue scales (0-10). The refractive index of 54 contact lenses was accessed by a single operator using a digital automated refractometer (CLR 12-70; Index Instruments). The EWC of the lenses was estimated based on its refractive index values. Comfort ratings were slightly higher for delefilcon A (9.56±0.67, P=0.01) and narafilcon A (9.40±0.93, P=0.01) and these lenses wearers also reported less ocular dryness. The results revealed a pronounced water content reduction for omafilcon A (P=0.002), narafilcon A (P=0.008), and nesofilcon A (P=0.003). Although changes in subjective responses and EWC were distinct among the materials analyzed, all the contact lenses performed well during the 10 days of wear.

  3. Correction of resistance to penetration by pedofunctions and a reference soil water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Tuzzin de Moraes


    Full Text Available The soil penetration resistance is an important indicator of soil compaction and is strongly influenced by soil water content. The objective of this study was to develop mathematical models to normalize soil penetration resistance (SPR, using a reference value of gravimetric soil water content (U. For this purpose, SPR was determined with an impact penetrometer, in an experiment on a Dystroferric Red Latossol (Rhodic Eutrudox, at six levels of soil compaction, induced by mechanical chiseling and additional compaction by the traffic of a harvester (four, eight, 10, and 20 passes; in addition to a control treatment under no-tillage, without chiseling or additional compaction. To broaden the range of U values, SPR was evaluated in different periods. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled to quantify the soil bulk density (BD. Pedotransfer functions were generated correlating the values of U and BD to the SPR values. By these functions, the SPR was adequately corrected for all U and BD data ranges. The method requires only SPR and U as input variables in the models. However, different pedofunctions are needed according to the soil layer evaluated. After adjusting the pedotransfer functions, the differences in the soil compaction levels among the treatments, previously masked by variations of U, became detectable.

  4. Changes in biochemical characteristics and Na and K content of caper (Capparis spinosa L. seedlings under water and salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadeghi


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of water and salt stress on caper (Capparis spinosa L. seedlings, a randomized complete block design with five replications was carried out in 2013 at Shiraz University, Iran. Water stress had three levels: 100 % (control, 75 %, and 5 % field capacity (FC, and five levels of salinity were applied: 0 (control, 4, 8, 12, and 18 dSm^(−1. The results indicated that salinity had a significantly negative effect on chlorophyll content of caper seedlings, while drought increased this content. The carotenoid content in caper seedlings under water and salinity stress was significantly increased. Proline and total protein content increased also under both salinity and water stress. Antioxidant enzyme activity; superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX also increased in response of salinity and drought. Salinity stress significantly increased the content of Na^+ in cells but decreased K^+ content. It seems that caper seedlings could tolerate a salinity level up to 4–8 dSm^(−1 as well as water stress of 75 % FC, no significant differences were observed between these two salinity levels, the water stress level and the control. The interaction effect of water stress and salinity had a significant effect on biochemical characteristics of caper. The highest content of carotenoid, proline and total protein content were obtained in 50 % FC and 18 dSm^(−1.The results of biochemical characteristics and leaf content of K+ and Na+ suggest that caper plant is a very tolerant species to salinity and drought stress which make it a suitable crop for most arid and semi-arid regions of Iran.

  5. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system (United States)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  6. Analysis of the Relations among the Components of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK): A Structural Equation Model (United States)

    Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Akturk, Ahmet Oguz


    In the current study, the model of technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) is used as the theoretical framework in the process of data collection and interpretation of the results. This study analyzes the perceptions of 744 undergraduate students regarding their TPACK levels measured by responses to a survey developed by Sahin…

  7. Biosynthetic controls on the 13C-contents of organic components in the photoautotrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Meer, M.T.J. van der; Schouten, S.; Dongen, B.E. van; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Fuchs, G.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Ward, D.M.


    To assess the effects related to known and proposed biosynthetic pathways on the 13C content of lipids and storage products of the photoautotrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, the isotopic compositions of bulk cell material, alkyl and isoprenoid lipids, and storage products such as glycogen

  8. [Allowable fluctuations in the data on the content of lipid-complex components in food products in chemical composition tables]. (United States)

    Baĭko, V G; Skurikhin, I M


    The extension of the experimental and literature data about total lipids, fat acids, sterins used for edition chemical Tables. In results has calculated mean and coefficient of variation. For the most food, exception egg, liver and so on, content of sterins has 85 divided by 50 mg/100g of foods.

  9. Mapping soil resistance under different soil water content conditions using indicator kriging (United States)

    Miras-Avalos, J. M.; Bonnin-Acosta, J.; Sande-Fouz, P.; Pereira-Lanças, K.; Paz-Gonzalez, A.


    In many agricultural problems, it is of interest to map the zones where the variable under study shows the probability of being greater than a threshold value. Soil resistances higher than 2 MPa might difficult the establishment of cultures; therefore, further management or tillage techniques should be undertaken. The aim of this work was to map soil resistance using geostatistical techniques, therefore, an analysis of the spatial distribution of soil compaction and the influence of soil water content on the resistance to penetration was carried out. The studied clay-textured soil was managed under no-tillage practices. Soil resistance was described by the cone index which was obtained using a penetrometer. This attribute was assessed at 5 different depths, i.e. 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm and deeper than 40 cm, whereas soil water content was described at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. In the end, 73 data points were surveyed. Soil water conditions varied during the five different samplings. Statistical analysis showed that datasets followed a normal distribution, therefore, no transformation was required. Studied attributes showed low and non-significant correlation coefficients which impeded the application of cross-variogram and cokriging techniques. Because of the limited number of measured data, only the omnidirectional semivariogram was computed, and hence the spatial variability is assumed to be identical in all directions. Spatial dependence was observed in 33 out of 35 data series, both for cone index and soil water content. Fitted theoretical structures corresponded to exponential models in 20 cases, 10 Gaussian models and 3 spherical models. Nugget effect varied from 0 to 44.4 depending on the dataset and spatial dependence maximum range was 90 m. A strong spatial dependence was observed in 18 of the data sets whereas only 2 showed a weak autocorrelation. Taking into account the 2 MPa threshold, indicator kriging was used to map the soil resistance

  10. Effects of feeding frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in healthy adult cats. (United States)

    Deng, P; Iwazaki, E; Suchy, S A; Pallotto, M R; Swanson, K S


    Low physical activity has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of feline obesity and diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increased meal frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in cats fed to maintain BW. Ten adult lean neutered male cats were used in 2 tests, both crossover studies composed of a 14-d adaptation period, followed by a 7-d measurement of physical activity from d 15 to d 22 using Actical activity collars. Cats were group housed for most of the day, except for times when they were individually housed in cages to access their diet under a 16:8 h light:dark cycle. In Exp. 1, the difference in voluntary physical activity among cats fed 1, 2, 4, or a random number of meals per day were tested in a 4 × 4 Latin square design in 4 individual rooms. In Exp. 2, the effect of increasing dietary water content on voluntary physical activity was tested in a crossover design including a 5-d phase for fecal and urine collection from d 22 to 27. Cats were randomly assigned to 2 rooms and fed a dry commercial diet with or without added water (70% hydrated) twice daily. Activity levels were expressed as "activity counts" per epoch (15 s). In Exp. 1, average daily activity level for 1-meal-fed cats was lower than 4-meal-fed (P = 0.004) and random-meal-fed (P = 0.02) cats, especially during the light period. The activity level of cats during the dark period was greater in 1-meal-fed cats compared with cats fed 2 meals (P = 0.008) or 4 meals (P = 0.007) daily. Two-hour food anticipatory activity (FAA) before scheduled meal times for 1-meal-fed cats was lower (P cats. In Exp. 2, average daily activity level of cats fed the 70% hydrated diet tended to be higher (P = 0.06) than cats fed the dry diet, especially during the dark period (P = 0.007). Two-hour FAA before the afternoon meal for cats fed the 70% hydrated diet was lower (P cats fed the dry diet. Cats fed the 70% hydrated diet had greater daily fecal

  11. Fourier component imaging of water resonance in the human breast provides markers for malignancy (United States)

    Medved, Milica; Newstead, Gillian M.; Fan, Xiaobing; Du, Yiping P.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Shimauchi, Akiko; Zamora, Marta A.; Karczmar, Gregory S.


    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that voxels with inhomogeneously broadened water resonances, as revealed by high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI, correlate with underlying tumor pathology findings, and thus carry diagnostically useful information. Thirty-four women with mammographically suspicious breast lesions were imaged at 1.5 T, using high-resolution echo-planar spectroscopic imaging. Fourier component images (FCIs) of the off-peak spectral signal were generated, and clusters of voxels with significant inhomogeneous broadening (broadened clusters) were identified and correlated to biopsy results. Inhomogeneously broadened clusters were found significantly more frequently in malignant than in benign lesions. A larger percentage of broadened cluster voxels were found inside the malignant versus benign lesions. The high statistical significance for separation of benign and malignant lesions was robust over a large range of post-processing parameters, with a maximum ROC area under curve of 0.83. In the human breast, an inhomogeneously broadened water resonance can serve as a correlate marker for malignancy and is likely to reflect the underlying anatomy or physiology.

  12. [Effect of components and some protocols of anti-ulcer therapy on content and activity of monooxigenase system enzymes of the stomach mucosa in experimental stomach ulcer]. (United States)

    Iakubov, A V; Pattakhova, M Kh


    The influence of components and some schemata of antiulcerous therapy on content and activity of monooxigenase system's enzymes in mucous membrane of stomach are studied on the model of experimental stomach ulcer in rats. It is established, that among components of antiulcerous therapy such as omeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole inhibit content and activity of MOS enzymes. Tinidazol, amoxicillin and azithromycin do not affect the function of MOS. Rifampicin and pantoprazole induce enzyme system of monooxigenase. In triple therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole the inhibit effect of preparations to system of MOS is exponentiated and it leads to suppression of mucous cytoprotaction of gastro duodenal zone. Triple therapy of ulcerous disease with pantoprazole, rifampicin and azithromycin is effective planning to stimulate defense mechanisms of the organism.

  13. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibao Lu


    Full Text Available Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the soil-crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of reclaimed water for irrigation varies. Reclaimed water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the national standard, which indicates that the vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. The heavy metals brought into the soil by reclaimed water are less than that taken away by the crops. The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the soil. This paper provides a reference for the evaluation and safety control of irrigation with reclaimed water.

  14. Application of SWAT99.2 to sensitivity analysis of water balance components in unique plots in a hilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-feng Dai


    Full Text Available Although many sensitivity analyses using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT in a complex watershed have been conducted, little attention has been paid to the application potential of the model in unique plots. In addition, sensitivity analysis of percolation and evapotranspiration with SWAT has seldom been undertaken. In this study, SWAT99.2 was calibrated to simulate water balance components for unique plots in Southern China from 2000 to 2001, which included surface runoff, percolation, and evapotranspiration. Twenty-one parameters classified into four categories, including meteorological conditions, topographical characteristics, soil properties, and vegetation attributes, were used for sensitivity analysis through one-at-a-time (OAT sampling to identify the factor that contributed most to the variance in water balance components. The results were shown to be different for different plots, with parameter sensitivity indices and ranks varying for different water balance components. Water balance components in the broad-leaved forest and natural grass plots were most sensitive to meteorological conditions, less sensitive to vegetation attributes and soil properties, and least sensitive to topographical characteristics. Compared to those in the natural grass plot, water balance components in the broad-leaved forest plot demonstrated higher sensitivity to the maximum stomatal conductance (GSI and maximum leaf area index (BLAI.

  15. Strength and Persistence of Energy-Based Vessel Seals Rely on Tissue Water and Glycosaminoglycan Content. (United States)

    Kramer, Eric A; Cezo, James D; Fankell, Douglas P; Taylor, Kenneth D; Rentschler, Mark E; Ferguson, Virginia L


    Vessel ligation using energy-based surgical devices is steadily replacing conventional closure methods during minimally invasive and open procedures. In exploring the molecular nature of thermally-induced tissue bonds, novel applications for surgical resection and repair may be revealed. This work presents an analysis of the influence of unbound water and hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans on the formation and resilience of vascular seals via: (a) changes in pre-fusion tissue hydration, (b) the enzymatic digestion of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) prior to fusion and (c) the rehydration of vascular seals following fusion. An 11% increase in pre-fusion unbound water led to an 84% rise in vascular seal strength. The digestion of GAGs prior to fusion led to increases of up to 82% in seal strength, while the rehydration of native and GAG-digested vascular seals decreased strengths by 41 and 44%, respectively. The effects of increased unbound water content prior to fusion combined with the effects of seal rehydration after fusion suggest that the heat-induced displacement of tissue water is a major contributor to tissue adhesion during energy-based vessel sealing. The effects of pre-fusion GAG-digestion on seal integrity indicate that GAGs are inhibitory to the bond formation process during thermal ligation. GAG digestion may allow for increased water transport and protein interaction during the fusion process, leading to the formation of stronger bonds. These findings provide insight into the physiochemical nature of the fusion bond, its potential for optimization in vascular closure and its application to novel strategies for vascular resection and repair.

  16. Time-Lapse Monitoring of Soil Water Content Using Electromagnetic Conductivity Imaging (United States)

    Triantafilis, J.; Huang, J.


    The volumetric soil water content (θ) is fundamental to agriculture because its spatio-temporal variation in soil affects plant growth. The universally accepted thermogravimetric method for estimating θ is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction has proven useful in mapping spatio-temporal variation of θ. However, depth-specific variation, which is important for irrigation management has been little explored. In this study we develop a relationship between θ and estimates of true electrical conductivity (σ) and use this to develop time-lapse images of θ beneath a center-pivot irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) field in San Jacinto, California, USA. We measure the bulk apparent electrical conductivity (ECa - mS/m) using a DUALEM-421 over a period of 12 days after an irrigation event (i.e., days 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12). We use EM4Soil to generate electromagnetic conductivity images (EMCI). Testing the scenario where no soil information is available, we used a 3-parameter exponential model to relate θ to σ and then to map θ along the transect on different days. The results allow us to monitor the spatio-temporal variations of θ over the 12-day period. In this regard we were able to map the soil close to field capacity (0.27 cm3/cm3) and approaching permanent wilting point (0.03 cm3/cm3). The time-lapse θ monitoring approach, has implications for soil and water-use and management and allows farmers to identify inefficiencies in water application rates and use. It can also be used as a research tool to potentially assist precision irrigation practices and to test the efficacy of different methods of irrigation in terms of water delivery and efficiency in water use in near real-time.

  17. Variation of inulin content, inulin yield and water use efficiency for inulin yield in Jerusalem artichoke genotypes under different water regimes (United States)

    The information on genotypic variation for inulin content, inulin yield and water use efficiency of inulin yield (WUEi) in response to drought is limited. This study was to investigate the genetic variability in inulin content, inulin yield and WUEi of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) ...

  18. Comparison of solvents for extraction of krill oil from krill meal: Lipid yield, phospholipids content, fatty acids composition and minor components. (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Jin, Jun; Sun, Jiang; Liang, Li; Wang, Xiaosan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe


    The effects of seven different extraction solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, isohexane, n-hexane, and subcritical butane) on the lipid yield and quality of the oil extracted from krill meal were investigated in this study. Phospholipids (PL), fatty acids (FA) composition and minor components including sterols, astaxanthin, vitamin A and tocopherols in the extracted krill oil were analyzed. The results indicated that ethanol and isopropanol led to comparatively higher lipid yields (16.33 and 14.52%, respectively) and PL contents (39.2 and 38.7%, respectively) but lower contents of the minor components than the other solvents. The krill oil extracted with acetone had the lowest PL content (20.63%) but contained more astaxanthin (206.74mg/kg), vitamin A (27.84mg/100g), and sterols (39.00mg/g). Moreover, high levels of n-3 FA were present in the extracts with high PL contents. Further analysis revealed that 23.65-28.10% of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 16.71-21.03% of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were present in the PL, while only 2.83-3.48% of EPA and 1.40-1.74% of DHA were detected in the triacylglycerols (TAG). In addition, subcritical butane proved to be an alternative to n-hexane and isohexane; krill oil extracted with these three solvents had similar qualities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential of microalgae in the bioremediation of water with chloride content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ramírez


    Full Text Available Abstract In this work it was carried out the bioremediation of water containing chlorides with native microalgae (MCA provided by the Centre for study and research in biotechnology (CIBIOT at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana. Microalgae presented an adaptation to the water and so the conditions evaluated reaching a production of CO2 in mg L-1 of 53.0, 26.6, 56.0, 16.0 and 30.0 and chloride removal efficiencies of 16.37, 26.03, 40.04, 25.96 and 20.25% for microalgae1, microalgae2, microalgae3, microalgae4 and microalgae5 respectively. Water bioremediation process was carried out with content of chlorides in fed batch system with an initial concentration of chlorides of 20585 mg L-1 every 2 days. The Manipulated variables were: the flow of MCA3 (10% inoculum for test one; NPK flow for test two, and flow of flow of MCA3+0.5 g L-1 NPK. Chloride removal efficiencies were 66.88%, 63.41% and 66.98% for test one, two and three respectively, for a total bioprocess time of 55 days.

  20. Measuring snow liquid water content with low-cos