WorldWideScience

Sample records for water content components

  1. Components of variance involved in estimating soil water content and water content change using a neutron moisture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, D.F.; Williams, J.

    1979-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and use of neutron moisture meters since Hewlett et al.(1964) investigated the sources of variance when using this instrument to estimate soil moisture. There appears to be little in the literature, however, which updates these findings. This paper aims to isolate the components of variance when moisture content and moisture change are estimated using the neutron scattering method with current technology and methods

  2. Independent principal component analysis for simulation of soil water content and bulk density in a Canadian Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaba Boluwade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate characterization of soil properties such as soil water content (SWC and bulk density (BD is vital for hydrologic processes and thus, it is importance to estimate θ (water content and ρ (soil bulk density among other soil surface parameters involved in water retention and infiltration, runoff generation and water erosion, etc. The spatial estimation of these soil properties are important in guiding agricultural management decisions. These soil properties vary both in space and time and are correlated. Therefore, it is important to find an efficient and robust technique to simulate spatially correlated variables. Methods such as principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA can be used for the joint simulations of spatially correlated variables, but they are not without their flaws. This study applied a variant of PCA called independent principal component analysis (IPCA that combines the strengths of both PCA and ICA for spatial simulation of SWC and BD using the soil data set from an 11 km2 Castor watershed in southern Quebec, Canada. Diagnostic checks using the histograms and cumulative distribution function (cdf both raw and back transformed simulations show good agreement. Therefore, the results from this study has potential in characterization of water content variability and bulk density variation for precision agriculture.

  3. Effect of Water Content Components on Desiccation and Recovery in Sphagnum Mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, Tomáš; Beckett, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The basic parameters of water relations were measured in Sphagnum mosses. The relationships of these parameters to the photosynthetic response to desiccation and the ecology of these mosses were then tested. Methods The water relations parameters of six Sphagnum species (mosses typical of wet habitats) and Atrichum androgynum (a moss more typical of mesophytic conditions) were calculated from pressure–volume isotherms. Photosynthetic properties during and after moderate desiccation were monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence. Key Results When desiccated, the hummock-forming species S. fuscum and S. magellanicum lost more water before turgor started dropping than other sphagna inhabiting less exposed habitats (73 % compared with 56 % on average). Osmotic potentials at full turgor were similar in all species, with an average value of −1·1 MPa. Hummock sphagna had clearly more rigid cell walls than species of wet habitats (ε = 3·55 compared with 1·93 MPa). As a result, their chlorophyllous cells lost turgor at higher relative water contents (RWCs) than species of wet habitats (0·61 compared with 0·46) and at less negative osmotic potentials (–2·28 compared with −3·00 MPa). During drying, ΦPSII started declining earlier in hummock species (at an RWC of 0·65 compared with 0·44), and Fv/Fm behaved similarly. Compared with other species, hummock sphagna desiccated to −20 or −40 MPa recovered more completely after rehydration. Atrichum androgynum responded to desiccation similarly to hummock sphagna, suggesting that their desiccation tolerance may have a similar physiological basis. Conclusions Assuming a fixed rate of desiccation, the higher water-holding capacities of hummock sphagna will allow them to continue metabolism for longer than other species. While this could be viewed as a form of ‘desiccation avoidance’, hummock species also recover faster than other species during rehydration, suggesting that they have higher

  4. Independent component analysis for understanding multimedia content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenda, Thomas; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Independent component analysis of combined text and image data from Web pages has potential for search and retrieval applications by providing more meaningful and context dependent content. It is demonstrated that ICA of combined text and image features has a synergistic effect, i.e., the retrieval...

  5. Water content of aged aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Engelhart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008. A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during most of the measurement campaign, which likely contributed to the water uptake at low RH. The water content observations were compared to the thermodynamic model E-AIM, neglecting any contribution of the organics to aerosol water content. There was good agreement between the water measurements and the model predictions. Adding the small amount of water associated with the organic aerosol based on monoterpene water absorption did not change the quality of the agreement. These results strongly suggest that the water uptake by aged organic aerosol is relatively small (a few percent of the total water for the conditions during FAME-08 and generally consistent with what has been observed in laboratory experiments. The water concentration measured by a Q-AMS was well correlated with the DAASS measurements and in good agreement with the predicted values for the RH of the Q-AMS inlet. This suggests that, at least for the conditions of the study, the Q-AMS can provide valuable information about the aerosol water concentrations if the sample is not dried.

  6. The contribution of component variation and phytoplankton growth to the distribution variation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter content in a mid-latitude subtropical drinking water source reservoir for two different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiyuan; Jiang, Juan; Zheng, Yuyi; Wang, Feifeng; Wu, Chunshan; Xie, Rong-Rong

    2017-07-01

    The distribution variation in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) content in mid-latitude subtropical drinking water source reservoirs (MDWSRs) has great significance in the security of aquatic environments and human health. CDOM distribution is heavily influenced by biogeochemical processes and anthropogenic activity. However, little is known regarding the impact of component variation and phytoplankton growth on CDOM distribution variation in MDWSR. Therefore, samples were collected from a representative MDWSR (the Shanzai Reservoir) for analysis. CDOM absorption and fluorescence coupling with parallel factor analysis were measured and calculated. The results indicated that only two CDOM components were found in the surface water of Shanzai Reservoir, fulvic acid, and high-excitation tryptophan, originating from terrestrial and autochthonous sources, respectively. The types of components did not change with the season. The average molecular weight of CDOM increased in proportion to its fulvic acid content. The distribution variation in CDOM content mainly resulted from the variation in two CDOM components in summer and from high-excitation tryptophan in winter. Phytoplankton growth strongly influenced the distribution variation of CDOM content in summer; the metabolic processes of Cyanobacteria and Bacillariophyta consumed fulvic acid, while that of Cryptophyta produced high-excitation tryptophan.

  7. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement...... for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented...

  8. Main components and content of sports volunteer activities

    OpenAIRE

    Петренко, Ірина

    2017-01-01

    Iryna PetrenkоPurpose: identification of the main structural components and content of sports volunteer activities. Material & Methods: used analysis of literature and documents, organizational analysis. Result: basic structural components of sports volunteer activity are defined. The content of sports volunteer activity is disclosed. Conclusion: sports volunteer activity includes the following structural components: subject, object, purpose, motivation, means, actions; subject is a sport...

  9. Water content of aged aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. Engelhart; L. Hildebrandt; E. Kostenidou; N. Mihalopoulos; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis

    2010-01-01

    The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008). A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS) was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH) as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during mo...

  10. Interaction between Science Teaching Orientation and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdögen, Betül

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of how preservice science teachers' science teaching orientations, viewed as an interrelated set of beliefs, interact with the other components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Eight preservice science teachers participated in the study. Qualitative data were collected in the…

  11. shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    measurement affects irrigation amount, while in the atmospheric-based methods, the soil water content affects evapotranspiration. Most ... stem water potential, leaf water potential, and .... cells. No tillage plots were weeded by hand pulling of weeds; whereas hoes were used in ..... based on soil electrical conductivity and.

  12. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  13. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  14. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  15. Main components and content of sports volunteer activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Petrenkо

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identification of the main structural components and content of sports volunteer activities. Material & Methods: used analysis of literature and documents, organizational analysis. Result: basic structural components of sports volunteer activity are defined. The content of sports volunteer activity is disclosed. Conclusion: sports volunteer activity includes the following structural components: subject, object, purpose, motivation, means, actions; subject is a sports volunteer, the object is a sports competition, the goal is to provide gratuitous assistance for a quality competition, the means are the special knowledge, skills, communication abilities of sports volunteers, actions should be understood as types of volunteer activities and functions that volunteers perform during the preparation and conduct of competitions. Main types of sports volunteer activity are: 1 organizational; 2 judiciary; 3 coaching; 4 legal; 5 medical. Functions that volunteers perform in the competition system are general and special. Content of the functions of sports volunteering depends on the specifics of the sports, the rank of the competition, the specifics of the competition for people with special needs.

  16. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a

  17. Water and deuterium content of chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Francois

    1978-01-01

    The main objective of this research thesis which deals with meteorite study, is to develop an experimental technique to measure the hydrogen isotopic rate in the case of very low quantities of hydrogen, notably in samples in which water content is hundred or thousand times less than in reported experiments, in order to study mechanisms of alteration of chondrites. The author reports an attempt to reconcile obtained results for isotopic rates as well as for water contents with those of the main existing models of chondrite formation. He proposes a detailed description of isotopic exchange mechanisms at low temperature, and shows that this mechanism is not in disagreement with literature published on chondrites

  18. Increased Cerebral Water Content in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, N. J.; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuro...

  19. Nutrient content of biomass components of Hamlin sweet orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Jr. Dirceu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient distribution in trees is important to establish sound nutrient management programs for citrus production. Six-year-old Hamlin orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] on Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.] rootstock, grown on a sandy Entisol in Florida were harvested to investigate the macro and micronutrient distributions of biomass components. The biomass of aboveground components of the tree represented the largest proportion of the total. The distribution of the total tree dry weight was: fruit = 30.3%, leaf = 9.7%, twig = 26.1%, trunk = 6.3%, and root = 27.8%. Nutrient concentrations of recent mature leaves were in the adequate to optimal range as suggested by interpretation of leaf analysis in Florida. Concentrations of Ca in older leaves and woody tissues were much greater than those in the other parts of the tree. Concentrations of micronutrients were markedly greater in fibrous root as compared to woody roots. Calcium made up the greatest amount of nutrient in the citrus tree (273.8 g per tree, followed by N and K (234.7 and 181.5 g per tree, respectively. Other macronutrients comprised about 11% of the total nutrient content of trees. The contents of various nutrients in fruits were: N = 1.20, K = 1.54, P = 0.18, Ca = 0.57, Mg = 0.12, S = 0.09, B = 1.63 x 10-3, Cu = 0.39 x 10-3, Fe = 2.1 x 10-3, Mn = 0.38 10-3, and Zn = 0.40 10-3 (kg ton-1. Total contents of N, K, and P in the orchard corresponded to 66.5, 52.0, and 8.3 kg ha-1, respectively, which were equivalent to the amounts applied annually by fertilization.

  20. Radio requestable passive SAW water content sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reindl, L.; Ruppel, C.C.W.; Kirmayr, A.; Stockhausen, N.; Hilhorst, M.A.; Balendonk, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new passive sensor for remote measurement of water content in sandy soil was designed, using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line. Information from this sensor can be obtained by an interrogation device via a radio link operating in the European 434-MHz industrial-scientific-medical

  1. Substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Baptista Gordin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Niger is an oleaginous species whose cultivation has been spreading, but there is not much information on the adverse conditions during its seedling establishment. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of substrate water availability and seed water content on niger germination. Seeds were moistened using the humid atmosphere method for 0; 24; 48; and 72 hours, obtaining the water contents of 7.0 %, 12.8 %, 16.8 % and 32.2 %. Then, they were sown in substrate moistened with PEG 6000 solutions with different osmotic potentials: 0.0 MPa (control, -0.1 MPa, -0.2 MPa, -0.3 MPa and -0.4 MPa. A completely randomized design, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme (water content x osmotic potential, with four replications of 50 seeds, was used. First count and germination percentage, germination speed index and mean time, shoot and root length and seedlings dry weight were evaluated. The reduction in the substrate osmotic potential decreases the niger seed germination and seedling growth, regardless of water content, but with a higher evidence in seed water contents below 32.2 % and 12.8 %, respectively.

  2. [The water content reference material of water saturated octanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhanyuan

    2011-03-01

    The national standards of biofuels specify the technique specification and analytical methods. A water content certified reference material based on the water saturated octanol was developed in order to satisfy the needs of the instrument calibration and the methods validation, assure the accuracy and consistency of results in water content measurements of biofuels. Three analytical methods based on different theories were employed to certify the water content of the reference material, including Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer volumetric titration and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The consistency of coulometric and volumetric titration was achieved through the improvement of methods. The accuracy of the certified result was improved by the introduction of the new method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, the certified value of reference material is 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  3. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  4. Ground penetrating radar water content mapping of golf course green sand layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the spatial distribution of water content across the sand layer component of a golf course green can be important to golf course superintendents for evaluating drainage effectiveness and scheduling irrigation. To estimate the bulk water content of the sand layer at point locations ac...

  5. Estimation of areal soil water content through microwave remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oevelen, van P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content

  6. Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis: a case study at water treatment plants, ... water and to detect the source of pollution for the most revealing parameters.

  7. Water quality of the Chhoti Gandak River using principal component ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; therefore water samples were collected to analyse its quality along the entire length of Chhoti Gandak. River. The principal components of water quality are controlled by lithology, gentle slope gradient, poor drainage, long residence of water, ...

  8. Changes in the content of edible and non-edible components and distribution of tissue components in cockerels and capons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawacka, M.; Gesek, M.; Michalik, D.; Murawska, D.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of castration and age on the content of edible and non-edible components, and the distribution of tissue components in the carcasses of cockerels and capons. The study was conducted on 200 birds (Green-legged Partridge), divided into two sex categories (with 5 replications per group and 20 birds per replication), raised to 28 wk of age. At 8 wk of age, 100 birds were surgically castrated and afterwards at 12 wk of age and at four-wk intervals, 10 intact cockerels and 10 capons were selected randomly and slaughtered. Cockerels, compared with capons, were characterized by a higher proportion of edible components at 24 and 28 wk of age, and a more desirable carcass tissue composition due to a higher content of lean meat in total body weight (BW). Capons had higher abdominal fat content than cockerels, which resulted in a higher percentage of non-edible components in their BW at 24 and 28 wk of age. Differences in the distribution of lean meat in the carcass were noted from 20 wk of age in both castrated and intact birds. The content of breast muscles increased in capons, and the content of leg muscles (thigh and drumstick) increased in cockerels. The results of this study indicate that in view of the optimal lean meat content of the carcass and the optimal distribution of major tissue components, Green-legged Partridge capons should be fattened for a maximum period of 24 wk.

  9. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 ev...

  10. Phytochemical content of hot and cold water extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habboo, Maysam Dahham; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2018-04-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Lamiaceae) is a plant with ethnobotanical applications including antifungal and antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical contents of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves water extract prepared in cold and hot distilled water. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phytochemicals components such as a flavonoid, terpenoid and steroid in both extracts. Cold water extract has two extra components: saponin and alkaloid that may be destroyed by the exposure to heat.

  11. Biological control component [Management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, K.L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Both chemical and biological control have been used with limited success for the management of water hyacinth in Fiji. In some cases heavy application of chemicals have been successful in completely killing limited areas of water hyacinth, but have resulted in the destruction of biological agents introduced to control the water hyacinth and high contamination of natural water supplies. It is proposed that under the direction of Mr S R Singh, the Senior Research Scientist (Entomology) of the Koronivia Research Station, Suva, Fiji, a collaborative programme with Dr Harley of Australia on chemical and biological control of water hyacinth be initiated. This programme would be fundamentally short-term with the prime objective being an investigation of levels of insect population following varying levels of application of chemical sprays. By comparison with control areas, observations would be made of both chemical damage and insect damage within the limited time span of the period

  12. External Correlates of the MMPI-2 Content Component Scales in Mental Health Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bradley A.; Handel, Richard W.; Archer, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    External correlates of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Content Component Scales were identified using an inpatient sample of 544 adults. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) produced correlates of the Content Component Scales, demonstrating external validity with…

  13. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  14. CAMEX-4 CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  15. Water content of acacia honey dertermined by two established methods and by optothermal window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szopos, S.; Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Ajtony, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of the research study described here was to explore the potential of the optothermal window (OW) technique as a new approach towards a simple, rapid determination of water content in honey. Water, major component of foods, influences their physical and chemical properties. Single

  16. Changes in the content of edible and non-edible components and distribution of tissue components in cockerels and capons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zawacka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of castration and age on the content of edible and non-edible components, and the distribution of tissue components in the carcasses of cockerels and capons. The study was conducted on 200 birds (Green-legged Partridge, divided into two sex categories (with 5 replications per group and 20 birds per replication, raised to 28 wk of age. At 8 wk of age, 100 birds were surgically castrated and afterwards at 12 wk of age and at four-wk intervals, 10 intact cockerels and 10 capons were selected randomly and slaughtered. Cockerels, compared with capons, were characterized by a higher proportion of edible components at 24 and 28 wk of age, and a more desirable carcass tissue composition due to a higher content of lean meat in total body weight (BW. Capons had higher abdominal fat content than cockerels, which resulted in a higher percentage of non-edible components in their BW at 24 and 28 wk of age. Differences in the distribution of lean meat in the carcass were noted from 20 wk of age in both castrated and intact birds. The content of breast muscles increased in capons, and the content of leg muscles (thigh and drumstick increased in cockerels. The results of this study indicate that in view of the optimal lean meat content of the carcass and the optimal distribution of major tissue components, Green-legged Partridge capons should be fattened for a maximum period of 24 wk.

  17. Determination of water content in natural zeolites by reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria, Lopez P.; Desdin Garcia, V.; Freixas Lemus, V.; Dominguez Ley, O.; Csikai, G.

    1989-01-01

    Water content in natural zeolites collected from different site places in Cuba has been determined by neutron reflection method. Results show that it is possible to separate the minerals abundant in zeolite from the surrounding barren rocks. Water content of about 10% can be determined with 2-3% relative accuracy for different matrices, using 10 m measuring time

  18. [Virtual water content of livestock products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Jun-hong

    2006-04-01

    The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year. Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: (1) The virtual water content of livestock products is increasing rapidly in China recently, especially poultry eggs and pork. (2) The distribution of virtual water content of livestock products is not balanced, mainly lies in North China, East China and so on; (3) The increasing production of livestock in Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei, Nei Monggol, Liaononing, Jilin, Shandong, Henan and Ningxia province and autonom ous region will bring pressure to local water shortage.

  19. Influence of Water Content on Pullout Behaviour of Geogrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Song, Yang-yang; Hao, Dong-xue; Gao, Yu-cong

    2017-06-01

    The interaction between geogrid and soil is fundamental and crucial factor on safety and stability of geogrid-reinforced earth structure. Therefore, the interface index between geogrid and soil is of vital importance in the design of reinforced earth structures. The pullout behaviour of geogrid in soil is studied, an experimental investigation is conducted using geogrid in four groups of soil with 20%, 24%, 28%, 32% water contents, which correspond to normal stresses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 kPa respectively. The results indicate that the geogrid embedded in soil mainly represents pullout failure, and the ultimate pullout force is sensitive to water content. It decreases with the increase of the water content firstly. Besides, the water content influences the process of the pullout behaviour. The increase of water content leads to the ultimate pullout force soon.

  20. Shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water requirement for crops in resource limited areas is challenging, yet worsened by the common assumption that all crop varieties within a species have similar water requirements. The objective of the study was to indirectly determine crop evapotranspiration of soybean varieties, using reference ...

  1. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... conclusion is that GERG-water must be used with caution outside its specified working range. For some selected natural gas mixtures the two models also perform very much alike. The water content of the mixtures decreases with increasing amount of heavier components, and it seems that both models slightly...

  2. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  3. Active THz inspection of water content in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Palacios, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2010-04-01

    The THz range offers the possibility of measuring water content. This can be useful in wine industry to control plants water levels and also to decrease irrigation costs. This paper presents a THz imaging system used to characterise water content in leaves using frequency and time domain methods from 0.14 to 0.22 THz. Our results show the possibility of getting useful information out of the preformed measurements.

  4. DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  5. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    20

    Soil water retention, Dry lands, Western India, Pedotransfer functions, Soil moisture calculator. 1. 2. 3. 4 ..... samples although it is known that structure and macro-porosity of the sample affect water retention (Unger ..... and OC content has positive influence on water retention whereas interaction of clay and OC has negative ...

  6. Determining the water content in concrete by gamma scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyada, P.; Ramar, R.; Shivaramu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gamma scattering technique for estimation of water content in concrete is given. • The scattered intensity increases with the volumetric water content. • Attenuation correction is provided to the scattered intensities. • Volumetric water content of 137 Cs radioactive source and a high resolution HPGe detector based energy dispersive gamma ray spectrometer. Concrete samples of uniform density ≈2.4 g/cm 3 are chosen for the study and the scattered intensities found to vary with the amount of water present in the specimen. The scattered intensities are corrected for attenuation effects and the results obtained with reference to a dry sample are compared with those obtained by gravimetrical and gamma transmission methods. A good agreement is seen between gamma scattering results and those obtained by gravimetric and transmission methods within accuracy of 6% and <2% change in water content can be detected

  7. Terahertz Measurement of the Water Content Distribution in Wood Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalem, M.; Sommier, A.; Mindeguia, J. C.; Batsale, J. C.; Pradere, C.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, THz waves have been shown to be an effective technique for investigating the water diffusion within porous media, such as biomaterial or insulation materials. This applicability is due to the sufficient resolution for such applications and the safe levels of radiation. This study aims to achieve contactless absolute water content measurements at a steady state case in semi-transparent solids (wood) using a transmittance THz wave range setup. First, a calibration method is developed to validate an analytical model based on the Beer-Lambert law, linking the absorption coefficient, the density of the solid, and its water content. Then, an estimation of the water content on a local scale in a transient-state case (drying) is performed. This study shows that THz waves are an effective contactless, safe, and low-cost technique for the measurement of water content in a porous medium, such as wood.

  8. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B

    1999-01-01

    CBF) SPECT-scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO as flow tracer was performed in the patients. Mean water content (SD) in the infarct area was 37.7 (5.1); 41.8 (4.8); 35.2 (5.4); and 39.3 (5.1) mol x [kg wet weight](-1) at 0-3; 4-7; 8-21; and >180 days after stroke, respectively. Water content increased between Day 0......CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water...... as an internal standard in stroke patients....

  9. Influence of packaging and conditions of storaging on content of mineral water Guber-Srebrenica

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Dragana D.; Lazić Dragica; Škundrić Branko; Škundrić Jelena; Vukić Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Mineral waters are found in nature in greater depths most often in reduction conditions, so after surfacing their content alters in contact with oxygen, which is caused by oxidation of certain components. Due to this, efforts were made to make these waters more stabile so they could be used after certain time. This work monitors the stability of Guber (Argentaria)-Srebrenica water exposed to light and with addition of ascorbic acid. The methods of analysis and the parameters analyzed are: gra...

  10. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMI ALI METWALLY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Metwally SA,Khalid KA, Abou-Leila BH. 2013. Effect of water regime on the growth, flower yield, essential oil and proline contents of Calendula officinalis. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 63-67. The effects of water regime on the growth, content of essential oil and proline of Calendula officinalis L. plants were investigated. Water regimes of 75% of field water capacity increased certain growth characters [i.e. plant height (cm, leaf area (cm2, flower diameter (cm and spike stem diameter] and vase life (day. Water regime promoted the accumulation of essential oil content and its main components as well as proline contents.

  11. shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Based on a work ... Determination of water requirement for crops in resource limited areas is challenging, yet ... study was to indirectly determine crop evapotranspiration of soybean .... monitored, have been commended as the best option (Fernández, 2014) as they measure the ..... and climate change/ : Impacts on Kenyan.

  12. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  13. Vegetation Water Content Mapping for Agricultural Regions in SMAPVEX16

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. A.; Cosh, M. H.; McKee, L.; Berg, A. A.; McNairn, H.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation water content impacts the ability of L-band radiometers to measure surface soil moisture. Therefore it is necessary to quantify the amount of water held in surface vegetation for an accurate soil moisture remote sensing retrieval. A methodology is presented for generating agricultural vegetation water content maps using Landsat 8 scenes for agricultural fields of Iowa and Manitoba for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiments in 2016 (SMAPVEX16). Manitoba has a variety of row crops across the region, and the study period encompasses the time frame from emergence to reproduction, as well as a forested region. The Iowa study site is dominated by corn and soybeans, presenting an easier challenge. Ground collection of vegetation biomass and water content were also collected to provide a ground truth data source. Errors for the resulting vegetation water content maps ranged depending upon crop type, but generally were less than 15% of the total plant water content per crop type. Interpolation is done between Landsat overpasses to produce daily vegetation water content maps for the summer of 2016 at a 30 meter resolution.

  14. Deuterium content on surface waters VI to X Chile regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena C, R; Pollastri J, A.; Suzuki S, O.

    1984-01-01

    One important parameter on any sitting study for a heavy water plant installation is the deuterium content of the feed water. Deuterium data on surface waters from differents areas located in the south of Chile, are presented. These results allow to idently some potential areas for a future heavy water plant. One of these areas, Lago Llanquihue, was sampled more in detail to study the vertical distribution and spatial variations. (Author)

  15. Decoupling Seasonal Changes in Water Content and Dry Matter to Predict Live Conifer Foliar Moisture Content.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, W. M.; Hadlow, A. M.; Huguet, K.

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples fromPinus contorta for two growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC quantifies the amou...

  16. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  17. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyabrata Santra

    2018-03-27

    Mar 27, 2018 ... of the global population (Millennium Ecosystem. Assessment 2005). Likewise, there is a .... Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop PTFs for arid soils of India to estimate soil water content at FC and PWP.

  18. Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. A sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde is being developed to meet a directly related need...

  19. Effect of water deficit stress on proline contents, soluble sugars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of water deficit stress on proline contents, soluble sugars, chlorophyll and grain yield of sunflower ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2012) > ... The objective of the present work was to determine the mechanisms of tolerance of four ...

  20. Influence of free water content on the compressive mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tars with different water content, the upward section of the stress–strain curve ..... Recent work by Zhou & Hao (2008) also provide computational confirmation ... these volume change may be closely related to micro-capillarity action in the ...

  1. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker; Schenk, Jochen; Neeb, Heiko; Koblenz Univ.

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T 1 , T * 2 and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T * 2 decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T * 2 curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T Emax of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T 1 , T * 2 , total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  2. Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker-Gramm, P.; Beddoe, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-√t dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from √t behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction γ is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

  3. Problems of estimation of water content history of loesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendell, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The estimation of 'mean water content' is a major source of error in the TL dating of many sediments. The engineering behaviour of loesses can be used, under certain circumstances, to interfer their content history. The construction of 'stress history' for particular loesses is therefore proposed in order to establish the critical conditions of moisture and applied stress (overburden) at which irreversible structural change occurs. A programme of field and laboratory tests should enable more precise estimates of water content history to be made. (author)

  4. Field, laboratory and estimated soil-water content limits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-01-21

    Jan 21, 2005 ... silt (0.002 to 0.05 mm) percentage to estimate the soil-water content at a given soil-water .... ar and br are the intercept and slope values of the regres- .... tions use the particle size classification of the South African Soil.

  5. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  6. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

  7. [Content of mineral elements of Gastrodia elata by principal components analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-ling; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Hong-chang; Luo, Chun-li; Huang, Ming-jin; Luo, Fu-lai; Wang, Hua-lei

    2015-03-01

    To study the content of mineral elements and the principal components in Gastrodia elata. Mineral elements were determined by ICP and the data was analyzed by SPSS. K element has the highest content-and the average content was 15.31 g x kg(-1). The average content of N element was 8.99 g x kg(-1), followed by K element. The coefficient of variation of K and N was small, but the Mn was the biggest with 51.39%. The highly significant positive correlation was found among N, P and K . Three principal components were selected by principal components analysis to evaluate the quality of G. elata. P, B, N, K, Cu, Mn, Fe and Mg were the characteristic elements of G. elata. The content of K and N elements was higher and relatively stable. The variation of Mn content was biggest. The quality of G. elata in Guizhou and Yunnan was better from the perspective of mineral elements.

  8. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  9. Water reuse systems: A review of the principal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Principal components of water reuse systems include ammonia removal, disease control, temperature control, aeration, and particulate filtration. Effective ammonia removal techniques include air stripping, ion exchange, and biofiltration. Selection of a particular technique largely depends on site-specific requirements (e.g., space, existing water quality, and fish densities). Disease control, although often overlooked, is a major problem in reuse systems. Pathogens can be controlled most effectively with ultraviolet radiation, ozone, or chlorine. Simple and inexpensive methods are available to increase oxygen concentration and eliminate gas supersaturation, these include commercial aerators, air injectors, and packed columns. Temperature control is a major advantage of reuse systems, but the equipment required can be expensive, particularly if water temperature must be rigidly controlled and ambient air temperature fluctuates. Filtration can be readily accomplished with a hydrocyclone or sand filter that increases overall system efficiency. Based on criteria of adaptability, efficiency, and reasonable cost, we recommend components for a small water reuse system.

  10. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  11. Ranking of risk significant components for the Davis-Besse Component Cooling Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Utilities that run nuclear power plants are responsible for testing pumps and valves, as specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) that are required for safe shutdown, mitigating the consequences of an accident, and maintaining the plant in a safe condition. These inservice components are tested according to ASME Codes, either the earlier requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, or the more recent requirements of the ASME Operation and Maintenance Code, Section IST. These codes dictate test techniques and frequencies regardless of the component failure rate or significance of failure consequences. A probabilistic risk assessment or probabilistic safety assessment may be used to evaluate the component importance for inservice test (IST) risk ranking, which is a combination of failure rate and failure consequences. Resources for component testing during the normal quarterly verification test or postmaintenance test are expensive. Normal quarterly testing may cause component unavailability. Outage testing may increase outage cost with no real benefit. This paper identifies the importance ranking of risk significant components in the Davis-Besse component cooling water system. Identifying the ranking of these risk significant IST components adds technical insight for developing the appropriate test technique and test frequency

  12. Galaxy Makers Exhibition: Re-engagement, Evaluation and Content Legacy through an Online Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, J.; Harrison, C.

    2017-09-01

    For the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2016, Durham University's Institute of Computational Cosmology created the Galaxy Makers exhibit to communicate our computational cosmology and astronomy research. In addition to the physical exhibit we created an online component to foster re-engagement, create a permanent home for our content and allow us to collect important information about participation and impact. Here we summarise the details of the exhibit and the degree of success attached to the online component. We also share suggestions for further uses and improvements that could be implemented for the online components of other science exhibitions.

  13. Activated carbon oxygen content influence on water and surfactant adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Phillip; Wu, Sophie Hua; Badalyan, Alexander

    2002-02-15

    This research investigates the adsorption properties of three activated carbons (AC) derived from coconut, coal, and wood origin. Each carbon demonstrates different levels of resistance to 2 M NaOH treatment. The coconut AC offers the greatest and wood AC the least resistance. The influence of base treatment is mapped in terms of its effects on specific surface area, micropore volume, water adsorption, and dodecanoic acid adsorption from both water and 2 M NaOH solution. A linear relationship exists between the number of water molecules adsorbed at the B-point of the water adsorption isotherm and the oxygen content determined from elemental analysis. Surfactant adsorption isotherms from water and 2 M NaOH indicate that the AC oxygen content effects a greater dependence on affinity for surfactant than specific surface area and micropore volume. We show a linear relationship between the plateau amount of surfactant adsorbed and the AC oxygen content in both water and NaOH phases. The higher the AC oxygen content, the lower the amount of surfactant adsorbed. In contrast, no obvious relationship could be drawn between the surfactant amount adsorbed and the surface area.

  14. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Schenk, Jochen [Radiologisches Institut, Koblenz (Germany); Neeb, Heiko [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Engineering and Information Processing - MTI Mittelrhein

    2012-07-01

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2} and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T{sup *}{sub 2} decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T{sup *}{sub 2} curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T {sub Emax} of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2}, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  15. Water-cooled beam line components at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The beam line components that comprise the main experimental beam at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) have been operating since February 1976. This paper will define the functions of the primary water-cooled elements, their design evolution, and our operating experience to the present time

  16. Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight, battery-powered sensor was developed for measuring cloud water content, which is the amount of liquid or solid water present in a cloud, generally expressed as grams of water per cubic meter. This sensor has near-zero power consumption and can be flown on standard sounding balloons and small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The amount of solid or liquid water is important to the study of atmospheric processes and behavior. Previous sensing techniques relied on strongly heating the incoming air, which requires a major energy input that cannot be achieved on sounding balloons or small UAVs.

  17. From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elena, Galan-del-Castillo; Esther, Velazquez

    2010-01-01

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

  18. From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elena, Galan-del-Castillo [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Esther, Velazquez [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

  19. From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan-del-Castillo, Elena [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Velazquez, Esther, E-mail: evelalo@upo.e [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

  20. Density and water content measurement with two dual detector probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, J.; Menard, J.

    1980-01-01

    The ''Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussees'' have developed an electronic device for geological prospections. This system includes gamma-gamma and neutron-neutron probes for continuous measurement in borehole down to one hundred meters. It is used, as well to measure the density and the water content in the field of soil mechanic engineering. When the diameter is not constant all along the borehole the two probes have to use a dual detector procedure. When constant, a simple detector procedure is sufficient to obtain density and water content. Two examples show the possibilities of this apparatus, particularly to control the borehole diameter and the soil chemical composition [fr

  1. Stable isotope content of South African river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talma, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Variations of the isotopic ratios 18 O/ 16 O and D/H in natural waters reflect the variety of processes to which the water was subjected within the hydrological cycle. Time series of the 18 O content of the major South African rivers over a few years have been obtained in order to characterise the main features of these variations in both time and space. Regionally the average '1 8 O content of river water reflects that of the prevailing rains within the catchment. 18 O variations with time are mainly correlated with river flow rates. Impoundments upstream and management of river flows reduce this correlation. Isotope variations along the course of a river show the effects of inflow from smaller streams and evaporation in the river or its impoundments. These observations indicate the use of isotopic methods to study the evaporation and mixing of river water and its interaction with the surrounding environment

  2. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage

  3. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

  4. Influence of water air content on cavitation erosion in distilled water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Auret, JG

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of increased air content of the cavitating liquid (distilled water) was studied in a rotating disk test rig. A rise in the total air content including dissolved and entrained air of the water in the under saturated range resulted...

  5. Analysis of Moisture Content in Beetroot using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and by Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesakumar, Noel; Baskar, Chanthini; Kesavan, Srinivasan; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru; Alwarappan, Subbiah

    2018-05-22

    The moisture content of beetroot varies during long-term cold storage. In this work, we propose a strategy to identify the moisture content and age of beetroot using principal component analysis coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Frequent FTIR measurements were recorded directly from the beetroot sample surface over a period of 34 days for analysing its moisture content employing attenuated total reflectance in the spectral ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 with a spectral resolution of 8 cm -1 . In order to estimate the transmittance peak height (T p ) and area under the transmittance curve [Formula: see text] over the spectral ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 , Gaussian curve fitting algorithm was performed on FTIR data. Principal component and nonlinear regression analyses were utilized for FTIR data analysis. Score plot over the ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 allowed beetroot quality discrimination. Beetroot quality predictive models were developed by employing biphasic dose response function. Validation experiment results confirmed that the accuracy of the beetroot quality predictive model reached 97.5%. This research work proves that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis and beetroot quality predictive models could serve as an effective tool for discriminating moisture content in fresh, half and completely spoiled stages of beetroot samples and for providing status alerts.

  6. The Calibration and Use of Capacitance Sensors to Monitor Stem Water Content in Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Ashley M; Garrity, Steven R; Bohrer, Gil

    2017-12-27

    Water transport and storage through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum is critical to the terrestrial water cycle, and has become a major research focus area. Biomass capacitance plays an integral role in the avoidance of hydraulic impairment to transpiration. However, high temporal resolution measurements of dynamic changes in the hydraulic capacitance of large trees are rare. Here, we present procedures for the calibration and use of capacitance sensors, typically used to monitor soil water content, to measure the volumetric water content in trees in the field. Frequency domain reflectometry-style observations are sensitive to the density of the media being studied. Therefore, it is necessary to perform species-specific calibrations to convert from the sensor-reported values of dielectric permittivity to volumetric water content. Calibration is performed on a harvested branch or stem cut into segments that are dried or re-hydrated to produce a full range of water contents used to generate a best-fit regression with sensor observations. Sensors are inserted into calibration segments or installed in trees after pre-drilling holes to a tolerance fit using a fabricated template to ensure proper drill alignment. Special care is taken to ensure that sensor tines make good contact with the surrounding media, while allowing them to be inserted without excessive force. Volumetric water content dynamics observed via the presented methodology align with sap flow measurements recorded using thermal dissipation techniques and environmental forcing data. Biomass water content data can be used to observe the onset of water stress, drought response and recovery, and has the potential to be applied to the calibration and evaluation of new plant-level hydrodynamics models, as well as to the partitioning of remotely sensed moisture products into above- and belowground components.

  7. The virtual water content of major grain crops and virtual water flows between regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Kun; Wu, Pu-Te; Wang, Yu-Bao; Zhao, Xi-Ning

    2013-04-01

    The disproportionate distribution of arable land and water resources has become a bottleneck for guaranteeing food security in China. Virtual water and virtual water trade theory have provided a potential solution to improve water resources management in agriculture and alleviate water crises in water-scarce regions. The present study evaluates the green and blue virtual water content of wheat, maize and rice at the regional scale in China. It then assesses the water-saving benefits of virtual water flows related to the transfer of the three crops between regions. The national average virtual water content of wheat, maize and rice were 1071 m(3) per ton (50.98% green water, 49.02% blue water ), 830 m(3) per ton (76.27% green water, 23.73% blue water) and 1294 m(3) per ton (61.90% green water, 38.10% blue water), respectively. With the regional transfer of wheat, maize and rice, virtual water flows reached 30.08 Gm(3) (59.91% green water, 40.09% blue water). Meanwhile, China saved 11.47 Gm(3) green water, while it consumed 7.84 Gm(3) more blue water than with a no-grain transfer scenario in 2009. In order to guarantee food security in China, the government should improve water productivity (reduce virtual water content of crops) during the grain production process. Meanwhile, under the preconditions of economic feasibility and land-water resources availability, China should guarantee the grain-sown area in southern regions for taking full advantage of green water resources and to alleviate the pressure on water resources. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Aging and life extension of major light water reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    An understanding of the aging degradation of the major pressurized and boiling water reactor structures and components is given. The design and fabrication of each structure or component is briefly described followed by information on the associated stressors. Interactions between the design, materials and various stressors that cause aging degradation are reviewed. In many cases, aging degradation problems have occurred, and the plant experience to date is analyzed. The discussion summarize the available aging-related information and are supported with extensive references, including references to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents, Electric Power Research Institute reports, US and international conference proceedings and other publications

  9. [Study of Determination of Oil Mixture Components Content Based on Quasi-Monte Carlo Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-tian; Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-fei; Chen, Meng-han; Wang, Shi-tao

    2015-05-01

    Gasoline, kerosene, diesel is processed by crude oil with different distillation range. The boiling range of gasoline is 35 ~205 °C. The boiling range of kerosene is 140~250 °C. And the boiling range of diesel is 180~370 °C. At the same time, the carbon chain length of differentmineral oil is different. The carbon chain-length of gasoline is within the scope of C7 to C11. The carbon chain length of kerosene is within the scope of C12 to C15. And the carbon chain length of diesel is within the scope of C15 to C18. The recognition and quantitative measurement of three kinds of mineral oil is based on different fluorescence spectrum formed in their different carbon number distribution characteristics. Mineral oil pollution occurs frequently, so monitoring mineral oil content in the ocean is very important. A new method of components content determination of spectra overlapping mineral oil mixture is proposed, with calculation of characteristic peak power integrationof three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum by using Quasi-Monte Carlo Method, combined with optimal algorithm solving optimum number of characteristic peak and range of integral region, solving nonlinear equations by using BFGS(a rank to two update method named after its inventor surname first letter, Boyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb and Shanno) method. Peak power accumulation of determined points in selected area is sensitive to small changes of fluorescence spectral line, so the measurement of small changes of component content is sensitive. At the same time, compared with the single point measurement, measurement sensitivity is improved by the decrease influence of random error due to the selection of points. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and fluorescence contour spectra of single mineral oil and the mixture are measured by taking kerosene, diesel and gasoline as research objects, with a single mineral oil regarded whole, not considered each mineral oil components. Six characteristic peaks are

  10. influence of molding water content on shear strength characteristic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    INFLUENCE OF MOLDING WATER CONTENT ON SHEAR STRENGTH OF COMPACTED CEMENT KILN DUST, K. J. Osinub. K. J. Osinub. K. J. Osinubi, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology,. Vol. 34, No. 2, April 2015 267 pavements or as waste containment materials. Therefore, recent studies have been geared towards.

  11. Mapping soil water content on golf course greens with GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be an effective and efficient method for high-resolution mapping of volumetric water content in the sand layer directly beneath the ground surface at a golf course green. This information could potentially be very useful to golf course superintendents for determi...

  12. Variation in foliar water content and hyperspectral reflectance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sirex noctilio, the Eurasian wood wasp, is one of the major pests responsible for declining forest health in pine forests located in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Researchers have shown that stress induced by S. noctilio causes a rapid decrease in foliar water content, with the foliage of the tree changing from a dark green to a ...

  13. Modelling raster-based monthly water balance components for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmen, C.

    2000-11-01

    The terrestrial runoff component is a comparatively small but sensitive and thus significant quantity in the global energy and water cycle at the interface between landmass and atmosphere. As opposed to soil moisture and evapotranspiration which critically determine water vapour fluxes and thus water and energy transport, it can be measured as an integrated quantity over a large area, i.e. the river basin. This peculiarity makes terrestrial runoff ideally suited for the calibration, verification and validation of general circulation models (GCMs). Gauging stations are not homogeneously distributed in space. Moreover, time series are not necessarily continuously measured nor do they in general have overlapping time periods. To overcome this problems with regard to regular grid spacing used in GCMs, different methods can be applied to transform irregular data to regular so called gridded runoff fields. The present work aims to directly compute the gridded components of the monthly water balance (including gridded runoff fields) for Europe by application of the well-established raster-based macro-scale water balance model WABIMON used at the Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany. Model calibration and validation is performed by separated examination of 29 representative European catchments. Results indicate a general applicability of the model delivering reliable overall patterns and integrated quantities on a monthly basis. For time steps less then too weeks further research and structural improvements of the model are suggested. (orig.)

  14. Estimates of Leaf Relative Water Content from Optical Polarization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plant canopies remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Existing approaches to remotely sensing canopy water status, such as the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) and the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), have limitations. The CWSI, based upon remotely sensing canopy radiant temperature in the thermal infrared spectral region, does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWT is based upon the physics of water-light interaction in the 900-2000nm spectral region, not plant physiology. Our goal, development of a remote sensing technique for estimating plant water status based upon measurements in the VIS/NIR spectral region, would potentially provide remote sensing access to plant dehydration physiology - to the cellular photochemistry and structural changes associated with water deficits in leaves. In this research, we used optical, crossed polarization filters to measure the VIS/NIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, for 78 corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) leaves having relative water contents (RWC) between 0.60 and 0.98. Our results show that as RWC decreases R increases while T decreases. Our results tie R and T changes in the VIS/NIR to leaf physiological changes - linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf - and perhaps of a plant canopy - might be possible in the future.

  15. The water content of recurring slope lineae on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Piqueux, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Observations of recurring slope lineae (RSL) from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment have been interpreted as present-day, seasonally variable liquid water flows; however, orbital spectroscopy has not confirmed the presence of liquid H2O, only hydrated salts. Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) temperature data and a numerical heat transfer model definitively constrain the amount of water associated with RSL. Surface temperature differences between RSL-bearing and dry RSL-free terrains are consistent with no water associated with RSL and, based on measurement uncertainties, limit the water content of RSL to at most 0.5–3 wt %. In addition, distinct high thermal inertia regolith signatures expected with crust-forming evaporitic salt deposits from cyclical briny water flows are not observed, indicating low water salinity (if any) and/or low enough volumes to prevent their formation. Alternatively, observed salts may be preexisting in soils at low abundances (i.e., near or below detection limits) and largely immobile. These RSL-rich surfaces experience ~100 K diurnal temperature oscillations, possible freeze/thaw cycles and/or complete evaporation on time scales that challenge their habitability potential. The unique surface temperature measurements provided by THEMIS are consistent with a dry RSL hypothesis or at least significantly limit the water content of Martian RSL.

  16. [Foliar water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis sapling under different soil water contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Yu, Xin Xiao; Chen, Li Hua; Jia, Guo Dong; Zhao, Na; Li, Han Zhi; Chang, Xiao Min

    2017-07-18

    The determination of plant foliar water use efficiency will be of great value to improve our understanding about mechanism of plant water consumption and provide important basis of regional forest ecosystem management and maintenance, thus, laboratory controlled experiments were carried out to obtain Platycladus orientalis sapling foliar water use efficiency under five different soil water contents, including instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE gs ) derived from gas exchange and short-term water use efficiency (WUE cp ) caculated using carbon isotope model. The results showed that, controlled by stomatal conductance (g s ), foliar net photosynthesis rate (P n ) and transpiration rate (T r ) increased as soil water content increased, which both reached maximum va-lues at soil water content of 70%-80% field capacity (FC), while WUE gs reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Both δ 13 C of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material achieved maximum values at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Besides, δ 13 C values of leaf water-soluble compounds were significantly greater than that of phloem exudates, indicating that there was depletion in 13 C in twig phloem compared with leaf water-soluble compounds and no obvious fractionation in the process of water-soluble material transportation from leaf to twig. Foliar WUE cp also reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). There was some difference between foliar WUE gs and WUE cp under the same condition, and the average difference was 0.52 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 . The WUE gs had great space-time variability, by contrast, WUE cp was more representative. It was concluded that P. orientalis sapling adapted to drought condition by increasing water use efficiency and decreasing physiological activity.

  17. Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Le Pimpec et al.

    2003-02-11

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  18. Effect of Cooling Water on Stability of NLC Linac Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pimpec, Frederic

    2002-11-01

    Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.

  19. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  20. Cosine components in water levels at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, J.; Lehman, L.; Keen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Water-level records from wells at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed periodically to determine if they contain periodic (cosine) components. Water-level data from selected wells are input to an iterative numerical procedure that determines a best fitting cosine function. The available water-level data, with coverage of up to 5 years, appear to be representative of the natural water-level changes. From our analysis of 9 water-level records, it appears that there may be periodic components (periods of 2-3 years) in the groundwater-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, although some records are fit better than others by cosine functions. It also appears that the periodic behavior has a spatial distribution. Wells west of Yucca Mountain have different periods and phase shifts from wells on and east of Yucca Mountain. Interestingly, a similar spatial distribution of groundwater chemistry at Yucca Mountain is reported by Matuska (1988). This suggests a physical cause may underlie the different physical and chemical groundwater conditions. Although a variety of natural processes could cause water-level fluctuations, hydrologic processes are the most likely, because the periodicities are only a few years. A possible cause could be periodic recharge related to a periodicity in precipitation. It is interesting that Cochran et al., (1988), show a crude two-year cycle of precipitation for 1961 to 1970 in southern Nevada. Why periods and phase shifts may differ across Yucca Mountain is unknown. Different phase shifts could indicate different lag times of response to hydrologic stimuli. Difference in periods could mean that the geologic media is heterogeneous and displays heterogeneous response to a single stimulus, or that stimuli differ in certain regions, or that a hydraulic barrier separates the groundwater system into two regions having different water chemistry and recharge areas. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, E.; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Soil texture, in particular the clay fraction, governs numerous environmental, agricultural and engineering soil processes. Traditional measurement methods for clay content are laborious and impractical for large-scale soil surveys. Consequently, clay prediction models that are based on water...... within a RH range from 3 to 93%. The clay contents, which ranged between 1 and 56%, were measured with a combination of sieving and sedimentation methods. Two regression models were developed for both adsorption and desorption at 10 RH levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%). While the first...

  2. Water contents of clinopyroxenes from sub-arc mantle peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael; Turner, Simon; Blatter, Dawnika; Maury, Rene; Perfit, Michael; Yogodzinski, Gene

    2017-01-01

    One poorly constrained reservoir of the Earth's water budget is that of clinopyroxene in metasomatised, mantle peridotites. This study presents reconnaissance Sensitive High-Resolution, Ion Microprobe–Stable Isotope (SHRIMP–SI) determinations of the H2O contents of (dominantly) clinopyroxenes in rare mantle xenoliths from four different subduction zones, i.e. Mexico, Kamchatka, Philippines, and New Britain (Tabar-Feni island chain) as well as one intra-plate setting (western Victoria). All of the sub-arc xenoliths have been metasomatised and carry strong arc trace element signatures. Average measured H2O contents of the pyroxenes range from 70 ppm to 510 ppm whereas calculated bulk H2O contents range from 88 ppm to 3 737 ppm if the variable presence of amphibole is taken into account. In contrast, the intra-plate, continental mantle xenolith from western Victoria has higher water contents (3 447 ppm) but was metasomatised by alkali and/or carbonatitic melts and does not carry a subduction-related signature. Material similar to the sub-arc peridotites can either be accreted to the base of the lithosphere or potentially be transported by convection deeper into the mantle where it will lose water due to amphibole breakdown.

  3. Tritium content in tissue free water of Japanese bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujeno, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Aoki, T.; Kurihara, N.

    1986-01-01

    The tritium content of tissue free water was measured in fresh, non-diseased organs (brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and muscle) removed by forensic autopsy from 4 male and 4 female bodies. Tissue free water was extracted by freeze drying and distillation and tritium measured in the absence of background radon gas. A typical count was approximately 2.70 cpm. The mean tritium content of tissue free water in all the organs examined was 2.50 + - 0.67 Bq.1/sup -1/ (67.6 + -18.2 pCi1/sup -1/). This value was much lower than that obtained for tissues from Italian bodies: the value was, however, similar to that obtained for tap water (70.2 + -28.0 pCi.1/sup -1/), rain water (77.8 + - 47.4 pCi.1/sup -1/) and tissue free water of foods (55.6 + - 26.2 pCi.1/sup -1/).

  4. Aging management of major light water reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P.; Ware, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Review of technical literature and field experience has identified stress corrosion cracking as one of the major degradation mechanisms for the major light water reactor components. Three of the stress corrosion cracking mechanisms of current concern are (a) primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in pressurized water reactors, and (b) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) and (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in boiling water reactors. Effective aging management of stress corrosion cracking mechanisms includes evaluation of interactions between design, materials, stressors, and environment; identification and ranking of susceptible sites; reliable inspection of any damage; assessment of damage rate; mitigation of damage; and repair and replacement using corrosion-resistant materials. Management of PWSCC includes use of lower operating temperatures, reduction in residual tensile stresses, development of reliable inspection techniques, and use of Alloy 690 as replacement material. Management of IGSCC of nozzle and attachment welds includes use of Alloy 82 as weld material, and potential use of hydrogen water chemistry. Management of IASCC also includes potential use of hydrogen water chemistry

  5. Stabilization of Aley river water content by forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Paramonov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aley river basin is one of the most developed territories in West Siberia. Initially, the development here was related to the development of ore mining in the Altai. Currently it is associated mainly with the agricultural orientation of economic development. The intensive involvement of basin lands into the economic turnover for the last 100 years contributed to the formation of a number of environmental problems, such as water and wind erosion, loss of soil fertility and salinization, and desertification of the territory. Besides, the decrease of Aley river water content due to natural and anthropogenic reasons was observed. A specific feature of water management in Aley river basin is a significant amount of water resources used for irrigation purposes and agricultural water supply. To ensure the economic and drinking water supply, two reservoirs and a number of ponds have been constructed and operate in the basin. Forest ecosystems of the basin are considered from the viewpoint of preservation and restoration of small rivers. The ability of forest to accumulate solid precipitation and intercept them during the snowmelt for a longer time reduces the surface drainage and promotes transfer into the subsurface flow, significantly influencing the water content of permanent watercourses, is shown. The state of protective forest plantations in Aley river basin is analyzed. Aley river tributaries are compared by area, the length of water flow, and forest coverage of the basin. It is proposed to regulate the runoff through drastic actions on the increase of forest cover in the plain and especially in the mountainous parts of the basin. Measures to increase the forest cover within water protection zones, afforestation of temporary and permanent river basins, and the protection of agricultural soil fertility are worked out.

  6. Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz

    2014-12-01

    The freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of

  7. Diffusion of a multi-species component and its role in oxygen and water transport in silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youxue; Stolper, E. M.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    The diffusion of a multispecies component is complicated by the different diffusion coefficient of each species and the interconversion reactions among the species. A diffusion equation is derived that incorporates the diffusive fluxes of all species contributing to the component's concentration. The effect of speciation on diffusion is investigated experimentally by measuring concentration profiles of all species developed during diffusion experiments. Data on water diffusion in rhyolitic glasses indicate that H2O molecules predominate over OH groups as the diffusing species at very low to high water concentrations. A simple theoretical relationship is drawn between the effective total oxygen diffusion coefficient and the total water concentration of silicates at low water content.

  8. Radiation absorption, water content and contrast medium impregnation of gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Gallstones extracted by surgery were examined for CT density, which was compared with the X-ray film, floating performance and chemical analysis of the stones. So far, the water content of the biliary concrements - 14% on the average - has not been given much attention. Drying will considerably reduce the density; examination of the dried gallstones yields a false picture of direct ray absorption. Pure cholesterol stones do not float in water, and they show positive values on Hounsfield's scale (+30 - +60). The article discusses the question whether CT is suitable for effecting a better selection of gallstone patients who can be treated by drug therapy. (orig.) [de

  9. Reactor materials program process water component failure probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W. L.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum rate loss of coolant accident for the Savannah River Production Reactors is presently specified as the abrupt double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a large process water pipe. This accident is not considered credible in light of the low applied stresses and the inherent ductility of the piping materials. The Reactor Materials Program was initiated to provide the technical basis for an alternate, credible maximum rate LOCA. The major thrust of this program is to develop an alternate worst case accident scenario by deterministic means. In addition, the probability of a DEGB is also being determined; to show that in addition to being mechanistically incredible, it is also highly improbable. The probability of a DEGB of the process water piping is evaluated in two parts: failure by direct means, and indirectly-induced failure. These two areas have been discussed in other reports. In addition, the frequency of a large bread (equivalent to a DEGB) in other process water system components is assessed. This report reviews the large break frequency for each component as well as the overall large break frequency for the reactor system

  10. 4.2.1. Water content: nuclear radiation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooli, J.; Kasi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The radiometric methods of measuring the soil water distribution are presented. The neutron method consists of measuring the thermal neutron density around a fast neutron source. Since the moisture in the soil is usually the principle hydrogen compound the thermal neutron density is a function of the water content. The neutron gauge may be of the subsurface type, placed in a vertical access tube, or of the surface type, resting on the soil surface. Cf 252 is a useful neutron source, having low mean energy and being cheap. Tritium-target deuterium bombarded neutron generators may be used in large volume single or dual tube measurements. The hydrogen content of the dry soil matrix and the dry density profile should be determined. Epithermal measurements eliminate the effect of thermal neutron absorbers. The ideal access tube is of thin-walled aluminium, but this in many cases lacks the required strength and durability, and iron or stainless steel may be used. The measured volume ranges from 20cm to 110cm radius, and the resolution is limited to 30cm layers, with measurement intervals of 15cm. Gamma ray sources may also be used, both in single-well density gauges in conjunction with a neutron gauge, and in a dual-tube arrangement, measuring the water content by attenuation, using a Cs 137 source. This can give a resolution of down to 0.5cm, and an accuracy of 0.0015g/cm 3 . Finally radiation dose calculations are briefly discussed. (JIW)

  11. On-line component ratio measurement of oil/gas/water mixtures using an admittance sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J A

    1984-01-01

    The operator of a production platform is primarily interested in which types of fluids a well is producing and how quickly these different components are being produced. The component ratio and production rate of a well vary during the life of a field. To optimize production, measurement of each well's output is thus desirable. Current designs for subsea production systems lack means of continuously measuring three-component flows. A new method of component ratio measurement is described. The fraction of oil, gas and water flowing between two insulated electrode plates is determined by measuring both the electrical conductance and suseptance across the sensor. A preliminary evaluation of the new measurement system has been performed using a process oil/ water/air mixture. The method is not limited to small pipe diameters. The only possible limitation is that for low velocities in very large pipe diameters an in-line mixer may be required. Advantages of this new system are that real-time measurement of void fraction and water content is possible if a non-intrusive rugged sensor is used, and there are no range limitations, as each component may be measured for any given concentration. 4 references.

  12. Monitoring water content in Opalinus Clay within the FE-Experiment: Test application of dielectric water content sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, T.; Vogt, T.; Komatsu, M.; Müller, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of water content in the near field rock around repository tunnels for radioactive waste in clay formations is one of the essential quantities to be monitored for safety assessment in many waste disposal programs. Reliable measurements of water content are important not only for the understanding and prediction of coupled hydraulic-mechanic processes that occur during tunnel construction and ventilation phase, but also for the understanding of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes that take place in the host rock during the post closure phase of a repository tunnel for spent fuel and high level radioactive waste (SF/HLW). The host rock of the Swiss disposal concept for SF/HLW is the Opalinus Clay formation (age of approx. 175 Million years). To better understand the THM effects in a full-scale heater-engineered barrier-rock system in Opalinus Clay, a full-scale heater test, namely the Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) experiment, was initiated in 2010 at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in north-western Switzerland. The experiment is designed to simulate the THM evolution of a SF/HLW repository tunnel based on the Swiss disposal concept in a realistic manner during the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure phases. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors. The sensors will be distributed in the host rock, the tunnel lining, the engineered barrier, which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks, and on the heaters. The excavation is completed and the tunnel is currently being ventilated. Measuring water content in partially saturated clay-rich high-salinity rock with a deformable grain skeleton is challenging. Therefore, we use the ventilation phase (before backfilling and heating) to examine the applicability of commercial water content sensors and to

  13. Perceived Synchrony of Frog Multimodal Signal Components Is Influenced by Content and Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan C; Page, Rachel A; Klein, Barrett A; Ryan, Michael J; Hunter, Kimberly L

    2017-10-01

    Multimodal signaling is common in communication systems. Depending on the species, individual signal components may be produced synchronously as a result of physiological constraint (fixed) or each component may be produced independently (fluid) in time. For animals that rely on fixed signals, a basic prediction is that asynchrony between the components should degrade the perception of signal salience, reducing receiver response. Male túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, produce a fixed multisensory courtship signal by vocalizing with two call components (whines and chucks) and inflating a vocal sac (visual component). Using a robotic frog, we tested female responses to variation in the temporal arrangement between acoustic and visual components. When the visual component lagged a complex call (whine + chuck), females largely rejected this asynchronous multisensory signal in favor of the complex call absent the visual cue. When the chuck component was removed from one call, but the robofrog inflation lagged the complex call, females responded strongly to the asynchronous multimodal signal. When the chuck component was removed from both calls, females reversed preference and responded positively to the asynchronous multisensory signal. When the visual component preceded the call, females responded as often to the multimodal signal as to the call alone. These data show that asynchrony of a normally fixed signal does reduce receiver responsiveness. The magnitude and overall response, however, depend on specific temporal interactions between the acoustic and visual components. The sensitivity of túngara frogs to lagging visual cues, but not leading ones, and the influence of acoustic signal content on the perception of visual asynchrony is similar to those reported in human psychophysics literature. Virtually all acoustically communicating animals must conduct auditory scene analyses and identify the source of signals. Our data suggest that some basic

  14. The role of water content in triboelectric charging of wind-blown sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhaolin; Wei, Wei; Su, Junwei; Yu, Chuck Wah

    2013-01-01

    Triboelectric charging is common in desert sandstorms and dust devils on Earth; however, it remains poorly understood. Here we show a charging mechanism of sands with the adsorbed water on micro-porous surface in wind-blown sand based on the fact that water content is universal but usually a minor component in most particle systems. The triboelectric charging could be resulted due to the different mobility of H(+)/OH(-) between the contacting sands with a temperature difference. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) were used to demonstrate the dynamics of the sand charging. The numerically simulated charge-to-mass ratios of sands and electric field strength established in wind tunnel agreed well with the experimental data. The charging mechanism could provide an explanation for the charging process of all identical granular systems with water content, including Martian dust devils, wind-blown snow, even powder electrification in industrial processes.

  15. Water content estimated from point scale to plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Binley, A. M.; Demir, G.; Abgarmi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture controls the portioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff. Here we investigate measurements of soil moisture using a range of techniques spanning different spatial scales. In order to understand soil water content in a test basin, 512 km2 in area, in the south of Turkey, a Cosmic Ray CRS200B soil moisture probe was installed at elevation of 1459 m and an ML3 ThetaProbe (CS 616) soil moisture sensor was established at 5cm depth used to get continuous soil moisture. Neutron count measurements were corrected for the changes in atmospheric pressure, atmospheric water vapour and intensity of incoming neutron flux. The calibration of the volumetric soil moisture was performed, from the laboratory analysis, the bulk density varies between 1.719 (g/cm3) -1.390 (g/cm3), and the dominant soil texture is silty clay loam and silt loamThe water content reflectometer was calibrated for soil-specific conditions and soil moisture estimates were also corrected with respect to soil temperature. In order to characterize the subsurface, soil electrical resistivity tomography was used. Wenner and Schlumberger array geometries were used with electrode spacing varied from 1m- 5 m along 40 m and 200 m profiles. From the inversions of ERT data it is apparent that within 50 m distance from the CRS200B, the soil is moderately resistive to a depth of 2m and more conductive at greater depths. At greater distances from the CRS200B, the ERT results indicate more resistive soils. In addition to the ERT surveys, ground penetrating radar surveys using a common mid-point configuration was used with 200MHz antennas. The volumetric soil moisture obtained from GPR appears to overestimate those based on TDR observations. The values obtained from CS616 (at a point scale) and CRS200B (at a mesoscale) are compared with the values obtained at a plot scale. For the field study dates (20-22.06.2017) the volumetric moisture content obtained from CS616 were 25.14%, 25.22% and 25

  16. Variations of free gas content in water during pressure fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, A.; Zielke, W.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper an experimental programme is described in order to determine the influence of the cavitation nuclei distribution on cavitation inception. This programme has been used to measure air bubbles dimensions and number and particularly to determine the influence of quick pressure variations on the size on the number of bubbles in a pipe. An optical device counting scattered light is used as a measuring technique. Gas bubbles go through an optical control volume where they receive a high intensity light beam and scatter the light, then led to a photomultiplier; the signals are sorted and counted according to their size. If the number of nuclei, the dimensions of the control volume and the velocity of the water are known, it is possible to determine bubbles concentrations and the bulk modulus of the water. This measuring technique has been applied to a flow in a 140 mm diameter pipe with quick pressure variations from 2 bar to 0-10 bar. During the variations, the void fraction depends on the Reynolds number of the flow and on the gas content of the water. The bulk modulus has been computed with different conditions. Most results concern pressures slightly over the vapor pressure. Air content has a strong influence on cavitation and on water compressibility after a vapor cavity collapse

  17. Elemental content in cigarette components and its distribution as determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, Y.E.

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, a world-wide habit. Has a very bad and hazardous effects on the human body. In the present study, different kinds of cigarette brands have been collected from local and foreign markets representing ten countries all over the world. All the selected samples were irradiated in first Inshas reactor (IR-1) in Egypt. A comprehensive study of the elemental contents in cigarette samples under investigation has been carried out by using neutron activation analysis technique. Concentrations of the polluting elements and tracer contents of cigarette tobacco have been determined. The elemental distribution of the component (tobacco. ash. filter before and after smoking and wrapping paper) of some kinds of cigarettes has been studied. The obtained data resulting from the present work were discussed

  18. Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, I.A.

    1976-04-01

    The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2γ is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, α, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author) [pt

  19. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, M., E-mail: kangm@ornl.gov [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bilheux, H.Z., E-mail: bilheuxhn@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Voisin, S. [Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, C.L.; Perfect, E. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Horita, J. [Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Warren, J.M. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-21

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  20. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  1. A content analysis of preconception health education materials: characteristics, strategies, and clinical-behavioral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Denise M; Westbrook, Kyresa

    2013-01-01

    Many health organizations and practitioners in the United States promote preconception health (PCH) to consumers. However, summaries and evaluations of PCH promotional activities are limited. We conducted a content analysis of PCH health education materials collected from local-, state-, national-, and federal-level partners by using an existing database of partners, outreach to maternal and child health organizations, and a snowball sampling technique. Not applicable. Not applicable. Thirty-two materials were included for analysis, based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. A codebook guided coding of materials' characteristics (type, authorship, language, cost), use of marketing and behavioral strategies to reach the target population (target audience, message framing, call to action), and inclusion of PCH subject matter (clinical-behavioral components). The self-assessment of PCH behaviors was the most common material (28%) to appear in the sample. Most materials broadly targeted women, and there was a near-equal distribution in targeting by pregnancy planning status segments (planners and nonplanners). "Practicing PCH benefits the baby's health" was the most common message frame used. Materials contained a wide range of clinical-behavioral components. Strategic targeting of subgroups of consumers is an important but overlooked strategy. More research is needed around PCH components, in terms of packaging and increasing motivation, which could guide use and placement of clinical-behavioral components within promotional materials.

  2. Seismic Design of ITER Component Cooling Water System-1 Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya P.; Jadhav, Mahesh; Sharma, Lalit K.; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Patel, Nirav; Ranjan, Rakesh; Gohil, Guman; Patel, Hiren; Dangi, Jinendra; Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, A. G. A.

    2017-04-01

    The successful performance of ITER machine very much depends upon the effective removal of heat from the in-vessel components and other auxiliary systems during Tokamak operation. This objective will be accomplished by the design of an effective Cooling Water System (CWS). The optimized piping layout design is an important element in CWS design and is one of the major design challenges owing to the factors of large thermal expansion and seismic accelerations; considering safety, accessibility and maintainability aspects. An important sub-system of ITER CWS, Component Cooling Water System-1 (CCWS-1) has very large diameter of pipes up to DN1600 with many intersections to fulfill the process flow requirements of clients for heat removal. Pipe intersection is the weakest link in the layout due to high stress intensification factor. CCWS-1 piping up to secondary confinement isolation valves as well as in-between these isolation valves need to survive a Seismic Level-2 (SL-2) earthquake during the Tokamak operation period to ensure structural stability of the system in the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) event. This paper presents the design, qualification and optimization of layout of ITER CCWS-1 loop to withstand SSE event combined with sustained and thermal loads as per the load combinations defined by ITER and allowable limits as per ASME B31.3, This paper also highlights the Modal and Response Spectrum Analyses done to find out the natural frequency and system behavior during the seismic event.

  3. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  4. Peatland water repellency: Importance of soil water content, moss species, and burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. A.; Lukenbach, M. C.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, with northern peat reserves expected to become more vulnerable to wildfire as climate change enhances the length and severity of the fire season. Recent research suggests that high water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands have been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate the effect of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a laboratory based drying experiment where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes including unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ∼1.4 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by burning. Based on soil water retention curves, we suggest that it is highly unlikely that Sphagnum will exhibit strong hydrophobic conditions under field conditions.

  5. [Estimation of vegetation canopy water content using Hyperion hyperspectral data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Ning; Ma, Jian-Wei; Li, Xiao-Tao; Leng, Pei; Zhou, Fang-Cheng; Li, Shuang

    2013-10-01

    Vegetation canopy water content (VCWC) has widespread utility in agriculture, ecology and hydrology. Based on the PROSAIL model, a novel model for quantitative inversion of vegetation canopy water content using Hyperion hyperspectral data was explored. Firstly, characteristics of vegetation canopy reflection were investigated with the PROSAIL radiative transfer model, and it was showed that the first derivative at the right slope (980 - 1 070 nm) of the 970 nm water absorption feature (D98-1 070) was closely related to VCWC, and determination coefficient reached to 0.96. Then, bands 983, 993, 1 003, 1 013, 1 023, 1 033, 1 043, 1 053 and 1 063 nm of Hyperion data were selected to calculate D980-1 070, and VCWC was estimated using the proposed method. Finally, the retrieval result was verified using field measured data in Yingke oasis of the Heihe basin. It indicated that the mean relative error was 12.5%, RMSE was within 0.1 kg x m(-2) and the proposed model was practical and reliable. This study provides a more efficient way for obtaining VCWC of large area.

  6. Water Resources: the Central Component of the WEF Nexus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, K.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing population growth, consumption of natural resources, and deterioration of the environment coupled with climate change impacts (such as increased variability in precipitation) will challenge our abilities to provide water, energy and food (WEF) to the global populace. Less developed areas, such as the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, are particularly vulnerable to such resource issues due to immature governance and management structures and strategies. We introduce an integrated approach to resource security analysis, which traditionally has focused on the WEF components separately and apply the methods to a suite of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically, we evaluate the inter-connected nature of WEF securities by considering physical, demographic, socioeconomic, health, and institutional parameters related to each of the resource securities and by analyzing the relationships among the metrics. For example, reported food deficits for countries are strongly correlated with reported levels of access to safe drinking water. Multivariate statistical analyses are applied to identify relationships among resources and to develop indices that robustly and comprehensively capture the WEF nexus. Our results indicate that water plays the central role in the WEF nexus, due to its extensive use for both food and energy production in these countries. This approach provides a framework for analyzing the WEF nexus in other regions of the world.

  7. Impact of climate forcing uncertainty and human water use on global and continental water balance components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Müller Schmied

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water balance components using global hydrological models is subject to climate forcing uncertainty as well as to an increasing intensity of human water use within the 20th century. The uncertainty of five state-of-the-art climate forcings and the resulting range of cell runoff that is simulated by the global hydrological model WaterGAP is presented. On the global land surface, about 62 % of precipitation evapotranspires, whereas 38 % discharges into oceans and inland sinks. During 1971–2000, evapotranspiration due to human water use amounted to almost 1 % of precipitation, while this anthropogenic water flow increased by a factor of approximately 5 between 1901 and 2010. Deviation of estimated global discharge from the ensemble mean due to climate forcing uncertainty is approximately 4 %. Precipitation uncertainty is the most important reason for the uncertainty of discharge and evapotranspiration, followed by shortwave downward radiation. At continental levels, deviations of water balance components due to uncertain climate forcing are higher, with the highest discharge deviations occurring for river discharge in Africa (−6 to 11 % from the ensemble mean. Uncertain climate forcings also affect the estimation of irrigation water use and thus the estimated human impact of river discharge. The uncertainty range of global irrigation water consumption amounts to approximately 50 % of the global sum of water consumption in the other water use sector.

  8. Liquid water content variation with altitude in clouds over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cloud water content is one of the most fundamental measurements in cloud physics. Knowledge of the vertical variability of cloud microphysical characteristics is important for a variety of reasons. The profile of liquid water content (LWC) partially governs the radiative transfer for cloudy atmospheres, LWC profiles improves our understanding of processes acting to form and maintain cloud systems and may lead to improvements in the representation of clouds in numerical models. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote sensing techniques. The aim of this paper was to analyze the liquid water content (LWC) measurements in clouds, in time of the aircraft flights. The aircraft and its platform ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research is property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania. The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 m). The processed and analyzed measurements are acquired during 4 flights from Romania (Bucharest, 44°25'57″N 26°06'14″E) to Germany (Berlin 52°30'2″N 13°23'56″E) above the same region of Europe. The flight path was starting from Bucharest to the western part of Romania above Hungary, Austria at a cruse altitude between 6000-8500 m, and after 5 hours reaching Berlin. In total we acquired data during approximately 20 flight hours and we presented the vertical and horizontal LWC variations for different cloud types. The LWC values are similar for each type of cloud to values from literature. The vertical LWC profiles in the atmosphere measured during takeoff and landing of the aircraft have shown their

  9. Performance of materials in the component cooling water systems of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    The component cooling water (CCW) system provides cooling water to several important loads throughout the plant under all operating conditions. An aging assessment CCW systems in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was conducted as part of Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program (NPAR) instituted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents some of the results on the performances of materials in respect of their application in CCW Systems. All the CCW system failures reported to the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) from January 1988 to June 1990 were reviewed; it is concluded that three of the main contributors to CCW system failures are valves, pumps, and heat exchangers. This study identified the modes and causes of failure for these components; most of the causes for the aging-related failures could be related to the performance of materials. Also, in this paper the materials used for these components are reviewed, and there aging mechanisms under CCW system conditions are discussed

  10. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintentance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessonslearned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  11. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  12. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2016-06-15

    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  13. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work

  14. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.; Aggarwal, S.

    1992-01-01

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes, and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work

  15. Effect of water content on the water repellency for hydrophobized sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, S.; Kawamoto, K.; Kuroda, T.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

    2011-12-01

    Alternative earthen covers such as capillary barriers (CBs) and evapotranspirative covers are recognized as useful technical and low-cost solutions for limiting water infiltration and controlling seepage flow at solid waste landfills in semi-arid and arid regions. However, their application to the landfills at wet regions seems to be matter of concern due to loss of their impending capability under high precipitation. One of the possible techniques to enhance the impermeable properties of CBs is to alter soil grain surfaces to be water-repellent by mixing/coating hydrophobic agents (HAs). In order to examine a potential use of model sands hydrophobized with locally available and environmental-friendly HAs such as oleic acid (OA) and stearic acid (SA) for hydrophobic CBs. In the present study, we first characterized the effect of water content on the degree of water repellency (WR) for hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soil at different depth. Secondly, the time dependency of the contact angle in hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soils at different water content was evaluated. Further, the effects of hydrophobic organic matter contents on the WR of hydrophobized sands were investigated by horizontal infiltration test. We investigated the degree of WR as functions of volumetric water content (θ) of a volcanic ash soil samples from different depth and water adjusted hydrophobized sand samples with different ratio of HAs by using sessile drop method (SDM). The initial contact angle (αi) measured from SDM decreased gradually with increasing water content in OA and SA coated samples. Measured αi values for volcanic ash soils increased with increasing water content and reached a peak values of 111.7o at θ= 0.325 cm3 cm-3, where-after αi gradually decreased. Each test sample exhibited sharp decrease in contact angle with time at higher water content. Sorptivity values for oleic acid coated samples decreased with increasing HA content and reached the minimum

  16. Static Feed Water Electrolysis Subsystem Testing and Component Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszenski, E. P.; Schubert, F. H.; Burke, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    A program was carried out to develop and test advanced electrochemical cells/modules and critical electromechanical components for a static feed (alkaline electrolyte) water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem. The accomplishments were refurbishment of a previously developed subsystem and successful demonstration for a total of 2980 hours of normal operation; achievement of sustained one-person level oxygen generation performance with state-of-the-art cell voltages averaging 1.61 V at 191 ASF for an operating temperature of 128F (equivalent to 1.51V when normalized to 180F); endurance testing and demonstration of reliable performance of the three-fluid pressure controller for 8650 hours; design and development of a fluid control assembly for this subsystem and demonstration of its performance; development and demonstration at the single cell and module levels of a unitized core composite cell that provides expanded differential pressure tolerance capability; fabrication and evaluation of a feed water electrolyte elimination five-cell module; and successful demonstration of an electrolysis module pressurization technique that can be used in place of nitrogen gas during the standby mode of operation to maintain system pressure and differential pressures.

  17. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  18. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Nevzorov Total Condensed Water Content Sensor dataset was collected by the Nevzorov total condensed water content sensor which was used to measure...

  19. Water solubility in monzogranite melts: experimental and calculated water contents at 6 kbar

    OpenAIRE

    García Moreno, Olga; Castro Dorado, Antonio; Corretgé, Luis Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Several piston-cylinder crystallisation experiments have been performed with a synthetic monzogranitic glass with different initial water contents at 6 kbar. Comparison with calculated water contents shows: 1) some differences of the order of 10% of XH2Q; 2) "non-linear" behaviour in XH2C/T curves; and 3) similar pattern in the XH2JT curves in both measured and calculated data. Resumen Se han realizado varios experimentos de cristalización en aparatos "piston-cylinder" a 6 kbar, u...

  20. Assessment of water vapor content from MIVIS TIR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of land remotely sensed images is to derive biological, chemical and physical parameters by inverting sample sets of spectral data. For the above aim hyperspectral scanners on airborne platform are a powerful remote sensing instrument for both research and environmental applications because of their spectral resolution and the high operability of the platform. Fine spectral information by MIVIS (airborne hyperspectral scanner operating in 102 channels ranging from VIS to TIR allows researchers to characterize atmospheric parameters and their effects on measured data which produce undesirable features on surface spectral signatures. These effects can be estimated (and remotely sensed radiances corrected if atmospheric spectral transmittance is known at each image pixel. Usually ground-based punctual observations (atmospheric sounding balloons, sun photometers, etc. are used to estimate the main physical parameters (like water vapor and temperature profiles which permit us to estimate atmospheric spectral transmittance by using suitable radiative transfer model and a specific (often too strong assumption which enable atmospheric properties measured only in very few points to be extended to the whole image. Several atmospheric gases produce observable absorption features, but only water vapor strongly varies in time and space. In this work the authors customize a self-sufficient «split-window technique» to derive (at each image pixel atmospheric total columnar water vapor content (TWVC using only MIVIS data collected by the fourth MIVIS spectrometer (Thermal Infrared band. MIVIS radiances have been simulated by means of MODTRAN4 radiative transfer code and the coefficients of linear regression to estimate TWVC from «split-windows» MIVIS radiances, based on 450 atmospheric water vapor profiles obtained by radiosonde data provided by NOAANESDIS. The method has been applied to produce maps describing the spatial variability of

  1. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  2. Propagation of errors from a null balance terahertz reflectometer to a sample's relative water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Zafiropoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    The THz water content index of a sample is defined and advantages in using such metric in estimating a sample's relative water content are discussed. The errors from reflectance measurements performed at two different THz frequencies using a quasi-optical null-balance reflectometer are propagated to the errors in estimating the sample water content index.

  3. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  4. Volumetric water content measurement probes in earth-dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardanis Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two frequency domain reflectometry (FDR probes have been used. They were used on compacted soils both in the laboratory and in the field. Measurements in the laboratory were intended for calibration. The range of densities and types of materials where insertion of the probes can be achieved was investigated first. The effect of sporadic presence of coarser grains and density on these calibrations, once insertion could be achieved, were investigated second. Measurements on laboratory prepared samples with the same moisture content were different when the sample was kept in the mould from when it was extruded from it. Also both these measurements were different from that in a sample of the same density but significantly larger in diameter. It was found that measurements with these probes are affected by dilation exhibited by soil around the rods of the probes during insertion. Readings immediately after insertion of the sensors on samples extruded from their moulds were the ones closer to measured values. These readings combined with total volume and mass obtained from sand-cone tests during the construction of an earth-dam allowed fairly accurate estimation of the dry unit weight but not the gravimetric water content.

  5. Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Kasbohm, J.

    2001-10-01

    A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m 3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is

  6. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part F. Water content in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Oka, Takamitsu; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2005-01-01

    As part of the DS02 studies to reevaluate neutrons from the atomic bomb, we cored rock samples from a pillar of Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 128 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima, and measured the depth profile of induced 152 Eu radioactivity in the rock (Hasai et al. 1987). By use of the MCNP neutron transport calculation code, the depth profile of 152 Eu in the rock was calculated, assuming a neutron distribution at the given location around the pillar based on the DS86 calculations. The depth profile was then compared with the distribution of measurements (Endo et al. 1999). For the calculation, it is necessary to know the major components of the rock. It is also necessary to estimate the water content correctly, since the cross section of hydrogen-neutron reactions is large, and neutron moderation effects of hydrogen are significant. For this purpose, the basic characteristics of water content in rock were studied, based on a few characteristic experiments to estimate the water content, which was then used in neutron transport calculations. The following describes our concepts and methods. (author)

  7. The use of Wenner configuration to monitor soil water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agodzo, S.K.; Okyere, P.Y.; Kusi-Appiah, K.

    2004-01-01

    A field investigation of the relationship between soil resistivity R s and soil water content WC was conducted using the 4-probe Wenner Configuration Method WCM. The WCM is traditionally used by electrical engineers for earth testing but was adapted for use as a soil water monitor in this study. Calibration curves were established between R s and WC, demonstrating that the earth tester can be used for such measurements. Power correlation (R s = k WC n ) with r 2 values of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.97 were obtained for electrode spacing of 1400, 1300 and 1200 cm respectively. Linear correlation (R s = c WC + d) yielded r 2 values 0.68, 0.87 and 0.99 for 1400, 1300 and 1200 cm, respectively. Generally, both the linear and power relationships get weaker with increasing spacing between electrodes. However, the power relationship holds better at higher electrode spacing while the linear relationship holds better at lower electrode spacing. The bulky nature of the equipment rendered the measurements cumbersome. It must be noted that electrode spacing of between 12 to 14 m will affect the spatial variability of the soil. This must have accounted for the weaker correlation as the electrode spacing increased, considering that the theory on which the earth tester is based assumes a homogeneous soil. (author)

  8. Multiscale Bayesian neural networks for soil water content estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Raghavendra B.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Springer, Everett P.

    2008-08-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been used for some time now to estimate soil hydraulic parameters from other available or more easily measurable soil properties. However, most such uses of ANNs as pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been at matching spatial scales (1:1) of inputs and outputs. This approach assumes that the outputs are only required at the same scale as the input data. Unfortunately, this is rarely true. Different hydrologic, hydroclimatic, and contaminant transport models require soil hydraulic parameter data at different spatial scales, depending upon their grid sizes. While conventional (deterministic) ANNs have been traditionally used in these studies, the use of Bayesian training of ANNs is a more recent development. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian framework to derive soil water retention function including its uncertainty at the point or local scale using PTFs trained with coarser-scale Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO)-based soil data. The approach includes an ANN trained with Bayesian techniques as a PTF tool with training and validation data collected across spatial extents (scales) in two different regions in the United States. The two study areas include the Las Cruces Trench site in the Rio Grande basin of New Mexico, and the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) hydrology experimental region in Oklahoma. Each region-specific Bayesian ANN is trained using soil texture and bulk density data from the SSURGO database (scale 1:24,000), and predictions of the soil water contents at different pressure heads with point scale data (1:1) inputs are made. The resulting outputs are corrected for bias using both linear and nonlinear correction techniques. The results show good agreement between the soil water content values measured at the point scale and those predicted by the Bayesian ANN-based PTFs for both the study sites. Overall, Bayesian ANNs coupled with nonlinear bias correction are found to be very suitable tools for deriving soil

  9. A global sensitivity analysis of crop virtual water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, S.; Tuninetti, M.; D'Odorico, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.

    2015-12-01

    The concepts of virtual water and water footprint are becoming widely used in the scientific literature and they are proving their usefulness in a number of multidisciplinary contexts. With such growing interest a measure of data reliability (and uncertainty) is becoming pressing but, as of today, assessments of data sensitivity to model parameters, performed at the global scale, are not known. This contribution aims at filling this gap. Starting point of this study is the evaluation of the green and blue virtual water content (VWC) of four staple crops (i.e. wheat, rice, maize, and soybean) at a global high resolution scale. In each grid cell, the crop VWC is given by the ratio between the total crop evapotranspiration over the growing season and the crop actual yield, where evapotranspiration is determined with a detailed daily soil water balance and actual yield is estimated using country-based data, adjusted to account for spatial variability. The model provides estimates of the VWC at a 5x5 arc minutes and it improves on previous works by using the newest available data and including multi-cropping practices in the evaluation. The model is then used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, in order to evaluate the role of model parameters in affecting the VWC and to understand how uncertainties in input data propagate and impact the VWC accounting. In each cell, small changes are exerted to one parameter at a time, and a sensitivity index is determined as the ratio between the relative change of VWC and the relative change of the input parameter with respect to its reference value. At the global scale, VWC is found to be most sensitive to the planting date, with a positive (direct) or negative (inverse) sensitivity index depending on the typical season of crop planting date. VWC is also markedly dependent on the length of the growing period, with an increase in length always producing an increase of VWC, but with higher spatial variability for rice than for

  10. Radiative heat transfer and water content in atmosphere of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarov, M.Y.; Gal'stev, A.P.; Shari, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors present the procedure for calculating optical characteristics of the main components and the effective fluxes in the atmosphere of Venus, and concrete results of the calculations. They are compared to the results of other authors and to the experimantal data. Integration was carried out by the Simpson method with automatic selection of the step or interval for a given relative integrating accuracy delta. The calculations were done with a BESM-6 computer. Using this procedure and data on absorbtion coefficients, calculations of the spectrum of effective flux were carried out for a pure carbon dioxide atmosphere and for an atmosphere containing water vapor at various relative admixtures, for different altitude profiles of temperature and cloudiness albedo. Thus, the comparisons made, enable the authors to judge about the degree of agreement of the F(z) altitude profile, in some regions of the planet where measurements have been made, rather than about the absolute values of the heat fluxes. In conclusion, the authors point out that the task of calculating in detail the radiation balance in Venus' lower atmosphere, as also the problem of a more reliable interpretation of the experimantal data, is coupled with the necessity of elaborating reliable models of the atmospheric components' optical characteristics, which determine the radiative transfer of heat

  11. The Influence of Different Processing Methods on Component Content of Sophora japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y. B.; Zhu, H. J.; Xin, G. S.; Wei, C.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to understand the effect of different processing methods on the content of active ingredients in Sophora japonica, and to determine the content of rutin and quercetin in Sophora japonica under different processing methods by UV spectrophotometry of the content determination. So as to compare the effect of different processing methods on the active ingredient content of Sophora japonica. Experiments can be seen in the rutin content: Fried Sophora japonica>Vinegar sunburn Sophora> Health products Sophora japonica> Charred sophora flower, Vinegar sunburn Sophora and Fried Sophora japonica difference is not obvious; Quercetin content: Charred sophora flower> Fried Sophora japonica> Vinegar sunburn Sophora>Health products Sophora japonica. It is proved that there are some differences in the content of active ingredients in Sophora japonica in different processing methods. The content of rutin increased with the increase of the processing temperature, but the content decreased after a certain temperature; Quercetin content will increase gradually with time.

  12. Fitting probability distributions to component water quality data from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of water is carried out to make the available water meet the standards for its intended use. Such use may be for drinking and other household needs, industries,livestock rearing or fisheries etc. poor quality water is commonly treated to ensure potability. Potable water should be free from unpleasant tastes and ...

  13. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  14. [Water-exchange processes in hyaline cartilage and its basic components in a normal state and in osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, S S; Chkhol, K Z; Bykov, V A; Roshchina, A A; Iakovleva, L V; Koroleva, O A; Omel'ianenko, N P; Rebrov, L B

    2000-01-01

    The content of different forms of tissue water was studied in the normal articular cartilage and osteoarthrosis cartilage and its structural components: collagen, potassium hyaluronate, sodium chondroitinsulphate and its complexes. In the components of cartilage matrix a few of fractions of bound water different in the strength of binding are present. At the maximal humidity, all water in collagen binds with the active groups of biopolymers and in the glycosaminoglycans, in addition to bound water, are present, two crystal forms of freezing water (free water) at least. The quantity of free water in the collagen-chondroitin sulphat membrane, is increased with the increase of chondroitin sulphate. In the collagen-hyaluronate complex, fraction of free water is found only at the low concentration of hyaluronate kalium. It was shown that in the hyalin cartilage, in different from the other connective tissue (skin, achilles tendon), the most part of water is free water and its quantity is increased in the osteoarthrosis. It is supposed that the rearrangement of binding and free-water fractions in the osteoarthrosis is the result of deficiency of hyaluronic acid and therefore this may be regarded in the improvement of methods of treatment. This scientific and methodical approach allow to receive information on the forms and binding energy of water in the biological tissues, which is absorbed from fluids and steam phase and determine characters of the pathological changes.

  15. In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  16. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating

  17. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy's law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  18. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-06-11

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy\\'s law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  19. Influence of packaging and conditions of storaging on content of mineral water Guber-Srebrenica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Dragana D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral waters are found in nature in greater depths most often in reduction conditions, so after surfacing their content alters in contact with oxygen, which is caused by oxidation of certain components. Due to this, efforts were made to make these waters more stabile so they could be used after certain time. This work monitors the stability of Guber (Argentaria-Srebrenica water exposed to light and with addition of ascorbic acid. The methods of analysis and the parameters analyzed are: gravimetric (SO2-4, suspended solids, total dry residue at 180°C, conductometry (electric conductivity, volumetric (Al3+, spectrometric (SiO2 and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, K+, Ca2+, Na+ i Cu2+. Obtained results of water analysis, after retaining water in PET (polyethylentereftalate and glass bottles, in certain time intervals, show that significant changes of concentration of Fe2+, Al3+, K+, Ca2+, pH value and electric conductivity occurred. Concentration of iron Fe2+ has been slightly changed after 120 days, in sample stabilized with 0,2 g ascorbic acid, while concentrations of Al and K+ were changing the same as without adding of stabilizer. Samples of water in glass packaging without added stabilizer are less stable compared to samples which were retained in PET packaging.

  20. Effect of Model Selection on Computed Water Balance Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.; Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Roest, C.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Soil water flow modelling approaches as used in four selected on-farm water management models, namely CROPWAT. FAIDS, CERES and SWAP, are compared through numerical experiments. The soil water simulation approaches used in the first three models are reformulated to incorporate ail evapotranspiration

  1. Andragogical Content Knowledge as a Key Component in the Training of the Instructors of Nonformal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Currently, professionals and academics of non-formal education in Indonesia have began to question the competences of the non-formal education instructors. Non-formal education is a profession that requires knowledge (subject-content area), skill (ability to deliver content in regard to the needs of society) and programme content (the content…

  2. Measuring Leaf Water Content Using Multispectral Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, S.; Vastaranta, M.; Linnakoski, R.; Sugano, J.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppä, H.; Hyyppä, J.

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is increasing the amount and intensity of disturbance events, i.e. drought, pest insect outbreaks and fungal pathogens, in forests worldwide. Leaf water content (LWC) is an early indicator of tree stress that can be measured remotely using multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (MS-TLS). LWC affects leaf reflectance in the shortwave infrared spectrum which can be used to predict LWC from spatially explicit MS-TLS intensity data. Here, we investigated the relationship between LWC and MS-TLS intensity features at 690 nm, 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths with Norway spruce seedlings in greenhouse conditions. We found that a simple ratio of 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths was able to explain 84 % of the variation (R2) in LWC with a respective prediction accuracy of 0.0041 g/cm2. Our results showed that MS-TLS can be used to estimate LWC with a reasonable accuracy in environmentally stable conditions.

  3. MEASURING LEAF WATER CONTENT USING MULTISPECTRAL TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Junttila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is increasing the amount and intensity of disturbance events, i.e. drought, pest insect outbreaks and fungal pathogens, in forests worldwide. Leaf water content (LWC is an early indicator of tree stress that can be measured remotely using multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (MS-TLS. LWC affects leaf reflectance in the shortwave infrared spectrum which can be used to predict LWC from spatially explicit MS-TLS intensity data. Here, we investigated the relationship between LWC and MS-TLS intensity features at 690 nm, 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths with Norway spruce seedlings in greenhouse conditions. We found that a simple ratio of 905 nm and 1550 nm wavelengths was able to explain 84 % of the variation (R2 in LWC with a respective prediction accuracy of 0.0041 g/cm2. Our results showed that MS-TLS can be used to estimate LWC with a reasonable accuracy in environmentally stable conditions.

  4. [Spectrum Variance Analysis of Tree Leaves Under the Condition of Different Leaf water Content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Tai-sheng; Pan, Li-xin

    2015-07-01

    Leaf water content is an important factor affecting tree spectral characteristics. So Exploring the leaf spectral characteristics change rule of the same tree under the condition of different leaf water content and the spectral differences of different tree leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content are not only the keys of hyperspectral vegetation remote sensing information identification but also the theoretical support of research on vegetation spectrum change as the differences in leaf water content. The spectrometer was used to observe six species of tree leaves, and the reflectivity and first order differential spectrum of different leaf water content were obtained. Then, the spectral characteristics of each tree species leaves under the condition of different leaf water content were analyzed, and the spectral differences of different tree species leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content were compared to explore possible bands of the leaf water content identification by hyperspectral remote sensing. Results show that the spectra of each tree leaf have changed a lot with the change of the leaf water content, but the change laws are different. Leaf spectral of different tree species has lager differences in some wavelength range under the condition of same leaf water content, and it provides some possibility for high precision identification of tree species.

  5. Effect of water content on dispersion of transferred solute in unsaturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latrille, C. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/L3MR, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2013-07-01

    Estimating contaminant migration in the context of waste disposal and/or environmental remediation of polluted soils requires a complete understanding of the underlying transport processes. In unsaturated porous media, water content impacts directly on porous solute transfer. Depending on the spatial distribution of water content, the flow pathway is more complex than in water saturated media. Dispersivity is consequently dependent on water content. Non-reactive tracer experiments performed using unsaturated sand columns confirm the dependence of dispersivity with pore velocity; moreover, a power law relationship between dispersivity and water content is evidenced. (authors)

  6. Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface

  7. Formulation and make-up of simulate dilute water, low ionic content aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Dilute Water (SOW), a low-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50, Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of ten higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal times ten higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the effect of ionic concentrating due to elevated temperature water flowing through fractures where salts and minerals have been deposited due to evaporation and boiling

  8. Heavy water: a distinctive and essential component of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; van Alstyne, H.M.

    1994-06-01

    The exceptional properties of heavy water as a neutron moderator provide one of the distinctive features of CANDU reactors. Although most of the chemical and physical properties of deuterium and protium (mass 1 hydrogen) are appreciably different, the low terrestrial abundance of deuterium makes the separation of heavy water a relatively costly process, and so of considerable importance to the CANDU system. World heavy-water supplies are currently provided by the Girdler-Sulphide process or processes based on ammonia-hydrogen exchange. Due to cost and hazard considerations, new processes will be required for the production of heavy water in and beyond the next decade. Through AECL's development and refinement of wetproofed catalysts for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between water and hydrogen, a family of new processes is expected to be deployed. Two monothermal processes, CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange, using water-to-hydrogen conversion by electrolysis) and CIRCE (Combined Industrially Reformed hydrogen and Catalytic Exchange, based on steam reforming of hydrocarbons), are furthest advanced. Besides its use for heavy-water production, the CECE process is a highly effective technology for heavy-water upgrading and for tritium separation from heavy (or light) water. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  9. Remote sensing of leaf, canopy and vegetation water contents for satellite climate data records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar water content is a dynamic quantity depending on water losses from transpiration and water uptake from the soil. Absorption of shortwave radiation by water is determined by various frequency overtones of fundamental bending and stretching molecular transitions. Leaf water potential and rela...

  10. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  11. Water quality assessment using SVD-based principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SVD) of hydrological data was tested for water quality assessment. Using two case studies of waste- and drinking water, PCA via SVD was able to find latent variables which explain 80.8% and 83.7% of the variance, respectively. By means of ...

  12. Modeling soil water content for vegetation modeling improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfrani, Carmen; Buri, Aline; Zingg, Barbara; Vittoz, Pascal; Verrecchia, Eric; Guisan, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is known to be important for plants as it affects the physiological processes regulating plant growth. Therefore, SWC controls plant distribution over the Earth surface, ranging from deserts and grassland to rain forests. Unfortunately, only a few data on SWC are available as its measurement is very time consuming and costly and needs specific laboratory tools. The scarcity of SWC measurements in geographic space makes it difficult to model and spatially project SWC over larger areas. In particular, it prevents its inclusion in plant species distribution model (SDMs) as predictor. The aims of this study were, first, to test a new methodology allowing problems of the scarcity of SWC measurements to be overpassed and second, to model and spatially project SWC in order to improve plant SDMs with the inclusion of SWC parameter. The study was developed in four steps. First, SWC was modeled by measuring it at 10 different pressures (expressed in pF and ranging from pF=0 to pF=4.2). The different pF represent different degrees of soil water availability for plants. An ensemble of bivariate models was built to overpass the problem of having only a few SWC measurements (n = 24) but several predictors to include in the model. Soil texture (clay, silt, sand), organic matter (OM), topographic variables (elevation, aspect, convexity), climatic variables (precipitation) and hydrological variables (river distance, NDWI) were used as predictors. Weighted ensemble models were built using only bivariate models with adjusted-R2 > 0.5 for each SWC at different pF. The second step consisted in running plant SDMs including modeled SWC jointly with the conventional topo-climatic variable used for plant SDMs. Third, SDMs were only run using the conventional topo-climatic variables. Finally, comparing the models obtained in the second and third steps allowed assessing the additional predictive power of SWC in plant SDMs. SWC ensemble models remained very good, with

  13. A scheme for parameterizing ice cloud water content in general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Donner, Leo J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for specifying ice water content in GCMs is developed, based on theory and in-cloud measurements. A theoretical development of the conceptual precipitation model is given and the aircraft flights used to characterize the ice mass distribution in deep ice clouds is discussed. Ice water content values derived from the theoretical parameterization are compared with the measured values. The results demonstrate that a simple parameterization for atmospheric ice content can account for ice contents observed in several synoptic contexts.

  14. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et......Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive...... the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...

  15. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate information on the dry end (matric potential less than −1500 kPa) of soil water retention curves (SWRCs) is crucial for studying water vapor transport and evaporation in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of the Oswin model for describing the water adsorption...... curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (θRH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...... for soils dominated by 2:1 and 1:1 clays, respectively. Comparison of the Oswin model combined with the Kelvin equation, with water potential estimated from θRH50 (Oswin-KRH50), CS model combined with the Arthur equation (CS-A), and CS-K model, with water potential obtained from θRH50 (CS-KRH50) indicated...

  16. Effect of water content on partial ternary phase diagram water-in-diesel microemulsion fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukayat, Hastinatun; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Raman, Ismail Ab.; Ramli, Suria

    2014-09-01

    Introduction of water in the fuel gave a significant effect to the reduction of pollutant such as NOx emission. In this work, water/diesel microemulsion fuels were prepared using compositional method by mixing water and diesel in the presence of non-ionic surfactant and co-surfactant. The effects of water composition on the partial ternary phase diagram were studied at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (w/w). The physical stability of the microemulsion was investigated at 45°C over a period of one month. The optimum formulae obtained were diesel/T80/1-penthanol/water 60:20:15:5 wt% (System 1), 55:20:15:10 wt% (System 2), 50:20:15:15 wt% (System 3) and 45:20:15:20 wt% (System 4). Physicochemical characterizations of optimum formulae were studied. The results showed that water content has a significant effect to the formation of microemulsion, its stability, droplet size and viscosity.

  17. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of commercial Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. juice and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been the focus of many recent studies due to its potential effects on treatment and prevention of several diseases. However, there are few in vivo and in vitro studies concerning its composition and antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine the total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidant capacity of a juice commercialized as noni juice, but containing grape, blueberry and noni fruits. Commercial noni juice was compared against its separate constituents of blueberry and grape juice. Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH• methods were used to determine the concentration of total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, respectively. Commercial noni juice presented higher values of TPC (91.90 mg of gallic acid/100 mL juice and antioxidant activity (5.85 mmol/L compared to its 5% diluted constituents. Concentrated blueberry juice presented higher TPC and antioxidant activity than the other juices analyzed. Considering that the blueberry and grape juices account for only 10% in the composition of commercial noni juice, it can be inferred that these two components contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity. Therefore, additional studies are necessary in order to elucidate the contribution of the noni juice as an antioxidant.A planta Morinda citrifolia L. tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas decorrente de seus efeitos benéficos no tratamento e prevenção de muitas doenças. No entanto, são escassos os estudos in vivo e in vitro sobre os compostos presentes e sua capacidade de atuar como antioxidante. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o índice de polifenóis totais (IPT e a capacidade antioxidante do suco de noni comercial, constituído de uva, mirtilo e a fruta do noni. O suco de noni comercial foi comparado com seus constituintes (mirtilo e suco de uva separadamente. Os métodos Folin-Ciocalteu e DPPH• foram utilizados para determinar a concentração de polifen

  18. Interactions between cask components and content of packaging for the transport of radioactive material during drop tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quercetti, T.; Ballheimer, V.; Zeisler, P.; Mueller, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the analytical, numerical and experimental investigations on the phenomenon of interactions between cask components and content of packages for the transport of radioactive material during drop tests required according to the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Radial and axial gaps between cask components and content are usually necessary for thermal reasons but larger gaps can exist because of the geometrical dimensions of the specified content. Consequently interactions between content and cask components (lid system, cask body, etc.) are possible and can not be excluded during drop tests. Interactions in this context are relative movements between cask and content which are mainly due to elastic spring effects after releasing the cask for the free drop. These relative movements can cause interior collisions between content and cask during the main impact of the package onto the unyielding target. Drop tests with various types of Type A and Type B packages fully instrumented with strain gauges and accelerometers showed that these interactions respectively interior collisions can be considerable relating to high forces acting on cask lids, lid bolts and the content. Of course the real quantitative consequences of the interactions depend upon different conditions, among others the drop orientation, the design characteristics of the impact limiters, the dimensions of the gaps, the material characteristics of the contents, etc. . In order to investigate more precisely the phenomenon of interactions BAM carried out finite element calculations for the named casks using the ABAQUS/ Standard and ABAQUS/ Explicit computer code comparing them with results obtained from experiments. Additionally, tests with a simplified model instrumented with accelerometers were carried out accompanied by finite element calculations and analytical calculations using MATHEMATICA. The investigations on the mentioned phenomena of interaction

  19. Sensing the water content of honey from temperature-dependent electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wenchuan; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Xinhua; Zhuang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    In order to predict the water content in honey, electrical conductivity was measured on blossom honey types milk-vetch, jujube and yellow-locust with the water content of 18–37% between 5 and 40 °C. The regression models of electrical conductivity were developed as functions of water content and temperature. The results showed that increases in either water content or temperature resulted in an increase in the electrical conductivity of honey with greater changes at higher water content and/or higher temperature. The linear terms of water content and temperature, a quadratic term of water content, and the interaction effect of water content and temperature had significant influence on the electrical conductivity of honey (p < 0.0001). Regardless of blossom honey type, the linear coefficient of the determination of measured and calculated electrical conductivities was 0.998 and the range error ratio was larger than 100. These results suggest that the electrical conductivity of honey might be used to develop a detector for rapidly predicting the water content in blossom honey

  20. Large Scale Evapotranspiration Estimates: An Important Component in Regional Water Balances to Assess Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yepez, E. A.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Valdez-Torres, L. C.; Robles-Morua, A.

    2013-05-01

    Water security, can be defined as the reliable supply in quantity and quality of water to help sustain future populations and maintaining ecosystem health and productivity. Water security is rapidly declining in many parts of the world due to population growth, drought, climate change, salinity, pollution, land use change, over-allocation and over-utilization, among other issues. Governmental offices (such as the Comision Nacional del Agua in Mexico, CONAGUA) require and conduct studies to estimate reliable water balances at regional or continental scales in order to provide reasonable assessments of the amount of water that can be provided (from surface or ground water sources) to supply all the human needs while maintaining natural vegetation, on an operational basis and, more important, under disturbances, such as droughts. Large scale estimates of evapotranspiration (ET), a critical component of the water cycle, are needed for a better comprehension of the hydrological cycle at large scales, which, in most water balances is left as the residual. For operational purposes, such water balance estimates can not rely on ET measurements since they do not exist, should be simple and require the least ground information possible, information that is often scarce or does not exist at all. Given this limitation, the use of remotely sensed data to estimate ET could supplement the lack of ground information, particularly in remote regions In this study, a simple method, based on the Makkink equation is used to estimate ET for large areas at high spatial resolutions (1 km). The Makkink model used here is forced using three remotely sensed datasets. First, the model uses solar radiation estimates obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES); Second, the model uses an Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized to get an estimate for vegetation amount and land use which was

  1. Effect of Water Deficit-Induced at Vegetative and Reproductive Stages on Protein and Oil Content in Soybean Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane M. Mertz-Henning

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of the most common grain crops worldwide, representing an important protein and oil source. Although genetic variability in the chemical composition of grains is seen in soybean, the mean levels of proteins have remained stagnant or, in some cases, have decreased over time, arousing concern in the agricultural industry. Furthermore, environmental conditions influence the chemical composition of grains. Thus, the present study evaluated the effect of water deficit (WD induced at the vegetative period (vegetative stress (VS and reproductive period (reproductive stress (RS on the protein and oil contents of grains in different soybean genotypes. Yield and its components were evaluated to evaluate the interrelation of these traits. The experiment was completed over three crop seasons under field conditions in Londrina, Paraná (PR, Brazil. WD was induced using rainout shelters and then stress treatments with irrigated and non-irrigated conditions were compared. WD negatively affected yield and its components. All evaluated genotypes showed similar responses for oil and protein contents under different water conditions. Higher protein content and lower oil content were observed in grains under RS. Such a relationship was not equally established under VS. Additionally, negative relationships between protein and oil content and between protein content and yield were confirmed.

  2. Incentives and opportunities for reducing the cobalt content in reactor core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocken, H.

    1985-01-01

    Cobalt in core components contributes to radiation field buildup on out-of-core surfaces. Core components containing cobalt-base alloys and cobalt as an impurity are identified. The use of cobalt-free wear-resistant alloys and construction materials with lower impurity levels of cobalt is disused. It is argued that such measures are cost effective. Lower radiation fields and disposal costs will offset higher raw material costs. Component performance will not be affected. (author)

  3. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content distribution in the subsurface. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickx, J.M.H.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of the project is to evaluate Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( NMRI) for determining water content distribution in the subsurface. In NMRI the interaction of the magnetic moment of hydrogen ( protons) nuclei with external applied electromagnetic ( EM ) fields is measured. In surface NMRI the Earth''s magnetic field causes alignment of the spinning protons. An alternating EM field is generated by a loop of wire laid on the Earth surface. The alternating current driven through the loop at the Lamor frequency of protons in liquid water. The component of the EM field perpendicular to the Earth''s field causes a precession of protons from their equilibrium position. Water content distribution in the subsurface is derived from measurements on the EM field caused by the return of the precessing protons to equilibrium after the current in the transmitter loop is terminated. The scientific goals of the R and D are: to verify and validate the theoretical concepts and experimental results of Russian scientists, who first introduced this method; to evaluate the range of applications and limitations of this technology for practical field measurements. NMRI has the potential of providing a remote, direct, unique method for subsurface water measurements. All present methods are either intrusive or indirect ( e.g. electrical resitivity measurements). In the past year progress has been made along two separate paths. These are: (1) Field Measurements. Surface NMRI equipment manufactured by IRIS Instruments of France was tested over a number of sites with good hydrogeologic control. The results of these measurements can be summarized as follows: The NMRI measurement directly and uniquely determines water distribution in coarse grained aquifers; geologic formation from which water can be readily withdrawn. Water content can not be determined by this technique in fine grained sediments. The signal to be measured is very small and EM interference''s from power

  4. Capillary and sorbed water content in wood as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olek, W.; Baranowska, H.M.; Guzenda, R.; Olszewski, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Water content in wood has been studied by NMR technique. The spin-spin relaxation time has been measured for distinguish the capillary and sorbed water. The qualitative and quantitative determination have been possible by means of proposed method

  5. Heavy metal contents and other physical quality indices of sewerage, canal and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Sattar, A.; Ihsanullash; Atta, S.; Arif, S. University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Cd, Pb and Cu in canal, sewerage and drinking water by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) is described. Other quality indices of water such as temperature, pH, EC and total solid were also determined. The levels of heavy metal contents of sewerage, canal and drinking water revealed marked differences and wide coefficient of variability (CV). Generally Cd and Pb contents were higher in sewerage than canal and drinking water. However, Cu content of drinking waters was higher than other water tested. The total solids were found to be generally higher in sewerage and canal water than drinking water tested. The total solids were found to be generally higher in sewerage and canal water than drinking water The variations in temperature, pH and EC were marginal to marked depending upon the source and the location. (author)

  6. Physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    domestic water with few exceptions. .... river water and groundwater quality in the area is needed ... effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A total of forty (40) sampling sites were ..... of domestic waste containing Pb from human activities at.

  7. Effect of miscibility and soil water content in movement of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Since commercial low-level waste sites will not accept mixed low level wastes for disposal any longer, safer disposal of these wastes as well as hazardous waste becomes the growing concern. The objective of this study were to estimate the effect of some characteristics of organic material, such as solubility, density and volatility, on the movement in soil under various moisture contents. Attempts were made to fit the measured data to theoretical models for the movement of aqueous and airborne components through the vadose zone. Four different C-14 labeled organic materials, Methyl Alcohol, Toluene, Formic Acid, and Bromobenzene, differing in density, solubility, and volatility, were injected into test columns packed with a mixture of sands having known particles sizes and porosity. The method employed to make calibrated unsaturated conditions proved to be adequate for four different designated moisture contents, permitting sampling of both airborne and aqueous components at the same time. Significant solubility and density effects were found for the different organic materials associated with movement through water channels or air-filled pores, which became available at various unsaturated conditions. To analyze this mobility mechanism as a function of inherent properties of organic materials, a couple of mathematical equations were presented to describe both airborne release and aqueous migration and their wider applicability was discussed

  8. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  9. Use of the Budyko Framework to Estimate the Virtual Water Content in Shijiazhuang Plain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, E.; Yin, X.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most challenging steps in implementing analysis of virtual water content (VWC) of agricultural crops is how to properly assess the volume of consumptive water use (CWU) for crop production. In practice, CWU is considered equivalent to the crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Following the crop coefficient method, ETc can be calculated under standard or non-standard conditions by multiplying the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) by one or a few coefficients. However, when current crop growing conditions deviate from standard conditions, accurately determining the coefficients under non-standard conditions remains to be a complicated process and requires lots of field experimental data. Based on regional surface water-energy balance, this research integrates the Budyko framework into the traditional crop coefficient approach to simplify the coefficients determination. This new method enables us to assess the volume of agricultural VWC only based on some hydrometeorological data and agricultural statistic data in regional scale. To demonstrate the new method, we apply it to the Shijiazhuang Plain, which is an agricultural irrigation area in the North China Plain. The VWC of winter wheat and summer maize is calculated and we further subdivide VWC into blue and green water components. Compared with previous studies in this study area, VWC calculated by the Budyko-based crop coefficient approach uses less data and agrees well with some of the previous research. It shows that this new method may serve as a more convenient tool for assessing VWC.

  10. Modeled effects on permittivity measurements of water content in high surface area porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Or, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become an important measurement technique for determination of porous media water content and electrical conductivity due to its accuracy, fast response and automation capability. Water content is inferred from the measured bulk dielectric constant based on travel time analysis along simple transmission lines. TDR measurements in low surface area porous media accurately describe water content using an empirical relationship. Measurement discrepancies arise from dominating influences such as bound water due to high surface area, extreme aspect ratio particles or atypical water phase configuration. Our objectives were to highlight primary factors affecting dielectric permittivity measurements for water content determination in porous mixtures, and demonstrate the influence of these factors on mixture permittivity as predicted by a three-phase dielectric mixture model. Modeled results considering water binding, higher porosity, constituent geometry or phase configuration suggest any of these effects individually are capable of causing permittivity reduction, though all likely contribute in high surface area porous media

  11. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  12. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  13. Use of in situ volumetric water content at field capacity to improve prediction of soil water retention properties

    OpenAIRE

    Al Majou , Hassan; Bruand , Ary; Duval , Odile

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Use of in situ volumetric water content at field capacity to improve prediction of soil water retention properties. Most pedotransfer functions (PTFs) developed over the last three decades to generate water retention characteristics use soil texture, bulk density and organic carbon content as predictors. Despite of the high number of PTFs published, most being class- or continuous-PTFs, accuracy of prediction remains limited. In this study, we compared the performance ...

  14. A study of water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji

    2000-01-01

    Water hammer phenomena caused by a rapid valve closure, that is, shock phenomena in two-phase flows, are an important problem for the safety assessment of a hypothetical LOCA. This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component tow-phase bubbly flow. In order to clarify the characteristics of water hammer phenomena, experiments for a one-component two-phase flow of Freon R-113 were conducted and a numerical simulation of pressure transients was developed. An overall picture of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase flow is presented an discussed. (author)

  15. Principal Component Analysis of Chlorophyll Content in Tobacco, Bean and Petunia Plants Exposed to Different Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Klaudia; Zbierska, Janina; Budka, Anna; Kayzer, Dariusz

    2014-06-01

    Three plant species were assessed in this study - ozone-sensitive and -resistant tobacco, ozone-sensitive petunia and bean. Plants were exposed to ambient air conditions for several weeks in two sites differing in tropospheric ozone concentrations in the growing season of 2009. Every week chlorophyll contents were analysed. Cumulative ozone effects on the chlorophyll content in relation to other meteorological parameters were evaluated using principal component analysis, while the relation between certain days of measurements of the plants were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed variability between plant species response. However, some similarities were noted. Positive relations of all chlorophyll forms to cumulative ozone concentration (AOT 40) were found for all the plant species that were examined. The chlorophyll b/a ratio revealed an opposite position to ozone concentration only in the ozone-resistant tobacco cultivar. In all the plant species the highest average chlorophyll content was noted after the 7th day of the experiment. Afterwards, the plants usually revealed various responses. Ozone-sensitive tobacco revealed decrease of chlorophyll content, and after few weeks of decline again an increase was observed. Probably, due to the accommodation for the stress factor. While during first three weeks relatively high levels of chlorophyll contents were noted in ozone-resistant tobacco. Petunia revealed a slow decrease of chlorophyll content and the lowest values at the end of the experiment. A comparison between the plant species revealed the highest level of chlorophyll contents in ozone-resistant tobacco.

  16. Content of short-lived radionuclides in the Kanevskoe water reservoir and its coastal ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubin, O.L.

    2008-01-01

    The content of Te 132, Np 239, Ba 140, I 131 in components of ecosystem of Kanevskoe reservoir of river Dnepr and adjoining to it surface ecosystems studied in 1986. The maximal content of investigated radionuclides was registered in water and surface vegetation. Contamination of hydrobionts by Ba 140 and I 131 has been generated practically at once after fall-out of these radionuclides directly on a mirror of the reservoir during the period from 30.04.1986 to 02.05.1986. Cancers Astacus Leptodactilus Eichw. and fishes intensively accumulated Ba 140 and I 131. (authors)

  17. Lead Content of Well Water in Enugu South-East Nigeria | Ogbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the lead content of well water in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Method: Wells (101) were located using the multistage sampling procedure and samples were collected into clean plastic containers. Analysis was done using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Result: The means lead content of well water ...

  18. Concurrent temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity and soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of spatio-temporal soil water content (SWC) variability within agricultural fields is useful to improve crop management. Spatial patterns of soil water contents can be characterized using the temporal stability analysis, however high density sampling is required. Soil apparent electrical c...

  19. Water management as a key component of integrated weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Berti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management within the cropping system is a key factor for an integrated weed management. Soil moisture affects seed persistence and seed dormancy, thus influencing their germination, the establishment of seedlings as well as the competition at adult stage and the number, vitality and dormancy of the new seeds produced by the weeds. The interactions among water availability and competition are very complex and still not fully understood. A research effort in this sector should the be very relevant for the development of new approaches of weed management, such as “Ecological weed management”, aiming to reduce weed density and competitiveness and, in the medium term, to prevent undesired modifications of the weed flora.

  20. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  1. Flux-gradient relationships and soil-water diffusivity from curves of water content versus time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nofziger, D.L.; Ahuja, L.R.; Swartzendruber, D.

    Direct analysis of a family of curves of soil-water content vs. time at different fixed positions enables assessment of the flux-gradient relationship prior to the calculations of soil-water diffusivity. The method is evaluated on both smooth and random-error data generated from the solution of the horizontal soil-water intake problem with a known diffusivity function. Interpolation, differentiation, and intergration are carried out by least-squares curve fitting based on the 2 recently developed techniques of parabolic splines and sliding parabolas, with all computations performed by computer. Results are excellent for both smooth and random-error input data, whether in terms of recovering the original known diffusivity function, assessing the nature of the flux-gradient relationship, or in making the numerous checks and validations at various intermediate stages of computation. The method applies for any horizontal soil-wetting process independently of the specific boundary conditions, including water entry through a nonzero inlet resistance. It should be adaptable to horizontal dewatering, and extendable to vertical flow. (11 refs.)

  2. Component failures at pressurized water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, M.F.

    1980-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to identify those systems having major impact on safety and availability (i.e. to identify those systems and components whose failures have historically caused the greatest number of challenges to the reactor protective systems and which have resulted in greatest loss of electric generation time). These problems were identified for engineering solutions and recommendations made for areas and programs where research and development should be concentrated. The program was conducted in three major phases: Data Analysis, Engineering Evaluation, Cost Benefit Analysis

  3. Application of acoustical methods to the measurement of water content in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, V.E.; Radostin, A.V.; Stepanyants, Y.A.

    2000-10-01

    Results of laboratory experiments on the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves (f = 100 kHz) in a glass tube, filled with river sand are presented. Several sand samples have been used with different water content: dry, unsaturated and completely water saturated. It is shown that the dissipative coefficient of acoustic waves decreases with increasing wave amplitude. This 'self-brightening' phenomenon takes place over the whole range of moisture content, from zero to 100%, but its degree of manifestation depends on the moisture content. The exponent of the dissipative nonlinearity α, is found to be the most sensitive parameter to the moisture content and is determined on the basis of measurements. It is considered to be a good indicator of water content in porous media and provides an opportunity to measure water content in such materials indirectly by means of an acoustic method. A simple phenomenological model is presented to explain the experimental results

  4. An ontology for component-based models of water resource systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, Mostafa; Goodall, Jonathan L.

    2013-08-01

    Component-based modeling is an approach for simulating water resource systems where a model is composed of a set of components, each with a defined modeling objective, interlinked through data exchanges. Component-based modeling frameworks are used within the hydrologic, atmospheric, and earth surface dynamics modeling communities. While these efforts have been advancing, it has become clear that the water resources modeling community in particular, and arguably the larger earth science modeling community as well, faces a challenge of fully and precisely defining the metadata for model components. The lack of a unified framework for model component metadata limits interoperability between modeling communities and the reuse of models across modeling frameworks due to ambiguity about the model and its capabilities. To address this need, we propose an ontology for water resources model components that describes core concepts and relationships using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). The ontology that we present, which is termed the Water Resources Component (WRC) ontology, is meant to serve as a starting point that can be refined over time through engagement by the larger community until a robust knowledge framework for water resource model components is achieved. This paper presents the methodology used to arrive at the WRC ontology, the WRC ontology itself, and examples of how the ontology can aid in component-based water resources modeling by (i) assisting in identifying relevant models, (ii) encouraging proper model coupling, and (iii) facilitating interoperability across earth science modeling frameworks.

  5. Determining the in situ water content of the Geysers Graywacke of Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, A.

    1994-12-01

    The water content, porosity and permeability measurements of the Northern California Geysers rocks are used to predict the lifetime of the geothermal resource, which provides 10% of Northern California`s electricity. The Geysers rock was drilled from defunct well SB-15-D, and some cores wee sealed in aluminum tubes to preserve the in situ water content. These cores were sent to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to measure the water content. Humidity measurements were taken of the air around a one and a half foot encased core, recovered from a depth of 918.9 feet. Over a seven day period, the humidity reached almost 100% indicating that the air around the core was saturated in water vapor. We believe the sealing method is effective, preserving the in-situ water content. To measure water content, I will use Archimede`s principle to determine the density of the core before and after drying in an oven. Ultrasonic measurements will be taken of the core upon removal from aluminum tube to determine the change of p-wave velocity with change in water content. Water in the pores increases the effective compressibility of the rock therefore increasing the p-velocity. The measured p-wave velocities can then be used in the field to determine in-situ water content. Three dimensional x-ray images will be used to determine the deviations from average density within individual cores. Since the density depends on water content as well as mineralogy, images can show the location of pore fluid and drilling mud. Archimede`s principle, humidity detection, ultrasonics and x-ray scanning are viable methods to measure the in-situ water content and pore water distribution in the graywacke.

  6. Content of certain mineral components in the thallus of lichens and the bark of roadside trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Kuziel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The total N, P, Mg, Ca, K and Na contents were investigated in the thalli of several lichen species occurring on various trees, and in the bark and bark extracts from these trees. pH of the bark extracts was also determined. Wide differences were found in the content of the elements in point in the thalli of various lichen species on Acer platanoides and on the thalli of the same species on other trees. No relation was detected between the chemical composition of the bark and that of the lichen thalli occurring on it.

  7. The reduction of organic component content, of molybdenum and coloidal silica in chlorosodium uraniferous eluates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, Gheorghe; Panturu, Eugenia; Radulescu, Rozalia; Predescu, Cristian; Filip, Dorin Gheorghe

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the experimental results obtained at a laboratory facility for molybdenum, silica and organic substances removal from sodium chloride uraniferous eluate solutions are presented. The aim of this study is to obtain uranium yellow cakes having product quality specification, in order to enable their conversion in nuclear grade uranium dioxide. The studied variables were the contents for silica and organic substances at the acidifying and filtration of uranium eluates, residual molybdenum content in refined eluates after adsorption on activated carbon MN+P type. The chemical characterization of uranium concentrate obtained from the refined eluate is presented. (author)

  8. Laser-light backscattering response to water content and proteolysis in dry-cured ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulladosa, E.; Rubio-Celorio, M.; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2017-01-01

    on the acquisition conditions used. Laser backscattering was influenced by both dryness and proteolysis intensity showing an average light intensity decrease of 0.2 when decreasing water content (1% weight loss) and increasing proteolysis (equivalent to one-hour enzyme action). However, a decrease of scattering area...... was only detected when the water content was decreased (618 mm(2) per 1% weight loss). Changes on scattering of light profiles were only observed when the water content changed. Although there is a good correlation between water content and LBI parameters when analysing commercial samples, proteolysis...... of laser incidence) and to analyse the laser-light backscattering changes caused by additional hot air drying and proteolysis of dry-cured ham slices. The feasibility of the technology to determine water content and proteolysis (which is related to textural characteristics) of commercial sliced dry...

  9. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  10. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    20

    available scarce water resources in dry land agriculture, but direct measurement thereof for multiple locations in the field is not always feasible. Therefore, pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed to estimate soil water retention at FC and PWP for dryland soils of India. A soil database available for Arid Western India ...

  11. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  12. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  13. Radioactive contents in water Galleries Tenerife, Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Duarte Rodriguez, X.; Triguero Perez, M.; Hernandez Armas, J.; Catalan Acosta, A.

    2011-01-01

    Water consumption by humans leads to the possible incorporation into the body of existing radionuclides in it and can cause undesirable effects on human health. To avoid or reduce them, various agencies have established limits for the concentration of radioactive substances in the water so that it can be used for human consumption. (Author)

  14. Content Analysis of the Science Textbooks of Iranian Junior High School Course in terms of the Components of Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundProviding healthcare for students is one of the primary duties of the states. This study aimed to analyze the contents of the science textbooks of Junior High School course in terms of the components of health education in Iran.Materials and MethodsThis descriptive study was conducted through content analysis. To collect data, a researcher-made check list including: physical health, nutritional health, the environment, environmental health, family health, accidents and safety, mobility, physical education, mental health, prevention of risky behavior, control and prevention of diseases, disabilities, public health and school health, was used. The samples were the science textbooks of Junior High School course (7th, 8th and 9th grades. Analysis unit was all pages of the textbooks (texts, pictures and exercises. Descriptive method (frequency table, percentage, mean and standard deviation [SD] was used to analyze the data and non-parametric Chi-square test was used to investigate the probable significant differences between the components.ResultsThe results showed that the authors of sciences textbooks of Junior High School course have paid most attention to the component of control and prevention of diseases (21.10% and have paid no attention to the component of "mental health". Also, there were significant differences among the components of physical health, family health, the environment and environmental health in terms of to be addressed in the science textbooks of Junior High School (P

  15. Structural integrity of water reactor pressure boundary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic fracture toughness was determined as a function of temperature for three-point bend specimens of A533-B, A508-2, and A302-B steels. Crack propagation rates at 288 0 C in a water reactor environment were determined for A533-B and A508-2. Radiation-induced degradation of notch toughness of reactor steels and welds was explored. The ''warm prestress'' occurring in a flawed reactor vessel following a LOCA and operation of ECCS was studied. 25 figures

  16. Evaluation of Pb and Cu contents of selected component parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty five (35) units of waste computer central processing unit (CPU) and 24 units of waste computer monitors of different brands, manufacturers, year of manufacture, and model were collected from different electronic repairers' shops in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria and investigated for the lead and copper contents.

  17. Wintertime water-soluble aerosol composition and particle water content in Fresno, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parworth, Caroline L.; Young, Dominique E.; Kim, Hwajin; Zhang, Xiaolu; Cappa, Christopher D.; Collier, Sonya; Zhang, Qi

    2017-03-01

    The composition and concentrations of water-soluble gases and ionic aerosol components were measured from January to February 2013 in Fresno, CA, with a particle-into-liquid sampler with ion chromatography and annular denuders. The average (±1σ) ionic aerosol mass concentration was 15.0 (±9.4) µg m-3, and dominated by nitrate (61%), followed by ammonium, sulfate, chloride, potassium, nitrite, and sodium. Aerosol-phase organic acids, including formate and glycolate, and amines including methylaminium, triethanolaminium, ethanolaminium, dimethylaminium, and ethylaminium were also detected. Although the dominant species all came from secondary aerosol formation, there were primary sources of ionic aerosols as well, including biomass burning for potassium and glycolate, sea spray for sodium, chloride, and dimethylamine, and vehicles for formate. Particulate methanesulfonic acid was also detected and mainly associated with terrestrial sources. On average, the molar concentration of ammonia was 49 times greater than nitric acid, indicating that ammonium nitrate formation was limited by nitric acid availability. Particle water was calculated based on the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) thermodynamic prediction of inorganic particle water and κ-Köhler theory approximation of organic particle water. The average (±1σ) particle water concentration was 19.2 (±18.6) µg m-3, of which 90% was attributed to inorganic species. The fractional contribution of particle water to total fine particle mass averaged at 36% during this study and was greatest during early morning and night and least during the day. Based on aqueous-phase concentrations of ions calculated by using E-AIM, the average (±1σ) pH of particles in Fresno during the winter was estimated to be 4.2 (±0.2).

  18. Design and Application of an Ontology for Component-Based Modeling of Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, M.; Goodall, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Many Earth system modeling frameworks have adopted an approach of componentizing models so that a large model can be assembled by linking a set of smaller model components. These model components can then be more easily reused, extended, and maintained by a large group of model developers and end users. While there has been a notable increase in component-based model frameworks in the Earth sciences in recent years, there has been less work on creating framework-agnostic metadata and ontologies for model components. Well defined model component metadata is needed, however, to facilitate sharing, reuse, and interoperability both within and across Earth system modeling frameworks. To address this need, we have designed an ontology for the water resources community named the Water Resources Component (WRC) ontology in order to advance the application of component-based modeling frameworks across water related disciplines. Here we present the design of the WRC ontology and demonstrate its application for integration of model components used in watershed management. First we show how the watershed modeling system Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be decomposed into a set of hydrological and ecological components that adopt the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) standard. Then we show how the components can be used to estimate nitrogen losses from land to surface water for the Baltimore Ecosystem study area. Results of this work are (i) a demonstration of how the WRC ontology advances the conceptual integration between components of water related disciplines by handling the semantic and syntactic heterogeneity present when describing components from different disciplines and (ii) an investigation of a methodology by which large models can be decomposed into a set of model components that can be well described by populating metadata according to the WRC ontology.

  19. Measuring water content in soil using TDR: A state-of-the-art in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, G.C.; Ferre, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, the development and continuing refinement of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique for in-situ, nondestructive measurement of water content has revolutionized the study and management of the transfer and storage of water within the soil profile. The principles for the application of TDR to water content are now well accepted and straight forward. For many mineral soils, the calibration for water content has a linear relationship with the square root of the relative permittivity measured by TDR. This allows a two-point calibration. TDR-measured water content has been applied successfully to water balance studies ranging from the km scale of small watersheds to the nun scale of the root-soil interface. Soil probes can be designed to meet many and varied requirements. The performance of a number of probe geometries is presented, including some of their strengths and weaknesses. Although coated soil probes allow measurement in more conductive soils, the probe coatings alter the water-content calibration both in sensitivity and linearity. Three general options are available for determining profiles of soil water content from the soil surface to a depth of 1 m. Soil probes of differing total depths extending to the surface are the most accessible. Soil probes buried at selected depths provide easily repeatable values. The vertically installed single probe, Aith depth segments separated by diodes, allows repeated measurement in a single vertical slice. The portability of TDR instrumentation coupled with the simplicity and flexibility of probes has allowed the mapping of spatial patterns of water content and field-based spatial and temporal soil water content distributions. The usefulness and power of the TDR technique for characterizing soil water content is increasing rapidly through continuing improvements in instrument operating range, probe design, multiplexing and automated data collection. (author)

  20. MR-based Water Content Estimation in Cartilage: Design and Validation of a Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Design and validation of an MR-based method that allows the calculation of the water content in cartilage tissue. Material and Methods We modified and adapted to cartilage tissue T1 map based water content MR sequences commonly used in the neurology field. Using a 37 Celsius degree stable...... was costumed and programmed. Finally, we validated the method after measuring and comparing 3 more cartilage samples in a living animal (pig). The obtained data was analyzed and the water content calculated. Then, the same samples were freeze-dried (this technique allows to take out all the water that a tissue...... contains) and we measured the water they contained. Results We could reproduce twice the 37 Celsius degree system and could perform the measurements in a similar way. We found that the MR T1 map based water content sequences can provide information that, after being analyzed with a special software, can...

  1. MR-based water content estimation in cartilage: design and validation of a method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Kristiansen, Maja Sophie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    Purpose: Design and validation of an MR-based method that allows the calculation of the water content in cartilage tissue. Methods and Materials: Cartilage tissue T1 map based water content MR sequences were used on a 37 Celsius degree stable system. The T1 map intensity signal was analyzed on 6...... cartilage samples from living animals (pig) and on 8 gelatin samples which water content was already known. For the data analysis a T1 intensity signal map software analyzer used. Finally, the method was validated after measuring and comparing 3 more cartilage samples in a living animal (pig). The obtained...... map based water content sequences can provide information that, after being analyzed using a T1-map analysis software, can be interpreted as the water contained inside a cartilage tissue. The amount of water estimated using this method was similar to the one obtained at the dry-freeze procedure...

  2. Describing the Components of the Water Transport in the Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmessin, F.; Haberle, R. M.; forget, F.; Rannou, P.; Cabane, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the meteorological components driving water transport in the Martian atmosphere. A particular emphasis is given to the role of residual mean circulation and water ice clouds in determining the geographical partitioning of water vapor and frost.

  3. Examination of water phase transitions in Loblolly pine and cell wall components by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Michael J. Lambrecht; Samuel V. Glass; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Daniel J. Yelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines phase transformations of water in wood and isolated wood cell wall components using differential scanning calorimetry with the purpose of better understanding "Type II water" or "freezable bound water" that has been reported for cellulose and other hydrophilic polymers. Solid loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  4. Microbial degradation of high nitrogen contents (primarily nitrate) in industrial waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Kutzner, H.J.

    1984-04-01

    This study deals with the denitrification of industrial waste water of high nitrate content, including waste water from the recovery process for nuclear material. At first the autotrophic process employing Thiob. denitrificans was investigated: kinetics, stoichiometry, application of a packed bed reactor; effect of nitrate concentration, retention time, loading and height of the reactor on denitrification. The system proved to be useful for waste water with nitrate up to 4.5 g/L; the highest rate of denitrification achieved was 1.5 g/L.h when the retention time was 2.5 h and the nitrate concentration (in-flow) 4.3 g/L (i.e. reactor loadung 41 kg NO 3 - /m 3 .d). Equally good results were obtained by the heterotrophic process: ethanol allowed a reactor loading of 60 kg NO 3 - /m 3 .d; however, in this case bacterial growth tended to clog the column. - Enrichments made with ethanol yielded Ps. aeruginosa as main component of the population; in contrast, those with methanol resulted in a mixture of Hyphomicrobium spec. and Paracoccus denitrificans; this bacterial culture was used to determine the stoichiometry of denitrification in continuous culture; it was also employed to denitrify a diluted solution of nitric acid (0.1 ml HNO 3 /L) which could be achieved in continuous culture using a retention time of 25 h. (orig.) [de

  5. Variation in VIP latrine sludge contents | Bakare | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated variations in the characteristics of the sludge content from different ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines and variation in these characteristics at specific depths within each pit. Faecal sludge from 16 VIP latrines within the eThekwini Municipality was collected and laboratory characterisation including ...

  6. The Mediterranean Water content in the Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Angela; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Neves, Filipe

    2014-05-01

    Distribution of the Mediterranean Water (MW) in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic [20-50o N, 5-40o W] was studied using Optimum Multiparameter analysis (OMP) applied to the World Ocean Atlas (http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/) and MEDTRANS climatologies (http://co.fc.ul.pt/en/). The areas of influence of water masses in the study region were obtained from literature and from analysis of individual TS-diagrams. The analysis permitted to divide the water column between 500 to 2000 m into 5 vertical layers. The boundaries of the layers separated different expected sets of the dominant water masses; their depth varied across the study region. For the OMP we used the following water masses: the central fraction of the North Atlantic Central Water (H), the lower fraction of the North Atlantic Central Water (NACWl), the Mediterranean Water (MW), the Sub-Artic Intermediate Water (SAIW), the modified Antarctic Intermediate Water (AA), the Labrador Sea Water (LSW) and the upper fraction of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADWu). The characteristics of the water masses were obtained from Perez et al. (2001), Alvarez et al. (2004) and Barbero et al. (2010), taken at the places where the water masses entered the study region. For each of the layers and each of the grid-points OMP was applied for estimation of the percentage of the each of the water masses in the observed mixture. The analysis of sensitivity of the results to the definition of water mass proprieties showed that their percentages were derived within the average error of 10%. The percentages of water masses obtained in this study compared well with the previous OMP results at some individual sections across our region (Hinrichsen and Tomczak, 1993; Alvarez et al., 2004 and Barbero et al., 2010). In this work we specifically focused on distribution of the MW. The results showed that the MW reached its maximum of 50% at 1200 m depth in the Gulf of Cadiz. The percentage decreased to about 40% along the Iberian continental

  7. The Rheology of a Three Component System: COAL/WATER/#4 Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Barbara Jean

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the rheology of a three component system, coal/water/#4 oil emulsions (COW), in which the third component, water, was present in a significant concentration, and to determine the applicability of existing theories from suspension rheology to the three component system studied. In a coal/water/oil emulsion, free coal particles adhere to the surface of the water droplets, preventing their coagulation, while the larger coal particles reside in the matrix of stabilized water droplets. The use of liquid fuels containing coal is a means of utilizing our nation's coal reserves while conserving oil. These fuels can be burned in conventional oil-fired furnaces. In this investigation, a high sulfur, high ash, bituminous coal was used, along with a heavy #4 oil to prepare the emulsions. The coal was ground to a log-normal distribution with an average particle size of 62 microns. A Haake RV3 concentric cylinder viscometer, with a ribbed measuring system, was used to determine the viscosity of the emulsions. A physical pendulum settling device measured the shift in center of mass of the COW as a function of time. The flow behavior of the fuel in pipes was also tested. In interpreting the data from the viscometer and the pipe flow experiments, a power law analysis was used in the region from 30 s('-1) to 200 s('-1). Extrapolation methods were used to obtain the low and high shear behavior of the emulsions. In the shear rate region found in boiler feed systems, COW are shear thinning with a flow behavior index of 0.7. The temperature dependent characteristic of the emulsions studied were similar and followed an Arrhenius type relationship. The viscosity of the COW decreases with increasing coal average particle size and is also a function of the width of the size distribution used. The type of coal used strongly influences the rheology of the fuel. The volatile content and the atomic oxygen to nitrogen ratio of the coal are the most

  8. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential ( 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  9. Determining water content and other impurities in Siparuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... and thermodynamic parameters, became necessary. (Santos, 2004; Dantas, 2006). ... oil in 80 min distillation (after the first sign of boiling). The essential .... Khankari RK, Law D, Grant DJW (1992). Determination of water ...

  10. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p < 0.0001). Moreover, bottled water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p < 0.05). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  11. Influence of water content on the inactivation of P. digitatum spores using an air-water plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youyi, HU; Weidong, ZHU; Kun, LIU; Leng, HAN; Zhenfeng, ZHENG; Huimin, HU

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate whether an air-water plasma jet is beneficial to improve the efficiency of inactivation, a series of experiments were done using a ring-needle plasma jet. The water content in the working gas (air) was accurately measured based on the Karl Fischer method. The effects of water on the production of OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) and O (3p5P-3s5S) were also studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that the water content is in the range of 2.53-9.58 mg l-1, depending on the gas/water mixture ratio. The production of OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) rises with the increase of water content, whereas the O (3p5P-3s5S) shows a declining tendency with higher water content. The sterilization experiments indicate that this air-water plasma jet inactivates the P. digitatum spores very effectively and its efficiency rises with the increase of the water content. It is possible that OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) is a more effective species in inactivation than O (3p5P-3s5S) and the water content benefit the spore germination inhibition through rising the OH (A2Σ+-X2Πi) production. The maximum of the inactivation efficacy is up to 93% when the applied voltage is -6.75 kV and the water content is 9.58 mg l-1.

  12. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  13. The Effect of Water Content of Medium Containing Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae on Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocrealeswould effectively infect the target host on the appropriate medium water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of water content of medium on the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae in the laboratory. Fifty healthy third instar larvae of O. rhinoceros were  obtained from field. The M. anisopliae obtained from Estate Crop Protection Board in Salatiga. The conidia density and viability of M. anisopliae were examined before used. The medium for maintaining the larva was the sawdust that had been sterilized. A total of 50 plastic cups were prepared to place 50 larvae (1 larva/cup. Each cup was filled with 100 g medium  of sawdust plus 2 g of M. anisopliae which was then stirred until mixed, with different water content: P1 (20%, P2 (40%, P3 (60%, P4 (80% and P5 (98%. The result indicated that  the water content of the medium affected the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae. The water content influenced the duration of larval mortality at each treatment. An important finding in this study is that controlling O. rhineceros larvae  with M. anisopliae can be done by manipulating the water content of medium. The benefit of this study may be used for the recommendation of O. rhinoceros pest control using M. anisopliae  with an effective water media content.

  14. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W

    2003-06-01

    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  15. Wheat dough rheology at low water contents and the influence of xylanases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of low water contents and xylanases on wheat dough rheology is reported. Farinograph, dynamic oscillation, and creep-recovery measurements were performed using water concentrations from 34 to 44.8% (total basis). A water reduction from 43.5–44.8% to 34% increased resistance upon mixing as

  16. Remote sensing of atmospheric water content from Bhaskara SAMIR data. [using statistical linear regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, B. S.; Hariharan, T. A.; Sharma, A. K.; Pandey, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    The 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz passive microwave radiometers (SAMIR) on board the Indian satellite Bhaskara have provided very useful data. From these data has been demonstrated the feasibility of deriving atmospheric and ocean surface parameters such as water vapor content, liquid water content, rainfall rate and ocean surface winds. Different approaches have been tried for deriving the atmospheric water content. The statistical and empirical methods have been used by others for the analysis of the Nimbus data. A simulation technique has been attempted for the first time for 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz radiometer data. The results obtained from three different methods are compared with radiosonde data. A case study of a tropical depression has been undertaken to demonstrate the capability of Bhaskara SAMIR data to show the variation of total water vapor and liquid water contents.

  17. Correlation between magnetic resonance image and content of water and fat in experimental tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tachio; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Hishinuma, Takashi; Abe, Yoshinao; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ogata, Yuko.

    1987-01-01

    Water and fat are considered to be major protons contributing to magnetic resonance (MR) signals in living tissues. This study compared proton density and T1 and T2 relaxation times with content of water and fat in tumor bearing rabbits. MR scans were performed using a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence with short and long repetition times. There was a strong correlation between proton density and the content of water and fat. The correlation of the content of water and fat to T1 and T2 relaxation times was not so strong as that to proton density. Viable tumor tissues had significantly shorter T2 relaxation time than the surrounding edematous tissues (p < 0.005), although the content of water and fat did not differ in the two types of tissues. T1 relaxation time did not differ in viable tumorous and edematous tissues. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  19. A New Method for Sensing Soil Water Content in Green Roofs Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Natalia F; Rojas, Claudia; Bonilla, Carlos A; Vargas, Ignacio T

    2017-12-28

    Green roofs have many benefits, but in countries with semiarid climates the amount of water needed for irrigation is a limiting factor for their maintenance. The use of drought-tolerant plants such as Sedum species, reduces the water requirements in the dry season, but, even so, in semiarid environments these can reach up to 60 L m -2 per day. Continuous substrate/soil water content monitoring would facilitate the efficient use of this critical resource. In this context, the use of plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) emerges as a suitable and more sustainable alternative for monitoring water content in green roofs in semiarid climates. In this study, bench and pilot-scale experiments using seven Sedum species showed a positive relationship between current generation and water content in the substrate. PMFC reactors with higher water content (around 27% vs. 17.5% v / v ) showed larger power density (114.6 and 82.3 μW m -2 vs. 32.5 μW m -2 ). Moreover, a correlation coefficient of 0.95 (±0.01) between current density and water content was observed. The results of this research represent the first effort of using PMFCs as low-cost water content biosensors for green roofs.

  20. Hydrogen production from high moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Xu, X. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1998-08-01

    By mixing wood sawdust with a corn starch gel, a viscous paste can be produced that is easily delivered to a supercritical flow reactor by means of a cement pump. Mixtures of about 10 wt% wood sawdust with 3.65 wt% starch are employed in this work, which the authors estimate to cost about $0.043 per lb. Significant reductions in feed cost can be achieved by increasing the wood sawdust loading, but such an increase may require a more complex pump. When this feed is rapidly heated in a tubular flow reactor at pressures above the critical pressure of water (22 MPa), the sawdust paste vaporizes without the formation of char. A packed bed of carbon catalyst in the reactor operating at about 650 C causes the tarry vapors to react with water, producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and some methane with a trace of carbon monoxide. The temperature and history of the reactor`s wall influence the hydrogen-methane product equilibrium by catalyzing the methane steam reforming reaction. The water effluent from the reactor is clean. Other biomass feedstocks, such as the waste product of biodiesel production, behave similarly. Unfortunately, sewage sludge does not evidence favorable gasification characteristics and is not a promising feedstock for supercritical water gasification.

  1. Viability study of photodiodes utilization in determination of soil water content by gamma transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.A.P.; Khoury, H.; Carneiro, C.J.G.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to verify the viability of using silicon photodetectors in a sup(241)Am γ-ray spectroscopy system for measuring soil water content was carried out in disturbed soil cores. The good correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor and the water content, r sup(2)=0.99, proves that the low efficiency of these detectors is not a limiting factor in measuring the water content. Furthermore, the small dimensions of the silicon photodetectors and associate electronic equipment are important characteristics that could permit the construction of a portable gammametry system to be used under field conditions. (author)

  2. [Evaluation of the content and migration of heavy metals in components of river ecosystems’ of mining territories of the Republic of Bashkortostan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktybaeva, Z B; Suleymanov, R A; Yamalov, S M; Kulagin, A A; Valeev, T K; Rakhmatullin, N R

    Exploration and development of mineral deposits in the Transurals of the Republic of Bashkortostan are accompanied by a comprehensive environmental impact. Ones of the most vulnerable elements of the landscape are the surface water bodies used for fishery purposes, recreation and household needs of the population. Extraction and processing of ores lead to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals (HM), which by passing into a pond, can actively be involved in the cycling of matter and migrate via food chains to the human under the consumption of fish products. Possessing by cumulative properties, HM can express mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties. The aim of research was the study of the impact of mining facilities on the content of the priority HM in the components of river ecosystems in the Transurals of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the development of a complex of preventive measures on the improvement of the human environment. There was studied the content of Zn, Cu and Cd in the water, bottom sediments and phytomass of Elodea canadensis Michx. The measurements of mass concentrations of metals were performed by stripping voltammetry with the use of the STA device. The results showed that for the cross-sections there is typical the following descending series of elements in the river components: Zn > Cu > Cd. In water samples there is observed the exceedance of standards for water bodies of potable, cultural and community water use and fishery basins. The concentration of zinc varies in the range of 0.016-5.24 mg/dm; copper - 0.0024-0.095 mg/dm; cadmium - 0.0001-0.019 mg/dm. In bottom sediments, in general, the content of metals in comparison with control plots is increased to the tenfold value. The meaning of mobile forms of zinc in the ground varies in the range of 0.81-9.62 mg/kg; copper - 0.12-18.69 mg/kg; cadmium - 0.00013-0.092 mg/kg. The zinc concentration in above-ground phytomass of Elodea canadensis compared to control

  3. Effect of saline irrigation water on yield and yield components of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaio

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... levels at different growth stages of rice on yield and its components. Treatments included ... Therefore, irrigation with saline water at the early growth stages has more negative effect on ...... diversification. Land Degrad. Dev.

  4. Fluoride Content of Bottled Waters in Hong Kong and Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Hessa I; Anthonappa, Robert P; King, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the F concentration of bottled waters that was available in Hong Kong and Qatar. The F concentrations of bottled waters collected from Hong Kong (n=81) and Qatar (n=32) were analysed. The F ion selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in the samples. Three measurements were obtained for every sample to ensure reproducibility and appropriate statistical analyses were employed. Qatar group: F concentrations ranged from 0.06 ppm to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm. The F concentrations displayed on the labels of the samples (60%) were significantly lower than the measured F concentration (p Qatar. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were not consistent with the measured F concentrations.

  5. Multi-component EPR spectra of coals with different carbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilawa, B.; Wieckowski, A.B.; Pietrzak, R.; Wachowska, H. [Polish Academy of Science, Gliwice (Poland). Inst. for Coal Chemistry

    2005-08-01

    EPR spectra of lignite 'Mequinenza' (Spain) (62.3 wt% C) and Polish orthocoking coal (87.8 wt% C) were compared. The spectra were superpositions of broad Gaussian, broad Lorentzian 1, and narrow Lorentzian 3 lines. Concentration of paramagnetic centers - mainly delocalized pi electrons responsible for narrow Lorentzian 3 lines increases with increase in carbon content in coal. Coal units with slow and fast spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the two studied samples. Slow spin-lattice interactions occur in simple aromatic coal units with broad Gaussian and Lorentzian 1 lines. Fast spin-lattice relaxation processes are characteristic of large aromatic units with narrow Lorentzian 3 lines.

  6. Simple, fast, and low-cost camera-based water content measurement with colorimetric fluorescent indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seok-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Il; Kim, Youngmi; Nam, Hyoungsik

    2018-05-01

    Recently, a simple, sensitive, and low-cost fluorescent indicator has been proposed to determine water contents in organic solvents, drugs, and foodstuffs. The change of water content leads to the change of the indicator's fluorescence color under the ultra-violet (UV) light. Whereas the water content values could be estimated from the spectrum obtained by a bulky and expensive spectrometer in the previous research, this paper demonstrates a simple and low-cost camera-based water content measurement scheme with the same fluorescent water indicator. Water content is calculated over the range of 0-30% by quadratic polynomial regression models with color information extracted from the captured images of samples. Especially, several color spaces such as RGB, xyY, L∗a∗b∗, u‧v‧, HSV, and YCBCR have been investigated to establish the optimal color information features over both linear and nonlinear RGB data given by a camera before and after gamma correction. In the end, a 2nd order polynomial regression model along with HSV in a linear domain achieves the minimum mean square error of 1.06% for a 3-fold cross validation method. Additionally, the resultant water content estimation model is implemented and evaluated in an off-the-shelf Android-based smartphone.

  7. Profiling water content in soils with TDR: Comparison with the neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In November 1996, at a site on the Grenoble campus a 1.2-m-long neutron access tube, a 0.8-m fibreglass Trime access tube and three sets of 1-m twin-rod TDR probes were installed. Weekly measurements were made over a 9-month period. In addition, soil samples were taken from time to time with an auger, to determine gravimetric water-contents. The soil bulk density profile was initially characterised by gammametry using a Campbell TM probe. A Troxler TM 4300 was used for the neutron-probe measurements. The TDR signals, for further processing by TDR-SSI, were logged using a Trase 2000 from Soil Moisture Equipment Corporation TM . TDR methods were employed without any special calibration of the permittivity/water-content relationship: standard internal calibrations of the devices or Topp polynomial relation were always applied. The results of all these water-content profiling methods were compared in three ways: (i) the water-content profiles were plotted directly on the same graph for different dates; (ii) all the water contents measured at all dates and all depths were plotted against a corresponding 'reference', namely neutron probe or gravimetry; (iii) water balances were calculated for each method and their respective time-profiles analysed. There was fairly good agreement among the three profiling methods, indicating that TDR is now a viable alternative to nuclear techniques for soil water-content profiling. (author)

  8. Radon content in various types of ground water in south-eastern Sweden. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, G.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of investigation has been to study the radon content and its seasonal fluctuations in different types of ground water. The investigation was carried out in an area where the hydrogeological conditions are fairly well known. The geology is dominated by granitic bedrock and till. Water samples were collected from drilled wells in different rocks and from dug wells and springs in till and gravel. The seasonal fluctuations were studied in a small area. All radon measurements were made in the laboratory. The main results are following.(1) The highest radon content (max. 40 nCi/l) was observed in water from wells drilled granite. (2) The radon content in ground water from till never exceeds 8 nCi/l; the highest amount is normally found in springs situated in drumlin terrain with basel till and gravel lenses and beds (3-5 nCi/l) the contents in dug wells are 0.5-3.5 nCi/l.(3) Waters from gravel deposits have constantly low radon contents (0.1-3 nCi/l), and surface water has no radon.(4) The seasonal fluctuations in radon content are rather high and show a similar pattern to that of the fluctuations of the ground-water levels in till in the same area. (author)

  9. GENERIC, COMPONENT FAILURE DATA BASE FOR LIGHT WATER AND LIQUID SODIUM REACTOR PRAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. A. Eide; S. V. Chmielewski; T. D. Swantz

    1990-02-01

    A comprehensive generic component failure data base has been developed for light water and liquid sodium reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) . The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) and the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) data bases were used to generate component failure rates . Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather than existing estimates .

  10. The water vapor nitrogen process for removing sodium from LMFBR components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crippen, M D; Funk, C W; Lutton, J M [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Application and operation of the Water Vapor-Nitrogen Process for removing sodium from LMFBR components is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent efforts to verify the technological bases of the process, to refine the values of process parameters and to ensure the utility of the process for cleaning and requalifying components. (author)

  11. Assessment of the soil water content temporal variations in an agricultural area of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Paz-González, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The direct and continuous assessment of the temporal variation on soil water content is of paramount importance for agricultural practices and, in particular, for the management of water resources. Soil water content is affected by many factors such as topography, particle size, clay and organic matter contents, and tillage systems. There are several techniques to measure or estimate soil water content. Among them, Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) stands out. It is based on measuring the dielectrical constant of the soil environment. This technique allows to describe water dynamics in time and space, to determine the main patterns of soil moisture, the water uptake by roots, the evapotranspiration and the drainage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the daily variation of soil water content in the root-influenced zone in plots devoted to maize and grassland as a function of the soil water volumetric content. The studied site is located in an experimental field of the Centre for Agricultural Research (CIAM) in Mabegondo located in the province of A Coruña, Spain (43°14'N, 8°15'W; 91 masl). The study was carried out from June 2008 to September 2009 in a field devoted to maize (Zea mays, L.) and another field devoted to grassland. The soil of these sites is silt-clay textured. Long-term mean annual temperature and rainfall figures are 13.3 °C and 1288 mm, respectively. During the study period, maize crop was subjected to conventional agricultural practices. A weekly evaluation of the phenological stage of the crop was performed. An EnviroSCAN FDR equipment, comprising six capacitance sensors, was installed in the studied sites following the manufacturer's recommendations, thus assuring a proper contact between the probe and the soil. Soil water content in the root-influenced zone (40 cm depth in grassland and 60 cm depth in maize were considered) was hourly monitored in 20 cm ranges (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm) using FDR. Evaluations were

  12. Risk of false decision on conformity of a multicomponent material when test results of the components' content are correlated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuselman, Ilya; Pennecchi, Francesca R; da Silva, Ricardo J N B; Hibbert, D Brynn

    2017-11-01

    The probability of a false decision on conformity of a multicomponent material due to measurement uncertainty is discussed when test results are correlated. Specification limits of the components' content of such a material generate a multivariate specification interval/domain. When true values of components' content and corresponding test results are modelled by multivariate distributions (e.g. by multivariate normal distributions), a total global risk of a false decision on the material conformity can be evaluated based on calculation of integrals of their joint probability density function. No transformation of the raw data is required for that. A total specific risk can be evaluated as the joint posterior cumulative function of true values of a specific batch or lot lying outside the multivariate specification domain, when the vector of test results, obtained for the lot, is inside this domain. It was shown, using a case study of four components under control in a drug, that the correlation influence on the risk value is not easily predictable. To assess this influence, the evaluated total risk values were compared with those calculated for independent test results and also with those assuming much stronger correlation than that observed. While the observed statistically significant correlation did not lead to a visible difference in the total risk values in comparison to the independent test results, the stronger correlation among the variables caused either the total risk decreasing or its increasing, depending on the actual values of the test results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Soil Water Content on Landmine Detection Using Radar and Thermal Infrared Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Sung-ho

    2001-01-01

    .... The most important of these is water content since it directly influences the three other properties in this study, the ground penetrating radar and thermal infrared sensors were used to identify non...

  14. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nevzorov probe is an instrument that measures the total water content of the sample of air which passes through it. It flew on the NASA DC-8 during the CAMEX-4...

  15. Activity of water content and storage temperature on the seed-borne mycoflora of lens culinaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, S.; Dawar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Storage of seeds with high water content and temperatures favors the growth of mould fungi which in turn affect the germination of seeds while low temperature with low water content prevent the growth of storage fungi and help in maintaining seed viability for longer duration of time. Seed sample from Sukkur district was stored at 4 degree C and room temperature (25-30 degree C) with water content of 8, 13 and 17% for about 80 days. The fungi were isolated at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 days intervals. Highest infection percentage of fungi was observed at 13 and 17% water contents at room temperature after 20 days of storage. High infection percentage of storage fungi affected the germination of seeds. Aspergillus spp were the most dominant fungi. (author)

  16. Effect of soil water stress on yield and proline content of four wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of soil water stress on yield and proline content of four wheat lines. ... This field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of drought stress after anthesis on proline accumulation and wheat yield during 2008 at ... from 32 Countries:.

  17. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  18. Two-Region Model for Soil Water Repellency as a Function of Matric Potential and Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken

    2010-01-01

    by the so-called Dexter index) is useful for predicting if soils are likely to exhibit WR. Expression of soil water repellency depends on soil water content; however, only a limited amount of predictive description is available to date. In this study, based on experimental data, a simple two-region model...

  19. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  20. Magmatic water contents determined through clinopyroxene: Examples from the Western Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Franz A.; Skogby, Henrik; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Dahren, Börje

    2015-07-01

    Water is a key parameter in magma genesis, magma evolution, and resulting eruption styles, because it controls the density, the viscosity, as well as the melting and crystallization behavior of a melt. The parental water content of a magma is usually measured through melt inclusions in minerals such as olivine, a method which may be hampered, however, by the lack of melt inclusions suitable for analysis, or postentrapment changes in their water content. An alternative way to reconstruct the water content of a magma is to use nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), such as pyroxene, which take up low concentrations of hydrogen as a function of the magma's water content. During magma degassing and eruption, however, NAMs may dehydrate. We therefore tested a method to reconstruct the water contents of dehydrated clinopyroxene phenocrysts from the Western Canary islands (n = 28) through rehydration experiments followed by infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Employing currently available crystal/melt partitioning data, the results of the experiments were used to calculate parental water contents of 0.71 ± 0.07 to 1.49 ± 0.15 wt % H2O for Western Canary magmas during clinopyroxene crystallization at upper mantle conditions. This H2O range is in agreement with calculated water contents using plagioclase-liquid-hygrometry, and with previously published data for mafic lavas from the Canary Islands and comparable ocean island systems elsewhere. Utilizing NAMs in combination with hydrogen treatment can therefore serve as a proxy for pre-eruptive H2O contents, which we anticipate becoming a useful method applicable to mafic rocks where pyroxene is the main phenocryst phase.

  1. Component-resolved evaluation of the content of major allergens in therapeutic extracts for specific immunotherapy of honeybee venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Etzold, Stefanie; Darsow, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of honeybee venom (HBV) allergy, which is able to protect against further anaphylactic sting reactions. Recent analyses on a molecular level have demonstrated that HBV represents a complex allergen source that contains more relevant...... major allergens than formerly anticipated. Moreover, allergic patients show very diverse sensitization profiles with the different allergens. HBV-specific immunotherapy is conducted with HBV extracts which are derived from pure venom. The allergen content of these therapeutic extracts might differ due...... to natural variations of the source material or different down-stream processing strategies of the manufacturers. Since variations of the allergen content of therapeutic HBV extracts might be associated with therapeutic failure, we adressed the component-resolved allergen composition of different therapeutic...

  2. Inactivation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in rumen content- or feces-contaminated drinking water for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; West, Joe W; Bernard, John K; Cross, Heath G; Doyle, Michael P

    2006-05-01

    Cattle drinking water is a source of on-farm Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission. The antimicrobial activities of disinfectants to control E. coli O157:H7 in on-farm drinking water are frequently neutralized by the presence of rumen content and manure that generally contaminate the drinking water. Different chemical treatments, including lactic acid, acidic calcium sulfate, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, caprylic acid, ozone, butyric acid, sodium benzoate, and competing E. coli, were tested individually or in combination for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in the presence of rumen content. Chlorine (5 ppm), ozone (22 to 24 ppm at 5 degrees C), and competing E. coli treatment of water had minimal effects (rumen content at water-to-rumen content ratios of 50:1 (vol/wt) and lower. Four chemical-treatment combinations, including (i) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.05% caprylic acid (treatment A); (ii) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.1% sodium benzoate (treatment B); (iii) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 0.5% butyric acid (treatment C); and (iv) 0.1% lactic acid, 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate, and 100 ppm chlorine dioxide (treatment D); were highly effective (>3 log CFU/ml reduction) at 21 degrees C in killing E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:NM in water heavily contaminated with rumen content (10:1 water/rumen content ratio [vol/wt]) or feces (20:1 water/feces ratio [vol/wt]). Among them, treatments A, B, and C killed >5 log CFU E. coli O157:H7, O26:H11, and O111:NM/ml within 30 min in water containing rumen content or feces, whereas treatment D inactivated approximately 3 to 4 log CFU/ml under the same conditions. Cattle given water containing treatment A or C or untreated water (control) ad libitum for two 7-day periods drank 15.2, 13.8, and 30.3 liters/day, respectively, and cattle given water containing 0.1% lactic acid plus 0.9% acidic calcium sulfate (pH 2.1) drank 18.6 liters/day. The

  3. The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of some medicinal plants and their water extracts from South East Serbia is determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. The two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts, to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in them. Content of investigated metals in both water extracts is markedly lower then in medicinal plants, but were higher in water extract prepared by method (I, with exception of lead content. The coefficients of extraction for the observed metal can be represented in the following order: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. Correlation coefficients between the metal concentration in the extract and total metal content in plant material vary in the range from 0.6369 to 0.9956. This indicates need the plants to be collected and grown in the unpolluted area and to examine the metal content. The content of heavy metals in the investigated medicinal plants and their water extracts is below the maximum allowable values, so they are safe to use.

  4. Dynamics of leaf water relations components in co-occurring iso- and anisohydric conifer species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Meinzer; David Woodruff; Danielle Marias; Katherine McCulloh; Sanna Sevanto

    2014-01-01

    Because iso- and anisohydric species differ in stomatal regulation of the rate and magnitude of fluctuations in shoot water potential, they may be expected to show differences in the plasticity of their shoot water relations components, but explicit comparisons of this nature have rarely been made. We subjected excised shoots of co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus...

  5. Model of modern strategic management of an enterprise: contents and components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Raykovska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates different interpretations and definitions of the concept of strategic management. It also aims to identify the ways of revealing the components and peculiarities of the concept.On the base of the critical analysis of economic literature the author singles out process, target, and complex approaches to the interpretation of the essence of strategic management and indicates that strategic management is a complex concept that encompasses management of strategic opportunities and operative management of problems in real time to respond to unpredictable changes fast. According to the modern understanding of strategic management the author singles out its main peculiarities which presuppose ensuring of quick response of an enterprise to the changes of external environment with the help of already developed strategic methods and models, strategic thinking of employees of an economic entity aimed at achieving its development strategy. The parameters of comparison of operating and strategic management are systematized. It is established that operating management is centered on the search for the ways of better use of enterprise resources, while strategic management looks to the needs and changes of external environment, tracking and adapting to its changes, search for new possibilities in competitive environment. The conceptual model of strategic management of an enterprise is formed. It is stated that the use of the model enables to determine the place of strategic analysis in the discussed system and to ensure the fulfillment of strategic plans.

  6. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken; Møldrup, Per

    2010-01-01

    Soil-water content (θ) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with θ, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive...... conditions for 19 soils were used to test the model. The beta function successfully reproduced all the measured soil-water repellency characteristic, α(θ), curves. Significant correlations were found between model parameters and SOC content (1%-14%). The model was independently tested against data...

  7. [Analysis of spectral features based on water content of desert vegetation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Li, Xia; Yin, Ye-biao; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Sheng-bin

    2010-09-01

    By using HR-768 field-portable spectroradiometer made by the Spectra Vista Corporation (SVC) of America, the hyper-spectral data of nine types of desert plants were measured, and the water content of corresponding vegetation was determined by roasting in lab. The continuum of measured hyperspectral data was removed by using ENVI, and the relationship between the water content of vegetation and the reflectance spectrum was analyzed by using correlation coefficient method. The result shows that the correlation between the bands from 978 to 1030 nm and water content of vegetation is weak while it is better for the bands from 1133 to 1266 nm. The bands from 1374 to 1534 nm are the characteristic bands because of the correlation between them and water content is the best. By using cluster analysis and according to the water content, the vegetation could be marked off into three grades: high (>70%), medium (50%-70%) and low (<50%). The research reveals the relationship between water content of desert vegetation and hyperspectral data, and provides basis for the analysis of area in desert and the monitoring of desert vegetation by using remote sensing data.

  8. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Nitrogen Content for Spatially Explicit Carbon and Water Cycle Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, J. R.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Foliage nitrogen concentration is a determinant of photosynthetic capacity of leaves, thereby an important input to ecological models for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. Recently, spectrally continuous airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery has proven to be useful for retrieving an important related parameter, total chlorophyll content at both leaf and canopy scales. Thus remote sensing of vegetation biochemical parameters has promising potential for improving the prediction of global carbon and water balance patterns. In this research, we explored the feasibility of estimating leaf nitrogen content using hyperspectral remote sensing data for spatially explicit estimation of carbon and water budgets. Multi-year measurements of leaf biochemical contents of seven major boreal forest species were carried out in northeastern Ontario, Canada. The variation of leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen content in response to various growth conditions, and the relationship between them,were investigated. Despite differences in plant type (deciduous and evergreen), leaf age, stand growth conditions and developmental stages, leaf nitrogen content was strongly correlated with leaf chlorophyll content on a mass basis during the active growing season (r2=0.78). With this general correlation, leaf nitrogen content was estimated from leaf chlorophyll content at an accuracy of RMSE=2.2 mg/g, equivalent to 20.5% of the average measured leaf nitrogen content. Based on this correlation and a hyperspectral remote sensing algorithm for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval, the spatial variation of leaf nitrogen content was inferred from the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery acquired by Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). A process-based ecological model Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used for estimating terrestrial carbon and water budgets. In contrast to the scenario with leaf nitrogen content assigned as a constant value without

  9. Change of deuterium volume content in heavy water during carbon dioxide dissolution in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, T.I.; Kapitanov, V.F.; Levchenko, G.V.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon dioxide solution density in heavy water at increased temperature and pressure is measured and the influence of carbon dioxide solubility in heavy water on volumetric content of deuterium in it is determined. Investigations were conducted in the temperature range of 303-473 K and pressure range of 3-20 MPa by the autoclave method. Volumetric content of deuterium in heavy water decreases sufficiently with CO 2 dissolved in it in comparison with pure D 2 O under the similar conditions, and this decrease becomes more sufficient with the pressure increase. With the temperature increase the volumetric content of deuterium both for heavy water and for saturated carbon solution in heavy water decreases

  10. Monitoring of Water Content in Building Materials Using a Wireless Passive Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stojanović

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative design of a wireless, passive LC sensor and its application for monitoring of water content in building materials. The sensor was embedded in test material samples so that the internal water content of the samples could be measured with an antenna by tracking the changes in the sensor’s resonant frequency. Since the dielectric constant of water was much higher compared with that of the test samples, the presence of water in the samples increased the capacitance of the LC circuit, thus decreasing the sensor’s resonant frequency. The sensor is made up of a printed circuit board in one metal layer and water content has been determined for clay brick and autoclaved aerated concrete block, both widely used construction materials. Measurements were conducted at room temperature using a HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer instrument.

  11. Aging assessment and mitigation for major LWR [light water reactor] components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Y.N.; Ware, A.G.; Conley, D.A.; MacDonald, P.E.; Burns, J.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the results of the Aging Assessment and Mitigation Project sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of the project is to develop an understanding of the aging degradation of the major light water reactor (LWR) structures and components and to develop methods for predicting the useful life of these components so that the impact of aging on the safe operation of nuclear power plants can be evaluated and addressed. The research effort consists of integrating, evaluating, and updating the available aging-related information. This paper discusses current accomplishments and summarizes the significant degradation processes active in two major components: pressurized water reactor pressurizer surge and spray lines and nozzles, and light water reactor primary coolant pumps. This paper also evaluates the effectiveness of the current inservice inspection programs and presents conclusions and recommendations related to aging of these two major components. 37 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Estimating the Relative Water Content of Single Leaves from Optical Polarization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long-term goals of remote sensing research. For monitoring canopy water status, existing approaches such as the Crop Water Stress Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness have limitations. The CWSI does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWI is based upon the physics of water-light interaction, not plant physiology. In this research, we applied optical polarization techniques to monitor the VISNIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both changed nonlinearly as each leaf dried, R increasing and T decreasing. Our results tie changes in the VISNIR R and T to leaf physiological changes linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf and perhaps of a plant canopy might be possible in the future. However, using our approach to estimate the water status of a leaf does not appear possible at present, because our results display too much variability that we do not yet understand.

  13. Determining the water-cement ratio, cement content, water content and degree of hydration of hardened cement paste: Method development and validation on paste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method to estimate the initial cement content, water content and free water/cement ratio (w/c) of hardened cement-based materials made with Portland cements that have unknown mixture proportions and degree of hydration. This method first quantifies the composition of the hardened cement paste, i.e. the volumetric fractions of capillary pores, hydration products and unreacted cement, using high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) in the backscattered electron (BSE) mode and image analysis. From the obtained data and the volumetric increase of solids during cement hydration, we compute the initial free water content and cement content, hence the free w/c ratio. The same method can also be used to calculate the degree of hydration. The proposed method has the advantage that it is quantitative and does not require comparison with calibration graphs or reference samples made with the same materials and cured to the same degree of hydration as the tested sample. This paper reports the development, assumptions and limitations of the proposed method, and preliminary results from Portland cement pastes with a range of w/c ratios (0.25-0.50) and curing ages (3-90 days). We also discuss the extension of the technique to mortars and concretes, and samples made with blended cements.

  14. Measurement of water content and density of soil using photon multiplescattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.; Haselberger, N.

    1981-04-01

    A gamma-backscatter gauge for field and laboratory applications was set up for the measurement of density and water content of soil at the same time. The method works successfully between 0-40 cm depth of the soil and is superior to the neutron gauge between 0-30 cm depth. The system is extremely simple and practical and can be installed on a tractor during ploughing. The developed method also works for absolute values of densities and moisture content and is able to distinguish the bulk density changes due to vacancies in the soil or the water content taken inside the soil grains

  15. Comparison of neutron scattering, gravimetric and tensiometric methods for measuring soil water content in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, R.L.; Das, D.K.; Naskar, G.C.

    1975-01-01

    Water content of a sandy clay loam soil was measured by neutron scattering, gravimetric and tensiometric methods. Tensiometric measurement based on laboratory moisture retention curve gave comparatively higher moisture content than those obtained by other methods. No significant differences were observed among neutron meter, gravimetric and tensiometric measurement based on field calibration curve. Though for irrigation purposes all the methods can be used equally, use of tensiometric method with field calibration curve is suggested for easy and more accurate soil water content measurement where neutron meter is not available. (author)

  16. Precision of neutron scattering and capacitance type soil water content gauges from field calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evett, S.R.; Steiner, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Soil water content gauges based on neutron scattering (NS) have been a valuable tool for soil water investigations for some 40 yr. However, licensing, training, and safety regulations pertaining to the radioactive source in these gauges makes their use expensive and prevents use in some situations such as unattended monitoring. A capacitance probe (CP) gauge has characteristics that would seem to make it an ideal replacement for NS gauges. We determined the relative precision of two brands of NS gauges (three gauges of each) and a brand of CP gauge (four gauges) in a field calibration exercise. Both brands of NS gauges were calibrated vs. volumetric soil water content with coefficients of determination (r2) ranging from 0.97 to 0.99 and root mean squared errors (RMSE) 0.012 m3 m-3 water content. Calibrations for the CP gauges resulted in r2 ranging from 0.68 to 0.71 and RMSE of 0.036 m3 m-3 water content. Average 95% confidence intervals on predictions were three to five times higher for the CP gauges than for the NS gauges, ranging from 0.153 to 0.161 and 0.032 to 0.052 m3 m-3, respectively. Although poorly correlated with soil water content, readings were reproducible among the four CP gauges. The poor correlation for CP gauges may be due to small-scale soil water content variations within the measurement volume of the gauge. The NS gauges provide acceptable precision but the CP gauge has poor precision and is unacceptable for routine soil water content measurements

  17. Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

  18. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yochim, April, E-mail: ayochim@regionofwaterloo.ca [Region of Waterloo Waste Management Division, 925 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2J 3Z4 (Canada); Zytner, Richard G., E-mail: rzytner@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); McBean, Edward A., E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Endres, Anthony L., E-mail: alendres@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable

  19. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yochim, April; Zytner, Richard G.; McBean, Edward A.; Endres, Anthony L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable

  20. The modelling influence of water content to mechanical parameter of soil in analysis of slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusman, M.; Nazki, A.; Putra, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    One of the parameters in slope stability analysis is the shear strength of the soil. Changes in soil shear strength characteristics lead to a decrease in safety factors on the slopes. This study aims to see the effect of increased moisture content on soil mechanical parameters. The case study study was conducted on the slopes of Sitinjau Lauik Kota Padang. The research method was done by laboratory analysis and simple liniear regression analysis and multiple. Based on the test soil results show that the increase in soil water content causes a decrease in cohesion values and internal shear angle. The relationship of moisture content to cohesion is described in equation Y = 55.713-0,6X with R2 = 0.842. While the relationship of water content to shear angle in soil is described in the equation Y = 38.878-0.258X with R2 = 0.915. From several simulations of soil water level improvement, calculation of safety factor (SF) of slope. The calculation results show that the increase of groundwater content is very significant affect the safety factor (SF) slope. SF slope values are in safe condition when moisture content is 50% and when it reaches maximum water content 73.74% slope safety factor value potentially for landslide.

  1. BOLE WATER CONTENT SHOWS LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATION IN CENTURY-OLD DOUGLAS-FIR TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purportedly, large Douglas-fir trees in the American Pacific Northwest use water stored in bole tissues to ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought, the water content of bole tissues being drawn down over the summer months and replenished during the winter. Continuous mo...

  2. Seasonal patterns of bole water content in old growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, old conifer trees in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), USA purportedly ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought by drawing down the water content of bole tissues over the summer months and refilling during the winter. Continuous monitoring of bole relative water conten...

  3. The long-term effects of alfalfa on soil water content in the Loess ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... affect the water content in deep soil and continuous growing alfalfa ... Wasteland, wheat field and six seeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grasslands with ... The crops (wheat, maize, potato, beans and millet) had been rainfed on all ..... Productivity dynamic of alfalfa and its effects on water eco-environment.

  4. Detecting leaf-water content in Mediterranean trees using high-resolution spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven M.; Addink, Elisabeth A.; Doelman, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Water content of the vegetation canopy or individual leaves is an important variable in physiological plant processes. In Mediterranean regions where water availability is an important production limiting factor, it is a strong indicator of vegetation stress. Spectroscopic earth-observation

  5. Modeling the release of E. coli D21g with transients in water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transients in water content are well known to mobilize colloids that are retained in the vadose zone. However, there is no consensus on the proper model formulation to simulate colloid release during drainage and imbibition. We present a model that relates colloid release to changes in the air-water...

  6. The Effect of Preservative Methods on the Yield, Water Content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .niger, A.aureous and Fusarium spp. A. flavipes was isolated from samples of water activity at 0.33 while A.niger was isolated from samples of water activity at 0.11. It was recommended that the reduction in moisture content of smoke-dried ...

  7. CALCULATED AND MEASURED VALUES OF LIQUID WATER CONTENT IN CLEAN AND POLLUTED ENVIRONMENTS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Řezáčová, Daniela; Mattanen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2006), s. 121-130 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3042301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : liquid water content * visibility * air pollutant * fog /cloud water Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2006

  8. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloshenko, I. A.; Tsiolko, V. V.; Pogulay, S. S.; Terent'yeva, A. G.; Bazhenov, V. Yu; Shchedrin, A. I.; Ryabtsev, A. V.; Kuzmichev, A. I.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2 O5 and NO3 were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm-3. It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2O5 and NO3 for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values.

  9. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloshenko, I A; Tsiolko, V V; Pogulay, S S; Terent'yeva, A G; Bazhenov, V Yu; Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Kuzmichev, A I

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O 3 , HNO 3 , HNO 2 , N 2 O 5 and NO 3 were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm -3 . It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O 3 , HNO 3 , HNO 2 , N 2 O 5 and NO 3 for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values

  10. Crack growth behaviour of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions (CASTOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Roth, A.; Devrient, B.; Ehrnsten, U.

    2004-01-01

    The CASTOC project addresses environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) phenomena in low alloy steels used for pressure boundary components in both Western type boiling water reactors (BWR) and Russian type pressurised water reactors (VVER). It comprises the four work packages (WP): inter-laboratory comparison test (WP1); EAC behaviour under static load (WP2), EAC behaviour under cyclic load and load transients (WP3); evaluation of the results with regard to their relevance for components in practice (WP4). The use of sophisticated test facilities and measurement techniques for the on-line detection of crack advances have provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking and provided quantitative data of crack growth rates as a function of loading events and time, respectively. The effect of several major parameters controlling EAC was investigated with particular emphasis on the transferability of the results to components in service. The obtained crack growth rate data were reflected on literature data and on commonly applied prediction curves as presented in the appropriate Code. At relevant stress intensity factors it could be shown that immediate cessation of growing cracks occurs after changing from cyclic to static load in high purity oxygenated BWR water and oxygen-free VVER water corresponding to steady state operation conditions. Susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking under static load was observed for a heat affected zone material in oxygenated high purity water and also in base materials during a chloride transient representing BWR water condition below Action Level 1 of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines according to the lectrical conductivity of the water but in the range of Action Level 2 according to the content of chlorides. Time based crack growth was also observed in one Russian type base material in oxygenated VVER water and in one Western type base material in oxygenated high purity BWR

  11. Quality of Water Content, Diastase Enzyme Activity and Hidroximetilfurfural (HMF in Rubber and Rambutan Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulis Setio Toto Harjo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the water content, diastase enzyme activity and HMF of the rubber and rambutan honey. The method was a laboratory experiments with statistical analysis unpaired student t-test by two treatments and fifteen replications. The variable of this research were water content, diastase enzyme activity and HMF. The results of rubber and rambutan honey showed that there were significant difference effect (P0.05 that is 11 DN and there is a highly significant difference (P<0.01 on the HMF content of 17.23±0.54 mg/kg and 7.61±0.23 mg/kg. Rubber and rambutan honey have good quality based on the water content, diastase enzyme activity and HMF. It was concluded that the rubber and rambutan honey used were of good quality because it has met the requirements of SNI.

  12. Metrologically Traceable Determination of the Water Content in Biopolymers: INRiM Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, F.; Beltramino, G.; Fernicola, V.; Sega, M.; Verdoja, A.

    2017-03-01

    Water content in materials is a key factor affecting many chemical and physical properties. In polymers of biological origin, it influences their stability and mechanical properties as well as their biodegradability. The present work describes the activity carried out at INRiM on the determination of water content in samples of a commercial starch-derived biopolymer widely used in shopping bags (Mater-Bi^{circledR }). Its water content, together with temperature, is the most influencing parameter affecting its biodegradability, because of the considerable impact on the microbial activity which is responsible for the biopolymer degradation in the environment. The main scope of the work was the establishment of a metrologically traceable procedure for the determination of water content by using two electrochemical methods, namely coulometric Karl Fischer (cKF) titration and evolved water vapour (EWV) analysis. The obtained results are presented. The most significant operational parameters were considered, and a particular attention was devoted to the establishment of metrological traceability of the measurement results by using appropriate calibration procedures, calibrated standards and suitable certified reference materials. Sample homogeneity and oven-drying temperature were found to be the most important influence quantities in the whole water content measurement process. The results of the two methods were in agreement within the stated uncertainties. Further development is foreseen for the application of cKF and EWV to other polymers.

  13. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Zubair; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

  14. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  15. Investigation of water content in primary upper shield of high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Mogi, Haruyoshi; Itahashi, Shuuji; Kitami, Toshiyuki; Akutu, Youichi; Fuchita, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Toru; Moriya, Masahiro

    1999-09-01

    A primary upper shield of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is composed of concrete (grout) which is packed into iron frames. The main function of the primary upper shield is to attenuate neutron and gamma ray from the core, that leads to satisfy dose equivalent rate limit of operating floor and stand-pipe room. Water content in the concrete is one of the most important things because it strongly affects neutron-shielding ability. Then, we carried out out-of-pile experiments to investigate relationship between temperature and water content in the concrete. Based on the experimental results, a hydrolysis-diffusion model was developed to investigate water release behavior from the concrete. The model showed that water content used for shielding design in the primary upper shield of the HTTR will be maintained if temperature during operating life is under 110degC. (author)

  16. Non-destructive evaluation of the water content of concretes by low energy gamma backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

    1983-01-01

    A method of estimating the water content of various concretes mixed with neutron absorbers like boron or rare earths is described. This makes use of the fact that a large buildup of low energy photons in the 20 - 100 keV range is observed in the backscattered spectrum from water when compared to conrete. A 4.36 mCi 137 Cs (662 keV) source is used with a 1 mm thick NaI scintillator as the detector to measure the backscattered radiation in the energy range. Calibration curves for evaluating the water content in borated concretes, ordinary conretes of different thickness, and a mortar brick are reported. It has been possible to estimate the water content to within 0.25% (by weight) by this method. (orig.)

  17. Non-destructive evaluation of the water content of concretes by low energy gamma backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, V M; Bhatnagar, P K; Meenakshisundaram, V [Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India). Safety Research Lab.

    1983-02-15

    A method of estimating the water content of various concretes mixed with neutron absorbers like boron or rare earths is described. This makes use of the fact that a large buildup of low energy photons in the 20 - 100 keV range is observed in the backscattered spectrum from water when compared to concrete. A 4.36 mCi /sup 137/Cs (662 keV) source is used with a 1 mm thick NaI scintillator as the detector to measure the backscattered radiation in the energy range. Calibration curves for evaluating the water content in borated concretes, ordinary concretes of different thickness, and a mortar brick are reported. It has been possible to estimate the water content to within 0.25% (by weight) by this method.

  18. Origin and Distribution of Water Contents in Continental and Oceanic Lithospheric Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    The water content distribution of the upper mantle will be reviewed as based on the peridotite record. The amount of water in cratonic xenoliths appears controlled by metasomatism while that of the oceanic mantle retains in part the signature of melting events. In both cases, the water distribution is heterogeneous both with depth and laterally, depending on localized water re-enrichments next to melt/fluid channels. The consequence of the water distribution on the rheology of the upper mantle and the location of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary will also be discussed.

  19. The main microelements and phosphorus content of sediments formed in a drinking water supply system

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Valentukeviciene; Ramune Zurauskiene; Jonas Satkunas

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the only source for drinking water supply in Lithuania. Twenty water intakes exploiting Quaternary aquifers are operating in Vilnius City. The main aim of this study was to characterize the heavy metal content of internal pipeline sediments in the water supply network. It also provides a new insight into the accumulation of phosphorus and its variation in pipeline sediments in the study area. The results of this research reflect the level of heavy metals that accumulated during...

  20. Polysaccharide components from the scape of Musa paradisiaca: main structural features of water-soluble polysaccharide component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyalu, Y V; Jagadish, R L; Raju, T S

    1997-06-01

    Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca were purified from acetone powder of the scape by delignification followed by extraction with aqueous solvents into water soluble polysaccharide (WSP), EDTA-soluble polysaccharide (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) and alkali-insoluble polysaccharide (AISP) fractions. Sugar compositional analysis showed that WSP and EDTA-SP contained only D-Glc whereas ASP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 1:1:10 ratio, respectively, and AISP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 10:1:2 ratio, respectively. WSP was further purified by complexation with iso-amylalcohol and characterized by specific rotation, IR spectroscopy, Iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and methylation linkage analysis, and shown to be a amylopectin type alpha-D-glucan.

  1. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  2. A rapid method for measuring soil water content in the field with a areometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calbo Adonai Gimenez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of a rapid method to evaluate the soil water content (U can be an important tool to determine the moment to irrigate. The soil areometer consists of an elongated hydrostatic balance with a weighing pan, a graduated neck, a float and a pynometric flask. In this work an areometer was adapted to rapidly measure soil water content without the need of drying the soil. The expression U = (M A - M AD/(M M -M A was used to calculate the soil water content. In this equation M M is the mass to level the areometer with the pycnometric flask filled with water, M A the mass to level the areometer with a mass M M of soil in the pycnometer, the volume being completed with water, and similarly M AD the mass added to the pan to level the areometer with a mass M M of dried soil in the pycnometric flask. The convenience of this method is that the values M M and M AD are known. Consequently, the decision on irrigation can be made after a measurement that takes, about, ten minutes. The procedure involves only stirring the soil with water for at least 2 minutes to remove the adhered air. The soil water content data obtained with the areometric method were similar to those obtained weighing the soil before and after drying to constant weight, in an oven at 105º C.

  3. Reliability analysis of nuclear component cooling water system using semi-Markov process model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeramany, Arun; Pandey, Mahesh D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Semi-Markov process (SMP) model is used to evaluate system failure probability of the nuclear component cooling water (NCCW) system. → SMP is used because it can solve reliability block diagram with a mixture of redundant repairable and non-repairable components. → The primary objective is to demonstrate that SMP can consider Weibull failure time distribution for components while a Markov model cannot → Result: the variability in component failure time is directly proportional to the NCCW system failure probability. → The result can be utilized as an initiating event probability in probabilistic safety assessment projects. - Abstract: A reliability analysis of nuclear component cooling water (NCCW) system is carried out. Semi-Markov process model is used in the analysis because it has potential to solve a reliability block diagram with a mixture of repairable and non-repairable components. With Markov models it is only possible to assume an exponential profile for component failure times. An advantage of the proposed model is the ability to assume Weibull distribution for the failure time of components. In an attempt to reduce the number of states in the model, it is shown that usage of poly-Weibull distribution arises. The objective of the paper is to determine system failure probability under these assumptions. Monte Carlo simulation is used to validate the model result. This result can be utilized as an initiating event probability in probabilistic safety assessment projects.

  4. Development of the interactive model between Component Cooling Water System and Containment Cooling System using GOTHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Choong Sup; Song, Dong Soo; Jun, Hwang Yong

    2006-01-01

    In a design point of view, component cooling water (CCW) system is not full-interactively designed with its heat loads. Heat loads are calculated from the CCW design flow and temperature condition which is determined with conservatism. Then the CCW heat exchanger is sized by using total maximized heat loads from above calculation. This approach does not give the optimized performance results and the exact trends of CCW system and the loads during transient. Therefore a combined model for performance analysis of containment and the component cooling water(CCW) system is developed by using GOTHIC software code. The model is verified by using the design parameters of component cooling water heat exchanger and the heat loads during the recirculation mode of loss of coolant accident scenario. This model may be used for calculating the realistic containment response and CCW performance, and increasing the ultimate heat sink temperature limits

  5. Adaptive ultrasonic imaging with the total focusing method for inspection of complex components immersed in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeune, L.; Robert, S.; Dumas, P.; Membre, A.; Prada, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an ultrasonic adaptive imaging method based on the phased-array technology and the synthetic focusing algorithm Total Focusing Method (TFM). The general principle is to image the surface by applying the TFM algorithm in a semi-infinite water medium. Then, the reconstructed surface is taken into account to make a second TFM image inside the component. In the surface reconstruction step, the TFM algorithm has been optimized to decrease computation time and to limit noise in water. In the second step, the ultrasonic paths through the reconstructed surface are calculated by the Fermat's principle and an iterative algorithm, and the classical TFM is applied to obtain an image inside the component. This paper presents several results of TFM imaging in components of different geometries, and a result obtained with a new technology of probes equipped with a flexible wedge filled with water (manufactured by Imasonic).

  6. Using near infrared spectrum analysis to predict water and chlorophyll content in tomato leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanyu; Ying, Yibin; Liu, Yande

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive way to analyze water and chlorophyll content in tomato leaves. A total of 200 leaves were collected as experimental materials, 120 of them were used to form a calibration data set. Drying chest, SPAD meter and NIR spectrometer were used to get water content, chlorophyll content and spectrums of tomato leaves respectively. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTNIR) method with a smart Near-IR Updrift was used to test spectrums, and partial least squares (PLS) technique was used to analyze the data we get by normal experimentation and near infrared spectrometer, set up a calibration model to predict the leaf water and chlorophyll content based on the characteristics of diffuse reflectance spectrums of tomato leaves. Three different mathematical treatments were used in spectrums processing: different wavelength range, different smoothing points, first and second derivative. We can get best prediction model when we select full range (800-2500nm), 3 points for spectrums smoothing and spectrums by baseline correction, the best model of chlorophyll content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 8.16 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.89452 and the best model of water content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0214 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.91043.

  7. Computation of porosity and water content from geophysical logs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron and density logs acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to determine porosity and water content as a function of depth. Computation of porosity requires an estimate of grain density, which is provided by core data, mineralogical data, or is inferred from rock type where neither core nor mineralogy are available. The porosity estimate is merged with mineralogical data acquired by X-ray diffraction to compute the volumetric fractions of major mineral groups. The resulting depth-based portrayal of bulk rock composition is equivalent to a whole rock analysis of mineralogy and porosity. Water content is computed from epithermal and thermal neutron logs. In the unsaturated zone, the density log is required along with a neutron log. Water content can also be computed from dielectric logs, which were acquired in only a fraction of the boreholes, whereas neutron logs were acquired in all boreholes. Mineralogical data are used to compute a structural (or bound) water estimate, which is subtracted from the total water estimate from the neutron-density combination. Structural water can be subtracted only from intervals where mineralogical analyses are available; otherwise only total water can be reported. The algorithms and procedures are applied to logs acquired during 1979 to 1984 at Yucca Mountain. Examples illustrate the results. Comparison between computed porosity and core measurements shows systematic differences ranging from 0.005 to 0.04. These values are consistent with a sensitivity analysis using uncertainty parameters for good logging conditions. Water content from core measurements is available in only one borehole, yielding a difference between computed and core-based water content of 0.006

  8. Volatile organic components migrating from plastic pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjevrak, Ingun; Due, Anne; Gjerstad, Karl Olav; Herikstad, Hallgeir

    2003-04-01

    High-density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), crossbonded polyethylene pipes (PEX) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water were tested with respect to migration of volatile organic components (VOC) to water. The odour of water in contact with plastic pipes was assessed according to the quantitative threshold odour number (TON) concept. A major migrating component from HDPE pipes was 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP) which is a known degradation product from antioxidants such as Irgafos 168(R). In addition, a range of esters, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenoids were identified as migration products from HDPE pipes. Water in contact with HDPE pipes was assessed with respect to TON, and values > or =4 were determined for five out of seven brands of HDPE pipes. The total amount of VOC released to water during three successive test periods were fairly constant for the HDPE pipes. Corresponding migration tests carried out for PEX pipes showed that VOC migrated in significant amounts into the test water, and TON >/=5 of the test water were observed in all tests. Several of the migrated VOC were not identified. Oxygenates predominated the identified VOC in the test water from PEX pipes. Migration tests of PVC pipes revealed few volatile migrants in the test samples and no significant odour of the test water.

  9. Application of the regulations on pressurized components or light water reactor primary coolant circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelemy, F.; Menjon, G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the philosophy and the provisions of the Order of 26 February 1974 concerning application of the regulations on pressurized components for light water reactor steam supply systems. The aim is to show how these regulations which differ from other regulations on pressurized components and is more detailed on many points, is applied in practice in France in the various stages of the design, construction and operation of PWRs. (NEA) [fr

  10. Managing Water for African Cities Johannesburg City Implementation Plan Environmental Component Appraisal Report

    OpenAIRE

    Damhaug, T.

    2000-01-01

    Årsliste 2000 This is an appraisal of the environmental component of the Johannesburg City Implementation Plan under the Habitat guided programme "Managing Water for African Cities". The objective of this appraisal was to ensure the conformity of the plan with the objectives of the Regional Project and South Africa's needs and to explore the availability of domestic resources (human, institutional, and financial) required for efficient project implementation. The environmental component wi...

  11. Unsaturated flow characterization utilizing water content data collected within the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Arthur; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters based on detailed water content profiles, which can be readily acquired during hydrological investigations. Core samples taken through the unsaturated zone allow for the acquisition of gravimetrically determined water content data as a function of elevation at 3 inch intervals. This dense spacing of data provides several measurements of the water content within the capillary fringe, which are utilized to determine capillary pressure function parameters via least-squares calibration. The water content data collected above the capillary fringe are used to calculate dimensionless flow as a function of elevation providing a snapshot characterization of flow through the unsaturated zone. The water content at a flow stagnation point provides an in situ estimate of specific yield. In situ determinations of capillary pressure function parameters utilizing this method, together with particle-size distributions, can provide a valuable supplement to data libraries of unsaturated zone hydraulic parameters. The method is illustrated using data collected from plots within an agricultural research facility in Wisconsin.

  12. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  13. Assessment of the dynamics of the radioactivity contents in surface waters in contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarov, F.D.; Datskevich, P.I.; Golikov, Y.N.; Basharina, L.P.; Churack, T.N.; Khvaley, O.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the connection with Chernobyl APS accident, since 1988 a network of sites was established for radioecological monitoring of surface water systems, mainly, small rivers on all Belarus territory. Small rivers are the principal way of radionuclides run off in liquid and solid discharges during rains and high-floods and their re-distribution in landscapes. The components of water systems radio-monitoring were water and water suspensions, area water-collection, bottom deposits and biota. In the paper the data are cited of radioecological studies of water systems components. Their analysis is done and some conclusions made which may be used for the development of radioecological prognosis and for taking environmental measures

  14. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  15. Water footprint components required to address the water-energy-food nexus, with the recent Urban Water Atlas for Europe as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, Davy

    2017-04-01

    The first part of this presentation analyses which water footprint (WF) components are necessary in WF accounting to provide relevant information to address the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) water security (SDG 6), food security (SDG 2) and energy security (SDG 7) in a nexus setting. It is strongly based on the publication Vanham (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.08.003. First, the nexus links between (1) the planetary boundary freshwater resources (green and blue water resources) and (2) food, energy and blue water security are discussed. Second, it is shown which water uses are mostly represented in WF accounting. General water management and WF studies only account for the water uses agriculture, industry and domestic water. Important water uses are however mostly not identified as separate entities or even included, i.e. green and blue water resources for aquaculture, wild foods, biofuels, hydroelectric cooling, hydropower, recreation/tourism, forestry (for energy and other biomass uses) and navigation. Third, therefore a list of essential separate components to be included within WF accounting is presented. The latter would be more coherent with the water-food-energy-ecosystem nexus. The second part of the presentation gives a brief overview of the recently published Urban Water Atlas for Europe. It shows for a selected city which WF components are represented and which not. As such, it also identifies research gaps.

  16. Application of principal component regression and partial least squares regression in ultraviolet spectrum water quality detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtong; Luo, Yongdao; Dai, Honglin

    2018-01-01

    Water is the source of life and the essential foundation of all life. With the development of industrialization, the phenomenon of water pollution is becoming more and more frequent, which directly affects the survival and development of human. Water quality detection is one of the necessary measures to protect water resources. Ultraviolet (UV) spectral analysis is an important research method in the field of water quality detection, which partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis method is becoming predominant technology, however, in some special cases, PLSR's analysis produce considerable errors. In order to solve this problem, the traditional principal component regression (PCR) analysis method was improved by using the principle of PLSR in this paper. The experimental results show that for some special experimental data set, improved PCR analysis method performance is better than PLSR. The PCR and PLSR is the focus of this paper. Firstly, the principal component analysis (PCA) is performed by MATLAB to reduce the dimensionality of the spectral data; on the basis of a large number of experiments, the optimized principal component is extracted by using the principle of PLSR, which carries most of the original data information. Secondly, the linear regression analysis of the principal component is carried out with statistic package for social science (SPSS), which the coefficients and relations of principal components can be obtained. Finally, calculating a same water spectral data set by PLSR and improved PCR, analyzing and comparing two results, improved PCR and PLSR is similar for most data, but improved PCR is better than PLSR for data near the detection limit. Both PLSR and improved PCR can be used in Ultraviolet spectral analysis of water, but for data near the detection limit, improved PCR's result better than PLSR.

  17. Component-based control of oil-gas-water mixture composition in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytyuk, I. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article theoretically proves the method for measuring the changes in content of oil, gas and water in pipelines; also the measurement system design for implementation thereof is discussed. An assessment is presented in connection with random and systemic errors for the future system, and recommendations for optimization thereof are presented.

  18. Efficient quantification of water content in edible oils by headspace gas chromatography with vapour phase calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2018-06-01

    An automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyse the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapour phase calibration technique with an external vapour standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e. the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%. The present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A study on the establishment of component/equipment performance criteria considering Heavy Water Reactor characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Kwon, Young Chul; Lee, Min Kyu; Lee, Yun Soo [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Seong Hoong; Ryo, Chang Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soong Pyung; Hwnag, Jung Rye; Chung, Chul Kee [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Foreign and domestic technology trends, regulatory requirements, design and researches for heavy water reactors are analyzed. Safety design guides of Canada industry and regulatory documents and consultative documents of Canada regulatory agency are reviewed. Applicability of MOST guidance 16 Revision 'guidance for technical criteria of nuclear reactor facility' is reviewed. Specific performance criteria are established for components and facilities for heavy water reactor.

  20. Empirical model to estimate the thermal conductivity of granite with various water contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Win Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Lee, Jae Owan

    2010-01-01

    To obtain the input data for the design and long-term performance assessment of a high-level waste repository, the thermal conductivities of several granite rocks which were taken from the rock cores from the declined borehole were measured. The thermal conductivities of granite were measured under the different conditions of water content to investigate the effects of the water content on the thermal conductivity. A simple empirical correlation was proposed to predict the thermal conductivity of granite as a function of effective porosity and water content which can be measured with relative ease while neglecting the possible effects of mineralogy, structure and anisotropy. The correlation could predict the thermal conductivity of granite with the effective porosity below 2.7% from the KURT site with an estimated error below 10%.

  1. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Tyburcy; Patrycja Wasiak; Aneta Cegiełka

    2010-01-01

    Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content) applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki). Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelati...

  2. Decomposition of atmospheric water content into cluster contributions based on theoretical association equilibrium constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Water vapor is treated as an equilibrium mixture of water clusters (H 2 O)/sub i/ using quantum-chemical evaluation of the equilibrium constants of water associations. The model is adapted to the conditions of atmospheric humidity, and a decomposition algorithm is suggested using the temperature and mass concentration of water as input information and used for a demonstration of evaluation of the water oligomer populations in the Earth's atmosphere. An upper limit of the populations is set up based on the water content in saturated aqueous vapor. It is proved that the cluster population in the saturated water vapor, as well as in the Earth's atmosphere for a typical temperature/humidity profile, increases with increasing temperatures

  3. Dielectric properties of clay-rock and their influence on water content measurement with TDR probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bore, T.; Coelho, D.; Robinet, J.C.; Delepine-Lesoille, S.; Placko, D.; Gatabin, C.; Sabouroux, P.; Six, G.; Taillade, F.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clays constitute major components for radioactive waste repositories managed by Andra. Water content monitoring is one of the indicators chosen to evaluate the health of the structure. In this perspective, several TDR probes have been installed in various structures, made of three types of clay materials: the bentonite, the clay-rock (Callovo-Oxfordian mud-stone) and the compacted crushed clay-rock. . The technique consists of a time-of-flight measurement of an electric pulse along the TDR probes. To convert flight time propagation delay into water content, calibrations are required. This conversion is however neither accurate, nor generalizable for other mixtures. For precise understanding and modeling of the sensing chain, a better knowledge the complex permittivity of clay materials is necessary. Chosen TDR sensing lines make use of a step electric pulse (such as Campbell TDR100). Considering the rise time of this system, the frequency content of the measured TDR wave form extends from about 20 kHz to roughly 1.5 GHz. Material dielectric must thus be characterized over a broad band frequency. The determination of the electromagnetic properties using non resonant method is fundamentally deduced from their impedance and the wave velocities in the materials. This kind of technique relies on a device able to direct the electromagnetic energy towards a material and to collect the reflected and transmitted parts. In a first step, we designed a transmission line to provide electromagnetic characterizations of clay material. The clay material under test is inserted into a brass coaxial cell specifically designed for our purposes. Two conical transition units surround the specimen holder. The electromagnetic properties of the sample are based on the reflection from the material and the transmission through the material measured by a vector network analyser (VNA). The determination of the electromagnetic properties from

  4. The effect of water content on the magnetic and structural properties of goethite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancur, J.D.; Barrero, C.A.; Greneche, J.M.; Goya, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the effect of water content on the magnetic and structural properties of goethite. For that purpose, four samples were prepared using two different hydrothermal methods, one of them is derived on the Fe(II) precursors and the other one from Fe(III) precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), TGA, BET, FTIR, Moessbauer spectrometry at RT, 77 and 4.2 K and ZFC and FC curves. The results suggest that the goethites from the Fe(II) precursors are less crystalline, have higher water contents and do not show magnetic ordered structure at RT in comparison to the goethites from the Fe(III) precursors. The goethites from the last systems exhibit good crystallinity, low water content and magnetic ordering at room temperature. Our results suggest that both structural and adsorbed water contents reduce the magnetic hyperfine field at 4.2 K. A linear correlation with regression coefficient of 0.91 between the saturation hyperfine field and both the structural hydroxyl content and the surface area could be derived

  5. Relationship between arsenic content of food and water applied for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugár, Eva; Tatár, Enikő; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G

    2013-12-01

    As part of a survey conducted by the Central Agricultural Office of Hungary, 67 food samples including beverages were taken from 57 food industrial and catering companies, 75% of them being small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Moreover, 40% of the SMEs were micro entities. Water used for food processing was simultaneously sampled. The arsenic (As) content of solid food stuff was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after dry ashing. Food stuff with high water content and water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The As concentration exceeded 10 μg/L in 74% of the water samples taken from SMEs. The As concentrations of samples with high water content and water used were linearly correlated. Estimated As intake from combined exposure to drinking water and food of the population was on average 40% of the daily lower limit of WHO on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5) for As. Five settlements had higher As intake than the BMDL0.5. Three of these settlements are situated in Csongrád county and the distance between them is less than 55 km. The maximum As intake might be 3.8 μg/kg body weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of water content in the leaves of fruit trees using infra-red images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, N.; Hiraoka, K.

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed to evaluate water contents of fruit trees using infra-red photography. The irrigation of potted satsuma mandarin trees and grapevines was suppressed to induce water stress. During the drought treatment the leaf edges of basal parts of the shoots of grapevines became necrotic and the area of necrosis extended as the duration of stress increased. Necrosis was clearly distinguished from the viable areas on infra-red images. In satsuma mandarin, an abscission layer formed at the basal part of the petiole, then the leaves fell. Thus, detailed analysis was indispensable for detecting of the leaf water content. After obtaining infra-red images of satsuma mandarin leaves with or without water stress, a background treatment (subtraction of the background image) was performed on the images, then the average brightness of the leaf was determined using image analyzing software (Image Pro-plus). Coefficient correlation between the water status index using the infra-red camera and water content determined from dry weight and fresh weight of leaves was significant (r = 0.917 for adaxial surface data and r = 0.880 for abaxial surface data). These data indicate that infra-red photography is useful for detecting the degree of plant water stress

  7. Investigation of water content in electrolyte solution on electrochromic properties of WO3 thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten oxide thin films were prepared by a cathodic electrodeposition method at -0.450 mV in order to investigate how water content affects their electrochromic properties. FESEM images exhibit that WO3 thin films consist of 65 nm uniform grains. Thin Films were electrochemically investigated in 0.1M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate electrolyte with and without 5vol% water content by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results indicate that tungsten oxide thin films exhibit faster switching time between coloration and bleaching states and also higher coloration efficiency in hydrated electrolyte.  

  8. Development of a differential infrared absorption method to measure the deuterium content of natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessio, Enrique; Bonadeo, Hernan; Karaianev de Del Carril, Stiliana.

    1975-07-01

    A system to measure the deuterium content of natural water using differential infrared spectroscopy is described. Parameters conducing to an optimized design are analyzed, and the construction of the system is described. A Perkin Elmer 225 infrared spectrometer, to which a scale expansion system has been added, is used. Sample and reference waters are alternatively introduced by a pneumatical-mechanical system into a unique F Ca thermostatized infrared cell. Results and calibration curves shown prove that the system is capable of measuring deuterium content with a precision of 1 part per million. (author)

  9. Corn seed response to gamma radiation as a function of water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viccini, Lyderson Facio; Saraiva, Luiz Sergio; Cruz, Cosme Damiao

    1997-01-01

    The study of the factors that affect the radiation efficiency is important, because it makes easier to get mutants that may be used as source of variability on improvement programs or as structural chromosomic aberrations for cytogenetics studies. The main of this research was to investigate the influence of corn seed water content on gamma radiation response. As a rule, the damage caused by irradiation was more evident on seeds with higher water content. Also, increased damages were observed with higher radiation doses. (author)

  10. Determining the water cut and water salinity in an oil-water flowstream by measuring the sulfur content of the produced oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for detecting water cut and water salinity in an oil/water flowstream in petroleum refining and producing operations is described. The fluid is bombarded with fast neutrons which are slowed down and then captured producing gamma spectra characteristic of the fluid material. Analysis of the spectra indicates the relative presence of the elements sulfur, hydrogen and chlorine and from the sulfur measurement, the oil cut (fractional oil content) of the fluid is determined, enabling the water cut to be found. From the water cut, water salinity can also be determined. (U.K.)

  11. Reprint of "How do components of real cloud water affect aqueous pyruvate oxidation?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Alexandra J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical oxidation of dissolved volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds within fog and cloud droplets in the atmosphere could be a major pathway for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. This proposed pathway consists of: (1) dissolution of organic chemicals from the gas phase into a droplet; (2) reaction with an aqueous phase oxidant to yield low volatility products; and (3) formation of particle phase organic matter as the droplet evaporates. The common approach to simulating aqueous SOA (aqSOA) reactions is photo-oxidation of laboratory standards in pure water. Reactions leading to aqSOA formation should be studied within real cloud and fog water to determine whether additional competing processes might alter apparent rates of reaction as indicated by rates of reactant loss or product formation. To evaluate and identify the origin of any cloud water matrix effects on one example of observed aqSOA production, pyruvate oxidation experiments simulating aqSOA formation were monitored within pure water, real cloud water samples, and an aqueous solution of inorganic salts. Two analysis methods were used: online electrospray ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-ToF-MS), and offline anion exchange chromatography (IC) with quantitative conductivity and qualitative ESI-HR-ToF-MS detection. The apparent rate of oxidation of pyruvate was slowed in cloud water matrices: overall measured degradation rates of pyruvate were lower than in pure water. This can be at least partially accounted for by the observed formation of pyruvate from reactions of other cloud water components. Organic constituents of cloud water also compete for oxidants and/or UV light, contributing to the observed slowed degradation rates of pyruvate. The oxidation of pyruvate was not significantly affected by the presence of inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate) at cloud-relevant concentrations. Future bulk studies of aqSOA formation reactions using simplified

  12. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, red grape, red wine, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, resveratrol, ranging from 11.10 mg GAE/100 mL to 92.19 mg GAE/100 mL was observed. Consequently, large dispersion of total flavonoids (TF content (8.89 mg to 61.75 mg CTE/100 mL was also observed. Since phenols have been mostly responsible for antioxidant activity of extracts, in most cases, antioxidant activity followed the TP content. That was proven by estimation of correlation coefficient between the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. Correlation coefficients between investigated parameters ranged from 0.5749 to 0.9604. During storage of 5 weeks at room temperature loss of phenols and flavonoids occurred. Antioxidant activity decreased with the decrease of TP and TF content. Degradations of phenols and flavonoids were more pronounced in samples stored at light.

  13. Using containment analysis to improve component cooling water heat exchanger limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, H.C.; Tajbakhsh, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station design requires that exit temperatures from the Component Cooling Water Heat Exchanger remain below 330.37 K during the Emergency Core Cooling System recirculation stage, following a hypothetical Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). Due to measurements indicating a higher than expected combination of: (a) high fouling factor in the Component Cooling Water Heat Exchanger with (b) high ultimate heat sink temperatures, that might lead to temperatures in excess of the 330.37 K limit, if a LOCA were to occur, TUElectric adjusted key flow rates in the Component Cooling Water network. This solution could only be implemented with improvements to the containment analysis methodology of record. The new method builds upon the CONTEMPT-LT/028 code by: (a) coupling the long term post-LOCA thermohydraulics with a more detailed analytical model for the complex Component Cooling Water Heat Exchanger network and (b) changing the way mass and energy releases are calculated after core reflood and steam generator energy is dumped to the containment. In addition, a simple code to calculate normal cooldowns was developed to confirm RHR design bases were met with the improved limits

  14. Analysis of Removal Alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, M.B.

    1996-08-01

    This engineering study was developed to evaluate different options for decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) at the Savannah River Site. This document will be placed in the DOE-SRS Area reading rooms for a period of 30 days in order to obtain public input to plans for the demolition of HWCTR

  15. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment during year 2009 was conducted in the research station of the University of Tehran, College of Abouraihan in Pakdasht region, Iran. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative traits of four sunflower hybrids namely Azargol, Alstar, ...

  16. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  17. Impact of social media as an instructional component on content knowledge, attitudes, and public engagement related to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sallie E.

    Social media (SM) are considered important avenues to reach citizens and engage them in social change. Given the widespread use of SM and their potential to enhance communication, they could also have significant influence when used as an educational tool. Educators are exploring whether classroom SM use has instructional benefits, such as enhancing interactivity and engagement. It is critical to understand the potential of SM for creating meaningful learning environments and public engagement pathways. Much work remains to understand the use of SM in this context and how to use them effectively. This study draws on active learning theory to examine the impact of SM as an instructional component with community college students learning to make connections among science, social responsibility, and global understanding in an environmental biology course (the Course). Using global climate change as a theme, the Course included a Facebook instructional component. A pretest--posttest, nonrandomized comparison group design was used to measure the impact of Facebook as an integrated component of the Course. The treatment and comparison groups were determined to be comparable based on demographics, access and ownership of digital devices, and SM use despite non-random assignment. No statistically significant differences were found between groups on these factors. The intervention consisted of semester-long required use of Facebook for the treatment group. The impact of the SM intervention was measured in three areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) attitudes toward climate change, and (c) public engagement actions and intentions to act. At the conclusion of the Course, no discernable difference was measured in content knowledge gains between the two groups. However, students who used Facebook experienced statistically significant differences in attitude, becoming increasingly concerned about global climate change. The comparison group demonstrated statistically significant

  18. HEAVY METALS AS UNWANTED COMPONENTS OF BACKWASH WATER DERIVED FROM GROUNDWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nowak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects of the problem of heavy metals presence in wastewater and sewage sludge from water treatment. In the first part, issues on quality of wastewaters and sludge produced during water treatment along with actions aimed at the neutralization of such wastes, were discussed. Subsequent parts of the work present the example of 12 groundwater treatment stations in a particular municipality, and the problem of backwash water quality, in particular, heavy metals contents. The analysis covered a period of three years: 2013, 2014, and 2015. The authors, using the discussed examples, have shown that besides hydrated iron and manganese oxides, also other toxic contaminants can be present in backwash water from groundwater treatment. In particular, the qualitative analysis of the backwash water revealed the presence of heavy metals, mainly zinc. The test results for backwash water were compared with those of filtrate qualitative assessment, wherein the heavy metals were not found. This fact indicated the metal retention in the filter bed and their unsustainable immobilization resulting in penetration of heavy metals from deposit to the backwash water along with other impurities, mainly iron and manganese oxides. The main conclusion from the study is to demonstrate the need for constant monitoring of the backwash water quality, including the presence of toxic heavy metals. This is also important because of the requirement to minimize the negative environmental impact of wastes generated during the water treatment process.

  19. Simplifying and upscaling water resources systems models that combine natural and engineered components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N.; Keir, G.

    2014-12-01

    Water supply systems typically encompass components of both natural systems (e.g. catchment runoff, aquifer interception) and engineered systems (e.g. process equipment, water storages and transfers). Many physical processes of varying spatial and temporal scales are contained within these hybrid systems models. The need to aggregate and simplify system components has been recognised for reasons of parsimony and comprehensibility; and the use of probabilistic methods for modelling water-related risks also prompts the need to seek computationally efficient up-scaled conceptualisations. How to manage the up-scaling errors in such hybrid systems models has not been well-explored, compared to research in the hydrological process domain. Particular challenges include the non-linearity introduced by decision thresholds and non-linear relations between water use, water quality, and discharge strategies. Using a case study of a mining region, we explore the nature of up-scaling errors in water use, water quality and discharge, and we illustrate an approach to identification of a scale-adjusted model including an error model. Ways forward for efficient modelling of such complex, hybrid systems are discussed, including interactions with human, energy and carbon systems models.

  20. An Evaluation Tool for CONUS-Scale Estimates of Components of the Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, S.; Hay, L.; Farmer, W. H.; Markstrom, S. L.; Kiang, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous research groups are independently developing data products to represent various components of the water balance (e.g. runoff, evapotranspiration, recharge, snow water equivalent, soil moisture, and climate) at the scale of the conterminous United States. These data products are derived from a range of sources, including direct measurement, remotely-sensed measurement, and statistical and deterministic model simulations. An evaluation tool is needed to compare these data products and the components of the water balance they contain in order to identify the gaps in the understanding and representation of continental-scale hydrologic processes. An ideal tool will be an objective, universally agreed upon, framework to address questions related to closing the water balance. This type of generic, model agnostic evaluation tool would facilitate collaboration amongst different hydrologic research groups and improve modeling capabilities with respect to continental-scale water resources. By adopting a comprehensive framework to consider hydrologic modeling in the context of a complete water balance, it is possible to identify weaknesses in process modeling, data product representation and regional hydrologic variation. As part of its National Water Census initiative, the U.S. Geological survey is facilitating this dialogue to developing prototype evaluation tools.

  1. Study of the radioactive contents in Barcelona's water supply during 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.; Valles, I.

    1988-01-01

    Throughout 1986 several determinations were carried out of the contents in α and β radioactivity transmitters of different samples of the Barcelona water supply. It could be verified that beta radioactivity was ten times higher in the waters collected in the basin of Llobregat river than water from Ter river. Both rivers are the main sources of Barcelona supply. The reason for this unbalanced result is the high potassic content of the first river, coming from the mining exploitation of the basin. On the other hand, the contamination that could be measured in May, due to the Chernobyl nuclear accident, showed that the supply system from Llobregat river was more sensitive to the incorporation of contaminants carried down by the rain, whereas in the case of Ter river, owing to the presence of impounding regulation, a higher retention time of these waters was obtained. (author)

  2. THE STUDIES OF METAL CONTENT IN PRECIPITATION WATER IN LUBELSKIE AND LUBUSKIE VOIVODESHIPS IN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Malec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the studies of metal content in precipitation water in 2013, recorded at measuring points within Lubelskie and Lubuskie Voivodeships. It provides a detailed description of the method of collecting and analysing water samples in respect of light- and heavy-metal determination. Based on the results, a general assessment was made of the condition of the environment in the areas in question. Also, the sources of pollution in wet precipitation, and the effects of their introduction into the environment, were determined. It was found that the main pollution elements of precipitation water were linked to anthropogenic sources. The study also established that precipitation water, especially in the sparsely industrialised Włodawa region in the Lubelskie Voivodeship, had generally low pollution levels. It was also noted that in 2013, due to low total precipitation, the environmental impact of metal content was lower than in the preceding years.

  3. Application of Titanium Compounds to Reduce Fluoride Ion in Water Resources with High Fluoride Ion Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Riahi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes studies on the sorption of fluoride ions from water by titanium compounds used in water treatment to reduce fluoride content in water resources. There are different methods of reducing fluoride ion in water, each associated with specific problems such as secondary contamination, environmental contamination, high costs, or the need for primary and secondary treatment. In this study, application of titanium sulfate and Metatitanic acid produced from titanium ore concentrate (ileminite is investigated in the removal of fluoride ion and the possibility of complete purification of fluorine containing wastewater is examined to determine the optimal conditions. Metatitanic acid has a great sorption property for fluoride ion. Also titanium sulfate is a suitable and more effective material for this purpose. Efficiency of this material in reducing fluoride ion content is 99.9% and it is possible to refresh sorbet material for reuse without problems arising from Ti+4 ion contamination.

  4. Gamma transmission gauge for assay of integral water content in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, A.; Notea, A.; Segal, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A photon transmission gauge applied for integral water content measurement in a soil layer was analyzed. The gauge may be used as a control unit for automatic irrigation in a field, or as a scanner employed for establishing an irrigation policy. The characteristic functions of the gauge: response and relative resolving power were developed. The functions provide parameter study at the design stage and interpretational ability at the operational stage. The model led to a design which eliminates sensitivity to water distribution in the examined soil. It is shown that a resolving power of 2% was obtained for a 2.3 mCi 137 Cs source at 53 cm below surface, in measuring water content of 0.2 g water/cm 3 soil during 1000 s. (orig.)

  5. TDR water content inverse profiling in layered soils during infiltration and evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, R.; Guida, A.

    2009-04-01

    During the last three decades, time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become one of the most commonly used tools for soil water content measurements either in laboratory or in the field. Indeed, TDR provides easy and cheap water content estimations with relatively small disturbance to the investigated soil. TDR measurements of soil water content are based on the strong correlation between relative dielectric permittivity of wet soil and its volumetric water content. Several expressions of the relationship between relative dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content have been proposed, empirically stated (Topp et al., 1980) as well as based on semi-analytical approach to dielectric mixing models (Roth et al., 1990; Whalley, 1993). So far, TDR field applications suffered the limitation due to the capability of the technique of estimating only the mean water content in the volume investigated by the probe. Whereas the knowledge of non homogeneous vertical water content profiles was needed, it was necessary to install either several vertical probes of different length or several horizontal probes placed in the soil at different depths, in both cases strongly increasing soil disturbance as well as the complexity of the measurements. Several studies have been recently dedicated to the development of inversion methods aimed to extract more information from TDR waveforms, in order to estimate non homogeneous moisture profiles along the axis of the metallic probe used for TDR measurements. A common feature of all these methods is that electromagnetic transient through the wet soil along the probe is mathematically modelled, assuming that the unknown soil water content distribution corresponds to the best agreement between simulated and measured waveforms. In some cases the soil is modelled as a series of small layers with different dielectric properties, and the waveform is obtained as the result of the superposition of multiple reflections arising from impedance

  6. Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents).

  7. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven-Hangoor, van der E.; Rademaker, C.; Paton, N.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter

  8. Fluoride content in water in and around heavy water plant Manuguru colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Dubey, S.K.; Reddy, A.R.; Ravi Kumar, T.S.P.; Selvaraj, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fluoride concentration in water used for human consumption has significant importance with respect to its toxic effects. Hence there was a need for analysing fluoride concentration in drinking water primarily used at Heavy water Plant, Manuguru (HWP (M)) colony and its nearby villages. We found that at HWP (M) colony there is not much variation in the fluoride concentration. However, nearby villages are having wide variation from 0.79 to 5.1 ppm. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  9. Sulphate content of the Muntimpa dam water and its impact on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tembo, F; Shitumbanuma, V; Simukanga, S; Mudenda, G; Chileshe, P; Mulenga, S; Phiri, Y

    2004-01-01

    This article presents results of a study of the quality of water from Muntimpa Dam, a reservior of waste mine water released from the processing of copper and cobalt ores by Konkola Copper Mines(KCM) Plc in Chingola. The mine water is discharged into the local Muntimpa stream, a possible source of drinking and domestic water for the local population. The purpose of the study was to determine levels of sulphate in the dam and stream water and recommend possible methods of partial sulphate removal to levels below the recommended statutory limits and secondly, to assess the impact of high sulphate levels on water quality. Study methods included the sampling of water from the Muntimpa dam and catchment area. Stream water samples were collected about 5m from the stream banks while water samples from the dam were randomly collected from the near the centre of the dam at a depth of 50cm. Laboratory methods involved the determination of physical and chemical properties of the water using standard analytical techniques. Results of the study indicate that both total (2470mg/l) and available (1965mg/l) sulphate concentrations are higher than the recommended statutory limit for the discharge of sulphates into natural streams of 1500mg/l. From the study it is concluded that water in Muntimpa dam and stream is not suitable for drinking and other domestic use due to the high sulphate levels. From theorectical considerations, it was established that sulphate reduction could be achieved by addition of lime, which however had the consquence of increasing the pH of the water in excess of the recommended Zambian statutory value of nine, and would thus require an additional process to reduce the pH. (author)

  10. Uptake of radioactive strontium by fishes in relation to the calcium content of the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosila, J.

    1975-01-01

    The study attempts to compare experimental results obtained with pseudorasbora parava with regard to 85 Sr uptake at various Ca concentrations of the water (4.20 and 50 mg/l Ca) and also to compare these results with natural conditions. The water was contaminated with 500 pCi/ml 85 SrCl 2 only at the onset of the experiments. Radiostrontium uptake is much higher with a very low calcium content of the water; maximum values are reached in about 10 days. - With low or optimum calcium contents of the water, the values are 3-5 times lower and are not reached until 30 days after radioactive contamination. The fish in this Danube water experiment took up somewhat less radioactivity than in an experiment with the same amounts of Ca and Mg in a control medium. The uptake of 85 Sr in fish in dependence of the Ca content of the water varies according to the formula F.C = 2.505 x Casup(-0.909), with Ca given in Mg/l. (orig.) [de

  11. Evaluation of surface nuclear magnetic resonance-estimated subsurface water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Petke, M; Dlugosch, R; Yaramanci, U

    2011-01-01

    The technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has found widespread use in geophysical applications for determining rock properties (e.g. porosity and permeability) and state variables (e.g. water content) or to distinguish between oil and water. NMR measurements are most commonly made in the laboratory and in boreholes. The technique of surface NMR (or magnetic resonance sounding (MRS)) also takes advantage of the NMR phenomenon, but by measuring subsurface rock properties from the surface using large coils of some tens of meters and reaching depths as much as 150 m. We give here a brief review of the current state of the art of forward modeling and inversion techniques. In laboratory NMR a calibration is used to convert measured signal amplitudes into water content. Surface NMR-measured amplitudes cannot be converted by a simple calibration. The water content is derived by comparing a measured amplitude with an amplitude calculated for a given subsurface water content model as input for a forward modeling that must account for all relevant physics. A convenient option to check whether the measured signals are reliable or the forward modeling accounts for all effects is to make measurements in a well-defined environment. Therefore, measurements on top of a frozen lake were made with the latest-generation surface NMR instruments. We found the measured amplitudes to be in agreement with the calculated amplitudes for a model of 100 % water content. Assuming then both the forward modeling and the measurement to be correct, the uncertainty of the model is calculated with only a few per cent based on the measurement uncertainty.

  12. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  13. Association of blood pressure and metabolic syndrome components with magnesium levels in drinking water in some Serbian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Dragana; Gluvic, Zoran; Cankovic-Kadijevic, Milce

    2012-03-01

    Chronic exposure to insufficient levels of magnesium (Mg) in drinking water increases the risk of magnesium deficiency and its association with hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association of mineral contents in drinking water with blood pressure and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (BMI as measure of obesity, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin resistance, index-HOMA IR), in a healthy population. This study was conducted in three randomly selected municipalities (Pozarevac, Grocka and Banovci), and recruited 90 healthy blood donors, aged 20-50 years. The Pozarevac area had a four times higher mean Mg level in drinking water (42 mg L(-1)) than Grocka (11 mg L(-1)). Diastolic blood pressure was lowest in subjects from Pozarevac. Serum Mg (sMg) was highest, and serum Ca(2+)/Mg (sCa/Mg) lowest in subjects from Pozarevac, and after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, BMI), only total cholesterol and sMg levels were independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure, sMg levels were independent predictors of triglycerides, and sCa/Mg predicted glucose levels. These results suggest that Mg supplementation in areas of lower magnesium levels in drinking water may be an important measure in the prevention of hypertension and MetS in general.

  14. Predicting Soil-Water Characteristics from Volumetric Contents of Pore-Size Analogue Particle Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    *-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter...... and clay). It performed reasonably well for the dry-end (above a pF value of 2.0; pF = log(|Ψ|), where Ψ is the matric potential in cm), but did not do as well closer to saturated conditions. The Xw*-model gives the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric content of particle size fractions...... (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p...

  15. Microbial and trace metal content of well water in three rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial and trace metal content of well water in three rural communities in Bauchi State, Nigeria*. E Ikeh, PN Durfee, RH Glew, R Amato, FJ Frost, DJ Vanderjagt. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: 66-70. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  16. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  17. Effects of salinity on growth, water content and distribution of Na + ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of 4 different concentrations of NaCl on plant height, on water content and on the distribution of monovalent cations (Na + and K +) in organs of Avicennia germinans seedlings in semi-controlled conditions were investigated. After 4 weeks of cultivation, results showed that 200 mmoles sodium chloride reduced the ...

  18. Release of E.coli D21g with transients in water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transients in water content are well known to mobilize microorganisms that are retained in the vadose zone. However, there is no consensus on the relative importance of drainage and imbibition events on microorganism release. To overcome this limitation, we have systematically studied the release o...

  19. Changes of liquid Water content in fog at Milešovka Observatory (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2008), s. 5-8 ISSN 1335-339X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042301; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : fog * liquid water content * month changes * Observatory Milešovka * visibility Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  20. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  1. Impact of soil water content on landmine detection using radar and thermal infared sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.-H.; Miller, T.W.; Tobin, H.; Borchers, B.; Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Lensen, H.A.; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Land mines are a major problem in many areas of the world. In spite of the fact that many different types of land mines sensors have been developed, the detection of non-metallic land mines remains very difficult. Most landmine detection sensors are affected by soil properties such as water content,

  2. Time-lapse monitoring of soil water content using electromagnetic conductivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The volumetric soil water content (VWC) is fundamental to agriculture. Unfortunately, the universally accepted thermogravimetric method is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have proven to be useful in mapping the spatio-...

  3. Effect of water content components on desiccation and recovery in Sphagnum mosses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Tomáš; Beckett, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2008), s. 165-173 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : turgor * wall elasticity * photosynthesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.755, year: 2008

  4. Relating soil microbial activity to water content and tillage-induced differences in soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Petersen, Søren O

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have identified optima in soil water content for aerobic microbial activity, and this has been ascribed to a balance between gas and solute diffusivity as limiting processes. We investigated the role of soil structure, as created by different tillage practices (moldboard ploughing......, MP, or shallow tillage, ST), in regulating net nitrification, applied here as an index of aerobic microbial activity. Intact soil cores were collected at 0–4 and 14–18 cm depth from a fine sandy (SAND) and a loamy (LOAM) soil. The cores were drained to one of seven matric potentials ranging from − 15...... content to a maximum and then decreased. This relationship was modelled with a second order polynomium. Model parameters did not show any tillage effect on the optimum water content, but the optimum coincided with a lower matric potential in ST (SAND: − 140 to –197 hPa; LOAM: − 37 to − 65 hPa) than in MP...

  5. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey E. Krauklis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer–Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  6. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauklis, Andrey E; Gagani, Abedin I; Echtermeyer, Andreas T

    2018-04-11

    Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer-Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  7. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of

  8. Uranium bone content as an indicator of chronic environmental exposure from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Dominic; Tolmachev, Sergei Y; Kochermin, Vera; Johnson, Sonia

    2013-07-01

    Uranium (U) is an ubiquitous radioelement found in drinking water and food. As a consequence of its prevalence, most humans ingest a few micrograms (μg) of this element daily. It is incorporated in various organs and tissues. Several studies have demonstrated that ingested U is deposited mainly in bones. Therefore, U skeletal content could be considered as a prime indicator for low-level chronic intake. In this study, 71 archived vertebrae bone samples collected in seven Canadian cities were subjected to digestion and U analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These results were correlated with U concentrations in municipal drinking water supplies, with the data originating from historical studies performed by Health Canada. A strong relationship (r(2) = 0.97) was observed between the averaged U total skeletal content and averaged drinking water concentration, supporting the hypothesis that bones are indeed a good indicator of U intake. Using a PowerBASIC compiler to process an ICRP systemic model for U (ICRP, 1995a), U total skeletal content was estimated using two gastrointestinal tract absorption factors (ƒ1 = 0.009 and 0.03). Comparisons between observed and modelled skeletal contents as a function of U intake from drinking water tend to demonstrate that neither of the ƒ1 values can adequately estimate observed values. An ƒ1value of 0.009 provides a realistic estimate for intake resulting from food consumption only (6.72 μg) compared to experimental data (7.4 ± 0.8 μg), whereas an ƒ1value of 0.03 tends to better estimate U skeletal content at higher levels of U (1-10 μg L(-1)) in drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Considering Organic Carbon for Improved Predictions of Clay Content from Water Vapor Sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    Accurate determination of the soil clay fraction (CF) is of crucial importance for characterization of numerous environmental, agricultural, and engineering processes. Because traditional methods for measurement of the CF are laborious and susceptible to errors, regression models relating the CF...... to water vapor sorption isotherms that can be rapidly measured with a fully automated vapor sorption analyzer are a viable alternative. In this presentation we evaluate the performance of recently developed regression models based on comparison with standard CF measurements for soils with high organic...... carbon (OC) content and propose a modification to improve prediction accuracy. Evaluation of the CF prediction accuracy for 29 soils with clay contents ranging from 6 to 25% and with OC contents from 2.0 to 8.4% showed that the models worked reasonably well for all soils when the OC content was below 2...

  10. Novel Calibration Technique for a Coulometric Evolved Vapor Analyzer for Measuring Water Content of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S. A.; Miao, P.; Carroll, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    Evolved vapor coulometry is a measurement technique that selectively detects water and is used to measure water content of materials. The basis of the measurement is the quantitative electrolysis of evaporated water entrained in a carrier gas stream. Although this measurement has a fundamental principle—based on Faraday's law which directly relates electrolysis current to amount of substance electrolyzed—in practice it requires calibration. Commonly, reference materials of known water content are used, but the variety of these is limited, and they are not always available for suitable values, materials, with SI traceability, or with well-characterized uncertainty. In this paper, we report development of an alternative calibration approach using as a reference the water content of humid gas of defined dew point traceable to the SI via national humidity standards. The increased information available through this new type of calibration reveals a variation of the instrument performance across its range not visible using the conventional approach. The significance of this is discussed along with details of the calibration technique, example results, and an uncertainty evaluation.

  11. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  12. In-situ burning of emulsions: The effects of varying water content and degree of evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, C.; Sveum, P.; Buist, I.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ burning of oil is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for rapid removal of large quantities of oil at sea, particularly in ice-infested waters. A series of field experiments was conducted in Spitsbergen, circular basins cut in sea ice, to study the effect of water content, evaporation, thickness of the emulsion layer, and environmental factors on the burn efficiency of Statfjord crude oil and emulsions. Results from the experiments are presented along with preliminary results concerning the dynamics of burning emulsions and the efficiency of conventional and novel igniters. Water-in-oil emulsions with 40% water content could be burned. However, for oils evaporated more than 18% and with a water content of over 20%, conventional gelled gasoline was not a very effective igniter. Ignition success was improved when gelled crude oil was used as the igniter. The results imply that for practical in-situ burning, the igniter technology needs to be improved. 5 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Absolute measurement of the isotopic ratio of a water sample with very low deuterium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, R.; Nief, G.; Roth, E.

    1968-01-01

    The presence of H 3+ ions which are indistinguishable from HD + ions presents the principal difficulty encountered in the measurement of isotopic ratios of water samples with very low deuterium contents using a mass spectrometer. Thus, when the sample contains no deuterium, the mass spectrometer does not indicate zero. By producing, in situ, from the sample to be measured, water vapor with an isotopic ratio very close to zero using a small distilling column, this difficulty is overcome. This column, its operating parameters, as well as the way in which the measurements are made are described. An arrangement is employed in which the isotopic ratios can be measured with a sensitivity better than 0.01 x 10 -6 . The method is applied to the determination of the isotopic ratios of three low deuterium content water samples. The results obtained permit one to assign to the sample with the lowest deuterium content an absolute value equal to 1.71 ± 0.03 ppm. This water sample is a primary standard from which is determined the isotopic ratio of a natural water sample which serves as the laboratory standard. (author) [fr

  14. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  15. Evolved-Lithology Clasts in Lunar Breccias: Relating Petrogenetic Diversity to Measured Water Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Simon, J. J.; Ross, D. K.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the inventory and distribution of water in lunar rocks have recently begun to focus on alkali suite samples as possible water repositories, particularly the most highly evolved granitoid lithologies. Although H analyses of feldspars in these rocks have so far pointed to 'low' (less than 20 ppm) H2O contents, there is sufficient variability in the dataset (e.g., 2-20 ppm) to warrant consideration of the petrogenetic factors that may have caused some granitoid-to-intermediate rocks to be dryer or wetter than others. Given that all examples of these rocks occur as clasts in complex impact breccias, the role of impact and other factors in altering water contents established by primary igneous processes becomes a major factor. We are supporting our ongoing SIMS studies of water in evolved lunar lithologies with systematic SEM and EPMA observations. Here we report a synthesis of the observations as part of developing discriminating factors for reconstructing the thermal, crystallization and shock history of these samples as compared with their water contents.

  16. Effects of Foliar Applications of Sulfur, Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Castor Bean (Ricinus cmmunis L. Seed Yield and its Components under Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mosavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of foliar applications of some macroelements on castor seed yield and its components under drought stress conditions, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Center of East Azerbaijan province. A factorial experiment, based on randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out during 2013 growing season. Treatment factors consisted of irrigations with two levels (no water deficit and water deficit during grain filling stage and of foliar applications of macroelements with four levels [control, wettable sulfur (0.2 percent, nitrogen (urea: 0.6 percent and phosphor (super phosphate triple: 0.4 percent. Traits studied were: plant height, number of inflorescence, number of lateral branches, number of leaves, leaf temperature, relative water content, number of seeds per plant, 1000-kernal weight and seed yield. All traits, except number of inflorescence, were affected significantly by drought stress. Water deficit reduced plant height, number of leaves, number of seeds per plant, 1000-kernal weight, seed yield, relative water content, while it increased leaf temperature. Number of lateral branches was affected significantly by interaction between factors. Maximum latral branches (1.86 were obtained under non-stress treatment with nitrogen foliar application. Moderate drought stress had significant effect on leaf temperature and relative water content. It seems that, these traits can be used in determination of water deficit effects on castor bean.

  17. Research of application of new material to light water reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Tanetoyo

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Nuclear Equipment Research Institute (ANERI) has been doing the research to apply the new material including metal, fine ceramics and high polymer which were developed and applied in other industries to components and parts of light water reactor for the purpose of Improvement of reliability of components, improvement of efficiency of periodic inspection, improvement of repair and reduction of radiation exposure of worker. This project started upon the sponsorship of Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) by the schedule of FY1985-FY1993 (9 years) and effective results has been obtained. (author)

  18. Application of Tank Model for Predicting Water Balance and Flow Discharge Components of Cisadane Upper Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Mulyana Arifjaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of hydrological tank model was well described into four compartments (tanks. The first tank (tank A comprised of one vertical (qA0 and two lateral (qA1 and qA2 water flow components and tank B comprised of one vertical (qB0 and one lateral (qB1 water flow components. Tank C comprised of one vertical (qC0 and one lateral (qC1 water flow components, whereas tank D comprised of one lateral water flow component (qD1.  These vertical water flows would also contribute to the depletion of water flow in the related tanks but would replenish tanks in the deeper layers. It was assumed that at all lateral water flow components would finally accumulate in one stream, summing-up of the lateral water flow, much or less, should be equal to the water discharge (Qo at specified time concerns. Tank A received precipitation (R and evapo-transpiration (ET which was its gradientof (R-ET over time would become the driving force for the changes of water stored in the soil profiles and thosewater flows leaving the soil layer.  Thus tank model could describe th vertical and horizontal water flow withinthe watershed. The research site was Cisadane Upper Catchment, located at Pasir Buncir Village of CaringinSub-District within the Regency of Bogor in West Java Province.  The elevations ranged 512 –2,235 m above sealevel, with a total drainage area of 1,811.5 ha and total length of main stream of 14,340.7 m.  The land cover wasdominated by  forest  with a total of 1,044.6 ha (57.67%,  upland agriculture with a total of 477.96 ha (26.38%,mixed garden with a total of 92.85 ha(5.13% and semitechnical irigated rice field with a total of 196.09 ha (10,8%.  The soil was classified as hydraquent (96.6% and distropept (3.4%.  Based on the calibration of tank model application in the study area, the resulting coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.72 with model efficiency (NSEof= 0.75, thus tank model could well illustrate the water flow distribution of

  19. Welding residual stress improvement in internal components by water jet peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, K.; Hirano, K.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, E.

    1996-01-01

    Cavitations are generated when highly pressurized water is jetted in water. Surface residual stress is improved remarkably due to the peening effect of extremely high pressure caused by the collapse of cavitation bubbles. This technique is called water jet peening (WJP). WJP is expected to be an effective maintenance technique for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking caused by residual stress in various components of power generating plants. Various kinds of specimens were water jet peened to evaluate the fundamental characteristics of WJP and to select the most appropriate conditions for the residual stress improvement. Test results showed that WJP markedly improved the tensile residual stress caused by welding and grinding to the high compressive residual stress and seems to prevent the stress corrosion cracking

  20. The CHESS survey of the L1157-B1 bow-shock: Dissecting the water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Gemma; Lefloch, Bertrand; Benedettini, Milena; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Codella, Claudio; Cabrit, Sylvie; Nisini, Brunella; Viti, Serena; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo; Gusdorf, Antoine; Di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Wiesenfeld, Laurent

    2013-07-01

    Molecular outflows powered by young protostars strongly affect the kinematics and chemistry of the natal molecular cloud through strong shocks, resulting in an increase of the abundance of several species. In particular, water is a powerful tracer of shocked material due to its sensitivity to both physical conditions and chemical processes. The observations of the "Chemical Herschel Survey of Star forming regions" (CHESS) key program towards the shock region L1157-B1 offered a unique and comprehensive view of the water emission in a typical protostellar bow shock across the submillimeter and far-infrared window. A grand total of 13 water lines have been detected with the PACS and HIFI instruments, probing a wide range of excitation conditions and providing us with a detailed picture on both the kinematics and the spatial distribution of water emission. Several gas components have been identified coexisting in the L1157-B1 shock region. Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) analysis reveals that these components have different excitation conditions: i) a warm (T~250 K) and dense (n(H2)~10^6 cm-3) gas component seen also with the CO lines and associated with the partly dissociative shock produced by the impact of the protostellar jet against the bow shock; ii) a compact (size~5''), hot (T~700 K), and less dense (n(H2)~10^4 cm-3) gas component, and iii) an extended component associated with the B1 outflow cavity. These three components present clear differences in terms of water enrichment. Finally, we confront the physical and chemical properties of the H2O emission to the predictions of current shock models.

  1. DIURNAL CHANGES IN LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATIVE WATER CONTENT OF GRAPEVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Variation in light intensity, air temperature and relative air humidity leads to diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and leaf relative water content. In order to determine the diurnal changes in net photosynthetic rate of vine plants and influence of the main environmental factors, gas exchange in the vine leaves were measure using a portable plant CO2 analysis package. The results show that diurnal changes in photosynthetic rate could be interpreted as single-peak curve, with a maximum at noon (10.794 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Leaf relative water content has maximum value in the morning; the values may slightly decrease during the day (day of June, with normal temperature, no rain, no water restriction in soil.

  2. Element Content of Surface and Underground Water Sources around a Cement Factory Site in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Richard Egbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cement production is associated with heavy metal emissions and environmental pollution by cement dust. The degree of contamination of drinking water sources by major and trace elements present in cement dust generated by united cement factory (UNICEM is still uncertain. This study estimated the element content of ground and surface water samples (hand-dug wells, boreholes and streams around the factory site to determine the impact of cement dust exposure on the water levels of these elements. Methods: This study was conducted at UNICEM at Mfamosing, Akamkpa local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Drinking water samples (5 from each location were collected from the cement factory quarry site camp, 3 surrounding communities and Calabar metropolis (45 km away from factory serving as control. The lead (Pb, copper (Cu, manganes (Mn, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, selenium (Se, chromium (Cr, zinc (Zn and arsenic (As levels of samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD post hoc at P = 0.05. Results: As and Pb content of samples from camp were above the WHO recommendations of 0.01mg/l and 0.01mg/l respectively. Chromium and cadmium content of all water samples were above and others below WHO recommendations. Water levels of Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ca and Si were significantly elevated (though below WHO recommendations in camp than other locations (P<0.05. Conclusion: Production of cement results in As, Pb, Cr and cd contamination of drinking water sources near the factory. Treatment of all drinking water sources is recommended before public use to avert deleterious health consequences.

  3. Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Content of Bioactive Components and the Antioxidant Activity of Prunella vulgaris L. Spica during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of UV-B radiation on the content of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity of Prunella vulgaris L. spica during development were studied. The experimental design involved two levels of UV-B radiation intensity (0 and 120 μW cm−2 nm−1. The results showed that the contents of total flavonoids, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and hyperoside, as well as the antioxidant capacities (DPPH● and ABTS•+ scavenging activities, in the spicas significantly decreased during spica development. The content of salviaflaside in the spicas significantly increased during development. The highest contents of total flavonoids, rosmarinic acid, and caffeic acid and the highest antioxidant activities were found in spicas in the full-flowering stage, while the highest content of hyperoside was found in spicas in the bud stage. In addition, the highest content of salviaflaside was found in spicas in the mature-fruiting stage. UV-B radiation significantly promoted the synthesis of secondary metabolites, increased the contents of the main bioactive components in the three developmental stages of isolated dried spicas, and significantly increased the DPPH● and ABTS•+ scavenging activities of P. vulgaris spicas in the mature-fruiting stage. Moreover, the total flavonoids content was positively correlated with the DPPH● and ABTS•+ scavenging activities, and the correlation with the DPPH● scavenging activity was very strong. This result shows that the highest contents of the main bioactive components in the spicas were not all found in the same developmental stages of P. vulgaris. Our research revealed that the best stage for harvesting P. vulgaris spica was between the bud stage and the full-flowering stage since harvesting at this point provides a higher content of bioactive components and a higher antioxidant capacity, which is relevant for medicinal applications.

  4. Validation of methods for determination of free water content in poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Žítková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for determination of free water content in poultry meat are described in Commission Regulation EEC No 1538/91 as amended and in ČSN 57 3100. Two of them (method A and D have been validated in conditions of a Czech poultry processing plant. The capacity of slaughtering was 6000 pieces per hour and carcasses were chilled by air with spraying. All determinations were carried out in the plant’s lab and in the lab of the Institute of Food Technology. Method A was used to detect the amount of water lost from frozen chicken during thawing in controlled conditions. Twenty carcasses from six weight groups (900 g–1400 g were tested. The average values of thaw loss water contents ranged between 0.46% and 1.71%, the average value of total 120 samples was 1.16%. The results were compared with the required maximum limit value of 3.3%. The water loss content was in negative correlation with the weight of chicken (r = –0.56. Method D (chemical test has been applied to determine the total water content of certain poultry cuts. It involved the determination of water and protein contents of 62 representative samples in total. The average values of ratio of water weight to proteins weight WA/RPA were in breast fillets 3.29, in legs with a portion of the back 4.06, legs 4.00, thighs 3.85 and drumsticks 4.10. The results corresponded to the required limit values for breast fillets 3.40 and for leg cuts 4.15. The ratio of water weight to proteins weight WA/RPA was correlated with the weight of chicken for breast fillets negatively (r = –0.61 and for leg cuts positively (r = 0.70. Different correlations can be explained by the distribution of water, protein and fat in carcasses. The evaluation of methods in the parameter of percentage ratio of the average value to the limit showed that method D (results were at the level of 97% of the limit was more exact than method A (results were at the level 32% of the limit but it is more expensive. Both methods

  5. Effect of biological and coagulation pre-treatments to control organic and biofouling potential components of ultrafiltration membrane in the treatment of lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Kajol, Annaduzzaman; Suja, Fatihah; Md Zain, Shahrom

    2017-03-01

    Biological aerated filter (BAF), sand filtration (SF), alum and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic and biofouling potential component of an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in the treatment of lake water. The carbohydrate content was mainly responsible for reversible fouling of the UF membrane compared to protein or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. All pre-treatment could effectively reduce these contents and led to improve the UF filterability. Both BAF and SF markedly led to improvement in flux than coagulation processes, and alum gave greater flux than M. oleifera. This was attributed to the effective removal and/or breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics by biofilters. BAF led to greater improvement in flux than SF, due to greater breakdown of high MW organics, and this was also confirmed by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Coagulation processes were ineffective in removing biofouling potential components, whereas both biofilters were very effective as shown by the reduction of low MW organics, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon contents. This study demonstrated the potential of biological pre-treatments for reducing organic and biofouling potential component and thus improving flux for the UF of lake water treatment.

  6. Integrating principal component analysis and vector quantization with support vector regression for sulfur content prediction in HDS process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokri Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate prediction of sulfur content is very important for the proper operation and product quality control in hydrodesulfurization (HDS process. For this purpose, a reliable data- driven soft sensors utilizing Support Vector Regression (SVR was developed and the effects of integrating Vector Quantization (VQ with Principle Component Analysis (PCA were studied on the assessment of this soft sensor. First, in pre-processing step the PCA and VQ techniques were used to reduce dimensions of the original input datasets. Then, the compressed datasets were used as input variables for the SVR model. Experimental data from the HDS setup were employed to validate the proposed integrated model. The integration of VQ/PCA techniques with SVR model was able to increase the prediction accuracy of SVR. The obtained results show that integrated technique (VQ-SVR was better than (PCA-SVR in prediction accuracy. Also, VQ decreased the sum of the training and test time of SVR model in comparison with PCA. For further evaluation, the performance of VQ-SVR model was also compared to that of SVR. The obtained results indicated that VQ-SVR model delivered the best satisfactory predicting performance (AARE= 0.0668 and R2= 0.995 in comparison with investigated models.

  7. Latitude-Time Total Electron Content Anomalies as Precursors to Japan's Large Earthquakes Associated with Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Woei Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine whether principal component analysis (PCA can be used to process latitude-time ionospheric TEC data on a monthly basis to identify earthquake associated TEC anomalies. PCA is applied to latitude-time (mean-of-a-month ionospheric total electron content (TEC records collected from the Japan GEONET network to detect TEC anomalies associated with 18 earthquakes in Japan (M≥6.0 from 2000 to 2005. According to the results, PCA was able to discriminate clear TEC anomalies in the months when all 18 earthquakes occurred. After reviewing months when no M≥6.0 earthquakes occurred but geomagnetic storm activity was present, it is possible that the maximal principal eigenvalues PCA returned for these 18 earthquakes indicate earthquake associated TEC anomalies. Previously PCA has been used to discriminate earthquake-associated TEC anomalies recognized by other researchers, who found that statistical association between large earthquakes and TEC anomalies could be established in the 5 days before earthquake nucleation; however, since PCA uses the characteristics of principal eigenvalues to determine earthquake related TEC anomalies, it is possible to show that such anomalies existed earlier than this 5-day statistical window.

  8. Assessing Variation in Water Balance Components in Mountainous Inland River Basin Experiencing Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenliang Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the changes of water balance components is significant for water resource assessment and management. This paper employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to estimate the water balance in a mountainous watershed in northwest China at different spatial scales over the past half century. The results showed that both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and determination coefficient (R2 were over 0.90 for the calibration and validation periods. The water balance components presented rising trends at the watershed scale, and the total runoff increased by 30.5% during 1964 to 2013 period. Rising surface runoff and rising groundwater flow contributed 42.7% and 57.3% of the total rising runoff, respectively. The runoff coefficient was sensitive to increasing precipitation and was not significant to the increase of temperature. The alpine meadow was the main landscape which occupied 51.1% of the watershed and contributed 55.5% of the total runoff. Grass land, forest land, bare land, and glacier covered 14.2%, 18.8%, 15.4%, and 0.5% of the watershed and contributed 8.5%, 16.9%, 15.9%, and 3.2% of the total runoff, respectively. The elevation zone from 3500 to 4500 m occupied 66.5% of the watershed area, and contributed the majority of the total runoff (70.7%. The runoff coefficients in the elevation zone from 1637 to 2800 m, 2800 to 3500 m, 3500 to 4000 m, 4000 to 4500 m, and 4500 to 5062 m were 0.20, 0.27, 0.32, 0.43, and 0.78, respectively, which tend to be larger along with the elevation increase. The quantities and change trends of the water balance components at the watershed scale were calculated by the results of the sub-watersheds. Furthermore, we characterized the spatial distribution of quantities and changes in trends of water balance components at the sub-watershed scale analysis. This study provides some references for water resource management and planning in inland river basins.

  9. Towards Estimating Water Stress through Leaf and Canopy Water Content Derived from Optical and Thermal Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Amie; Timmermans, Joris; van der Tol, Christiaan; Verhoef, Wout

    2015-04-01

    A competition for available (drinkable) water has arisen. This competition originated due to increasing global population and the respective needs of this population. The water demand for human consumption and irrigation of food producing crops and biofuel related vegetation, has led to early indication of drought as a key issue in many studies. However, while drought monitoring systems might provide some reasonable predictions, at the time of visible symptoms of plant stress, a plant may already be critically affected. Consequently, pre-symptomatic non-destructive monitoring of plants is needed. In many studies of plant stress, this is performed by examining internal plant physiology through existing remote sensing techniques, with varying applications. However, a uniform remote sensing method for identifying early plant stress under drought conditions is still developing. In some instances, observations of vegetation water content are used to assess the impact of soil water deficit on the health of a plant or canopy. When considering water content as an indicator of water stress in a plant, this comments not only on the condition of the plant itself, but also provides indicators of photosynthetic activity and the susceptibility to drought. Several indices of canopy health currently exists (NDVI, DVI, SAVI, etc.) using optical and near infrared reflectance bands. However, these are considered inadequate for vegetation health investigations because such semi-empirical models result in less accuracy for canopy measurements. In response, a large amount of research has been conducted to estimate canopy health directly from considering the full spectral behaviour. In these studies , the canopy reflectance has been coupled to leaf parameters, by using coupling leaf radiative transfer models (RTM), such as PROSPECT, to a canopy RTM such as SAIL. The major shortcomings of these researches is that they have been conducted primarily for optical remote sensing. Recently

  10. Inservice inspection of heavy water plants - a tool in assessing damage to components and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Thavasimuthu, M.; Bhattacharys, D.K.; Baldev Raj

    1994-01-01

    Any system and its components are expected to give trouble free service over a certain period of time known as life time. The life time is estimated during the design stage. To achieve the design life, certain level of quality are to be defined and this quality has to be worked into the components by proper fabrication processes and their compliance with quality are to be checked. In addition, one has to guard against initiation or propagation of defects which may occur due to normal and abnormal service conditions. Non-destructive test (NDT) techniques are widely used for finding the health of the component. The role of NDT extends from the production stage to the entire life period of the system. This paper highlights the periodic in-service inspection (ISI) carried out on various components of the Heavy Water Plants (HWP) in India in assessing the integrity of the components and predicting the life of the components. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  11. Alkaline anion exchange membrane water electrolysis: Effects of electrolyte feed method and electrode binder content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Kyung; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Lim, Ahyoun; Henkensmeier, Dirk; Yoo, Sung Jong; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, So Young; Park, Hyun S.; Jang, Jong Hyun

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we investigate the effects of catholyte feed method and anode binder content on the characteristics of anion exchange membrane water electrolysis (AEMWE) to construct a high-performance electrolyzer, revealing that the initial AEMWE performance is significantly improved by pre-feeding 0.5 M aqueous KOH to the cathode. The highest long-term activity during repeated voltage cycling is observed for AEMWE operation in the dry cathode mode, for which the best long-term performance among membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) featuring polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder-impregnated (5-20 wt%) anodes is detected for a PTFE content of 20 wt%. MEAs with low PTFE content (5 and 9 wt%) demonstrate high initial performance, rapid performance decay, and significant catalyst loss from the electrode during long-term operation, whereas the MEA with 20 wt% PTFE allows stable water electrolysis for over 1600 voltage cycles. Optimization of cell operating conditions (i.e., operation in dry cathode mode at an optimum anode binder content following an initial solution feed) achieves an enhanced water splitting current density (1.07 A cm-2 at 1.8 V) and stable long-term AEMWE performance (0.01% current density reduction per voltage cycle).

  12. Thermo physical properties of lateritic soil bricks: Influence of water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, P.; Noumowe, A.; Kofane, T.C.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental study carried out in order to determine the properties of local materials used as construction materials. Cement stabilized compressed bricks were tested. The thermal properties of lateritic soil based materials were determined. The objectives of work reported in this paper are to determine the effect of addition of pozzolan or sawdust in lateritic soil brick on the thermal properties. It was shown that the effect of the incorporation of pozzolan or sawdust is the decreasing of the thermal conductivity and density. The moisture content of these materials can modify their thermal performance. Thus a study of the influence of the water content on the thermal conductivity k and the thermal diffusivity a is presented. The thermal conductivity, as a function of water content, increases rapidly between O% and 12% for lateritic soil. The thermal diffusivity curve presents a maximum for values of water content of 15% for lateritic soil and 8% for lateritic soil-pozzolan or lateritic soil- sawdust. (author)

  13. Content and distribution of fluorine in rock, clay and water in fluorosis area Zhaotong, Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.; Li, H.; Feng, F. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-04-15

    About 160 samples of coal, pyritic coal balls, coal seam gangue, clay, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin county, China to determine the fluorine content, distribution pattern and source in this fluorosis area. The study shows that the average fluorine content in the coal samples collected from 3 coal mines of the Late Permian coals in Zhenxiong and Weixin county, Zhaotong City, which are the main mining coals there, is 77.13 mg/kg. The average fluorine content coals collected form thee typical fluorosis villages in 72.56 mg/kg. Both of them are close to the world average and little low than the Chinese average. The fluorine content of drinking water is lower than 0.35 mg/L, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binfer in briquette-making by local residents has a high content of fluorine, ranging from 367-2,435 mg/kg, with the majority higher than 600 mg/kg and an average of 1,084.2 mg/kg. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. The Multivariate Regression Statistics Strategy to Investigate Content-Effect Correlation of Multiple Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on a Partial Least Squares Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Li, Su-Ning; Pei, Xuexue; Hao, Kun

    2018-03-01

    Amultivariate regression statisticstrategy was developed to clarify multi-components content-effect correlation ofpanaxginseng saponins extract and predict the pharmacological effect by components content. In example 1, firstly, we compared pharmacological effects between panax ginseng saponins extract and individual saponin combinations. Secondly, we examined the anti-platelet aggregation effect in seven different saponin combinations of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1, Rh, Rd, Ra3 and notoginsenoside R1. Finally, the correlation between anti-platelet aggregation and the content of multiple components was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. In example 2, firstly, 18 common peaks were identified in ten different batches of panax ginseng saponins extracts from different origins. Then, we investigated the anti-myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury effects of the ten different panax ginseng saponins extracts. Finally, the correlation between the fingerprints and the cardioprotective effects was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. Both in example 1 and 2, the relationship between the components content and pharmacological effect was modeled well by the partial least squares regression equations. Importantly, the predicted effect curve was close to the observed data of dot marked on the partial least squares regression model. This study has given evidences that themulti-component content is a promising information for predicting the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. The Multivariate Regression Statistics Strategy to Investigate Content-Effect Correlation of Multiple Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on a Partial Least Squares Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Amultivariate regression statisticstrategy was developed to clarify multi-components content-effect correlation ofpanaxginseng saponins extract and predict the pharmacological effect by components content. In example 1, firstly, we compared pharmacological effects between panax ginseng saponins extract and individual saponin combinations. Secondly, we examined the anti-platelet aggregation effect in seven different saponin combinations of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1, Rh, Rd, Ra3 and notoginsenoside R1. Finally, the correlation between anti-platelet aggregation and the content of multiple components was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. In example 2, firstly, 18 common peaks were identified in ten different batches of panax ginseng saponins extracts from different origins. Then, we investigated the anti-myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury effects of the ten different panax ginseng saponins extracts. Finally, the correlation between the fingerprints and the cardioprotective effects was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. Both in example 1 and 2, the relationship between the components content and pharmacological effect was modeled well by the partial least squares regression equations. Importantly, the predicted effect curve was close to the observed data of dot marked on the partial least squares regression model. This study has given evidences that themulti-component content is a promising information for predicting the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  16. Effects of seawater components on radiolysis of water at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoichi; Tachibana, Masahiko; Ishida, Kazushige; Ota, Nobuyuki; Shigenaka, Naoto; Inagaki, Hiromitsu; Noda, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Effects of seawater components on radiolysis of water at elevated temperature have been studied with a radiolysis model in order to evaluate influence on integrity of materials used in an ABWR. In 2011, seawater flowed into a wide part of the nuclear power plant system of the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Reactor No. 5 owned by Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. after condenser tubes broke during the plant shutdown operation. The reactor water temperature was 250°C and its maximum Cl − concentration was ca. 450 ppm when seawater was mixed with reactor water. In order to clarify effects of the sea water components on radiolysis of water at elevated temperature, a radiolysis model calculation was conducted with Hitachi's radiolysis analysis code 'SIMFONY'. For the calculation, the temperature range was set from 50 to 250°C with 50°C increments and the gamma dose rate was set at 60 Gys −1 to see the effect of gamma irradiation from fuels under shutdown conditions. Concentrations of radiolytic species were calculated for 10 5 s. Dilution ratio of seawater was changed to see the effects of concentration of seawater components. Reaction rate constants of the Cl − , Br − , HCO 3 − , and SO 4 2− systems were considered. The main radiolytic species were predicted to be hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide of low concentration was produced in seawater-mixed water at elevated temperatures. Compared with these main products, concentrations of radiolytic products originating from chloride ion and other seawater components were found to be rather low. The dominant product among them was ClO 3 − and its concentration was found to be below 0.01ppm at 10 5 s. Then, during the plant shutdown operation, the harmful influence from radiolytic species originating from seawater components on integrity of fuel materials must be smaller than that of chloride ion which is the main ionic species in seawater. (author)

  17. Friction and wear studies of nuclear power plant components in pressurized high temperature water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, P.L.; Zbinden, M.; Taponat, M.C.; Robertson, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is part of a series of papers aiming to present the friction and wear results of a collaborative study on nuclear power plant components tested in pressurized high temperature water. The high temperature test facilities and the methodology in presenting the kinetics and wear results are described in detail. The results of the same material combinations obtained from two very different high temperature test facilities (NRCC and EDF) are presented and discussed. (K.A.)

  18. Advances in estimation methods of vegetation water content based on optical remote sensing techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of vegetation water content(VWC) using optical remote sensing techniques is helpful in forest fire as-sessment,agricultural drought monitoring and crop yield estimation.This paper reviews the research advances of VWC retrieval using spectral reflectance,spectral water index and radiative transfer model(RTM) methods.It also evaluates the reli-ability of VWC estimation using spectral water index from the observation data and the RTM.Focusing on two main definitions of VWC-the fuel moisture content(FMC) and the equivalent water thickness(EWT),the retrieval accuracies of FMC and EWT using vegetation water indices are analyzed.Moreover,the measured information and the dataset are used to estimate VWC,the results show there are significant correlations among three kinds of vegetation water indices(i.e.,WSI,NDⅡ,NDWI1640,WI/NDVI) and canopy FMC of winter wheat(n=45).Finally,the future development directions of VWC detection based on optical remote sensing techniques are also summarized.

  19. Equivalent water height extracted from GRACE gravity field model with robust independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinyun; Mu, Dapeng; Liu, Xin; Yan, Haoming; Dai, Honglei

    2014-08-01

    The Level-2 monthly GRACE gravity field models issued by Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungs Zentrum (GFZ), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are treated as observations used to extract the equivalent water height (EWH) with the robust independent component analysis (RICA). The smoothing radii of 300, 400, and 500 km are tested, respectively, in the Gaussian smoothing kernel function to reduce the observation Gaussianity. Three independent components are obtained by RICA in the spatial domain; the first component matches the geophysical signal, and the other two match the north-south strip and the other noises. The first mode is used to estimate EWHs of CSR, JPL, and GFZ, and compared with the classical empirical decorrelation method (EDM). The EWH STDs for 12 months in 2010 extracted by RICA and EDM show the obvious fluctuation. The results indicate that the sharp EWH changes in some areas have an important global effect, like in Amazon, Mekong, and Zambezi basins.

  20. Results of an aging-related failure survey of light water safety systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meale, B.M.; Satterwhite, D.G.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The collection and evaluation of operating experience data are necessary in determining the effects of aging on the safety of operating nuclear plants. This paper presents the final results of a two-year research effort evaluating aging impacts on components in light water reactor systems. This research was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two unique types of data analyses were performed. In the first, an aging-survey study, aging-related failure data for fifteen light water reactor systems were obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). These included safety, support, and power conversion systems. A computerized sort of these records classified each record into one of five generic categories, based on the utility's choice of the failure's NPRDS cause category. Systems and components within the systems that were most affected by aging were identified. In the second analysis, information on aging-related reported causes of failures was evaluated for component failures reported to NPRDS for auxiliary feedwater, high pressure injection, service water, and Class 1E electrical power distribution systems. 3 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Safety analysis of water cooled components inside the JET thermonuclear fusion tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageladarakis, P.; O'Dowd, N.; Papastergiou, S.

    1998-04-01

    The transient thermal behaviour of a number of components, installed in the vessel of the world's largest Fusion Tokamak (JET) has been examined with a theoretical model, which simulated normal operational conditions and abnormal scenarios namely: Loss of Coolant Flow; Loss of Torus Vacuum; and combinations. A number of theoretical results related to water and cryogenically cooled devices have been validated by a comprehensive experimental campaign conducted both inside the JET plasma chamber and in a test rig. The performance of water cooled components which may be subjected to boiling or freeze-up risks in case of a Loss of Water Flow event has also been analysed. Time constants of transient temperature changes were determined by the model while protective actions were prescribed in order to safeguard the equipment against associated risks. A completely automatic safety protection system has been designed on the basis of these analyses and implemented in the routine JET operation. During operation of JET the safety code reacted several times within the specified time limits and protected the relevant components during real off-normal events. (author)

  2. Bulk density, cone index and water content relations for some Ghanian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agodzo, S.K.; Adama, I.

    2004-01-01

    Correlations were established between water content θ, bulk density ρ and cone index Δ for 4 Ghanaian soils, namely, Kumasi, Akroso, Nta and Offin series. The relationship between Δ and θ is in the form Δ = a θ 2 + b θ + c, where the correlation coefficients r 2 for the various soils were found to be very high. Similarly, Δ - ρ relationships were linear but the correlations got weaker with increasing sand content of the soil, as expected. Soil sample sizes and compaction procedures did not conform to standard procedures, yet the results did not deviate from what pertains when standard procedures are used. (author)

  3. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A; Bain, Robert E S; Lin, Yanzhao; Zhang, Ce; Wright, Jim A

    2016-01-01

    Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring.

  4. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2017-10-26

    There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC). Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWP fat . Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWP protein . For NWP Fe, Zn and Ca , dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant ( p > 0.05). While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density), climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  5. Organic matter and soil water content influence on BRS 188 castor bean growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has been highlighted due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean growth. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. At regular intervals the plant height was measured and the results analyzed statistically. For the qualitative treatments (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) were used regressions. The castor bean cultivar height was significantly influenced by the organic matter content only after 80 days. Castor bean height increased significantly with the soil water content after 40 days of growing. (author)

  6. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Yu

    Full Text Available Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring.

  7. Association between drinking water uranium content and cancer risk in Bavaria, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radespiel-Troeger, M.; Meyer, M. [Population-based cancer registry Bavaria, Erlangen (Germany). Registration office

    2013-10-15

    To evaluate the possible association between uranium (U) content in public drinking water on the one hand and the risk of cancer of the colorectum, lung, female breast, prostate, kidney, and urinary bladder, total cancer, and leukemia on the other hand in Bavaria, an ecologic study on the level of municipalities was performed. Cancer incidence data for the years 2002-2008 were obtained from the population-based cancer registry Bavaria according to sex. Current U content data of public drinking water on the level of municipalities were obtained from a publicly available source. The possible association between drinking water U content and cancer risk adjusted for average socio-economic status was evaluated using Poisson regression. Drinking water U content was below 20 μg/L in 458 out of 461 included municipalities. We found a significantly increased risk of leukemia in men in the intermediate (U level, 1.00-4.99 μg/L; relative risk [RR], 1.14) and in the highest U exposure category (U level, ≥ 5 μg/L; RR, 1.28). Moreover, in women, a significantly elevated risk was identified with respect to kidney cancer in the highest exposure category (RR, 1.16) and with respect to lung cancer in the intermediate exposure category (RR, 1.12). The slightly increased risk of leukemia in men, kidney cancer in women, and lung cancer in women may require further investigation. If an increased cancer risk is confirmed, preventive measures (e.g., introduction of U filters in public water systems) may be considered.

  8. Analysis of electrical property changes of skin by oil-in-water emulsion components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, CB; Han, JY; Cho, JC; Suh, KD; Nam, GW

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis ObjectivesAs the ‘Dry Skin Cycle’ produces continuous deterioration, cosmetic xerosis (flaky, dry skin) is one of the major concerns to most consumers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisturizing effect of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion components. There are numerous types of oils, waxes, polyols and surfactants used as ingredients in skincare products. However, the moisturizing effect of each ingredient and understanding each use to make an effective moisturizing products are still not well understood. Methods To provide answers to these questions, we investigated the moisturizing effect of widely used 41 components (four different classes) in a simple O/W emulsion using capacitance methods. 106 different single oils, and combinations of oil with oil, wax, humectants, and surfactant were formulated and tested. Results In this study, we found that most of the O/W emulsion components had hydration effects on the skin. (i) The average relative water content increase (RWCI) rate of a single oil-based emulsion was 11.8 ± 5.2% (SE) and 7.9 ± 6.0% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. (ii) An oil combination emulsion showed an average RWCI rate similar to that of a single oil-based emulsion, 12.6 ± 6.0% (SE) and 12.1 ± 6.4% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively (iii) A combination of waxes with oil showed an average RWCI rate of 16 ± 5.6% (SE) and 12.4 ± 4.5% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. (iv) Humectant combinations showed the highest average RWCI rate 28 ± 7.3% (SE) and 22.2 ± 7.5% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively (v) Surfactant combinations had an average RWCI of 10.8 ± 4.5% (SE) and 6.0 ± 4.0% (SE) at 3 and 6 h, respectively. Conclusion Interestingly, it was difficult to find moisturizing power differences among samples in the same group. Only the humectants group showed significant differences among samples. Glycerine and urea showed significant skin hydration effects compared with other humectants. We also found

  9. Evaluation Study of the Monitoring Result for River Water Environment Component Around U Mining Research Area at, Kalan West Kalimantan from 1997/1998 up to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad-Sorot-Soediro

    2004-01-01

    The Uranium research which have been carrying out since 1980/1981 up to now and uranium processing activities which was carried out since 1981/1982 to 1996/1997 have probably decreased environment quality. Therefore the environment component would be monitored through Kalan river water every year. From 1997/1998 up to 2002 the environment quality decreased. So, the environment quality is necessarily to be evaluated doing those period. Aim of study is to recover development information of environmental quality at river water component up to 5 years. Evaluation has been done by comparing research the yearly data obtained and construct the correlation with U mining and processing activities on that year. BOD, COD, As, Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo and radioactivity of U, Th and Ra content with in Kalan water river tends to become lower in accordance with the decreasing of U mining and processing research activities. (author)

  10. Observation and Modelling of Soil Water Content Towards Improved Performance Indicators of Large Irrigation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbassi, Kamal; Akdim, Nadia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation performance may be evaluated for different objectives such as equity, adequacy, or effectiveness. We are using two performance indicators: IP2 measures the consistency of the allocation of the irrigation water with gross Crop Water requirements, while IP3 measures the effectiveness of irrigation by evaluating the increase in crop transpiration between the case of no irrigation and the case of different levels of irrigation. To evaluate IP3 we need to calculate the soil water balance for the two cases. We have developed a system based on the hydrological model SWAP (Soil Water atmosphere Plant) to calculate spatial and temporal patterns of crop transpiration T(x, y, t) and of the vertical distribution of soil water content θ(x, y, z, t). On one hand, in the absence of ground measurement of soil water content to validate and evaluate the precision of the estimated one, a possibility would be to use satellite retrievals of top soil water content, such as the data to be provided by SMAP. On the other hand, to calculate IP3 we need root zone rather than top soil water content. In principle, we could use the model SWAP to establish a relationship between the top soil and root zone water content. Such relationship could be a simple empirical one or a data assimilation procedure. In our study area (Doukkala- Morocco) we have assessed the consistency of the water allocation with the actual irrigated area and crop water requirements (CWR) by using a combination of multispectral satellite image time series (i,e RapidEye (REIS), SPOT4 (HRVIR1) and Landsat 8 (OLI) images acquired during the 2012/2013 agricultural season). To obtain IP2 (x, y, t) we need to determine ETc (x, y, t). We have applied two (semi)empirical approaches: the first one is the Kc-NDVI method, based on the correlation between the Near Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the value of crop coefficient (kc); the second one is the analytical approach based on the direct application of Penman

  11. Distribution coefficients for chemical components of a coal-oil/water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picel, K C; Stamoudis, V C; Simmons, M S

    1988-09-01

    Distribution coefficients (K/sub D/) were measured by equilibrating a coal oil comparative reference material (CRM-1) with water and then separating the oil and water phases. Aqueous phase concentrations were determined by direct analysis of this phase, while organic phase concentrations were determined from the original oil composition by difference. The log K/sub D/ values obtained for acidic and basic components were generally <3, while those for the neutral components ranged from 3 to 6. For aromatic hydrocarbons, strong correlations were observed between log K/sub D/ and log S/sub w/ (water solubility), and between log K/sub D/ and log K/sub o//sub w/ (octanol/water partition coefficient). Alkylated benzenes had significantly higher K/sub D/s than did unsubstituted aromatics of similar molecular weight. Examination of homologs revealed an increase of 0.307 log K/sub D/ units per additional carbon atom for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons having from 10 to 16 carbons. Alkyl substituent effects determined for various sets of homologs ranged from 0.391 to 0.466 log K/sub d/ units per -CH/sub 2/- group added. 38 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. XHM-1 alloy as a promising structural material for water-cooled fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Alekseev, A.B.; Kazennov, Yu.I.; Khramtsov, V.F.; Kondrat'ev, V.P.; Krasina, T.A.; Rechitsky, V.N.; Stepankov, V.N.; Votinov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    Experience gained in utilizing austenitic stainless steel components in water-cooled power reactors indicates that the main cause of their failure is the steel's propensity for corrosion cracking. In search of a material immune to this type of corrosion, different types of austenitic steels and chromium-nickel alloys were investigated and tested at VNIINM. This paper presents the results of studying physical and mechanical properties, irradiation and corrosion resistance in a water coolant at <350 C of the alloy XHM-1 as compared with austenitic stainless steels 00Cr16Ni15Mo3Nb, 00Cr20Ni25Nb and alloy 00Cr20Ni40Mo5Nb. Analysis of the results shows that, as distinct from the stainless steels studied, the XHM-1 alloy is completely immune to corrosion cracking (CC). Not a single induced damage was encountered within 50 to 350 C in water containing different amounts of chlorides and oxygen under tensile stresses up to the yield strength of the material. One more distinctive feature of the alloy compared to steels is that no change in the strength or total elongation is encountered in the alloy specimens irradiated to 32 dpa at 350 C. The XHM-1 alloy has adequate fabricability and high weldability characteristics. As far as its properties are concerned, the XHM-1 alloy is very promising as a material for water-cooled fusion reactor components. (orig.)

  13. The main microelements and phosphorus content of sediments formed in a drinking water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Valentukeviciene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the only source for drinking water supply in Lithuania. Twenty water intakes exploiting Quaternary aquifers are operating in Vilnius City. The main aim of this study was to characterize the heavy metal content of internal pipeline sediments in the water supply network. It also provides a new insight into the accumulation of phosphorus and its variation in pipeline sediments in the study area. The results of this research reflect the level of heavy metals that accumulated during the water supply process. The main microelements detected were lead, nickel, zinc and copper. The research results will be useful for conducting preliminary evaluations of possible microelement accumulation in other similar water supply systems. The evaluation of water supply sediments is considered as one of the most important activities associated with a water safety approach. The results of this research indicate the dependence between phosphorus accumulation and Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni and Cu quantities in the internal sediments of water supply pipelines.

  14. Introduction. [usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying components of California water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Since May 1970, personnel on several campuses of the University of California have been conducting investigations which seek to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Emphasis has been given to California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan. This study is designed to consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships. The specific geographic areas studied are the Feather River drainage in northern California, the Chino-Riverside Basin and Imperial Valley areas in southern California, and selected portions of the west side of San Joaquin Valley in central California. An analysis is also given on how an effective benefit-cost study of remote sensing in relation to California's water resources might best be made.

  15. Changes in intracranial morphology, regional cerebral water content and vital physiological variables during epidural bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, J.C.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Thuomas, K.AA.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Vlajkovic, S.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Nilsson, P.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Bergstroem, K.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Ponten, U.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Zwetnow, N.N.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo

    1993-01-01

    Epidural bleeding was produced in 8 anaesthetised and heparinised dogs by an artificial system. Changes in vital physiological variables were related to intracranial shifts and tissue water content assessed with MR imaging. Six animals survived while 2 succumbed. In the surviving animals intracranial shifts and compressions remained unchanged from an early stage. The cerebral perfusion pressure was reduced from between 80 and 110 mm Hg to between 40 and 60 mm Hg. Some increase in supratentorial white matter tissue water was observed. In the lethal experiments cerebral perfusion pressure fell to less than 40 mm Hg. Moreover, secondary delayed anatomical changes were seen including hydrocephalus. Increase in cerebral tissue water was more intense and widespread than in the survivors. These findings indicate that the outcome of epidural bleeding is related to cerebral perfusion pressure with secondary deterioration resulting from additional volume loading from increased tissue water and hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  16. Export of nutrient rich Northern Component Water preceded early Oligocene Antarctic glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxall, Helen K.; Huck, Claire E.; Huber, Matthew; Lear, Caroline H.; Legarda-Lisarri, Alba; O'Regan, Matt; Sliwinska, Kasia K.; van de Flierdt, Tina; de Boer, Agatha M.; Zachos, James C.; Backman, Jan

    2018-03-01

    The onset of the North Atlantic Deep Water formation is thought to have coincided with Antarctic ice-sheet growth about 34 million years ago (Ma). However, this timing is debated, in part due to questions over the geochemical signature of the ancient Northern Component Water (NCW) formed in the deep North Atlantic. Here we present detailed geochemical records from North Atlantic sediment cores located close to sites of deep-water formation. We find that prior to 36 Ma, the northwestern Atlantic was stratified, with nutrient-rich, low-salinity bottom waters. This restricted basin transitioned into a conduit for NCW that began flowing southwards approximately one million years before the initial Antarctic glaciation. The probable trigger was tectonic adjustments in subarctic seas that enabled an increased exchange across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. The increasing surface salinity and density strengthened the production of NCW. The late Eocene deep-water mass differed in its carbon isotopic signature from modern values as a result of the leakage of fossil carbon from the Arctic Ocean. Export of this nutrient-laden water provided a transient pulse of CO2 to the Earth system, which perhaps caused short-term warming, whereas the long-term effect of enhanced NCW formation was a greater northward heat transport that cooled Antarctica.

  17. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number density of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Vaughan, M.; McClain, C.; Behrenfeld, M.; Maring, H.; Anderson, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Flittner, D.; Huang, J.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.; Weimer, C.; Trepte, C.; Kuehn, R.

    2007-03-01

    This study presents an empirical relation that links layer integrated depolarization ratios, the extinction coefficients, and effective radii of water clouds, based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations. Combined with cloud effective radius retrieved from MODIS, cloud liquid water content and effective number density of water clouds are estimated from CALIPSO lidar depolarization measurements in this study. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water content and effective number density are presented.

  18. High water contents in basaltic melt inclusions from Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E. H.; Melson, W. G.; Soto, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    Despite the importance of water to arc magma genesis, fractionation and eruption, few quantitative constraints exist on the water content of Arenal magmas. Early estimates, by electron microprobe sum deficit, suggested up to 4 wt% H2O in olivine-hosted basaltic andesite melt inclusions (MI) from pre-historic ET-6 tephra (Melson, 1982), and up to 7 wt% H2O in plagioclase and orthopyroxene-hosted dacitic MI from 1968 lapilli (Anderson, 1979). These high water contents are consistent with abundant hornblende phenocrysts in Arenal volcanics, but inconsistent with geochemical tracers such as 10Be and Ba/La that suggest a low flux of recycled material (and presumably water) from the subduction zone. In order to test these ideas, and provide the first direct measurements of water in mafic Arenal magmas, we have studied olivine-hosted MI from the prehistoric (900 yBP; Soto et al., 1998) ET3 tephra layer. MI range from andesitic (> 58% SiO2) to basaltic compositions ( 4 wt%) found here for Arenal basaltic MI support the semi-quantitative data from earlier studies, but are somewhat unexpected given predictions from slab tracers. Arenal water contents (4%) approach those of the 1995 eruption of Cerro Negro in Nicaragua (4-5 wt% in basaltic MI; Roggensack et al., 1997), despite the fact that the latter has Ba/La of > 100, while Arenal has Ba/La Journal of Geology; Melson, William G. (1982) Boletin de Volcanologia; Roggensack et al. (1997) Science; Soto et al. (1998) OSIVAM; Williams-Jones et al. (2001) Journal of Volc. and Geoth. Res.

  19. Quantitative modeling of the Water Footprint and Energy Content of Crop and Animal Products Consumption in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    felichesmi Selestine lyakurwa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the link between water footprint and energy content of crop and animal products is vitally important for the sound management of water resources. In this study, we developed a mathematical relationship between water content, and energy content of many crops and animal products by using an improved LCA approach (water footprint. The standard values of the water and energy contents of crops and animal products were obtained from the databases of Agricultural Research Service, UNESCO Institute for water education and Food, and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The water footprint approach was applied to analyze the relationship between water requirement and energy of content of crop and animal products, in which the uncertainty and sensitivity was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation technique that is contained in the Oracle Crystal Ball Fusion Edition v11.1.1.3.00. The results revealed significant water saving due to changes in food consumption pattern i.e. from consumption of more meat to vegetables. The production of 1kcal of crop and animal products requires about 98% of green, 4.8% blue water and 0.4% of gray water. In which changes in consumption pattern gave annual blue water saving of about 1605 Mm3 that is equivalent to 41.30m3/capita, extremely greater than the standard drinking water requirement for the whole population. Moreover, the projected results indicated, triple increase of dietary water requirement from 30.9 Mm3 in 2005 to 108 Mm3 by 2050. It was also inferred that, Tanzania has a positive virtual water balance of crop and animal products consumption with net virtual water import of 9.1 Mm3 that is the contribution margin to the water scarcity alleviation strategy. Therefore, developed relationship of water footprint and energy content of crops and animal products can be used by water resource experts for sustainable freshwater and food supply.

  20. Analytical techniques for determination and control of silica content in the water in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nataša R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrapure water with minimum contents of impurities is used for the preparation of steam in thermal power plants. More recently it has been found that the corrosion process is also influenced by sodium ions, chloride ions, and all forms of silicon in water. At higher temperatures and under high pressure the less soluble compounds of silicon are extracted, which form deposits on the walls of the boiler, the piping system and the turbine blades. Silicon is found in water in the form of different types (species which are characterized by specific physical and chemical properties. Distinctions can be made between highly reactive species of ionic (silicate anions and molecular forms (silicic acid and relatively inert types (suspended, colloidal, and polymerized silicon. The determination of various forms of silicon in water is a complex analytical task. This paper covers relevant research in the field of silicon specification analysis. Maintaining the unchanged, original composition of silicon species during various stages of analysis (sample collection, storage, and conservation has been given special attention. A large number of methods and procedures have been developed for the analysis of species of silicon, including chromatographic, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques and combinations thereof. The techniques used for determining both the total amount and individual forms of silicon have been singled out. There is also an overview of the coupled techniques used most frequently in practice by using the methodology which involves preliminary separation of species and then individual specification. The paper offers an overview of analytical properties, advantages and disadvantages of the most representative analytical methods developed specifically for the analysis of silicon species in ultrapure water. The most important studies focusing on the silicon species in water have been highlighted and presented in detail. The determination of

  1. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391  mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

  2. Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, J.I.; Saleem, F.

    2003-01-01

    A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

  3. Pressure drop, steam content and turbulent cross exchange in water/steam flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichel, H.

    1978-01-01

    For describing the behaviour of two-phase flows of water and steam with the help of calculating patterns, a number of empirical correlations are required. - In this article, correlations for the friction pressure drop in water/steam flows are compared, as well as for the steam mass and the volumetric steam content with each other and with the test results on simple geometries. As the mutual effect between cooling chanels plays an important part at the longitudinal flow through bar bundles, the appertaining equations are evaluated, in addition. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  4. Water content monitoring for Flamanville 3 EPR trademark prestressed concrete containment. An application for TDR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Alexis; Clauzon, Timothee [EDF DPIH DTG, Lyon (France); Taillade, Frederic [EDF R and D, Chatou (France); Martin, Gregoire [EDF CNEN, Montrouge (France)

    2015-07-01

    Long term operation of nuclear power plant requires an appropriate monitoring of containment structures. For prestressed concrete containment vessels, a key parameter for ageing analysis is the evolution of the amount of water remaining within the concrete pores. EDF decides to launch a development program, in order to determine what sensor technologies are able to achieve such kind of monitoring on large concrete structures. One of the main parts of this program is to determine the maximum allowable uncertainty for the measurement. Another stake is the calibration process of sensors dedicated to water content measurement in concrete structures and the management of the parameters which have the largest influence on the measurement process.

  5. Rapid whole brain myelin water content mapping without an external water standard at 1.5T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh D; Spincemaille, Pascal; Gauthier, Susan A; Wang, Yi

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop rapid whole brain mapping of myelin water content (MWC) at 1.5T. The Fast Acquisition with Spiral Trajectory and T2prep (FAST-T2) pulse sequence originally developed for myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping was modified to obtain fast mapping of T1 and receiver coil sensitivity needed for MWC computation. The accuracy of the proposed T1 mapping was evaluated by comparing with the standard IR-FSE method. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the accuracy and reliability of the proposed MWC mapping. We also compared MWC values obtained with either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or an external water tube attached to the subject's head as the water reference. Our results from healthy volunteers show that whole brain MWC mapping is feasible in 7min and provides accurate brain T1 values. Regional brain WC and MWC measurements obtained with the internal CSF-based water standard showed excellent correlation (R>0.99) and negligible bias within narrow limits of agreement compared to those obtained with an external water standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using a Content Management System for Integrated Water Quantity, Quality and Instream Flows Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgholzer, R.; Brogan, C. O.; Scott, D.; Keys, T.

    2017-12-01

    With increased population and water demand, in-stream flows can become depleted by consumptive uses and dilution of permitted discharges may be compromised. Reduced flows downstream of water withdrawals may increase the violation rate of bacterial concentrations from direct deposition by livestock and wildlife. Water storage reservoirs are constructed and operated to insure more stable supplies for consumptive demands and dilution flows, however their use comes at the cost of increased evaporative losses, potential for thermal pollution, interrupted fish migration, and reduced flooding events that are critical to maintain habitat and water quality. Due to this complex interrelationship between water quantity, quality and instream habitat comprehensive multi-disciplinary models must be developed to insure long-term sustainability of water resources and to avoid conflicts between drinking water, food and energy production, and aquatic biota. The Commonwealth of Virginia funded the expansion of the Chesapeake Bay Program Phase 5 model to cover the entire state, and has been using this model to evaluate water supply permit and planning since 2009. This integrated modeling system combines a content management system (Drupal and PHP) for model input data and leverages the modularity of HSPF with the custom segmentation and parameterization routines programmed by modelers working with the Chesapeake Bay Program. The model has been applied to over 30 Virginia Water Permits, instream flows and aquatic habitat models and a Virginias 30 year water supply demand projections. Future versions will leverage the Bay Model auto-calibration routines for adding small-scale water supply and TMDL models, utilize climate change scenarios, and integrate Virginia's reservoir management modules into the Chesapeake Bay watershed model, feeding projected demand and operational changes back up to EPA models to improve the realism of future Bay-wide simulations.

  7. Increases in soil water content after the mortality of non-native trees in oceanic island forest ecosystems are due to reduced water loss during dry periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuto; Kachi, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The control of dominant, non-native trees can alter the water balance of soils in forest ecosystems via hydrological processes, which results in changes in soil water environments. To test this idea, we evaluated the effects of the mortality of an invasive tree, Casuarina equisetifolia Forst., on the water content of surface soils on the Ogasawara Islands, subtropical islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, using a manipulative herbicide experiment. Temporal changes in volumetric water content of surface soils at 6 cm depth at sites where all trees of C. equisetifolia were killed by herbicide were compared with those of adjacent control sites before and after their mortality with consideration of the amount of precipitation. In addition, the rate of decrease in the soil water content during dry periods and the rate of increase in the soil water content during rainfall periods were compared between herbicide and control sites. Soil water content at sites treated with herbicide was significantly higher after treatment than soil water content at control sites during the same period. Differences between initial and minimum values of soil water content at the herbicide sites during the drying events were significantly lower than the corresponding differences in the control quadrats. During rainfall periods, both initial and maximum values of soil water contents in the herbicided quadrats were higher, and differences between the maximum and initial values did not differ between the herbicided and control quadrats. Our results indicated that the mortality of non-native trees from forest ecosystems increased water content of surface soils, due primarily to a slower rate of decrease in soil water content during dry periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Strontium-Doped Hematite as a Possible Humidity Sensing Material for Soil Water Content Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prep...

  9. Neutron probe measurement of soil water content close to soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faleiros, M.C.; Ravelo S, A.; Souza, M.D. de

    1993-01-01

    The problem of neutron probe soil water content measurements close to soil surface is analysed from the spatial variability and also from the slow neutron loss to the atmosphere points of view. Results obtained on a dark red latosol of the county of Piracicaba, SP, indicate the possibility of precisely measuring the neutron sphere of influence when different media are used on soil surface. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  10. Correlation between subacute sensorimotor deficits and brain water content after surgical brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Wang, Yuechun; Sherchan, Prativa; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2015-09-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome and reduced quality of life after surgical brain injury (SBI). Although SBI pathophysiology is well-known, the correlation between cerebral edema and neurological deficits has not been thoroughly examined in the rat model of SBI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between brain edema and deficits in standard sensorimotor neurobehavior tests for rats subjected to SBI. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or surgical brain injury via partial frontal lobectomy. All animals were tested for neurological deficits 24 post-SBI and fourteen were also tested 72 h after surgery using seven common behavior tests: modified Garcia neuroscore (Neuroscore), beam walking, corner turn test, forelimb placement test, adhesive removal test, beam balance test, and foot fault test. After assessing the functional outcome, animals were euthanized for brain water content measurement. Surgical brain injury resulted in significantly elevated frontal lobe brain water content 24 and 72 h after surgery compared to that of sham animals. In all behavior tests, significance was observed between sham and SBI animals. However, a correlation between brain water content and functional outcome was observed for all tests except Neuroscore. The selection of behavior tests is critical to determine the effectiveness of therapeutics. Based on this study's results, we recommend using beam walking, the corner turn test, the beam balance test, and the foot fault test since correlations with brain water content were observed at both 24 and 72 h post-SBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between subacute sensorimotor deficits and brain water content after surgical brain injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W.; Wang, Yuechun; Sherchan, Prativa; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome and reduced quality of life after surgical brain injury (SBI). Although SBI pathophysiology is well-known, the correlation between cerebral edema and neurological deficits has not been thoroughly examined in the rat model of SBI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between brain edema and deficits in standard sensorimotor neurobehavior tests for rats subjected to SBI. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or surgical brain injury via partial frontal lobectomy. All animals were tested for neurological deficits 24 post-SBI and fourteen were also tested 72 hours after surgery using seven common behavior tests: modified Garcia neuroscore (Neuroscore), beam walking, corner turn test, forelimb placement test, adhesive removal test, beam balance test, and foot fault test. After assessing the functional outcome, animals were euthanized for brain water content measurement. Surgical brain injury resulted in a significantly elevated frontal lobe brain water content 24 and 72 hours after surgery compared to that of sham animals. In all behavior tests, significance was observed between sham and SBI animals. However, a correlation between brain water content and functional outcome was observed for all tests except Neuroscore. The selection of behavior tests is critical to determine the effectiveness of therapeutics. Based on this study’s results, we recommend using beam walking, the corner turn test, the beam balance test, and the foot fault test since correlations with brain water content were observed at both 24 and 72 hours post-SBI. PMID:25975171

  12. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  13. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Tavčar; Erika Turk; Samo Kreft

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes p...

  14. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, O B

    1979-01-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl/sub 2/ solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  15. Filterability of corrosion products formed between carbon steel and water. Influence of temperature and oxygen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelen, T.; Falk, I.

    1975-09-01

    A laboratory investigation has been made for the purpose of studying the influence of temperature and oxygen content on the filterability of corrosion products formed between carbon-steel and water. The experiments were performed in a high temperature loop where the water is initially heated in a pre-heater, then cooled and finally filtered. The corrosion products were transferred to thewater from a carbon-steel surface that had previously been neutron activated and the amount of iron present was determined from measurements of the γ-radiation emitted by Fe-59. Filterability was then computed as the ratio between the total amount of iron in the water phase and the amount of iron retained on the filter. The investigation covers a series of experiments at filtering temperatures of 20, 90 and 160 dec G, pre-heater temperatures up to 300 deg C and oxygen contents of 10 and 300 ppb O 2 . In addition the extent of iron deposition in the pre-heater and heat regulator has been determined after each series of experiments. Filterability exhibited a pronounced dependence upon both the filter and pre-heater temperatures and also upon the oxygen content. Among the conclusions to which the results lead is the observation that a strict comparison of filterability values for the fraction of corrosion products in cooled water samples is impossible when these are taken from 1) different sections of a high temperature system 2) a single sampling point while the system is being run up 3) two separate systems (e.g. steam boilers) operated at different temperatures 4) two separate systems operated at different oxygen contents. It accordingly appears advizable to restrict the use of cold-filtered samples from conventional steam-raising plants to the comparison of values relating to a single sampling point under constant operating conditions. (author)

  16. Physiology and microbial community structure in soil at extreme water content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlířová, Eva; Elhottová, Dana; Tříska, Jan; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2005), s. 161-166 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/1410; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/99/P033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : microbial community structure * soils * extreme water content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  17. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  18. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  19. Plant Water Content is the Best Predictor of Drought-induced Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapes, G.; Roskilly, B.; Dobrowski, S.; Sala, A.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting drought-induced forest mortality remains extremely challenging. Recent research has shown that both plant hydraulics and stored non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) interact during drought-induced mortality. The strong interaction between these two variables and the fact that they are both difficult to measure render drought-induced plant mortality extremely difficult to monitor and predict. A variable that is easier to measure and that integrates hydraulic transport and carbohydrate dynamics may, therefore, improve our ability to monitor and predict mortality. Here, we tested whether plant water content is such an integrator variable and, therefore, a better predictor of mortality under drought. We subjected 250 two-year-old ponderosa pine seedlings to drought until they died in a greenhouse experiment. Periodically during the dry down, we measured percent loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC), NSC concentration (starch and soluble sugars), and tissue volumetric water content (VWC) in roots, stems and leaves. At each measurement time, a separate set of seedlings were re-watered to estimate the probability of mortality at the population level. Linear models were used to explore whether PLC and NSC were linked to VWC and to determine which of the three variables predicted mortality the best. As expected, plants lost hydraulic conductivity in stems and roots during the dry down. Starch concentrations also decreased in all organs as the drought proceeded. In contrast, soluble sugars increased in stems and roots, consistent with the conversion of stored NSCs into osmotically active compounds. Models containing both PLC and NSC concentrations as predictors of VWC were highly significant in all organs and at the whole plant level, indicating that water content is influenced by both PLC and NSCs. PLC, NSC, and VWC explained mortality across organs and at the whole plant level, but VWC was the best predictor (R2 = 0.99). Our results indicate that plant water

  20. Retrieval of canopy water content of different crop types with two new hyperspectral indices: Water Absorption Area Index and Depth Water Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, Nieves; Delegido, Jesús; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Moreno, José

    2018-05-01

    Crop canopy water content (CWC) is an essential indicator of the crop's physiological state. While a diverse range of vegetation indices have earlier been developed for the remote estimation of CWC, most of them are defined for specific crop types and areas, making them less universally applicable. We propose two new water content indices applicable to a wide variety of crop types, allowing to derive CWC maps at a large spatial scale. These indices were developed based on PROSAIL simulations and then optimized with an experimental dataset (SPARC03; Barrax, Spain). This dataset consists of water content and other biophysical variables for five common crop types (lucerne, corn, potato, sugar beet and onion) and corresponding top-of-canopy (TOC) reflectance spectra acquired by the hyperspectral HyMap airborne sensor. First, commonly used water content index formulations were analysed and validated for the variety of crops, overall resulting in a R2 lower than 0.6. In an attempt to move towards more generically applicable indices, the two new CWC indices exploit the principal water absorption features in the near-infrared by using multiple bands sensitive to water content. We propose the Water Absorption Area Index (WAAI) as the difference between the area under the null water content of TOC reflectance (reference line) simulated with PROSAIL and the area under measured TOC reflectance between 911 and 1271 nm. We also propose the Depth Water Index (DWI), a simplified four-band index based on the spectral depths produced by the water absorption at 970 and 1200 nm and two reference bands. Both the WAAI and DWI outperform established indices in predicting CWC when applied to heterogeneous croplands, with a R2 of 0.8 and 0.7, respectively, using an exponential fit. However, these indices did not perform well for species with a low fractional vegetation cover (<30%). HyMap CWC maps calculated with both indices are shown for the Barrax region. The results confirmed the

  1. A geo-informatics approach for estimating water resources management components and their interrelationships

    KAUST Repository

    Liaqat, Umar Waqas

    2016-09-21

    A remote sensing based geo-informatics approach was developed to estimate water resources management (WRM) components across a large irrigation scheme in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. The approach provides a generalized framework for estimating a range of key water management variables and provides a management tool for the sustainable operation of similar schemes globally. A focus on the use of satellite data allowed for the quantification of relationships across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Variables including actual and crop evapotranspiration, net and gross irrigation, net and gross groundwater use, groundwater recharge, net groundwater recharge, were estimated and then their interrelationships explored across the Hakra Canal command area. Spatially distributed remotely sensed estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) rates were determined using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model and evaluated against ground-based evaporation calculated from the advection-aridity method. Analysis of ETa simulations across two cropping season, referred to as Kharif and Rabi, yielded Pearson correlation (R) values of 0.69 and 0.84, Nash-Sutcliffe criterion (NSE) of 0.28 and 0.63, percentage bias of −3.85% and 10.6% and root mean squared error (RMSE) of 10.6 mm and 12.21 mm for each season, respectively. For the period of study between 2008 and 2014, it was estimated that an average of 0.63 mm day−1 water was supplied through canal irrigation against a crop water demand of 3.81 mm day−1. Approximately 1.86 mm day−1 groundwater abstraction was estimated in the region, which contributed to fulfil the gap between crop water demand and canal water supply. Importantly, the combined canal, groundwater and rainfall sources of water only met 70% of the crop water requirements. As such, the difference between recharge and discharge showed that groundwater depletion was around −115 mm year−1 during the six year study period. Analysis indicated that

  2. Effects of season on the bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens: water content, respiration, and excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller-Adams, Page; Childress, James J.

    1983-06-01

    Water contents, oxygen consumption rates and ammonia excretion rates of individuals of the large bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens were measured as a function of size and season (winter and summer). Individuals of the sizes studied live permanently beneath the euphotic zone. Water content, as a percent of wet weight, is higher in winter than in summer, suggesting seasonal variability in the midwater environment. Our data suggest that the seasonal change in water content increases with increasing size. We suggest that the changes are due in part to seasonal changes in food intake. Seasonal differences were not observed in wet-weight-specific rates of either respiration or ammonia excretion. Both rates decrease with increasing size. The constancy of the atomic O:N ratio and its high value (geometric mean = 44.3) indicate that the average proportions of lipid and protein metabolized by individuals were independent of size and season and that lipid stores were not sufficiently depleted, even in small animals, to cause a shift to predominantly protein metabolism in winter or summer. On the average, metabolic rates of individuals were unaffected by seasonal variation in the midwater environment.

  3. Effects of soil water content on the external exposure of fauna to radioactive isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2016-01-01

    Within a recent model intercomparison about radiological risk assessment for contaminated wetlands, the influence of soil saturation conditions on external dose rates was evidenced. This issue joined concerns of assessors regarding the choice of the soil moisture value to input in radiological assessment tools such as the ERICA Tool. Does it really influence the assessment results and how? This question was investigated under IAEA's Modelling and Data for Radiological Impacts Assessments (MODARIA) programme via 42 scenarios for which the soil water content varied from 0 (dry soil) to 100% (saturated soil), in combination with other parameters that may influence the values of the external dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) calculated for terrestrial organisms exposed in soil. A set of α, β, and γ emitters was selected in order to cover the range of possible emission energies. The values of their external DCCs varied generally within a factor 1 to 1.5 with the soil water content, excepted for β emitters that appeared more sensitive (DCCs within a factor of about 3). This may be of importance for some specific cases or for upper tiers of radiological assessments, when refinement is required. But for the general purpose of screening assessment of radiological impact on fauna and flora, current approaches regarding the soil water content are relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20 approximately 30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108 approximately 109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  5. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  6. Modeling the influence of snow cover temperature and water content on wet-snow avalanche runout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vera Valero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Snow avalanche motion is strongly dependent on the temperature and water content of the snow cover. In this paper we use a snow cover model, driven by measured meteorological data, to set the initial and boundary conditions for wet-snow avalanche calculations. The snow cover model provides estimates of snow height, density, temperature and liquid water content. This information is used to prescribe fracture heights and erosion heights for an avalanche dynamics model. We compare simulated runout distances with observed avalanche deposition fields using a contingency table analysis. Our analysis of the simulations reveals a large variability in predicted runout for tracks with flat terraces and gradual slope transitions to the runout zone. Reliable estimates of avalanche mass (height and density in the release and erosion zones are identified to be more important than an exact specification of temperature and water content. For wet-snow avalanches, this implies that the layers where meltwater accumulates in the release zone must be identified accurately as this defines the height of the fracture slab and therefore the release mass. Advanced thermomechanical models appear to be better suited to simulate wet-snow avalanche inundation areas than existing guideline procedures if and only if accurate snow cover information is available.

  7. Valorization of MSWI bottom ash for biogas desulfurization: Influence of biogas water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontseré Obis, Marta; Germain, Patrick; Troesch, Olivier; Spillemaecker, Michel; Benbelkacem, Hassen

    2017-02-01

    In this study an alternative valorization of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Bottom Ash (BA) for H 2 S elimination from landfill biogas was evaluated. Emphasis was given to the influence of water content in biogas on H 2 S removal efficiency by BA. A small-scale pilot was developed and implemented in a landfill site located in France. A new biogas analyzer was used and allowed real-time continuous measurement of CH 4 , CO 2 , O 2 , H 2 S and H 2 O in raw and treated biogas. The H 2 S removal efficiency of bottom ash was evaluated for different inlet biogas humidities: from 4 to 24g water /m 3 . The biogas water content was found to greatly affect bottom ash efficiency regarding H 2 S removal. With humid inlet biogas the H 2 S removal was almost 3 times higher than with a dry inlet biogas. Best removal capacity obtained was 56gH 2 S/kgdryBA. A humid inlet biogas allows to conserve the bottom ash moisture content for a maximum H 2 S retention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mineral and water content of A. gigas scales determine local micromechanical properties and energy dissipation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Omar P.; Gigos, Florian; Torres, Fernando G.

    2017-11-01

    Arapaima gigas scales are natural laminated composite materials made of individual layers with different degrees of mineralization, accompanied of varying mechanical properties. This natural design provides scales with hardness and flexibility, and can serve as a source of inspiration for the development of new layered composites with a hard surface and flexible base. In this paper, we have carried out cyclic micro-indentation tests on both; the internal and the highly mineralized external surface of air dried and wet scales, in order to assess the variation of their local micromechanical properties with regard to the mineral and water content. The load-penetration (P-h) curves showed that creep takes place throughout the application of a constant force during the micro-indentation tests, confirming the time dependent response of A. gigas scales. A model that accounted for the elastic, plastic and viscous responses of the samples was used to fit the experimental results. The penetration depth during loading and creep, as well as the energy dissipated are dependent on the water content. The used model suggests that the viscous response of the internal layer increases with the water content.

  9. Modification of stool's water content in constipated infants: management with an adapted infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Marina M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated.

  10. MUSIC-CONTENT-ADAPTIVE ROBUST PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS FOR A SEMANTICALLY CONSISTENT SEPARATION OF FOREGROUND AND BACKGROUND IN MUSIC AUDIO SIGNALS

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos , Hélène; Ellis , Daniel P.W.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) is a technique to decompose signals into sparse and low rank components, and has recently drawn the attention of the MIR field for the problem of separating leading vocals from accompaniment, with appealing re-sults obtained on small excerpts of music. However, the perfor-mance of the method drops when processing entire music tracks. We present an adaptive formulation of RPCA that incorporates music content information to guid...

  11. Virtual water content of temperate cereals and maize: Present and potential future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rost, Stefanie; Müller, Christoph; Bondeau, Alberte; Gerten, Dieter

    2010-04-01

    SummaryKnowledge of the virtual water content (VWC) of crops and especially its possible future developments is helpful for improvements in water productivity and water management, which are necessary at global scale due to rising demand for food, the necessity to ease present and future water scarcity, and the reduction of poverty. Using a dynamic global vegetation and water balance model (LPJmL), this study quantifies the VWC of two of the most important crop types worldwide, temperate cereals and maize, at high spatial resolution (0.5°). We analyzed present conditions (1999-2003) and also for the first time also for scenarios of future climate and increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (2041-2070; HadCM3, ECHAM5 and CCSM3 climate models, A2 emissions scenario). VWC presently differs significantly among regions: highest values are common in large parts of Africa (>2 m 3 kg -1), and lowest values were found e.g. for Central Europe (Europe, South Africa, Argentina, Australia and South East Asia—are projected to become less water efficient (higher VWC) for at least one of the crop types. CO 2 fertilisation was simulated to generally reduce VWC, though realisation of this effect in the field will depend, for example, on the intensity of nutrient management in the future. The potentially adverse future changes in VWC found here pose a challenge to water management efforts and eventually global trade policies.

  12. Water Content of Earth's Continental Mantle Is Controlled by the Circulation of Fluids or Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A key mission of the ARES Directorate at JSC is to constrain models of the formation and geological history of terrestrial planets. Water is a crucial parameter to be measured with the aim to determine its amount and distribution in the interior of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Most of that "water" is not liquid water per se, but rather hydrogen dissolved as a trace element in the minerals of the rocks at depth. Even so, the middle layer of differentiated planets, the mantle, occupies such a large volume and mass of each planet that when it is added at the planetary scale, oceans worth of water could be stored in its interior. The mantle is where magmas originate. Moreover, on Earth, the mantle is where the boundary between tectonic plates and the underlying asthenosphere is located. Even if mantle rocks in Earth typically contain less than 200 ppm H2O, such small quantities have tremendous influence on how easily they melt (i.e., the more water there is, the more magma is produced) and deform (the more water there is, the less viscous they are). These two properties alone emphasize that to understand the distribution of volcanism and the mechanism of plate tectonics, the water content of the mantle must be determined - Earth being a template to which all other terrestrial planets can be compared.

  13. A calculation method of available soil water content : application to viticultural terroirs mapping of the Loire valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Goulet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Vine water supply is one of the most important elements in the determination of grape composition and wine quality. Water supply conditions are in relation with available soil water content, therefore this one has to be determined when vineyard terroir mapping is undertaken. The available soil water content depends on soil factors like water content at field capacity, water content at the permanent wilting point, apparent density and rooting depth. The aim of this study is to seek the relationship between these factors and a simple soil characteristic such as texture which could be easily measurable in routine cartography. Study area is located in the Loire valley, in two different geological regions. First results indicate that it is possible to determine available soil water content from clay percentage, then from soil texture. These results also show that available soil water content algorithms differ with geological properties. This calculation can be used at each auger boring and results can be spatialised within a Geographical Information System that allows the production of available water content maps.

  14. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  15. Temperature Buffer Test. Measurements of water content and density of the excavated buffer material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    TBT (Temperature Buffer Test) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at understanding and modeling the thermo-hydromechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test was carried out at the - 420 m level in Aespoe HRL in a 8 meters deep and 1.76 m diameter deposition hole, with two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter), surrounded by a MX-80 bentonite buffer and a confining plug on top anchored with 9 rods. It was installed during spring 2003. The bentonite around upper heater was removed during the period October - December 2009 and the buffer around the lower heater was removed during January - Mars 2010. During dismantling of the buffer, samples were taken on which analyses were made. This report describes the work with the deteroemoeination of the water content and the density of the taken samples. Most of the samples were taken from the buffer by core drilling from the upper surface of each installed bentonite block. The cores had a diameter of about 50 mm and a maximum length equal to the original height of the bentonite blocks (about 500 mm). The water content of the buffer was determined by drying a sample at a temperature of 105 deg C for 24 h and the bulk density was determined by weighing a sample both in the air and immerged in paraffin oil with known density. The water content, dry density, degree of saturation and void ratio of the buffer were then plotted. The plots show that all parts of the buffer had taken up water and the degree of saturation of the buffer varied between 90 - 100%. Large variation in the dry density of the buffer was also observed.

  16. Gas Bubbles Investigation in Contaminated Water Using Optical Tomography Based on Independent Component Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Taufiq Mohd Khairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of concentration profiles for gas bubble flow in a vertical pipeline containing contaminated water using an optical tomography system. The concentration profiles for the bubble flow quantities are investigated under five different flows conditions, a single bubble, double bubbles, 25% of air opening, 50% of air opening, and 100% of air opening flow rates where a valve is used to control the gas flow in the vertical pipeline. The system is aided by the independent component analysis (ICA algorithm to reconstruct the concentration profiles of the liquid-gas flow. The behaviour of the gas bubbles was investigated in contaminated water in which the water sample was prepared by adding 25 mL of colour ingredients to 3 liters of pure water. The result shows that the application of ICA has enabled the system to detect the presence of gas bubbles in contaminated water. This information provides vital information on the flow inside the pipe and hence could be very significant in increasing the efficiency of the process industries.

  17. PRODUCTION COMPONENTS OF Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp IRRIGATED WITH BRACKISH WATER UNDER DIFFERENT LEACHING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ FRANCISCO DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production components of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp subjected to irrigation with brackish water and different leaching fractions. The experiment was conducted in a lysimeter system of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife campus. The treatments, consisting of two water salinity levels (ECw (1.2 and 3.3 dS m - 1 and five leaching fractions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, were evaluated using a completely randomized design in a 2x5 factorial arrangement with four replications. The variables evaluated were: number of pods per plant, 100 - grain weight, number of grains per pod, grain and shoot dry weight, grain yield and harvest index. The soil salinity increased with increasing salinity of the water used for irrigation, and reduced with increasing leaching fraction. The salinity of the water used for irrigation influenced only the variables number of pods per plant and grain yield. The estimated leaching fractions of 9.1% and 9.6% inhibited the damage caused by salinity on the number of pods per plant and grain yield, respectively. Therefore, the production of V. unguiculata irrigated with brackish water, leaching salts from the plant root environment, is possible under the conditions evaluated.

  18. Estimation of Leakage Ratio Using Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Jang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaks in a water distribution network (WDS constitute losses of water supply caused by pipeline failure, operational loss, and physical factors. This has raised the need for studies on the factors affecting the leakage ratio and estimation of leakage volume in a water supply system. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural network (ANN were used to estimate the volume of water leakage in a WDS. For the study, six main effective parameters were selected and standardized data obtained through the Z-score method. The PCA-ANN model was devised and the leakage ratio was estimated. An accuracy assessment was performed to compare the measured leakage ratio to that of the simulated model. The results showed that the PCA-ANN method was more accurate for estimating the leakage ratio than a single ANN simulation. In addition, the estimation results differed according to the number of neurons in the ANN model’s hidden layers. In this study, an ANN with multiple hidden layers was found to be the best method for estimating the leakage ratio with 12–12 neurons. This suggested approaches to improve the accuracy of leakage ratio estimation, as well as a scientific approach toward the sustainable management of water distribution systems.

  19. Spatio-temporal variability of soil water content on the local scale in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, North Eastern Spain). How different spatio-temporal scales reflect mean soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Antonio J.; Latron, Jérôme; Rubio, Carles M.; Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    As a result of complex human-land interactions and topographic variability, many Mediterranean mountain catchments are covered by agricultural terraces that have locally modified the soil water content dynamic. Understanding these local-scale dynamics helps us grasp better how hydrology behaves on the catchment scale. Thus, this study examined soil water content variability in the upper 30 cm of the soil on a Mediterranean abandoned terrace in north-east Spain. Using a dataset of high spatial (regular grid of 128 automatic TDR probes at 2.5 m intervals) and temporal (20-min time step) resolution, gathered throughout a 84-day period, the spatio-temporal variability of soil water content at the local scale and the way that different spatio-temporal scales reflect the mean soil water content were investigated. Soil water content spatial variability and its relation to wetness conditions were examined, along with the spatial structuring of the soil water content within the terrace. Then, the ability of single probes and of different combinations of spatial measurements (transects and grids) to provide a good estimate of mean soil water content on the terrace scale was explored by means of temporal stability analyses. Finally, the effect of monitoring frequency on the magnitude of detectable daily soil water content variations was studied. Results showed that soil water content spatial variability followed a bimodal pattern of increasing absolute variability with increasing soil water content. In addition, a linear trend of decreasing soil water content as the distance from the inner part of the terrace increased was identified. Once this trend was subtracted, resulting semi-variograms suggested that the spatial resolution examined was too high to appreciate spatial structuring in the data. Thus, the spatial pattern should be considered as random. Of all the spatial designs tested, the 10 × 10 m mesh grid (9 probes) was considered the most suitable option for a good

  20. Modeling of cavitation in sodium flow by water flow test in prototypical LMFBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soehendro, B.; Trejo, F.; Bonilla, C.F.

    1976-02-01

    Cavitation tests of water recirculating through a venturi or a rounded inlet nozzle were carried out under steady conditions. Water temperature was varied from 100 to 195 0 F. Argon was used as cover gas and to regulate pressure in the loop. Cavitation was detected by the voltage output of a piezo-electric lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic on a titanium alloy horn facing the cavitator outlet. Three different incipient and desinent cavitation modes, designated gaseous, gaseous-vaporous, and vaporous were observed, and no significant difference was found between the conditions for incipient and desinent cavitation. Local cavitation number and fraction of equilibrium argon pressure in the gas phase at incipient and desinent cavitation are almost constant in the ranges of temperature and argon content studied. Injection of gas into the stream does not change the conditions for vaporous cavitation, but affects the gaseous and gaseous-vaporous cavitation considerably

  1. Effect of water content on strontium retardation factor and distribution coefficient in Chinese loess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lijuan; Qian, Tianwei; Hao, Junting; Liu, Hongfang; Zhao, Dongye

    2013-12-01

    Geological burial and landfill are often employed for disposal of nuclear wastes. Typically, radionuclides from nuclear facilities transport through the unsaturated zone before reaching the groundwater aquifer. However, transport studies are often conducted under saturated and steady-state flow conditions. This research aimed to examine the effects of unsaturated flow conditions and soil water content (θ) on Sr sorption and retardation in Chinese loess through 1D column transport experiments. Reagent SrCl2 was used as a surrogate for the radioactive isotope ((90)Sr) in the experiment because of their analogous adsorption and transportation characteristics. The spatial distribution of Sr along the column length was determined by segmenting the soil bed and analysing the Sr content in each soil segment following each column breakthrough test. The single-region (SR) and two-region (TR) models were employed to interpret the transport data of Sr as well as a tracer (Br(-)), which resulted in the dispersion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (Rd) under a given set of unsaturated flow conditions. For the tracer, the SR and TR models offered nearly the same goodness of fitting to the breakthrough curves (R(2) ≈ 0.97 for both models). For the highly sorptive Sr, however, the TR model provided better fitting (R(2), 0.80-0.96) to the Sr retention profiles than the SR model (R(2), 0.20-0.89). The Sr retention curves exhibited physical non-equilibrium characteristics, particularly at lower water content of the soil. For the unsaturated soil, D and the pore water velocity (v) displayed a weak linear correlation, which is attributed to the altering dispersivity as the water content varies. A much improved linear correlation was observed between D and v/θ. The retardation factor of Sr increased from 69.1 to 174.2 as θ decreased from 0.46 to 0.26 (cm(3) cm(-3)), while the distribution coefficient (Kd) based on Rd remained nearly unchanged at various θ levels. These

  2. The effect of different water managements on rice arsenic content in two arsenic-spiked soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang H. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing rice on arsenic (As-contaminated paddy fields may induce high As level grain production. In order to reduce the food contamination risk, the pot experiments containing two As-spiked aging soils and four water managements were conducted to evaluate the effects of water managements on rice As content. The results indicated that As concentration of Erlin soil solution was 10 to 20 times (210-520 μg/L higher than that of Pinchen soil solution (5-20 μg/L at early stage of experiment (0-60 days. Aerobic water treatment will decrease As level to 30-50% (108-220 μg/L of original As concentration in Erlin soil solution. Statistic results indicated that water management was effective to reduce the rice grain As level in Erlin soil. However, the management impact was not obvious in Pinchen soil, which may be attributed to high clay or free Fe and Al content in the soil. This study suggested that keeping soil under aerobic condition for 3 weeks before rice heading can reduce the risk of rice grown at the As-contamination soil.

  3. Examination of uranium recovery technique from sea water using natural components for adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Masaki, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Takao; Tokiwai, Moriyasu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potency of natural components as adsorbent for uranium recovery from seawater. In addition, cost evaluation of uranium recovery from seawater using natural components for adsorbents was performed. Furthermore, new ideas on reservation system of adsorbents at sea area were proposed. Several poly-phenols were selected as adsorbent reagents, then they were adsorbed on the support such as cotton fiber by several methods as the followings; chemical syntheses, electrical beam irradiation, and traditional dyeing. As a result, the adsorbent made by traditional dyeing method using gallnut tannin as natural component, was showed high performance for uranium recovery from seawater on only the first. It was evaluated that traditional dyeing method had also advantage in the manufacturing cost, comparing with earlier method. Additionally, it was considered that reservation system of adsorbent at sea was able to be simplified compared with earlier system. Consequently, uranium recovery from sea water using natural components as adsorbent proposed in this study had a potency of practical use. (author)

  4. Non-invasive Field Measurements of Soil Water Content Using a Pulsed 14 MeV Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra S.; Wielopolski L.; Omonode, R.; Novak, J.; Frederick, J.; Chan, A.

    2012-01-26

    Current techniques of soil water content measurement are invasive and labor-intensive. Here, we demonstrate that an in situ soil carbon (C) analyzer with a multi-elemental analysis capability, developed for studies of terrestrial C sequestration, can be used concurrently to non-invasively measure the water content of large-volume ({approx}0.3 m{sup 3}) soil samples. Our objectives were to investigate the correlations of the hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) signals with water to the changes in the soil water content in laboratory experiments, and in an agricultural field. Implementing prompt gamma neutron activation analyses we showed that in the field, the signal from the H nucleus better indicates the soil water content than does that from the O nucleus. Using a field calibration, we were able to use the H signal to estimate a minimum detectable change of {approx}2% volumetric water in a 0-30 cm depth of soil.

  5. Technological advances in cosmogenic neutron detectors for measuring soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreda, M. G.; Schrön, M.; Köhli, M.

    2017-12-01

    The cosmic-ray neutron probe is used for measuring area-average soil water content at the hectometer scale. Early work showed a simple exponential decrease with distance of the instrument's sensitivity and a footprint 300 m in radius. Recent research suggested a much higher sensitivity to local neutrons and reduced footprint. We show results confirming the high sensitivity to local neutrons, describe two ways to reduce local and increase far-field effects, and propose ways of measuring neutrons at different spatial scales. Measurements with moderated detectors across a 10-m-wide creek and a 2-m-wide water tank show a decrease by 30% and 20%, respectively, of neutron intensity over water compared to that over land nearby. These results mean that the detector is sensitive to meter-scale heterogeneities of water content. This sensitivity can be reduced by rising the detector or by shielding it from local neutrons. The effect of local water distributions on the measured neutron intensity decreases with height. In the water tank experiment it disappeared almost completely at the height of 2 m, leading to the conjecture that the height roughly equal to the horizontal scale of heterogeneity would eliminate the sensitivity. This may or may not be practical. Shielding the detector below by a hydrogenous material removes a substantial fraction of the local neutrons. The shielded detector has a reduced count rate, reduced sensitivity to local neutrons and increased sensitivity to neutrons farther afield, and a larger footprint. Such a detector could be preferable to the current cosmogenic-neutron probe under heterogeneous soil water conditions. The shielding experiments also inspired the development of a local-area neutron detector. It has hydrogenous neutron shields on all sides except the bottom, substantially blocking the neutrons coming from afar, while allowing the neutrons coming directly from below. Its footprint is equal to its physical dimension when the detector is

  6. Characterization of Volume F Trash from Four Recent STS Missions: Weights, Categorization, Water Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard F.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; McCoy, LaShelle E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The fate of space-generated solid wastes, including trash, for future missions is under consideration by NASA. Several potential treatment options are under consideration and active technology development. Potential fates for space-generated solid wastes are: Storage without treatment; storage after treatment(s) including volume reduction, water recovery, sterilization, and recovery plus recycling of waste materials. Recycling might be important for partial or full closure scenarios because of the prohibitive costs associated with resupply of consumable materials. For this study, we determined the composition of trash returned from four recent STS missions. The trash material was 'Volume F' trash and other trash, in large zip-lock bags, that accompanied the Volume F trash. This is the first of two submitted papers on these wastes. This one will cover trash content, weight and water content. The other will report on the microbial Characterization of this trash. STS trash was usually made available within 2 days of landing at KSC. The Volume F bag was weighed, opened and the contents were catalogued and placed into one of the following categories: food waste (and containers), drink containers, personal hygiene items - including EVA maximum absorbent garments (MAGs)and Elbow packs (daily toilet wipes, etc), paper, and packaging materials - plastic firm and duct tape. Trash generation rates for the four STS missions: Total wet trash was 0.602 plus or minus 0.089 kg(sub wet) crew(sup -1) d(sup -1) containing about 25% water at 0.154 plus or minus 0.030 kg(sub water) crew(sup -1) d(sup -1) (avg plus or minus stdev). Cataloguing by category: personal hygiene wastes accounted for 50% of the total trash and 69% of the total water for the four missions; drink items were 16% of total weight and 16% water; food wastes were 22% of total weight and 15% of the water; office waste and plastic film were 2% and 11% of the total waste and did not contain any water. The results can be

  7. Effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on yield, yield components and essential oil contents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fertilizers are the key components which provide plant nutrients' needs in recent years (Omid Jangir & Sing, 1996; Kapoor et al., 2007. In many cases, using chemical fertilizers has different negative environmental effects such as soil, water and air pollution, which increase environmental hazardous and production costs (Jangir & Sing, 1996; Kapoor et al., 2007. Biological activities are markedly enhanced by microbial interactions in the rhizosphere of plants (Kapoor et al., 2007. Many investigators have successfully used mycorrhiza to increase the availability of immobilized phosphate and thus minimize the use of mineral fertilizers. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF can better enable a plant to withstand environmental stresses such as drought and salinity. AMF interacts with pathogens and other rhizosphere inhabitants which affect plant health and nutrition. More importantly, mycorrhizal fungi are capable of dissolving weakly soluble soil minerals, especially phosphate, by releasing acids or increasing CO2 partial pressure (Gupta et al., 2002; Gosling et al., 2006; Kapoor et al., 2007. Therefore, they have the ability to enhance host plant uptake of relatively immobile nutrients particularly P, S and Zn. Limited water supply is also another major environmental constraint in the productivity of crop and medicinal plants. Moisture deficiency induces various physiological and metabolic responses such as stomatal closure, decline in growth rate and photosynthesis (Flexas and Medrano, 2002. The results of Baher et al. (2002 showed that greater soil water stress decreased plant height and total fresh and dry weight of Satureja hortensis. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on the growth, quantitative and qualitative yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L., a field experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized

  8. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  9. Water quality in the Tibetan Plateau: Metal contents of four selected rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiang; Sillanpaeae, Mika; Duo Bu; Gjessing, Egil T.

    2008-01-01

    The water used by 85% of the Asian population originates in Tibetan Plateau. During April and May of 2006, water samples were collected from four major Asian rivers in the Plateau (i.e. the Salween, Mekong, Yangtze River and Yarlung Tsangpo) and analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Li, Mn, Al, Fe, Mg and Hg. The results showed that elements such as Mg were rather high in Tibetan rivers, giving a mean electrical conductance of 36 mS/m. In a few locations, the results also showed relatively high concentrations of Al and Fe (>1 mg/L). However, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, and Cr were generally low. Contamination with Pb was identified at a few locations in the Salween and Ni at a few sites in the Yangtze River. - For the first time, total dissolved metal contents in source water of four major Asian rivers were evaluated at the same time

  10. Enhancement of Protein and Pigment Content in Two Chlorella Species Cultivated on Industrial Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Uldall Nørregaard, Patrick; Ljubic, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris were cultivated in pre-gasified industrial process water with high concentration of ammonia representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of growth media and cultivation duration on the nutritional...... pyrenoidosa produced the highest concentrations of protein (65.2% ± 1.30% DW) while Chlorella vulgaris accumulated extremely high concentrations of lutein and chlorophylls (7.14 ± 0.66 mg/g DW and 32.4 ± 1.77 mg/g DW, respectively). Cultivation of Chlorella species in industrial process water...... composition of biomass. Variations in proteins, lipid, fatty acid composition, amino acids, tocopherols, and pigments were studied. Both species grew well in industrial process water. The contents of proteins were affected significantly by the growth media and cultivation duration. Microalga Chlorella...

  11. Water content determination of soil surface in an intensive apple orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riczu, Péter; Nagy, Gábor; Tamás, János

    2015-04-01

    Currently in Hungary, less than 100,000 hectares of orchards can be found, from which cultivation of apple is one of the most dominant ones. Production of marketable horticulture products can be difficult without employing advanced and high quality horticulture practices, which, in turn, depends on appropriate management and irrigation systems, basically. The got out water amount depend on climatic, edafic factors and the water demand of plants as well. The soil water content can be determined by traditional and modern methods. In order to define soil moisture content, gravimetry measurement is one of the most accurate methods, but it is time consuming and sometimes soil sampling and given results are in different times. Today, IT provides the farmers such tools, like global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). These tools develop in a great integration rapidly. RS methods are ideal to survey larger area quick and accurate. Laser scanning is a novel technique which analyses a real-world or object environment to collect structural and spectral data. In order to obtain soil moisture information, the Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial 3D laser scanner was used on an intensive apple orchard on the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen, near Pallag. Previously, soil samples from the study area with different moisture content were used as reference points. Based on the return intensity values of the laser scanner can be distinguished the different moisture content areas of soil surface. Nevertheless, the error of laser distance echo were examined and statistically evaluated. This research was realized in the frames of TÁMOP 4.2.4. A/2-11-1-2012-0001 "National Excellence Program - Elaborating and operating an inland student and researcher personal support system". The project was subsidized by the European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund.

  12. [Arsenic contents in soil, water, and crops in an e-waste disposal area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chun-xia; Yin, Xue-bin; Song, Jing; Li, Chen-xi; Qian, Wei; Zhao, Qi-guo; Luo, Yong-ming

    2008-06-01

    In order to study whether disposing electronic wastes and secondary metal smelting could cause an arsenic pollution in the environment or not, Luqiao town, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province was selected as a study area. The main purpose of this paper was to characterize arsenic contents in the local environment, including waters, sediments, soils and rice, and to assess the potential risk to humans. Additionally, the arsenic spatial distribution property and arsenic uptake-translocation rule in soil-rice system were also studied. The results showed that the average arsenic levels in the surface water and the groundwater were 8.26 microg/L and 18.52 microg/L, respectively, which did not exceed the limiting value of Chinese Environment Standards class III . Whereas,some groundwater exceeded the recommended standard by the WHO for drinking water (10 microg/L). The arsenic (on average 7.11 mg/kg) in paddy soils and arsenic (on average 6.17 mg/kg) in the vegetable garden soils were lower than the value recommended by the National Standard (level I). The average arsenic contents in brown rice and husks were 165.1 microg/kg and 144.2 microg/kg, which was also lower than the Chinese Foods Quality Standard. The arsenic contents between the corresponding soils-rice and husks-brown rice showed significantly positive correlations. By comparison, the arsenic contents of soils and husks collected around electroplating were relatively higher than most of other pollutant sources, indicating the electroplating may lead accumulation of arsenic in the paddy soil-rice system.

  13. Robust spatialization of soil water content at the scale of an agricultural field using geophysical and geostatistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henine, Hocine; Tournebize, Julien; Laurent, Gourdol; Christophe, Hissler; Cournede, Paul-Henry; Clement, Remi

    2017-04-01

    Research on the Critical Zone (CZ) is a prerequisite for undertaking issues related to ecosystemic services that human societies rely on (nutrient cycles, water supply and quality). However, while the upper part of CZ (vegetation, soil, surface water) is readily accessible, knowledge of the subsurface remains limited, due to the point-scale character of conventional direct observations. While the potential for geophysical methods to overcome this limitation is recognized, the translation of the geophysical information into physical properties or states of interest remains a challenge (e.g. the translation of soil electrical resistivity into soil water content). In this study, we propose a geostatistical framework using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) approach to assimilate geophysical and point-scale data. We especially focus on the prediction of the spatial distribution of soil water content using (1) TDR point-scale measurements of soil water content, which are considered as accurate data, and (2) soil water content data derived from electrical resistivity measurements, which are uncertain data but spatially dense. We used a synthetic dataset obtained with a vertical 2D domain to evaluate the performance of this geostatistical approach. Spatio-temporal simulations of soil water content were carried out using Hydrus-software for different scenarios: homogeneous or heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution, and continuous or punctual infiltration pattern. From the simulations of soil water content, conceptual soil resistivity models were built using a forward modeling approach and point sampling of water content values, vertically ranged, were done. These two datasets are similar to field measurements of soil electrical resistivity (using electrical resistivity tomography, ERT) and soil water content (using TDR probes) obtained at the Boissy-le-Chatel site, in Orgeval catchment (East of Paris, France). We then integrated them into a specialization

  14. Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Relationships between Chlorophyll a, b and Chlorophyll Content Index under Water Stress in Olea europaea cv. Dezful

    OpenAIRE

    E. Khaleghi; K. Arzani; N. Moallemi; M. Barzegar

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine effect of water stress on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter in young `Dezful- olive trees. Three irrigation regimes (40% ETcrop, 65% ETcrop and 100% ETcrop) were used. After irrigation treatments were applied, some of biochemical parameters including chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence and also chlorophyll content index (C.C.I) were measured. Results of Analysis of variance showed that irrigation treatmen...

  15. Content Analysis of Suicide Notes as a Test of the Motivational Component of the Existential-Constructivist Model of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James R.; Bromley, Jamie L.; McNally, Christopher J.; Lester, David

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 40 suicide notes were analyzed for motivational content in relation to an existential-constructivist theory of suicide. Results generally supported the 4 theoretical categories of somatic, relational, spiritual, and psychological motivations, with 39 notes having content that could be classified according to the aforementioned…

  16. Experimental dehydration of natural obsidian and estimation of DH2O at low water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, A.; Zhang, Y.; Stolper, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    Water diffusion experiments were carried out by dehydrating rhyolitic obsidian from Valles Caldera (New Mexico, USA) at 510-980 degrees C. The starting glass wafers contained approximately 0.114 wt% total water, lower than any glasses previously investigated for water diffusion. Weight loss due to dehydration was measured as a function of experiment duration, which permits determination of mean bulk water diffusivity, mean Dw. These diffusivities are in the range of 2.6 to 18 X 10(-14) m2/s and can be fit with the following Arrhenius equation: ln mean Dw (m2/s) = -(25.10 +/- 1.29) - (46,480 +/- 11,400) (J/mol) / RT, except for two replicate runs at 510 degrees C which give mean Dw values much lower than that defined by the above equation. When interpreted according to a model of water speciation in which molecular H2O is the diffusing species with concentration-independent diffusivity while OH units do not contribute to the transport but react to provide H2O, the data (except for the 510 degrees C data) are in agreement with extrapolation from previous results and hence extend the previous data base and provide a test of the applicability of the model to very low water contents. Mean bulk water diffusivities are about two orders of magnitude less than molecular H2O diffusivities because the fraction of molecular H2O out of total water is very small at 0.114 wt% total water and less. The 510 degrees C experimental results can be interpreted as due to slow kinetics of OH to H2O interconversion at low temperatures.

  17. Estimation of available water capacity components of two-layered soils using crop model inversion: Effect of crop type and water regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelash, K.; Buis, Samuel; Sekhar, M.; Ruiz, Laurent; Kumar Tomer, Sat; Guérif, Martine

    2017-03-01

    Characterization of the soil water reservoir is critical for understanding the interactions between crops and their environment and the impacts of land use and environmental changes on the hydrology of agricultural catchments especially in tropical context. Recent studies have shown that inversion of crop models is a powerful tool for retrieving information on root zone properties. Increasing availability of remotely sensed soil and vegetation observations makes it well suited for large scale applications. The potential of this methodology has however never been properly evaluated on extensive experimental datasets and previous studies suggested that the quality of estimation of soil hydraulic properties may vary depending on agro-environmental situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach on an extensive field experiment. The dataset covered four crops (sunflower, sorghum, turmeric, maize) grown on different soils and several years in South India. The components of AWC (available water capacity) namely soil water content at field capacity and wilting point, and soil depth of two-layered soils were estimated by inversion of the crop model STICS with the GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach using observations of surface soil moisture (SSM; typically from 0 to 10 cm deep) and leaf area index (LAI), which are attainable from radar remote sensing in tropical regions with frequent cloudy conditions. The results showed that the quality of parameter estimation largely depends on the hydric regime and its interaction with crop type. A mean relative absolute error of 5% for field capacity of surface layer, 10% for field capacity of root zone, 15% for wilting point of surface layer and root zone, and 20% for soil depth can be obtained in favorable conditions. A few observations of SSM (during wet and dry soil moisture periods) and LAI (within water stress periods) were sufficient to significantly improve the estimation of AWC

  18. The Nature of Relationships among the Components of Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Preservice Science Teachers: "Ozone Layer Depletion" as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Osman N.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among the components of preservice science teachers' (PSTs) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) involving the topic "ozone layer depletion". An open-ended survey was first administered to 216 PSTs in their final year at the Faculty of Education to determine their subject matter…

  19. Challenges Associated with the Content of the Art History Component in the General Knowledge in Art Subject: Implications for Art History Education in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Dickson; Kquofi, Steve; Agyem, Joe Adu

    2016-01-01

    The content of the Art History component in the General Knowledge in Art subject studied by various Senior High Schools in West Africa is largely of foreign art histories at the expense of the histories of African indigenous arts which are shallowly presented in the teaching syllabus to be taught students. This makes the students appreciate more…

  20. Identification of components contents of oil extracts and its aromatic fractions. Extracted from oil-polluted soils of Surakhany oilfield of Apsheron peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasova, D.R.; Kerimov, M.K.; Cafarova, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work have been studied components content of oil extracts and its aromatic fraction of Surakhany oilfield by DSC and TGA in follow temperature interval 20-500 degrees Celsium. Have been identified that low paraffinicity of oil fraction and oil extract and its aromatic fraction in this investigation show to young geological age (low transformation) of this oil.

  1. The Analysis of Content and Operational Components of Public School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Kravets, Svitlana; Khamulyak, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    In the article the content and operational components of continuing professional development of public school teachers in Great Britain, Canada, the USA have been characterized. The main objectives are defined as the theoretical analysis of scientific-pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research;…

  2. The Nature of the Interplay among Components of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Reaction Rate and Chemical Equilibrium Topics of Novice and Experienced Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Fatma Nur; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen

    2018-01-01

    We examined the interactions among pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) components of novice and experienced chemistry teachers in teaching reaction rate and chemical equilibrium topics in this qualitative multiple-case design study. For this aim, three chemistry teachers who had different levels of teaching experience in chemistry teaching were…

  3. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golodniuk Olena S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their results into management of competitive advantages of enterprises. It draws a conclusion about a necessity of: reducing evident and growth of a number of latent competitive advantages, based on intellectual technologies, and also development and realisation of a conceptual model of providing marketing innovations in the system of managing competitive advantages of enterprises; and formation of the system of monitoring marketing innovations with the aim of development of additional services and means of building competitive advantages of enterprises that produce mineral waters.

  4. Experimental Study of the Cooling of Electrical Components Using Water Film Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Harmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer, which occur in the evaporation of a falling film of water, are studied experimentally. This evaporation allows the dissipation of the heat flux produced by twelve resistors, which simulate electrical components on the back side of an aluminium plate. On the front side of the plate, a falling film of water flows by the action of gravity. An inverse heat conduction model, associated with a spatial regularisation, was developed and produces the local heat fluxes on the plate using the measured temperatures. The efficiency of this evaporative process has been studied with respect to several parameters: imposed heat flux, inlet mass flow rate, and geometry. A comparison of the latent and sensible fluxes used to dissipate the imposed heat flux was studied in the case of a plexiglass sheet in front of the falling film at different distances from the aluminium plate.

  5. Water Content Effect on Oxides Yield in Gas and Liquid Phase Using DBD Arrays in Mist Spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingyan; Zhu Changping; He Xiang; Yin Cheng; Fei Juntao; Wang Yuan; Jiang Yongfeng; Chen Longwei; Gao Yuan; Han Qingbang

    2016-01-01

    Electric discharge in and in contact with water can accompany ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electron impact, which can generate a large number of active species such as hydroxyl radicals (OH), oxygen radical (O), ozone (O 3 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In this paper, a nonthermal plasma processing system was established by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) arrays in water mist spray. The relationship between droplet size and water content was examined, and the effects of the concentrations of oxides in both treated water and gas were investigated under different water content and discharge time. The relative intensity of UV spectra from DBD in water mist was a function of water content. The concentrations of both O 3 and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in DBD room decreased with increasing water content. Moreover, the concentrations of H 2 O 2 , O 3 and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in treated water decreased with increasing water content, and all the ones enhanced after discharge. The experimental results were further analyzed by chemical reaction equations and commented by physical principles as much as possible. At last, the water containing phenol was tested in this system for the concentration from 100 mg/L to 9.8 mg/L in a period of 35 min. (paper)

  6. Effect of water content on specific heat capacity of porcine septum cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yongseok; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Wong, Brian J.

    2002-06-01

    The effect of water content on specific heat capacity was examined using temperature modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC). This research was motivated in part by the development laser cartilage reshaping operations, which use photothermal heating to accelerate stress relaxation and shape change. Deposition of thermal energy leads to mechanical stress relaxation and redistribution of cartilage internal stresses, which may lead to a permanent shape change. The specific heat of cartilage specimens (dia: 3 mm and thickness 1-2 mm) was measured using a heating rate of 2 degree(s)C/min for conventional DSC and 2 degree(s)C/min with an amplitude 0.38-0.45 degree(s)C and a period 60-100 sec for TMDSC. The amount of water in cartilaginous tissue was determined using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) under ambient conditions. In order to correlate changes in heat flow with alterations in cartilage mechanical behavior, dynamic mechanical temperature analysis (DMTA) was used to estimate the specific transition temperatures where stress relaxation occurs. With decreasing water content, we identified a phase transition that shifted to a higher temperature after 35-45% water content was measured. The phase transition energy increased from 0.12 J/g to 1.68 J/g after a 45% weight loss. This study is a preliminary investigation focused on understanding the mechanism of the stress relaxation of cartilage during heating. The energy requirement of such a transition estimated using TMDSC and temperature range, where cartilage shape changes likely occur, was estimated.

  7. Desiccation resistance: effect of cuticular hydrocarbons and water content in Drosophila melanogaster adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Ferveur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The insect cuticle covers the whole body and all appendages and has bi-directionnal selective permeability: it protects against environmental stress and pathogen infection and also helps to reduce water loss. The adult cuticle is often associated with a superficial layer of fatty acid-derived molecules such as waxes and long chain hydrocarbons that prevent rapid dehydration. The waterproofing properties of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs depend on their chain length and desaturation number. Drosophila CH biosynthesis involves an enzymatic pathway including several elongase and desaturase enzymes. Methods The link between desiccation resistance and CH profile remains unclear, so we tested (1 experimentally selected desiccation-resistant lines, (2 transgenic flies with altered desaturase expression and (3 natural and laboratory-induced CH variants. We also explored the possible relationship between desiccation resistance, relative water content and fecundity in females. Results We found that increased desiccation resistance is linked with the increased proportion of desaturated CHs, but not with their total amount. Experimentally-induced desiccation resistance and CH variation both remained stable after many generations without selection. Conversely, flies with a higher water content and a lower proportion of desaturated CHs showed reduced desiccation resistance. This was also the case in flies with defective desaturase expression in the fat body. Discussion We conclude that rapidly acquired desiccation resistance, depending on both CH profile and water content, can remain stable without selection in a humid environment. These three phenotypes, which might be expected to show a simple relationship, turn out to have complex physiological and genetic links.

  8. Content of 226Ra in tap and mineral waters of the Republic of Croatia and possible health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the study of the content of 222 Ra in drinking water of Croatia: tap water from the public supply system of several major urban centres and bottled mineral water from two mineral water springs. 222 Ra was determined by alpha-spectrometric measurement after radiochemical separation. The study showed that 222 Ra concentrations for investigated categories of waters are below the levels at which any unacceptable dose due to ingestion would arise. (author)

  9. Determination of the water quality and radon content in wells located at the Cuitzeo basin, Michoacan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, R.; Segovia, N.; Pena, P.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Martinez, V.; Armienta, M.A.; Rangel, J.; Seidel, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Major elements, trace elements, presence of microorganisms and, radon content in wells located in urban and rural zones around the Cuitzeo lake at the Lerma River basin in Mexico were determined. The techniques to determine the parameters were the liquid scintillation method for 222 Rn, Icp-Ms for trace elements, conventional chemical analysis for major components and the counting in slide for the bacteriological determination. The average concentration of radon oscillated between 0.88 and 4.75 Bq/lt which, indicated a fast transit from the reload toward the spring exit. The major components and trace elements are analysed considering the geological characteristics of the sites in study. Faecal coliforms were not found. (Author)

  10. Mechanical impedance of soil crusts and water content in loamy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josa March, Ramon; Verdú, Antoni M. C.; Mas, Maria Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Soil crust development affects soil water dynamics and soil aeration. Soil crusts act as mechanical barriers to fluid flow and, as their mechanical impedance increases with drying, they also become obstacles to seedling emergence. As a consequence, the emergence of seedling cohorts (sensitive seeds) might be reduced. However, this may be of interest to be used as an effective system of weed control. Soil crusting is determined by several factors: soil texture, rain intensity, sedimentation processes, etc. There are different ways to characterize the crusts. One of them is to measure their mechanical impedance (MI), which is linked to their moisture level. In this study, we measured the evolution of the mechanical impedance of crusts formed by three loamy soil types (clay loam, loam and sandy clay loam, USDA) with different soil water contents. The aim of this communication was to establish a mathematical relationship between the crust water content and its MI. A saturated soil paste was prepared and placed in PVC cylinders (50 mm diameter and 10 mm height) arranged on a plastic tray. Previously the plastic tray was sprayed with a hydrophobic liquid to prevent the adherence of samples. The samples on the plastic tray were left to air-dry under laboratory conditions until their IM was measured. To measure IM, a food texture analyzer was used. The equipment incorporates a mobile arm, a load cell to apply force and a probe. The arm moves down vertically at a constant rate and the cylindrical steel probe (4 mm diameter) penetrates the soil sample vertically at a constant rate. The equipment is provided with software to store data (time, vertical distance and force values) at a rate of up to 500 points per second. Water content in crust soil samples was determined as the loss of weight after oven-drying (105°C). From the results, an exponential regression between MI and the water content was obtained (determination coefficient very close to 1). This methodology allows

  11. MONITORING OF PHOSPHORUS CONTENT IN “WATER-PARTICULATE MATERIALS-BOTTOM SEDIMENTS SYSTEM” FOR RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of phosphorus content in “water-particulatematerials-bottom sediments system” for river Prut. Seasonal and spatialdynamics of phosphorus forms in water, particulate materials and bottomsediments of river Prut was elucidated. The scheme for determination ofphosphorus forms in water and particulate materials according to World HealthOrganization classification was evaluated. Additionally, this scheme was tested forestimation of phosphorus content in bottom sediments. The supplemented schemeallows the analysis of the phosphorus forms for the entirely system “water –particulate materials – bottom sediments”, extending possibilities for interpretationof phosphorus dynamics in natural waters.

  12. Growth, gas exchange, foliar nitrogen content, and water use of subirrigated and overhead irrigated Populus tremuloides Michx. seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Matthew M. Aghai; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Kent G. Apostal

    2011-01-01

    Because limitations on water used by container nurseries has become commonplace, nursery growers will have to improve irrigation management. Subirrigation systems may provide an alternative to overhead irrigation systems by mitigating groundwater pollution and excessive water consumption. Seedling growth, gas exchange, leaf nitrogen (N) content, and water use were...

  13. Pedotransfer functions to estimate soil water content at field capacity and permanent wilting point in hot arid western India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santra, P.; Kumar, M.; Kumawat, R.N.; Painuli, D.K.; Hati, K.M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Batjes, N.H.

    2018-01-01

    Characterization of soil water retention, e.g., water content at field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (PWP) over a landscape plays a key role in efficient utilization of available scarce water resources in dry land agriculture; however, direct measurement thereof for multiple locations in

  14. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  15. Gas exchange and leaf contents in bell pepper under energized water and biofertilizer doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca R. M. Borges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of energized water and bovine biofertilizer doses on the gas exchange and NPK contents in leaves of yellow bell pepper plants. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Federal University of Ceará, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, from June to November 2011. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme; the plots were composed of treatments with energized and non-energized water and the subplots of five doses of liquid biofertilizer (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mL plant-1 week-1. The following variables were analyzed: transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and leaf contents of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K. Water energization did not allow significant increases in the analyzed variables. The use of biofertilizer as the only source of fertilization was sufficient to provide the nutrients N, P and K at appropriate levels for the bell pepper crop.

  16. Influence of hydrazine primary water chemistry on corrosion of fuel cladding and primary circuit components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iourmanov, V.; Pashevich, V.; Bogancs, J.; Tilky, P.; Schunk, J.; Pinter, T.

    1999-01-01

    Earlier at Paks 1-4 NPP standard ammonia chemistry was in use. The following station performance indicators were improved when hydrazine primary water chemistry was introduced: occupational radiation exposures of personnel; gamma-radiation dose rates near primary system components during refuelling and maintenance outages. The reduction of radiation exposures and radiation fields were achieved without significant expenses. Recent results of experimental studies allowed to explain the mechanism of hydrazine dosing influence on: corrosion rate of structure materials in primary coolant; behaviour of soluble and insoluble corrosion products including long-life corrosion-induced radionuclides in primary system during steady-state and transient operation modes; radiolytic generation of oxidising radiolytic products in core and its corrosion activity in primary system; radiation situation during refuelling and maintenance outages; foreign material degradation and removal (including corrosion active oxidant species) from primary system during abnormal events. Operational experience and experimental data have shown that hydrazine primary water chemistry allows to reduce corrosion wear and thereby makes it possible to extend the life-time of plant components in primary system. (author)

  17. ATR-IR study of skin components: Lipids, proteins and water. Part I: Temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, S.; Pietruszka, A.; Kiełbowicz, Z.; Czarnecki, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report the studies of the effect of temperature on skin components, such as lipids, proteins and water. Modifications of lipids structure induced by increasing temperature (from 20 to 90 °C) have been studied using ATR-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool for characterization of the molecular structure and properties of tissues, such as skin. Due to the small depth of penetration (0.6-5.6 μm), ATR-IR spectroscopy probes only the outermost layer of the skin, i.e. the stratum corneum (SC). The assignment of main spectral features of skin components allows for the determination of phase transitions from the temperature dependencies of band intensities [e.g. νas(CH2) and νs(CH2)]. The phase transitions were determined by using two methods: the first one was based on the first derivative of the Boltzmann function and the second one employed tangent lines of sigmoidal, aforementioned dependencies. The phase transitions in lipids were correlated with modifications of the structure of water and proteins.

  18. Mustiscaling Analysis applied to field Water Content through Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez Buelga, Javier; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sanchez, Raul; Gil, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    signal variation, or to see at which scales signals are most correlated. This can give us an insight into the dominant processes An alternative to both of the above methods has been described recently. Relative entropy and increments in relative entropy has been applied in soil images (Bird et al., 2006) and in soil transect data (Tarquis et al., 2008) to study scale effects localized in scale and provide the information that is complementary to the information about scale dependencies found across a range of scales. We will use them in this work to describe the spatial scaling properties of a set of field water content data measured in an extension of a corn field, in a plot of 500 m2 and an spatial resolution of 25 cm. These measurements are based on an optics cable (BruggSteal) buried on a ziz-zag deployment at 30cm depth. References Bird, N., M.C. Díaz, A. Saa, and A.M. Tarquis. 2006. A review of fractal and multifractal analysis of soil pore-scale images. J. Hydrol. 322:211-219. Kravchenko, A.N., R. Omonode, G.A. Bollero, and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:235-243. Lark, R.M., A.E. Milne, T.M. Addiscott, K.W.T. Goulding, C.P. Webster, and S. O'Flaherty. 2004. Scale- and location-dependent correlation of nitrous oxide emissions with soil properties: An analysis using wavelets. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:611-627. Lark, R.M., S.R. Kaffka, and D.L. Corwin. 2003. Multiresolution analysis of data on electrical conductivity of soil using wavelets. J. Hydrol. 272:276-290. Lark, R. M. and Webster, R. 1999. Analysis and elucidation of soil variation using wavelets. European J. of Soil Science, 50(2): 185-206. Mandelbrot, B.B. 1982. The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman, New York. Percival, D.B., and A.T. Walden. 2000. Wavelet methods for time series analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. Tarquis, A.M., N.R. Bird, A.P. Whitmore, M.C. Cartagena, and

  19. Influence of water content on the ablation of skin with a 532 nm nanosecond Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Eom, Tae Joong; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    This work reports that the ablation volume and rate of porcine skin changed significantly with the change of skin water content. Under the same laser irradiation conditions (532 nm Nd:YAG laser, pulse width=11.5 ns, pulse energy=1.54 J, beam radius=0.54 mm), the ablation volume dropped by a factor of 4 as the skin water content decreased from 40 wt. % (native) to 19 wt. % with a change in the ablation rate below and above around 25 wt. %. Based on the ablation characteristics observed by in situ shadowgraph images and the calculated tissue temperatures, it is considered that an explosive rupture by rapid volumetric vaporization of water is responsible for the ablation of the high water content of skin, whereas thermal disintegration of directly irradiated surface layer is responsible for the low water content of skin.

  20. Role of Water Vapor Content in the Effects of Aerosol on the Electrification of Thunderstorms: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We explored the role of the water vapor content below the freezing level in the response of idealized supercell storm electrical processes to increased concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with parameterizations electrification and discharging, we performed 30 simulations by varying both the CCN concentration and water vapor content below the freezing level. The sensitivity simulations showed a distinct response to increased concentrations of CCN, depending on the water vapor content below the freezing level. Enhancing CCN concentrations increased electrification processes of thunderstorms and produced a new negative charge region above the main positive charge center when there were ample amounts of water vapor below the freezing level. Conversely, there were weak effects on electrification and the charge structure in numerical experiments initialized with lower water vapor content below the freezing level.