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Sample records for water bound macadam

  1. Research on differences and correlation between tensile, compression and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the differences and conversion relations between the tensile, compressive and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam, in this paper, we develop a new test method for measuring three moduli simultaneously. By using the materials testing system, we test three moduli of the cement stabilized macadam under different loading rates, propose a flexural modulus calculation formula which considers the shearing effect, reveal the change rules of the tensile, compression and flexural moduli with the loading rate and establish the conversion relationships between the three moduli. The results indicate that: three moduli become larger with the increase of the loading rate, showing a power function pattern; with the shear effect considered, the flexural modulus is increased by 47% approximately over that in the current test method; the tensile and compression moduli of cement stabilized macadam are significantly different. Therefore, if only the compression modulus is used as the structural design parameter of asphalt pavement, there will be a great deviation in the analysis of the load response. In order to achieve scientific design and calculation, the appropriate design parameters should be chosen based on the actual stress state at each point inside the pavement structure.

  2. 水稳碎石基层双层连铺技术在某高速中的应用%Application of water-bound foundation double-layer paving technique in Pingyang highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武海燕

    2011-01-01

    通过对平阳路面五标水稳碎石基层采用双层连铺的施工工艺,对水稳双层连铺与单层铺筑的工艺进行对比,并对试验段扰动最大部位进行芯样钻取,检测结果表明:双层连铺具有层间粘结良好,整体路用性能好,在保证工程质量的前提下,可以有效缩短工期和提高经济效益。%Through applying double-layer paving technique for standard No. 5 water-bound macadam of Pingyang pavement, it compares waterbound double-laying paving technique to single-layer paving technique, carries on core testing for maximum disturbing part at experimental sec- tion. Testing results show that: double-layer paving has some advantages, such as good layer sticking effect, good road performance, and can ef- fectively shorten construction duration and improve economic benefits in the premise of guaranteeing engineering quality.

  3. Number of discernible colors for color-deficient observers estimated from the MacAdam limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Esther; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco Miguel; Linhares, João Manuel Maciel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    We estimated the number of colors perceived by color normal and color-deficient observers when looking at the theoretic limits of object-color stimuli. These limits, the optimal color stimuli, were computed for a color normal observer and CIE standard illuminant D65, and the resultant colors were expressed in the CIELAB and DIN99d color spaces. The corresponding color volumes for abnormal color vision were computed using models simulating for normal trichromatic observers the appearance for dichromats and anomalous trichomats. The number of colors perceived in each case was then computed from the color volumes enclosed by the optimal colors also known as MacAdam limits. It was estimated that dichromats perceive less than 1% of the colors perceived by normal trichromats and that anomalous trichromats perceive 50%-60% for anomalies in the medium-wavelength-sensitive and 60%-70% for anomalies in the long-wavelength-sensitive cones. Complementary estimates obtained similarly for the spectral locus of monochromatic stimuli suggest less impairment for color-deficient observers, a fact that is explained by the two-dimensional nature of the locus.

  4. Mass size distribution of particle-bound water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepari, S.; Simonetti, G.; Perrino, C.

    2017-09-01

    The thermal-ramp Karl-Fisher method (tr-KF) for the determination of PM-bound water has been applied to size-segregated PM samples collected in areas subjected to different environmental conditions (protracted atmospheric stability, desert dust intrusion, urban atmosphere). This method, based on the use of a thermal ramp for the desorption of water from PM samples and the subsequent analysis by the coulometric KF technique, had been previously shown to differentiate water contributes retained with different strength and associated to different chemical components in the atmospheric aerosol. The application of the method to size-segregated samples has revealed that water showed a typical mass size distribution in each one of the three environmental situations that were taken into consideration. A very similar size distribution was shown by the chemical PM components that prevailed during each event: ammonium nitrate in the case of atmospheric stability, crustal species in the case of desert dust, road-dust components in the case of urban sites. The shape of the tr-KF curve varied according to the size of the collected particles. Considering the size ranges that better characterize the event (fine fraction for atmospheric stability, coarse fraction for dust intrusion, bi-modal distribution for urban dust), this shape is coherent with the typical tr-KF shape shown by water bound to the chemical species that predominate in the same PM size range (ammonium nitrate, crustal species, secondary/combustion species - road dust components).

  5. Weakly and strongly associated nonfreezable water bound in bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turov, V V; Gun'ko, V M; Zarko, V I; Leboda, R; Jablonski, M; Gorzelak, M; Jagiello-Wojtowicz, E

    2006-03-15

    Water bound in bone of rat tail vertebrae was investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy at 210-300 K and by the thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) method at 190-265 K. The 1H NMR spectra of water clusters were calculated by the GIAO method with the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set, and the solvent effects were analyzed by the HF/SM5.45/6-31G(d) method. The 1H NMR spectra of water in bone tissue include two signals that can be assigned to typical water (chemical shift of proton resonance deltaH=4-5 ppm) and unusual water (deltaH=1.2-1.7 ppm). According to the quantum chemical calculations, the latter can be attributed to water molecules without the hydrogen bonds through the hydrogen atoms, e.g., interacting with hydrophobic environment. An increase in the amount of water in bone leads to an increase in the amount of typical water, which is characterized by higher associativity (i.e., a larger average number of hydrogen bonds per molecule) and fills larger pores, cavities and pockets in bone tissue.

  6. Experimental Study on Waste Material of Desulphurization Fly Ash Lime-fly-ash Macadam Basecourse%脱硫粉煤灰二灰碎石基层废料试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐群山; 黄小兵; 张军辉

    2012-01-01

    Based on disease of lime-fly-ash basecourse of East Second Ring Road of Rudong County,sulphur content and remaining swelling capacity tests are performed for waste material of lime-fly-ash macadam basecourse caused by disease after construction,test and inspection for stability of lime-fly-ash under the condition of different sulphur contents are performed,and soundness and unconfined compression strength tests are performed for lime-fly-ash macadam(including desulfuration ash) after treatment of water glass and cement plus water glass.The results show that high sulphur content is the major reason for disease,and treatment of water glass has good effect on waste material of lime-fly-ash macadam basecourse.%针对如东县东二环路二灰基层发生病害的情况,对发生工后病害的二灰碎石基层废料进行硫含量、剩余膨胀量试验,对不同硫含量条件下二灰安定性等试验检测,并对水玻璃和水泥+水玻璃处治后的二灰碎石(含脱硫灰)进行体积安定性和无侧限抗压强度试验,结果表明高含硫量是病害发生的主要原因,采用水玻璃对现场二灰碎石基层废料进行处治具有很好的处治效果。

  7. Reactivity of Metal Ions Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkins, J.G.; Lin, M.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Robison, T.W.; Smith, B.F.; Gohdes, J.W.; McDonald, J.G.

    1999-06-29

    The intent of this work is to determine the effectiveness of catalysts covalently bound to polymers and to understand the consequences of supporting the catalysts on catalyst efficiency and selectivity. Rhodium phosphine complexes with functional groups for coupling to polymers were prepared. These catalyst precursors were characterized using standard techniques including IR, NMR, and elemental analysis. Studies on the modified catalysts showed that they were still active hydrogenation catalysts. However, tethering of the catalysts to polyamines gave systems with low hydrogenation activity. Analogous biphasic systems were also explored. Phosphine ligands with a surfactant-like structure have been synthesized and used to prepare catalytically active complexes of palladium. The palladium complexes were utilized in Heck-type coupling reactions (e.g. coupling of iodobenzene and ethyl acrylate to produce ethyl cinnamate) under vigorously stirred biphasic reaction conditions, and were found to offer superior performance over a standard water-soluble palladium catalyst under analogous conditions.

  8. 施工碎石对安全帽撞击的可靠度分析%Reliability Analysis of Safety Helmets Impacted by Constructioning Macadam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宪武; 王仕珏; 王晓明

    2013-01-01

    随着桥梁高度的不断加高,安全施工变得越来越重要.施工碎石坠落做为施工中一种高发、高危事件,对施工人员的安全构成了严重的威胁.本文以安全帽的抵抗能力与施工碎石对安全帽的撞击力作为极限状态方程的抗力和效应,通过分析影响抗力和效应的各种不确定性因素,包括碎石的质量、形状,安全帽的材料、厚度、变形量、剪切周长等,建立了相应的概率模型.最后,以柳沟大桥为实例,分析了相关参数对安全帽可靠度指标的影响.%With the increase of the height of bridge, the safe construction becomes more and more important. Construction macadam as one of the most high incidences in construction which poses severe threats on safety of construction personnel. Based on the macadam with the helmet impact, this paper will give a limit state equation in reliability analysis, in which the safety helmet resistance capacity is taken as the resistance, while macadam' s impact force on safety helmet is taken as load, analysed the uncertainties which affect resistance and load, including quality and shape of macadam, material, thickness and deformation of safety helmet, shear perimeter, and other random variables, established the corresponding probabilistic assessment model. Finally, takes the Liugou Bridge as an example analyse the effects of correlation parameter on reliability index of safety helmet.

  9. Composition of Phoebe and Iapetus: Bound Water and Possible Deuterated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger Nelson; Brown, Robert H.; Lytle, Dyer M.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2016-10-01

    Cassini VIMS has obtained spatially resolved 0.35 to 5.1 micron reflectance spectra of Saturn's satellites beginning with the Phoebe fly-by in 2004. We report new discoveries of bound water absorptions on Iapetus and Phoebe, and a new narrow absorption at 3.61 microns thatis strong in Phoebe spectra and trace in Iapetus spectra. The bound water absorption is at 1.96 microns and is consistent with bound water in nano-hematite at cryogenic temperatures that Clark et al (Icarus 2012, v218 p831) used to match the 3-micron absorption in Iapetus dark material spectra. The bound water absorption in nano-hematite has a unique position and shape at least among the materials whose spectra have been measured so far. The new 3.61 micron absorption is not matched by organics, salts or other materials whose spectra have been measured that we can find. The best match so far is a D-O stretch. If so, this enrichment in deuterium may be due to stripping the water and dark material from Phoebe, preferentially leaving a deuterium-enriched surface. Alternatively, if Pheobe is indeed a captured outer solar system object, the source material from which Phoebe was formed may be enriched in deuterium.Some confusing interpretations of VIMS spectra have been due a shift in VIMS wavelengths with time with subsequent degradation of the calibration to radiance and I/F with time. A new calibration has been developed that tracks the time-varying calibration that resulted in patterns in the VIMS I/F calibration. Those patterns masked some spectral features and produced others that were not real. The new calibration fixes these problems, reducing pattern problems by a couple of orders of magnitude. With new tools for querying the growing massive VIMS data, we have averaged many pixels to obtain the highest precision spectra of objects in the Saturn system. Clark et al (JGR 2012) found a triplet at 1.9 microns in Phoebe and Iapetus dark material and attributed the triplet to bound water but could

  10. Dielectric relaxation time and structure of bound water in biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashimo, S.; Kuwabara, S.; Yagihara, S.; Higasi, K.

    1987-12-03

    The dielectric behavior of living tissues and a number of biological materials was examined by new equipment of the time domain reflectometry method in a wide frequency range of 10/sup 7/-10/sup 10/ Hz. The authors found two peaks of Debye absorption around 100 MHz and 20 GHz for all the materials. The low-frequency absorption is probably due to bound water while the high-frequency absorption to free water. From the observed relaxation times of bound water a hypothesis is ventured on the structure of bound water and its relaxation mechanism.

  11. Recrystallization of freezable bound water in aqueous solutions of medium concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishan, Zhao; Liqing, Pan; Ailing, Ji; Zexian, Cao; Qiang, Wang

    2016-07-01

    For aqueous solutions with freezable bound water, vitrification and recrystallization are mingled, which brings difficulty to application and misleads the interpretation of relevant experiments. Here, we report a quantification scheme for the freezable bound water based on the water-content dependence of glass transition temperature, by which also the concentration range for the solutions that may undergo recrystallization finds a clear definition. Furthermore, we find that depending on the amount of the freezable bound water, different temperature protocols should be devised to achieve a complete recrystallization. Our results may be helpful for understanding the dynamics of supercooled aqueous solutions and for improving their manipulation in various industries. Project supported by the Knowledge Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences on Water Science Research (Grant No. KJZD-EW-M03) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474325 and 11290161).

  12. Recrystallization of freezable bound water in aqueous solutions of medium concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立山; 潘礼庆; 纪爱玲; 曹则贤; 王强

    2016-01-01

    For aqueous solutions with freezable bound water, vitrification and recrystallization are mingled, which brings diffi-culty to application and misleads the interpretation of relevant experiments. Here, we report a quantification scheme for the freezable bound water based on the water-content dependence of glass transition temperature, by which also the concentra-tion range for the solutions that may undergo recrystallization finds a clear definition. Furthermore, we find that depending on the amount of the freezable bound water, different temperature protocols should be devised to achieve a complete recrys-tallization. Our results may be helpful for understanding the dynamics of supercooled aqueous solutions and for improving their manipulation in various industries.

  13. Stable Isotope Analysis of Water Indicates that Mixing Occurs between Mobile and Tightly-Bound Soil Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A. I.; Schaffer, B.; Yuhong, L.; Sternberg, L. O.

    2016-12-01

    Stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotope composition of precipitation, soil and plants have been studied over the years to understand the mechanism of soil water movement and the depth of plant water uptake in the soil water profile. Recent studies have suggested that in soil during the wet season, tightly bound water does not mix with mobile water but is retained in the soil until the dry season when it is taken up by plants via the force of transpiration. To test this, we sampled δ18O and δ2H in plant stems as a proxy for wet season mobile water and dry season bound water in two types of soils to determine if mixing occurs between mobile and tightly bound soil water. Plastic pots were filled with clay or very gravelly loam soil and a Persea americana tree was planted in each pot. Soil in each pot was first saturated with tap water to fully label the bound water with the isotopic identity of tap water and then fully saturated with either tap water (T) or isotopically-enriched pool water (P) and covered with white polyethylene to prevent evaporation. After saturating the soil, δ18O and δ2H of water draining from each pot were similar to those of water added to each pot for both the T and P treatments. For each treatment, δ18O and δ2H in plant stems were sampled 2-3 days after soil was initially saturated (simulated wet season; soil tension 80.0 kPa). During the "dry season", there was a significant difference between T and P treatments for δ18O and δ2H in plant stems, indicating that bound water accessed by plants in the P treatment did not retain the tap water label and mixing occurred between mobile and bound water in the soil. Comparing P-T in the wet season with P-T in the dry season indicated that as much as 95% of water freely exchanged between the mobile and bound components of the soil. This is contrary to recent studies suggesting that no mixing occurs.

  14. Glutamate Water Gates in the Ion Binding Pocket of Na+ Bound Na+, K+-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minwoo; Kopec, Wojciech; Solov’yov, Ilia A.; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    The dynamically changing protonation states of the six acidic amino acid residues in the ion binding pocket of the Na+, K+ -ATPase (NKA) during the ion transport cycle are proposed to drive ion binding, release and possibly determine Na+ or K+ selectivity. We use molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations to determine the protonation scheme of the Na+ bound conformation of NKA. MD simulations of all possible protonation schemes show that the bound Na+ ions are most stably bound when three or four protons reside in the binding sites, and that Glu954 in site III is always protonated. Glutamic acid residues in the three binding sites act as water gates, and their deprotonation triggers water entry to the binding sites. From DFT calculations of Na+ binding energies, we conclude that three protons in the binding site are needed to effectively bind Na+ from water and four are needed to release them in the next step. Protonation of Asp926 in site III will induce Na+ release, and Glu327, Glu954 and Glu779 are all likely to be protonated in the Na+ bound occluded conformation. Our data provides key insights into the role of protons in the Na+ binding and release mechanism of NKA. PMID:28084301

  15. An upper-bound assessment of the benefits of reducing perchlorate in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Randall

    2014-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency plans to issue new federal regulations to limit drinking water concentrations of perchlorate, which occurs naturally and results from the combustion of rocket fuel. This article presents an upper-bound estimate of the potential benefits of alternative maximum contaminant levels for perchlorate in drinking water. The results suggest that the economic benefits of reducing perchlorate concentrations in drinking water are likely to be low, i.e., under $2.9 million per year nationally, for several reasons. First, the prevalence of detectable perchlorate in public drinking water systems is low. Second, the population especially sensitive to effects of perchlorate, pregnant women who are moderately iodide deficient, represents a minority of all pregnant women. Third, and perhaps most importantly, reducing exposure to perchlorate in drinking water is a relatively ineffective way of increasing iodide uptake, a crucial step linking perchlorate to health effects of concern.

  16. Pre-rigor temperature and the relationship between lamb tenderisation, free water production, bound water and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick; Wells, Robyn; Lowe, Tim; Waller, John

    2014-01-01

    The M. longissimus from lambs electrically stimulated at 15 min post-mortem were removed after grading, wrapped in polythene film and held at 4 (n=6), 7 (n=6), 15 (n=6, n=8) and 35°C (n=6), until rigor mortis then aged at 15°C for 0, 4, 24 and 72 h post-rigor. Centrifuged free water increased exponentially, and bound water, dry matter and shear force decreased exponentially over time. Decreases in shear force and increases in free water were closely related (r(2)=0.52) and were unaffected by pre-rigor temperatures. © 2013.

  17. Using a Water Balance Model to Bound Potential Irrigation Development in the Upper Blue Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain Figueroa, A.; McLaughlin, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), on the Blue Nile is an example of water resource management underpinning food, water and energy security. Downstream countries have long expressed concern about water projects in Ethiopia because of possible diversions to agricultural uses that could reduce flow in the Nile. Such diversions are attractive to Ethiopia as a partial solution to its food security problems but they could also conflict with hydropower revenue from GERD. This research estimates an upper bound on diversions above the GERD project by considering the potential for irrigated agriculture expansion and, in particular, the availability of water and land resources for crop production. Although many studies have aimed to simulate downstream flows for various Nile basin management plans, few have taken the perspective of bounding the likely impacts of upstream agricultural development. The approach is to construct an optimization model to establish a bound on Upper Blue Nile (UBN) agricultural development, paying particular attention to soil suitability and seasonal variability in climate. The results show that land and climate constraints impose significant limitations on crop production. Only 25% of the land area is suitable for irrigation due to the soil, slope and temperature constraints. When precipitation is also considered only 11% of current land area could be used in a way that increases water consumption. The results suggest that Ethiopia could consume an additional 3.75 billion cubic meters (bcm) of water per year, through changes in land use and storage capacity. By exploiting this irrigation potential, Ethiopia could potentially decrease the annual flow downstream of the UBN by 8 percent from the current 46 bcm/y to the modeled 42 bcm/y.

  18. Hydrogen production by a hyperthermophilic membrane-bound hydrogenase in water-soluble nanolipoprotein particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah E; Hopkins, Robert C; Blanchette, Craig D; Walsworth, Vicki L; Sumbad, Rhoda; Fischer, Nicholas O; Kuhn, Edward A; Coleman, Matt; Chromy, Brett A; Létant, Sonia E; Hoeprich, Paul D; Adams, Michael W W; Henderson, Paul T

    2009-06-10

    Hydrogenases constitute a promising class of enzymes for ex vivo hydrogen production. Implementation of such applications is currently hindered by oxygen sensitivity and, in the case of membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBHs), poor water solubility. Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) formed from apolipoproteins and phospholipids offer a novel means of incorporating MBHs into a well-defined water-soluble matrix that maintains the enzymatic activity and is amenable to incorporation into more complex architectures. We report the synthesis, hydrogen-evolving activity, and physical characterization of the first MBH-NLP assembly. This may ultimately lead to the development of biomimetic hydrogen-production devices.

  19. Upper Bound Solution for the Face Stability of Shield Tunnel below the Water Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By FE simulation with Mohr-Coulomb perfect elastoplasticity model, the relationship between the support pressure and displacement of the shield tunnel face was obtained. According to the plastic strain distribution at collapse state, an appropriate failure mechanism was proposed for upper bound limit analysis, and the formula to calculate the limit support pressure was deduced. The limit support pressure was rearranged to be the summation of soil cohesion c, surcharge load q, and soil gravity γ multiplied by their corresponding coefficients Nc, Nq, and Nγ, and parametric studies were carried out on these coefficients. In order to consider the influence of seepage on the face stability, the pore water pressure distribution and the seepage force on the tunnel face were obtained by FE simulation. After adding the power of seepage force into the equation of the upper bound limit analysis, the total limit support pressure for stabilizing the tunnel face under seepage condition was obtained. The total limit support pressure was shown to increase almost linearly with the water table.

  20. Synthesis and electrocatalytic water oxidation by electrode-bound helical peptide chromophore-catalyst assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Derek M; Coggins, Michael K; Concepcion, Javier J; Ashford, Dennis L; Fang, Zhen; Alibabaei, Leila; Ma, Da; Meyer, Thomas J; Waters, Marcey L

    2014-08-01

    Artificial photosynthesis based on dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells requires the assembly of a chromophore and catalyst in close proximity on the surface of a transparent, high band gap oxide semiconductor for integrated light absorption and catalysis. While there are a number of approaches to assemble mixtures of chromophores and catalysts on a surface for use in artificial photosynthesis based on dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells, the synthesis of discrete surface-bound chromophore-catalyst conjugates is a challenging task with few examples to date. Herein, a versatile synthetic approach and electrochemical characterization of a series of oligoproline-based light-harvesting chromophore-water-oxidation catalyst assemblies is described. This approach combines solid-phase peptide synthesis for systematic variation of the backbone, copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) as an orthogonal approach to install the chromophore, and assembly of the water-oxidation catalyst in the final step. Importantly, the catalyst was found to be incompatible with the conditions both for amide bond formation and for the CuAAC reaction. The modular nature of the synthesis with late-stage assembly of the catalyst allows for systematic variation in the spatial arrangement of light-harvesting chromophore and water-oxidation catalyst and the role of intrastrand distance on chromophore-catalyst assembly properties. Controlled potential electrolysis experiments verified that the surface-bound assemblies function as water-oxidation electrocatalysts, and electrochemical kinetics data demonstrate that the assemblies exhibit greater than 10-fold rate enhancements compared to the homogeneous catalyst alone.

  1. Uncoupling between soil and xylem water isotopic composition: how to discriminate mobile and tightly-bound water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Gómez, Paula; Aguilera, Mònica; Pemán, Jesús; Gil Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2014-05-01

    As a general rule, no isotopic fractionation occurs during water uptake and water transport, thus, xylem water reflects source water. However, this correspondence does not always happen. Isotopic enrichment of xylem water has been found in several cases and has been either associated to 'stem processes' like cuticular evaporation 1 and xylem-phloem communication under water stress 2,3 or to 'soil processes' such as species-specific use of contrasting water sources retained at different water potential forces in soil. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that mobile and tightly-bound water may show different isotopic signature 4,5. However, standard cryogenic distillation does not allow to separate different water pools within soil samples. Here, we carried out a study in a mixed adult forest (Pinus sylvestris, Quercus subpyrenaica and Buxus sempervirens) growing in a relatively deep loamy soil in the Pre-Pyrenees. During one year, we sampled xylem from twigs and soil at different depths (10, 30 and 50 cm). We also sampled xylem from trunk and bigger branches to assess whether xylem water was enriched in the distal parts of the tree. We found average deviations in the isotopic signature from xylem to soil of 4o 2o and 2.4o in δ18O and 18.3o 7.3o and 8.9o in δ2H, for P.sylvestris, Q.subpyrenaica and B.sempervirens respectively. Xylem water was always enriched compared to soil. In contrast, we did not find clear differences in isotopic composition between xylem samples along the tree. Declining the hypothesis that 'stem processes' would cause these uncoupling between soil and xylem isotopic values, we tested the possibility to separate mobile and tightly-bound water by centrifugation. Even though we could separate two water fractions in soils close to saturation, we could not recover a mobile fraction in drier soils. In this regard, we welcome suggestions on alternatives to separate different soil fractions in order to find the correspondence between soil and

  2. Nuclear magnetic relaxation studies of water in frozen biological tissues. Cross-relaxation effects between protein and bound water protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escanyé, J. M.; Canet, D.; Robert, J.

    Water proton longitudinal relaxation has been investigated in frozen mouse tissues including tumors. The nonfreezable water which gives rise to a relatively sharp NMR signal at this temperature (263 K) is identified as water bound to macromolecules. Measurements have been carried out by the nonselective inversion-recovery method at 90 and 6 MHz. Partially selective inversion has been achieved at 90 MHz by the DANTE sequence. The experimental data are analyzed by means of Solomon-type equations. This analysis provides the cross-relaxation term from which the dipolar contribution to water relaxation rate, arising from interactions with macromolecular protons, is calculated. This contribution seems to be dominant. The number of water protons interacting with a given macromolecular proton is found to be of the order of 10. The data at both frequencies can be consistently interpreted in terms of water diffusion, with a characteristic time of about 10 -9 sec. These conclusions are valid for all the tissues investigated here, their relaxation parameters exhibiting only slight differences.

  3. Encapsulation and characterization of proton-bound amine homodimers in a water-soluble, self-assembled supramolecular host

    OpenAIRE

    Pluth, Michael D.; Fiedler, Dorothea; Mugridge, Jeffrey S.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic amines can be encapsulated in a water-soluble self-assembled supramolecular host upon protonation. The hydrogen-bonding ability of the cyclic amines, as well as the reduced degrees of rotational freedom, allows for the formation of proton-bound homodimers inside of the assembly that are otherwise not observable in aqueous solution. The generality of homodimer formation was explored with small N-alkyl aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, and piperidines. Proton-bound homodimer formatio...

  4. sup 2 D NMR study of the dynamics of bound water molecules in dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine-D sub 2 O system at a low water content

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, A; Takizawa, T

    2003-01-01

    We found two doublet signals A and B in sup 2 D-NMR of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine-D sub 2 O system at a low water content below the temperature of the onset of the main phase transition, i.e. in the beta'-crystalline (L subbeta sub ') phase. The splitting of each doublet becomes minimum at the onset of the transition. The signal A decreases in intensity with a slight increase of its splitting as the temperature increases further, accompanying the marked growth of the signal B in its intensity and splitting. These features of two doublets in the L subbeta sub ' phase and at higher temperatures have never been noticed. The signals A and B were ascribed to the tightly bound water and the loosely bound water, respectively. These assignments were confirmed by the theoretical calculations of the splitting of the doublet A for all possible number of the tightly bound water molecules. (author)

  5. Bound on the Slope of Steady Water Waves with Favorable Vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Walter A.; Wheeler, Miles H.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the angle {θ} of inclination (with respect to the horizontal) of the profile of a steady two dimensional inviscid symmetric periodic or solitary water wave subject to gravity. Although {θ} may surpass 30° for some irrotational waves close to the extreme wave, Amick (Arch Ration Mech Anal 99(2):91-114, 1987) proved that for any irrotational wave the angle must be less than 31.15°. Is the situation similar for periodic or solitary waves that are not irrotational? The extreme Gerstner wave has infinite depth, adverse vorticity and vertical cusps ( θ = 90°). Moreover, numerical calculations show that even waves of finite depth can overturn if the vorticity is adverse. In this paper, on the other hand, we prove an upper bound of 45° on {θ} for a large class of waves with favorable vorticity and finite depth. In particular, the vorticity can be any constant with the favorable sign. We also prove a series of general inequalities on the pressure within the fluid, including the fact that any overturning wave must have a pressure sink.

  6. Encapsulation and Characterization of Proton-Bound Amine Homodimers in a Water Soluble, Self-Assembled Supramolecular Host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael; Fiedler, Dorothea; Mugridge, Jeffrey; Bergman, Robert; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-10-01

    Cyclic amines can be encapsulated in a water-soluble self-assembled supramolecular host upon protonation. The hydrogen bonding ability of the cyclic amines, as well as the reduced degrees of rotational freedom, allows for the formation of proton-bound homodimers inside of the assembly which are otherwise not observable in aqueous solution. The generality of homodimer formation was explored with small N-alkyl aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines and piperidines. Proton-bound homodimer formation is observed for N-alkylaziridines (R = methyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl), N-alkylazetidines (R = isopropyl, tertbutyl), and N-methylpyrrolidine. At high concentration, formation of a proton-bound homotrimer is observed in the case of N-methylaziridine. The homodimers stay intact inside the assembly over a large concentration range, thereby suggesting cooperative encapsulation. Both G3(MP2)B3 and G3B3 calculations of the proton-bound homodimers were used to investigate the enthalpy of the hydrogen bond in the proton-bound homodimers and suggest that the enthalpic gain upon formation of the proton-bound homodimers may drive guest encapsulation.

  7. Branch-and-Bound algorithm applied to uncertainty quantification of a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joseph, E-mail: joseph.nielsen@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 1955 N. Fremont Avenue, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); University of Idaho, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States); Tokuhiro, Akira [University of Idaho, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States); Hiromoto, Robert [University of Idaho, Department of Computer Science, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States); Tu, Lei [University of Idaho, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Program, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83402-1575 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    state. Dynamic PRA (DPRA) methods provide a more rigorous analysis of complex dynamic systems. Unfortunately DPRA methods introduce issues associated with combinatorial explosion of states. This paper presents a methodology to address combinatorial explosion using a Branch-and-Bound algorithm applied to Dynamic Event Trees (DET), which utilize LENDIT (L – Length, E – Energy, N – Number, D – Distribution, I – Information, and T – Time) as well as a set theory to describe system, state, resource, and response (S2R2) sets to create bounding functions for the DET. The optimization of the DET in identifying high probability failure branches is extended to create a Phenomenological Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) methodology to evaluate modeling parameters important to safety of those failure branches that have a high probability of failure. The PIRT can then be used as a tool to identify and evaluate the need for experimental validation of models that have the potential to reduce risk. In order to demonstrate this methodology, a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Station Blackout (SBO) case study is presented.

  8. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  9. Sustainable Innovation in Network-Bound Systems: Implications for the Consumption of Water, Waste Water and Electricity Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Network-bound systems are crucial in environmental governance as the usage of their services embody significant environmental impacts. Conditions for network-bound systems providing services to consumers have altered dramatically over the last decades. Liberalization and privatization have led to a

  10. Sustainable Innovation in Network-Bound Systems: Implications for the Consumption of Water, Waste Water and Electricity Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Network-bound systems are crucial in environmental governance as the usage of their services embody significant environmental impacts. Conditions for network-bound systems providing services to consumers have altered dramatically over the last decades. Liberalization and privatization have led to a

  11. Detection of long-lived bound water molecules in complexes of human dihydrofolate reductase with methotrexate and NADPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiering, E M; Wagner, G

    1995-03-24

    The locations of long-lived bound water molecules in the binary complex of human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) with methotrexate (MTX) and the ternary complex of hDHFR with MTX and NADPH have been investigated using 15N-resolved, three-dimensional ROESY-HMQC and NOESY-HSQC spectra acquired at 25 degrees C and 8 degrees C. NOEs with NH groups of the protein are detected for five bound water molecules in the binary complex and six bound water molecules in the ternary complex. Inspection of crystal structures of hDHFR reveals that the bound water molecules perform structural and functional roles in the complexes. Two water molecules located outside the active site, WatA and WatB, have similar NOEs in the binary and ternary complexes. These water molecules from multiple hydrogen bonds bridging loops and/or secondary structural elements in crystal structures of hDHFR and so stabilize the tertiary fold of the enzyme. Two water molecules in the active site, WatC and WatD, also have similar NOEs in both complexes. In crystal structures of hDHFR, WatC is involved in MTX binding by forming hydrogen bonds to the ligand and protein, while WatD stabilizes WatC by hydrogen bonding to it and the protein. A third active-site water molecule, WatE, has a markedly stronger NOE in the ternary complex than in the binary complex. Differences in the binding of WatE in the binary and ternary complexes are important for understanding the mechanism of DHFR, since this water molecule is believed to be involved in substrate protonation. Although the increased NOE intensity for WatE could be caused by a change in the position of water molecule, it may also be caused by an increase in its lifetime, since structural fluctuations in the active site are decreased upon cofactor binding. NOEs for one other water molecule, WatF, may be observed in the ternary complex but not the binary complex. WatF forms hydrogen bonds bridging the cofactor and the protein in crystal structures of hDHFR.

  12. Changes in content of free, conjugated and bound polyamines and osmotic adjustment in adaptation of vetiver grass to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Bingjun

    2010-06-01

    Osmotic adjustment and alteration of polyamines (PAs) have been suggested to play roles in plant adaptation to water deficit/drought stress. In this study, the changes in cell intactness, photosynthesis, compatible solutes and PAs [including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) each in free, conjugated and bound forms] were investigated in leaves of vetiver grass exposed to different intensity of water deficit stress and subsequent rewatering. The results showed that, when vetiver grass was exposed to the moderate (20% and 40% PEG-6000 solutions) and severe (60% PEG solution) water deficit for 6days, the plant injury degree (expressed as the parameters of plant growth, cell membrane integrity, water relations and photosynthesis) increased and contents of free and conjugated Put decreased with the rise of PEG concentration. Under the moderate water deficit, the plants could survive by the reduced osmotic potential (psi(s)), increased free and conjugated Spd and Spm in leaves. After subsequent rewatering, the osmotic balance was re-established, most of the above investigated physiological parameters were fully or partly recovered to the control levels. However, it was not the case for the severely-stressed and rewatering plants. It indicates that, vetiver grass can cope well with the moderate water deficit/drought stress by using the strategies of osmotic adjustment and maintenance of total contents of free, conjugated and bound PAs in leaves.

  13. Preliminary bounds on the water composition and secondary mineral development that may influence the near-field environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitbeck, M.; Glassley, W.

    1998-02-01

    The evolution of the water chemistry and secondary mineral development in the vicinity of the near-field of a potential Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository will be controlled by temperature, and interaction of water with rock over time. This report describes initial bounds on water composition and secondary mineral development, as a function of time, temperature, and rock type (devitrified, welded tuff and vitrophyre). The code EQ3/6 was used in the calculations, with explicit use of transition state theory models for mineral dissolution rates for the framework minerals of the tuff. Simulations were run for time durations sufficient to achieve steady state conditions. Uncertainty in the calculations, due to uncertainty in the measured dissolution rates, was considered by comparing results in simulations in which rates were varied within the range of known uncertainties for dissolution rate constants. The results demonstrate that the steady state mineralogy and water compositions are relatively insensitive to the rock unit modeled, which is consistent with the fact that the compositions of the rock units in the vicinity if the potential repository are similar, and will tend toward similar thermodynamic free energy minima, for similar rock:water ratios. Significant differences are observed, however, for large differences in rock: water ratios. The rates at which this end point condition are approached are a function of the rate parameters used, and can vary by orders of magnitude.

  14. Analysis of the ecological problems bound with algae biomass harvesting in lagoon waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany de Casabianca, M.

    1984-12-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the growth of algae in two lagoon ecosystems: a natural open lagoon water plan and a semi-artificial eutrophicated pool. The growth conditions are optimized as a function of ecological parameters, harvesting cycle and harvest load. The organic matter required and the water purification effect are also studied.

  15. Efficient floating diffuse functions for accurate characterization of the surface-bound excess electrons in water cluster anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changzhe; Bu, Yuxiang

    2017-01-25

    In this work, the effect of diffuse function types (atom-centered diffuse functions versus floating functions and s-type versus p-type diffuse functions) on the structures and properties of three representative water cluster anions featuring a surface-bound excess electron is studied and we find that an effective combination of such two kinds of diffuse functions can not only reduce the computational cost but also, most importantly, considerably improve the accuracy of results and even avoid incorrect predictions of spectra and the EE shape. Our results indicate that (a) simple augmentation of atom-centered diffuse functions is beneficial for the vertical detachment energy convergence, but it leads to very poor descriptions for the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) distributions of the water cluster anions featuring a surface-bound excess electron and thus a significant ultraviolet spectrum redshift; (b) the ghost-atom-based floating diffuse functions can not only contribute to accurate electronic calculations of the ground state but also avoid poor and even incorrect descriptions of the SOMO and the LUMO induced by excessive augmentation of atom-centered diffuse functions; (c) the floating functions can be realized by ghost atoms and their positions could be determined through an optimization routine along the dipole moment vector direction. In addition, both the s- and p-type floating functions are necessary to supplement in the basis set which are responsible for the ground (s-type character) and excited (p-type character) states of the surface-bound excess electron, respectively. The exponents of the diffuse functions should also be determined to make the diffuse functions cover the main region of the excess electron distribution. Note that excessive augmentation of such diffuse functions is redundant and even can lead to unreasonable LUMO characteristics.

  16. [WTP guidance technology: a comparison of payment card, single-bounded and double-bounded dichotomous formats for evaluating non-use values of Sanjiang Plain ecotourism water resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Guang; Wang, Qiu-Dan; Li, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) is the most widespread method to assess resources and value of environmental goods and services. The guidance technology of willingness to pay (WTP) is an important means of CVM. Therefore, the study on the WTP guidance technology is an important approach to improve the reliability and validity of CVM. This article conducted comprehensive evaluation on non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain by using payment card, single-bound dichotomous choice and double-bound dichotomous choice. Results showed that the socio-economic attributes were consistent with the willingness to pay in the three formats, and the tender value, age, educational level, annual income and the concern level had significant effect on the willingness to pay, while gender and job did not have significant influence. The WTP value was 112.46 yuan per capita with the payment card, 136.15 with the single-bound dichotomous choice, and 168.74 with the double-bound dichotomous choice. Comprehensive consideration of the nature of the investigation, investigation costs and statistical techniques, the result of double-bound dichotomous choice (47.86 x 10(8) yuan · a(-1)) was best in accordance with the reality, and could be used as non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain. The format of questionnaire was very important to improve its validity, and made a great influence on the WTP.

  17. Effect of bound state of water on hydronium ion mobility in hydrated Nafion using molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabuchi, Takuya, E-mail: mabuchi@nanoint.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Tokumasu, Takashi [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-09-14

    We have performed a detailed analysis of the structural properties of the sulfonate groups in terms of isolated and overlapped solvation shells in the nanostructure of hydrated Nafion membrane using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations have demonstrated the correlation between the two different areas in bound water region, i.e., the first solvation shell, and the vehicular transport of hydronium ions at different water contents. We have employed a model of the Nafion membrane using the improved force field, which is newly modified and validated by comparing the density and water diffusivity with those obtained experimentally. The first solvation shells were classified into the two types, the isolated area and the overlapped area. The mean residence times of solvent molecules explicitly showed the different behaviors in each of those areas in terms of the vehicular transport of protons: the diffusivity of classical hydronium ions in the overlapped area dominates their total diffusion at lower water contents while that in the isolated area dominates for their diffusion at higher water contents. The results provided insights into the importance role of those areas in the solvation shells for the diffusivity of vehicular transport of hydronium ions in hydrated Nafion membrane.

  18. Rock-Bound Arsenic Influences Ground Water and Sediment Chemistry Throughout New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    The information in this report was presented at the Northeastern Region Geological Society of America meeting held March 11-14, 2007, in Durham, New Hampshire. In the New England crystalline bedrock aquifer, concentrations of arsenic that exceed the drinking water standard of 10 ?g/L occur most frequently in ground water from wells sited in specific metamorphic and igneous rock units. Geochemical investigations indicate that these geologic units typically have moderately elevated whole-rock concentrations of arsenic compared to other rocks in the region. The distribution of ground water wells with As > 5 ?g/L has a strong spatial correlation with specific bedrock units where average whole-rock concentrations of arsenic exceed 1.1 mg/kg and where geologic and geochemical factors produce high pH ground water. Arsenic concentrations in stream sediments collected from small drainages reflect the regional distribution of this natural arsenic source and have a strong correlation with both rock chemistry and the distribution of bedrock units with elevated arsenic chemistry. The distribution of ground water wells with As > 5 ?g/L has a strong spatial correlation with the distribution of stream sediments where concentrations of arsenic exceed 6 mg/kg. Stream sediment chemistry also has a weak correlation with the distribution of agricultural lands where arsenical pesticides were used on apple, blueberry, and potato crops. Elevated arsenic concentrations in bedrock wells, however, do not correlate with agricultural areas where arsenical pesticides were used. These results indicate that both stream sediment chemistry and the solubility and mobility of arsenic in ground water in bedrock are influenced by host-rock arsenic concentrations. Stream sediment chemistry and the distribution of geologic units have been found to be useful parameters to predict the areas of greatest concern for elevated arsenic in ground water and to estimate the likely levels of human exposure to

  19. Biphasic and SAPC Hydroformylation Catalyzed by Rh-phosphines Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Torsten; Andersson, Carlaxel; Hjortkjær, Jes

    1999-01-01

    Coupling of the triphenylphosphine moiety to poly-acrylic acid and poly-ethyleneimine respectively afford the macromolecular ligands PAA-PNH and PEI-PNH. Reaction of the ligands with Rh(CO)2(acac) give water-soluble complexes that are active as catalysts in the hydroformylation ofdifferent olefins...

  20. A study of the structural and spectral characteristics of free and bound water in kaolinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzhitskii, A. S.; Lazorenko, G. I.; Sulavko, S. N.; Yavna, V. A.; Kochur, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    The dependence of the Si-O stretching vibration line intensity in the IR spectrum of kaolinite on the humidity of this mineral has been experimentally investigated. The experimental data were interpreted on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations with allowance for the real crystallographic features of the kaolinite sample, determined by structural analysis. Some specific features of the intensity behavior in the plastic state are revealed, which can be used to develop techniques for determining its limits. The differences in the O-H bond lengths and H-O-H angles for the H2O molecules adsorbed by basal surfaces and located in the porous space of the mineral are determined. Based on the DFT data, it was found that bond lengths and bond angles for a water molecule adsorbed on the siloxane surface are systematically smaller than for a water molecule adsorbed on the hydroxyl surface.

  1. Protein-bound water molecule counting by resolution of (1)H spin-lattice relaxation mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiihne, S; Bryant, R G

    2000-01-01

    Water proton spin-lattice relaxation is studied in dilute solutions of bovine serum albumin as a function of magnetic field strength, oxygen concentration, and solvent deuteration. In contrast to previous studies conducted at high protein concentrations, the observed relaxation dispersion is accurately Lorentzian with an effective correlation time of 41 +/- 3 ns when measured at low proton and low protein concentrations to minimize protein aggregation. Elimination of oxygen flattens the relax...

  2. Biphasic and SAPC Hydroformylation Catalyzed by Rh-phosphines Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Torsten; Andersson, Carlaxel; Hjortkjær, Jes

    1999-01-01

    Coupling of the triphenylphosphine moiety to poly-acrylic acid and poly-ethyleneimine respectively afford the macromolecular ligands PAA-PNH and PEI-PNH. Reaction of the ligands with Rh(CO)2(acac) give water-soluble complexes that are active as catalysts in the hydroformylation ofdifferent olefin...... PEI-PNH as ligands show lower stability and activity in both SAPC and biphasic applications....

  3. Mineral and Protein-Bound Water and Latching Action Control Mechanical Behavior at Protein-Mineral Interfaces in Biological Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijush Ghosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The nacre structure consists of laminated interlocked mineral platelets separated by nanoscale organic layers. Here, the role of close proximity of mineral to the proteins on mechanical behavior of the protein is investigated through steered molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations indicate that energy required for unfolding protein in the proximity of mineral aragonite is several times higher than that for isolated protein in the absence of the mineral. Here, we present details of specific mechanisms which result in higher energy for protein unfolding in the proximity of mineral. At the early stage of pulling, peaks in the load-displacement (LD plot at mineral proximity are quantitatively correlated to the interaction energy between atoms involved in the latching phenomenon of amino acid side chain to aragonite surface. Water plays an important role during mineral and protein interaction and water molecules closer to the mineral surface are highly oriented and remain rigidly attached as the protein strand is pulled. Also, the high magnitude of load for a given displacement originates from attractive interactions between the protein, protein-bound water, and mineral. This study provides an insight into mineral-protein interactions that are predominant in biological nanocomposites and also provides guidelines towards design of biomimetic nanocomposites.

  4. Behavior of freezable bound water in the bacterial cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum: an approach using thermoporosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewnopparat, Sanae; Sansernluk, Kamonlawat; Faroongsarng, Damrongsak

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine thermal behavior of water within reticulated structure of bacterial cellulose (BC) films by sub-ambient differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). BC films with different carbon source, either manitol (BC (a)) or glycerol (BC (b)), were produced by Acetobacter xylinum using Hestrin and Shramm culture medium under static condition at 30 +/- 0.2 degrees C for 3 days. BC samples were characterized by electron scanning microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The pore analysis was done by B.H.J. nitrogen adsorption. The pre-treated with 100% relative humidity, at 30.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C for 7 days samples were subjected to a between 25 and -150 degrees C-cooling-heating cycle of DSC at 5.00 degrees C/min rate. The pre-treated samples were also hydrated by adding 1 mul of water and thermally run with identical conditions. It is observed that cellulose fibrils of BC (a) were thinner and reticulated to form slightly smaller porosity than those of BC (b). They exhibited slightly but non-significantly different crystalline features. The freezable bound water behaved as a water confinement within pores rather than a solvent of polymer which is possible to use thermoporosimetry based on Gibb-Thomson equation to approach pore structure of BC. In comparison with nitrogen adsorption, it was found that thermoporosimetry underestimated the BC porosity, i.e., the mean diameters of 23.0 nm vs. 27.8 nm and 27.9 nm vs. 33.9 nm for BC (a) and BC (b), respectively, by thermoporosimetry vs. B.H.J. nitrogen adsorption. It may be due to large non-freezable water fraction interacting with cellulose, and the validity of pore range based on thermodynamic assumptions of Gibb-Thomson theory.

  5. Bounding Limitations in the Practical Design of Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The boundary temperatures for any sorption-based technology can be estimated on the basis of Trouton s hypothesis that isosteres, extrapolated to infinite pressure (or analogously to infinite temperature) meet at a single point. In this paper we discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for many sorption devices that are thermally operated, suitable for exploiting renewable energy resources, or making better use of high or low level thermal energy. Trouton s hypothesis is independent of the working fluids making it particularly useful to both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor systems. We exemplify the use of the derived boundary temperatures derived from Trouton s hypothesis to important processes such as ice making, space cooling in hot climates, deep freezing, and residential hot water production. The boundary temperatures help determine which sorption or solar heating technology may be better suited to serve the given application, or whether it is beyond the scope of sorption systems.

  6. Structure and stability of SnO2 nanocrystals and surface-bound water species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Wesolowski, David J; Proffen, Thomas E; Vlcek, Lukas; Wang, Wei; Allard, Lawrence F; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Feygenson, Mikhail; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Paul, Rick L

    2013-05-08

    The structure of SnO2 nanoparticles (avg. 5 nm) with a few layers of water on the surface has been elucidated by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) methods using in situ neutron total scattering data and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Analysis of PDF, neutron prompt gamma, and thermogravimetric data, coupled with MD-generated surface D2O/OD configurations demonstrates that the minimum concentration of OD groups required to prevent rapid growth of nanoparticles during thermal dehydration corresponds to ~0.7 monolayer coverage. Surface hydration layers not only stabilize the SnO2 nanoparticles but also induce particle-size-dependent structural modifications and are likely to promote interfacial reactions through hydrogen bonds between adjacent particles. Upon heating/dehydration under vacuum above 250 °C, nanoparticles start to grow with low activation energies, rapid increase of nanoparticle size, and a reduction in the a lattice dimension. This study underscores the value of neutron diffraction and prompt-gamma analysis, coupled with molecular modeling, in elucidating the influence of surface hydration on the structure and metastable persistence of oxide nanomaterials.

  7. Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically bound tritium to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C; Bradshaw, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities. Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l(-1)). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined. Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in N. spumigena following exposure. After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the potential for biomagnification. Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the difficulties in using a 'representative' species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium. Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when water-concentrations are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts as a persistent organic pollutant. The

  8. Bound entanglement and entanglement bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Simeon [Physikalisch-Astronomische Fakultaet, Friedrich-Schiller-Univesitaet Jena (Germany)]|[Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Melo, Fernando de; Mintert, Florian; Buchleitner, Andreas [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str.38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-012 (Korea); Hiesmayr, Beatrix [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the separability of Bell-diagonal states of two qutrits. By using lower bounds to algebraically estimate concurrence, we find convex regions of bound entangled states. Some of these regions exactly coincide with the obtained results when employing optimal entanglement witnesses, what shows that the lower bound can serve as a precise detector of entanglement. Some hitherto unknown regions of bound entangled states were discovered with this approach, and delimited efficiently.

  9. Unusually strong binding to the DNA minor groove by a highly twisted benzimidazole diphenylether: induced fit and bound water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanious, Farial A; Laine, William; Peixoto, Paul; Bailly, Christian; Goodwin, Kristie D; Lewis, Mark A; Long, Eric C; Georgiadis, Millie M; Tidwell, Richard R; Wilson, W David

    2007-06-12

    RT29 is a dicationic diamidine derivative that does not obey the classical "rules" for shape and functional group placement that are expected to result in strong binding and specific recognition of the DNA minor groove. The compound contains a benzimidazole diphenyl ether core that is flanked by the amidine cations. The diphenyl ether is highly twisted and gives the entire compound too much curvature to fit well to the shape of the minor groove. DNase I footprinting, fluorescence intercalator displacement studies, and circular dichroism spectra, however, indicate that the compound is an AT specific minor groove binding agent. Even more surprisingly, quantitative biosensor-surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetric results indicate that the compound binds with exceptional strength to certain AT sequences in DNA with a large negative enthalpy of binding. Crystallographic results for the DNA complex of RT29 compared to calculated results for the free compound show that the compound undergoes significant conformational changes to enhance its minor groove interactions. In addition, a water molecule is incorporated directly into the complex to complete the compound-DNA interface, and it forms an essential link between the compound and base pair edges at the floor of the minor groove. The calculated DeltaCp value for complex formation is substantially less than the experimentally observed value, which supports the idea of water being an intrinsic part of the complex with a major contribution to the DeltaCp value. Both the induced fit conformational changes of the compound and the bound water are essential for strong binding to DNA by RT29.

  10. The role of free and bound water in irradiation preservation: Free radical damage as a function of the physical state of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Gary; Dollar, A.M.

    1964-01-01

    English sole fillets previously equilibrated with aqueous 0.1% cysteine were dehydrated by three methods to moisture levels ranging from 2 to 72%. Model systems using cellulose to replace the fish tissue were also used. The samples were irradiated at 1 Mrad in an air, nitrogen, or oxygen atmosphere. The destruction of −SH groups was measured and related to the amount and physical state of the tissue water. As free water was removed, destruction steadily increased, reaching a maximum at about 20% moisture. Destruction decreased markedly at moisture levels below 10%, and calorimetric measurements confirmed that 10% moisture was about the level of bound water in this species. These data suggest that dehydration favors the reaction of solute molecules with free radicals formed in the free water of muscle cells. At moisture levels greater than about 20%, simple free radical recombination is more likely than reaction with solute molecules, while below 20% moisture the reverse is true. The calculated α values support this conclusion, as do the results from model systems using cellulose.

  11. Investigation of the structure and stability of SnO2 nanocrystal and its surface-bound water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Wesolowski, D. J.; Proffen, T. E.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Vlcek, L.; Wang, W.; Feygenson, M.; Sofo, J. O.; Anovitz, L.

    2012-12-01

    by our previous molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, perhaps because this outermost hydration layer is not laterally-ordered parallel to the oxide surface and thus contributes a much weaker G(r) signal than the first two layers. Additionally, due to the relatively broad distribution of D-D distances and Fourier termination ripples, NPDF results cannot provide unambiguous evidence about the formation of hydroxylated surfaces, even though the dissociative MD model gives a better fitted result. Upon heating to 250 °C (at 10-7 bar), SnO2 nanoparticles start to show surface transformation and increased crystallinity before completion of dehydration. This likely corresponds to the minimum concentration of surface-bound groups required to stabilize the nanoparticles (i.e., < 0.7 monolayer coverage). Attempts to remove D2O/OD- groups below this threshold lead to rapidly increase of crystallinity. INS experiments on SnO2 nanoparticles with a minimum threshold coverage and with those from a fully hydrated sample clearly suggested dissociated water configurations with no observations of H2O bending modes in the sample with a minimum threshold coverage. Corresponding ab initio MD simulation on SnO2 (110) surface for a comparison with INS results is underway to provide a complete picture of SnO2-water surface dynamics.

  12. Chemopreventive effects of free and bound phenolics associated to steep waters (nejayote) obtained after nixtamalization of different maize types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-García, Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2012-03-01

    Free and bound phenolics extracts from nejayote solids were obtained after optimally lime-cooking blue, normal white, red, normal yellow, high-carotenoid and quality protein maize types. The extraction yield ranged from 4.47 to 10.05%. Bound phenolics extracts had higher content of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and ferulic acid compared to the free phenolics extracts. In general, free phenolics extracts were less cytotoxic than the bound phenolics counterparts. Bound phenolics extracts had higher induction of quinone reductase (QR) and particularly the normal yellow nejayote exerted the highest chemopreventive index tested in Hepa1c1c7 cells. When tested for monofunctional phase 2 induction capacity in BPrc1 cells, the bound phenolics extracts of blue, normal white and quality protein nejayotes were better inducers than the normal yellow counterpart. Particularly, the free phenolics extract of the white maize nejayote induced BPrc1 cells QR and exerted a higher chemopreventive index compared to the bound phenolics extract. Therefore, the nejayote of the normal white maize was the best source of monofunctional phase 2 enzyme inducers.

  13. Fast volumetric imaging of bound and pore water in cortical bone using three-dimensional ultrashort-TE (UTE) and inversion recovery UTE sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Carl, Michael; Ma, Yajun; Shao, Hongda; Lu, Xing; Chen, Bimin; Chang, Eric Y; Wu, Zhihong; Du, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    We report the three-dimensional ultrashort-TE (3D UTE) and adiabatic inversion recovery UTE (IR-UTE) sequences employing a radial trajectory with conical view ordering for bi-component T2 * analysis of bound water (T2 *(BW) ) and pore water (T2 *(PW) ) in cortical bone. An interleaved dual-echo 3D UTE acquisition scheme was developed for fast bi-component analysis of bound and pore water in cortical bone. A 3D IR-UTE acquisition scheme employing multiple spokes per IR was developed for bound water imaging. Two-dimensional UTE (2D UTE) and IR-UTE sequences were employed for comparison. The sequences were applied to bovine bone samples (n = 6) and volunteers (n = 6) using a 3-T scanner. Bi-component fitting of 3D UTE images of bovine samples showed a mean T2 *(BW) of 0.26 ± 0.04 ms and T2 *(PW) of 4.16 ± 0.35 ms, with fractions of 21.5 ± 3.6% and 78.5 ± 3.6%, respectively. The 3D IR-UTE signal showed a single-component decay with a mean T2 *(BW) of 0.29 ± 0.05 ms, suggesting selective imaging of bound water. Similar results were achieved with the 2D UTE and IR-UTE sequences. Bi-component fitting of 3D UTE images of the tibial midshafts of healthy volunteers showed a mean T2 *(BW) of 0.32 ± 0.08 ms and T2 *(PW) of 5.78 ± 1.24 ms, with fractions of 34.2 ± 7.4% and 65.8 ± 7.4%, respectively. Single-component fitting of 3D IR-UTE images showed a mean T2 *(BW) of 0.35 ± 0.09 ms. The 3D UTE and 3D IR-UTE techniques allow fast volumetric mapping of bound and pore water in cortical bone. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. 1H NMR detection of immobilized water molecules within a strong distal hydrogen-bonding network of substrate-bound human heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvitski, Ray T; Li, Yiming; Auclair, Karine; Ortiz De Montellano, Paul R; La Mar, Gerd N

    2002-12-04

    Solution 1H NMR is used to probe the environments of the donor protons of eight strong hydrogen bonds on the distal side of the heme substrate in the cyanide-inhibited, substrate-bound complex of human heme oxygenase, hHO. It is demonstrated that significant magnetization transfer from the bulk water signal to the eight labile protons does not result from chemical exchange, but from direct nuclear Overhauser effect due to the dipolar interaction of these labile protons with "ordered" water molecules. The enzyme labile proton to water proton distances are estimated at approximately 3 A. It is proposed that the role of the strong hydrogen-bonding network is to immobilize numerous water molecules which both stabilize the activated hydroperoxy species and funnel protons to the active site.

  15. Femtosecond Hydrogen Bond Dynamics of Bulk-like and Bound Water at Positively and Negatively Charged Lipid Interfaces Revealed by 2D HD-VSFG Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Chandra; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoichi; Tahara, Tahei

    2016-08-26

    Interfacial water in the vicinity of lipids plays an important role in many biological processes, such as drug delivery, ion transportation, and lipid fusion. Hence, molecular-level elucidation of the properties of water at lipid interfaces is of the utmost importance. We report the two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) study of the OH stretch of HOD at charged lipid interfaces, which shows that the hydrogen bond dynamics of interfacial water differ drastically, depending on the lipids. The data indicate that the spectral diffusion of the OH stretch at a positively charged lipid interface is dominated by the ultrafast (dynamics, while the dynamics at a negatively charged lipid interface exhibit sub-picosecond dynamics almost exclusively, implying that fast hydrogen bond fluctuation is prohibited. These results reveal that the ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics at the positively charged lipid-water interface are attributable to the bulk-like property of interfacial water, whereas the slow dynamics at the negatively charged lipid interface are due to bound water, which is hydrogen-bonded to the hydrophilic head group.

  16. Solution 1H, 15N NMR spectroscopic characterization of substrate-bound, cyanide-inhibited human heme oxygenase: water occupation of the distal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Syvitski, Ray T; Auclair, Karine; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul; La Mar, Gerd N

    2003-11-05

    A solution NMR spectroscopic study of the cyanide-inhibited, substrate-bound complex of uniformly (15)N-labeled human heme oxygenase, hHO, has led to characterization of the active site with respect to the nature and identity of strong hydrogen bonds and the occupation of ordered water molecules within both the hydrogen bonding network and an aromatic cluster on the distal side. [(1)H-(15)N]-HSQC spectra confirm the functionalities of several key donors in particularly robust H-bonds, and [(1)H-(15)N]HSQC-NOESY spectra lead to the identification of three additional robust H-bonds, as well as the detection of two more relatively strong H-bonds whose identities could not be established. The 3D NMR experiments provided only a modest, but important, extension of assignments because of the loss of key TOCSY cross-peaks due to the line broadening from a dynamic heterogeneity in the active site. Steady-state NOEs upon saturating the water signal locate nine ordered water molecules in the immediate vicinity of the H-bond donors, six of which are readily identified in the crystal structure. The additional three are positioned in available spaces to account for the observed NOEs. (15)N-filtered steady-state NOEs upon saturating the water resonances and (15)N-filtered NOESY spectra demonstrate significant negative NOEs between water molecules and the protons of five aromatic rings. Many of the NOEs can be rationalized by water molecules located in the crystal structure, but strong water NOEs, particularly to the rings of Phe47 and Trp96, demand the presence of at least an additional two immobilized water molecules near these rings. The H-bond network appears to function to order water molecules to provide stabilization for the hydroperoxy intermediate and to serve as a conduit to the active site for the nine protons required per HO turnover.

  17. Spatio-temporal distribution of cell-bound and dissolved geosmin in Wahnbach Reservoir: Causes and potential odour nuisances in raw water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnichen, Sabine; Jäschke, Kathrin; Wieland, Falk; Packroff, Gabriele; Benndorf, Jürgen

    2011-10-15

    In many lakes and reservoirs, problems caused by off-flavours are known to be particularly associated with the occurrence of planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria. Frequently observed objectionable taste and odorous products of cyanobacteria are geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol. Investigations focused on the littoral zone of Wahnbach Reservoir (Germany) revealed that benthic cyanobacteria were present in this oligotrophic drinking water reservoir. Benthic cyanobacteria were found in the depth horizon between 1.75 m and 11 m, particularly on south-exposed slopes. This spatial distribution indicates a possible key role of the underwater light climate. Moreover, cell-bound and dissolved geosmin were detected in corresponding littoral samples. Both fractions were subjected to spatial and primarily temporal variations with maximum concentrations at the end of summer. However, a substantial lowering of the water level caused a diminution of cyanobacterial growth. Due to the drawdown of the water level concentrations of cell-bound geosmin and pigments (as a proxy of cyanobacterial biomass) were remarkably reduced, and dissolved geosmin was never detected during this phase. Except for the influence of water level fluctuation no other abiotic variables had a significant influence on pigment and geosmin concentrations. From geosmin concentrations detected in the littoral zone, the probability of serious episodes of odour events in the raw water of the Wahnbach Reservoir was estimated. Hence, the probability that the raw water was affected by geosmin was minor, which was supported by routine flavour profiles. Nevertheless, the study shows that odorous episodes caused by benthic cyanobacteria are likely to develop even in an oligotrophic lake or reservoir when these cyanobacteria, and consequently odorous production, proliferate. In principle, such a proliferation cannot be excluded as nutrients are available from the sediment pore water, and underwater light at the sediment

  18. Quantum path-integral molecular dynamics calculations of the dipole-bound state of the water dimer anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Motoyuki; Takayanagi, Toshiyuki

    2003-09-01

    The equilibrium structure of the negatively charged water dimer (H 2O) 2- has been studied using the path-integral molecular dynamics simulation. All the atomic motions as well as the excess electron were treated quantum mechanically, employing a semi-empirical model combining a water-water interatomic potential with an electron-water pseudopotential. It is demonstrated that the molecular structure of (H 2O) 2- is more flexible than that of (H 2O) 2; both the donor switching and donor-acceptor interchange can more effectively occur in (H 2O) 2- than in (H 2O) 2. We conclude that this floppy character is a result of the breakdown of the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer picture.

  19. Positive Root Bounds and Root Separation Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Aaron Paul

    In this thesis, we study two classes of bounds on the roots of a polynomial (or polynomial system). A positive root bound of a polynomial is an upper bound on the largest positive root. A root separation bound of a polynomial is a lower bound on the distance between the roots. Both classes of bounds are fundamental tools in computer algebra and computational real algebraic geometry, with numerous applications. In the first part of the thesis, we study the quality of positive root bounds. Higher quality means that the relative over-estimation (the ratio of the bound and the largest positive root) is smaller. We find that all known positive root bounds can be arbitrarily bad. We then show that a particular positive root bound is tight for certain important classes of polynomials. In the remainder of the thesis, we turn to root separation bounds. We observe that known root separation bounds are usually very pessimistic. To our surprise, we also find that known root separation bounds are not compatible with the geometry of the roots (unlike positive root bounds). This motivates us to derive new root separation bounds. In the second part of this thesis, we derive a new root separation for univariate polynomials by transforming a known bound into a new improved bound. In the third part of this thesis, we use a similar strategy to derive a new improved root separation bound for polynomial systems.

  20. Bounded Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester Pla, Coralio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.

    La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.

  1. Partial oxidation of step-bound water leads to anomalous pH effects on metal electrode step-edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Kathleen; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan; Sundararaman, Ravishankar

    2016-06-28

    The design of better heterogeneous catalysts for applications such as fuel cells and electrolyzers requires a mechanistic understanding of electrocatalytic reactions and the dependence of their activity on operating conditions such as pH. A satisfactory explanation for the unexpected pH dependence of electrochemical properties of platinum surfaces has so far remained elusive, with previous explanations resorting to complex co-adsorption of multiple species and resulting in limited predictive power. This knowledge gap suggests that the fundamental properties of these catalysts are not yet understood, limiting systematic improvement. Here, we analyze the change in charge and free energies upon adsorption using density-functional theory (DFT) to establish that water adsorbs on platinum step edges across a wide voltage range, including the double-layer region, with a loss of approximately 0.2 electrons upon adsorption. We show how this as-yet unreported change in net surface charge due to this water explains the anomalous pH variations of the hydrogen underpotential deposition (Hupd) and the potentials of zero total charge (PZTC) observed in published experimental data. This partial oxidation of water is not limited to platinum metal step edges, and we report the charge of the water on metal step edges of commonly used catalytic metals, including copper, silver, iridium, and palladium, illustrating that this partial oxidation of water broadly influences the reactivity of metal electrodes.

  2. Bound water measurement methods and moisture distribution within sewage sludge%污泥结合水测量方法和水分分布特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢浩辉; 麻红磊; 池涌; 马增益

    2012-01-01

    为了实现污泥高效脱水,对污泥水分分布特征与脱水性能变化的关系进行研究.分别利用热干燥法、抽滤法、压滤法、水活度法和膨胀计法测定同一市政污泥的结合水相对质量分数,通过分析比较测量数据和应用原理,总结出各种方法的优缺点和适用条件.基于膨胀计法对污泥水分能量状态进行了分析,构建了污泥水分分布特征曲线,并阐明污泥在不同水分质量分数时的机械脱水效果.研究表明:5种方法的结合水质量分数(结合水/干基)测量结果差异明显,其中抽滤法测量值最大为628%,水活度法测量值最小,只有34%;膨胀计法操作快捷、原始数据容易处理,优于其余4种测量方法.当污泥水分相对质量分数(全水分/干基)大于183%时,适当提高设备的脱水强度能够较好地改善脱水效果.%Relationship between sludge moisture distribution and dewatering performance was studied to achieve effective dewatering of sewage sludge. Five measurement methods, including drying test, filtration test, expression test, sorption isotherms test and dilatometric test were applied to determine the bound water content within a typical sewage sludge sample. Features and applicable conditions of each method were obtained via analysis and comparison of their measurement data and theories. A sludge moisture distribution curve was constructed via analysis of the sludge moisture energy status in dilatometric method, which could be utilized to elucidate the sludge dewatering performance at different moisture contents. The experimental results indicate that the sludge bound water measurement results from five methods are different, and the maximum data of 628% mass fraction of the sludge bound water (bound water/ dry water) measurement result is obtained from filtration test whereas the minimum data of 34% from sorption isotherms test. The dilatometric method is preferable to the other methods due to its

  3. QTLs for cell wall-bound phenolics in relation to the photosynthetic apparatus activity and leaf water status under drought stress at different growth stages of triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Tomasz; Tyrka, Mirosław; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed at identifying the regions of triticale genome responsible for cell wall saturation with phenolic compounds under drought stress during vegetative and generative growth. Moreover, the loci determining the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus, leaf water content (LWC) and osmotic potential (Ψ o) were identified, as leaf hydration and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus under drought are associated with the content of cell wall-bound phenolics (CWPh). Compared with LWC and Ψ o, CWPh fluctuations were more strongly associated with changes in chlorophyll fluorescence. At the vegetative stage, CWPh fluctuations were due to the activity of three loci, of which only QCWPh.4B was also related to changes in F v/F m and ABS/CSm. In the other QTLs (QCWPh.6R.2 and QCWPh.6R.3), the genes of these loci determined also the changes in majority of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. At the generative stage, the changes in CWPh in loci QCWPh.4B, QCWPh.3R and QCWPh.6R.1 corresponded to those in DIo/CSm. The locus QCWPh.6R.3, active at V stage, controlled majority of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. This is the first study on mapping quantitative traits in triticale plants exposed to drought at different stages of development, and the first to present the loci for cell wall-bound phenolics.

  4. Partial oxidation of Step-Bound Water Leads to Anomalous pH Effects on Metal Electrode Step-Edges

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Kathleen; Yan, Yushan; Sundararaman, Ravishankar

    2016-01-01

    The design of better heterogeneous catalysts for applications such as fuel cells and electrolyzers requires a mechanistic understanding of electrocatalytic reactions and the dependence of their activity on operating conditions such as pH. A satisfactory explanation for the unexpected pH dependence of electrochemical properties of platinum surfaces has so far remained elusive, with previous explanations resorting to complex co-adsorption of multiple species and resulting in limited predictive power. This knowledge gap suggests that the fundamental properties of these catalysts are not yet understood, limiting systematic improvement. Here, we analyze the change in charge and free energies upon adsorption using density-functional theory (DFT) to establish that water adsorbs on platinum step edges across a wide voltage range, including the double-layer region, with a loss of approximately 0.2 electrons upon adsorption. We show how the change in net surface charge due to this water explains the anomalous pH variat...

  5. The added value of a water footprint approach: Micro- and macroeconomic analysis of cotton production, processing and export in water bound Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, I.; Bekchanov, M.; Djanibekov, U.; Lamers, J. P. A.

    2013-11-01

    Since independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991, Uzbekistan is challenged to consolidate its efforts and identify and introduce suitable agricultural policies to ease the threat of advancing land, water and ecosystem deterioration. On the one hand, irrigated cotton production provides income, food and energy sources for a large part of the rural households, which accounts for about 70% of the total population. On the other hand, this sector is considered a major driver of the on-going environmental degradation. Due to this dual nature, an integrated approach is needed that allows the analyses of the cotton sector at different stages and, consequently, deriving comprehensive options for action. The findings of the economic based value chain analysis and ecologically-oriented water footprint analysis on regional level were complemented with the findings of an input-output model on national level. This combination gave an added value for better-informed decision-making to reach land, water and ecosystem sustainability, compared to the individual results of each approach. The synergy of approaches pointed at various options for actions, such as to (i) promote the shift of water use from the high water consuming agricultural sector to a less water consuming cotton processing sector, (ii) increase overall water use efficiency by expanding the highly water productive industrial sectors and concurrently decreasing sectors with inefficient water use, and (iii) reduce agricultural water use by improving irrigation and conveyance efficiencies. The findings showed that increasing water use efficiency, manufacturing products with higher value added and raising water users' awareness of the real value of water are essential for providing water security in Uzbekistan.

  6. Attributes of aerosol bound water soluble ions and carbon, and their relationships with AOD over the Brahmaputra Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Pranamika; Barman, Nivedita; Bora, Jayanta; Daimari, Rebecca; Deka, Pratibha; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul

    2016-10-01

    The present study is a ground based investigation of chemical properties of aerosol as PM10 and its relationship with the upper air optical properties. A total of 161 aerosol samples collected during 2010-2014 were characterized for water soluble ions viz. SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+and Na+ and water soluble carbon factions - water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and water soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC). The entire study period was subdivided into four distinct seasons -pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter to assess the characteristics of chemical species in different times of the year contributing to the particulate loading over the study site. To understand the relationship between chemical species and optical properties, aerosol optical depth (AOD) data of the study area have been retrieved from MODIS satellite data at 550 nm. Mean mass concentration of PM10 was found to be 49.3 ± 37 μg/m3 for the whole study period with an explicit seasonal variation and winter maximum of mass concentration. Also, secondary ions have strong influence on the total aerosol loading in the region. Vivid seasonal variability was found in the concentrations of ions and carbons. The winter season showed maximum loading of ionic and carbonaceous species and the presence of crustal derived ions - Ca2+ and Mg2+ - remained uniform all through the seasons. The anions were found to be dominant over the cations during the study period. Interestingly, K+, originating mostly from biomass burning emissions, also play important neutralizing role together with NH4+. Significant relationships between AOD with PM10 and attributes were observed. Strong correlation of anthropogenic (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+), biomass burning (K+) and organic carbon fraction of PM10 with AOD was observed, which indicated the influence of these fractions on the attenuation of incoming light over the study region. HYSPLIT backward trajectories of air masses, which were computed for the study area

  7. Behavior of Freezable Bound Water in the Bacterial Cellulose Produced by Acetobacter xylinum: An Approach Using Thermoporosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kaewnopparat, Sanae; Sansernluk, Kamonlawat; Faroongsarng, Damrongsak

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine thermal behavior of water within reticulated structure of bacterial cellulose (BC) films by sub-ambient differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). BC films with different carbon source, either manitol (BC (a)) or glycerol (BC (b)), were produced by Acetobacter xylinum using Hestrin and Shramm culture medium under static condition at 30 ± 0.2°C for 3 days. BC samples were characterized by electron scanning microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The pore...

  8. Willingness-to-pay for water quality improvements in Chinese rivers: an empirical test on the ordering effects of multiple-bounded discrete choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents a study of the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for surface water quality improvement in China. In the Huaping County of Yunnan Province, we found that people are willing to pay 74 Yuan (or US$12.33 in 2012 prices) per household per month (or 5% of household income) continuously for five years to achieve an improvement of water quality in the two major local rivers from the current Grade IV to Grade III, which denotes a level suitable for swimming and fishing and matches the water quality level from 10 years ago. This WTP study is based on an actual investment project that was under serious consideration by the government and is based on the multiple-bounded discrete choice (MBDC) approach, which explicitly recognizes the potential uncertainties involved in the study. The potential ordering effects associated with the MBDC approach are empirically tested, and the results indicate that although the presentation order of the polychotomous likelihood choices may not have a significant impact on the WTP estimation, the presentation order of bid levels may have a significant impact.

  9. Coherent Behavior and the Bound State of Water and K(+) Imply Another Model of Bioenergetics: Negative Entropy Instead of High-energy Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeken, Laurent; Vasilievich Matveev, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Observations of coherent cellular behavior cannot be integrated into widely accepted membrane (pump) theory (MT) and its steady state energetics because of the thermal noise of assumed ordinary cell water and freely soluble cytoplasmic K(+). However, Ling disproved MT and proposed an alternative based on coherence, showing that rest (R) and action (A) are two different phases of protoplasm with different energy levels. The R-state is a coherent metastable low-entropy state as water and K(+) are bound to unfolded proteins. The A-state is the higher-entropy state because water and K(+) are free. The R-to-A phase transition is regarded as a mechanism to release energy for biological work, replacing the classical concept of high-energy bonds. Subsequent inactivation during the endergonic A-to-R phase transition needs an input of metabolic energy to restore the low entropy R-state. Matveev's native aggregation hypothesis allows to integrate the energetic details of globular proteins into this view.

  10. Systemic structural modular generalization of the crystallography of bound water applied to study the mechanisms of processes in biosystems at the atomic and molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulienkov, N. A.

    2011-07-01

    The main reasons of the modern scientific revolution, one of the consequences of which are nanotechnologies and the development of interdisciplinary overall natural science (which can build potentially possible atomic structures and study the mechanisms of the processes occurring in them), are considered. The unifying role of crystallography in the accumulation of interdisciplinary knowledge is demonstrated. This generalization of crystallography requires the introduction of a new concept: a module which reflects the universal condition for stability of all real and potential and equilibrium and nonequilibrium structures of matter (their connectivity). A modular generalization of crystallography covers all forms of solids, including the structure of bound water (a system-forming matrix for the self-organization and morphogenesis of hierarchical biosystems which determines the metric selection of all other structural components of these systems). A dynamic model of the water surface layer, which serves as a matrix in the formation of Langmuir monolayers and plays a key role in the occurrence of life on the Earth, is developed.

  11. Comparison of the solid-phase extraction efficiency of a bounded and an included cyclodextrin-silica microporous composite for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela; Amorós, Pedro; Moragues, Alaina; Guillem, Carmen; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina

    2016-08-15

    Solid-phase extraction is one of the most important techniques for sample purification and concentration. A wide variety of solid phases have been used for sample preparation over time. In this work, the efficiency of a new kind of solid-phase extraction adsorbent, which is a microporous material made from modified cyclodextrin bounded to a silica network, is evaluated through an analytical method which combines solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Several parameters that affected the analytes recovery, such as the amount of solid phase, the nature and volume of the eluent or the sample volume and concentration influence have been evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the material possesses adsorption ability to the tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Under the optimum conditions, the quantification limits of the method were in the range of 0.09-2.4μgL(-1) and fine linear correlations between peak height and concentration were found around 1.3-70μgL(-1). The method has good repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of variation under 8%. Due to the concentration results, this material may represent an alternative for trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water trough solid-phase extraction.

  12. Lower and upper bounds for the absolute free energy by the hypothetical scanning Monte Carlo method: application to liquid argon and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald P; Meirovitch, Hagai

    2004-12-08

    The hypothetical scanning (HS) method is a general approach for calculating the absolute entropy S and free energy F by analyzing Boltzmann samples obtained by Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics techniques. With HS applied to a fluid, each configuration i of the sample is reconstructed by gradually placing the molecules in their positions at i using transition probabilities (TPs). At each step of the process the system is divided into two parts, the already treated molecules (the "past"), which are fixed, and the as yet unspecified (mobile) "future" molecules. Obtaining the TP exactly requires calculating partition functions over all positions of the future molecules in the presence of the frozen past, thus it is customary to invoke various approximations to best represent these quantities. In a recent publication [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 9235 (2004)] we developed a version of HS called complete HSMC, where each TP is calculated from an MC simulation involving all of the future molecules (the complete future); the method was applied very successfully to Lennard-Jones systems (liquid argon) and a box of TIP3P water molecules. In its basic implementation the method provides lower and upper bounds for F, where the latter can be evaluated only for relatively small systems. Here we introduce a new expression for an upper bound, which can be evaluated for larger systems. We also propose a new exact expression for F and verify its effectiveness. These free energy functionals lead to significantly improved accuracy (as applied to the liquid systems above) which is comparable to our thermodynamic integration results. We formalize and discuss theoretical aspects of HSMC that have not been addressed in previous studies. Additionally, several functionals are developed and shown to provide the free energy through the analysis of a single configuration.

  13. The effect of excitation and preparation pulses on nonslice selective 2D UTE bicomponent analysis of bound and free water in cortical bone at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shihong [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, California 92103-8226 (United States); Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Yancheng Medical College, Jiangsu (China); The First People' s Hospital of Yancheng City, Jiangsu 224005 (China); Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161 and Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, California 92103-8226 (United States); Bae, Won C.; Du, Jiang, E-mail: jiangdu@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, California 92103-8226 (United States); Hua, Yanqing [Department of Radiology, Hua Dong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Zhou, Yi [The First People' s Hospital of Yancheng City, Jiangsu 224005 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of excitation, fat saturation, long T2 saturation, and adiabatic inversion pulses on ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging with bicomponent analysis of bound and free water in cortical bone for potential applications in osteoporosis. Methods: Six bovine cortical bones and six human tibial midshaft samples were harvested for this study. Each bone sample was imaged with eight sequences using 2D UTE imaging at 3T with half and hard excitation pulses, without and with fat saturation, long T2 saturation, and adiabatic inversion recovery (IR) preparation pulses. Single- and bicomponent signal models were utilized to calculate the T2{sup *}s and/or relative fractions of short and long T2{sup *}s. Results: For all bone samples UTE T2{sup *} signal decay showed bicomponent behavior. A higher short T2{sup *} fraction was observed on UTE images with hard pulse excitation compared with half pulse excitation (75.6% vs 68.8% in bovine bone, 79.9% vs 73.2% in human bone). Fat saturation pulses slightly reduced the short T2{sup *} fraction relative to regular UTE sequences (5.0% and 2.0% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for bovine bone, 6.3% and 8.2% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for human bone). Long T2 saturation pulses significantly reduced the long T2{sup *} fraction relative to regular UTE sequence (18.9% and 17.2% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for bovine bone, 26.4% and 27.7% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for human bone). With IR-UTE preparation the long T2{sup *} components were significantly reduced relative to regular UTE sequence (75.3% and 66.4% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for bovine bone, 87.7% and 90.3% reduction, respectively, with half and hard excitation pulses for human bone). Conclusions: Bound and free water T2{sup *}s and relative fractions can

  14. Isolation and structural characterization of two water-borne pheromones from Euplotes crassus, a ciliate commonly known to carry membrane-bound pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana; Federici, Sergio; di Giuseppe, Graziano; Fernando, Dini; Carratore, Vitale; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2011-01-01

    Ciliates comprise species synthesizing water-diffusible mating type factors or pheromones and species synthesizing insoluble, cell membrane-bound pheromones. Euplotes crassus has traditionally been placed in the latter group. In contrast with this notion, we found that E. crassus is a constitutive pheromone-secreting ciliate, like other Euplotes species. From cell-free filtrate preparations of the E. crassus strain L-2D, we isolated two distinct pheromones, designated as Ec-α and Ec-1, and determined their complete amino acid sequences by combined chemical and genetic approaches. The Ec-α pheromone sequence extends for 56 amino acid residues with six cysteines and shows a molecular mass of 6,183 Da, while the Ec-1 pheromone sequence extends for 45 amino acid residues with 10 cysteines and shows a molecular mass of 4,840 Da. Marked structural differences distinguish the full-length Ec-α and Ec-1 coding sequences, which have been cloned and characterized from the transcriptionally active macronuclear genome. They were taken as clear indication that the Ec-α and Ec-1 pheromones are specified by genes that are not allelic, but likely derived from a duplicated genetic locus of the transcriptionally silent micronuclear genome. © 2011 The Author(s). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology© 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  15. Proton transfer from the bulk to the bound ubiquinone QB of the reaction center in chromatophores of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Retarded conveyance by neutral water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopta, Oksana A.; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Junge, Wolfgang; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of proton transfer from the bulk into the membrane protein interior was studied. The light-induced reduction of a bound ubiquinone molecule QB by the photosynthetic reaction center is accompanied by proton trapping. We used kinetic spectroscopy to measure (i) the electron transfer to QB (at 450 nm), (ii) the electrogenic proton delivery from the surface to the QB site (by electrochromic carotenoid response at 524 nm), and (iii) the disappearance of protons from the bulk solution (by pH indicators). The electron transfer to QB− and the proton-related electrogenesis proceeded with the same time constant of ≈100 μs (at pH 6.2), whereas the alkalinization in the bulk was distinctly delayed (τ ≈ 400 μs). We investigated the latter reaction as a function of the pH indicator concentration, the added pH buffers, and the temperature. The results led us to the following conclusions: (i) proton transfer from the surface-located acidic groups into the QB site followed the reduction of QB without measurable delay; (ii) the reprotonation of these surface groups by pH indicators and hydronium ions was impeded, supposedly, because of their slow diffusion in the surface water layer; and (iii) as a result, the protons were slowly donated by neutral water to refill the proton vacancies at the surface. It is conceivable that the same mechanism accounts for the delayed relaxation of the surface pH changes into the bulk observed previously with bacteriorhodopsin membranes and thylakoids. Concerning the coupling between proton pumps in bioenergetic membranes, our results imply a tendency for the transient confinement of protons at the membrane surface. PMID:10557290

  16. 离子土固化剂对膨胀土结合水影响机制研究%Effect of ionic soil stabilizer on bound water of expansive soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清秉; 项伟; 崔德山

    2012-01-01

    以河南安阳弱膨胀土为对象,通过"水汽等温吸附–热失重、差热分析"对膨胀土表面吸附结合水类型进行界定,比较分析离子土固化剂(ISS)改性前后,膨胀土结合水分布形态及数量变化,并基于傅里叶红外光谱,从水分子结构振动信息角度对膨胀土吸附结合水类型界定方法进行定性验证;结合ISS改性前后黏土矿物组分、表面理化性质的变化,解释分析了不同水汽湿度区间内,ISS对膨胀土水合行为的作用模型及改性机理。结果表明:达到一定的水汽"特征"湿度段,土表面水合状态和结合水性质将发生转变,根据热曲线的脱失温度区间可将结合水界定划分为三种类型:强结合水,"过渡"结合水和弱结合水。ISS作用后,土吸附强结合水量无明显改变,"过渡"结合水及弱结合水含量显著降低。ISS通过对膨胀性黏土矿物表面及层间的物化作用,弱化黏土矿物部分"水合活性中心"能量,从而抑制了膨胀土水化膨胀势。%The "water vapor adsorption isotherm - TG, DSC" method is proposed to define and investigate the type of bound water of typical Anyang weak expansive soils. A comparative analysis of the distribution characteristics and amount of bound water is made between the original soil and ISS-soil. From the perspective of water molecular structure vibration and based on the theory of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the rationality of the proposed method is also qualitatively validated. Finally, the effect of ISS on the bound water is interpreted in terms of the change of the clay mineral composition and surface physicochemical property. The test results indicate that the distribution state and property of the boundwaer will alter at specific relative humidity interval. According to the TG - DSC curve, the bound water can be divided into three types at different elevated temperature ranges, i.e., strongly bound water

  17. Viscosity bound versus the universal relaxation bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2017-10-01

    For gauge theories with an Einstein gravity dual, the AdS/CFT correspondence predicts a universal value for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, η / s = 1 / 4 π. The holographic calculations have motivated the formulation of the celebrated KSS conjecture, according to which all fluids conform to the lower bound η / s ≥ 1 / 4 π. The bound on η / s may be regarded as a lower bound on the relaxation properties of perturbed fluids and it has been the focus of much recent attention. In particular, it was argued that for a class of field theories with Gauss-Bonnet gravity dual, the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η / s, could violate the conjectured KSS bound. In the present paper we argue that the proposed violations of the KSS bound are strongly constrained by Bekenstein's generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown that physical consistency of the Gauss-Bonnet theory with the GSL requires its coupling constant to be bounded by λGB ≲ 0 . 063. We further argue that the genuine physical bound on the relaxation properties of physically consistent fluids is ℑω(k > 2 πT) > πT, where ω and k are respectively the proper frequency and the wavenumber of a perturbation mode in the fluid.

  18. Functions of bounded variation

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The paper begins with a short survey of monotone functions. The functions of bounded variation are introduced and some basic properties of these functions are given. Finally the jump function of a function of bounded variation is defined.

  19. Upward Bound alum honored

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    Robert Cobb Jr., of Greensboro, N.C., a 1986-89 participant in the Virginia Tech Upward Bound program, was recently named Virginia's TRIO Achiever for 2004. Federal TRIO programs include Upward Bound and Educational Talent Search.

  20. A possibility of a protein-bound water molecule as the ionizable group responsible for pKe at the alkaline side in human matrix metalloproteinase 7 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Aiko; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2012-05-01

    Human matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) activity exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profile with the acidic and alkaline pK(a) (pK(e1) and pK(e2)) values of about 4 and 10. The ionizable group for pK(e2) was assigned to Lys or Arg by thermodynamic analysis; however, no such residues are present in the active site. Hence, based on the crystal structure, we hypothesized that a water molecule bound to the main-chain nitrogen of Ala162 (W1) or the main-chain carbonyl oxygen of Pro217 (W2) is a candidate for the ionizable group for pK(e2) [Takeharu, H. et al. (2011) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1814, 1940-1946]. In this study, we inspected this hypothesis. In the hydrolysis of (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)acetyl-L-Pro-L-Leu-Gly-L-Leu-[N(3)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-L-2,3-diaminopropionyl]-L-Ala-L-Arg-NH(2), all 19 variants, in which one of all Lys and Arg residues was replaced by Ala, retained activity, indicating that neither Lys nor Arg is the ionizable group. pK(e2) values of A162S, A162V and A162G were 9.6 ± 0.1, 9.5 ± 0.1 and 10.4 ± 0.2, respectively, different from that of wild-type MMP-7 (WT) (9.9 ± 0.1) by 0.3-0.5 pH unit, and those of P217S, P217V and P217G were 10.1 ± 0.1, 9.8 ± 0.1 and 9.7 ± 0.1, respectively, different from that of WT by 0.1-0.2 pH unit. These results suggest a possibility of W1 or W2 as the ionizable group for pK(e2).

  1. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  2. Graviton Mass Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    de Rham, Claudia; Tolley, Andrew J; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, aLIGO has announced the first direct detections of gravitational waves, a direct manifestation of the propagating degrees of freedom of gravity. The detected signals GW150914 and GW151226 have been used to examine the basic properties of these gravitational degrees of freedom, particularly setting an upper bound on their mass. It is timely to review what the mass of these gravitational degrees of freedom means from the theoretical point of view, particularly taking into account the recent developments in constructing consistent massive gravity theories. Apart from the GW150914 mass bound, a few other observational bounds have been established from the effects of the Yukawa potential, modified dispersion relation and fifth force that are all induced when the fundamental gravitational degrees of freedom are massive. We review these different mass bounds and examine how they stand in the wake of recent theoretical developments and how they compare to the bound from GW150914.

  3. Bounding species distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].

  4. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  5. Multicolor Bound Soliton Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Rui; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We show a new class of bound soliton molecule that exists in a parametrically driven nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The composed solitons exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, bound together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor bound soliton molecule shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which may open up a great avenue towards versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy.

  6. Bound Water Content in Saturated Wood Cell Wall Determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy%利用核磁共振测定木材吸着水饱和含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鑫; 庄寿增

    2015-01-01

    1H spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of water in 5 species of wood was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at room temperature and-3℃, which is thought to be related to the anatomical structure of the wood. The bound water content within swollen cell wall was determined by comparison of the inversion peak area before and after frozen treatment:Pinus sylvestris 38.3%,Cunninghamia lanceolata 38.5%, Populus sp. 36.0%,Fraxinus excelsior L. 35.6% andOchroma pyramidale 47.6%. The bound water contents determined by NMR spectroscopy were apparently higher than those obtained by the conventional extrapolation methods, but similar to the results obtained by the solute exclusion method, porous plate method, centrifugal dewatering method. It is concluded that NMR may provide a rapid and non-destructive way to determine bound water content in wood.%利用核磁共振(NMR)技术研究了室温与-3℃条件下5种树种木材内水分质子的自旋-自旋弛豫时间(T2)特性,室温下各树种木材试样T2弛豫时间特性的不同是由木材微观构造导致的.通过对比冷冻前后各树种试样的信号反演峰面积,确定了其吸着水饱和含量,樟子松38.3%,杉木38.5%,杨木36.0%,白蜡木35.6%,轻木47.6%,均高于通过吸湿外推法估算数值,与溶剂排出法、多孔板法、离心法等实测法获得的吸着水饱和含量的结果相近,核磁共振技术可作为木材内吸着水含量快速测定的实验方法.

  7. Lectures on Bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Even a first approximation of bound states requires contributions of all powers in the coupling. This means that the concept of "lowest order bound state" needs to be defined. In these lectures I discuss the "Born" (no loop, lowest order in $\\hbar$) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. As a check of the method, Positronium states of any momentum are determined as eigenstates of the QED Hamiltonian, quantized at equal time. Analogously, states bound by a strong external field $A^\\mu(\\xv)$ are found as eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Their Fock states have dynamically created $e^+e^-$ pairs, whose distribution is determined by the Dirac wave function. The linear potential of $D=1+1$ dimensions confines electrons but repels positrons. As a result, the mass spectrum is continuous and the wave functions have features of both bound states and plane waves. The classical solutions of Gauss' law are explored for hadrons in QCD. A non-vanishing bo...

  8. Bounding species distribution models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].

  9. Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.

  10. Bounded Computational Capacity Equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Penelope

    2010-01-01

    We study repeated games played by players with bounded computational power, where, in contrast to Abreu and Rubisntein (1988), the memory is costly. We prove a folk theorem: the limit set of equilibrium payoffs in mixed strategies, as the cost of memory goes to 0, includes the set of feasible and individually rational payoffs. This result stands in sharp contrast to Abreu and Rubisntein (1988), who proved that when memory is free, the set of equilibrium payoffs in repeated games played by players with bounded computational power is a strict subset of the set of feasible and individually rational payoffs. Our result emphasizes the role of memory cost and of mixing when players have bounded computational power.

  11. On Bounded Weight Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bachoc, Christine; Cohen, Gerard; Sole, Patrick; Tchamkerten, Aslan

    2010-01-01

    The maximum size of a binary code is studied as a function of its length N, minimum distance D, and minimum codeword weight W. This function B(N,D,W) is first characterized in terms of its exponential growth rate in the limit as N tends to infinity for fixed d=D/N and w=W/N. The exponential growth rate of B(N,D,W) is shown to be equal to the exponential growth rate of A(N,D) for w <= 1/2, and equal to the exponential growth rate of A(N,D,W) for 1/2< w <= 1. Second, analytic and numerical upper bounds on B(N,D,W) are derived using the semidefinite programming (SDP) method. These bounds yield a non-asymptotic improvement of the second Johnson bound and are tight for certain values of the parameters.

  12. Bounding Noncommutative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, C E; Lebed, R F; Carlson, Carl E.; Carone, Christopher D.; Lebed, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    Jurco, Moller, Schraml, Schupp, and Wess have shown how to construct noncommutative SU(N) gauge theories from a consistency relation. Within this framework, we present the Feynman rules for noncommutative QCD and compute explicitly the most dangerous Lorentz-violating operator generated through radiative corrections. We find that interesting effects appear at the one-loop level, in contrast to conventional noncommutative U(N) gauge theories, leading to a stringent bound. Our results are consistent with others appearing recently in the literature that suggest collider limits are not competitive with low-energy tests of Lorentz violation for bounding the scale of spacetime noncommutativity.

  13. EPA, Department of Justice, and Hecla Limited settle Clean Water Act violations, reduce pollution bound for South Fork Coeur dAlene River

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Seattle, WA - June 1, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Justice, and Hecla Limited, owner of the Lucky Friday Mine and Mill, have reached a settlement concerning water pollution violations near the headwaters of the Sout

  14. Bounded variation and around

    CERN Document Server

    Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José

    2013-01-01

    This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.

  15. The DMM Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias

    2010-01-01

    of variables. One application is to the bitsize of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of an integer matrix, which also yields a new proof that the problem is polynomial. We also compare against recent lower bounds on the absolute value of the root coordinates by Brownawell and Yap [5], obtained under...

  16. On Entropy Bounds and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2009-01-01

    We show that the holographic entropy bound for gravitational systems and the Bekenstein entropy bound for nongravitational systems are holographically related. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we find that the Bekenstein bound on the boundary is obtained from the holographic bound in the bulk by minimizing the boundary energy with respect the AdS radius or the cosmological constant. This relation may also ameliorate some problems associated with the Bekenstein bound.

  17. Isolation of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis placenta by use of Vicia villosa bound agarose affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Beckers

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the isolation and characterisation of new PAG molecules extracted from mid- and late-pregnancy placentas in the water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis. After extraction, acid and ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE chromatography water buffalo PAG (wbPAG were enriched by Vicia villosa agarose (VVA affininity chromatography. As determined by Western blotting with anti-PAG-sera, apparent molecular masses of immunoreactive bands from VVA peaks ranged from 59.5 to 75.8 kDa and from 57.8 to 80.9 kDa in the mid- and late- pregnancy placenta respectively. Aminoterminal microsequencing of proteins allowed the identification of three distinct wbPAG sequences wich have ben deposed in the SwissProt database: RGSXLTIHPLRNIRDFFYUG (Acc. n. P85048, RGSXLTILPLRNIID (P85049 and RGSXLTHLPLRNI (P85050. Their comparison to those previously identified revealed that two of them were new since they have not been described yet. Our results confirm the suitability of VVA chromatography in enrichment of multiple PAG molecules expressed in buffalo placenta. Productions of specific antisera can be very useful in immonoistochemical and immunocyitochemical studies of PAG expression in fetomaternal interfaces. Purified native PAG are also required for development on specific immoassays (RIA/ELISA currently used for pregnancy diagnosis and physiological investigation in farm animal.

  18. Bounded Satisfiability for PCTL

    CERN Document Server

    Bertrand, Nathalie; Schewe, Sven

    2012-01-01

    While model checking PCTL for Markov chains is decidable in polynomial-time, the decidability of PCTL satisfiability, as well as its finite model property, are long standing open problems. While general satisfiability is an intriguing challenge from a purely theoretical point of view, we argue that general solutions would not be of interest to practitioners: such solutions could be too big to be implementable or even infinite. Inspired by bounded synthesis techniques, we turn to the more applied problem of seeking models of a bounded size: we restrict our search to implementable -- and therefore reasonably simple -- models. We propose a procedure to decide whether or not a given PCTL formula has an implementable model by reducing it to an SMT problem. We have implemented our techniques and found that they can be applied to the practical problem of sanity checking -- a procedure that allows a system designer to check whether their formula has an unexpectedly small model.

  19. Reaching Fleming's dicrimination bound

    CERN Document Server

    Gruebl, Gebhard

    2012-01-01

    Any rule for identifying a quantum system's state within a set of two non-orthogonal pure states by a single measurement is flawed. It has a non-zero probability of either yielding the wrong result or leaving the query undecided. This also holds if the measurement of an observable $A$ is repeated on a finite sample of $n$ state copies. We formulate a state identification rule for such a sample. This rule's probability of giving the wrong result turns out to be bounded from above by $1/n\\delta_{A}^{2}$ with $\\delta_{A}=|_{1}-_{2}|/(\\Delta_{1}A+\\Delta_{2}A).$ A larger $\\delta_{A}$ results in a smaller upper bound. Yet, according to Fleming, $\\delta_{A}$ cannot exceed $\\tan\\theta$ with $\\theta\\in(0,\\pi/2) $ being the angle between the pure states under consideration. We demonstrate that there exist observables $A$ which reach the bound $\\tan\\theta$ and we determine all of them.

  20. Bound states in the continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Stone, A. Douglas; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-09-01

    Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are waves that remain localized even though they coexist with a continuous spectrum of radiating waves that can carry energy away. Their very existence defies conventional wisdom. Although BICs were first proposed in quantum mechanics, they are a general wave phenomenon and have since been identified in electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves in air, water waves and elastic waves in solids. These states have been studied in a wide range of material systems, such as piezoelectric materials, dielectric photonic crystals, optical waveguides and fibres, quantum dots, graphene and topological insulators. In this Review, we describe recent developments in this field with an emphasis on the physical mechanisms that lead to BICs across seemingly very different materials and types of waves. We also discuss experimental realizations, existing applications and directions for future work.

  1. BOUNDING PYRAMIDS AND BOUNDING CONES FOR TRIANGULAR BEZIER SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-song Deng; Fa-lai Chen; Li-li Wang

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes practical approaches on how to construct bounding pyramids and bounding cones for triangular Bézier surfaces. Examples are provided to illustrate the process of construction and comparison is made between various surface bounding volumes. Furthermore, as a starting point for the construction,we provide a way to compute hodographs of triangular Bézier surfaces and improve the algorithm for computing the bounding cone of a set of vectors.

  2. Critical SQG in bounded domains

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Peter; Ignatova, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    We consider the critical dissipative SQG equation in bounded domains, with the square root of the Dirichlet Laplacian dissipation. We prove global a priori interior $C^{\\alpha}$ and Lipschitz bounds for large data.

  3. A bound on chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ (United States); Shenker, Stephen H. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford, Douglas [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-08-17

    We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent λ{sub L}≤2πk{sub B}T/ℏ. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.

  4. Regularity of Bound States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faupin, Jeremy; Møller, Jacob Schach; Skibsted, Erik

    2011-01-01

    We study regularity of bound states pertaining to embedded eigenvalues of a self-adjoint operator H, with respect to an auxiliary operator A that is conjugate to H in the sense of Mourre. We work within the framework of singular Mourre theory which enables us to deal with confined massless Pauli–......–Fierz models, our primary example, and many-body AC-Stark Hamiltonians. In the simpler context of regular Mourre theory, our results boil down to an improvement of results obtained recently in [8, 9]....

  5. A bound on chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Stanford, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L \\le 2 \\pi k_B T/\\hbar$. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.

  6. Delay Bounds for Multiclass FIFO

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuming; Misra, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    FIFO is perhaps the simplest scheduling discipline. For single-class FIFO, its delay guarantee performance has been extensively studied: The well-known results include a stochastic delay bound for $GI/GI/1$ by Kingman and a deterministic delay bound for $D/D/1$ by Cruz. However, for multiclass FIFO, few such results are available. To fill the gap, we prove delay bounds for multiclass FIFO in this work, considering both deterministic and stochastic cases. Specifically, delay bounds are present...

  7. Bounded Fixed-Point Iteration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    1992-01-01

    they obtain a quadratic bound. These bounds are shown to be tight. Specializing the case of strict and additive functions to functionals of a form that would correspond to iterative programs they show that a linear bound is tight. This is related to several analyses studied in the literature (including...

  8. Error bounds for set inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Xiyin(郑喜印)

    2003-01-01

    A variant of Robinson-Ursescu Theorem is given in normed spaces. Several error bound theorems for convex inclusions are proved and in particular a positive answer to Li and Singer's conjecture is given under weaker assumption than the assumption required in their conjecture. Perturbation error bounds are also studied. As applications, we study error bounds for convex inequality systems.

  9. Multifunctions of bounded variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinter, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    Consider control systems described by a differential equation with a control term or, more generally, by a differential inclusion with velocity set F (t , x). Certain properties of state trajectories can be derived when it is assumed that F (t , x) is merely measurable w.r.t. the time variable t. But sometimes a refined analysis requires the imposition of stronger hypotheses regarding the time dependence. Stronger forms of necessary conditions for minimizing state trajectories can be derived, for example, when F (t , x) is Lipschitz continuous w.r.t. time. It has recently become apparent that significant addition properties of state trajectories can still be derived, when the Lipschitz continuity hypothesis is replaced by the weaker requirement that F (t , x) has bounded variation w.r.t. time. This paper introduces a new concept of multifunctions F (t , x) that have bounded variation w.r.t. time near a given state trajectory, of special relevance to control. We provide an application to sensitivity analysis.

  10. Formation of "bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.

    2009-04-01

    During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the

  11. A tool for cost-effectiveness analysis of field scale sediment-bound phosphorus mitigation measures and application to analysis of spatial and temporal targeting in the Lunan Water catchment, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinten, Andy; Sample, James; Ibiyemi, Adekunle; Abdul-Salam, Yakubu; Stutter, Marc

    2017-05-15

    The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations. Costs were estimated from gross margin losses or local data on grants. We used a net cost:benefit (NCB) factor to normalise the costs and impacts of each measure over time. Costs minimisation for target impact was done using PuLP, a linear programming module for Python, across 1634 riparian and non-riparian fields in the Lunan Water, a mixed arable catchment in Eastern Scotland. With all measures in place, average cost-effectiveness increases from £9 to £48/kg P as target P mitigation increases from 500 to 2500kg P across the catchment. Costs increase significantly when the measures available are restricted only to those currently eligible for government grants (buffers, bunds and wetlands). The assumed orientation of the average field slope makes a strong difference to the potential for storage of water by bunds and overall cost-effectiveness, but the non-funded measures can substitute for the extra expense incurred by bunds, where the slope orientation is not suitable. Economic discounting over time of impacts and costs of measures favours those measures, such as sediment fences, which are strongly targeted both spatially and temporally. This tool could be a useful guide for dialogue with land users about the potential fields to target for mitigation to achieve catchment targets. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bounding approaches to system identification

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric

    1996-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.

  13. On functions of bounded variation

    OpenAIRE

    Aistleitner, Christoph; Pausinger, Florian; Svane, Anne Marie; Tichy, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The recently introduced concept of $\\mathcal{D}$-variation unifies previous concepts of variation of multivariate functions. In this paper, we give an affirmative answer to the open question from Pausinger \\& Svane (J. Complexity, 2014) whether every function of bounded Hardy--Krause variation is Borel measurable and has bounded $\\mathcal{D}$-variation. Moreover, we show that the space of functions of bounded $\\mathcal{D}$-variation can be turned into a commutative Banach algebra.

  14. Upper bounds for centerlines

    CERN Document Server

    Bukh, Boris

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Bukh, Matousek, and Nivasch conjectured that for every n-point set S in R^d and every k, 0 <= k <= d-1, there exists a k-flat f in R^d (a "centerflat") that lies at "depth" (k+1) n / (k+d+1) - O(1) in S, in the sense that every halfspace that contains f contains at least that many points of S. This claim is true and tight for k=0 (this is Rado's centerpoint theorem), as well as for k = d-1 (trivial). Bukh et al. showed the existence of a (d-2)-flat at depth (d-1) n / (2d-1) - O(1) (the case k = d-2). In this paper we concentrate on the case k=1 (the case of "centerlines"), in which the conjectured value for the leading constant is 2/(d+2). We prove that 2/(d+2) is an *upper bound* for the leading constant. Specifically, we show that for every fixed d and every n there exists an n-point set in R^d for which no line in R^d lies at depth larger than 2n/(d+2) + o(n). This point set is the "stretched grid"---a set which has been previously used by Bukh et al. for other related purposes.

  15. Analysis of metal cations and inorganic anions in olive oil mill waste waters by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion chromatography. Detection of metals bound mainly to the organic polymeric fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, M; Capasso, R

    2000-04-01

    Metal cations were quantitatively detected by atomic absorption spectrometry in samples of olive oil mill waste waters obtained by a pressure process (omww(1)) (K, 17.1; Mg, 2.72; Ca, 2.24; Na, 0.40; Fe, 0.123; Zn, 0.0630; Mn, 0.0147; Cu, 0.00860 g L(-)(1)) and a centrifugation process (omww(2)) (K, 9.80; Mg, 1.65; Ca, 1.35; Na, 0. 162; Fe, 0.0330; Zn, 0.0301; Mn, 0.00910; Cu, 0.00980 g L(-)(1)). The inorganic anions, determined in the same samples by ion chromatography, proved to be Cl(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), F(-), SO(4)(2)(-), and NO(3)(-) (1.61, 1.05, 0.66, 0.52, and 0.023 g L(-)(1), respectively, in omww(1) and 0.61, 0.40, 0.25, 0.20, and 0.0090 g L(-)(1), respectively, in omww(2)). Most of the metal cations were revealed to be bound to the omww organic polymeric fraction (opf), composed of polysaccharides, phenol polymers, and proteins. Opf relative molecular weight was substantially estimated in the range between 1000 and 30000 Da for approximately 75% and in the range from 30000 to 100000 Da for approximately 25%. The free residual cations pool proved to be neutralized by the inorganic counteranions. Finally, the possible exploitation of this material in agriculture and in environmental biotechnology processes is also discussed in the light of its chemical and biochemical oxygen demand parameters.

  16. A Lower Bound on Concurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-Guo; TIAN Cheng-Lin; CHEN Ping-Xing; YUAN Nai-Chang

    2009-01-01

    We derive an analytical lower bound on the concurrence for bipartite quantum systems with an improved computable cross norm or realignment criterion and an improved positive partial transpose criterion respectively.Furthermore we demonstrate that our bound is better than that obtained from the local uncertainty relations criterion with optimal local orthogonal observables which is known as one of the best estimations of concurrence.

  17. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  18. Anaphoric Pronouns and Bound Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasow, Thomas

    1975-01-01

    Deals with certain problems inherent in deriving anaphoric pronouns from bound variables. Syntactic rules applied to determine anaphora relations cannot be applied if anaphoric pronouns and their antecedents have identical underlying forms. An approach to anaphora which preserves some advantages of the bound-variable theory without the problems is…

  19. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long...

  20. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm...

  1. Asynchronous Bounded Expected Delay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhshi, Rena; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The commonly used asynchronous bounded delay (ABD) network models assume a fixed bound on message delay. We propose a probabilistic network model, called asynchronous bounded expected delay (ABE) model. Instead of a strict bound, the ABE model requires only a bound on the expected message delay. While the conditions of ABD networks restrict the set of possible executions, in ABE networks all asynchronous executions are possible, but executions with extremely long delays are less probable. In contrast to ABD networks, ABE networks cannot be synchronised efficiently. At the example of an election algorithm, we show that the minimal assumptions of ABE networks are sufficient for the development of efficient algorithms. For anonymous, unidirectional ABE rings of known size N we devise a probabilistic leader election algorithm having average message and time complexity O(N).

  2. Bounds on tau neutrino magnetic moment and charge radius from Super-K and SNO observations

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2001-01-01

    Neutrinos can scatter electrons in water detectors through their magnetic moments and charge radii in addition to the charged and neutral currents channels. The recent solar neutrino charged current event rates announced by SNO with the earlier solar and atmospheric neutrino observations from Super-Kamiokande allows us to put upper bounds of $\\mu < 10^{-31} cm^2$ on the neutrino charge radii. For the electron and muon neutrinos these bounds are comparable with existing bounds but for tau neutrinos these bounds are three orders of magnitude more stringent than earlier terrestrial bounds. These bounds are independent of any specific model of neutrino oscillations.

  3. The Out-bound and In-bound Travelling Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emily Yu

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the Spring Festival of China with a long vocation of seven days nationally is approaching,more and more attention is paid to the out-bound and inn-bound trayeling market.Will people hold their pockets firmly in the"cold winter"of world-wide financial crisis,or will they grab the great discount of traveling and take a good relax?

  4. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  5. Bounds for Certain Character Sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锦; 郑志勇

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows a connection between exponential sums and character sums. In particular, we introduce a character sum that is an analog of the classical Kloosterman sums and establish the analogous Weil-Estermann's upper bound for it. The paper also analyzes a generalized Hardy-Littlewood example for character sums, which shows that the upper bounds given here are the best possible. The analysis makes use of local bounds for the exponential sums and character sums. The basic theorems have been previously established.

  6. Bounded Model Checking of CTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Tao; Cong-Hua Zhou; Zhong Chen; Li-Fu Wang

    2007-01-01

    Bounded Model Checking has been recently introduced as an efficient verification method for reactive systems.This technique reduces model checking of linear temporal logic to propositional satisfiability.In this paper we first present how quantified Boolean decision procedures can replace BDDs.We introduce a bounded model checking procedure for temporal logic CTL* which reduces model checking to the satisfiability of quantified Boolean formulas.Our new technique avoids the space blow up of BDDs, and extends the concept of bounded model checking.

  7. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  8. Computing Constrained Cramer Rao Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tune, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the problem of computing submatrices of the Cram\\'er-Rao bound (CRB), which lower bounds the variance of any unbiased estimator of a vector parameter $\\vth$. We explore iterative methods that avoid direct inversion of the Fisher information matrix, which can be computationally expensive when the dimension of $\\vth$ is large. The computation of the bound is related to the quadratic matrix program, where there are highly efficient methods for solving it. We present several methods, and show that algorithms in prior work are special instances of existing optimization algorithms. Some of these methods converge to the bound monotonically, but in particular, algorithms converging non-monotonically are much faster. We then extend the work to encompass the computation of the CRB when the Fisher information matrix is singular and when the parameter $\\vth$ is subject to constraints. As an application, we consider the design of a data streaming algorithm for network measurement.

  9. An Inequality for Bounded Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kouba, Omran

    2012-01-01

    In this note we prove optimal inequalities for bounded functions in terms of their deviation from their mean. These results extend and generalize some known inequalities due to Thong (2011) and Perfetti (2011)

  10. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  11. Bound states in string nets

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M D; Vidal, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  12. Some bounds for quantum copying

    CERN Document Server

    Rastegin, A E

    2001-01-01

    We derive lower bounds on the absolute error and the relative error of an abstract copying of two-state set. We do not specify a copying transformation and a dimension of state space. Only the unitarity of quantum mechanical transformations is used. Our approach is based on the notion of angle between two states. We first prove several useful statements, simply expressed in terms of angles. We then examine a lower bound on the absolute error, that was first considered by Hillery and Buzek. Our reasonings supplement and reinforce the results, obtained by them. So, we derive more strong bounds on the absolute error, and we also consider a tradeoff between size of error and corresponding probability distributions. After that we examine a lower bound on the relative error.

  13. Mutual information challenges entropy bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, H

    2006-01-01

    We consider some formulations of the entropy bounds at the semiclassical level. The entropy S(V) localized in a region V is divergent in quantum field theory (QFT). Instead of it we focus on the mutual information I(V,W)=S(V)+S(W)-S(V U W) between two different non-intersecting sets V and W. This is a low energy quantity, independent of the regularization scheme. In addition, the mutual information is bounded above by twice the entropy corresponding to the sets involved. Calculations of I(V,W) in QFT show that the entropy in empty space cannot be renormalized to zero, and must be actually very large. We find that this entropy due to the vacuum fluctuations violates the FMW bound in Minkowski space. The mutual information also gives a precise, cutoff independent meaning to the statement that the number of degrees of freedom increases with the volume in QFT. If the holographic bound holds, this points to the essential non locality of the physical cutoff. Violations of the Bousso bound would require conformal th...

  14. Eta nuclear bound states revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, E; Mareš, J

    2013-01-01

    The strong energy dependence of the s-wave eta-N scattering amplitude at and below threshold, as evident in coupled-channels K-matrix fits and chiral models that incorporate the S11 N*(1535) resonance, is included self consistently in eta-nuclear bound state calculations. This approach, applied recently in calculations of kaonic atoms and Kbar-nuclear bound states, is found to impose stronger constraints than ever on the onset of eta-nuclear binding, with a minimum value of Re a_{eta N} approximately 0.9 fm required to accommodate an eta-4He bound state. Binding energies and widths of eta-nuclear states are calculated within several underlying eta-N models for nuclei across the periodic table, including eta-25Mg for which some evidence was proposed in a recent COSY experiment.

  15. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    Table of Contents -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this paper we present a number of improved lower bounds for range searching in the pointer machine and the group model. In the pointer machine, we prove lower bounds for the approximate simplex...... range reporting problem. In approximate simplex range reporting, points that lie within a distance of ε ⋅ Diam(s) from the border of a query simplex s, are free to be included or excluded from the output, where ε ≥ 0 is an input parameter to the range searching problem. We prove our lower bounds...... by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  16. Experimental activation of bound entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2012-07-27

    Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet, there is another type of entanglement, called "bound entanglement," which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate the experimental "activation" of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and local operations and classical communication. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement.

  17. Modeling agreement on bounded scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbelle, Sophie; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Agreement is an important concept in medical and behavioral sciences, in particular in clinical decision making where disagreements possibly imply a different patient management. The concordance correlation coefficient is an appropriate measure to quantify agreement between two scorers on a quantitative scale. However, this measure is based on the first two moments, which could poorly summarize the shape of the score distribution on bounded scales. Bounded outcome scores are common in medical and behavioral sciences. Typical examples are scores obtained on visual analog scales and scores derived as the number of positive items on a questionnaire. These kinds of scores often show a non-standard distribution, like a J- or U-shape, questioning the usefulness of the concordance correlation coefficient as agreement measure. The logit-normal distribution has shown to be successful in modeling bounded outcome scores of two types: (1) when the bounded score is a coarsened version of a latent score with a logit-normal distribution on the [0,1] interval and (2) when the bounded score is a proportion with the true probability having a logit-normal distribution. In the present work, a model-based approach, based on a bivariate generalization of the logit-normal distribution, is developed in a Bayesian framework to assess the agreement on bounded scales. This method permits to directly study the impact of predictors on the concordance correlation coefficient and can be simply implemented in standard Bayesian softwares, like JAGS and WinBUGS. The performances of the new method are compared to the classical approach using simulations. Finally, the methodology is used in two different medical domains: cardiology and rheumatology.

  18. Lower Bounds for Sparse Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Ba, Khanh Do; Price, Eric; Woodruff, David P

    2011-01-01

    We consider the following k-sparse recovery problem: design an m x n matrix A, such that for any signal x, given Ax we can efficiently recover x' satisfying ||x-x'||_1 <= C min_{k-sparse} x"} ||x-x"||_1. It is known that there exist matrices A with this property that have only O(k log (n/k)) rows. In this paper we show that this bound is tight. Our bound holds even for the more general /randomized/ version of the problem, where A is a random variable and the recovery algorithm is required to work for any fixed x with constant probability (over A).

  19. Variables Bounding Based Retiming Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫宗伟; 林争辉; 陈后鹏

    2002-01-01

    Retiming is a technique for optimizing sequential circuits. In this paper, wediscuss this problem and propose an improved retiming algorithm based on variables bounding.Through the computation of the lower and upper bounds on variables, the algorithm can signi-ficantly reduce the number of constraints and speed up the execution of retiming. Furthermore,the elements of matrixes D and W are computed in a demand-driven way, which can reducethe capacity of memory. It is shown through the experimental results on ISCAS89 benchmarksthat our algorithm is very effective for large-scale sequential circuits.

  20. Bounds for Completely Decomposable Jacobians

    CERN Document Server

    Duursma, Iwan

    2010-01-01

    A curve over the field of two elements with completely decomposable Jacobian is shown to have at most six rational points and genus at most 26. The bounds are sharp. The previous upper bound for the genus was 145. We also show that a curve over the field of $q$ elements with more than $q^{m/2}+1$ rational points has at least one Frobenius angle in the open interval $(\\pi/m,3\\pi/m)$. The proofs make use of the explicit formula method.

  1. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  2. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  3. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...

  4. Wronskian Method for Bound States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…

  5. Variational Bounds for Creeping Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, Petr

    2010-05-01

    In the paper time dependent variational bounds are derived based on Extended Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. Direct calculation leads to explicit formulas to be presented in the text. For various mechanical properties easy coding in Excel, say, can be used and verification of accuracy for numerical procedures is available using the derived formulas.

  6. Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Marla K.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)

  7. CD(4) has bounded width

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Catarina; Marković, Petar; Maróti, Miklós

    2007-01-01

    We prove that the constraint languages invariant under a short sequence of J\\'onsson terms (containing at most three non-trivial ternary terms) are tractable by showing that they have bounded width. This improves the previous result by Kiss and Valeriote and presents some evidence that the Larose-Zadori conjecture holds in the congruence-distributive case.

  8. Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Marla K.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)

  9. A Functional Calculus for Quotient Bounded Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Mirel Stoian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available If (X, P is a sequentially locally convex space, then a quotient bounded operator T beloging to QP is regular (in the sense of Waelbroeck if and only if it is a bounded element (in the sense of Allan of algebra QP. The classic functional calculus for bounded operators on Banach space is generalized for bounded elements of algebra QP.

  10. IM-CRDS for the analysis of matrix-bound water isotopes: a streamlined (and updated) tool for ecohydrologists to probe small-scale variability in plants Yasuhara, S. (syasuhara@picarro.com)1,Carter, J.A. (jcarter@picarro.com)1, Dennis, K.J. (kdennis@picarro.com)1 1Picarro Inc., 3105 Patrick Henry Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to measure the isotopic composition of matrix-bound water is valuable to many facets of earth and environmental sciences. For example, ecohydrologists use stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in plant and soil water, in combination with measurements of atmospheric water vapor, surface water and precipitation, to estimate budgets of evapotranspiration. Likewise, water isotopes of oceanic water, brines and other waters with high total dissolved solids (TDS, e.g., juices) are relevant to studying large-scale oceanic circulation, small-scale mixing, groundwater contamination, the balance of evaporation to precipitation, and the provenance of food. Conventionally matrix-bound water has been extracted using cryogenic distillation, whereby water is distilled from the material in question (e.g., a leaf sample) by heating under vacuum and collecting the resultant water vapor using liquid nitrogen. The water can then be analyzed for its stable isotopic composition by a variety of methods, including isotope ratio mass spectrometry and laser techniques, such as Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). Here we present recent improvements in an alternative, and stream-lined, solution for integrated sample extraction and isotopic measurement using a Picarro Induction Module (IM) coupled to commercially-available CRDS analyzer from Picarro. This technique is also valuable for waters with high TDS, which can have detrimental effects on flash vaporization process, typically used for the introduction of water to Picarro CRDS water isotope analyzers. The IM works by inductively heating a sample held within a metal sample holder in a glass vial flushed with dry air. Tested samples include leaves, stems, twigs, calibration water, juices, and salt water. The heating process evolves water vapor which is then swept through the system at approximately 150 standard cubic centimeters per minute. The evolved water vapor passes through an activated charcoal cartridge for removal of

  11. Physics with loosely bound nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chhanda Samanta

    2001-08-01

    The essential aspect of contemporary physics is to understand properties of nucleonic matter that constitutes the world around us. Over the years research in nuclear physics has provided strong guidance in understanding the basic principles of nuclear interactions. But, the scenario of nuclear physics changed drastically as the new generation of accelerators started providing more and more rare isotopes, which are away from the line of stability. These weakly bound nuclei are found to exhibit new forms of nuclear matter and unprecedented exotic behaviour. The low breakup thresholds of these rare nuclei are posing new challenges to both theory and experiments. Fortunately, nature has provided a few loosely bound stable nuclei that have been studied thoroughly for decades. Attempts are being made to find a consistent picture for the unstable nuclei starting from their stable counterparts. Some significant differences in the structure and reaction mechanisms are found.

  12. Space-bounded communication complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.

    2013-01-01

    In the past thirty years, Communication Complexity has emerged as a foundational tool to proving lower bounds in many areas of computer science. Its power comes from its generality, but this generality comes at a price---no superlinear communication lower bound is possible, since a player may...... communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory....... When a player receives a bit of communication, he "compresses" his state. This compression may be an arbitrary function of his current memory contents, his input, and the bit of communication just received; the only restriction is that the compression must return at most s(n) bits. We obtain memory...

  13. Lower Bounds on Paraclique Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Ronald D; Langston, Michael A; Wang, Kai

    2016-05-11

    The scientific literature teems with clique-centric clustering strategies. In this paper we analyze one such method, the paraclique algorithm. Paraclique has found practical utility in a variety of application domains, and has been successfully employed to reduce the effects of noise. Nevertheless, its formal analysis and worst-case guarantees have remained elusive. We address this issue by deriving a series of lower bounds on paraclique densities.

  14. Wronskian method for bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Francisco M, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [INIFTA (UNLP, CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Boulevard 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-05-15

    We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider an exactly solvable model, the Gaussian potential well, and a two-well potential proposed earlier for the interpretation of the infrared spectrum of ammonia.

  15. Bound Modes in Dielectric Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, P M; Lenstra, D

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate how exactly bound cavity modes can be realized in dielectric structures other than 3d photonic crystals. For a microcavity consisting of crossed anisotropic layers, we derive the cavity resonance frequencies, and spontaneous emission rates. For a dielectric structure with dissipative loss and central layer with gain, the beta factor of direct spontaneous emission into a cavity mode and the laser threshold is calculated.

  16. Entropy Bounds in Spherical Space

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, I; Odintsov, S D; Brevik, Iver; Milton, Kimball A.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2002-01-01

    Exact calculations are given for the Casimir energy for various fields in $R\\times S^3$ geometry. The Green's function method naturally gives a result in a form convenient in the high-temperature limit, while the statistical mechanical approach gives a form appropriate for low temperatures. The equivalence of these two representations is demonstrated. Some discrepancies with previous work are noted. In no case, even for ${\\cal N}=4$ SUSY, is the ratio of entropy to energy found to be bounded.

  17. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department is...

  18. The Cost of Bounded Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyo-Sil

    2011-01-01

    We study the motion-planning problem for a car-like robot whose turning radius is bounded from below by one and which is allowed to move in the forward direction only (Dubins car). For two robot configurations $\\sigma, \\sigma'$, let $\\ell(\\sigma, \\sigma')$ be the shortest bounded-curvature path from $\\sigma$ to $\\sigma'$. For $d \\geq 0$, let $\\ell(d)$ be the supremum of $\\ell(\\sigma, \\sigma')$, over all pairs $(\\sigma, \\sigma')$ that are at Euclidean distance $d$. We study the function $\\dub(d) = \\ell(d) - d$, which expresses the difference between the bounded-curvature path length and the Euclidean distance of its endpoints. We show that $\\dub(d)$ decreases monotonically from $\\dub(0) = 7\\pi/3$ to $\\dub(\\ds) = 2\\pi$, and is constant for $d \\geq \\ds$. Here $\\ds \\approx 1.5874$. We describe pairs of configurations that exhibit the worst-case of $\\dub(d)$ for every distance $d$.

  19. Bounds on Black Hole Spins

    CERN Document Server

    Daly, Ruth A

    2009-01-01

    Beam powers and black hole masses of 48 extended radio sources are combined to obtain lower bounds on the spins and magnetic field strengths of supermassive black holes. This is done in the context of the models of Blandford & Znajek (1977) (the 'BZ' model) and Meier (1999); a parameterization for bounds in the context of other models is suggested. The bounds obtained for very powerful classical double radio sources in the BZ model are consistent with black hole spins of order unity for sources at high redshift. The black hole spins are largest for the highest redshift sources and decrease for sources at lower redshift; the sources studied have redshifts between zero and two. Lower power radio sources associated with central dominant galaxies may have black hole spins that are significantly less than one. Combining this analysis with other results suggests that the maximum values of black hole spin associated with powerful radio galaxies decline from values of order unity at a redshift of 2 to values of o...

  20. Bounds on Generalized Huffman Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    New lower and upper bounds are obtained for the compression of optimal binary prefix codes according to various nonlinear codeword length objectives. Like the coding bounds for Huffman coding - which concern the traditional linear code objective of minimizing average codeword length -- these are in terms of a form of entropy and the probability of the most probable input symbol. As in Huffman coding, some upper bounds can be found using sufficient conditions for the codeword corresponding to the most probable symbol being one bit long. Whereas having probability no less than 0.4 is a tight sufficient condition for this to be the case in Huffman coding, other penalties differ, some having a tighter condition, some a looser condition, and others having no such sufficient condition. The objectives explored here are ones for which optimal codes can be found using a generalized form of Huffman coding. These objectives include one related to queueing (an increasing exponential average), one related to single-shot c...

  1. On interpretations of bounded arithmetic and bounded set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pettigrew, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper, Kaye and Wong proved the following result, which they considered to belong to the folklore of mathematical logic. THEOREM: The first-order theories of Peano arithmetic and ZF with the axiom of infinity negated are mutually interpretable with interpretations that are inverse to each other. In this note, I describe a theory of sets that stands in the same relation to the bounded arithmetic IDelta0 + exp. Because of the weakness of this theory of sets, I cannot straightforwardly adapt Kaye and Wong's interpretation of the arithmetic in the set theory. Instead, I am forced to produce a different interpretation.

  2. Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function....... The bounds apply to moregeneral problems than existing bounding methods do. For instance, since strict concavityis not required, linear models and piecewise linear approximations can bedealt with. Despite the generality, the bounds perform well in comparison with existingmethods even when applied...... to approximations of a standard (strictly concave)growth model.KEYWORDS: Numerical approximation errors, Bellman contractions, Error bounds...

  3. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  4. 不同pH值下胞外聚合物对污泥脱水性能及束缚水含量的影响%Influence of extracellular polymeric substances on sludge dewaterability and bound water content at various pH values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢奕; 王志强; 洪晨; 司艳晓; 张坤; 刘敏; 田星强; 李洋

    2015-01-01

    The changes of sludge dewaterability and bound water content at various pH values were investigated in this study. The protein and polysaccharide contents in each layer of extracellular polymeric substances ( S-EPS、LB-EPS and TB-EPS) and the organic acid and organic functional group contents in S-EPS were determined in an attempt to explain the influence of EPS on the sludge dewa-terability and bound water content. The results indicate that the sludge dewaterability under acidic conditions is obviously better than that under neutral conditions, and the water content of dewatered sludge ( WC) and the capillary suction time ( CST) can be decreased to 60. 8% and 25. 4 s at pH 3. 03, respectively. Under alkaline conditions, the bound water content in dewatered sludge, the WC and CST significantly increase, and the sludge dewaterability deteriorates. The addition of acid or alkali reduces TB-EPS, on the contrary, increases LB-EPS and S-EPS. Each layer of extracellular polymeric substances has significant correlation with the WC, CST and the bound water content, and S-EPS has most significant correlation with the sludge dewaterability and bound water content. In the process of acid-alkali conditioning, the amount and type of organic-functional groups improve obviously and hydrolysis of partly EPS generates organic acids and other small molecules.%研究了不同pH值下污泥脱水性能和束缚水含量的变化,通过测定污泥调理过程中各层胞外聚合物( S-EPS、LB-EPS和TB-EPS)中蛋白质和多糖的含量、S-EPS中有机官能团以及有机酸的含量,探讨了胞外聚合物对污泥脱水性能及束缚水含量的影响.酸性条件下,污泥的脱水性能明显好于中性条件,并且pH值为3.03时,污泥滤饼含水率( WC)和毛细吸水时间( CST)均降至最低,分别为60.8%和25.4 s;碱性条件下,污泥中束缚水的含量明显增加,WC和CST均大幅升高,污泥脱水性能恶化.酸碱的加入导致污泥中TB-EPS含量降

  5. Bound Polaron Pair Formation in Poly (phenylenevinylenes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Lewis

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * PHOTOGENERATED YIELD OF SINGLET EXCITONS * AGGREGRATION EFFECTS ON EXCITED STATE PHOTO-GENERATION * ASSIGNMENT TO BOUND POLARON PAIRS AND DISCUSSION * PROBLEMS WITH THE BOUND POLARON PAIR PICTURE AND CONCLUSION * REFERENCES

  6. An Exponential Bound for Cox Regression☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosorok, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    We present an asymptotic exponential bound for the deviation of the survival function estimator of the Cox model. We show that the bound holds even when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. PMID:23565013

  7. An Exponential Bound for Cox Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Y; Kosorok, M R

    2012-07-01

    We present an asymptotic exponential bound for the deviation of the survival function estimator of the Cox model. We show that the bound holds even when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold.

  8. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  9. New bounds for multi-dimensional packing

    OpenAIRE

    Seiden, S.; Stee, van, Rob

    2001-01-01

    New upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The main results, stated for d=2, are as follows: A new upper bound of 2.66013 for online box packing, a new $14/9 + varepsilon$ polynomial time offline approximation algorithm for square packing, a new upper bound ...

  10. Application of MRIL-WD (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging While Drilling) for irreducible water saturation, total reservoir, free-fluid, bound-fluid porosity measurements and its value for the petrophysical analysis of RT/RM data from the Shah Deniz well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    Sperry-Sun (Sperry Drilling Services) is the leader in MWD/LWD reliability, has developed the industry's first LWD NMR/MRIL-WD (nuclear magnetic resonance) tool. The MRIL-WD (magnetic resonance imaging logging-while-drilling) service directly measures the T1 component of hydrogen in subsurface rock units while drilling to obtain total reservoir porosity and to dissect the observed total porosity into its respective components of free fluid and bound fluid porosity. These T1 data are used to secure accurate total, free-fluid, capillary-bound water, and clay-bound water porosity of the reservoir sections which can be drilled in the several Runs. Over the last decade, results from Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs (NMR) have added significant value to petrophysical analysis and understanding by providing total, free-fluid and bound-fluid porosities, combined with fluid typing capabilities. With MRIL-WD very valuable Real-Time or Recorded Memory data/information is now available during or shortly after the drilling operation (formation properties measurement can be taken right after a drill bit penetration), while trip in and trip out as well. A key point in utilizing MRIL in an LWD environment is motion-tolerant measurements. Recent MRIL-WD logging runs from the Shah Deniz wells located in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic helped to delineate and assess hydrocarbon bearing zones. Acquired results demonstrate how MRIL data can be acquired while-drilling and provide reliable/high quality measurements. Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs at some developments wells have become a cornerstone in formation evaluation and petrophysical understanding. By providing total, free-fluid, and bound-fluid porosities together with fluid typing, MRIL results have significantly added to the assessment of reservoirs. In order to reduce NPT (Non-Productive Time) and save the rig operations time, there is always the desire to obtain logging results as soon as possible

  11. The Acquisition of Bound and Free Anaphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Jan; Koster, Charlotte

    Most linguists assume that bound anaphors such as "himself" are connected with their antecedents in a different way from free anaphors such as "him." Bound anaphora resolution is deterministic, based on Principle A of Chomsky's binding theory. Free anaphors, pronominals, cannot be bound in the domain of reflexives (principle…

  12. Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Massaro

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of

  13. Bound entangled states invariant under Ux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhen; Wang Zhi-Xi

    2008-01-01

    This paper obtains an entangled condition for isotropic-like states by using an atomic map. It constructs a class of bound entangled states from the entangled condition and shows that the partial transposition of the state from the constructed bound entangled class is an edge bound entangled state by using range criterion.

  14. Tight adversary bounds for composite functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, P.; Spalek, R.

    2005-01-01

    The quantum adversary method is a very versatile method for proving lower bounds on quantum algorithms. It has many equivalent formulations, yields tight bounds for many computational problems, and has natural connections to classical lower bounds. One of its formulations is in terms of the spectral

  15. Determining Normal-Distribution Tolerance Bounds Graphically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical method requires calculations and table lookup. Distribution established from only three points: mean upper and lower confidence bounds and lower confidence bound of standard deviation. Method requires only few calculations with simple equations. Graphical procedure establishes best-fit line for measured data and bounds for selected confidence level and any distribution percentile.

  16. Computing the bounds on the loss rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fourneau J.-M.; Mokdad L.; Pekergin N.

    2002-01-01

    We consider an example network where we compute the bounds on cell loss rates. The stochastic bounds for these loss rates using simple arguments lead to models easier to solve. We proved, using stochastic orders, that the loss rates of these easier models are really the bounds of our original model. For ill-balanced configurations these models give good estimates of loss rates.

  17. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  18. Counting Young Tableaux of Bounded Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Francois; Gascon, Francis

    2000-03-01

    We show that formulas of Gessel, for the generating functions for Young standard tableaux of height bounded by k (see [2]), satisfy linear differential equations, with polynomial coefficients, equivalent to P-recurrences conjectured by Favreau, Krob and the first author (see [1]) for the number of bounded height tableaux and pairs of bounded height tableaux.

  19. Boosting equal time bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Dennis D; Jarvinen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We present an explicit and exact boost of a relativistic bound state defined at equal time of the constituents in the Born approximation (lowest order in hbar). To this end, we construct the Poincar\\'e generators of QED and QCD in D=1+1 dimensions, using Gauss' law to express A^0 in terms of the fermion fields in A^1=0 gauge. We determine the fermion-antifermion bound states in the Born approximation as eigenstates of the time and space translation generators P^0 and P^1. The boost operator is combined with a gauge transformation so as to maintain the gauge condition A^1=0 in the new frame. We verify that the boosted state remains an eigenstate of P^0 and P^1 with appropriately transformed eigenvalues and determine the transformation law of the equal-time, relativistic wave function. The shape of the wave function is independent of the CM momentum when expressed in terms of a variable, which is quadratically related to the distance x between the fermions. As a consequence, the Lorentz contraction of the wave ...

  20. Asymmetric dark matter bound state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Zhaofeng; Ko, P.; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun

    2017-02-01

    We propose an interesting framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has novel collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local U (1 )d symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson X . The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into X -pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form a bound state due to its large self-interaction via X mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with b b ¯. The resulting signature at the LHC depends on the decays of X . In this paper we consider a case of particular interest: p p →b b ¯ +ADMonium followed by ADMonium→2 X →2 e+e- where the electrons are identified as (un)converted photons. It may provide a competitive explanation to heavy di-photon resonance searches at the LHC.

  1. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  3. Decoherence in time evolution of bound entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Z; Sun, C P; Wang, X; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2007-01-01

    We study a dynamic process of disentanglement by considering the time evolution of bound entanglement for a quantum open system, two qutrits coupling to a common environment. Here, the initial quantum correlations of the two qutrits are characterized by the bound entanglement. In order to show the universality of the role of environment on bound entanglement, both bosonic and spin environments are considered. We found that the bound entanglement displays collapses and revivals, and it can be stable against small temperature and time change. The thermal fluctuation effects on bound entanglement are also considered.

  4. Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-01-01

    A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.

  5. Exact entanglement bases and general bound entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Z Z

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we give the more general bound entangled states associated with the unextendible product bases (UPB), i.e. by using of the exact entanglement bases (EEB) and the complete basis with unextendible product bases (CBUPB), we prove that the arbitrary convex sums of the uniform mixtures (bound entangled states) associated with UPBs are still bound entangled states. Further, we discuss the equivalent transformation group and classification of the CBUPBs, and by using this classification, we prove that in the meaning of indistinguishability, the set of the above all possible bound entangled states can be reduced to the set of all possible mixtures of some fixed basic bound entangled states. At last, we prove that every operating of the partial transposition (PT) map acting upon a density matrix under any bipartite partitioning induces a mapping from the above reduced set of bound entangled states to oneself, which corresponds to a non-identical permutation of the basic bound entangled states.

  6. Thermodynamic law from the entanglement entropy bound

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chanyong

    2015-01-01

    From black hole thermodynamics, the Bekenstein bound has been proposed as a universal thermal entropy bound. It has been further generalized to an entanglement entropy bound which is valid even in a quantum system. In a quantumly entangled system, the non-negativity of the relative entropy leads to the entanglement entropy bound. When the entanglement entropy bound is saturated, a quantum system satisfies the thermodynamics-like law with an appropriately defined entanglement temperature. We show that the saturation of the entanglement entropy bound accounts for a universal feature of the entanglement temperature proportional to the inverse of the system size. In addition, we also find that a global quench unlike the excitation does not preserve the entanglement entropy bound.

  7. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan

    2001-01-01

    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  8. Towards Bounded Infeasible Code Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Jürgen; Schäf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A first step towards more reliable software is to execute each statement and each control-flow path in a method once. In this paper, we present a formal method to automatically compute test cases for this purpose based on the idea of a bounded infeasible code detection. The method first unwinds all loops in a program finitely often and then encodes all feasible executions of the loop-free programs in a logical formula. Helper variables are introduced such that a theorem prover can reconstruct the control-flow path of a feasible execution from a satisfying valuation of this formula. Based on this formula, we present one algorithm that computes a feasible path cover and one algorithm that computes a feasible statement cover. We show that the algorithms are complete for loop-free programs and that they can be implemented efficiently. We further provide a sound algorithm to compute procedure summaries which makes the method scalable to larger programs.

  9. The formation of bound residues of diazinon in four UK soils: Implications for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenlon, Katie A., E-mail: katefenlon@hotmail.com [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Andreou, Kostas; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The behaviour of diazinon in the soil determines the likelihood of further pollution incidents, particularly leaching to water. The most significant processes in the control of the fate of diazinon in the soil are microbial degradation and the formation of bound residues. Soils from four sites in the UK were amended with diazinon and its {sup 14}C labelled analogue and incubated for 100 days. After 0, 10, 21, 50 and 100 days, the formation of bound residues was assessed by solvent extraction, and the microbial degradation of diazinon by mineralisation assay. In microbially active soils, diazinon is degraded rapidly, reducing the risk of future pollution incidents. However, where there was limited mineralisation there was also significantly lower formation of bound residues, which may lead to water pollution via leaching. The formation of bound residues was dependent on extraction type. Acetonitrile extraction identified bound residues in all soils, with the bound residue fraction increasing with increasing incubation time. - Research highlights: > Bound residues are defined by extraction method. > Microbial degradation is limited by the formation of bound residues. > Bioavailability of diazinon maybe estimated by chemical extraction. - The formation of bound residues and biodegradation of diazinon are dependent on soil type and the presence of degrading bacteria.

  10. Using tolerance bounds in scientific investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    Assessment of the variability in population values plays an important role in the analysis of scientific data. Analysis of scientific data often involves developing a bound on a proportion of a population. Sometimes simple probability bounds are obtained using formulas involving known mean and variance parameters and replacing the parameters by sample estimates. The resulting bounds are only approximate and fail to account for the variability in the estimated parameters. Tolerance bounds provide bounds on population proportions which account for the variation resulting from the estimated mean and variance parameters. A beta content, gamma confidence tolerance interval is constructed so that a proportion beta of the population lies within the region bounded by the interval with confidence gamma. An application involving corrosion measurements is used to illustrate the use of tolerance bounds for different situations. Extensions of standard tolerance intervals are applied to generate regression tolerance bounds, tolerance bounds for more general models of measurements collected over time, and tolerance intervals for varying precision data. Tolerance bounds also provide useful information for designing the collection of future data.

  11. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  12. Bound anionic states of adenine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

    2007-03-20

    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic

  13. Nonadditivity of Rains' bound for distillable entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Duan, Runyao

    2017-06-01

    Rains' bound is arguably the best known upper bound of the distillable entanglement by operations completely preserving positivity of partial transpose (PPT) and was conjectured to be additive and coincide with the asymptotic relative entropy of entanglement. We disprove both conjectures by explicitly constructing a special class of mixed two-qubit states. We then introduce an additive semidefinite programming lower bound (EM) for the asymptotic Rains' bound, and it immediately becomes a computable lower bound for entanglement cost of bipartite states. Furthermore, EM is also proved to be the best known upper bound of the PPT-assisted deterministic distillable entanglement and gives the asymptotic rates for all pure states and some class of genuinely mixed states.

  14. Process expression of bounded Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲辉

    1996-01-01

    The concept of process expression of bounded Petri nets is presented.Moreover,an algorithm to find the process expression for a bounded Petri net is given.A process expression of a bounded Petri net is a regular expression whose every alphabet symbol represents a basic subprocess of the net.The regular set expressed by the regular expression is the set of all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net.A surjective process of a bounded Petri net is a process of this net in which every s-cut corresponds to a reachable marking of the net.Therefore,all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net can be obtained as long as its process expression and the basic subprocess represented by the alphabet symbols of the process expression are given.

  15. Thermodynamic law from the entanglement entropy bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanyong

    2016-04-01

    From black hole thermodynamics, the Bekenstein bound has been proposed as a universal thermal entropy bound. It has been further generalized to an entanglement entropy bound which is valid even in a quantum system. In a quantumly entangled system, the non-negativity of the relative entropy leads to the entanglement entropy bound. When the entanglement entropy bound is saturated, a quantum system satisfies the thermodynamicslike law with an appropriately defined entanglement temperature. We show that the saturation of the entanglement entropy bound accounts for a universal feature of the entanglement temperature proportional to the inverse of the system size. In addition, we show that the deformed modular Hamiltonian under a global quench also satisfies the generalized entanglement entropy boundary after introducing a new quantity called the entanglement chemical potential.

  16. Bounds on double-diffusive convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmforth, Neil J.; Ghadge, Shilpa A.; Kettapun, Atichart; Mandre, Shreyas D.

    2006-12-01

    We consider double-diffusive convection between two parallel plates and compute bounds on the flux of the unstably stratified species using the background method. The bound on the heat flux for Rayleigh Bénard convection also serves as a bound on the double-diffusive problem (with the thermal Rayleigh number equal to that of the unstably stratified component). In order to incorporate a dependence of the bound on the stably stratified component, an additional constraint must be included, like that used by Joseph (Stability of Fluid Motion, 1976, Springer) to improve the energy stability analysis of this system. Our bound extends Joseph's result beyond his energy stability boundary. At large Rayleigh number, the bound is found to behave like R_T(1/2) for fixed ratio R_S/R_T, where R_T and R_S are the Rayleigh numbers of the unstably and stably stratified components, respectively.

  17. Instanton bound states in ABJM theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-06-15

    The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.

  18. Conditionally bounding analytic ranks of elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bober, Jonathan W

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for bounding the rank of an elliptic curve under the assumptions of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture and the generalized Riemann hypothesis. As an example, we compute, under these conjectures, exact upper bounds for curves which are known to have rank at least as large as 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24. For the known curve of rank at least 28, we get a bound of 30.

  19. Computing the bounds on the loss rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourneau J.-M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an example network where we compute the bounds on cell loss rates. The stochastic bounds for these loss rates using simple arguments lead to models easier to solve. We proved, using stochastic orders, that the loss rates of these easier models are really the bounds of our original model. For ill-balanced configurations these models give good estimates of loss rates.

  20. Scalable Capacity Bounding Models for Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jinfeng; Medard, Muriel; Xiao, Ming; Skoglund, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The framework of network equivalence theory developed by Koetter et al. introduces a notion of channel emulation to construct noiseless networks as upper (resp. lower) bounding models, which can be used to calculate the outer (resp. inner) bounds for the capacity region of the original noisy network. Based on the network equivalence framework, this paper presents scalable upper and lower bounding models for wireless networks with potentially many nodes. A channel decoupling method is proposed...

  1. Risk Bounds for Infinitely Divisible Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the risk bounds for samples independently drawn from an infinitely divisible (ID) distribution. In particular, based on a martingale method, we develop two deviation inequalities for a sequence of random variables of an ID distribution with zero Gaussian component. By applying the deviation inequalities, we obtain the risk bounds based on the covering number for the ID distribution. Finally, we analyze the asymptotic convergence of the risk bound derived from one of the two deviation inequalities and show that the convergence rate of the bound is faster than the result for the generic i.i.d. empirical process (Mendelson, 2003).

  2. Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Martin, E-mail: marlohmann@gmail.com [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.

  3. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources.......Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  4. Conductivity bounds in probe brane models

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Tatsuhiko N; Nakai, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss upper and lower bounds on the electrical conductivity of finite temperature strongly coupled quantum field theories, holographically dual to probe brane models, within linear response. In a probe limit where disorder is introduced entirely through an inhomogeneous background charge density, we find simple lower and upper bounds on the electrical conductivity in arbitrary dimensions. In field theories in two spatial dimensions, we show that both bounds persist even when disorder is included in the bulk metric. We discuss the challenges with finding sharp lower bounds on conductivity in three or more spatial dimensions when the metric is inhomogeneous.

  5. A violation of the covariant entropy bound?

    CERN Document Server

    Masoumi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Several arguments suggest that the entropy density at high energy density $\\rho$ should be given by the expression $s=K\\sqrt{\\rho/G}$, where $K$ is a constant of order unity. On the other hand the covariant entropy bound requires that the entropy on a light sheet be bounded by $A/4G$, where $A$ is the area of the boundary of the sheet. We find that in a suitably chosen cosmological geometry, the above expression for $s$ violates the covariant entropy bound. We consider different possible explanations for this fact; in particular the possibility that entropy bounds should be defined in terms of volumes of regions rather than areas of surfaces.

  6. Metal-ion effects on the polarization of metal-bound water and infrared vibrational modes of the coordinated metal center of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pyrazinamidase via quantum mechanical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Salinas, Karim; Baldera-Aguayo, Pedro A; Encomendero-Risco, Jimy J; Orihuela, Melvin; Sheen, Patricia; Seminario, Jorge M; Zimic, Mirko

    2014-08-28

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis pyrazinamidase (PZAse) is a key enzyme to activate the pro-drug pyrazinamide (PZA). PZAse is a metalloenzyme that coordinates in vitro different divalent metal cofactors in the metal coordination site (MCS). Several metals including Co(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) are able to reactivate the metal-depleted PZAse in vitro. We use quantum mechanical calculations to investigate the Zn(2+), Fe(2+), and Mn(2+) metal cofactor effects on the local MCS structure, metal-ligand or metal-residue binding energy, and charge distribution. Results suggest that the major metal-dependent changes occur in the metal-ligand binding energy and charge distribution. Zn(2+) shows the highest binding energy to the ligands (residues). In addition, Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) within the PZAse MCS highly polarize the O-H bond of coordinated water molecules in comparison with Fe(2+). This suggests that the coordination of Zn(2+) or Mn(2+) to the PZAse protein facilitates the deprotonation of coordinated water to generate a nucleophile for catalysis as in carboxypeptidase A. Because metal ion binding is relevant to enzymatic reaction, identification of the metal binding event is important. The infrared vibrational mode shift of the C═Nε (His) bond from the M. tuberculosis MCS is the best IR probe to metal complexation.

  7. A Stronger LP Bound for Formula Size Lower Bounds via Clique Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Ueno, Kenya

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new technique proving formula size lower bounds based on the linear programming bound originally introduced by Karchmer, Kushilevitz and Nisan [11] and the theory of stable set polytope. We apply it to majority functions and prove their formula size lower bounds improved from the classical result of Khrapchenko [13]. Moreover, we introduce a notion of unbalanced recursive ternary majority functions motivated by a decomposition theory of monotone self-dual functions and give integrally matching upper and lower bounds of their formula size. We also show monotone formula size lower bounds of balanced recursive ternary majority functions improved from the quantum adversary bound of Laplante, Lee and Szegedy [15].

  8. An outer bound for 2-receiver discrete memoryless broadcast channels

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    An outer bound to the two-receiver discrete memoryless broadcast channel is presented. We compare it to the known outer bounds and show that the outer bound presented is at least as tight as the existing bounds.

  9. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  10. Minimal surfaces bounded by elastic lines

    CERN Document Server

    Giomi, L

    2011-01-01

    The classical Plateau's problem consists of finding the surface of least area that spans a given rigid boundary curve. A physical realization of the problem is obtained by dipping a stiff wire frame of some given shape in soapy water and then removing it. But what happens if a soap film spans a loop of inextensible but flexible wire? We consider this simple query that couples the Plateau's problem to Euler's Elastica: a special class of curves of given length that minimize their total squared curvature energy. The natural marriage of two of the oldest geometrical problems linking physics and mathematics leads to a quest for the shape of a minimal surface bounded by an elastic line: the Euler-Plateau problem. We use a combination of simple physical experiments with soap films that span soft filaments, scaling concepts, exact and asymptotic analysis combined with numerical simulations to explore some of the richness of the shapes that result. Our study also raises a number of interesting questions of intrinsic ...

  11. Water management tools as a means of averting a possible water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water management tools as a means of averting a possible water scarcity in South ... as water stressed country is forecasted to experience physical water scarcity by ... continuous pollution of the available water sources, there is bound to be ...

  12. No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities...

  13. Optimal online bounded space multidimensional packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Epstein (Lea); R. van Stee (Rob)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe solve an open problem in the literature by providing an online algorithm for multidimensional bin packing that uses only bounded space. We show that it is optimal among bounded space algorithms for any dimension $d>1$. Its asymptotic performance ratio is $(Pi_{infty})^d$, where

  14. New bounds for multi-dimensional packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Seiden; R. van Stee (Rob)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractNew upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The

  15. Lower Bounds of Concurrence for Multipartite States

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xue-Na; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    We study the entanglement of multipartite quantum states. Some lower bounds of the multipartite concurrence are reviewed. We further present more effective lower bounds for detecting and qualifying entanglement, by establishing functional relations between the concurrence and the generalized partial transpositions of the multipartite systems.

  16. A Note on Geodesically Bounded -Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that a complete geodesically bounded -tree is the closed convex hull of the set of its extreme points. It is also noted that if is a closed convex geodesically bounded subset of a complete -tree and if a nonexpansive mapping satisfies then has a fixed point. The latter result fails if is only continuous.

  17. New bounds for multi-dimensional packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiden, S.; Stee, R. van

    2001-01-01

    New upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The main results,

  18. Threshold Circuit Lower Bounds on Cryptographic Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiltz, E.; Simon, H.U.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we are interested in non-trivial upper bounds on the spectral norm of binary matrices $M$ from {-1, 1} $^{N × N}$. It is known that the distributed Boolean function represented by $M$ is hard to compute in various restricted models of computation if the spectral norm is bounded from ab

  19. Experimental evidence of bounds of quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, F A; Castelletto, S; Degiovanni, I P; Rastello, M L; Berchera, I R

    2003-01-01

    We implemented the experiment proposed by Cabello [arXiv:quant-ph/0309172] to test the bounds of quantum correlation. As expected from the theory we found that, for certain choices of local observables, Cirel'son's bound of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality ($2\\sqrt{2}$) is not reached by any quantum states.

  20. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded below by a positive constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  1. Generalized upper bound for inelastic diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    For inelastic diffraction, we obtain an upper bound valid for the whole range of the elastic scattering amplitude variation allowed by unitarity. We discuss the energy dependence of the inelastic diffractive cross-section on the base of this bound and recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data.

  2. A generalized upper bound for inelastic diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Troshin, S M

    2016-01-01

    For the inelastic diffraction, we obtain an upper bound valid in the whole range of the elastic scattering amplitude variation allowed by unitarity. We discuss the energy dependence of the inelastic diffractive cross-section on the base of this bound and recent LHC data.

  3. On the range of completely bounded maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. Loebl

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that if every bounded linear map from a C*-algebra α to a von Neumann algebra β is completely bounded, then either α is finite-dimensional or β⫅⊗Mn, where is a commutative von Neumann algebra and Mn is the algebra of n×n complex matrices.

  4. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  5. Automatic analysis of distance bounding protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Malladi, Sreekanth; Kothapalli, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are used by nodes in wireless networks to calculate upper bounds on their distances to other nodes. However, dishonest nodes in the network can turn the calculations both illegitimate and inaccurate when they participate in protocol executions. It is important to analyze protocols for the possibility of such violations. Past efforts to analyze distance bounding protocols have only been manual. However, automated approaches are important since they are quite likely to find flaws that manual approaches cannot, as witnessed in literature for analysis pertaining to key establishment protocols. In this paper, we use the constraint solver tool to automatically analyze distance bounding protocols. We first formulate a new trace property called Secure Distance Bounding (SDB) that protocol executions must satisfy. We then classify the scenarios in which these protocols can operate considering the (dis)honesty of nodes and location of the attacker in the network. Finally, we extend the const...

  6. Structural Bounds on the Dyadic Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Cinelli, Matteo; Iovanella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the dyadic effect introduced in complex networks when nodes are distinguished by a binary characteristic. Under these circumstances two independent parameters, namely dyadicity and heterophilicity, are able to measure how much the assigned characteristic affects the network topology. All possible configurations can be represented in a phase diagram lying in a two-dimensional space that represents the feasible region of the dyadic effect, which is bound by two upper bounds on dyadicity and heterophilicity. Using some network's structural arguments, we are able to improve such upper bounds and introduce two new lower bounds, providing a reduction of the feasible region of the dyadic effect as well as constraining dyadicity and heterophilicity within a specific range. Some computational experiences show the bounds' effectiveness and their usefulness with regards to different classes of networks.

  7. Bound-free Spectra for Diatomic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.

    2012-01-01

    It is now recognized that prediction of radiative heating of entering space craft requires explicit treatment of the radiation field from the infrared (IR) to the vacuum ultra violet (VUV). While at low temperatures and longer wavelengths, molecular radiation is well described by bound-bound transitions, in the short wavelength, high temperature regime, bound-free transitions can play an important role. In this work we describe first principles calculations we have carried out for bound-bound and bound-free transitions in N2, O2, C2, CO, CN, NO, and N2+. Compared to bound ]bound transitions, bound-free transitions have several particularities that make them different to deal with. These include more complicated line shapes and a dependence of emission intensity on both bound state diatomic and atomic concentrations. These will be discussed in detail below. The general procedure we used was the same for all species. The first step is to generate potential energy curves, transition moments, and coupling matrix elements by carrying out ab initio electronic structure calculations. These calculations are expensive, and thus approximations need to be made in order to make the calculations tractable. The only practical method we have to carry out these calculations is the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI) method as implemented in the program suite Molpro. This is a widely used method for these kinds of calculations, and is capable of generating very accurate results. With this method, we must first of choose which electrons to correlate, the one-electron basis to use, and then how to generate the molecular orbitals.

  8. Proton-bound cluster ions in ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R G; Eiceman, G A; Stone, J A

    1999-10-28

    Gaseous oxygen and nitrogen bases, both singly and as binary mixtures, have been introduced into ion mobility spectrometers to study the appearance of protonated molecules, and proton-bound dimers and trimers. At ambient temperature it was possible to simultaneously observe, following the introduction of molecule A, comparable intensities of peaks ascribable to the reactant ion (H2O)nH+, the protonated molecule AH+ and AH+ H2O, and the symmetrical proton bound dimer A2H+. Mass spectral identification confirmed the identifications and also showed that the majority of the protonated molecules were hydrated and that the proton-bound dimers were hydrated to a much lesser extent. No significant peaks ascribable to proton-bound trimers were obtained no matter how high the sample concentration. Binary mixtures containing molecules A and B, in some cases gave not only the peaks unique to the individual compounds but also peaks due to asymmetrical proton bound dimers AHB+. Such ions were always present in the spectra of mixtures of oxygen bases but were not observed for several mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen bases. The dimers, which were not observable, notable for their low hydrogen bond strengths, must have decomposed in their passage from the ion source to the detector, i.e. in a time less than approximately 5 ms. When the temperature was lowered to -20 degrees C, trimers, both homogeneous and mixed, were observed with mixtures of alcohols. The importance of hydrogen bond energy, and hence operating temperature, in determining the degree of solvation of the ions that will be observed in an ion mobility spectrometer is stressed. The possibility is discussed that a displacement reaction involving ambient water plays a role in the dissociation.

  9. On an Outer bound and an Inner Bound for the General Broadcast Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Gohari, Amin Aminzadeh; Anantharam, Venkat

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Nair-El Gamal outer bound and Marton's inner bound for general two-receiver broadcast channels. We show that the Nair-El Gamal outer bound can be made fully computable. For the inner bound, we show that, unlike in the Gaussian case, for a degraded broadcast channel even without a common message, Marton's coding scheme without a superposition variable is in general insufficient for obtaining the capacity region. Further, we prove various results that help to restrict the search space for computing the sum-rate for Marton's inner bound. We establish the capacity region along certain directions and show that it coincides with Marton's inner bound. Lastly, we discuss an idea that may lead to a larger inner bound.

  10. Positivity bounds on double parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas

    2013-03-15

    Double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is described in terms of double parton distributions. We derive bounds on these distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. These bounds constrain the size of the polarized distributions and can for instance be used to set upper limits on the effects of spin correlations in double hard scattering. We show that the bounds are stable under leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales.

  11. Bounds for convection between rough boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goluskin, David

    2016-01-01

    We consider Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in a layer of fluid between no-slip rough boundaries, where the top and bottom boundary heights are functions of the horizontal coordinates with bounded gradients. We use the background method to derive an upper bound on mean heat flux across the layer for all admissible boundary geometries. This flux, normalized by the temperature difference between the boundaries, can grow with the Rayleigh number ($Ra$) no faster than $Ra^{1/2}$ as $Ra \\rightarrow \\infty$. Coefficients of the bound are given explicitly in terms of the geometry, and evaluation of the coefficients is illustrated for sinusoidal boundaries.

  12. On the reflection of magnon bound states

    CERN Document Server

    MacKay, Niall

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the reflection of two-particle bound states of a free open string in the light-cone AdS_5 x S^5 string sigma model, for large angular momentum J=J_56 and ending on a D7 brane which wraps the entire AdS_5 and a maximal S^3 of S^5. We use the superspace formalism to analyse fundamental and two-particle bound states in the cases of supersymmetry-preserving and broken-supersymmetry boundaries. We find the boundary S-matrices corresponding to bound states both in the bulk and on the boundary.

  13. Bounds on List Decoding Gabidulin Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter-Zeh, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    An open question about Gabidulin codes is whether polynomial-time list decoding beyond half the minimum distance is possible or not. In this contribution, we give a lower and an upper bound on the list size, i.e., the number of codewords in a ball around the received word. The lower bound shows that if the radius of this ball is greater than the Johnson radius, this list size can be exponential and hence, no polynomial-time list decoding is possible. The upper bound on the list size uses subspace properties.

  14. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  15. How entangled are bound entangled states?

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, T C; Goldbart, P M; Munro, W J; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Altepeter, Joseph B.; Goldbart, Paul M.; Munro, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Bound entangled states are states that are entangled but from which no entanglement can be distilled if all parties are allowed only local operations and classical communication. However, in creating these states one needs nonzero entanglement to start with. To date, no analytic results reveal the entanglement content of these strange states. Here, the entanglement of two distinct multipartite bound entangled states is determined analytically in terms of geometric measure of entanglement and a related quantity. The results are compared with those for the relative entropy of entanglement and the negativity, and plausible lower bounds on the entanglement of formation are given. Along the way, an intriguing example emerges, in which a bipartite mixed state, associated with Smolin's bound entangled state, can be reversibly converted into a bipartite Bell state, and vice versa. Furthermore, for any N-qubit state that is PPT for all bipartite partitionings, there is no violation of the two-setting, three-setting, a...

  16. THE EIGENVALUE PERTURBATION BOUND FOR ARBITRARY MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Li; Jian-xin Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some new absolute and relative perturbation bounds for the eigenvalue for arbitrary matrices, which improves some recent results. The eigenvalue inclusion region is also discussed.

  17. Compositional encoding for bounded model checking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun SUN; Yang LIU; Jin Song DONG; Jing SUN

    2008-01-01

    Verification techniques like SAT-based bounded model checking have been successfully applied to a variety of system models. Applying bounded model checking to compositional process algebras is, however, a highly non-trivial task. One challenge is that the number of system states for process algebra models is not statically known, whereas exploring the full state space is computa-tionally expensive. This paper presents a compositional encoding of hierarchical processes as SAT problems and then applies state-of-the-art SAT solvers for bounded model checking. The encoding avoids exploring the full state space for complex systems so as to deal with state space explosion. We developed an automated analyzer which combines complementing model checking tech-niques (I.e., bounded model checking and explicit on-the-fly model checking) to validate system models against event-based temporal properties. The experiment results show the analyzer handles large systems.

  18. Entropy bounds for uncollapsed rotating bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Entropy bounds in black hole physics, based on a wide variety of different approaches, have had a long and distinguished history. Recently the current authors have turned attention to uncollapsed systems and obtained a robust entropy bound for uncollapsed static spherically symmetric configurations. In the current article we extend this bound to rotating systems. This extension is less simple than one might at first suppose. Purely classically, (using only classical general relativity and basic thermodynamics), it is possible to show that the entropy of uncollapsed matter inside a region enclosed by a surface of area A is bounded from above by S = max kappa(FIDOs) / (2 pi). Thus, using only classical general relativity, basic thermodynamics, and the Unruh effect, we are able to argue that for uncollapsed matter S <= {1/2} A.

  19. Constructive spherical codes near the Shannon bound

    CERN Document Server

    Solé, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Shannon gave a lower bound in 1959 on the binary rate of spherical codes of given minimum Euclidean distance $\\rho$. Using nonconstructive codes over a finite alphabet, we give a lower bound that is weaker but very close for small values of $\\rho$: The construction is based on the Yaglom map combined with some finite sphere packings obtained from nonconstructive codes for the Euclidean metric. Concatenating geometric codes meeting the TVZ bound with a Lee metric BCH code over GF(p); we obtain spherical codes that are polynomial time constructible. Their parameters outperform those obtained by Lachaud and Stern in 1994. At very high rate they are above 98 per cent of the Shannon bound.

  20. An Exact Black Hole Entropy Bound

    CERN Document Server

    Birmingham, Daniel; Birmingham, Danny; Sen, Siddhartha

    2001-01-01

    We show that a Rademacher expansion can be used to establish an exact bound for the entropy of black holes within a conformal field theory framework. This convergent expansion includes all subleading corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking term.

  1. Family of nonlocal bound entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sixia; Oh, C. H.

    2017-03-01

    Bound entanglement, being entangled yet not distillable, is essential to our understanding of the relations between nonlocality and entanglement besides its applications in certain quantum information tasks. Recently, bound entangled states that violate a Bell inequality have been constructed for a two-qutrit system, disproving a conjecture by Peres that bound entanglement is local. Here we construct this kind of nonlocal bound entangled state for all finite dimensions larger than two, making possible their experimental demonstration in most general systems. We propose a Bell inequality, based on a Hardy-type argument for nonlocality, and a steering inequality to identify their nonlocality. We also provide a family of entanglement witnesses to detect their entanglement beyond the Bell inequality and the steering inequality.

  2. Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha

    2013-01-01

    can be obtained. We provide a link between the objective probability measure and the range of potential risk-neutral measures, which has an intuitive economic meaning. We also provide tight pricing bounds for European calls and show how to extend the call formula to pricing other financial products......We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes...... a new restriction in the arbitrage free model by setting upper bounds on the Sharpe ratios (SRs) of the assets. The potential prices that are eliminated represent unreasonably good deals. The constraint on the SR translates into a constraint on the stochastic discount factor. Thus, tight pricing bounds...

  3. Bound phenolics in foods, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2014-01-01

    Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of sugar moieties. Food processes such as fermentation, malting, thermoplastic extrusion or enzymatic, alkaline and acid hydrolyses occasionally assisted with microwave or ultrasound have potential to release phenolics associated to cell walls. Different kinds of wet chemistry methodologies to release and detect bound phenolic have been developed. These include harsh heat treatments, chemical modifications or biocatalysis. New protocols for processing and determining phenolics in food matrices must be devised in order to release bound phenolics and for quality control in the growing functional food industry.

  4. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Catena, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section.

  5. Upper Bounds for the Laplacian Graph Eigenvalues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiong Sheng LI; Yong Liang PAN

    2004-01-01

    We first apply non-negative matrix theory to the matrix K = D + A, where D and A are the degree-diagonal and adjacency matrices of a graph G, respectively, to establish a relation on the largest Laplacian eigenvalue λ1 (G) of G and the spectral radius ρ(K) of K. And then by using this relation we present two upper bounds for λ1 (G) and determine the extremal graphs which achieve the upper bounds.

  6. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....

  7. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....

  8. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...

  9. New spectral features from bound dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature that we predict can provide a complementary verification of dark matter discovery at experiments with positive signal but unclear background. The effect is generically expected, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section.

  10. Generalization error bounds for stationary autoregressive models

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We derive generalization error bounds for stationary univariate autoregressive (AR) models. We show that the stationarity assumption alone lets us treat the estimation of AR models as a regularized kernel regression without the need to further regularize the model arbitrarily. We thereby bound the Rademacher complexity of AR models and apply existing Rademacher complexity results to characterize the predictive risk of AR models. We demonstrate our methods by predicting interest rate movements.

  11. Lower Bound of Electrical Conductivity from Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Xian-Hui; Wu, Shao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We propose a universal lower bound of dc electrical conductivity in rotational- and translational- symmetries breaking systems via the holographic duality. This bound predicts that BTZ-black brane can be easily used to realize linear temperature resistivity. We also construct an anisotropic black brane solution, which yields linear temperature for the in-plane resistivity and insulating behavior for the out-of-plane resistivity. Ultimately, we discuss its implications in experiments.

  12. Eigenvalue variance bounds for covariance matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Dallaporta, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with finite range bounds on the variance of individual eigenvalues of random covariance matrices, both in the bulk and at the edge of the spectrum. In a preceding paper, the author established analogous results for Wigner matrices and stated the results for covariance matrices. They are proved in the present paper. Relying on the LUE example, which needs to be investigated first, the main bounds are extended to complex covariance matrices by means of the Tao, Vu and Wan...

  13. Effective Height Upper Bounds on Algebraic Tori

    CERN Document Server

    Habegger, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    The main emphasis will be on height upper bounds in the algebraic torus G^{n}_{m}. By height we will mean the absolute logarithmic Weil height. Section 3.2 contains a precise definition of this and other more general height functions. The first appendix gives a short overview of known results in the abelian case. The second appendix contains a few height bounds in Shimura varieties.

  14. Spatially Adaptive Intensity Bounds for Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaaren L. May

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-adaptive intensity bounds on the image estimate are shown to be an effective means of regularising the ill-posed image restoration problem. For blind restoration, the local intensity constraints also help to further define the solution, thereby reducing the number of multiple solutions and local minima. The bounds are defined in terms of the local statistics of the image estimate and a control parameter which determines the scale of the bounds. Guidelines for choosing this parameter are developed in the context of classical (nonblind image restoration. The intensity bounds are applied by means of the gradient projection method, and conditions for convergence are derived when the bounds are refined using the current image estimate. Based on this method, a new alternating constrained minimisation approach is proposed for blind image restoration. On the basis of the experimental results provided, it is found that local intensity bounds offer a simple, flexible method of constraining both the nonblind and blind restoration problems.

  15. Quantum bounds for ordered searching and sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, P; Shi, Y; Hoyer, Peter; Neerbek, Jan; Shi, Yaoyun

    2001-01-01

    We consider the quantum complexities of searching an ordered list and sorting an un-ordered list. For searching an ordered list of N elements, we prove a lower bound of \\frac{1}{\\pi}(\\ln(N)-1) on the number of oracle queries that access the list elements. This improves the previously best lower bound of ({1/12}\\log_2(N) - O(1)) due to Ambainis. For sorting N numbers, we prove a lower bound of \\frac{N}{2\\pi}(\\ln(N)-1) on the number of binary comparisons. The previously best lower bound is \\Omega(N). Our proofs are based on a weighted all-pairs inner product argument, and our results generalize to bounded error quantum algorithms. Both results are proven in the so-called quantum black box model, a quantum analogue of classical decision trees. In addition to our lower bound results, we give an exact quantum algorithm for ordered searching using (\\log_3(N) + O(1)) queries, which is roughly 0.631 \\log_2(N). Although our algorithm is worse than that of Farhi, Goldstone, Gutmann and Sipser, which makes 0.526 \\log_2(...

  16. Upper bound limit and shakedown analysis of elastic plastic bounded linearly kinematic hardening structures

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis develops a new FEM based algorithm for shakedown analysis of structures made of elastic plastic bounded linearly kinematic hardening material. Its concept can be briefly described as: Hardening law is simulated using a two-surface plastic model. One yield surface is the initial surface, defined by yield stress sigma_y, and the other one is the bounding surface, defined by ultimate strength sigma_u. The initial surface can translate inside the bounding surface without changing its ...

  17. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  18. Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A

    2012-01-13

    The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11)  GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.

  19. Upper bound analysis for deep tunnel face with joined failure mechanism of translation and rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许敬叔; 杜佃春; 杨子汉

    2015-01-01

    A joined failure mechanism of translation and rotation was proposed for the stability analysis of deep tunnel face, and the upper bound solution of supporting force of deep tunnel was calculated under pore water pressure. The calculations were based on limit analysis method of upper bound theory, with the employment of non-associated Mohr-Coulomb flow rule. Nonlinear failure criterion was adopted. Optimized analysis was conducted for the effects of the tunnel depth, pore water pressure coefficient, the initial cohesive force and nonlinear coefficient on supporting force. The upper bound solutions are obtained by optimum method. Results are listed and compared with the previously published solutions for the verification of correctness and effectiveness. The failure shapes are presented, and results are discussed for different pore water pressure coefficients and nonlinear coefficients of tunnel face.

  20. A Bound on Equipartition of Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Masi, Nicolo'

    2011-01-01

    In this article I want to demonstrate that the time-scale constraints for a thermodynamic system imply the new concept of equipartition of energy bound (EEB) or, more generally, a thermodynamical bound for the partition of energy. This means that I theorize and discuss the possibility to put an upper limit to the equipartition factor for a gas of particles. This could be interpreted as a sort of transcription of the entropy bounds from quantum-holographic sector. The number 4.93, i.e. the EEB, obtained from a comparison between the Margolus-Levitin quantum theorem and the TTT bound for relaxation times by Hod, seems like a special value for the thermodynamics of particle systems. This bound has been related to the idea of an extremal statistics and independently traced in a statistical mechanics framework. In fact, I identified a type of fluid that is capable of reaching to saturate the limit value I obtained for the equipartition factor. This was done by analyzing the mathematical behavior of the distributio...

  1. Conformational phases of membrane bound cytoskeletal filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, David A.; Grason, Gregory; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-03-01

    Membrane bound cytoskeletal filaments found in living cells are employed to carry out many types of activities including cellular division, rigidity and transport. When these biopolymers are bound to a membrane surface they may take on highly non-trivial conformations as compared to when they are not bound. This leads to the natural question; What are the important interactions which drive these polymers to particular conformations when they are bound to a surface? Assuming that there are binding domains along the polymer which follow a periodic helical structure set by the natural monomeric handedness, these bound conformations must arise from the interplay of the intrinsic monomeric helicity and membrane binding. To probe this question, we study a continuous model of an elastic filament with intrinsic helicity and map out the conformational phases of this filament for various mechanical and structural parameters in our model, such as elastic stiffness and intrinsic twist of the filament. Our model allows us to gain insight into the possible mechanisms which drive real biopolymers such as actin and tubulin in eukaryotes and their prokaryotic cousins MreB and FtsZ to take on their functional conformations within living cells.

  2. Introduction to QCD - a bound state perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    These lecture notes focus on the bound state sector of QCD. Motivated by data which suggests that the strong coupling \\alpha_s(Q) freezes at low Q, and by similarities between the spectra of hadrons and atoms, I discuss if and how QCD bound states may be treated perturbatively. I recall the basic principles of perturbative gauge theory bound states at lowest order in the \\hbar expansion. Born level amplitudes are insensitive to the i\\epsilon prescription of propagators, which allows to eliminate the Z-diagrams of relativistic, time-ordered Coulomb interactions. The Dirac wave function thus describes a single electron which propagates forward in time only, even though the bound state has any number of pair constituents when Feynman propagators are used. In the absence of an external potential, states that are bound by the Coulomb attraction of their constituents can be analogously described using only their valence degrees of freedom. The instantaneous A^0 field is determined by Gauss' law for each wave functi...

  3. Johnson Type Bounds on Constant Dimension Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Shu-Tao

    2007-01-01

    Very recently, an operator channel was defined by Koetter and Kschischang when they studied random network coding. They also introduced constant dimension codes and demonstrated that these codes can be employed to correct errors and/or erasures over the operator channel. Constant dimension codes are equivalent to the so-called linear authentication codes introduced by Wang, Xing and Safavi-Naini when constructing distributed authentication systems in 2003. In this paper, we study constant dimension codes. It is shown that Steiner structures are optimal constant dimension codes achieving the Wang-Xing-Safavi-Naini bound. Furthermore, we show that constant dimension codes achieve the Wang-Xing-Safavi-Naini bound if and only if they are certain Steiner structures. Then, we derive two Johnson type upper bounds, say I and II, on constant dimension codes. The Johnson type bound II slightly improves on the Wang-Xing-Safavi-Naini bound. Finally, we point out that a family of known Steiner structures is actually a fam...

  4. Space Lower Bounds for Online Pattern Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Clifford, Raphael; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We present space lower bounds for online pattern matching under a number of different distance measures. Given a pattern of length m and a text that arrives one character at a time, the online pattern matching problem is to report the distance between the pattern and a sliding window of the text as soon as the new character arrives. We require that the correct answer is given at each position with constant probability. We give Omega(m) bit space lower bounds for L_1, L_2, L_\\infty, Hamming, edit and swap distances as well as for any algorithm that computes the cross-correlation/convolution. We then show a dichotomy between distance functions that have wildcard-like properties and those that do not. In the former case which includes, as an example, pattern matching with character classes, we give Omega(m) bit space lower bounds. For other distance functions, we show that there exist space bounds of Omega(log m) and O(log^2 m) bits. Finally we discuss space lower bounds for non-binary inputs and show how in som...

  5. Bounds on localisable information via semidefinite programming

    CERN Document Server

    Synak, B; Horodecki, M; Synak, Barbara; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michal

    2004-01-01

    We investigate so-called localisable information of bipartite states and a parallel notion of information deficit. Localisable information is defined as the amount of information that can be concentrated by means of classical communication and local operations where only maximally mixed states can be added for free. The information deficit is defined as difference between total information contents of the state and localisable information. We consider a larger class of operations: the so called PPT operations, which in addition preserve maximally mixed state (PPT-PMM operations). We formulate the related optimization problem as sedmidefnite program with suitable constraints. We then provide bound for fidelity of transition of a given state into product pure state on Hilbert space of dimension d. This allows to obtain general upper bound for localisable information (and also for information deficit). We calculated the bounds exactly for Werner states and isotropic states in any dimension. Surprisingly it turns...

  6. Bound States in Boson Impurity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Wu, Ying-Hai; González-Tudela, A.; Cirac, J. I.

    2016-04-01

    The formation of bound states involving multiple particles underlies many interesting quantum physical phenomena, such as Efimov physics or superconductivity. In this work, we show the existence of an infinite number of such states for some boson impurity models. They describe free bosons coupled to an impurity and include some of the most representative models in quantum optics. We also propose a family of wave functions to describe the bound states and verify that it accurately characterizes all parameter regimes by comparing its predictions with exact numerical calculations for a one-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian. For that model, we also analyze the nature of the bound states by studying the scaling relations of physical quantities, such as the ground-state energy and localization length, and find a nonanalytical behavior as a function of the coupling strength. Finally, we discuss how to test our theoretical predictions in experimental platforms, such as photonic crystal structures and cold atoms in optical lattices.

  7. Bound States Of Supersymmetric Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Britto-Pacumio, R A

    2002-01-01

    The quantum mechanics of N slowly-moving supersymmetric black holes in five dimensions is considered. A divergent continuum of states describing arbitrarily closely bound black holes with arbitrarily small excitation energies is found. A superconformal structure appears at low energies and can be used to define a topological index counting the weighted number of supersymmetric bound states. It is shown that the index is determined from the dimensions of certain cohomology classes on the symmetric product of N copies of R4. This bound state index is computed exactly for two and three black holes. The required regulator for the infrared continuum of near-coincident black holes is chosen in accord with the enhanced superconformal symmetry.

  8. Bounded link prediction in very large networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.

  9. η-nuclear bound states revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2013-10-01

    The strong energy dependence of the s-wave ηN scattering amplitude at and below threshold, as evident in coupled-channels K-matrix fits and chiral models that incorporate the S11N* (1535) resonance, is included self-consistently in η-nuclear bound-state calculations. This approach, applied recently in calculations of kaonic atoms and Kbar-nuclear bound states, is found to impose stronger constraints than ever on the onset of η-nuclear binding, with a minimum value of ReaηN ≈ 0.9 fm required to accommodate an η-4He bound state. Binding energies and widths of η-nuclear states are calculated within several underlying ηN models for nuclei across the periodic table, including Mg25η for which some evidence was proposed in a recent COSY experiment.

  10. Narrow deeply bound K- atomic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    1999-07-01

    Using optical potentials fitted to a comprehensive set of strong interaction level shifts and widths in K- atoms, we predict that the K- atomic levels which are inaccessible in the atomic cascade process are generally narrow, spanning a range of widths about 50-1500 keV over the entire periodic table. The mechanism for this narrowing is different from the mechanism for narrowing of pionic atom levels. Examples of such `deeply bound' K- atomic states are given, showing that in many cases these states should be reasonably well resolved. Several reactions which could be used to form these `deeply bound' states are mentioned. Narrow deeply bound states are expected also in overlinep atoms.

  11. Shedding of cell membrane-bound proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Eon Jeong; Park, Pyong Woo

    2012-01-01

    Membrane-bound proteoglycans function primarily as coreceptors for many glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding ligands at the cell surface. The majority of membrane-bound proteoglycans can also function as soluble autocrine or paracrine effectors as their extracellular domains, replete with all GAG chains, are enzymatically cleaved and released from the cell surface by ectodomain shedding. In particular, the ectodomain shedding of syndecans, a major family of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, is an important posttranslational mechanism that modulates diverse pathophysiological processes. Syndecan shedding is a tightly controlled process that regulates the onset, progression, and resolution of various infectious and noninfectious inflammatory diseases. This review describes methods to induce and measure the shedding of cell membrane-bound proteoglycans, focusing on syndecan shedding as a prototypic example.

  12. A Proof of the Conformal Collider Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hofman, Diego M; Meltzer, David; Poland, David; Rejon-Barrera, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the "conformal collider bounds" originally proposed by Hofman and Maldacena hold for any unitary parity-preserving conformal field theory (CFT) with a unique stress tensor in spacetime dimensions larger than 2. In particular this implies that the ratio of central charges for a unitary 4d CFT lies in the interval $\\frac{31}{18} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{3}$. For superconformal theories this is further reduced to $\\frac{3}{2} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{2}$. The proof relies only on CFT first principles - in particular, bootstrap methods - and thus constitutes the first complete field theory proof of these bounds. We further elaborate on similar bounds for non-conserved currents and relate them to results obtained recently from deep inelastic scattering.

  13. Career Development and Personal Functioning Differences between Work-Bound and Non-Work Bound Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…

  14. Lower bounds for unbounded operators and semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Let $A$ be an unbounded operator on a Banach space $X$. It is sometimes useful to improve the operator $A$ by extending it to an operator $B$ on a larger Banach space $Y$ with smaller spectrum. It would be preferable to do this with some estimates for the resolvent of $B$, and also to extend bounded operators related to $A$, for example a semigroup generated by $A$. When $X$ is a Hilbert space, one may also want $Y$ to be Hilbert space. Results of this type for bounded operators have been giv...

  15. Generalized Bounds on Majoron-neutrino couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Valle, José W F

    2001-01-01

    We discuss limits on neutrino-Majoron couplings both from laboratory experiments as well as from astrophysics. They apply to the simplest class of Majoron models which covers a variety of possibilities where neutrinos acquire mass either via a seesaw-type scheme or via radiative corrections. By adopting a general framework including CP phases we generalize bounds obtained previously. The combination of complementary bounds enables us to obtain a highly non-trivial exclusion region in the parameter space. We find that the future double beta project GENIUS, together with constraints based on supernova energy release arguments, could restrict neutrino-Majoron couplings down to the 10^{-7} level.

  16. Upper bounds on the photon mass

    CERN Document Server

    Accioly, Antonio; Scatena, Eslley; 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.065026

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism in a simple way using the Proca equations. In this vein, two interesting implications regarding the possible existence of a massive photon in nature, i.e., tiny alterations in the known values of both the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the gravitational deflection of electromagnetic radiation, are utilized to set upper limits on its mass. The bounds obtained are not as stringent as those recently found; nonetheless, they are comparable to other existing bounds and bring new elements to the issue of restricting the photon mass.

  17. Weakly bound systems, continuum effects, and reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Jaganathen, Y; Ploszajczak, M

    2012-01-01

    Structure of weakly bound/unbound nuclei close to particle drip lines is different from that around the valley of beta stability. A comprehensive description of these systems goes beyond standard Shell Model and demands an open quantum system description of the nuclear many-body system. We approach this problem using the Gamow Shell Model which provides a fully microscopic description of bound and unbound nuclear states, nuclear decays, and reactions. We present in this paper the first application of the GSM for a description of the elastic and inelastic scattering of protons on 6He.

  18. Bounded distortion homeomorphisms on ultrametric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Bruce; Morón, Manuel A

    2010-01-01

    It is well-known that quasi-isometries between R-trees induce power quasi-symmetric homeomorphisms between their ultrametric end spaces. This paper investigates power quasi-symmetric homeomorphisms between bounded, complete, uniformly perfect, ultrametric spaces (i.e., those ultrametric spaces arising up to similarity as the end spaces of bushy trees). A bounded distortion property is found that characterizes power quasi-symmetric homeomorphisms between such ultrametric spaces that are also pseudo-doubling. Moreover, examples are given showing the extent to which the power quasi-symmetry of homeomorphisms is not captured by the quasiconformal and bi-H\\"older conditions for this class of ultrametric spaces.

  19. Learning within bounds and dream sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.

    1987-12-01

    In a bounded-synapses version of Hopfield's model (1984) for neural networks the quasienergy of a given memory, which is approximately equal to the depth of the corresponding energy well is calculated exactly by treating the change of a synaptic strength on learning as a random walk within bounds. Attractors corresponding to stored memories are found to be considerably flattened before serious retrieval errors arise. This allows dream sleep to be interpreted as random recall and relearning of fresh strong memories, in order to stack them on top of weak incidental memory imprints of a day.

  20. Irreversibility for all bound entangled states

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, D; Horodecki, R; Synak-Radtke, B; Yang, Dong; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Synak-Radtke, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    We derive a new inequality for entanglement for a mixed four-partite state. Employing this inequality, we present a one-shot lower bound for entanglement cost and prove that entanglement cost is strictly larger than zero for any entangled state. We demonstrate that irreversibility occurs in the process of formation for all non-distillable entangled states. In this way we solve a long standing problem, of how "real" is entanglement of bound entangled states. Using the new inequality we also prove impossibility of local-cloning and local-deleting of a known entangled state.

  1. Proof of a Quantum Bousso Bound

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan

    2014-01-01

    We prove the generalized Covariant Entropy Bound, $\\Delta S\\leq (A-A')/4G\\hbar$, for light-sheets with initial area $A$ and final area $A'$. The entropy $\\Delta S$ is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.

  2. On devising Boussinesq-type models with bounded eigenspectra: One horizontal dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of water waves in the nearshore region can be described by depth-integrated Boussinesq-type equations. The dispersive and nonlinear characteristics of the equations are governed by tuneable parameters. We examine the associated linear eigenproblem both analytically and numerically...... requires Δt∝p−2. We derive and present conditions on the parameters under which implicitly-implicit Boussinesq-type equations will exhibit bounded eigenspectra. Two new bounded versions having comparable nonlinear and dispersive properties as the equations of Nwogu (1993) and Schäffer and Madsen (1995......) are introduced. Using spectral element simulations of stream function waves it is illustrated that (i) the bounded equations capture the physics of the wave motion as well as the standard unbounded equations, and (ii) the bounded equations are computationally more efficient when explicit time-stepping schemes...

  3. The release of 14C-chlorsulfuron bound residue by autoclavingmethod and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    When individual microorganisms were used torelease bound pesticide residues, it was ussually not take into fullaccountwhether the autoclaving method could lead to the releaseof bound residues. The soil containing bound14C-chlorsulfuron residues was treated with an autoclavein this study. The results reveal that the bound14C-chlorsulfuron residue can be released from the soilwhen treated with the autoclave and the release rate canbe remarkably enhanced by adding water into the soil whensubjected to such treatment. A TLC analysis showed that thereleased 14C-residue was one of the degraded products of14C-chlorsulfuron. After derivatization and analysis using theGC-MS, the released 14C-residue was tentatively identifiedas 2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine.

  4. The release of 14C—chlorsulfuron bound residue by autoclaving method and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOJiangfeng; PINGXiaofei; 等

    1999-01-01

    When individual microorganisms were used to release bound pesticide resdues,it was ussually not take into full account whether the autoclaving method could lead to the release of bound residues.The soil containing bound 14C-chlorsulfuron residues was treated with an autoclave in this study.The results reveal that the bound 14C-chlorsulfuron residue can be released from the soil when treated with the autoclave and the release rate can be remarkably enhanced by adding water into the soil when subjected to such treatment.A TLC analysis showed that the released 14C-residue was one of the degraded products of 14C-chlorsulfuron.After derivatization and analysis using the GC-MS,the released 14C-residue was tentatively identified as 2-amnino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine.

  5. BOUNDS FOR THE ZEROS OF POLYNOMIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. M. Shah; A.Liman

    2004-01-01

    Let P(z) =n∑j=0 ajzj be a polynomial of degree n. In this paper we prove a more general result which interalia improves upon the bounds of a class of polynomials. We also prove a result which includes some extensions and generalizations of Enestrom-Kakeya theorem.

  6. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Henneman, A A

    2001-01-01

    When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target, is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.

  7. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions

    OpenAIRE

    Henneman, A.

    2000-01-01

    When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target, is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.

  8. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, A.

    2001-01-01

    When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target [1], is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.

  9. Bounding the bias of contrastive divergence learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anja; Igel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Optimization based on k-step contrastive divergence (CD) has become a common way to train restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). The k-step CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient relying on Gibbs sampling. We derive a new upper bound for this bias. Its magnitude depends on k...

  10. Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.

  11. Collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear dimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, B.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Petrov, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear molecules (dimers) formed in a two-species mixture of atoms with a large mass difference. We focus on dimers containing light fermionic atoms as they manifest collisional stability due to an effective dimer-dimer repulsion originating

  12. A Tight Bound for the Lamplighter Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy, Murali K.; Tetali, Prasad

    2006-01-01

    We settle an open problem, raised by Y. Peres and D. Revelle, concerning the $L^2$ mixing time of the random walk on the lamplighter graph. We also provide general bounds relating the entropy decay of a Markov chain to the separation distance of the chain, and show that the lamplighter graphs once again provide examples of tightness of our results.

  13. Improved Lower Bound for Online Strip Packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harren, Rolf; Kern, Walter

    We study the online strip packing problem and derive an improved lower bound of Ͽ ≥ 2.589... for the competitive ratio of this problem. The construction is based on modified “Brown-Baker-Katseff sequences‿ (Brown et al. in Acta Inform. 18:207–225, 1982) using only two types of rectangles. In

  14. Improved lower bound for online strip packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harren, Rolf; Kern, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In the two-dimensional strip packing problem a number of rectangles have to be packed without rotation or overlap into a strip such that the height of the strip used is minimal. The width of the rectangles is bounded by 1 and the strip has width 1 and infinite height. We study the online version of

  15. Monotonicity and bounds on Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Landau

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available survey my recent results on monotonicity with respect to order of general Bessel functions, which follow from a new identity and lead to best possible uniform bounds. Application may be made to the "spreading of the wave packet" for a free quantum particle on a lattice and to estimates for perturbative expansions.

  16. Dilation volumes of sets of bounded perimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    it to determine the derivative of the contact distribution function of a stationary random closed set at zero. A variant for uncountable Q is given, too. The proofs are based on approximation of the characteristic function of A by smooth functions of bounded variation and showing corresponding formulas for them....

  17. A Characterization of Complete Bounded Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷慰萍; 苏简兵; 赵振刚

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 IntroductionThis paper is concerned with biholomorphic mappings between two bounded domains D and G both in Cn.Consequently,an important question is whether the domain D is biholomorphic to G? We give an answer for this question under a very weak condition.

  18. A PSL Bounded Model Checking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; ZHAO Zongtao

    2012-01-01

    SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) is introduced as an important complementary technique to OBDD-based symbolic model checking, and is an efficient verification method for parallel and reactive systems. However, until now the properties verified by bounded model checking are very finite. Temporal logic PSL is a property specification language (IEEE-1850) describing parallel systems and is divided into two parts, i.e. the linear time logic FL and the branch time logic OBE. In this paper, the specification checked by BMC is extended to PSL and its algorithm is also proposed. Firstly, define the bounded semantics of PSL, and then reduce the bounded semantics into SAT by translating PSL specification formula and the state transition relation of the system to the propositional formula A and B, respectively. Finally, verify the satisfiability of the conjunction propositional formula of A and B. The algorithm results in the translation of the existential model checking of the temporal logic PSL into the satisfiability problem of propositional formula. An example of a queue controlling circuit is used to interpret detailedly the executing procedure of the algorithm.

  19. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  20. Concerns on Monotonic Imbalance Bounding Matching Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yatracos, Yannis G.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns are expressed for the Monotonic Imbalance Bounding (MIB) property (Iacus et al. 2011) and for MIB matching because i) the definition of the MIB property leads to inconsistencies and the nature of the imbalance measure is not clearly defined, ii) MIB property does not generalize Equal Percent Bias Reducing (EPBR) property, iii) MIB matching does not provide statistical information available with EPBR matching.

  1. Combined perturbation bounds:Ⅱ.Polar decompositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we study the perturbation bounds for the polar decomposition A=QH where Q is unitary and H is Hermitian.The optimal (asymptotic) bounds obtained in previous works for the unitary factor,the Hermitian factor and singular values of A areσr2||ΔQ||F2≤||ΔA||F2, 1/2||ΔH||F2≤||ΔA||F2 and ||Δ∑||F2≤||ΔA||F2,respectively,where∑=diag(σ1,σ2,...,σr,0,...,0) is the singular value matrix of A andσr denotes the smallest nonzero singular value.Here we present some new combined (asymptotic) perturbation boundsσr2||ΔQ||F2+1/2||ΔH||F2≤||ΔA||F2 andσr2||ΔQ||F2+||Δ∑||F2≤||ΔA||F2 which are optimal for each factor.Some corresponding absolute perturbation bounds are also given.

  2. Lower bounds for polynomials using geometric programming

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    We make use of a result of Hurwitz and Reznick, and a consequence of this result due to Fidalgo and Kovacec, to determine a new sufficient condition for a polynomial $f\\in\\mathbb{R}[X_1,...,X_n]$ of even degree to be a sum of squares. This result generalizes a result of Lasserre and a result of Fidalgo and Kovacec, and it also generalizes the improvements of these results given in [6]. We apply this result to obtain a new lower bound $f_{gp}$ for $f$, and we explain how $f_{gp}$ can be computed using geometric programming. The lower bound $f_{gp}$ is generally not as good as the lower bound $f_{sos}$ introduced by Lasserre and Parrilo and Sturmfels, which is computed using semidefinite programming, but a run time comparison shows that, in practice, the computation of $f_{gp}$ is much faster. The computation is simplest when the highest degree term of $f$ has the form $\\sum_{i=1}^n a_iX_i^{2d}$, $a_i>0$, $i=1,...,n$. The lower bounds for $f$ established in [6] are obtained by evaluating the objective function ...

  3. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.

    1971-01-01

    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is o...

  4. Qp-spaces on bounded symmetric domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Arazy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the theory of Qp spaces, introduced on the unit disc in 1995 by Aulaskari, Xiao and Zhao, to bounded symmetric domains in Cd, as well as to analogous Moebius-invariant function spaces and Bloch spaces defined using higher order derivatives; the latter generalization contains new results even in the original context of the unit disc.

  5. Covariant Entropy Bound and Padmanabhan's Emergent Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Hadi, H; Darabi, F

    2016-01-01

    The covariant entropy conjecture is invariant under time reversal and consequently its origin must be statistical rather than thermodynamical. This may impose a fundamental constraint on the number of degrees of freedom in nature. Indeed, the covariant entropy bound imposes an upper entropy bound for any physical system. Considering a cosmological system, we show that Padmanabhan's emergent paradigm, which indicates that the emergence of cosmic space is due to the discrepancy between the surface and bulk degrees of freedom, leads to a lower entropy bound. The lower and upper entropy bounds may coincide on the apparent horizon for the radiation field and dark energy with the equations of state $\\omega=\\frac{1}{3}$ and $\\omega=-1$, respectively. Moreover, the maximal entropy inside the apparent horizon occurs when it is filled completely by the radiation field or dark energy. It turns out that for dark energy case (pure de Sitter space)\\ the holographic principle is satisfied in the sense that the number of deg...

  6. A cosmological bound on radiative neutrino lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P. D.

    2008-07-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments and direct bounds on absolute masses constrain neutrino mass differences to fall into the microwave energy range, for most of the allowed parameter space. As a consequence of these recent phenomenological advances, older constraints on radiative neutrino decays based on diffuse background radiations and assuming strongly hierarchical masses in the eV range are now outdated. We thus derive new bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of COBE. The lower bound on neutrino lifetime is between a few ×1019 s and ~ 5 × 1020 s, depending on the neutrino mass ordering and on the absolute neutrino mass scale. However, due to phase space limitations, the upper bound on the effective magnetic moment mediating the decay is not better than ~10-8 μB. We also comment about possible improvements of these limits, by means of recent diffuse infrared photon background data.

  7. Revisiting cosmological bounds on radiative neutrino lifetime

    CERN Document Server

    Mirizzi, A; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2007-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments and direct bounds on absolute masses constrain neutrino mass differences to fall into the microwave energy range, for most of the allowed parameter space. As a consequence of these recent phenomenological advances, older constraints on radiative neutrino decays based on diffuse background radiations and assuming strongly hierarchical masses in the eV range are now outdated. We thus derive new bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of COBE. The lower bound on the lifetime is between a few x 10^19 s and 5 x 10^20 s, depending on the neutrino mass ordering and on the absolute mass scale. However, due to phase space limitations, the upper bound in terms of the effective magnetic moment mediating the decay is not better than ~ 10^-8 Bohr magnetons. We also comment about possible improvements of these limits, by means of recent diffuse infrared photon background data. We ...

  8. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...

  9. Lower Bound for Visual Cryptography Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Cheraghi, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    For a given visual cryptography scheme, it is possible to present a basis matrices for it and most of constructions are based on basis matrices. In this paper we introduce a lower bound for the pixel expansion of visual cryptography schemes with basis matrices. To make the main theorem more flexible, we will introduce a lower bound based on induced matchings of hypergraph of qualified sets. As an application, we present an algebraic proof for the fact that the pixel expansion of basis matrices of any $k$ out of $k$ scheme is at least $2^{k-1}$. In the sequel, we present a lower bound for the pixel expansion of a given graph access structure in term of maximum number of edges in an induced matching. Finally, we show that the minimum pixel expansion of basis matrices of graph access structure $P_n$ is exactly $\\lceil \\frac{n+1}{2}\\rceil$ and this shows the lower bound mentioned in the main theorem is sharp.

  10. Sharp Bounds for Symmetric and Asymmetric Diophantine Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cornelis KRAAIKAMP; Ionica SMEETS

    2011-01-01

    In 2004,Tong found bounds for the approximation quality of a regular continued fraction convergent to a rational number,expressed in bounds for both the previous and next approximation.The authors sharpen his results with a geometric method and give both sharp upper and lower bounds.The asymptotic frequencies that these bounds occur are also calculated.

  11. Bounded sets in the range of an X∗∗-valued measure with bounded variation

    OpenAIRE

    B. Marchena; Piñeiro, C.

    2000-01-01

    Let X be a Banach space and A⊂X an absolutely convex, closed, and bounded set. We give some sufficient and necessary conditions in order that A lies in the range of a measure valued in the bidual space X∗∗ and having bounded variation. Among other results, we prove that X∗ is a G. T.-space if and only if A lies inside the range of some X∗∗-valued measure with bounded variation whenever XA is isomorphic to a Hilbert space.

  12. Reinforcement Learning with Bounded Information Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan; Mülling, Katharina; Seldin, Yevgeny; Altun, Yasemin

    2011-03-01

    Policy search is a successful approach to reinforcement learning. However, policy improvements often result in the loss of information. Hence, it has been marred by premature convergence and implausible solutions. As first suggested in the context of covariant or natural policy gradients, many of these problems may be addressed by constraining the information loss. In this paper, we continue this path of reasoning and suggest two reinforcement learning methods, i.e., a model-based and a model free algorithm that bound the loss in relative entropy while maximizing their return. The resulting methods differ significantly from previous policy gradient approaches and yields an exact update step. It works well on typical reinforcement learning benchmark problems as well as novel evaluations in robotics. We also show a Bayesian bound motivation of this new approach [8].

  13. Empirical processes with bounded \\psi_1 diameter

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Shahar

    2010-01-01

    We study the empirical process indexed by F^2=\\{f^2 : f \\in F\\}, where F is a class of mean-zero functions on a probability space. We present a sharp bound on the supremum of that process which depends on the \\psi_1 diameter of the class F (rather than on the \\psi_2 one) and on the complexity parameter \\gamma_2(F,\\psi_2). In addition, we present optimal bounds on the random diameters \\sup_{f \\in F} \\max_{|I|=m} (\\sum_{i \\in I} f^2(X_i))^{1/2} using the same parameters. As applications, we extend several well known results in Asymptotic Geometric Analysis to any isotropic, log-concave ensemble on R^n.

  14. Mutual Information Rate and Bounds for It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Murilo S.; Rubinger, Rero M.; Viana, Emilson R.; Sartorelli, José C.; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

    2012-01-01

    The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809

  15. Dynamics of Nonlinear Waves on Bounded Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Maliborski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with dynamics of conservative nonlinear waves on bounded domains. In general, there are two scenarios of evolution. Either the solution behaves in an oscillatory, quasiperiodic manner or the nonlinear effects cause the energy to concentrate on smaller scales leading to a turbulent behaviour. Which of these two possibilities occurs depends on a model and the initial conditions. In the quasiperiodic scenario there exist very special time-periodic solutions. They result for a delicate balance between dispersion and nonlinear interaction. The main body of this dissertation is concerned with construction (by means of perturbative and numerical methods) of time-periodic solutions for various nonlinear wave equations on bounded domains. While turbulence is mainly associated with hydrodynamics, recent research in General Relativity has also revealed turbulent phenomena. Numerical studies of a self-gravitating massless scalar field in spherical symmetry gave evidence that anti-de Sitter space ...

  16. Asymptotic Sharpness of Bounds on Hypertrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypertree can be defined in many different ways. Katona and Szabó introduced a new, natural definition of hypertrees in uniform hypergraphs and investigated bounds on the number of edges of the hypertrees. They showed that a k-uniform hypertree on n vertices has at most (nk−1$\\left( {\\matrix{n \\cr {k - 1} } } \\right$ edges and they conjectured that the upper bound is asymptotically sharp. Recently, Szabó verified that the conjecture holds by recursively constructing an infinite sequence of k-uniform hypertrees and making complicated analyses for it. In this note we give a short proof of the conjecture by directly constructing a sequence of k-uniform k-hypertrees.

  17. Bounds on bacterial cell growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    Landy, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that rod-like bacteria in nutrient-rich media grow in length at an exponential rate. Here, I point out that it is the elongated shape of these bacteria that allows for this behavior. Further, I show that when a bacterium's growth is limited by some nutrient -- taken in by the cell through a diffusion-to-capture process -- its growth is suppressed: In three-dimensional geometries, the length $L$ is bounded by $\\log L \\lesssim t^{1/2}$, while in two dimensions the length is bounded by a power-law form. Fits of experimental growth curves to these predicted, sub-exponential forms could allow for direct measures of quantities relating to cellular metabolic rates.

  18. Mutual information rate and bounds for it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S Baptista

    Full Text Available The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR, is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic, and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.

  19. Mutual information rate and bounds for it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Murilo S; Rubinger, Rero M; Viana, Emilson R; Sartorelli, José C; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

    2012-01-01

    The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.

  20. REE bound DNA in natural plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉琦; 江平; 郭繁清; 张智勇; 孙景信; 许雷; 曹国印

    1999-01-01

    The binding of rare earth elements (REEs) with nucleic acids in the leaves of fern Dicranopteris dichotoma (DD) has been studied by molecular activation analysis (MAA). The REEs bound DNA (REE-DNA) was obtained from the leaves of DD. The CTAB-based procedure was modified for extraction of total DNA. The purity of DNA was examined by UV spectroscopy. The DNA obtained was separated and determined by agarose gel electrophoresis further. Meanwhile, the contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu,Tb, Yb and Lu) in REE-DNA were detected by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results showed that REE-DNA with higher purity could be extracted from plant using this method. It was also found that REEs were bound firmly with DNA in the leaves of DD. The molecular weight (MW) of REE-DNA band was about 22 kb in agarose gel electrophoresis.

  1. Nemytskii operator on generalized bounded variation space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Erlín Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that if the Nemytskii operator maps the (φ, α-bounded variation space into itself and satisfies some Lipschitz condition, then there are two functions g and h belonging to the (φ, α-bounded variation space such that f(t, y = g(ty + h(t for all t ∈ [a, b], y ∈ R. Resumen. En este artículo demostramos que si el operador de Nemytskii lleva el espacio de variación (φ, α-acotada en sí mismo, y satisface cierta condición de Lipschitz, entonces existen dos funciones g y h perteneciendo al espacio de variación (φ, α-acotada tal que f(t, y = g(ty + h(t para todo t ∈ [a, b], y ∈ R.

  2. Compressed sensing performance bounds under Poisson noise

    CERN Document Server

    Raginsky, Maxim; Marcia, Roummel F; Willett, Rebecca M

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes performance bounds for compressed sensing (CS) where the underlying sparse or compressible (sparsely approximable) signal is a vector of nonnegative intensities whose measurements are corrupted by Poisson noise. In this setting, standard CS techniques cannot be applied directly for several reasons. First, the usual signal-independent and/or bounded noise models do not apply to Poisson noise, which is non-additive and signal-dependent. Second, the CS matrices typically considered are not feasible in real optical systems because they do not adhere to important constraints, such as nonnegativity and photon flux preservation. Third, the typical $\\ell_2$--$\\ell_1$ minimization leads to overfitting in the high-intensity regions and oversmoothing in the low-intensity areas. In this paper, we describe how a feasible positivity- and flux-preserving sensing matrix can be constructed, and then analyze the performance of a CS reconstruction approach for Poisson data that minimizes an objective functi...

  3. A Holographic Bound on Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary) times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark-gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields (scaled by the squared temperature) in these circumstances, and that the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetism come close to attaining that bound.

  4. Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Adesso, Gerardo; Alonso, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modeling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

  5. Performance bounds for Lambda Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    We consider the discrete-time infinite-horizon discounted stationary optimal control problem formalized by Markov Decision Processes. We study Lambda Policy Iteration, a family of algorithms parameterized by lambda, originally introduced by Ioffe and Bertsekas. Lambda Policy Iteration generalizes the standard algorithms Value Iteration and Policy Iteration, and has some connections with TD(Lambda) introduced by Sutton & Barto. We deepen the original theory developped by Ioffe and Bertsekas by providing convergence rate bounds which generalize standard bounds for Value Iteration described for instance by Puterman. We also develop the theory of this algorithm when it is used in an approximate form. Doing so, we extend and unify the separate analyses developped by Munos for Approximate Value Iteration and Approximate Policy Iteration.

  6. Preservation under Substructures modulo Bounded Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaran, Abhisekh; Madan, Vivek; Kamath, Pritish; Chakraborty, Supratik

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a model-theoretic property that generalizes the classical notion of "preservation under substructures". We call this property \\emph{preservation under substructures modulo bounded cores}, and present a syntactic characterization via $\\Sigma_2^0$ sentences for properties of arbitrary structures definable by FO sentences. Towards a sharper characterization, we conjecture that the count of existential quantifiers in the $\\Sigma_2^0$ sentence equals the size of the smallest bounded core. While we do not have a proof of the conjecture yet, we show that it holds for special fragments of FO and also over special classes of structures. We present a (not FO-definable) class of finite structures for which the conjecture fails, but for which the classical {\\L}o\\'s-Tarski preservation theorem holds. As a fallout of our studies, we have obtained combinatorial proofs of the {\\L}o\\'s-Tarski theorem for some of the aforementioned cases.

  7. A holographic bound for D3-brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakul, Aizhan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Eurasian National University, Department of General Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, we will regularize the holographic entanglement entropy, holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for a configuration of D3-branes. We will also study the regularization of the holographic complexity from the action for a configuration of D3-branes. It will be demonstrated that for a spherical shell of D3-branes the regularized holographic complexity is always greater than or equal to the regularized fidelity susceptibility. Furthermore, we will also demonstrate that the regularized holographic complexity is related to the regularized holographic entanglement entropy for this system. Thus, we will obtain a holographic bound involving regularized holographic complexity, regularized holographic entanglement entropy and regularized fidelity susceptibility of a configuration of D3-brane. We will also discuss a bound for regularized holographic complexity from action, for a D3-brane configuration. (orig.)

  8. Some general bounds for 1-D scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    One-dimensional scattering problems are of wide physical interest and are encountered in many diverse applications. In this article I establish some very general bounds for reflection and transmission coefficients for one-dimensional potential scattering. Equivalently, these results may be phrased as general bounds on the Bogolubov coefficients, or statements about the transfer matrix. A similar analysis can be provided for the parametric change of frequency of a harmonic oscillator. A number of specific examples are discussed---in particular I provide a general proof that sharp step function potentials always scatter more effectively than the corresponding smoothed potentials. The analysis also serves to collect together and unify what would otherwise appear to be quite unrelated results.

  9. PSPACE Bounds for Rank-1 Modal Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    For lack of general algorithmic methods that apply to wide classes of logics, establishing a complexity bound for a given modal logic is often a laborious task. The present work is a step towards a general theory of the complexity of modal logics. Our main result is that all rank-1 logics enjoy a shallow model property and thus are, under mild assumptions on the format of their axiomatisation, in PSPACE. This leads to a unified derivation of tight PSPACE-bounds for a number of logics including K, KD, coalition logic, graded modal logic, majority logic, and probabilistic modal logic. Our generic algorithm moreover finds tableau proofs that witness pleasant proof-theoretic properties including a weak subformula property. This generality is made possible by a coalgebraic semantics, which conveniently abstracts from the details of a given model class and thus allows covering a broad range of logics in a uniform way.

  10. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domrin, Andrei, E-mail: domrin@mi.ras.ru [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119992, GSP-2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lechtenfeld, Olaf, E-mail: lechtenf@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik and Riemann Center for Geometry and Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Linares, Román, E-mail: lirr@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F. (Mexico); Maceda, Marco, E-mail: mmac@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-11-25

    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.

  11. The lower bound on independence number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yusheng

    2002-01-01

    [1]Caro, Y., New Results on the Independence Number, Technical Report, Tel_Aviv: Tel_Aviv University, 1979.[2]Wei, V., A lower bound on the stability number of a simple graph, Bell Laboratories Technical Memorandum, 1981, 81_11217_11219.\\}[3]Alon, N., Spencer, J., The Probabilistic Method, New York: Wiley_Interscience, 1992.[4]Ajtai, M., Komls, J., Szemerédi E., A note on Ramsey numbers, J. Combin. Theory, Ser. A, 1980, 29: 354-360.[5]Shearer, J., A note on the independence number of triangle_free graphs, Discrete Math., 1983, 46: 83-87.[6]Kim, J., The Ramsey number R(3,t)has order of magnitude t\\+2/logt, Random Structures Algorithms, 1995, 7: 174-207.[7]Tardos, E., 1997 Fulkerson Prize, Notices of American Math. Soc., 1998, 45(8): 984.[8]Griggs, J., Lower bounds on the independence number in term of the degrees, J. Combin. Theory, Ser. B, 1983, 34: 22-29.[9]Li, Y., Rousseau, C., Fan_complete graph Ramsey numbers, J. Graph Theory, 1996, 23: 413-420.[10]Shearer, J., A note on the independence number of triangle_free graphs, II, J. Combin. Theory, Ser. B, 1991, 53: 300-307.[11]Li, Y., Rousseau, C., On book_complete Ramsey numbers, J. Combin. Theory, Ser. B, 1996, 68: 36-44.[12]Li, Y., Rousseau, C., Zang, W., Asymptotic upper bounds for Ramsey functions, Graphs Combin., 2001, 17: 123-128.[13]Caro, Y., Li, Y., Rousseau, C. et al., Asymptotic bounds for some bipartite graph: complete graph Ramsey numbers, Discrete Math., 2000, 220: 51-56.

  12. Singular integral on bounded strictly pseudoconvex domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Ding-dong

    2008-01-01

    Kytmanov and Myslivets gave a special Cauchy principal value of the singular integral on the bounded strictly pseudoconvex domain with smooth boundary. By means of this Cauchy integral principal value, the corresponding singular integral and a composition formula are obtained. This composition formula is quite different from usual ones in form. As an application, the corresponding singular integral equation and the system of singular integral equations are discussed as well.

  13. Invariance and stability for bounded uncertain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T. K. C.

    1972-01-01

    The positive limit sets of the solutions of a contingent differential equation are shown to possess an invariance property. In this connection the 'invariance principle' in the theory of Lyapunov stability is extended to systems with unknown, bounded, time-varying parameters, and thus to a large and important class of nonautonomous systems. Asymptotic stability criteria are obtained and applied to guaranteed cost control problems.

  14. Lower bounds on the Calabi functional

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    The main result of this paper shows that "test configurations" give new lower bounds on the $L^{2}$ norm of the scalar curvature on a Kahler manifold. This is closely analogous to the analysis of the Yang-Mills functional over Riemann surfaces by Atiyah and Bott. The proof uses asymptotic approximation by finite-dimensional problems: the essential ingredient being the Tian-Zelditch-Lu expansion of the "density of states" function.

  15. Nonminimal global monopoles and bound orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Nucamendi, U; Sudarsky, D; Nucamendi, Ulises; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    We perform a numerical analysis of the gravitational field of a global monopole coupled nonminimally to gravity, and find that, for some given nonminimal couplings (in constrast with the minimal coupling case), there is an attractive region where bound orbits exist. We exhibit the behavior of the frequency shifts that would be associated with `rotation curves' of stars in circular orbits in the spacetimes of such global monopoles.

  16. Upper and lower bounds on quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme Stewart Baird

    This thesis provides bounds on the performance of quantum error correcting codes when used for quantum communication and quantum key distribution. The first two chapters provide a bare-bones introduction to classical and quantum error correcting codes, respectively. The next four chapters present achievable rates for quantum codes in various scenarios. The final chapter is dedicated to an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity. Chapter 3 studies coding for adversarial noise using quantum list codes, showing there exist quantum codes with high rates and short lists. These can be used, together with a very short secret key, to communicate with high fidelity at noise levels for which perfect fidelity is, impossible. Chapter 4 explores the performance of a family of degenerate codes when used to communicate over Pauli channels, showing they can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code and that exceed those of previously known degenerate codes. By studying the scaling of the optimal block length as a function of the channel's parameters, we develop a heuristic for designing even better codes. Chapter 5 describes an equivalence between a family of noisy preprocessing protocols for quantum key distribution and entanglement distillation protocols whose target state belongs to a class of private states called "twisted states." In Chapter 6, the codes of Chapter 4 are combined with the protocols of Chapter 5 to provide higher key rates for one-way quantum key distribution than were previously thought possible. Finally, Chapter 7 presents a new upper bound on the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex, and which can be interpreted as the capacity of the channel for communication given access to side channels from a class of zero capacity "cloning" channels. This "clone assisted capacity" is equal to the unassisted capacity for channels that are degradable, which we use to find new upper

  17. Sublinear Bounds for Randomized Leader Election

    OpenAIRE

    Kutten, Shay; Pandurangan, Gopal; Peleg, David; Robinson, Peter; Trehan, Amitabh

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns {\\em randomized} leader election in synchronous distributed networks. A distributed leader election algorithm is presented for complete $n$-node networks that runs in O(1) rounds and (with high probability) uses only $O(\\sqrt{n}\\log^{3/2} n)$ messages to elect a unique leader (with high probability). When considering the "explicit" variant of leader election where eventually every node knows the identity of the leader, our algorithm yields the asymptotically optimal bounds...

  18. A bound particle coupled to two thermostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogedby, Hans C.; Imparato, Alberto

    2011-05-01

    We consider a harmonically bound Brownian particle coupled to two distinct heat reservoirs at different temperatures. We show that the presence of a harmonic trap does not change the large deviation function from the case of a free Brownian particle discussed by Derrida and Brunet and Visco. Likewise, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem related to the entropy production at the heat sources remains in force. We support the analytical results with numerical simulations.

  19. Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, David P

    2011-01-01

    We resolve several fundamental questions in the area of distributed functional monitoring, initiated by Cormode, Muthukrishnan, and Yi (SODA, 2008). In this model there are $k$ sites each tracking their input and communicating with a central coordinator that continuously maintain an approximate output to a function $f$ computed over the union of the inputs. The goal is to minimize the communication. We show the randomized communication complexity of estimating the number of distinct elements up to a $1+\\eps$ factor is $\\Omega(k/\\eps^2)$, improving the previous $\\Omega(k + 1/\\eps^2)$ bound and matching known upper bounds. For the $p$-th frequency moment $F_p$, $p > 1$, we improve the previous $\\Omega(k + 1/\\eps^2)$ communication bound to $\\tilde{\\Omega}(k^{p-1}/\\eps^2)$. We obtain similar improvements for heavy hitters, empirical entropy, and other problems. We also show that we can estimate $F_p$, for any $p > 1$, using $\\tilde{O}(k^{p-1}\\poly(\\eps^{-1}))$ communication. This drastically improves upon the pre...

  20. Bounds on hadronic axions from stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Dearborn, David S. P.

    1987-10-01

    We consider in detail the effect of the emission of ``hadronic'' invisible axions (which do not couple to electrons) from the interior of stars on stellar evolution. To this end we calculate plasma emission rates for axions due to the Primakoff process for the full range of conditions encountered in a giant star. Much attention is paid to plasma, degeneracy, and screening effects. We reconsider the solar bound by evolving a 1.0 Msolar star to solar age and lowering the presolar helium abundance so as to obtain the correct present-day luminosity of the Sun. The previous bound on the axion-photon coupling of G9cluster M67 and with the value 1.3×108 yr derived from the number of such stars in the old galactic disk population. We obtain a conservative limit of G9decay and probably the possibility of measuring the solar hadronic axion flux which, according to our bounds, must be less than 2×10-3 of the solar luminosity. There remains a narrow range of parameters (0.01<~G9<~0.1, ma<~10-4 eV) in which a recently proposed laboratory experiment might still measure axionlike particles.

  1. Hybrid bounds for Dirichlet's L-function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, M. N.; Watt, N.

    2000-11-01

    This is a paper about upper bounds for Dirichlet's L-function, L(s, [chi]), on its critical line (s + s¯ = 1). It is to be assumed throughout that, unless otherwise stated, the Dirichlet character, [chi], is periodic modulo a prime, r, and is not the principal character mod r. Our main theorem below shows that, if [epsilon] > 0, thenformula here(where A is an absolute constant), for 0 < [alpha] = (log r)/(log t) [less-than-or-eq, slant] 2/753 [minus sign] [epsilon]. Somewhat weaker bounds are obtained for other cases where 0 < [alpha] [less-than-or-eq, slant] 11/180 [minus sign] [epsilon]. Note that in [13] it was shown that, for 0 < [alpha] [less-than-or-eq, slant] 2/57,formula hereOur main theorem is a corollary of the new bounds we prove for certain exponential sums, S, with a Dirichlet character factor:formula herewhere M2 [less-than-or-eq, slant] 2M and f(x) is a real function whose derivatives satisfy certain conditions restricting their size.

  2. Structural Analysis of Iac Repressor Bound to Allosteric Effectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daber,R.; Stayrook, S.; Rosenberg, A.; Lewis, M.

    2007-01-01

    The lac operon is a model system for understanding how effector molecules regulate transcription and are necessary for allosteric transitions. The crystal structures of the lac repressor bound to inducer and anti-inducer molecules provide a model for how these small molecules can modulate repressor function. The structures of the apo repressor and the repressor bound to effector molecules are compared in atomic detail. All effectors examined here bind to the repressor in the same location and are anchored to the repressor through hydrogen bonds to several hydroxyl groups of the sugar ring. Inducer molecules form a more extensive hydrogen-bonding network compared to anti-inducers and neutral effector molecules. The structures of these effector molecules suggest that the O6 hydroxyl on the galactoside is essential for establishing a water-mediated hydrogen bonding network that bridges the N-terminal and C-terminal sub-domains. The altered hydrogen bonding can account in part for the different structural conformations of the repressor, and is vital for the allosteric transition.

  3. The bound conformation of microtubule-stabilizing agents: NMR insights into the bioactive 3D structure of discodermolide and dictyostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Angeles; Matesanz, Ruth; Gardner, Nicola M; Andreu, José Manuel; Paterson, Ian; Díaz, J Fernando; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    A protocol based on a combination of NMR experimental data with molecular mechanics calculations and docking procedures has been employed to determine the microtubule-bound conformation of two microtubule-stabilizing agents, discodermolide (DDM) and dictyostatin (DCT). The data indicate that tubulin in assembled microtubules recognizes DDM through a conformational selection process, with minor changes in the molecular skeleton between the major conformer in water solution and that bound to assembled microtubules. For DCT, the deduced bound geometry presents some key conformation differences around certain torsion angles, with respect to the major conformer in solution, and still displays mobility even when bound. The bound conformer of DCT resembles that of DDM and provides very similar contacts with the receptor. Competition experiments indicate that both molecules compete with the taxane-binding site. A model of the binding mode of DDM and DCT to tubulin is proposed.

  4. NMR Revealed Activated Alumina-Water Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Rui; ZHOU Yan; HU Kai; JI Zhen-ping; CHENG Gong-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Three different spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of water were obtained in activated alumina-water slurry system, which indicate that there exist three states of water: bound water, pore water and bulk water. The chemical shift (δH) decreases as the amount of water added to the system increases due to the differences in contribution of these three states of water in the samples. The δH value for adsorbed water decreases nearly linearly and T1 increases with elevating temperature, which result from the decrease in the content of bound water by the increase in thermal motion.

  5. Bounds on the calving cliff height of marine terminating glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tripathy, Cory S.; Bassis, Jeremy N.

    2017-02-01

    Increased calving and rapid retreat of glaciers can contribute significantly to sea level rise, but the processes controlling glacier retreat remain poorly understood. We seek to improve our understanding of calving by investigating the stress field controlling tensile and shear failure using a 2-D full-Stokes finite element model. Using idealized rectangular geometries, we find that when rapidly sliding glaciers thin to near buoyancy, full thickness tensile failure occurs, similar to observations motivating height-above-buoyancy calving laws. In contrast, when glaciers are frozen to their beds, basal crevasse penetration is suppressed and calving is minimal. We also find that shear stresses are largest when glaciers are thickest. Together, the tensile and shear failure criteria map out a stable envelope in an ice-thickness-water-depth diagram. The upper and lower bounds on cliff height can be incorporated into numerical ice sheet models as boundary conditions, thus bracketing the magnitude of calving rates in marine-terminating glaciers.

  6. Dependence Uncertainty Bounds for the Expectile of a Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgars Jakobsons

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study upper and lower bounds on the expectile risk measure of risky portfolios when the joint distribution of the risky components is not fully specified. First, we summarize methods for obtaining bounds when only the marginal distributions of the components are known, but not their interdependence (unconstrained bounds. In particular, we provide the best-possible upper bound and the best-possible lower bound (under some conditions, as well as numerical procedures to compute them. We also derive simple analytic bounds that appear adequate in various situations of interest. Second, we study bounds when some information on interdependence is available (constrained bounds. When the variance of the portfolio is known, a simple-to-compute upper bound is provided, and we illustrate that it may significantly improve the unconstrained upper bound. We also show that the unconstrained lower bound cannot be readily improved using variance information. Next, we derive improved bounds when the bivariate distributions of each of the risky components and a risk factor are known. When the factor induces a positive dependence among the components, it is typically possible to improve the unconstrained lower bound. Finally, the unconstrained dependence uncertainty spreads of expected shortfall, value-at-risk and the expectile are compared.

  7. Multiplexed Electrochemistry of DNA-bound Metalloproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheeney, Catrina G.; Arnold, Anna R.; Grodick, Michael A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe a multiplexed electrochemical characterization of DNA-bound proteins containing [4Fe-4S] clusters. DNA-modified electrodes have become an essential tool for the characterization of the redox chemistry of DNA repair proteins containing redox cofactors, and multiplexing offers a means to probe different complex samples and substrates in parallel to elucidate this chemistry. Multiplexed analysis of EndonucleaseIII (EndoIII), a DNA repair protein containing a [4Fe-4S] cluster known to be accessible via DNA-mediated charge transport, shows subtle differences in the electrochemical behavior as a function of DNA morphology. The peak splitting, signal broadness, sensitivity to π-stack perturbations, and kinetics were all characterized for the DNA-bound reduction of EndoIII on both closely and loosely packed DNA films. DNA-bound EndoIII is seen to have two different electron transfer pathways for reduction, either through the DNA base stack or through direct surface reduction; closely packed DNA films, where the protein has limited surface accessibility, produce electrochemical signals reflecting electron transfer that is DNA-mediated. Multiplexing furthermore permits the comparison of the electrochemistry of EndoIII mutants, including a new family of mutations altering the electrostatics surrounding the [4Fe-4S] cluster. While little change in the midpoint potential was found for this family of mutants, significant variations in the efficiency of DNA-mediated electron transfer were apparent. Based on the stability of these proteins, examined by circular dichroism, we propose that the electron transfer pathway can be perturbed not only by the removal of aromatic residues but also through changes in solvation near the cluster. PMID:23899026

  8. Ionically Bound Peroxidase from Peach Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Valdir Augusto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble, ionically bound peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO were extracted from the pulp of peach fruit during ripening at 20°C. Ionically bound form was purified 6.1-fold by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The purified enzyme showed only one peak of activity on Sephadex G-100 and PAGE revealed that the enzyme was purified by the procedures adopted. The purified enzyme showed a molecular weight of 29000 Da, maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 40ºC. The calculated apparent activation energy (Ea for the reaction was10.04 kcal/mol. The enzyme was heat-labile in the temperature range of 60 to 75ºC with a fast inactivation at 75ºC. Measurement of residual activity showed a stabilizing effect of sucrose at various temperature/sugar concentrations (0, 10, 20 %, w/w, with an activation energy (Ea for inactivation increasing with sucrose concentration from 0 to 20% (w/w. The Km and Vmax values were 9.35 and 15.38 mM for 0-dianisidine and H2O2, respectively. The bound enzyme was inhibited competitively by ferulic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids with different values of Ki,. L-cysteine, p-coumaric and indolacetic acid and Fe++ also inhibited the enzyme but at a lower grade. N-ethylmaleimide and p-CMB were not effective to inhibit the enzyme demonstrating the non-essentiality of SH groups.

  9. WATER STATES IN SBR BASED WATER SWELLING RUBBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Water swelling rubber (WSR) was prepared by reaction blending SBR and sodium polyacrylate (PAANa). The existing states of water in the WSR was studied by means of DSC and TG. It was found that water exists in three states: nonfreezing water,bound freezable water and free water. The relationships between water states and structure of PAANa were investigated. The results showed that the amount of non-freezing water was related to total water content, and the ratio of non-freezing water versus -COONa groups on PAANa (mol/mol) was about 4. However, total water content slightly affected the content of bound freezable water and remarkably affected the amount of free waer.

  10. Spectral conditions for entanglement witnesses versus bound entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej; Sarbicki, Gniewomir

    2009-10-01

    It is shown that entanglement witnesses constructed via the family of spectral conditions are decomposable, i.e., cannot be used to detect bound entanglement. It supports several observations that bound entanglement reveals highly nonspectral features.

  11. Spectral conditions for entanglement witnesses vs. bound entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Sarbicki, Gniewomir

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that entanglement witnesses constructed via the family of spectral conditions are decomposable, i.e. cannot be used to detect bound entanglement. It supports several observations that bound entanglement reveals highly non-spectral features.

  12. Persistence of noncompact normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in bounded geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eldering, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    We prove a persistence result for noncompact normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in Riemannian manifolds of bounded geometry. The bounded geometry of the ambient manifold is a crucial assumption in order to control the uniformity of all estimates throughout the proof.

  13. Is there an quasi-bound state?

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkin, C; Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Hanhart, C; Hartmann, M; Hejny, V; Kacharava, A K; Keshelashvili, I; Khoukaz, A; Maeda, Y; Mersmann, T; Mielke, M; Mikirtychiants, S; Papenbrock, M; Rathmann, F; Rausmann, T; Schleichert, R; Ströher, H; Täschner, A; Valdau, Yu; Wronska, A

    2007-01-01

    The observed variation of the total cross section for the dp -> 3He eta reaction near threshold means that the magnitude of the s--wave amplitude falls very rapidly with the eta centre--of--mass momentum. It is shown here that recent measurements of the momentum dependence of the angular distribution imply a strong variation also in the phase of this amplitude. Such a behaviour is that expected from a quasi--bound or virtual eta-3He state. The interpretation can be investigated further through measurements of the deuteron or proton analysing powers and/or spin--correlations.

  14. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  15. Mass bounds on a very light neutralino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreiner, Herbi K. [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Heinemeyer, Sven [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Kittel, Olaf [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Langenfeld, Ulrich [DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen (Germany); Weber, Arne M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Munich (Germany); Weiglein, Georg [University of Durham, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus is on laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations. (orig.)

  16. Betweenness Centrality : Algorithms and Lower Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kintali, Shiva

    2008-01-01

    One of the most fundamental problems in large scale network analysis is to determine the importance of a particular node in a network. Betweenness centrality is the most widely used metric to measure the importance of a node in a network. In this paper, we present a randomized parallel algorithm, lower bounds and an algebraic method for computing betweenness centrality of all nodes in a network. We prove that any path comparison based algorithm cannot compute betweenness of all nodes in less than O(nm) time.

  17. Total-variation regularization with bound constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.

  18. Bound Alternative Direction Optimization for Image Deblurring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangrong Zeng

    2014-01-01

    the ℓp regularizer by a novel majorizer and then, based on a variable splitting, to reformulate the bound unconstrained problem into a constrained one, which is then addressed via an augmented Lagrangian method. The proposed algorithm actually combines the reweighted ℓ1 minimization method and the alternating direction method of multiples (ADMM such that it succeeds in extending the application of ADMM to ℓp minimization problems. The conducted experimental studies demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm for the synthesis ℓp minimization over the state-of-the-art algorithms for the synthesis ℓ1 minimization on image deblurring.

  19. Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according to which objective optimization is impracticable in the real world because it would demand an immense level of sophistication of the analytical and computational processes of human beings. We show how normative valuation models should rather be viewed as forms of reality representation, frameworks according to which the real world is perceived, fragmented for a better understanding, and recomposed, providing an orderly method for undertaking a task as complex as the investment decision.

  20. Mass bounds on a very light neutralino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreiner, Herbi K. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physis and Physikalisches Institut; Heinemeyer, Sven [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Kittel, Olaf [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE; Langenfeld, Ulrich [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Weber, Arne M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Weiglein, Georg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). IPPP

    2008-12-15

    Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus are laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations. (orig.)

  1. Landauer Bound for Analog Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalise the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.

  2. Bounds on entanglement in qudit subsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Kendon, Vivien M.; Zyczkowski, Karol; Munro, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The entanglement in a pure state of N qudits (d-dimensional distinguishable quantum particles) can be characterised by specifying how entangled its subsystems are. A generally mixed subsystem of m qudits is obtained by tracing over the other N-m qudits. We examine the entanglement in the space of mixed states of m qudits. We show that for a typical pure state of N qudits, its subsystems smaller than N/3 qudits will have a positive partial transpose and hence are separable or bound entangled. ...

  3. Novel Bound States in Graphene with Impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kumar S

    2008-01-01

    We obtain a novel bound state spectrum of the low energy excitations near the Fermi points of graphene in the presence of a charge impurity. The effects of possible short range interactions induced by the impurity are modelled by suitable boundary conditions. The spectrum in the subcritical region of the effective Coulomb coupling is labelled by a parameter which characterizes the boundary conditions and determines the inequivalent quantizations of the system. In the supercritical region we obtain a renormalization group flow for the effective Coulomb coupling.

  4. Jackson's Theorem on Bounded Symmetric Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhi WANG; Guang Bin REN

    2007-01-01

    Polynomial approximation is studied on bounded symmetric domain Ω in C n for holo-morphic function spaces X ,such as Bloch-type spaces,Bergman-type spaces,Hardy spaces,Ω algebra and Lipschitz space.We extend the classical Jackson ’s theorem to several complex variables:E k f,X ) ω (1 /k,f,X ),where E k f,X )is the deviation of the best approximation of f ∈X by polynomials of degree at mostk with respect to the X -metric and ω (1/k,f,X )is the corresponding modulus of continuity.

  5. Mass Bounds on a Very Light Neutralino

    CERN Document Server

    Dreiner, H K; Kittel, O; Langenfeld, U; Weber, A M; Weiglein, G

    2009-01-01

    Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus are laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations.

  6. Mass bounds on a very light neutralino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Heinemeyer, Sven; Kittel, Olaf; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Weber, Arne M.; Weiglein, Georg

    2009-08-01

    Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus is on laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations.

  7. A Holographic Bound for D3-Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, Davood; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Myrzakul, Aizhan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will calculate the holographic entanglement entropy, holographic complexity, and fidelity susceptibility for a D3-brane. It will be demonstrated that for a D3-brane the holographic complexity is always greater than or equal to than the fidelity susceptibility. Furthermore, we will also demonstrate that the holographic complexity is related to the holographic entanglement entropy for this system. Thus, we will obtain a holographic bound involving holographic complexity, holographic entanglement entropy and fidelity susceptibility of a D3-brane.

  8. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.

  9. Infrared spectroscopy of weakly bound molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lisa I-Ching

    1988-11-01

    The infrared spectra of a series of hydrated hydronium cluster ions and of protonated ethane ion are presented. A tandem mass spectrometer is ideally suited to obtaining the spectra of such weakly bound molecular ions. Traditional absorption spectroscopy is not feasible in these situations, so the techniques described in this thesis make use of some consequence of photon absorption with higher sensitivity than simply attenuation of laser power. That consequence is dissociation. By first mass selecting the parent ion under study and then mass selecting the fragment ion formed from dissociation, the near unit detection efficiency of ion counting methods has been used to full advantage.

  10. Engineering the coupling between Majorana bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z. C.; Shao, X. Q.; Xia, Y.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-09-01

    We study the coupling between Majorana bound states (CMBS), which is mediated by a topologically trivial chain in the presence of pairing coupling and long-range coupling. The results show that CMBS can be enhanced by the pairing coupling and long-range coupling of the trivial chain. When driving the trivial chain by periodic driving field, we deduce the analytical expressions of CMBS in the high-frequency limit, and demonstrate that CMBS can be modulated by the frequency and amplitude of driving field. Finally we exhibit the application of tunable CMBS in realizing quantum logic gates.

  11. Landauer bound for analog computing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Gammaitoni, Luca; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2016-07-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalize the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence, every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.

  12. Informationally complete quantum measurements & entanglement bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammia, Steven Thomas

    2007-12-01

    We define a class of measurements which we call pure-state informationally complete (PSI-complete) POVMs. These are measurements which can be used to reconstruct the pure state of a d-dimensional quantum system, but not necessarily a mixed state. We show that 2d measurement outcomes is necessary and sufficient for PSI-completeness. This demonstrates that the measurement complexity (as measured by the number of measurement outcomes) can achieve quadratic improvements when the system is confidently believed to be in a pure state. Next, we consider symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC-POVMs). SIC-POVMs are relevant for mixed state quantum tomography, but are not well understood. We prove a theorem related to the conjectured existence of SIC-POVMs showing the uniqueness (up to certain symmetries) of SIC-POVMs of a particular group-covariant type when the dimension of the Hilbert space is a prime number. In the second part of the dissertation, we consider a computational model that has access to only one pure qubit, along with n qubits in the totally mixed state. This model is thought to be capable of performing sonic computational tasks exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. We show that circuits of this type generally lead to entangled states, but where the entanglement (as measured by the negativity) is bounded by a constant, independent of n, for all bipartite divisions. This suggests that the global nature of entanglement is a more important resource than the magnitude of the entanglement. We then consider multiply constrained bounds on entanglement measures based on convex constraint functions. We outline the general procedure, and then explicitly implement the program for the case of 4 x N quantum systems by bounding the entanglement of formation, the concurrence, and the tangle. Finally, we develop generalized bounds for quantum single-parameter estimation problems for which the coupling to the parameter is described by intrinsic multi

  13. Arsenic-bound excitons in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjon, J.; Jomard, F.; Morata, S.

    2014-01-01

    A set of new excitonic recombinations is observed in arsenic-implanted diamond. It is composed of two groups of emissions at 5.355/5.361 eV and at 5.215/5.220/5.227 eV. They are respectively attributed to the no-phonon and transverse-optical phonon-assisted recombinations of excitons bound to neutral arsenic donors. From the Haynes rule, an ionization energy of 0.41 eV is deduced for arsenic in diamond, which shows that arsenic is a shallower donor than phosphorus (0.6 eV), in agreement with theory.

  14. Derivation of sink strengths in bounded media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brailsford, A.D. (Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (USA). Engineering and Research Staff)

    1981-11-01

    Several reasons for the need to extend the rate theory of point defect recovery processes to bounded media are cited. This paper is concerned with the essential first step, the derivation of the strength of sinks near a free surface. The Effective Medium method is used. Sink strengths so derived are shown to be formally the same as those found in an unbounded system. Image effects associated with the surface are proved to be small when the sink is located more than a few sink radii from the surface.

  15. Nuclear dynamics of K¯ bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2006-07-01

    K¯ nuclear bound states were generated dynamically within a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus was found for light nuclei. The behavior of the dynamically calculated width ΓK¯ as function of the K¯ binding energy was studied. A lower limit of ΓK¯ ˜ 35 - 45 MeV for 1s K¯ nuclear states in light nuclei such as 12C was placed on the width expected for deep binding in the range B K¯ ˜ 100 - 200 MeV.

  16. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  17. Complexity Considerations, cSAT Lower Bound

    CERN Document Server

    Hofman, Radoslaw

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses completeness of Boolean Algebra as First Order Theory in Goedel's meaning. If Theory is complete then any possible transformation is equivalent to some transformation using axioms, predicates etc. defined for this theory. If formula is to be proved (or disproved) then it has to be reduced to axioms. If every transformation is deducible then also optimal transformation is deducible. If every transformation is exponential then optimal one is too, what allows to define lower bound for discussed problem to be exponential (outside P). Then we show algorithm for NDTM solving the same problem in O(n^c) (so problem is in NP), what proves that P \

  18. Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local dyna...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....

  19. Greedy Wavelet Projections are Bounded on BV (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-30

    functions of bounded variation on IRd with d ??? 2. Let ????, ?? ??? ??, be a wavelet basis of compactly supported functions normalized in BV, i.e...Wojtaszczyk October 30, 2003 Abstract Let BV = BV(IRd) be the space of functions of bounded variation on IRd with d ≥ 2. Let ψλ, λ ∈ ∆, be a wavelet basis...greedy approximation, functions of bounded variation , thresholding, bounded projections. 1 Introduction The space BV := BV(Ω) of functions of

  20. Bounds for the connective constant of the hexagonal lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S E; Parviainen, R [Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Box 480, 75106 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-01-23

    We give improved bounds for the connective constant of the hexagonal lattice. The lower bound is found by using Kesten's method of irreducible bridges and by determining generating functions for bridges on one-dimensional lattices. The upper bound is obtained as the largest eigenvalue of a certain transfer matrix. Using a relation between the hexagonal and the (3.12{sup 2}) lattices, we also give bounds for the connective constant of the latter lattice.

  1. Asymptotic bound on binary self-orthogonal codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yang

    2009-01-01

    We present two constructions for binary self-orthogonal codes. It turns out that our constructions yield a constructive bound on binary self-orthogonal codes. In particular, when the in-formation rate R = 1/2, by our constructive lower bound, the relative minimum distance δ≈ 0.0595 (for GV bound, δ≈0.110). Moreover, we have proved that the binary self-orthogonal codes asymptotically achieve the Gilbert-Varshamov bound.

  2. Asymptotic bound on binary self-orthogonal codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We present two constructions for binary self-orthogonal codes. It turns out that our constructions yield a constructive bound on binary self-orthogonal codes. In particular, when the in-formation rate R = 1/2, by our constructive lower bound, the relative minimum distance δ≈ 0.0595 (for GV bound, δ≈ 0.110). Moreover, we have proved that the binary self-orthogonal codes asymptotically achieve the Gilbert-Varshamov bound.

  3. Lower Bound Bayesian Networks - An Efficient Inference of Lower Bounds on Probability Distributions in Bayesian Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method to propagate lower bounds on conditional probability distributions in conventional Bayesian networks. Our method guarantees to provide outer approximations of the exact lower bounds. A key advantage is that we can use any available algorithms and tools for Bayesian networks in order to represent and infer lower bounds. This new method yields results that are provable exact for trees with binary variables, and results which are competitive to existing approximations in credal networks for all other network structures. Our method is not limited to a specific kind of network structure. Basically, it is also not restricted to a specific kind of inference, but we restrict our analysis to prognostic inference in this article. The computational complexity is superior to that of other existing approaches.

  4. Candidate for laser cooling of a negative ion: observations of bound-bound transitions in La(-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, C W; Gibson, N D; Matyas, D J; Crocker, C; Dungan, K A; Matola, B R; Rohlén, J

    2014-08-08

    Despite the tremendous advances in laser cooling of neutral atoms and positive ions, no negatively charged ion has been directly laser cooled. The negative ion of lanthanum, La(-), has been proposed as the best candidate for laser cooling of any atomic anion [ and , Phys. Rev. A 81, 032503 (2010)]. Tunable infrared laser photodetachment spectroscopy is used to measure the bound-state structure of La(-), revealing a spectrum of unprecedented richness with multiple bound-bound electric dipole transitions. The potential laser-cooling transition ((3)F(2)(e)→(3)D(1)(o)) is identified and its excitation energy is measured. The results confirm that La^{-} is a very promising negative ion for laser-cooling applications.

  5. Lower bounds for the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter

    , such as the Goppa bound, the Feng-Rao bound and the Kirfel-Pellikaan bound. I will finish my talk by giving several examples. Especially for two-point codes, the generalized order bound is fairly easy to compute. As an illustration, I will indicate how a lower bound can be obtained for the minimum distance of some......A one-point AG-code is an algebraic geometry code based on a divisor whose support consists of one point. Since the discovery of the Feng-Rao lower bound for the minimum distance, there has been a renewed interest in such codes. This lower bound is also called the order bound. An alternative...... description of these codes in terms of order domains has been found. In my talk I will indicate how one can use the ideas behind the order bound to obtain a lower bound for the minimum distance of any AG-code. After this I will compare this generalized order bound with other known lower bounds...

  6. Upper bounds on the solution of coupled algebraic riccati equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czornik Adam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper bounds for eigenvalues of a solution to continuous time coupled algebraic Riccati equation (CCARE and discrete time coupled algebraic Riccati equation (DCARE are developed as special cases of bounds for the unified coupled algebraic Riccati equation (UCARE. They include bounds of the maximal eigenvalues, the sums of the eigenvalues and the trace.

  7. Almost Chebyshev set with respect to bounded subsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冲; 王兴华

    1997-01-01

    The uniqueness and existence of restricted Chebyshev center with respect to arbitrary subset are investigated. The concept of almost Chebyshev sets with respect to bounded subsets is introduced. It is proved that each closed subset in a reflexive locally uniformly convex (uniformly convex, respectively) Banach space is an almost Chebyshev subset with respect to compact convex subsets (bounded convex subsets and bounded subsets, respectively).

  8. Bounds in the generalized Weber problem under locational uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    An existing analysis of the bounds on the Weber problem solution under uncertainty is incorrect. For the generalized problem with arbitrary measures of distance, we give easily computable ranges on the bounds and state the conditions under which the exact values of the bounds can be found...

  9. Bounded Rationality, Retaliation, and the Spread of Urban Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce A.; Wright, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from in-depth interviews with 52 active street criminals, this article examines the grounded theoretic implications of bounded rationality for retaliatory street violence. The bounds on rationality that this article explores are anger, uncertainty, and time pressure. These bounds create imperfections in the retaliatory decision-making…

  10. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...

  11. Improved Space Bounds for Cache-Oblivious Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Zeh, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    We provide improved bounds on the size of cacheoblivious range reporting data structures that achieve the optimal query bound of O(logB N + K/B) block transfers. Our first main result is an O(N √ logN log logN)-space data structure that achieves this query bound for 3-d dominance reporting and 2-...

  12. Revisiting the upper bounding process in a safe Branch and Bound algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsztejn, Alexandre; Michel, Claude; Rueher, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Finding feasible points for which the proof succeeds is a critical issue in safe Branch and Bound algorithms which handle continuous problems. In this paper, we introduce a new strategy to compute very accurate approximations of feasible points. This strategy takes advantage of the Newton method for under-constrained systems of equations and inequalities. More precisely, it exploits the optimal solution of a linear relaxation of the problem to compute efficiently a promising upper bound. First experiments on the Coconuts benchmarks demonstrate that this approach is very effective.

  13. Finding Light Spanners in Bounded Pathwidth Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Grigni, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    Given an edge-weighted graph $G$ and $\\epsilon>0$, a $(1+\\epsilon)$-spanner is a spanning subgraph $G'$ whose shortest path distances approximate those of $G$ within a $(1+\\epsilon)$ factor. If $G$ is from certain minor-closed graph families (at least bounded genus graphs and apex graphs), then we know that light spanners exist. That is, we can compute a $(1+\\epsilon)$-spanner $G'$ with total edge weight at most a constant times the weight of a minimum spanning tree. This constant may depend on $\\epsilon$ and the graph family, but not on the particular graph $G$ nor on its edge weighting. For weighted graphs from several minor-closed graph families, the existence of light spanners has been essential in the design of approximation schemes for the metric TSP (the traveling salesman problem) and some similar problems. In this paper we make some progress towards the conjecture that light spanners exist for every minor-closed graph family. In particular, we show that they exist for graphs with bounded pathwidth. W...

  14. Bound and Radiation Fields in Rindler Frame

    CERN Document Server

    Hirayama, T

    2001-01-01

    Energy-momentum tensor of Li\\'enard-Wiechert field is split into bound and emitted parts in Rindler frame, by generalizing the reasoning of Teitelboim used in inertial frame. Our discussion proceeds with the the notion of ``energy'' defined with respect to the Killing vector field attached to the frame. We obtain the ``radiation formula in Rindler frame''(Rindler version of Larmor formula) and it is found that the radiation power is proportional to the square of ``acceleration $\\alpha^\\mu$ of the charge relative to the Rindler frame''. This result makes us split the Li\\'enard-Wiechert field into the part $\\tII$ which is linear in $\\alpha^\\mu$ and the part $\\tI$ which is independent of $\\alpha^\\mu$, and by using them, we split the energy-momentum tensor into two parts. We find that these are properly interpreted as the emitted and bound parts of the tensor in Rindler frame. In our identification of radiation, a charge does not radiate not only in the case where the charge is fixed to the Rindler frame, but als...

  15. Nuclear internal conversion between bound atomic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, J. F.; Harston, M. R.; Karpeshin, F. F.; Carreyre, J.; Attallah, F.; Aleonard, M. M.; Scheurer, J. N.; Boggaert, G.; Grandin, J. R.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results for rate of decay of the (3/2)+ isomeric state in 125Te versus the ionic charge state. For charge state larger than 44 the nuclear transition lies below the threshold for emission of a K-shell electron into the continuum with the result that normal internal conversion is energetically forbiden. Rather surprisingly, for the charge 45 and 46 the lifetime of the level was found to have a value close to that in neutral atoms. We present direct evidence that the nuclear transition could still be converted but without the emission of the electron into the continuum, the electron being promoted from the K-shell to an other empty bound state lying close to the continuum. We called this process BIC. The experimental results agree whith theoretical calculations if BIC resonances are taken into account. This leads to a nuclear decay constant that is extremely sensitive to the precise initial state and simple specification of the charge state is no longer appropriate. The contribution to decay of the nucleus of BIC has recently been extended to the situation in which the electron is promoted to an intermediate filled bound state (PFBIC) with an apparent violation of the Pauli principle. Numerical results of the expected dependence of PFBIC on the charge state will be presented for the decay of the 77.351 keV level in 197Au.

  16. Search for a bound K− pp system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerini P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from the K− absorption reaction on 6,7Li, 9Be, 13C and 16O have recently been collected by FINUDA at the DAΦNE φ-factory (Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati-INFN, following an earlier lower statitics run on 12C and some other targets. FINUDA is a high acceptance magnetic spectrometer which performed a wide range of studies by detecting the charged particles and neutrons exiting the targets after the absorption event. In this paper it is discussed about the study of the A(K− , Λp reaction in the context of the search for deeply bound $ar{K}$ - nuclear states. The observation of a bump in the Λp invariant mass distribution is discussed in terms of a possible signature of a deeply bound K− pp kaonic cluster as well as of more conventional physics. An overview of the experimental situation in this field will be given.

  17. Bound states -- from QED to QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    These lectures are divided into two parts. In Part 1 I discuss bound state topics at the level of a basic course in field theory: The derivation of the Schr\\"odinger and Dirac equations from the QED Lagrangian, by summing Feynman diagrams and in a Hamiltonian framework. Less well known topics include the equal-time wave function of Positronium in motion and the properties of the Dirac wave function for a linear potential. The presentation emphasizes physical aspects and provides the framework for Part 2, which discusses the derivation of relativistic bound states at Born level in QED and QCD. A central aspect is the maintenance of Poincar\\'e invariance. The transformation of the wave function under boosts is studied in detail in D=1+1 dimensions, and its generalization to D=3+1 is indicated. Solving Gauss' law for $A^0$ with a non-vanishing boundary condition leads to a linear potential for QCD mesons, and an analogous confining potential for baryons.

  18. A bound on the entropy of supergravity?

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Jan; Messamah, Ilies; Bleeken, Dieter Van den

    2009-01-01

    We determine, in two independent ways, the number of BPS quantum states arising from supergravity degrees of freedom in a system with fixed total D4D0 charge. First, we count states generated by quantizing the spacetime degrees of freedom of 'entropyless' multicentered solutions consisting of anti-D0-branes bound to a D6-anti-D6 pair. Second, we determine the number of free supergravity excitations of the corresponding AdS_3 geometry with the same total charge. We find that, although these two approaches yield a priori different sets of states, the leading degeneracies in a large charge expansion are equal to each other and that, furthermore, the number of such states is parametrically smaller than that arising from the D4D0 black hole's entropy. This strongly suggests that supergravity alone is not sufficient to capture all degrees of freedom of large supersymmetric black holes. Comparing the free supergravity calculation to that of the D6-anti-D6-D0 system we find that the bound on the free spectrum imposed...

  19. On Aharonov-Casher bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E. O.; Andrade, F. M.; Filgueiras, C.; Belich, H.

    2013-04-01

    In this work bound states for the Aharonov-Casher problem are considered. According to Hagen's work on the exact equivalence between spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, is known that the ∇ṡ E term cannot be neglected in the Hamiltonian if the spin of particle is considered. This term leads to the existence of a singular potential at the origin. By modeling the problem by boundary conditions at the origin which arises by the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian, we derive for the first time an expression for the bound state energy of the Aharonov-Casher problem. As an application, we consider the Aharonov-Casher plus a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We derive the expression for the harmonic oscillator energies and compare it with the expression obtained in the case without singularity. At the end, an approach for determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter is given. In our approach, the parameter is obtained essentially in terms of physics of the problem.

  20. On Aharonov-Casher bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Andrade, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Filgueiras, C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    In this work bound states for the Aharonov-Casher problem are considered. According to Hagen's work on the exact equivalence between spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, is known that the {nabla}.E term cannot be neglected in the Hamiltonian if the spin of particle is considered. This term leads to the existence of a singular potential at the origin. By modeling the problem by boundary conditions at the origin which arises by the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian, we derive for the first time an expression for the bound state energy of the Aharonov-Casher problem. As an application, we consider the Aharonov-Casher plus a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We derive the expression for the harmonic oscillator energies and compare it with the expression obtained in the case without singularity. At the end, an approach for determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter is given. In our approach, the parameter is obtained essentially in terms of physics of the problem. (orig.)

  1. A balance for Dark Matter bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Nozzoli, F

    2016-01-01

    Massive particles with self interactions of the order of 0.2 barn/GeV are intriguing Dark Matter candidates from an astrophysical point of view. Direct detection searches for very massive particles, with relatively high cross sections with ordinary matter, cannot rule out $\\sigma/M > 0.01$ barn/GeV, due to atmosphere and material shielding. Here, the possibility of the existence of bound states with ordinary matter, for Dark Matter candidates with not negligible interactions, is considered. The existence of bound states, with binding energy larger than $\\sim$1 meV, would offer the possibility to test in laboratory capture cross sections of the order of a barn (or larger). The signature of the detection of a mass increasing of cryogenic samples, due to the possible Dark Matter accumulation, would allow the investigation of Dark Matter particles with mass up to the GUT scale. A proof of concept for a possible detection set-up and the evaluation of some noise sources are described.

  2. On Bounding Problems of Quantitative Information Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuoka, Hirotoshi

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have proposed formal definitions of quantitative information flow based on information theoretic notions such as the Shannon entropy, the min entropy, the guessing entropy, belief, and channel capacity. This paper investigates the hardness of precisely checking the quantitative information flow of a program according to such definitions. More precisely, we study the "bounding problem" of quantitative information flow, defined as follows: Given a program M and a positive real number q, decide if the quantitative information flow of M is less than or equal to q. We prove that the bounding problem is not a k-safety property for any k (even when q is fixed, for the Shannon-entropy-based definition with the uniform distribution), and therefore is not amenable to the self-composition technique that has been successfully applied to checking non-interference. We also prove complexity theoretic hardness results for the case when the program is restricted to loop-free boolean programs. Specifically, we show...

  3. ADMonium: Asymmetric Dark Matter Bound State

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Ko, P; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has interesting collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local $U(1)_d$ symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson $X$. The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into $X$-pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form bound state due to its large self-interaction via $X$ mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with $b\\bar b$. Of particular interest, our setup nicely explains the recent di-photon anomaly at 750 GeV via the events from ${\\rm ADMonium}\\ra 2X(\\ra e^+e^-)$, where the electrons are identified as ...

  4. Completely bounded norms of right module maps

    CERN Document Server

    Levene, Rupert H

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that if T is a D_m-D_n bimodule map on the m by n complex matrices, then T is a Schur multiplier and $\\|T\\|_{cb}=\\|T\\|$. If n=2 and T is merely assumed to be a right D_2-module map, then we show that $\\|T\\|_{cb}=\\|T\\|$. However, this property fails if m>1 and n>2. For m>1 and n=3,4 or $n\\geq m^2$, we give examples of maps T attaining the supremum C(m,n)=\\sup \\|T\\|_{cb} taken over the contractive, right D_n-module maps on M_{m,n}, and we show that C(m,n) grows with m and n. As a consequence, if H is an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space and D is a masa in B(H), then there is a bounded right D-module map on the compact operators which is not completely bounded.

  5. Generalized bounds for convex multistage stochastic programs

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, H; Fandel, G; Trockel, W; Basile, A; Drexl, A; Dawid, H; Inderfurth, K; Kürsten, W; Schittko, U

    2005-01-01

    This work was completed during my tenure as a scientific assistant and d- toral student at the Institute for Operations Research at the University of St. Gallen. During that time, I was involved in several industry projects in the field of power management, on the occasion of which I was repeatedly c- fronted with complex decision problems under uncertainty. Although usually hard to solve, I quickly learned to appreciate the benefit of stochastic progr- ming models and developed a strong interest in their theoretical properties. Motivated both by practical questions and theoretical concerns, I became p- ticularly interested in the art of finding tight bounds on the optimal value of a given model. The present work attempts to make a contribution to this important branch of stochastic optimization theory. In particular, it aims at extending some classical bounding methods to broader problem classes of practical relevance. This book was accepted as a doctoral thesis by the University of St. Gallen in June 2004.1...

  6. ALUMINUM STIMULATES UPTAKE OF NON-TRANSFERRIN BOUND IRON AND TRANSFERRIN BOUND IRON IN HUMAN GLIAL CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongbae; Olivi, Luisa; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Maertens, Alex; Joseph P Bressler

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer’s Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer’s disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. ...

  7. Upper bounds for reversible circuits based on Young subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdessaied, Nabila; Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal;

    2014-01-01

    We present tighter upper bounds on the number of Toffoli gates needed in reversible circuits. Both multiple controlled Toffoli gates and mixed polarity Toffoli gates have been considered for this purpose. The calculation of the bounds is based on a synthesis approach based on Young subgroups that...... that results in circuits using a more generalized gate library. Starting from an upper bound for this library we derive new bounds which improve the existing bound by around 77%. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. On the Applicability of Lower Bounds for Solving Rectilinear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Karisch, Stefan E.; Perregaard, M.;

    1998-01-01

    The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) belongs to the hard core of NP-hard optimization problems. After almost forty years of research only relatively small instances can be solved to optimality. The reason is that the quality of the lower bounds available for exact methods is not sufficient....... Recently, lower bounds based on decomposition were proposed for the so called rectilinear QAP that proved to be the strongest for a large class of problem instances. We investigate the strength of these bounds when applied not only at the root node of a search tree but as the bound function used...... in a Branch-and-Bound code solving large scale QAPs....

  9. Bounding the number of rational places using Weierstrass semigroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2007-01-01

    Let Lambda be a numerical semigroup. Assume there exists an algebraic function field over Fq in one variable which possesses a rational place that has Lambda as its Weierstrass semigroup. We ask the question as to how many rational places such a function field can possibly have and we derive...... an upper bound in terms of the generators of Lambda and q. Our bound is an improvement to Lewittes' bound in [6] which takes into account only the multiplicity of Lambda and q. From the new bound we derive significant improvements to Serre's upper bound in the cases q = 2, 3 and 4. We finally show...

  10. Transfer function bounds on the performance of turbo codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, D.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.; Mceliece, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    In this article we apply transfer function bounding techniques to obtain upper bounds on the bit-error rate for maximum likelihood decoding of turbo codes constructed with random permutations. These techniques are applied to two turbo codes with constraint length 3 and later extended to other codes. The performance predicted by these bounds is compared with simulation results. The bounds are useful in estimating the 'error floor' that is difficult to measure by simulation, and they provide insight on how to lower this floor. More refined bounds are needed for accurate performance measures at lower signal-to-noise ratios.

  11. ɛ-bounded state estimation for time-delay systems with bounded disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, P. T.; Pathirana, P. N.; Trinh, H.

    2014-09-01

    A new problem on ε-bounded functional state estimation for time-delay systems with unknown bounded disturbances is studied in this paper. In the presence of unknown bounded disturbances, the common assumption regarding the observer's matching condition is no longer required. In this regard, instead of achieving asymptotic convergence for the observer error, the error is now required to converge exponentially within a ball with a small radius ε > 0. This means that the estimate converges exponentially within an ε-bound of the true value. A general observer that utilises multiple-delayed output and input information is proposed. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the proposed observer are first given. We then employ an extended Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which combines the delay-decomposition technique with a triple-integral term to study the ε-convergence problem of the observer error system. Moreover, the obtained results are shown to be more effective than the existing results for the cases with no disturbances and/or no time delay. Three numerical examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.

  12. Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gál, Anna; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal;

    2011-01-01

    We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:01(n)01n with minimum distance (n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: (1) If d=2 then w=(n(lognloglogn)2) . (2) If d=3 then w=(nlglgn). (3...

  13. Distribution of unselectively bound ligands along DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Dmitri Y; Nechipurenko, Yury D

    2008-10-01

    Unselective and reversible adsorption of ligands on DNA for a model of binding proposed by Zasedatelev, Gursky, and Volkenshtein is considered. In this model, the interaction between neighboring ligands located at the distance of i binding centers is characterized by the statistical weight ai. Each ligand covers L binding centers. For this model, expressions for binding averages are represented in a new simple form. This representation is convenient for the calculation of the fraction of inter-ligand distances of i binding centers fd(i) and the fraction of binding centers included in the distances of i binding centers fbc(i) for various types of interaction between bound ligands. It is shown that, for non-cooperative binding, contact cooperativity and long-range cooperativity, the fraction of the zero inter-ligand distance fd(0) is maximal at any relative concentration of bound ligands (r). Calculations demonstrate that, at low r, fd(0) approximately r.ao, and fd(i) approximately r at 11/r-L, then fd(i) rapidly decreases with i at any r for all types of inter-ligand interaction. At high ligand concentration (r is close to rmax=L(-1)), fd(0) is close to unity and fd(i) rapidly decreases with i for any type of inter-ligand interaction. For strong contact cooperativity, fd(0) is close to unity in a much lager r interval ((0.5-1).rmax), and fd(1) approximately ao(-1) at r approximately 0.5.rmax. In the case of long-range interaction between bound ligands, the dependence fd(i) is more complex and has a maximum at i approximately (1/r-L)1/2 for anti-cooperative binding. fbc(i) is maximal at i approximately 1/r-L for all types of binding except the contact cooperativity. A strong asymmetry in the influence of contact cooperativity and anticooperativity on the ligand distribution along DNA is demonstrated.

  14. A sharp upper bound for departure from normality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.L.

    1993-08-01

    The departure from normality of a matrix is a real scalar that is impractical to compute if a matrix is large and its eigenvalues are unknown. A simple formula is presented for computing an upper bound for departure from normality in the Frobenius norm. This new upper bound is cheaper to compute than the upper bound derived by Henrici. Moreover, the new bound is sharp for Hermitian matrices, skew-Hermitian matrices and, in general, any matrix with eigenvalues that are horizontally or vertically aligned in the complex plane. In terms of applications, the new bound can be used in computing bounds for the spectral norm of matrix functions or bounds for the sensitivity of eigenvalues to matrix perturbations.

  15. Oligopolistic Banks, Bounded Rationality, and the Credit Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias F. Rötheli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how boundedly rational default expectations affect the credit cycle. I propose a simple model of oligopolistic bank competition which serves to compare situations with just a portion of boundedly rational banks to situations where either all banks are rational or all banks are boundedly rational. When all banks are boundedly rational, the credit cycle is most amplified relative to the situation where all banks are rational. However, the amplifying effect of bounded rationality on the side of banks largely remains even when only a portion of banks are boundedly rational. Hence, the interest rate decisions of a minority of boundedly rational banks induce the more rational competitors to aggravate the credit cycle.

  16. Current understanding of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Baglan, N; Davis, P A

    2013-12-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that organically bound tritium (OBT) is the more significant tritium fraction with respect to understanding tritium behaviour in the environment. There are many different terms associated with OBT; such as total OBT, exchangeable OBT, non-exchangeable OBT, soluble OBT, insoluble OBT, tritiated organics, and buried tritium, etc. A simple classification is required to clarify understanding within the tritium research community. Unlike for tritiated water (HTO), the environmental quantification and behaviour of OBT are not well known. Tritiated water cannot bio-accumulate in the environment. However, it is not clear whether or not this is the case for OBT. Even though OBT can be detected in terrestrial biological materials, aquatic biological materials and soil samples, its behaviour is still in question. In order to evaluate the radiation dose from OBT accurately, further study will be required to understand OBT measurements and determine OBT fate in the environment. The relationship between OBT speciation and the OBT/HTO ratio in environmental samples will be useful in this regard, providing information on the previous tritium exposure conditions in the environment and the current tritium dynamics. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, J.

    2007-12-15

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to {chi}

  18. Hyperquarks and bosonic preon bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael L.; Buchmann, Alfons J.

    2009-11-01

    In a model in which leptons, quarks, and the recently introduced hyperquarks are built up from two fundamental spin-(1)/(2) preons, the standard model weak gauge bosons emerge as preon bound states. In addition, the model predicts a host of new composite gauge bosons, in particular, those responsible for hyperquark and proton decay. Their presence entails a left-right symmetric extension of the standard model weak interactions and a scheme for a partial and grand unification of nongravitational interactions based on, respectively, the effective gauge groups SU(6)P and SU(9)G. This leads to a prediction of the Weinberg angle at low energies in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, using evolution equations for the effective coupling strengths, we calculate the partial and grand unification scales, the hyperquark mass scale, as well as the mass and decay rate of the lightest hyperhadron.

  19. Hyperquarks and bosonic preon bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    In a model in which leptons, quarks, and the recently introduced hyperquarks are built up from two fundamental spin 1/2 preons, the standard model weak gauge bosons emerge as preon bound states. In addition, the model predicts a host of new composite gauge bosons, in particular those responsible for hyperquark and proton decay. Their presence entails a left-right symmetric extension of the standard model weak interactions and a scheme for a partial and grand unification of nongravitational interactions based on respectively the effective gauge groups SU(6)_P and SU(9)_G. This leads to a prediction of the Weinberg angle at low energies in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, using evolution equations for the effective coupling strengths, we calculate the partial and grand unification scales, the hyperquark mass scale, as well as the mass and decay rate of the lightest hyperhadron.

  20. Holographic bound in covariant loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tamaki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate puncture statistics based on the covariant area spectrum in loop quantum gravity. First, we consider Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with a Gibbs factor for punctures. We establish formulae which relate physical quantities such as horizon area to the parameter characterizing holographic degrees of freedom. We also perform numerical calculations and obtain consistency with these formulae. These results tell us that the holographic bound is satisfied in the large area limit and correction term of the entropy-area law can be proportional to the logarithm of the horizon area. Second, we also consider Bose-Einstein statistics and show that the above formulae are also useful in this case. By applying the formulae, we can understand intrinsic features of Bose-Einstein condensate which corresponds to the case when the horizon area almost consists of punctures in the ground state. When this phenomena occurs, the area is approximately constant against the parameter characterizing the temperature. When this ...

  1. Physical bounds for antenna radiation efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Shahpari, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Small volume, reduced conductivity and high frequencies are major imperatives in the design of communications infrastructure. The radiation efficiency $\\eta_r$ impacts on the optimal gain, quality factor, and bandwidth. The current efficiency limit applies to structures confined to a radian sphere $ka$ ($k$ is the wave number, $a$ is the radius). Here we present new absolute limits to $\\eta_r$ for arbitrary antenna shapes based on $k^2S$ where $S$ is the conductor surface area. For an electrical length of $10^{-5}$ our result is four orders of magnitude closer to the analytical solution. The improved bound on $\\eta_r$ is more accurate, more general, and easier to calculate than other limits. It is based on the total surface area of the conductors and provides greatly improved estimations for electrically small radiators at very low frequencies. The work is of great benefit to antenna designers assessing new materials such as conductive polymers.

  2. Similarity problems and completely bounded maps

    CERN Document Server

    Pisier, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    These notes revolve around three similarity problems, appearing in three different contexts, but all dealing with the space B(H) of all bounded operators on a complex Hilbert space H. The first one deals with group representations, the second one with C* -algebras and the third one with the disc algebra. We describe them in detail in the introduction which follows. This volume is devoted to the background necessary to understand these three problems, to the solutions that are known in some special cases and to numerous related concepts, results, counterexamples or extensions which their investigation has generated. While the three problems seem different, it is possible to place them in a common framework using the key concept of "complete boundedness", which we present in detail. Using this notion, the three problems can all be formulated as asking whether "boundedness" implies "complete boundedness" for linear maps satisfying certain additional algebraic identities. Two chapters have been added on the HALMO...

  3. Bounded Correctors in Almost Periodic Homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Scott; Gloria, Antoine; Kuusi, Tuomo

    2016-10-01

    We show that certain linear elliptic equations (and systems) in divergence form with almost periodic coefficients have bounded, almost periodic correctors. This is proved under a new condition we introduce which quantifies the almost periodic assumption and includes (but is not restricted to) the class of smooth, quasiperiodic coefficient fields which satisfy a Diophantine-type condition previously considered by Kozlov (Mat Sb (N.S), 107(149):199-217, 1978). The proof is based on a quantitative ergodic theorem for almost periodic functions combined with the new regularity theory recently introduced by Armstrong and Shen (Pure Appl Math, 2016) for equations with almost periodic coefficients. This yields control on spatial averages of the gradient of the corrector, which is converted into estimates on the size of the corrector itself via a multiscale Poincaré-type inequality.

  4. Lower complexity bounds for lifted inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    instances of the model. Numerous approaches for such “lifted inference” techniques have been proposed. While it has been demonstrated that these techniques will lead to significantly more efficient inference on some specific models, there are only very recent and still quite restricted results that show...... the feasibility of lifted inference on certain syntactically defined classes of models. Lower complexity bounds that imply some limitations for the feasibility of lifted inference on more expressive model classes were established earlier in Jaeger (2000; Jaeger, M. 2000. On the complexity of inference about...... that under the assumption that NETIME≠ETIME, there is no polynomial lifted inference algorithm for knowledge bases of weighted, quantifier-, and function-free formulas. Further strengthening earlier results, this is also shown to hold for approximate inference and for knowledge bases not containing...

  5. Polaronic effect on a bound polaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮永红; 吴福理; 等

    2002-01-01

    Feynman variational path-integral theory was used to obtain the groud-state energy of a polaron in a quantum well in the presence of a Coulomb potential for arbitray values of the electron-phonon couplng constant α.Numerical and analytical results showed that the energy shift was more sensitive to α than to the Coulomb binding parameter(β) and increased with the decrease of effective quantum well width lZ.it was intersting that due to the electronic confinement in the quasi-2D(quantum well)structures,the lower bound of the strong coupling regime was shifted to smaller values of α.Comparison of the polaron in the quantum well with that in the quantum wire or dot showed that the polaronic effect strengthened with decrease of the confinement dimension.

  6. Bounds on entanglement in qudit subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Kendon, V M; Munro, W J; Kendon, Vivien M; Zyczkowski, Karol; Munro, William J

    2002-01-01

    The entanglement in a pure state of N qudits (d-dimensional distinguishable quantum particles) can be characterised by specifying how entangled its subsystems are. A generally mixed subsystem of m qudits is obtained by tracing over the other N-m qudits. We examine the entanglement in this mixed space of m qudits. We show that for a typical pure state of N qudits, its subsystems smaller than N/3 qudits will have a positive partial transpose and hence are separable or bound entangled. Additionally, our numerical results show that the probability of finding entangled subsystems smaller than N/3 falls exponentially in the dimension of the Hilbert space. The bulk of pure state Hilbert space thus consists of highly entangled states with multipartite entanglement encompassing at least a third of the qudits in the pure state.

  7. A holographic bound on cosmic magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett McInnes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark–gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description in terms of a thermal asymptotically AdS black hole. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields (≈3.6×1018gauss at the hadronization temperature in these circumstances; this is above, but not far above, the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetogenesis.

  8. Bounding biomass in the Fisher equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Daniel A.; Tsang, Yue-Kin; Young, William R.

    2007-06-01

    The Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation with a variable growth rate and advection by an incompressible velocity field is considered as a model for plankton dispersed by ocean currents. If the average growth rate is negative then the model has a survival-extinction transition; the location of this transition in the parameter space is constrained using variational arguments and delimited by simulations. The statistical steady state reached when the system is in the survival region of parameter space is characterized by integral constraints and upper and lower bounds on the biomass and productivity that follow from variational arguments and direct inequalities. In the limit of zero-decorrelation time the velocity field is shown to act as Fickian diffusion with an eddy diffusivity much larger than the molecular diffusivity: this allows a one-dimensional model to predict the biomass, productivity, and extinction transitions. All results are illustrated with a simple growth and stirring model.

  9. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, J.

    2007-12-15

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to {chi}

  10. Total variation regularization with bounded linear variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei; Kober, Vitaly

    2016-09-01

    One of the most known techniques for signal denoising is based on total variation regularization (TV regularization). A better understanding of TV regularization is necessary to provide a stronger mathematical justification for using TV minimization in signal processing. In this work, we deal with an intermediate case between one- and two-dimensional cases; that is, a discrete function to be processed is two-dimensional radially symmetric piecewise constant. For this case, the exact solution to the problem can be obtained as follows: first, calculate the average values over rings of the noisy function; second, calculate the shift values and their directions using closed formulae depending on a regularization parameter and structure of rings. Despite the TV regularization is effective for noise removal; it often destroys fine details and thin structures of images. In order to overcome this drawback, we use the TV regularization for signal denoising subject to linear signal variations are bounded.

  11. Butterfly velocity bound and reverse isoperimetric inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.

    2017-03-01

    We study the butterfly effect of the AdS planar black holes in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We find that the butterfly velocities can be expressed by a universal formula vB2=T S /(2 VthP ). In doing so, we come upon a near-horizon geometrical formula for the thermodynamical volume Vth . We verify the volume formula by examining a variety of AdS black holes. We also show that the volume formula implies that the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality follows straightforwardly from the null-energy condition, for static AdS black holes. The inequality is thus related to an upper bound of the butterfly velocities.

  12. Polaronic effect on a bound polaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮永红; 吴福理; 陈庆虎

    2002-01-01

    Feynman variational path-integral theory was used to obtain the ground-state energy of a polaron in a quantum well in the presence of a Coulomb potential for arbitrary values of the electron-phonon coupling constant α. Numerical and analytical results showed that the energy shift was more sensitive to α than to the Coulomb binding parameter (β) and increased with the decrease of effective quantum well width lZ. It was interesting that due to the electronic confinement in the quasi-2D (quantum well) structures, the lower bound of the strong coupling regime was shifted to smaller values of α. Comparison of the polaron in the quantum well with that in the quantum wire or dot showed that the polaronic effect strengthened with decrease of the confinement dimension.

  13. Counting and Enumeration Problems with Bounded Treewidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Reinhard; Rümmele, Stefan; Woltran, Stefan

    By Courcelle's Theorem we know that any property of finite structures definable in monadic second-order logic (MSO) becomes tractable over structures with bounded treewidth. This result was extended to counting problems by Arnborg et al. and to enumeration problems by Flum et al. Despite the undisputed importance of these results for proving fixed-parameter tractability, they do not directly yield implementable algorithms. Recently, Gottlob et al. presented a new approach using monadic datalog to close the gap between theoretical tractability and practical computability for MSO-definable decision problems. In the current work we show how counting and enumeration problems can be tackled by an appropriate extension of the datalog approach.

  14. Complex of myoglobin with phenol bound in a proximal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Wang, Chunxue; Celeste, Lesa R; Lovelace, Leslie L; Sun, Shenfang; Dawson, John H; Lebioda, Lukasz

    2012-12-01

    Sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) has weak dehaloperoxidase activity and catalyzes the peroxidative dehalogenation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) to 2,6-dichloroquinone. Crystals of Mb and of its more active G65T variant were used to study the binding of TCP, 4-iodophenol (4-IP) and phenol. The structures of crystals soaked overnight in a 10 mM solution of phenol revealed that a phenol molecule binds in the proximal cavity, forming a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl of Tyr146 and hydrophobic contacts which include interactions with Cβ and Cγ of the proximal histidine His93. The phenol position corresponds to the strongest xenon binding site, Xe1. It appears that the ligand enters the proximal cavity through a gate formed by the flexible loops 79-86 and 93-103. TCP and 4-IP do not bind to Mb in this manner under similar conditions; however, it appears to be likely that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was used at a concentration of 0.8 M to facilitate 4-IP dissolution, binds in the phenol/Xe1 binding site. In this structure, a water molecule coordinated to the heme iron was replaced by an oxygen molecule, reflecting the reduction of the heme. Crystals of Mb and G65T Mb soaked for 5-10 min did not show bound phenol. Kinetic studies of TCP dechlorination showed that phenol has a dual effect: it acts as a competitive inhibitor that is likely to interfere with TCP binding at the heme edge and as a weak activator, likely through binding in the proximal cavity. The lack of phenol bound at the heme edge in the crystal structures suggests that its inhibitory binding only takes place when the heme is activated by hydrogen peroxide.

  15. Resignation Syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-Bound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallin, Karl; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Evers, Kathinka; Engström, Ingemar; Hjern, Anders; Petrovic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Resignation syndrome (RS) designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatized children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterized by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family. Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognize RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis. Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution. Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioral systems in particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:26858615

  16. Resignation syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-bound?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl eSallin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resignation syndrome (RS designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatised children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterised by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family.Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognise RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis.Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution.Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioural systems in particularly vulnerable individuals.

  17. Minimal forbidden induced subgraphs of graphs of bounded clique-width and bounded linear clique-width

    OpenAIRE

    Meister, Daniel; Rotics, Udi

    2013-01-01

    In the study of full bubble model graphs of bounded clique-width and bounded linear clique-width, we determined complete sets of forbidden induced subgraphs, that are minimal in the class of full bubble model graphs. In this note, we show that (almost all of) these graphs are minimal in the class of all graphs. As a corollary, we can give sets of minimal forbidden induced subgraphs for graphs of bounded clique-width and for graphs of bounded linear clique-width for arbitrary bounds.

  18. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coricelli, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.

    La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de

  19. Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, A.; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal

    2013-01-01

    We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n)→{0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: 1) if d=2, then w=Θ(n (lgn/lglgn)2); 2) if d=3, then w...

  20. Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gál, Anna; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal;

    2012-01-01

    We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n) -> {0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: (1) If d=2 then w = Θ(n ({log n/ log log n})2). (2) If d...

  1. On Turbulent Contribution to Frictional Drag in Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-Chen; KAWAGUCHI Yasuo; HISHIDA Koichi; OSHIMA Marie

    2006-01-01

    @@ We propose a simple model for turbulent contribution to the frictional drag in a wall-bounded turbulent flow based on the characteristic parameters of turbulent bursting events. It is verified on water and drag-reducing surfactant solution flows investigated by particle image velocimetry in experiments. It is obtained that the turbulent contribution to the skin friction factor is linearly proportional to the product of the spatial frequency and strength of turbulent bursts originated from the wall.

  2. Protein-bound solute removal during extended multipass versus standard hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eloot, Sunny; Van Biesen, Wim; Axelsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multipass hemodialysis (MPHD) is a recently described dialysis modality, involving the use of small volumes of dialysate which are repetitively recycled. Dialysis regimes of 8 hours for six days a week using this device result in an increased removal of small water soluble solutes and...... times/week 4 h SHD, but at the expense of a lower total solute removal of highly protein-bound solutes....

  3. Spin Labeling ESR Investigation of Covalently Bound Residues in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Olga; Steinhoff, Heinz-Juergen; Klasmeier, Joerg; Schulz, Marcus; Matthies, Michael

    2013-04-01

    contained the paramagnetic substance at a required concentration of 3 mM. For some hours, soil samples were incubated with NR and then washed, using the serial additions of some distilled water to each soil sample. Subsequently, each washed soil sample was centrifuged. The content of NR in the retentates and permeates of centrifuged washed samples of contaminated soil were analyzed for different volumes of percolate by means of ESR spectroscopy. We received a gradually decreasing content of both NR in retentates with increasing volumes of percolates. However, 4-Amino Tempo can be completely washed out, whereas approximately 6% of the Aniline Tempo remained in soil after repeated washing. Thus, both SL are reversibly bound because they can be washed out from soil. In addition, Aniline Tempo is partly irreversibly bound. We concluded that the aromatic moiety of Aniline Tempo favours the covalent binding of the NH2 moiety in contrast to the aliphatic NH2 moiety of 4-Amino Tempo.

  4. Topological magnon bound-states in quantum Heisenberg chains

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Xizhou; Ke, Yongguan; Zhang, Li; Lee, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    It is still an outstanding challenge to characterize and understand the topological features of strongly correlated states such as bound-states in interacting multi-particle quantum systems. Recently, bound states of elementary spin waves (magnons) in quantum magnets have been experimentally observed in quantum Heisenberg chains comprising ultracold Bose atoms in optical lattices. Here, we explore an unprecedented topological state called topological magnon bound-state in the quantum Heisenberg chain under cotranslational symmetry. We find that the cotranslational symmetry allows us to formulate a direct topological invariant for the multi-particle quantum states, which can be used to characterize the topological features of multi-magnon excitations. We calculate energy spectra, density distributions, correlations and topological invariants of the two-magnon bound-states and show the existence of topological magnon bound-states. Our study not only opens a new prospect to pursue topological bound-states, but a...

  5. Particle physics implications of the WMAP neutrino mmass bound

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, G; Song, L; Weiler, Thomas J

    2003-01-01

    The recently published cosmological bound on the absolute neutrino masses obtained from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data has important consequences for neutrino experiments. Taken at face value, the new bound excludes the determination of the absolute neutrino mass in the KATRIN experiment and excludes a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the LSND experiment. Combined with KamLAND data, the WMAP bound defines an accessible range for the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude. The bound also impacts the Z-burst annihilation mechanism for resonant generation of extreme-energy cosmic rays on the cosmic neutrino background in two ways: it constrains the local overdensity of neutrino dark matter which is not helpful, but it also limits the resonant energy to a favorable range. Since theories with \\Delta L=1 lepton number violation such as R-parity violating SUSY generate neutrino masses radiatively, bounds on absolute neutrino masses translate into bounds on coupling products \\lambda^(')\\...

  6. Challenging the Lieb-Oxford Bound in a systematic way

    CERN Document Server

    Seidl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Lieb-Oxford bound, a nontrivial inequality for the indirect part of the many-body Coulomb repulsion in an electronic system, plays an important role in the construction of approximate exchange-correlation energy functionals in density functional theory. Writing the original Lieb-Oxford bound as the supremum of another density functional $\\Lambda[\\rho]$, we challenge the bound systematically by investigating the functional gradient $\\delta\\Lambda[\\rho]/\\delta\\rho({\\bf r})$. We prove that a maximizing density for the bound does not exist (as it would violate $N$-representability), but the use of the gradient allows us to find $N$-representable densities that maximally challenge the bound for a given number of electrons. With our construction we are able to improve the bound for $N=2$ electrons that was originally found by Lieb and Oxford.

  7. Upper Maxwellian bounds for the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    OpenAIRE

    Gamba, I. M.; Panferov, V.; Villani, C.

    2007-01-01

    For the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation with cutoff hard potentials it is shown that solutions remain bounded from above, uniformly in time, by a Maxwellian distribution, provided the initial data have a Maxwellian upper bound. The main technique is based on a comparison principle that uses a certain dissipative property of the linear Boltzmann equation. Implications of the technique to propagation of upper Maxwellian bounds in the spatially-inhomogeneous case are discussed.

  8. Two-Sided Tests and One-Sided Confidence Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Based on the duality between tests and confidence sets we introduce a new method to derive one-sided confidence bounds following the rejection of a null hypothesis with two-sided alternatives. This method imputes that the experimenter is only interested in confidence bounds if the null hypothesis is rejected. Furthermore, we suppose that he is only interested in the direction and a lower confidence bound concerning the distance of the true parameter value to the parameter values in the null h...

  9. Upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the notions of exact and approximate decision reducts for binary decision tables. We present upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts depending on the number of rows (objects) in the decision table. We show that the bound for exact reducts is unimprovable in the general case, and the bound for approximate reducts is almost unimprovable in the general case. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Bounds for Siegel Modular Forms of genus 2 modulo $p$

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Dohoon; Kikuta, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Sturm obtained the bounds for the number of the first Fourier coefficients of elliptic modular form $f$ to determine vanishing of $f$ modulo a prime $p$. In this paper, we study analogues of Sturm's bound for Siegel modular forms of genus 2. We show the resulting bound is sharp. As an application, we study congruences involving Atkin's $U(p)$-operator for the Fourier coefficients of Siegel mdoular forms of genus 2.

  11. Thermodynamic upper bound on broadband light coupling with photonic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-10-26

    The coupling between free space radiation and optical media critically influences the performance of optical devices. We show that, for any given photonic structure, the sum of the external coupling rates for all its optical modes are subject to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar absorbers.

  12. Sphere Lower Bound for Rotated Lattice Constellations in Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Fabregas, Albert Guillen i

    2007-01-01

    We study the error probability performance of rotated lattice constellations in frequency-flat Nakagami-$m$ block-fading channels. In particular, we use the sphere lower bound on the underlying infinite lattice as a performance benchmark. We show that the sphere lower bound has full diversity. We observe that optimally rotated lattices with largest known minimum product distance perform very close to the lower bound, while the ensemble of random rotations is shown to lack diversity and perform far from it.

  13. Proposed experiment to test the bounds of quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2004-01-01

    The combination of quantum correlations appearing in the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality can give values between the classical bound, 2, and Cirel'son's bound, 2\\sqrt 2. However, for a given set of local observables, there are values in this range which no quantum state can attained. For a given parametrization of the local observables, we provide the analytical expression for the bounds of quantum correlations and describe how to experimentally trace it using a source of singlet states.

  14. Precision Study of Positronium: Testing Bound State QED Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Karshenboim, Savely G.

    2003-01-01

    As an unstable light pure leptonic system, positronium is a very specific probe atom to test bound state QED. In contrast to ordinary QED for free leptons, the bound state QED theory is not so well understood and bound state approaches deserve highly accurate tests. We present a brief overview of precision studies of positronium paying special attention to uncertainties of theory as well as comparison of theory and experiment. We also consider in detail advantages and disadvantages of positro...

  15. Review of the N-quantum Approach to Bound States

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, O W

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method of solving quantum field theories using operator techniques based on the expansion of interacting fields in terms of asymptotic fields. For bound states, we introduce an asymptotic field for each (stable) bound state. We choose the nonrelativistic hydrogen atom as an example to illustrate the method. Future work will apply this N-quantum approach to relativistic theories that include bound states in motion.

  16. Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye

    2013-09-13

    We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.

  17. The bound fraction of young star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkmann, N; Motwani, B; Kroupa, P

    2016-01-01

    The residual gas within newly formed star clusters is expelled through stellar feedback on timescales ~ 1 Myr. The subsequent expansion of the cluster results in an unbinding of a fraction of stars, before the remaining cluster members can re-virialize and form a surviving cluster. We investigate the bound fraction after gas expulsion as a function of initial cluster mass in stars and gauge the influence of primordial mass segregation, stellar evolution and the tidal field at solar distance. We also assess the impact of the star-formation efficiency and gas expulsion velocity. We perform N-body simulations using Sverre Aarseth's NBODY7 code, starting with compact clusters in their embedded phase and approximate the gas expulsion by means of an exponentially depleting external gravitational field. We follow the process of re-virialization through detailed monitoring of different Lagrange radii over several Myr, examining initial half-mass radii of 0.1 pc, 0.3 pc and 0.5 pc and masses usually ranging from 5x10^...

  18. Error Bounds for the Sign Function

    CERN Document Server

    Frommer, Andreas; Lippert, Thomas; Rittich, H

    2011-01-01

    The Overlap operator fulfills the Ginsparg-Wilson relation exactly and therefore represents an optimal discretization of the QCD Dirac operator with respect to chiral symmetry. When computing propagators or in HMC simulations, where one has to invert the overlap operator using some iterative solver, one has to approxomate the action of the sign function of the (symmetrized) Wilson fermion matrix Q on a vector b in each iteration. This is usually done iteratively using a "primary" Lanczos iteration. In this process, it is very important to have good stopping criteria which allow to reliably assess the quality of the approximation to the action of the sign function computed so far. In this work we show how to cheaply recover a secondary Lanczos process, starting at an arbitrary Lanczos vector of the primary process and how to use this secondary process to efficiently obtain computable error estimates and error bounds for the Lanczos approximations to sign(Q)b, where the sign function is approximated by the Zolo...

  19. Neutron bound beta-decay: BOB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndrew, Josephine, E-mail: j.mcandrew@tum.de; Paul, Stephan; Emmerich, Ralf [TUM, Physik-Department (Germany); Engels, Ralf [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut Fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Fierlinger, Peter [TUM, Excellence Cluster Universe (Germany); Gabriel, Mirko; Gutsmiedl, Erwin; Mellenthin, Johannes; Schoen, Johannes; Schott, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Andreas; Grueenauer, Florian [TUM, Physik-Department (Germany); Roehrmoser, Anton [FRMII (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    An experiment to observe the bound beta-decay (BOB) of the free neutron into a hydrogen atom and an electron anti-neutrino is described. The hyperfine spin state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atom yields the neutrino left-handedness or possible right-handed admixture as well as possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. The BOB H(2s) hyperfine states can be separated with a Lamb-Shift Spin Filter. These monoenergetic H(2s) atoms are ionised into H{sup -} by charge exchanging within an argon cell. These ions are then separated using an adaptation of a MAC-E Filter. A first experiment is proposed at the FRMII high thermal-neutron flux beam reactor SR6 through-going beam tube, where we will seek to observe this rare neutron decay-mode for the first time and determine the branching ratio. After successful completion, the hyperfine spin state population will be determined, possibly at the ILL high-flux beam reactor through-going beam tube H6-H7, where the thermal neutron flux is a factor of four larger.

  20. CBC bound proteins and RNA fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacometti, Simone

    ) complex (CBCN), were recently shown to target capped RNA either toward export or degradation, but the mechanisms by which they can discriminate between different RNA families and route them toward different metabolic pathways still remain unclear. A major question to be answered is how and when...... analysed NEXT-component RBM7. We report that: (i) CBP20, ARS2, PHAX and ZC3H18 bind close to the cap, while RBM7 and MTR4 bind throughout the mRNA body; (ii) CBP20, ARS2, PHAX and ZC3H18 associate with a broad set of RNA polymerase II (PolII)-derived RNAs and have only mild species preferences; (iii......) binding varies with the RNA maturation stage, with the CBC being highly enriched on mature mRNA, ARS2/PHAX/ZC3H18/MTR4 less so, and RMB7 preferentially bound to pre-mRNAs; (iv) MTR4 and RBM7 show different specificities, with RBM7 being highly enriched on introns and promoter upstream transcripts (PROMPTs...

  1. Bounds on the quantum satisfibility threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Bravyi, Sergey; Russell, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Quantum k-SAT is the problem of deciding whether there is a n-qubit state which is perpendicular to a set of vectors, each of which lies in the Hilbert space of k qubits. Equivalently, the problem is to decide whether a particular type of local Hamiltonian has a ground state with zero energy. We consider random quantum k-SAT formulas with n variables and m = \\alpha n clauses, and ask at what value of \\alpha these formulas cease to be satisfiable. We show that the threshold for random quantum 3-SAT is at most 3.594. For comparison, convincing arguments from statistical physics suggest that the classical 3-SAT threshold is \\alpha \\approx 4.267. For larger k, we show that the quantum threshold is a constant factor smaller than the classical one. Our bounds work by determining the generic rank of the satisfying subspace for certain gadgets, and then using the technique of differential equations to analyze various algorithms that partition the hypergraph into a collection of these gadgets. Our use of differential ...

  2. Bounds on Contention Management in Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffari, Mohsen; Lynch, Nancy; Newport, Calvin

    2012-01-01

    We study the local broadcast problem in two well-studied wireless network models. The local broadcast problem assumes that processes in a wireless network are provided messages, one by one, that must be delivered to their neighbors. In the classical wireless network model, in which links are reliable and collisions consistent, the most commonly used local broadcast strategy is the Decay approach introduced 25 years ago by Bar-Yehuda et al. During the 25-year period in which this strategy has been used, it has remained an open question whether it is optimal. In this paper, we resolve this long-standing question by proving matching lower bounds. We then turn our attention to the more recent dual graph model which generalizes the classical model by introducing unreliable edges. In this model we provide a new local broadcast algorithm and prove it optimal. Our results also establish a separation between the two models with respect to local broadcast, proving the dual graph model to be strictly harder than its cla...

  3. Bounds on Transient Instability for Complex Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Stability is a desirable property of complex ecosystems. If a community of interacting species is at a stable equilibrium point then it is able to withstand small perturbations to component species’ abundances without suffering adverse effects. In ecology, the Jacobian matrix evaluated at an equilibrium point is known as the community matrix, which describes the population dynamics of interacting species. A system’s asymptotic short- and long-term behaviour can be determined from eigenvalues derived from the community matrix. Here we use results from the theory of pseudospectra to describe intermediate, transient dynamics. We first recover the established result that the transition from stable to unstable dynamics includes a region of ‘transient instability’, where the effect of a small perturbation to species’ abundances—to the population vector—is amplified before ultimately decaying. Then we show that the shift from stability to transient instability can be affected by uncertainty in, or small changes to, entries in the community matrix, and determine lower and upper bounds to the maximum amplitude of perturbations to the population vector. Of five different types of community matrix, we find that amplification is least severe when predator-prey interactions dominate. This analysis is relevant to other systems whose dynamics can be expressed in terms of the Jacobian matrix. PMID:27327511

  4. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglan, N. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon (France); Kim, S.B. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Cossonnet, C. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/STEME/LMRE, Orsay (France); Croudace, I.W.; Warwick, P.E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Fournier, M. [IRSN/DG/DMQ, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Galeriu, D. [IFIN-HH, Horia-Hulubei, Inst. Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Bucharest (Romania); Momoshima, N. [Kyushu University, Radioisotope Ctr., Fukuoka (Japan); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/CETAMA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  5. Real weights, bound states and duality orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Marrani, Alessio; Romano, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We show that the duality orbits of extremal black holes in supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds can be derived by studying the stabilizing subalgebras of suitable representatives, realized as bound states of specific weight vectors of the corresponding representation of the duality symmetry group. The weight vectors always correspond to weights that are real, where the reality properties are derived from the Tits-Satake diagram that identifies the real form of the Lie algebra of the duality symmetry group. Both N=2 magic Maxwell-Einstein supergravities and the semisimple infinite sequences of N=2 and N=4 theories in D=4 and 5 are considered, and various results, obtained over the years in the literature using different methods, are retrieved. In particular, we show that the stratification of the orbits of these theories occurs because of very specific properties of the representations: in the case of the theory based on the real numbers, whose symmetry group is maximally non-compact and there...

  6. Decision theory with resource-bounded agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Joseph Y; Pass, Rafael; Seeman, Lior

    2014-04-01

    There have been two major lines of research aimed at capturing resource-bounded players in game theory. The first, initiated by Rubinstein (), charges an agent for doing costly computation; the second, initiated by Neyman (), does not charge for computation, but limits the computation that agents can do, typically by modeling agents as finite automata. We review recent work on applying both approaches in the context of decision theory. For the first approach, we take the objects of choice in a decision problem to be Turing machines, and charge players for the "complexity" of the Turing machine chosen (e.g., its running time). This approach can be used to explain well-known phenomena like first-impression-matters biases (i.e., people tend to put more weight on evidence they hear early on) and belief polarization (two people with different prior beliefs, hearing the same evidence, can end up with diametrically opposed conclusions) as the outcomes of quite rational decisions. For the second approach, we model people as finite automata, and provide a simple algorithm that, on a problem that captures a number of settings of interest, provably performs optimally as the number of states in the automaton increases. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Black hole bombs and photon mass bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Generic extensions of the standard model predict the existence of ultralight bosonic degrees of freedom. Several ongoing experiments are aimed at detecting these particles or constraining their mass range. Here we show that massive vector fields around rotating black holes can give rise to a strong superradiant instability which extracts angular momentum from the hole. The observation of supermassive spinning black holes imposes limits on this mechanism. We show that current supermassive black hole spin estimates provide the tightest upper limits on the mass of the photon (mv<4x10^{-20} eV according to our most conservative estimate), and that spin measurements for the largest known supermassive black holes could further lower this bound to mv<10^{-22} eV. Our analysis relies on a novel framework to study perturbations of rotating Kerr black holes in the slow-rotation regime, that we developed up to second order in rotation, and that can be extended to other spacetime metrics and other theories.

  8. Bounding the current in nonlinear conducting composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Graeme W.; Serkov, Sergey K.

    2000-06-01

    Suppose a three-dimensional composite of two nonlinear conducting phases mixed in fixed proportions is subject to a fixed average electric field. What values can the average current take as the microstructure varies over all configurations? What microstructures produce the maximum or minimum current flow? Which microstructures are best for guiding the current in a given direction? Here, following the compensated compactness method of Tartar (1977: Estimation de coefficients homogénéisés. In: Glowinski, R., Lions, J.-L. (Eds.), Computer Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Mathematics 704. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 136-212) we show how one can obtain remarkably tight bounds on the average current flow. In many, but not all cases, we find that simple laminate structures produce the maximum or minimum current flow, and are best for guiding the current in a given direction. Sometimes it is advantageous to orient the layer surfaces parallel (rather than orthogonal) to the direction of the applied field to generate the minimum current flow in that direction.

  9. New Lower Bounds for Warp Drive Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, C.; Gravel, P.; Melanson, J.

    The introduction of the warp drive metric by Alcubierre1 has aroused great interest over the past few years. Using an uncertainty-type principle, Ford and Pfenning2 proved that the warp drive transport of a spaceship in a regular bubble having a radius of 100 m is unrealistic. However, Van Den Broeck3 has shown that the situation largely improves when one uses a warp drive bubble with a small surface area and large spatial volume. Putting aside many physics problems related to the realization of the warp drive concept, we show in this paper4 how to modify Van Den Broeck's idea to improve his results. We find new lower bounds for the warp drive energy by working on parameters whose latitude has never been considered before. We also consider micro warp drive bubbles which can be treated as physical entities of their own and could possibly be used to transmit information faster than the speed of light. The conditions prevailing just after the Big Bang allow the spontaneous formation of such micro bubbles which could still be present in our period of time.

  10. Tensor Squeezed Limits and the Higuchi Bound

    CERN Document Server

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We point out that tensor consistency relations-i.e. the behavior of primordial correlation functions in the limit a tensor mode has a small momentum-are more universal than scalar consistency relations. They hold in the presence of multiple scalar fields and as long as anisotropies are diluted exponentially fast. When de Sitter isometries are approximately respected during inflation this is guaranteed by the Higuchi bound, which forbids the existence of light particles with spin: De Sitter space can support scalar hair but no curly hair. We discuss two indirect ways to look for the violation of tensor con- sistency relations in observations, as a signature of models in which inflation is not a strong isotropic attractor, such as solid inflation: (a) Graviton exchange contribution to the scalar four-point function; (b) Quadrupolar anisotropy of the scalar power spectrum due to super-horizon tensor modes. This anisotropy has a well-defined statistics which can be distinguished from cases in which the background...

  11. Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; Velázquez-Ahumada, María C; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán

    2016-06-24

    A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along meter-size transmission-line circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed.

  12. What Information Theory Says about Bounded Rational Best Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Probability Collectives (PC) provides the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to bounded rational games. Here an explicit solution to the equations giving the bounded rationality equilibrium of a game is presented. Then PC is used to investigate games in which the players use bounded rational best-response strategies. Next it is shown that in the continuum-time limit, bounded rational best response games result in a variant of the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory. It is then shown that for team (shared-payoff) games, this variant of replicator dynamics is identical to Newton-Raphson iterative optimization of the shared utility function.

  13. How to beat the sphere-packing bound with feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, Anant

    2006-01-01

    The sphere-packing bound $E_{sp}(R)$ bounds the reliability function for fixed-length block-codes. For symmetric channels, it remains a valid bound even when strictly causal noiseless feedback is allowed from the decoder to the encoder. To beat the bound, the problem must be changed. While it has long been known that variable-length block codes can do better when trading-off error probability with expected block-length, this correspondence shows that the {\\em fixed-delay} setting also present...

  14. ELEMENTARY DENSITY BOUNDS FOR SELF-SIMILAR SETS AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Falconer[1] used the relationship between upper convex density and upper spherical density to obtain elementary density bounds for s-sets at HS-almost all points of the sets. In this paper, following Falconer[1], we first provide a basic method to estimate the lower bounds of these two classes of set densities for the self-similar s-sets satisfying the open set condition (OSC), and then obtain elementary density bounds for such fractals at all of their points. In addition, we apply the main results to the famous classical fractals and get some new density bounds.

  15. Persistence of noncompact normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in bounded geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eldering, J

    2012-01-01

    We prove a persistence result for noncompact normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in the setting of Riemannian manifolds of bounded geometry. Bounded geometry of the ambient manifold is a crucial assumption required to control the uniformity of all estimates throughout the proof. The $C^{k,\\alpha}$-smoothness result is optimal with respect to the spectral gap condition involved. The core of the persistence proof is based on the Perron method. In the process we derive new results on noncompact submanifolds in bounded geometry: a uniform tubular neighborhood theorem and uniform smooth approximation of a submanifold. The submanifolds considered are assumed to be uniformly $C^k$ bounded in an appropriate sense.

  16. Bounds on the clique-transversal number of regular graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; T.C.E

    2008-01-01

    A clique-transversal set D of a graph G is a set of vertices of G such that D meets all cliques of G.The clique-transversal number,denoted Tc(G),is the minimum cardinality of a clique- transversal set in G.In this paper we present the bounds on the clique-transversal number for regular graphs and characterize the extremal graphs achieving the lower bound.Also,we give the sharp bounds on the clique-transversal number for claw-free cubic graphs and we characterize the extremal graphs achieving the lower bound.

  17. Bounds on the clique-transversal number of regular graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN ErFang; CHENG T.C.E.; KANG LiYing

    2008-01-01

    A clique-transversal set D of a graph G is a set of vertices of G such that D meets all cliques of G. The clique-transversal number, denoted Tc(G), is the minimum cardinality of a clique-transversal set in G. In this paper we present the bounds on the clique-transversal number for regular graphs and characterize the extremal graphs achieving the lower bound. Also, we give the sharp bounds on the clique-transversal number for claw-free cubic graphs and we characterize the extremal graphs achieving the lower bound.

  18. Bounds for Bilinear Complexity of Noncommutative Group Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Pospelov, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    We study the complexity of multiplication in noncommutative group algebras which is closely related to the complexity of matrix multiplication. We characterize such semisimple group algebras of the minimal bilinear complexity and show nontrivial lower bounds for the rest of the group algebras. These lower bounds are built on the top of Bl\\"aser's results for semisimple algebras and algebras with large radical and the lower bound for arbitrary associative algebras due to Alder and Strassen. We also show subquadratic upper bounds for all group algebras turning into "almost linear" provided the exponent of matrix multiplication equals 2.

  19. Holographic bounds on the UV cutoff scale in inflationary cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Keski-Vakkuri, E; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Sloth, Martin S.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss how holographic bounds can be applied to the quantum fluctuations of the inflaton. In general the holographic principle will lead to a bound on the UV cutoff scale of the effective theory of inflation, but it will depend on the coarse-graining prescription involved in calculating the entropy. We propose that the entanglement entropy is a natural measure of the entropy of the quantum perturbations, and show which kind of bound on the cutoff it leads to. Such bounds are related to whether the effects of new physics will show up in the CMB.

  20. Phenomena of optic-bound effect on fibre optic gyro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Ning-Fang; Zhang Chun-Xi; Jin Jing

    2007-01-01

    The optic-bound effect on fibre optic gyro (FOG) precision is analysed theoretically,and formulas describing the change of FOG light power under the action of optic-bound effect axe given.It is confirmed that optic-bound effect is a main instantaneous non-reciprocity effect of FOG in addition to the Sagnac effect and can lead to a dynamic error of FOG in practical environments.An approach to suppressing or eliminating the error due to the optic-bound effect is presented and verified experimentally.The result shows that the approach is valid and the precision of FOG is improved observably.

  1. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods.

  2. Identifying covariates of population health using extreme bound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignani, Fabrizio; Shankar, Sriram; Tan, Eng Joo; Tang, Kam Ki

    2014-06-01

    The literature is full of lively discussion on the determinants of population health outcomes. However, different papers focus on small and different sets of variables according to their research agenda. Because many of these variables are measures of different aspects of development and are thus correlated, the results for one variable can be sensitive to the inclusion/exclusion of others. We tested for the robustness of potential predictors of population health using the extreme bounds analysis. Population health was measured by life expectancy at birth and infant mortality rate. We found that only about half a dozen variables are robust predictors for life expectancy and infant mortality rate. Among them, adolescent fertility rate, improved water sources, and gender equality are the most robust. All institutional variables and environment variables are systematically non-robust predictors of population health. The results highlight the importance of robustness tests in identifying predictors or potential determinants of population health, and cast doubts on the findings of previous studies that fail to do so.

  3. Hydrogen Production by a Hyperthermophilic Membrane-Bound Hydrogenase in Soluble Nanolipoprotein Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S E; Hopkins, R C; Blanchette, C; Walsworth, V; Sumbad, R; Fischer, N; Kuhn, E; Coleman, M; Chromy, B; Letant, S; Hoeprich, P; Adams, M W; Henderson, P T

    2008-10-22

    Hydrogenases constitute a promising class of enzymes for ex vivo hydrogen production. Implementation of such applications is currently hindered by oxygen sensitivity and, in the case of membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH), poor water solubility. Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs), formed from apolipoproteins and phospholipids, offer a novel means to incorporate MBH into in a well-defined water-soluble matrix that maintains the enzymatic activity and is amenable to incorporation into more complex architectures. We report the synthesis, hydrogen-evolving activity and physical characterization of the first MBH-NLP assembly. This may ultimately lead to the development of biomimetic hydrogen production devices.

  4. Structure Biology of Membrane Bound Enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dax [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). School of Medicine. Dept. of Physiology

    2016-11-30

    The overall goal of the proposed research is to understand the membrane-associated active processes catalyzed by an alkane $\\square$-hydroxylase (AlkB) from eubacterium Pseudomonase oleovorans. AlkB performs oxygenation of unactivated hydrocarbons found in crude oils. The enzymatic reaction involves energy-demanding steps in the membrane with the uses of structurally unknown metal active sites featuring a diiron [FeFe] center. At present, a critical barrier to understanding the membrane-associated reaction mechanism is the lack of structural information. The structural biology efforts have been challenged by technical difficulties commonly encountered in crystallization and structural determination of membrane proteins. The specific aims of the current budget cycle are to crystalize AlkB and initiate X-ray analysis to set the stage for structural determination. The long-term goals of our structural biology efforts are to provide an atomic description of AlkB structure, and to uncover the mechanisms of selective modification of hydrocarbons. The structural information will help elucidating how the unactivated C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons are oxidized to initiate biodegradation and biotransformation processes. The knowledge gained will be fundamental to biotechnological applications to biofuel transformation of non-edible oil feedstock. Renewable biodiesel is a promising energy carry that can be used to reduce fossil fuel dependency. The proposed research capitalizes on prior BES-supported efforts on over-expression and purification of AlkB to explore the inner workings of a bioenergy-relevant membrane-bound enzyme.

  5. Composition and Structural Features of Calcium—Bound and Iron—and Aluminium—Bound Humus in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.U.CHEEMA; XUJIAN-MIN; 等

    1994-01-01

    Calcium-bound and iron-and aluminium-bound humus extracted from different soils collected from north to south of China were characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods.Meaningful differences in the composition and structure between them were revealed by 13 C NMR,visible spectroscopy and elemental analysis.Results showed that the contents of carbon,hydrogen and nitrogen were higher in iron-and aluminium-bound humus than in calcium-bound humus while oxygen content in calcium-bound humus was shown to be higher .The calcium-bound humus had higher C/N and O/C ratios than iron-and aluminiumbound humus.The calcium-bound humic acid(HA1) showed higher E4/E6 ratios than iron-and aluminumboud,humic acid(HA2)while iron-and aluminum-bound fulvic acid(FA2) showed higher E4/E6 ratios than calcium-bound fulvic acid(FA1).An inverse relationship between E4/E6 ratios and aromaticity as determined by 13C NMR spectra was observerd for HA and FA from black soil.The 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed that HA2 was more aromatic than HA1.On the other ,FA1 exhibited a higher aromaticity than FA2.

  6. Separation and analysis techniques for bound and unbound alkyl ketene dimer (AKD in paper: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD is the reactive synthetic sizing agent that is used in alkaline or neutral papermaking conditions to provide certain level of hydrophobicity to the paper and board. The sizing mechanism of AKD involves its reaction with the hydroxyl groups on cellulose. However, all of AKD does not chemically react with fibers; some of it may undergo hydrolysis in water to form unstable β-keto acids, which decarboxylate to the corresponding ketone. This portion of AKD remains non-reacted (unbound and adsorbs onto fibers. The sizing effect depends mainly on the quantity of chemically reacted (bound AKD in paper, while the role of unbound forms, that is ketone and oligomer, is still not clear. Both bound and unbound portions of AKD have their own effect on paper. It is important to know the proportion of bound and unbound form of AKD in paper. The different techniques have been adopted for the separation and analysis of bound and unbound AKD present in paper. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize the various techniques provided by the researchers to separate the different forms of AKD and highlight the most important aspects for their separation.

  7. Bound-bound transitions in the emission spectra of Ba$^{+}$--He excimer

    OpenAIRE

    Moroshkin, Peter; Kono, Kimitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the emission and absorption spectra of the Ba$^{+}$ ions and Ba$^{+\\ast}$He excimer quasimolecules in the cryogenic Ba--He plasma. We observe several new spectral features in the emission spectrum which we assign to the electronic transitions between bound states of the excimer correlating to the 6$^{2}P_{3/2}$ and 5$^{2}D_{3/2,5/2}$ states of Ba$^{+}$. The resulting Ba$^{+}$(5$^{2}D_{J}$)He is a metastable electronically excited complex wit...

  8. Lower bound for the regularity index of fat points

    OpenAIRE

    Van Thien, Phan

    2016-01-01

    The problem to find an upper bound for the regularity index of fat points has been dealt with by many authors. In this paper we give a lower bound for the regularity index of fat points. It is useful for determining the regularity index.

  9. Bound states in a hyperbolic asymmetric double-well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, R. R., E-mail: richard.hartmann@dlsu.edu.ph [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila (Philippines)

    2014-01-15

    We report a new class of hyperbolic asymmetric double-well whose bound state wavefunctions can be expressed in terms of confluent Heun functions. An analytic procedure is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the criterion for the potential to support bound states is discussed.

  10. Bounds on Transverse Momentum Dependent Distribution and Fragmentation Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, A.; Boglione, M.; Henneman, A.; Mulders, P. J.

    2000-07-01

    We give bounds on the distribution and fragmentation functions that appear at leading order in deep inelastic one-particle inclusive leptoproduction or in Drell-Yan processes. These bounds simply follow from positivity of the defining matrix elements and are an important guidance in estimating the magnitude of the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in these processes.

  11. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, A; Henneman, A A; Mulders, P J

    2000-01-01

    We give bounds on the distribution and fragmentation functions that appear at leading order in deep inelastic 1-particle inclusive leptoproduction or in Drell-Yan processes. These bounds simply follow from positivity of the defining matrix elements and are an important guidance in estimating the magnitude of the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in these processes.

  12. Divisible quantum dynamics satisfies temporal Tsirelson’s bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao; Pollock, Felix A.; Paterek, Tomasz; Paternostro, Mauro; Modi, Kavan

    2017-02-01

    We give strong evidence that divisibility of qubit quantum processes implies temporal Tsirelson’s bound. We also give strong evidence that the classical bound of the temporal Bell’s inequality holds for dynamics that can be described by entanglement-breaking channels—a more general class of dynamics than that allowed by classical physics.

  13. Some New Perturbation Bounds for Subunitary Polar Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen LI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present some new perturbation bounds for subunitary polar factors in a special unitarily invariant norm called a Q-norm. Some recent results in the Frobenius norm and the spectral norm are extended to the Q-norm on one hand. On the other hand we also present some relative perturbation bounds for subunitary polar factors.

  14. A branch-and-bound methodology within algebraic modelling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, J.J.; Heerink, J.B.J.; Kloosterman, G.

    1998-01-01

    Through the use of application-specific branch-and-bound directives it is possible to find solutions to combinatorial models that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to find by just using generic branch-and-bound techniques within the framework of mathematical programming. {\\sc Minto} is an e

  15. Bounds on the overall properties of composites with ellipsoidal inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Zhi Wu; Shi-Dong Pan

    2012-01-01

    A new model is put forward to bound the effective elastic moduli of composites with ellipsoidal inclusions.In the present paper,transition layer for each eilipsoidal inclusion is introduced to make the trial displacement field for the upper bound and the trial stress field for the lower bound satisfy the continuous interface conditions which are absolutely necessary for the application of variational principles.According to the principles of minimum potential energy and minimum complementary energy,the upper and lower bounds on the effective elastic moduli of composites with ellipsoidal inclusions are rigorously derived.The effects of the distribution and geometric parameters of ellipsoidal inclusions on the bounds of the effective elastic moduli are analyzed in details.The present upper and lower bounds are still finite when the bulk and shear moduli of ellipsoidal inclusions tend to infinity and zero,respectively.It should be mentioned that the present method is simple and needs not calculate the complex integrals of multi-point correlation functions.Meanwhile,the present paper provides an entirely different way to bound the effective elastic moduli of composites with ellipsoidal inclusions,which can be developed to obtain a series of bounds by taking different trial displacement and stress fields.

  16. Bounds for the eigenvalues of the continuous algebraic Riccati equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzhou; Zhang, Juan

    2011-10-01

    By using singular value decomposition and majorisation inequalities, we propose new upper and lower bounds for summations of eigenvalues (including the trace) of the solution of the continuous algebraic Riccati equation. These bounds improve and extend some of the previous results. Finally, we give corresponding numerical examples to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  17. THE STRICT BOUNDED REAL LEMMA IN INFINITE DIMENSIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CURTAIN, RF

    1993-01-01

    The strict bounded real lemma is generalized to an infinite-dimensional setting. This relates the existence of a stabilizing solution to a Riccati equation to an H(infinity)-norm bound and to the existence of a solution to a Riccati inequality.

  18. Estimating Eigenvalue Moments via Schatten Norm Bounds on Semigroup Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, M. [Technical University of Clausthal, Institute of Mathematics (Germany)], E-mail: Hansmann@math.tu-clausthal.de

    2007-08-15

    We derive new bounds on the moments of the negative eigenvalues of a selfadjoint operator B. The moments of order {gamma}{<=}1 are estimated in terms of Schatten-norm bounds on the difference of the semigroups generated by B and a reference operator A which is assumed to be nonnegative and selfadjoint. The estimate in the case {gamma} = 1 is sharp.

  19. Integrability of the Fourier transform: functions of bounded variation

    CERN Document Server

    Liflyand, E

    2012-01-01

    Certain relations between the Fourier transform of a function of bounded variation and the Hilbert transform of its derivative are revealed. The widest subspaces of the space of functions of bounded variation are indicated in which the cosine and sine Fourier transforms are integrable.

  20. Computable eigenvalue bounds for rank-k perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.H.; Reis da Silva, R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate lower bounds for the eigenvalues of perturbations of matrices. In the footsteps of Weyl and Ipsen & Nadler, we develop approximating matrices whose eigenvalues are lower bounds for the eigenvalues of the perturbed matrix. The number of available eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the ori