Kortenoeven, Marleen; Fenton, Robert A.
BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of proteins that can act as water channels. Regulation of AQPs is critical to osmoregulation and the maintenance of body water homeostasis. Eight AQPs are expressed in the kidney of which five have been shown to play a role in body water balance; AQP1, A......-solute diet and diuretics. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: In recent years, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of water balance disorders has increased enormously, which has opened up several possible new treatment strategies.......BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of proteins that can act as water channels. Regulation of AQPs is critical to osmoregulation and the maintenance of body water homeostasis. Eight AQPs are expressed in the kidney of which five have been shown to play a role in body water balance; AQP1, AQP......2, AQP3, AQP4 and AQP7. AQP2 in particular is regulated by vasopressin. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes our current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of various water balance disorders and their treatment strategies. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Dysfunctions of AQPs are involved in disorders...
E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); R. Zietse (Bob)
textabstractWater balance disorders after neurosurgery are well recognized, but detailed reports of the triphasic response are scarce. We describe a 55-year-old woman, who developed the triphasic response with severe hyper- and hyponatraemia after resection of a suprasellar meningioma. The case
... vertigo. If you have additional problems with motor control, such as weakness, slowness, tremor, or rigidity, you can lose your ability to recover properly from imbalance. This raises the risk of falling and injury. What are some types of balance disorders? There are more than a dozen different ...
The human body is two-thirds water. The ability of ensuring the proper amount of water inside the body is essential for the survival of mammals. The key event for maintenance of body water balance is water reabsorption in the kidney collecting ducts, which is regulated by aquaporin-2 (AQP2). AQP2 is a channel that is exclusively selective for water molecules and never allows permeation of ions or other small molecules. Under normal conditions, AQP2 is restricted within the cytoplasm of the collecting duct cells. However, when the body is dehydrated and needs to retain water, AQP2 relocates to the apical membrane, allowing water reabsorption from the urinary tubule into the cell. Its impairments result in various water balance disorders including diabetes insipidus, which is a disease characterized by a massive loss of water through the kidney, leading to severe dehydration in the body. Dysregulation of AQP2 is also a common cause of water retention and hyponatremia that exacerbate the prognosis of congestive heart failure and hepatic cirrhosis. Many studies have uncovered the regulation mechanisms of AQP2 at the single-molecule level, the whole-body level, and the clinical level. In clinical practice, urinary AQP2 is a useful marker for body water balance (hydration status). Moreover, AQP2 is now attracting considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for water balance disorders which commonly occur in many diseases.
... This nerve sends signals to the brain that control hearing (auditory function) and help with balance (vestibular function). But the ears aren't the ... symptoms aren't necessarily a sign of a balance problem — or any other ... stumble and fall sometimes, especially toddlers just learning to walk and ...
Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.
A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs
You may have heard the phrase as difficult as walking and chewing gum as a joking way of referring to something that is not difficult at all. Just walking, however, is not all that simple physiologically speaking. Even standing upright is an undertaking requiring the complex cooperation of multiple motor and sensory systems including vision, the inner ear, somatosensation (sensation from the skin), and proprioception (the sense of the body s parts in relation to each other). The compromised performance of any of these elements can lead to a balance disorder, which in some form affects nearly half of Americans at least once in their lifetimes, from the elderly, to those with neurological or vestibular (inner ear) dysfunction, to athletes with musculoskeletal injuries, to astronauts returning from space. Readjusting to Earth s gravity has a significant impact on an astronaut s ability to balance, a result of the brain switching to a different "model" for interpreting sensory input in normal gravity versus weightlessness. While acclimating, astronauts can experience headaches, motion sickness, and problems with perception. To help ease the transition and study the effects of weightlessness on the body, NASA has conducted many investigations into post-flight balance control, realizing this research can help treat patients with balance disorders on Earth as well. In the 1960s, the NASA-sponsored Man Vehicle Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) studied the effects of prolonged space flight on astronauts. The lab s work intrigued MIT doctoral candidate Lewis Nashner, who began conducting NASA-funded research on human movement and balance under the supervision of Dr. Larry Young in the MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. In 1982, Nashner s work resulted in a noninvasive clinical technique for assessing the cooperative systems that allow the body to balance, commonly referred to as computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). CDP employs a
Hannon, Mark J
Context: Disorders of water balance are common in neurosurgical patients and usually manifest as hypo- or hypernatremia. They are most commonly seen after subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, with intracranial tumors, and after pituitary surgery. Setting: We reviewed the experience of endocrine evaluation and management of disorders of salt and water balance in a large cohort of inpatients attending the national neurosciences referral centre in Dublin, Ireland, and compared this experience with findings from other studies. Patients: The study group included unselected neurosurgical patients admitted to our centre and requiring endocrine evaluation. Interventions: We conducted investigations to determine the underlying mechanistic basis for disorders of salt and water balance in neurosurgical patients and treatment to restore normal metabolism. Main Outcome Measures: Morbidity and mortality associated with deranged salt and water balance were measured. Results: The underlying pathophysiology of disordered water balance in neurosurgical patients is complex and varied and dictates the optimal therapeutic approach. Conclusions: A systematic and well-informed approach is needed to properly diagnose and manage disorders of salt and water balance in neurosurgical patients.
... that feeling persists or interferes with your daily life, it could be a sign of a balance disorder. A balance disorder makes you feel as ... throat. You might receive a hearing test, a balance test and possibly an imaging study of the brain. Work with your doctor to figure out how to ...
Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N
.... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...
Frantar, P; Dolinar, M; Kurnik, B
The water is becoming more and more valuable natural resource. The increasing water demand and climate changes are making water a precious and not always available valuable. The water balance is the most appropriate way to make a full overview of water cycle in Slovenia, to find general information about hydrological characteristics of drainage basins, precipitation, evaporation and runoff. The article presents the methodology and the results of the Water balance project of Slovenia. Slovenia has the geographical position at the juncture of 4 main European georegions: The Alps, the Panonian Basin, the Mediterranean and the Dinaric Mountains. This makes the territory very diverse also from a hydrological point of view. Our major watershed divides the precipitation runoff into two watershed areas - the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea. Due to this watershed almost all the Slovenia's rivers have headwaters in our territory. Water balance is calculation of water inputs and outputs over the defined area. The basic elements of the water balance include all the inflows and outflows for a given basin and serve for the computation of the water regime of a catchment area. It is defined by the parameters precipitation (P), evaporation (E), discharge (Q) and the change of the water reserves (dS). Main results of the water balance elements for the 1971 - 2000 period for Slovenia are: Average annual precipitation in Slovenia is 1579 mm, average annual evapotranspiration is 717 mm and calculated runoff is 862 mm. Compared to water amounts in the World, where the average precipitation is 750 mm, evapotranspiration is 480 mm and runoff is 270 mm, Slovenia shows an abundance of water quantities. Also the runoff coefficient with 55 % is much higher as 36 % of the world. The major questions remain if we are capable to live with this water amounts within the limits of sustainable development and what will be the effects of climate change to water balance.
Drummer, C; Norsk, P; Heer, M
, cumulative water balance and total body water content are stable during flight if hydration, nutritional energy supply, and protection of muscle mass are at an acceptable level. Recent water balance data disclose that the phenomenon of an absolute water loss during space flight, which has often been reported...... and an exaggerated extravasation very early in-flight. The mechanisms for the increased vascular permeability are not known. Evaporation, oral hydration, and urinary fluid excretion, the major components of water balance, are generally diminished during space flight compared with conditions on Earth. Nevertheless...... in the past, is not a consequence of the variable microG. The handling of sodium, however, is considerably affected by microG. Sodium-retaining endocrine systems, such as renin-aldosterone and catecholamines, are much more activated during microG than on Earth. Despite a comparable oral sodium supply, urinary...
Optimizing the complex tradeoffs in the Energy-Water Nexus requires quantification of energy use, carbon emitted and water consumed. Water is consumed in energy production and is often a constraint to operations. More global attention and investment has been made on reducing carbon emissions than on water management. Review of public reporting by the largest 107 global power producers and 50 companies in the oil/gas industry shows broad accounting on carbon emissions but only partial reporting on water consumption metrics. If the Energy-Water Nexus is to be balanced, then water must also be measured to be optimally managed with carbon emissions.
Senay, Gabriel B.; Asante, Kwabena; Artan, Guleid A.
Understanding the temporal and spatial dynamics of key water balance components of the Nile River will provide important information for the management of its water resources. This study used satellite-derived rainfall and other key weather variables derived from the Global Data Assimilation System to estimate and map the distribution of rainfall, actual evapotranspiration (ETa), and runoff. Daily water balance components were modelled in a grid-cell environment at 0·1 degree (∼10 km) spatial resolution for 7 years from 2001 through 2007. Annual maps of the key water balance components and derived variables such as runoff and ETa as a percent of rainfall were produced. Generally, the spatial patterns of rainfall and ETa indicate high values in the upstream watersheds (Uganda, southern Sudan, and southwestern Ethiopia) and low values in the downstream watersheds. However, runoff as a percent of rainfall is much higher in the Ethiopian highlands around the Blue Nile subwatershed. The analysis also showed the possible impact of land degradation in the Ethiopian highlands in reducing ETa magnitudes despite the availability of sufficient rainfall. Although the model estimates require field validation for the different subwatersheds, the runoff volume estimate for the Blue Nile subwatershed is within 7·0% of a figure reported from an earlier study. Further research is required for a thorough validation of the results and their integration with ecohydrologic models for better management of water and land resources in the various Nile Basin ecosystems.
Shah, Sanjeev R; Bhave, Gautam
Dysnatremias or abnormalities in plasma [Na + ] are often termed disorders of water balance, an unclear physiologic concept often confused with changes in total fluid balance. However, most clinicians clearly recognize that hypertonic or hypotonic gains or losses alter plasma [Na + ], while isotonic changes do not modify plasma [Na + ]. This concept can be conceptualized as the electrolyte free water balance (EFWB), which defines the non-isotonic components of inputs and outputs to determine their effect on plasma [Na + ]. EFWB is mathematically proportional to the rate of change in plasma [Na + ] (dP Na /dt) and, therefore, is actively regulated to zero so that plasma [Na + ] remains stable at its homeostatic set point. Dysnatremias are, therefore, disorders of EFWB and the relationship between EFWB and dP Na /dt provides a rationale for therapeutic strategies incorporating mass and volume balance. Herein, we leverage dP Na /dt as a desired rate of correction of plasma [Na + ] to define a stepwise approach for the treatment of dysnatremias.
Shah, Sanjeev R.; Bhave, Gautam
Dysnatremias or abnormalities in plasma [Na+] are often termed disorders of water balance, an unclear physiologic concept often confused with changes in total fluid balance. However, most clinicians clearly recognize that hypertonic or hypotonic gains or losses alter plasma [Na+], while isotonic changes do not modify plasma [Na+]. This concept can be conceptualized as the electrolyte free water balance (EFWB), which defines the non-isotonic components of inputs and outputs to determine their effect on plasma [Na+]. EFWB is mathematically proportional to the rate of change in plasma [Na+] (dPNa/dt) and, therefore, is actively regulated to zero so that plasma [Na+] remains stable at its homeostatic set point. Dysnatremias are, therefore, disorders of EFWB and the relationship between EFWB and dPNa/dt provides a rationale for therapeutic strategies incorporating mass and volume balance. Herein, we leverage dPNa/dt as a desired rate of correction of plasma [Na+] to define a stepwise approach for the treatment of dysnatremias. PMID:29740578
Sanjeev R. Shah
Full Text Available Dysnatremias or abnormalities in plasma [Na+] are often termed disorders of water balance, an unclear physiologic concept often confused with changes in total fluid balance. However, most clinicians clearly recognize that hypertonic or hypotonic gains or losses alter plasma [Na+], while isotonic changes do not modify plasma [Na+]. This concept can be conceptualized as the electrolyte free water balance (EFWB, which defines the non-isotonic components of inputs and outputs to determine their effect on plasma [Na+]. EFWB is mathematically proportional to the rate of change in plasma [Na+] (dPNa/dt and, therefore, is actively regulated to zero so that plasma [Na+] remains stable at its homeostatic set point. Dysnatremias are, therefore, disorders of EFWB and the relationship between EFWB and dPNa/dt provides a rationale for therapeutic strategies incorporating mass and volume balance. Herein, we leverage dPNa/dt as a desired rate of correction of plasma [Na+] to define a stepwise approach for the treatment of dysnatremias.
Rodriguez, L. B.; Vionnet, C. A.; Younger, P. L.; Parkin, G.
Hydrological modeling is nowadays an essential tool in many aspects of water resources assessment and management. For practical purposes, hydrological models may be defined as mathematical procedures, which transform meteorological input data such as precipitation and evapotranspiration into hydrological output values such as riverflows. Conceptual water balance models are one kind of hydrological models still quite popular among engineers and scientists for three main reasons: firstly the "book-keeping" procedure they are based upon makes them computationally inexpensive, secondly, they require far less data than any physically based model, and thirdly, once calibrated and validated, they can yield the proper order of magnitude of the water cycle component on the basin under investigation. A common criticism of water balance models is their lack of sound theoretical basis. In this work a fully conservative water balance model for basin applications which takes into account physical processes is presented. The two-storage level model contains four calibration parameters: a, b, l and Umax. The saturated storage component resembles the abcd model by Thomas, corrected by the presence of the aquifer storativity coefficient s and the river-aquifer interface conductance l. The resulting model is capable of estimating monthly basin-average of actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture, effective groundwater recharge, groundwater level fluctuations, baseflows and direct runoff using an integral form of the mass conservation law in the saturated/unsaturated layers. The model was applied to a 600 Km2 catchment in the United Kingdom. An eight-year record was used for calibration, while a similar record was reserved for validation of model results. Total streamflows as well as baseflows calculated by the model were compared with observed and estimated data. A quite good agreement was obtained. Finally, simulated groundwater levels were compared with observation data collected at
Full Text Available Dryland farming on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain, which has an annual rainfall of less than 150 mm/year, has been based traditionally on water harvesting techniques (known locally as “gavias”. Periods of high productivity alternate with those of very low yield. The systems are sustainable in that they reduce erosive processes, contribute to soil and soil-water conservation and are largely responsible for maintaining the soil’s farming potential. In this paper we present the chemical fertility status and nutrient balance of soils in five “gavia” systems. The results are compared with those obtained in adjacent soils where this water harvesting technique is not used. The main crops are wheat, barley, maize, lentils and chick-peas. Since neither organic nor inorganic fertilisers are used, nutrients are derived mainly from sediments carried by runoff water. Nutrients are lost mainly through crop harvesting and harvest residues. The soils where water harvesting is used have lower salt and sodium in the exchange complex, are higher in carbon, nitrogen, copper and zinc and have similar phosphorous and potassium content. It is concluded that the systems improve the soil’s natural fertility and also that natural renovation of nutrients occurs thanks to the surface deposits of sediments, which mix with the arable layer. The system helps ensure adequate fertility levels, habitual in arid regions, thus allowing dryland farming to be carried out.
Quantification of the water balance components and bathymetric survey is very crucial for sustainable management of lake waters. This paper focuses on the bathymetry and the water balance of the crater Lake Ardibo, recently utilized for irrigation. The bathymetric map of the lake is established at a contour interval of 10 ...
Kurosu, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Wada, K.; Nagaoka, M.
The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) is thought to play an important role in torsional/vertical eye position and head posture, and disorders of the INC induce abnormal ocular movements and head tilt. Our patients with ocular tilt reactions simultaneously also had disturbances in ambulatory balance, yet no reports address the loss of balance control induced by disorders of the INC. We examined the ambulatory disturbances induced by INC lesion. We experienced three patients with ocular movement disorders and abnormal head tilt due to thalamic infarction. We performed ophthalmic examinations on and checked the balance of them. With funduscopy, abnormal cycloduction was seen in the unaffected side and normal cycloduction was observed in the affected side. Nevertheless, Hess charts showed distortions in the visual image of both eyes. They all had disorders of balance control. We tried to treat them using the Bobath approach for improving their ambulatory balance. With subsequent improvements in balance control it was possible for them to take short walks, but it was difficult to make any improvements in their ocular movement. The INC is related to balance control of ambulation and disorders of the INC induce ambulatory disturbances. Cycloduction was only observed in the unaffected side, but Hess charts showed distortions of the visual image in both eyes. Ambulation was briefly improved, but diplopia persisted in these patients. PMID:21769260
Full Text Available The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC is thought to play an important role in torsional/vertical eye position and head posture, and disorders of the INC induce abnormal ocular movements and head tilt. Our patients with ocular tilt reactions simultaneously also had disturbances in ambulatory balance, yet no reports address the loss of balance control induced by disorders of the INC. We examined the ambulatory disturbances induced by INC lesion. We experienced three patients with ocular movement disorders and abnormal head tilt due to thalamic infarction. We performed ophthalmic examinations on and checked the balance of them. With funduscopy, abnormal cycloduction was seen in the unaffected side and normal cycloduction was observed in the affected side. Nevertheless, Hess charts showed distortions in the visual image of both eyes. They all had disorders of balance control. We tried to treat them using the Bobath approach for improving their ambulatory balance. With subsequent improvements in balance control it was possible for them to take short walks, but it was difficult to make any improvements in their ocular movement. The INC is related to balance control of ambulation and disorders of the INC induce ambulatory disturbances. Cycloduction was only observed in the unaffected side, but Hess charts showed distortions of the visual image in both eyes. Ambulation was briefly improved, but diplopia persisted in these patients.
Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Mitsiou, Maria; Arabatzi, Fotini; Kellis, Eleftherios
The present study aimed to examine movement difficulties among typically developing 8- to 9-year-old elementary students in Greece and to investigate the possible effects of a balance training program to those children assessed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The Body Coordination Test for Children (BCTC; Körperkoordinationstest fur Kinder, KTK, Kiphard & Schilling, 1974) was chosen for the purposes of this study and 20 children out of the total number of 200, exhibited motor difficulties indicating a probable DCD disorder. The 20 students diagnosed with DCD were equally separated into two groups where each individual of the experimental group was paired with an individual of the control group. The intervention group attended a 12-week balance training program while students of the second - control group followed the regular school schedule. All participants were tested prior to the start and after the end of the 12-week period by performing static balance control tasks while standing on an EPS pressure platform and structured observation of trampoline exercises while videotaping. The results indicated that after a 12-week balance training circuit including a trampoline station program, the intervention group improved both factors that were examined. In conclusion, balance training with the use of attractive equipment such as trampoline can be an effective intervention for improving functional outcomes and can be recommended as an alternative mode of physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ptok, M; Ptok, A; Jungheim, M; Kühn, D; Miller, S
Otolaryngologists caring for patients with hearing and balance disorders are also responsible for advising patients about their increased risk of falling and informing them of fall prevention measures. This review will give a brief overview of appropriate programs. This systematic review is based on a selective literature search. Intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors can be distinguished. The former include not only hearing and balance disorders, but also increasing age, nocturia, dementia, limited mobility and poor nutritional status. Extrinsic factors include, for example, unfixed carpet edges, poor lighting and poor footwear. Fall prevention can be achieved through appropriate counselling about risk factors and fall prevention courses. The frequency of falls--with potentially very adverse consequences--increases continuously beyond the age of 60 years. Furthermore, the risk of falling is significantly increased in patients with hearing and balance disorders. Otolaryngologists caring for this patient group should inform them about their fall risk and advise appropriate countermeasures during counselling. A basal knowledge of fall prevention measures is therefore helpful.
Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani
Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to
Water and salt budgets suggest that in order to balance the inflow and outflow of water at Makoba bay, there is net flux of water from the bay to the open ocean during wet season. Residual salt fluxes between the bay and the open ocean indicate advective salt export. Exchange of water between the bay with the open ocean ...
van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Janowsky, David S; Olivier, Berend; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A
Bipolar disorder is a unique illness characterized by fluctuations between mood states of depression and mania. Originally, an adrenergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis was postulated to underlie these different affective states. In this review, we update this hypothesis with recent findings from human and animal studies, suggesting that a catecholaminergic-cholinergic hypothesis may be more relevant. Evidence from neuroimaging studies, neuropharmacological interventions, and genetic associations support the notion that increased cholinergic functioning underlies depression, whereas increased activations of the catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) underlie mania. Elevated functional acetylcholine during depression may affect both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a compensatory fashion. Increased functional dopamine and norepinephrine during mania on the other hand may affect receptor expression and functioning of dopamine reuptake transporters. Despite increasing evidence supporting this hypothesis, a relationship between these two neurotransmitter systems that could explain cycling between states of depression and mania is missing. Future studies should focus on the influence of environmental stimuli and genetic susceptibilities that may affect the catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance underlying cycling between the affective states. Overall, observations from recent studies add important data to this revised balance theory of bipolar disorder, renewing interest in this field of research. PMID:25107282
Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria
There is a need to develop a questionnaire as a research tool for the evaluation of water balance in the general population. The water balance questionnaire (WBQ) was designed to evaluate water intake from fluid and solid foods and drinking water, and water loss from urine, faeces and sweat at sedentary conditions and physical activity. For validation purposes, the WBQ was administrated in 40 apparently healthy participants aged 22-57 years (37.5% males). Hydration indices in urine (24 h volume, osmolality, specific gravity, pH, colour) were measured through established procedures. Furthermore, the questionnaire was administered twice to 175 subjects to evaluate its reliability. Kendall's τ-b and the Bland and Altman method were used to assess the questionnaire's validity and reliability. The proposed WBQ to assess water balance in healthy individuals was found to be valid and reliable, and it could thus be a useful tool in future projects that aim to evaluate water balance.
CityWaterBalance provides a reproducible workflow for studying an urban water system. The network of urban water flows and storages can be modeled and visualized. Any city may be modeled with preassembled data, but data for US cities can be gathered via web services using this package and dependencies, geoknife and dataRetrieval. Urban water flows are difficult to comprehensively quantify. Although many important data sources are openly available, they are published by a variety of agencies in different formats, units, spatial and temporal resolutions. Increasingly, open data are made available via web services, which allow for automated, current retrievals. Integrating data streams and estimating the values of unmeasured urban water flows, however, remains needlessly time-consuming. In order to streamline a reproducible analysis, we have developed the CityWaterBalance package for the open source R language. The CityWaterBalance package for R is based on a simple model of the network of urban water flows and storages. The model may be run with data that has been pre-assembled by the user, or data can be retrieved by functions in CityWaterBalance and dependencies. CityWaterBalance can be used to quickly assemble a quantitative portrait of any urban water system. The systemic effects of water management decisions can be readily explored. Much of the data acquisition process for US cities can already be automated, while the package serves as a place-hold
Work name: Utilization of balance equipment in windsurf beginners off water training. Aim of work: To determin and evaluate significance of balance equipment in off water training. Method: The method of comparative experiment have been used in this thesis. Than the obtained data were evaluated. It was nessesary to create and compare two groups of people, compound of young healthy individuals in the age 20 - 30 both male and female. The only condition for the research was their zero experience...
Jong Sam Baik
Full Text Available The various reported psychogenic dyskinesias include tremor, dystonia, myoclonus, gait disorder, Parkinsonism, tics, and chorea. It is not easy to diagnose psychogenic movement disorders, especially in patients with underlying organic disease. We describe three patients with balance and/or posture abnormalities that occur when they stand up, start to move, or halt from walking, although their gaits are normal. One had an underlying unilateral frontal lobe lesion. All patients improved dramatically after receiving a placebo-injection or medication. These abnormal features differ from the previously reported features of astasia without abasia and of psychogenic gait disorders, including recumbent gait. We describe and discuss the patients’ unique clinical characteristics.
boundaries for the AGUA study (39). This figure was developed from a LANDSAT photograph of the Albuquerque, New Mexico area. It clearly shows the boundaries of...Guide to Water-Management Alternatives. USGS Professional Paper 627-F. 12. Gilbert, J. B. and Associates, 1977. Report on Water Conservation Reuse and...Report on Water Conservation Reuse and Supply, San Francisco Bay Region, prepared by J. B. Gilbert and Associates, 1978. (12) Purposes of this study
Bart, Orit; Bar-Haim, Yair; Weizman, Einat; Levin, Moran; Sadeh, Avi; Mintz, Matti
Comorbidity between balance and anxiety disorders in adult population is a well-studied clinical entity. Children might be particularly prone to develop balance-anxiety comorbidity, but surprisingly they are practically neglected in this field of research. The consequence is that children are treated for what seems to be the primary disorder…
Jelsma, Dorothee; Geuze, Reint H; Mombarg, Remo; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.
The aim of this study was to examine differences in the performance of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) and balance problems (BP) and typical developing children (TD) on a Wii Fit task and to measure the effect on balance skills after a Wii Fit intervention.
Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M
Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Thompson, Sally; MacVean, Lissa; Sivapalan, Murugesu
The water balance dynamics in lowland watersheds are influenced not only by local hydroclimatic controls on energy and water availability, but also by imports of water from the upstream watershed. These imports result in a stochastic extent of inundation in lowland watersheds that is determined by the local flood regime, watershed topography, and the rate of loss processes such as drainage and evaporation. Thus, lowland watershed water balances depend on two stochastic processes—rainfall and local inundation dynamics. Lowlands are high productivity environments that are disproportionately associated with urbanization, high productivity agriculture, biodiversity, and flood risk. Consequently, they are being rapidly altered by human development—generally with clear economic and social motivation—but also with significant trade-offs in ecosystem services provision, directly related to changes in the components and variability of the lowland water balance. We present a stochastic framework to assess the lowland water balance and its sensitivity to two common human interventions—replacement of native vegetation with alternative land uses, and construction of local flood protection levees. By providing analytical solutions for the mean and PDF of the water balance components, the proposed framework provides a mechanism to connect human interventions to hydrologic outcomes, and, in conjunction with ecosystem service production estimates, to evaluate trade-offs associated with lowland watershed development.
Plagnes, Valérie; Schmid, Brad; Mitchell, Brett; Judd-Henrey, Ian
A water balance model was developed to forecast the management strategy of a uranium mill effluent system, located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Mining and milling operations, such as pit dewatering or treated effluent release, can potentially influence the hydrology and the water quality downstream of the operations. This study presents the methodology used to predict water volumes and water quality discharging downstream in surface water bodies. A compartment model representing the three subsequent lakes included in the management system was set up using the software GoldSim®. The water balance allows predicting lake volumes at the daily time step. A mass balance model developed for conservative elements was also developed and allows validating the proportions of inputs and outputs issued from the water balance model. This model was then used as predictive tool to evaluate the impact of different scenarios of effluents management on volumes and chemistry of surface water for short and longer time periods. An additional significant benefit of this model is that it can be used as an input for geochemical modelling to predict the concentrations of all constituents of concern in the receiving surface water.
The average annual open water evaporation, estimated from Colorado Class-A Pan records and Penman modified method is 23.49 million cubic .... Therefore, the ∆S term in equation 2 can be replaced by the net unmeasured ground .... appears that the steady-state water balance is reasonable. Because, the residual value ...
Henrichs, M; Langner, J; Uhl, M
During the last decade, water sensitive urban design (WSUD) has become more and more accepted. However, there is not any simple tool or option available to evaluate the influence of these measures on the local water balance. To counteract the impact of new settlements, planners focus on mitigating increases in runoff through installation of infiltration systems. This leads to an increasing non-natural groundwater recharge and decreased evapotranspiration. Simple software tools which evaluate or simulate the effect of WSUD on the local water balance are still needed. The authors developed a tool named WABILA (Wasserbilanz) that could support planners for optimal WSUD. WABILA is an easy-to-use planning tool that is based on simplified regression functions for established measures and land covers. Results show that WSUD has to be site-specific, based on climate conditions and the natural water balance.
Cionini, L; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia
Total body water, plasma volume and Na space have been studied in 34 patients receiving external radiotherapy on the pelvic region. Determinations were made on the same patients before, and half-way treatment; in a few cases, some determinations were also repeated after the end of treatment. The results failed to show any appreciable modification of the different parameters studied.
Full Text Available Hydrological water balance closure is a simple concept, yet in practice it is uncommon to measure every significant term independently in the field. Here we demonstrate the degree to which the field-scale water balance can be closed using only routine field observations in a seasonally frozen prairie pasture field site in Saskatchewan, Canada. Arrays of snow and soil moisture measurements were combined with a precipitation gauge and flux tower evapotranspiration estimates. We consider three hydrologically distinct periods: the snow accumulation period over the winter, the snowmelt period in spring, and the summer growing season. In each period, we attempt to quantify the residual between net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and the change in field-scale storage (snow and soil moisture, while accounting for measurement uncertainties. When the residual is negligible, a simple 1-D water balance with no net drainage is adequate. When the residual is non-negligible, we must find additional processes to explain the result. We identify the hydrological fluxes which confound the 1-D water balance assumptions during different periods of the year, notably blowing snow and frozen soil moisture redistribution during the snow accumulation period, and snowmelt runoff and soil drainage during the melt period. Challenges associated with quantifying these processes, as well as uncertainties in the measurable quantities, caution against the common use of water balance residuals to estimate fluxes and constrain models in such a complex environment.
Bonaccil, Ognjen; Horvat, Bojana
The paper presents recent results of water balance of the Republic of Croatia based on definition of average values for the thirty years period from 1961 to 1990. The long-term mean hydrological balance for the seventeen watersheds is presented as P·Q=ET, where P is average annual precipitation in a watershed, Q is average annual runoff from the watershed, and ET is average annual evapotranspiration (runoff deficit) from a watershed given in mm and m3/s. The simplified water balances according to given equation does not consider the distribution of hydrological variables into components as well as: variation of water storage within the catchment; water volumes infiltrating in or flowing out from the deep strata, etc. Most of the runoff data is based on the measured values, while the dispersed surface water and groundwater flows are estimated using regional analyses. The annual average precipitation is 1162 mm or 2083 m 3 /s. The annual average inner water runoff is 461 mm or 827m 3 /s, while transit water runoff is 2303 mm or 4130 m 3 /s. Croatia is the country rich in water with unevenly (in space and time) distributed water resources due to extremely variable geological setting (karst and flatland) and different climatic conditions (Mediterranean and continental climate).(Author)
Dolle, L.; Bazin, J.
In the tritium balance of pressurized water reactors, using boric acid and lithium in the cooling water, contribution of the tritium produced by fission, diffusing through the zircalloy of the fuel cladding estimated to 0.1%, was not in agreement with quantities measured in reactors. It is still difficult to estimate what percentage is represented by the tritium formed by fission in the fuel, owing to diffusion through cladding. The tritium balance in different working nuclear power stations is consequently of interest. The tritium balance method in the water of the cooling circuit of PWR is fast and experimentally simple. It is less sensitive to errors originating from fission yields than balance of tritium produced by fission in the fuel. A tritium balance in the water of the cooling circuit of Biblis-A, with a specific burn-up of 18000 MWd/t gives a better precision. Diffusion rate of tritium produced by fission was less than 0.2%. So low a contribution is a justification to the use of lithium with an isotopic purity of 99.9% of lithium 7 to limit at a low value the residual lithium 6 [fr
Stephenson, N. L.
Because the climatic water balance describes the seasonal interactions of energy (heat and solar radiation) and water in biologically meaningful ways, it provides a powerful tool for understanding and predicting the effects of climatic changes on the terrestrial biosphere. I begin with a brief overview of the definitions and interpretations of the biologically most important water balance parameters -- actual evapotranspiration (AET) and climatic water deficit (Deficit) -- and how the particular approach used to calculate these parameters depends both on the goals of the study and on the available climatic data. Some authors have attempted to represent aspects of the climatic water balance with indices based on annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) and precipitation (P), such at P/PET or PET - P. However, these and related indices do not reflect soil water dynamics, snow dynamics, or the seasonal interactions of energy and water, and therefore have no biological interpretation. Consequently, such indices are more poorly correlated with ecological patterns and processes than AET and Deficit. Of critical importance, the effects of changing energy and water supplies on the climatic water balance are nearly orthogonal. For example, a plant community growing on shallow soils on a shaded slope and one growing on deep soils on a sunward slope often may have the same amount of measured soil moisture available to them. However, the dynamics of energy and water that resulted in the identical soil moistures were fundamentally different (decreased evaporative demand on the shaded slope versus increased water supply on the deep soils); the associated differences in AET and Deficit will therefore result in different plant communities occupying the sites, in spite of identical soil moistures. In the context of climatic change, the orthogonal effects of energy and water mean that increasing precipitation cannot be expected to counteract the effects of increasing temperature
Full Text Available The availability of water resources is one of the major drivers affecting forest and agricultural productivity. The sensitivity of Mediterranean forest species to water shortage is becoming even more relevant in relation to climate changes, that for Southern Europe could lead to an increase in temperature of 2 to 3 °C, paralleled by a decrease of 5 to 15% of summer rainfall. It is then important to study the relationship between water balance and productivity of important forest tree species such as beech and mountain pines that represent the upper limit of forest vegetation in almost all the Apennines range. In the present paper, the measurements of water balance, evapotranspiration, carbon exchange and productivity in beech and pine forests of central-southern Italy (Abruzzo and Calabria regions are reported. The results are obtained in the course of several years of experimentation with innovative techniques and integrated at the canopy level.
As a result, the importance of fresh water to economic development, quality of life, ... Case studies from Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Turkey, and North ... balances and propose methods for regional cooperation in the management of ... An IDRC delegation will join international delegates and city representatives at the ...
A statistical downscaling known for producing station-scale climate information from GCM output was preferred to evaluate the impacts of climate change within the Mount Makiling forest watershed, Philippines. The lumped hydrologic BROOK90 model was utilized for the water balance assessment of climate change ...
McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.
An analysis of simulated global water-balance components (precipitation [P], actual evapotranspiration [AET], runoff [R], and potential evapotranspiration [PET]) for the past century indicates that P has been the primary driver of variability in R. Additionally, since about 2000, there have been increases in P, AET, R, and PET for most of the globe. The increases in R during 2000 through 2009 have occurred despite unprecedented increases in PET. The increases in R are the result of substantial increases in P during the cool Northern Hemisphere months (i.e. October through March) when PET increases were relatively small; the largest PET increases occurred during the warm Northern Hemisphere months (April through September). Additionally, for the 2000 through 2009 period, the latitudinal distribution of P departures appears to co-vary with the mean P departures from 16 climate model projections of the latitudinal response of P to warming, except in the high latitudes. Finally, changes in water-balance variables appear large from the perspective of departures from the long-term means. However, when put into the context of the magnitudes of the raw water balance variable values, there appears to have been little change in any of the water-balance variables over the past century on a global or hemispheric scale.
Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.
In order to evaluate the magnitude of radionuclide transport at an aird site, a field and modeling study was conducted to measure and predict water movement under vegetated and bare soil conditions. Significant quantities of water were found to move below the roo of a shallow-rooted grass-covered area during wet years at the Hanford site. The unsaturated water flow model, UNSAT-1D, was resonably successful in simulating the transient behavior of the water balance at this site. The effects of layered soils on water balance were demonstrated using the model. Models used to evaluate water balance in arid regions should not rely on annual averages and assume that all precipitation is removed by evapotranspiration. The potential for drainage at arid sites exists under conditions where shallow rooted plants grow on coarse textured soils. This condition was observed at our study site at Hanford. Neutron probe data collected on a cheatgrass community at the Hanford site during a wet year indicated that over 5 cm of water drained below the 3.5-m depth. The unsaturated water flow model, UNSAT-1D, predicted water drainage of about 5 cm (single layer, 10 months) and 3.5 cm (two layers, 12 months) for the same time period. Additional field measurements of hydraulic conductivity will likely improve the drainage estimate made by UNSAT-1D. Additional information describing cheatgrass growth and water use at the grass site could improve model predictions of sink terms and subsequent calculations of water storage within the rooting zone. In arid areas where the major part of the annual precipitation occurs during months with low average potential evapotranspiration and where soils are vegetated but are coarse textured and well drained, significant drainage can occur. 31 references, 18 figures, 1 table
Full Text Available The paper presents investigations on the water balance of an earth fill built of organic clay in humid climate. As the organic soil used for the fill contains geogenetically elevated concentrations of arsenic, particular attention is paid on the seepage flow through the fill. The test fill is 5 m high, 30 m long and 25 m wide. The fill consists of the organic clay compacted at water contents wet and dry of Proctor Optimum covered by a drainage mat and a 60 cm thick top layer. For the determination of the water balance extensive measuring systems were installed. The seepage at the bottom measured so far was less than 2 % of the precipitation. The interflow in the drainage mat above the compacted organic clay was of similar magnitude. The estimated evapotranspiration reached approx. 84 % of the precipitation. According to these measurements the percolation is much lower than the percolation of many landfill covers in humid climates.
Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of the study of water balance and surface heat balance in the Doñana marshlands. The study was based on a broad base of hydrometeorological data taken at 10 minute intervals from 2006 to 2011 by a network of six measuring stations located in areas of vegetation-free marsh. This information is used to characterize, at different time scales, the thermal behavior of the marsh by analyzing its hydrometeorology centering on the surface heat fluxes. Thus, we have modeled and analyzed the heat flux between the water and flooded soil and the processes of heat transfer between the water surface and the atmosphere. Special attention has been paid to evaporation, on which the marsh draining process depends.
Liu, W.; Xie, X.
We demonstrated that ocean surface fresh water flux less the water discharge into the ocean from river and ice melt balances the mass loss in the ocean both in magnitude and in the phase of annual variation. The surface water flux was computed from the divergence of the water transport integrated over the depth of the atmosphere. The atmospheric water transport is estimated from the precipitable water measured by Special Sensor Microwave Imager, the surface wind vector by QuikSCAT, and the NOAA cloud drift wind through a statistical model. The transport has been extensively validated using global radiosonde and data and operational numerical weather prediction results. Its divergence has been shown to agree with the difference between evaporation estimated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer data and the precipitation measured by Tropical Rain Measuring Mission over the global tropical and subtropical oceans both in magnitude and geographical distribution for temporal scales ranging from intraseasonal to interannual. The water loss rate in the ocean is estimated by two methods, one is from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and the other is by subtracting the climatological steric change from the sea level change measured by radar altimeter on Jason. Only climatological river discharge and ice melt from in situ measurements are available and the lack of temporal variation may contribute to discrepancies in the balance. We have successfully used the spacebased surface fluxes to estimate to climatological mean heat transport in the Atlantic ocean and is attempting to estimate the meridional fresh water (or salt) transport from the surface flux. The approximate closure of the water balance gives a powerful indirect validation of the spacebased products.
Pizzolla, Teresa; Manfreda, Salvatore; Caylor, Kelly; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito
The spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture influences the plant growth and the distribution of terrestrial vegetation. This effect is more evident in arid and semiarid ecosystems where the interaction between individuals and the water limited conditions play a fundamental role, providing environmental conditions which drive a variety of non-linear ecohydrological response functions (such as transpiration, photosynthesis, leakage). In this context, modeling vegetation patterns at multiple spatial aggregation scales is important to understand how different vegetation structures can modify the soil water distribution and the exchanged fluxes between soil and atmosphere. In the present paper, the effect of different spatial vegetation patterns, under different climatic scenarios, is investigated in a patchy vegetation mosaic generated by a random process of individual tree canopies and their accompanying root system. Vegetation pattern are generated using the mathematical framework proposed by Caylor et al. (2006) characterized by a three dimensional stochastic vegetation structure, based on the density, dispersion, size distribution, and allometry of individuals within a landscape. A Poisson distribution is applied to generate different distribution of individuals paying particular attention on the role of clumping on water distribution dynamics. The soil water balance is evaluated using the analytical expression proposed by Laio et al. (2001) to explore the influence of climate and vegetation patterns on soil water balance steady-state components (such as the average rates of evaporation, the root water uptake and leakage) and on the stress-weighted plant water uptake. Results of numerical simulations show that clumping may be beneficial for water use efficiency at the landscape scale. References Caylor, Kelly K., P. D'Odorico and I. Rodriguez Iturbe: On the ecohydrology of structurally heterogeneous semiarid landscape. Water Resour. Res., 28, W07424, 2006
Larivière, Nadine; Denis, Catherine; Payeur, Amélie; Ferron, Amélie; Levesque, Stéphanie; Rivard, Guillaume
Life balance is associated to health, well-being and quality of life and is a target of psychiatric rehabilitation interventions. However, little is known about this life dimension in women living with personality disorders. The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to compare and explore relationships between subjective life balance, objective time use, quality of life and perceived stress in women without a mental health disorder (n = 43) and women with a personality disorder (clusters B and C) (n = 30), aged between 18 and 50 years old. The variables were measured with the Life Balance Inventory (subjective life balance), the Occupational Questionnaire (objective time use), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (perceived stress) and the Quality of Life Index (satisfaction and importance with life domains). The analyses showed that women with a personality disorder spend significantly less time in work but more time in daily tasks and leisure. Subjective life balance, quality of life and perceived stress were significantly lower in women with a personality disorder (p life balance was explained by quality of life (R 2 = 27.5 %). In women without a mental illness, subjective life balance was explained by quality of life and motherhood (R 2 = 36.1 %). To support the recovery of women with personality disorders and their quality of life, it is important to address objective and subjective time use to enable accomplishment of a variety of meaningful activities.
One of the major tasks in the field of hydraulic power engineering refers to machines and equipment modernization in the hydropower plants and pumped storage power plants commissioned more than 20 years ago. The increase of hydraulic units operation efficiency will allow in a number of cases to substantially reduce the specific water consumption and to drive the output of electric energy up. In these cases it is crucial to find out the operational efficiency of individual system elements and to precisely focus the modernization endeavours on such elements where the energy losses go beyond all admissible limits. Besides, the determination of the energy losses in the hydro energy turbo system will allow valid defining of hydraulic units operational scope. This work treats the methods of balance study of a hydraulic unit with Peiton water turbine. The experimental results of the balance study of Belmeken pumped storage power plant hydraulic unit No 5 under turbine operational mode are presented
Fil, N.S.; Allen, P.J.; Kirmse, R.E.; Kurihara, M.; Oh, S.J.; Sinha, R.K.
Advanced concepts of the water-cooled reactors are intended to improve safety, economics and public perception of nuclear power. The potential inclusion of new passive means in addition or instead of traditional active systems is being considered by nuclear plant designers to reach these goals. With respect to plant safety, application of the passive means is mainly intended to simplify the safety systems and to improve their reliability, to mitigate the effect of human errors and equipment malfunction. However, some clear drawbacks and the limited experience and testing of passive systems may raise additional questions that have to be addressed in the design process for each advanced reactor. Therefore the plant designer should find a reasonable balance of active and passive means to effectively use their advantages and compensate their drawbacks. Some considerations that have to be taken into account when balancing active/passive means in advanced water-cooled reactors are discussed in this paper. (author)
Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Gee, G.W.; Kanyid, M.J.
The purpose of this report is to present water-balance data collected in 1988 and 1989 from the 300 Area Buried Waste Test Facility and Grass Site, and the 200 East Area closed-bottom lysimeter. This report is an annual update of previous recharge status reports by Gee, Rockhold, and Downs, and Gee. Data from several other lysimeter sites are included for comparison. 43 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs
The impact of British Columbia Hydro's operations on the 100 different species and sub-species of fish found in the rivers of BC is discussed. The utility operates 30 hydroelectric facilities and 31 reservoirs in 6 major river basins and 27 watersheds. Three-quarters of the hydroelectricity is produced at major installations on the Peace and Columbia river systems. This booklet describes how, in their water use planning and decision-making, the utility considers impacts on aquatic and terrestrial habitats, flood control, domestic water supply and transport, as well as aesthetic requirements and recreational use. figs
Kucharik, Christopher J.; Foley, Jonathan A.; Delire, Christine; Fisher, Veronica A.; Coe, Michael T.; Lenters, John D.; Young-Molling, Christine; Ramankutty, Navin; Norman, John M.; Gower, Stith T.
While a new class of Dynamic Global Ecosystem Models (DGEMs) has emerged in the past few years as an important tool for describing global biogeochemical cycles and atmosphere-biosphere interactions, these models are still largely untested. Here we analyze the behavior of a new DGEM and compare the results to global-scale observations of water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure. In this study, we use version 2 of the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), which includes several major improvements and additions to the prototype model developed by Foley et al. . IBIS is designed to be a comprehensive model of the terrestrial biosphere; the model represents a wide range of processes, including land surface physics, canopy physiology, plant phenology, vegetation dynamics and competition, and carbon and nutrient cycling. The model generates global simulations of the surface water balance (e.g., runoff), the terrestrial carbon balance (e.g., net primary production, net ecosystem exchange, soil carbon, aboveground and belowground litter, and soil CO2 fluxes), and vegetation structure (e.g., biomass, leaf area index, and vegetation composition). In order to test the performance of the model, we have assembled a wide range of continental and global-scale data, including measurements of river discharge, net primary production, vegetation structure, root biomass, soil carbon, litter carbon, and soil CO2 flux. Using these field data and model results for the contemporary biosphere (1965-1994), our evaluation shows that simulated patterns of runoff, NPP, biomass, leaf area index, soil carbon, and total soil CO2 flux agree reasonably well with measurements that have been compiled from numerous ecosystems. These results also compare favorably to other global model results.
Dominici, Nadia; Keller, Urs; Vallery, Heike; Friedli, Lucia; van den Brand, Rubia; Starkey, Michelle L; Musienko, Pavel; Riener, Robert; Courtine, Grégoire
Central nervous system (CNS) disorders distinctly impair locomotor pattern generation and balance, but technical limitations prevent independent assessment and rehabilitation of these subfunctions. Here we introduce a versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train pattern generation and
The terrestrial runoff component is a comparatively small but sensitive and thus significant quantity in the global energy and water cycle at the interface between landmass and atmosphere. As opposed to soil moisture and evapotranspiration which critically determine water vapour fluxes and thus water and energy transport, it can be measured as an integrated quantity over a large area, i.e. the river basin. This peculiarity makes terrestrial runoff ideally suited for the calibration, verification and validation of general circulation models (GCMs). Gauging stations are not homogeneously distributed in space. Moreover, time series are not necessarily continuously measured nor do they in general have overlapping time periods. To overcome this problems with regard to regular grid spacing used in GCMs, different methods can be applied to transform irregular data to regular so called gridded runoff fields. The present work aims to directly compute the gridded components of the monthly water balance (including gridded runoff fields) for Europe by application of the well-established raster-based macro-scale water balance model WABIMON used at the Federal Institute of Hydrology, Germany. Model calibration and validation is performed by separated examination of 29 representative European catchments. Results indicate a general applicability of the model delivering reliable overall patterns and integrated quantities on a monthly basis. For time steps less then too weeks further research and structural improvements of the model are suggested. (orig.)
Murdin, Louisa; Schilder, Anne G M
INTRODUCTION: Balance disorders presenting with symptoms of dizziness or vertigo may have significant impact on quality of life and are a recognized risk factor for falls. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the published literature on the epidemiology of balance
Djoni Prawira Rahardja
Full Text Available Water balance of 5 does of Kacang goat of Jeneponto was studied under the condition of sunlight exposure and water restriction. The study was conducted in dry season with 4 consecutive treatments of 10 d with 4-5 d of adjustment period between two consecutive treatments: (1 indoor and unrestricted water; (2 indoor and restricted water; (3 10 h outdoor–and unrestricted water; (4 10 h outdoor – restricted water. The maximum air temperature of outdoor was 39.3OC, and it was 30OC in the indoor environment. In all treatments, the animals were placed in the individual crates. The plasma volume of the goats was higher under sunlight exposure, but it decreased by water restriction, while hematocrite value indicated a reverse responses. Sunlight exposure did not significantly decrease the intake and digestion of organic matter, but water restriction affected significantly and this effect was higher under sunlight exposre. The proportions of water loss through every avenue were maintained relatively constant either under water restriction or sunlight exposure in which the respration rate increased significantly. The findings suggest that sunlight exposure with unrestricted water resulted in a positive water balance without a significant change in organic matter intake and utilization. Water restriction resulted in a negative water balance, reducing organic matter intake and utilization. As the adaptive mechanisms, the goat appeared to be able to withstand in the harsh environment of Jeneponto by expanding plasma volume, increasing body temperature and respiration rate.
Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio
China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.
Fadlillah, Lintang N; Widyastuti, M
Lakes provide water resources for domestic use, livestock, irrigational use, etc. Water availability of lakes can be estimated using lake water balance. Lake water balance is calculated from the water input and output of a lake. Dieng Highland has several volcanic lakes in its surroundings. Lake Merdada in Dieng Highland has been experiencing extensive water pumping for several years more than other lakes in the surrounding area. It provides irrigation water for potato farming in Dieng Highland. The hydrological model of this lake has not been studied. The modeled water balance in this research uses primary data, i.e., bathymetric data, soil texture, and outflow discharge, as well as secondary data, i.e., rainfall, temperature, Landsat 7 ETM+ band 8 image, and land use. Water balance input components consist of precipitation on the surface area, surface (direct) runoff from the catchment area, and groundwater inflow and outflow (G net), while the output components consist of evaporation, river outflow, and irrigation. It shows that groundwater is the dominant input and output of the lake. On the other hand, the actual irrigation water pumping plays the leading role as human-induced alteration of outflow discharge. The maximum irrigation pumping modeling shows that it will decrease lake storage up to 37.14 % per month and may affect the ecosystem inside the lake.
Timm, Anne; Wessolek, Gerd
With increased urbanisation, soil sealing and its drastic effects on hydrological processes have received a lot of attention. Based on safety concerns, there has been a clear focus on urban drainage and prevention of urban floods caused by storm water events. For this reason, any kind of sealing is often seen as impermeable runoff generator that prevents infiltration and evaporation. While many hydrological models, especially storm water models, have been developed, there are only a handful of empirical studies actually measuring the hydrological balance of (partially) sealed surfaces. These challenge the general assumption of negligible infiltration and evaporation and show that these processes take place even for severe sealing such as asphalt. Depending on the material, infiltration from partially sealed surfaces can be equal to that of vegetated ones. Therefore, more detailed knowledge is needed to improve our understanding and models. In Berlin, two partially sealed weighable lysimeters were equipped with multiple temperature and soil moisture sensors in order to study their hydrological balance, as well as water and heat transport processes within the soil profile. This combination of methods affirms previous observations and offers new insights into altered hydrological processes of partially sealed surfaces at a small temporal scale. It could be verified that not all precipitation is transformed into runoff. Even for a relatively high sealing degree of concrete slabs with narrow seams, evaporation and infiltration may exceed runoff. Due to the lack of plant roots, the hydrological balance is mostly governed by precipitation events and evaporation generally occurs directly after rainfall. However, both surfaces allow for upward water transport from the upper underlying soil layers, sometimes resulting in relatively low evaporation rates on days without precipitation. The individual response of the surfaces differs considerably, which illustrates how
McCabe, Gregory J.; Markstrom, Steven L.
This report describes a monthly water-balance model driven by a graphical user interface, referred to as the Thornthwaite monthly water-balance program. Computations of monthly water-balance components of the hydrologic cycle are made for a specified location. The program can be used as a research tool, an assessment tool, and a tool for classroom instruction.
Krogerus, Kirsti; Pasanen, Antti
Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks, they still face environmental management challenges. Several recent environmental incidents in Finnish mines have raised questions regarding mine site environmental and water management practices. This has increased public awareness of mining threats to the environment and resulted in stricter permits and longer permitting procedures. Water balance modelling aids in predictive water management and reduces risks caused ...
Full Text Available A large-scale implementation of individual water meters in water charging systems has created problems with a water shortage that have to be settled between real estate managers and water and sewage utilities. The article presents the observations and experiences from operation of a water metering system at the Krakow agglomeration. The studies have confirmed that many small leaks in installations, taps, faucets, flush toilets as well as system failures and the incidences of water stealing are still the factors responsible for significant differences in the water balance in the apartment buildings.
A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.
Ali, Alfatih; Kalisch, Henrik
Depth-integrated long-wave models, such as the shallow-water and Boussinesq equations, are standard fare in the study of small amplitude surface waves in shallow water. While the shallow-water theory features conservation of mass, momentum and energy for smooth solutions, mechanical balance equations are not widely used in Boussinesq scaling, and it appears that the expressions for many of these quantities are not known. This work presents a systematic derivation of mass, momentum and energy densities and fluxes associated with a general family of Boussinesq systems. The derivation is based on a reconstruction of the velocity field and the pressure in the fluid column below the free surface, and the derivation of differential balance equations which are of the same asymptotic validity as the evolution equations. It is shown that all these mechanical quantities can be expressed in terms of the principal dependent variables of the Boussinesq system: the surface excursion η and the horizontal velocity w at a given level in the fluid.
Tsang, William W N; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y
In addition to environmental factors, deteriorating sensorimotor control of balance will predispose older adults to falls. Understanding the aging effects on sensorimotor control of balance performance is important for designing fall prevention programs for older adults. How repeated practice of Tai Chi can improve limb joint proprioception, integration of neural signals in the central nervous system for balance control, and motor output at the level of knee muscles is discussed in this chapter. Our previous studies showed that elderly Tai Chi practitioners performed significantly better than elderly nonpractitioners in (1) knee joint proprioception, (2) reduced or conflicting sensory situations that demand more visual or vestibular contributions, (3) standing balance control after vestibular stimulation without visual input, (4) voluntary weight shifting in different directions within the base of support, (5) single-leg stance during perturbations of the support surface, and (6) knee extensor and flexor muscle strength. In a prospective study, we further showed that 4 weeks of daily Tai Chi practice but not general education produced significant improvement in balance performance. The requirements of Tai Chi for accurate joint positioning and weight transfer involving smooth coordination of neck, trunk, upper and lower limb movements, make it particularly useful for improving the sensorimotor control of balance in the elderly. Because Tai Chi can be practiced any time and anywhere, and is well accepted by older people in both the East and now the West, it is especially suited to be a key component of a low-costing community-based fall prevention program alongside with education about environmental factors.
Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.
Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the
Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R.
A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.
Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo
To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.
Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.
Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.
Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (1 to estimate the water balance components of an oak standby calibrating a Hydrus 1-D model, (2 to determine the groundwater consumption by the water tablefluctuation method and (3 to compare the results of the modelling with a remote-sensing based estimation.Model simulation described the observed soil moisture and groundwater level relatively well, theroot mean square errors varied between 12.0 and 14.9% for the soil moisture measurements and 5.0%for the groundwater level. Groundwater consumption was estimated also by the water table fluctuationmethod, which provided slightly different groundwater consumption rates than estimated by theHydrus model simulation. The simulated evapotranspiration was compared with results of a remotesensingbased estimation using the surface temperature database of MODIS.According to the Hydrus model, the estimated evapotranspiration resulted from transpiration(73%, interception loss (23% and soil surface evaporation (4% in the two-year study period. Theproportion of groundwater consumption was 58% of the total transpiration. During the dry growingseason of 2007 the groundwater consumption was significant with 66% of the total transpiration.Water supply from groundwater was found to be less important in the wet growing season of 2008with 50%. The remote-sensing based estimation of evapotranspiration was about 4% lower than themodel based results of nearby comparable sites.
Full Text Available Background: Balance disorders are common in patients following stroke. There are a number of physiotherapy modalities to treat balance impairments, one of which is vibration. The effects of vibration on balance disorders after stroke have not been investigated. This case report demonstrates the short-term effects of plantar vibration on the balance impairment of a patient with stroke. Case presentation: A 72-years-old man with right hemiplegia resulted from stroke was admitted for vibration therapy after not responding to standard rehabilitation interventions. He complained of balance problems despite walking independently. Main studied outcomes were timed up and go test and posturography. Foot sensation, ankle plantar flexor spasticity, and the passive range of ankle dorsiflexion were assessed, as well. Vibration with a frequency of 100 Hz was introduced to the sole of the affected foot for 5 minutes. After intervention, all tests were improved compared to the baselines. Conclusion: This case showed that the vibration was effective for improving balance disorder after stroke.
Troch, Peter A.; Mancini, Marco; Paniconi, Claudio; Wood, Eric F.
The validity of some of the simplifying assumptions in a conceptual water balance model is investigated by comparing simulation results from the conceptual model with simulation results from a three-dimensional physically based numerical model and with field observations. We examine, in particular, assumptions and simplifications related to water table dynamics, vertical soil moisture and pressure head distributions, and subsurface flow contributions to stream discharge. The conceptual model relies on a topographic index to predict saturation excess runoff and on Philip's infiltration equation to predict infiltration excess runoff. The numerical model solves the three-dimensional Richards equation describing flow in variably saturated porous media, and handles seepage face boundaries, infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff production, and soil driven and atmosphere driven surface fluxes. The study catchments (a 7.2 sq km catchment and a 0.64 sq km subcatchment) are located in the North Appalachian ridge and valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic data collected during the MACHYDRO 90 field experiment are used to calibrate the models and to evaluate simulation results. It is found that water table dynamics as predicted by the conceptual model are close to the observations in a shallow water well and therefore, that a linear relationship between a topographic index and the local water table depth is found to be a reasonable assumption for catchment scale modeling. However, the hydraulic equilibrium assumption is not valid for the upper 100 cm layer of the unsaturated zone and a conceptual model that incorporates a root zone is suggested. Furthermore, theoretical subsurface flow characteristics from the conceptual model are found to be different from field observations, numerical simulation results, and theoretical baseflow recession characteristics based on Boussinesq's groundwater equation.
Jirikowic, Tracy; Westcott McCoy, Sarah; Price, Robert; Ciol, Marcia A; Hsu, Lin-Ya; Kartin, Deborah
To examine the effects of Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement, and Learning (STABEL), a virtual reality system to train sensory adaptation for balance control, for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Twenty-three children with FASDs received STABEL training in a university laboratory, or home, or were controls. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance-2 (P-CTSIB-2) were analyzed by group (lab, home, and control), session (pre-STABEL, 1 week post-STABEL, and 1 month post-STABEL), and group-by-session interaction. Significant effects were group and session for MABC-2 Balance and interaction for MABC-2 Total Motor and P-CTSIB-2. Preliminary results support improved sensory adaptation, balance, and motor performance post-STABEL, which warrant further study with a larger, randomized sample.
H. Müller Schmied
Full Text Available The assessment of water balance components using global hydrological models is subject to climate forcing uncertainty as well as to an increasing intensity of human water use within the 20th century. The uncertainty of five state-of-the-art climate forcings and the resulting range of cell runoff that is simulated by the global hydrological model WaterGAP is presented. On the global land surface, about 62 % of precipitation evapotranspires, whereas 38 % discharges into oceans and inland sinks. During 1971–2000, evapotranspiration due to human water use amounted to almost 1 % of precipitation, while this anthropogenic water flow increased by a factor of approximately 5 between 1901 and 2010. Deviation of estimated global discharge from the ensemble mean due to climate forcing uncertainty is approximately 4 %. Precipitation uncertainty is the most important reason for the uncertainty of discharge and evapotranspiration, followed by shortwave downward radiation. At continental levels, deviations of water balance components due to uncertain climate forcing are higher, with the highest discharge deviations occurring for river discharge in Africa (−6 to 11 % from the ensemble mean. Uncertain climate forcings also affect the estimation of irrigation water use and thus the estimated human impact of river discharge. The uncertainty range of global irrigation water consumption amounts to approximately 50 % of the global sum of water consumption in the other water use sector.
Wang, Yanqiu; Huang, Xiaorong; Gao, Linyun; Guo, Biying; Ma, Kai
Water resources are not only basic natural resources, but also strategic economic resources and ecological control factors. Water resources carrying capacity constrains the sustainable development of regional economy and society. Studies of water resources carrying capacity can provide helpful information about how the socioeconomic system is both supported and restrained by the water resources system. Based on the research of different scholars, major problems in the study of water resources carrying capacity were summarized as follows: the definition of water resources carrying capacity is not yet unified; the methods of carrying capacity quantification based on the definition of inconsistency are poor in operability; the current quantitative research methods of water resources carrying capacity did not fully reflect the principles of sustainable development; it is difficult to quantify the relationship among the water resources, economic society and ecological environment. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a better quantitative evaluation method to determine the regional water resources carrying capacity. This paper proposes a new approach to quantifying water resources carrying capacity (that is, through the compilation of the water resources balance sheet) to get a grasp of the regional water resources depletion and water environmental degradation (as well as regional water resources stock assets and liabilities), figure out the squeeze of socioeconomic activities on the environment, and discuss the quantitative calculation methods and technical route of water resources carrying capacity which are able to embody the substance of sustainable development.
Experiments were performed to determine the water balance of Pisum sativm to fluorine compounds. The results indicate that fluorine compounds in the substrate caused a withering of the above soil portions of the plants due to a disruption in the water balance. Water intake was generally observed to be reduced along with an increase in F concentration.
Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R
A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.
Jelsma, L.D.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Geuze, R.H.
Changes in dynamic balance control over time in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder L.D. Jelsma1, B.C.M. Smits-Engelsman2 & R.H. Geuze1 1Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2-1, 9712 TS Groningen, the Netherlands.
Steger, Christian R.; Reijmer, Carleen H.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.
Recent studies indicate that the surface mass balance will dominate the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) contribution to 21st century sea level rise. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the liquid water balance (LWB) of the ice sheet and its response to increasing surface melt. We therefore analyse a firn simulation conducted with the SNOWPACK model for the GrIS and over the period 1960-2014 with a special focus on the LWB and refreezing. Evaluations of the simulated refreezing climate with GRACE and firn temperature observations indicate a good model-observation agreement. Results of the LWB analysis reveal a spatially uniform increase in surface melt (0.16 m w.e. a-1) during 1990-2014. As a response, refreezing and run-off also indicate positive changes during this period (0.05 and 0.11 m w.e. a-1, respectively), where refreezing increases at only half the rate of run-off, implying that the majority of the additional liquid input runs off the ice sheet. This pattern of refreeze and run-off is spatially variable. For instance, in the south-eastern part of the GrIS, most of the additional liquid input is buffered in the firn layer due to relatively high snowfall rates. Modelled increase in refreezing leads to a decrease in firn air content and to a substantial increase in near-surface firn temperature. On the western side of the ice sheet, modelled firn temperature increases are highest in the lower accumulation zone and are primarily caused by the exceptional melt season of 2012. On the eastern side, simulated firn temperature increases are more gradual and are associated with the migration of firn aquifers to higher elevations.
Dominici, Nadia; Keller, Urs; Vallery, Heike; Friedli, Lucia; van den Brand, Rubia; Starkey, Michelle L; Musienko, Pavel; Riener, Robert; Courtine, Grégoire
Central nervous system (CNS) disorders distinctly impair locomotor pattern generation and balance, but technical limitations prevent independent assessment and rehabilitation of these subfunctions. Here we introduce a versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train pattern generation and balance independently during natural walking behaviors in rats. In evaluation mode, the robotic interface affords detailed assessments of pattern generation and dynamic equilibrium after spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke. In enabling mode,the robot acts as a propulsive or postural neuroprosthesis that instantly promotes unexpected locomotor capacities including overground walking after complete SCI, stair climbing following partial SCI and precise paw placement shortly after stroke. In training mode, robot-enabled rehabilitation, epidural electrical stimulation and monoamine agonists reestablish weight-supported locomotion, coordinated steering and balance in rats with a paralyzing SCI. This new robotic technology and associated concepts have broad implications for both assessing and restoring motor functions after CNS disorders, both in animals and in humans.
McClennan, B.; Rae, P.; McGonegal, K.
Alternative water management policies for the Rideau Canal system in eastern Ontario were examined. The methodology of analysis and the impact of policy changes on hydro power production were also focussed on. A historical account of the construction and background of the canal system was providid. Water uses such as navigation, hydroelectric power generation, natural environment, flood abatement, recreation, and water supply were described. Current water management practice was outlined. Various single purpose water management policies were investigated. The impact of the most significant policies on hydroelectric power production were discussed. Integrated policy alternatives were presented and their general effects were described. No long term policy was finalized at the time of writing, but a number of short term operating practices were considered, among them to adjust spring flows for walleye, store flows in the Big Rideau for ice flushings, balance drawdown among reservoirs and raise navigation levels in certain lakes
Chitu, Zenaida; Villani, Giulia; Tomei, Fausto; Minciuna, Marian; Aldea, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Trifu, Cristina; Neagu, Dumitru
Balta Brailei is one of the largest agriculture area in the Danube floodplain, located in SE of Romania. An impressive irrigation system, that covered about 53.500 ha and transferred water from the Danube River, was carried out in the period 1960-1980. Even if the water resources for agriculture in this area cover in most of the cases the volumes required by irrigation water users, the irrigation infrastructure issues as the position of the pumping stations against the river levels hinder the use of the water during low flows periods. An efficient optimization of water allocation in agriculture could avoid periods with water deficit in the irrigation systems. Hydrological processes are essentials in describing the mass and energy exchanges in the atmosphere-plant-soil system. Furthermore, the hydrological regime in this area is very dynamic with many feedback mechanisms between the various parts of the surface and subsurface water regimes. Agricultural crops depend on capillary rise from the shallow groundwater table and irrigation. For an effective optimization of irrigation water in Balta Brailei, we propose to analyse the water balance taking into consideration the water movement into the root zone and the influence of the Danube river, irrigation channel system and the shallow aquifer by combining the soil water balance model CRITERIA and GMS hydrogeological model. CRITERIA model is used for simulating water movement into the soil, while GMS model is used for simulating the shallow groundwater level variation. The understanding of the complex feedbacks between atmosphere, crops and the various parts of the surface and subsurface water regimes in the Balta Brailei will bring more insights for predicting crop water need and water resources for irrigation and it will represent the basis for implementing Moses Platform in this specific area. Moses Platform is a GIS based system devoted to water procurement and management agencies to facilitate planning of
Juniati, A. T.; Sutjiningsih, D.; Soeryantono, H.; Kusratmoko, E.
The water availability (WA) of a region is one of important consideration in both the formulation of spatial plans and the evaluation of the effectiveness of actual land use in providing sustainable water resources. Information on land-water needs vis-a-vis their availability in a region determines the state of the surplus or deficit to inform effective land use utilization. How to calculate water availability have been described in the Guideline in Determining the Carrying Capacity of the Environment in Regional Spatial Planning. However, the method of determining the supply and demand of water on these guidelines is debatable since the determination of WA in this guideline used a rational method. The rational method is developed the basis for storm drain design practice and it is essentially a peak discharge method peak discharge calculation method. This paper review the literature in methods of water availability estimation which is described descriptively, and present arguments to claim that water balance method is a more fundamental and appropriate tool in water availability estimation. A better water availability estimation method would serve to improve the practice in preparing formulations of Regional Spatial Plan (RSP) as well as evaluating land use capacity in providing sustainable water resources.
Abdolhamid Daneshjoo; Ashril Yusof
This study examined the effect of sensorimotor training on static balance in two different environments; in water and on land. Thirty non-clinical university male students (aged 22±0.85 years) were divided randomly into three groups; water, land and control groups. The experimental groups performed their respective sensorimotor training programs for 6 weeks (3 times per week). The Stork Stand Balance Test was used to examine the static balance at pre- and post-time points. Significant main ef...
Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Ganança, Fernando Freitas
Daily activities can be challenging for the elderly. To study the association between functional balance, evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), sociodemographics, clinical and mobilility (Timed up and go test-TUGT, Dynamic Gait Index-DGI) variables in the elderly with chronic vestibular disorder. A series study with one hundred and twenty elderly with chronic vestibular disorder. We performed the Mann-Whitney test, the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn test and the Spearman Coefficient ([FORMULA: SEE TEXT]). Statistically significant associations and correlations were observed between total BBS score and age ([FORMULA: SEE TEXT]=-0.354; pfalls (p=0.010), tendency to fall (p=0.002), topographic diagnosis of central vestibular disorder (pFunctional balance in the elderly with chronic vestibular disorders evaluated by the BBS is worse when associated with aging, with a more advanced age group (80 years or more), increasing number of illnesses, presence of five or more illnesses, use of multiple medications, recurrent falls, tendency to fall, central vestibular syndromes, daily dizziness, mobility and gait impairments.
Schlick, Cornelia; Schniepp, Roman; Loidl, Verena; Wuehr, Max; Hesselbarth, Kristin; Jahn, Klaus
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most prevalent symptoms in neurologic disorders. Although many of these patients suffer from postural instability and gait disturbances, there is only limited data on their risk of falling. We conducted a controlled cross-sectional study at the tertiary care outpatient clinic of the German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders using a self-administered questionnaire to assess falls, fall-related injuries, and fear of falling. The recruitment period was 6 months. A total of 569 patients (mean age 59.6 ± 17.1 years, 55% females) and 100 healthy participants were included (response rate > 90%). Dizzy patients with central balance disorders (Parkinsonian, cerebellar, and brainstem oculomotor syndromes) had the highest fall rates (> 50% recurrent fallers, odds ratio > 10). The rate of recurrent fallers was 30% in bilateral vestibular failure and peripheral neuropathy (odds ratio > 5). Patients with functional dizziness (somatoform or phobic vertigo) were concerned about falling but did not fall more often than healthy controls (odds ratio 0.87). Falls are common in patients presenting to a dizziness unit. Those with central syndromes are at risk of recurrent and injurious falling. Fall rates and fear of falling should be assessed in balance disorders and used to guide the regimen of rehabilitation therapy. The identification of risk factors would help provide protective measures to these groups of patients.
Dourado-Neto, D.; Lier, van Q.D.; Metselaar, K.; Reichardt, K.; Nielsen, D.R.
The original Thornthwaite and Mather method, proposed in 1955 to calculate a climatic monthly cyclic soil water balance, is frequently used as an iterative procedure due to its low input requirements and coherent estimates of water balance components. Using long term data sets to establish a
F. Mora; L.R. Iverson
Natural landscape surface processes are largely controlled by the relationship between climate and vegetation. Water balance integrates the effects of climate on patterns of vegetation distribution and productivity, and for that season, functional relationships can be established using water balance variables as predictors of vegetation response. In this study, we...
Hurkmans, R.T.W.L.; Moel, de H.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Troch, P.A.
Accurate streamflow simulations in large river basins are crucial to predict timing and magnitude of floods and droughts and to assess the hydrological impacts of climate change. Water balance models have been used frequently for these purposes. Compared to water balance models, however, land
Silkwood-Sherer, Debbie J; Killian, Clyde B; Long, Toby M; Martin, Kathy S
Clinical observations have suggested that hippotherapy may be an effective strategy for habilitating balance deficits in children with movement disorders. However, there is limited research to support this notion. The purposes of this study were to assess the effectiveness of hippotherapy for the management of postural instability in children with mild to moderate balance problems and to determine whether there is a correlation between balance and function. A repeated-measures design for a cohort of children with documented balance deficits was used. Sixteen children (9 boys and 7 girls) who were 5 to 16 years of age and had documented balance problems participated in this study. Intervention consisted of 45-minute hippotherapy sessions twice per week for 6 weeks. Two baseline assessments and 1 postintervention assessment of balance, as measured with the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), and of function, as measured with the Activities Scale for Kids-Performance (ASKp), were performed. With the Friedman analysis of variance, the PBS and the ASKp were found to be statistically significant across all measurements (Phippotherapy. A Spearman rho correlation of .700 indicated a statistical association between PBS and ASKp postintervention scores (P=.003). There was no correlation between the change in PBS scores and the change in ASKp scores (r(s)=.13, P>.05). Lack of a control group and the short duration between baseline assessments are study limitations. The findings suggest that hippotherapy may be a viable strategy for reducing balance deficits and improving the performance of daily life skills in children with mild to moderate balance problems.
Díaz-Pelegrina, Ana; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; López-Torres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Torres, Janet; Valenza, Marie Carmen
Ageing has been linked to a high prevalence of cognitive impairment, which, in turn, has been related to balance disturbances and gait disorders. The aim of this study was to identify whether there are differences between subjects with and without cognitive impairment regarding the quality of gait and balance. An observational study was conducted on institutionalised people older than 65 years (n=82). Gait and balance was evaluated after the assessment of cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Single and dual tests were used including, the 6-minute walking, stride length, and gait speed. Timed Up and Go tests were also used to evaluate balance. The participants were divided into three groups: 28 subjects in the group without cognitive impairment (MMSE≥27), 29 subjects with mild (27
Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yepez, E. A.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Valdez-Torres, L. C.; Robles-Morua, A.
Water security, can be defined as the reliable supply in quantity and quality of water to help sustain future populations and maintaining ecosystem health and productivity. Water security is rapidly declining in many parts of the world due to population growth, drought, climate change, salinity, pollution, land use change, over-allocation and over-utilization, among other issues. Governmental offices (such as the Comision Nacional del Agua in Mexico, CONAGUA) require and conduct studies to estimate reliable water balances at regional or continental scales in order to provide reasonable assessments of the amount of water that can be provided (from surface or ground water sources) to supply all the human needs while maintaining natural vegetation, on an operational basis and, more important, under disturbances, such as droughts. Large scale estimates of evapotranspiration (ET), a critical component of the water cycle, are needed for a better comprehension of the hydrological cycle at large scales, which, in most water balances is left as the residual. For operational purposes, such water balance estimates can not rely on ET measurements since they do not exist, should be simple and require the least ground information possible, information that is often scarce or does not exist at all. Given this limitation, the use of remotely sensed data to estimate ET could supplement the lack of ground information, particularly in remote regions In this study, a simple method, based on the Makkink equation is used to estimate ET for large areas at high spatial resolutions (1 km). The Makkink model used here is forced using three remotely sensed datasets. First, the model uses solar radiation estimates obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES); Second, the model uses an Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized to get an estimate for vegetation amount and land use which was
Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.
Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass-balance quantities for balance years 2004 and 2005. The North Cascade Range in the vicinity of South Cascade Glacier accumulated smaller than normal winter snowpacks during water years 2004 and 2005. Correspondingly, the balance years 2004 and 2005 maximum winter snow balances of South Cascade Glacier, 2.08 and 1.97 meters water equivalent, respectively, were smaller than the average of such balances since 1959. The 2004 glacier summer balance (-3.73 meters water equivalent) was the eleventh most negative during 1959 to 2005 and the 2005 glacier summer balance (-4.42 meters water equivalent) was the third most negative. The relatively small winter snow balances and unusually negative summer balances of 2004 and 2005 led to an overall loss of glacier mass. The 2004 and 2005 glacier net balances, -1.65 and -2.45 meters water equivalent, respectively, were the seventh and second most negative during 1953 to 2005. For both balance years, the accumulation area ratio was less than 0.05 and the equilibrium line altitude was higher than the glacier. The unusually negative 2004 and 2005 glacier net balances, combined with a negative balance previously reported for 2003, resulted in a cumulative 3-year net balance of -6.20 meters water equivalent. No equal or greater 3-year mass loss has occurred previously during the more than 4 decades of U.S. Geological Survey mass-balance measurements at South Cascade Glacier. Accompanying the glacier mass losses were retreat of the terminus and reduction of total glacier area. The terminus retreated at a rate of about 17 meters per year during balance year 2004 and 15 meters per year during balance year 2005. Glacier area near the end of balance years 2004 and 2005 was 1.82 and 1.75 square kilometers, respectively. Runoff from the basin containing the glacier and from an adjacent nonglacierized basin was
Haas, N. A.; Vitousek, S.
The greater Chicagoland region has seen a high degree of urbanization since 1970. For example, between 1970-1990 the region experienced 4% population growth, a 35% increase in urban land use, and approximately 454 square miles of agricultural land was mostly converted into urban uses. Transformation of land into urban uses in the Chicagoland region has altered the stream and catchment response to rainfall events, specifically an increase in stream flashiness and increase in urban flooding. Chicago has begun to address these changes through green infrastructure. To understand the impact of green infrastructure at local, city-wide, and watershed scales, individual projects need to be accurately and sufficiently modeled. A traditional parking lot conversion into a porous parking lot at the University of Illinois at Chicago was modeled using SWMM and scrutinized using field data to look at stormwater runoff and water balance prior and post reconstruction. SWMM modeling suggested an 87% reduction in peak flow as well as a 100% reduction in flooding for a 24 hour, 1.72-inch storm. For the same storm, field data suggest an 89% reduction in peak flow as well as a 100% reduction in flooding. Modeling suggested 100% reductions in flooding for longer duration storms (24 hour+) and a smaller reduction in peak flow ( 66%). The highly parameterized SWMM model agrees well with collected data and analysis. Further effort is being made to use data mining to create correlations within the collected datasets that can be integrated into a model that follows a standardized formation process and reduces parameterization.
Wright, Christian D; Jackson, Marin L; DeNardo, Dale F
Many xeric organisms maintain water balance by relying on dietary and metabolic water rather than free water, even when free water may be available. For such organisms, hydric state may influence foraging decisions, since meal consumption is meeting both energy and water demands. To understand foraging decisions it is vital to understand the role of dietary water in maintaining water balance. We investigated whether meal consumption was sufficient to maintain water balance in captive Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) at varying levels of dehydration. Gila monsters could not maintain water balance over long time scales through meal consumption alone. Animals fed a single meal took no longer to dehydrate than controls when both groups were deprived of free water. Additionally, meal consumption imparts an acute short-term hydric cost regardless of hydration state. Meal consumption typically resulted in a significant elevation in osmolality at 6 h post-feeding, and plasma osmolality never fell below pre-feeding levels despite high water content (~70%) of meals. These results failed to support our hypothesis that dietary water is valuable to Gila monsters during seasonal drought. When considered in conjunction with previous research, these results demonstrate that Gila monsters, unlike many xeric species, are heavily reliant on seasonal rainfall and the resulting free-standing water to maintain water balance.
Kimmel, Martin; Alscher, Mark Dominik
The regulation of the acid-base balance and pH is critical for the organism. The most important buffer system is CO 2 / HCO 3 - . The kidney controls systemic bicarbonate and therefore the metabolic regulation and the lung is relevant for respiratory regulation by an effective CO 2 elimination. There are four acid-base disorders with two metabolic and two respiratory disorders (acidosis and alkalosis). The anion gap enables a further workup of metabolic acidosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho
Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.
Tseng, H.; Giambelluca, T. W.; DeLay, J. K.; Nullet, M.
Steep climate gradients and diverse ecosystems make the Hawaiian Islands an ideal laboratory for ecohydrological experiments. Researchers are able to control physical and ecological variables, which is difficult for most environmental studies, by selecting sites along these gradients. Tropical montane forests, especially those situated in the cloud zone, are known to improve recharge and sustain baseflow. This is probably the result of frequent and persistent fog characteristic to these systems. During fog events, evapotranspiration is suppressed due to high humidity and reduced solar radiation. Moreover, cloud water interception by the forest canopy can produce fog drip and contribute significantly to the local water budget. Because the interception process is a complex interaction between the atmosphere and the vegetation, the effects of the meteorological conditions and canopy characteristics are equally important and sometimes hard to separate. This study aims to examine patterns in cloud water interception and canopy water balance across five tropical montane forest sites on three of the main islands of Hawaii. The sites cover a range of elevations between 1100- 2114 m, annual rainfall between 1155-3375 mm, and different dominant plant species with canopy heights ranging from 1.5 m to 30 m. We investigate the effect of climatic factors by comparing passive fog gauge measurements and other meteorological variables, then examine the differences in canopy water balance by comparing throughfall and stemflow measurements at these sites. While this study is ongoing, we present the first few months of field observations and the results of preliminary analyses. This study will improve understanding of how large-scale climate and vegetation factors interact to control cloud water interception and will inform ongoing watershed management. This is particularly important for oceanic islands such as Hawaii because they rely on precipitation entirely for water supply and
Aydinli, Fatma Esen; Çak, Tuna; Kirazli, Meltem Çiğdem; Çinar, Betül Çiçek; Pektaş, Alev; Çengel, Ebru Kültür; Aksoy, Songül
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common impairing neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in early childhood. Almost half of the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also experience a variety of motor-related dysfunctions ranging from fine/gross motor control problems to difficulties in maintaining balance. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of distractors two different auditory distractors namely, relaxing music and white noise on upright balance performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We compared upright balance performance and the involvement of different sensory systems in the presence of auditory distractors between school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=26) and typically developing controls (n=20). Neurocom SMART Balance Master Dynamic Posturography device was used for the sensory organization test. Sensory organization test was repeated three times for each participant in three different test environments. The balance scores in the silence environment were lower in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group but the differences were not statistically significant. In addition to lower balance scores the visual and vestibular ratios were also lower. Auditory distractors affected the general balance performance positively for both groups. More challenging conditions, using an unstable platform with distorted somatosensory signals were more affected. Relaxing music was more effective in the control group, and white noise was more effective in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group and the positive effects of white noise became more apparent in challenging conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating balance performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder under the effects of auditory distractors. Although more studies are needed, our results indicate that auditory distractors
Soil water evaporation is an important component of the water budget in a cropped field. Few methods are available for continuous and independent measurement of soil water evaporation. A sensible heat balance (SHB) approach has recently been demonstrated for continuously determining soil water evapo...
Pantana Tor-ngern; Ram Oren; Sari Palmroth; Kimberly Novick; Andrew Oishi; Sune Linder; Mikaell Ottosson-Lofvenius; Torgny Nasholm
The forest hydrologic cycle is expected to have important feedback responses to climate change, impacting processes ranging from local water supply and primary productivity to global water and energy cycles. Here, we analyzed water budgets of pine forests worldwide. We first estimated local water balance of forests dominated by two wide-ranging species:Â Pinus...
Full Text Available Quantifying components of soil water balance in farmland of the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin is essential for efficiently scheduling and allocating limited water resources for irrigation in this arid region. A soil water balance model based on empirical assumptions in the vadose zone of farmland was developed and simulation results were compared/validated with results by the numerical model HYDRUS-1D. Results showed a good coherence between the simulated results of the water balance models and the HYDRUS-1D model in soil water storage, evapotranspiration, deep percolation and groundwater recharge, which indicated that the water balance model was suitable for simulating soil water movement in the study area. Considering the spatial distribution of cropping patterns, groundwater depth and agricultural management, ArcGIS was applied for the pre-/post-processing of the water balance model to quantify the spatial distribution of components of soil water balance in the major cropland in middle reaches of Heihe River Basin. Then, distributions of components of soil water balance in the major cropland under different water-saving irrigation practices during the growing season were predicted and discussed. Simulation results demonstrated that evapotranspiration of the main crops would be more prominently influenced by irrigation quota under deep groundwater depth than that under shallow groundwater depth. Groundwater recharge would increase with the increase of irrigation quota and decrease with the increase of groundwater depth. In general, when groundwater depth reached 3 m, groundwater recharge from root zone was negligible for spring wheat. While when it reached 6 m, groundwater recharge was negligible for maize. Water-saving irrigation practices would help to reduce groundwater recharge with a slight decrease of crop water consumption.
The hydrologic component of the CREAMS model is described and discussed in terms of calculating a surface water balance for shallow land burial systems used for waste disposal. Parameter estimates and estimation procedures are presented in detail in the form of a user's guide. Use of the model is illustrated with three examples based on analysis of data from Los Alamos, New Mexico and Rock Valley, Nevada. Use of the model in design of trench caps for shallow land burial systems is illustrated with the example applications at Los Alamos
Full Text Available The proportion of water balance components – precipitation, transpiration, evaporation, underground waters and surface runoff – is a determining factor of stabile development of land area. But this proportion can be considerably disturbed and is permanently changing. Certain many-year averages are usually accepted as a stable state. That is why, in the presented work, we have tried to defi ne water balance on symmetry and invariance principles, to express it as a limit state, which would characterize it as a natural principle and enable comparison with the present balance.
It is usual practice to use available soil water content as a criterion for deciding when irrigation is needed. Soil water content is determined by using soil measuring techniques (capacitance probe) that describe the depletion of available soil water see fig1 and 2. The irrigation scheduling is based on the water treatment (i.e. ...
Anctil, F.; Couture, R.
A study is presented of the impacts of hydroelectric development on the surface water layer of Hudson Bay, including James Bay and the Foxe Basin. These impacts are directly related to the modifications in the fresh water balance of Hudson Bay and originate from the management of hydroelectric complexes. The fresh water balance is determined by identifying, at different scales, the modifications caused by each complex. The main inputs are the freezing and thawing of the ice cover, runoff water, and mass exchange at the air-water interface. Three spatial scales were used to obtain the resolution required to document the cumulative effects of fresh water balance modifications on the water surface layer, one each for Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and the Labrador Sea. Finally, the addition of the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric complex is examined from the available information and forecasts. 18 refs,. 6 figs., 1 tab
Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski,; ,; Engel, Frank
A principal component of evaluating and managing water use is consumptive use. This is the portion of water withdrawn for a particular use, such as residential, which is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. The amount of consumptive use may be estimated by a water (mass)-balance approach; however, because of the difficulty of obtaining necessary data, its application typically is restricted to the facility scale. The general governing mass-balance equation is: Consumptive use = Water supplied - Return flows.
Müller Schmied, Hannes; Döll, Petra
The estimation of the World's water resources has a long tradition and numerous methods for quantification exists. The resulting numbers vary significantly, leaving room for improvement. Since some decades, global hydrological models (GHMs) are being used for large scale water budget assessments. GHMs are designed to represent the macro-scale hydrological processes and many of those models include human water management, e.g. irrigation or reservoir operation, making them currently the first choice for global scale assessments of the terrestrial water balance within the Anthropocene. The Water - Global Assessment and Prognosis (WaterGAP) is a model framework that comprises both the natural and human water dimension and is in development and application since the 1990s. In recent years, efforts were made to assess the sensitivity of water balance components to alternative climate forcing input data and, e.g., how this sensitivity is affected by WaterGAP's calibration scheme. This presentation shows the current best estimate of terrestrial water balance components as simulated with WaterGAP by 1) assessing global and continental water balance components for the climate period 1971-2000 and the IPCC reference period 1986-2005 for the most current WaterGAP version using a homogenized climate forcing data, 2) investigating variations of water balance components for a number of state-of-the-art climate forcing data and 3) discussing the benefit of the calibration approach for a better observation-data constrained global water budget. For the most current WaterGAP version 2.2b and a homogenized combination of the two WATCH Forcing Datasets, global scale (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) river discharge into oceans and inland sinks (Q) is assessed to be 40 000 km3 yr-1 for 1971-2000 and 39 200 km3 yr-1 for 1986-2005. Actual evapotranspiration (AET) is close to each other with around 70 600 (70 700) km3 yr-1 as well as water consumption with 1000 (1100) km3 yr-1. The
文, 勇起; BUN, Yuki
In recent years, many flood damage and drought attributed to urbanization has occurred. At present infiltration facility is suggested for the solution of these problems. Based on this background, the purpose of this study is investigation of quantification of flood control and water utilization effect of rainfall infiltration facility by using water balance analysis model. Key Words : flood control, water utilization , rainfall infiltration facility
Sousa, Raquel Ferreira de; Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Paulino, Célia Aparecida
Vestibular disorders are common among the elderly, mainly resulting in dizziness and imbalance--symptoms which can impact daily routine activities. To study the correlation between body balance and functional capacity and a comparison of risk of falls, actual falls and the functional capacity of the elderly with chronic vestibular dysfunctions. A cross-sectional, clinical and experimental study with 50 senior citizens--60 to 86 years, with chronic peripheral vestibular dysfunction. These participants underwent body balance assessment by the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and functional capacity assessment by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The data was tested using the Spearman correlation and comparison tests, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, being α=5% (0.05). There was a significant correlation between the total DGI score and all FIM scores, especially the total score (r=0.447; pfunctional capacity in elderly patients with the highest risk of falling (pfunctional capacity in elderly patients with peripheral vestibular disorders, that is: the better the balance, the better the individual's functional capacity. In addition, a worse functional capacity increases the individual's risk of falling.
Baruffi, Marcelo Razera; de Souza, Deise Helena; Bicudo da Silva, Rosana Aparecida; Ramos, Ester Silveira; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo
Balanced X-autosome translocations are rare, and female carriers are a clinically heterogeneous group of patients, with phenotypically normal women, history of recurrent miscarriage, gonadal dysfunction, X-linked disorders or congenital abnormalities, and/or developmental delay. We investigated a patient with a de novo X;19 translocation. The six-year-old girl has been evaluated due to hyperactivity, social interaction impairment, stereotypic and repetitive use of language with echolalia, failure to follow parents/caretakers orders, inconsolable outbursts, and persistent preoccupation with parts of objects. The girl has normal cognitive function. Her measurements are within normal range, and no other abnormalities were found during physical, neurological, or dysmorphological examinations. Conventional cytogenetic analysis showed a de novo balanced translocation, with the karyotype 46,X,t(X;19)(p21.2;q13.4). Replication banding showed a clear preference for inactivation of the normal X chromosome. The translocation was confirmed by FISH and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY). Although abnormal phenotypes associated with de novo balanced chromosomal rearrangements may be the result of disruption of a gene at one of the breakpoints, submicroscopic deletion or duplication, or a position effect, X; autosomal translocations are associated with additional unique risk factors including X-linked disorders, functional autosomal monosomy, or functional X chromosome disomy resulting from the complex X-inactivation process. PMID:23074688
Marcelo Razera Baruffi
Full Text Available Balanced X-autosome translocations are rare, and female carriers are a clinically heterogeneous group of patients, with phenotypically normal women, history of recurrent miscarriage, gonadal dysfunction, X-linked disorders or congenital abnormalities, and/or developmental delay. We investigated a patient with a de novo X;19 translocation. The six-year-old girl has been evaluated due to hyperactivity, social interaction impairment, stereotypic and repetitive use of language with echolalia, failure to follow parents/caretakers orders, inconsolable outbursts, and persistent preoccupation with parts of objects. The girl has normal cognitive function. Her measurements are within normal range, and no other abnormalities were found during physical, neurological, or dysmorphological examinations. Conventional cytogenetic analysis showed a de novo balanced translocation, with the karyotype 46,X,t(X;19(p21.2;q13.4. Replication banding showed a clear preference for inactivation of the normal X chromosome. The translocation was confirmed by FISH and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY. Although abnormal phenotypes associated with de novo balanced chromosomal rearrangements may be the result of disruption of a gene at one of the breakpoints, submicroscopic deletion or duplication, or a position effect, X; autosomal translocations are associated with additional unique risk factors including X-linked disorders, functional autosomal monosomy, or functional X chromosome disomy resulting from the complex X-inactivation process.
R.A. Payn; M.N. Gooseff; B.L. McGlynn; K.E. Bencala; S.M. Wondzell
Channel water balances of contiguous reaches along streams represent a poorly understood scale of stream-subsurface interaction. We measured reach water balances along a headwater stream in Montana, United States, during summer base flow recessions. Reach water balances were estimated from series of tracer tests in 13 consecutive reaches delineated evenly along a 2.6-...
Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.
Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass-balance quantities for balance year 2003. The 2003 glacier-average maximum winter snow balance was 2.66 meters water equivalent, which was about equal to the average of such balances for the glacier since balance year 1959. The 2003 glacier summer balance (-4.76 meters water equivalent) was the most negative reported for the glacier, and the 2003 net balance (-2.10 meters water equivalent), was the second-most negative reported. The glacier 2003 annual (water year) balance was -1.89 meters water equivalent. The area of the glacier near the end of the balance year was 1.89 square kilometers, a decrease of 0.03 square kilometer from the previous year. The equilibrium-line altitude was higher than any part of the glacier; however, because snow remained along part of one side of the upper glacier, the accumulation-area ratio was 0.07. During September 13, 2002-September 13, 2003, the glacier terminus retreated at a rate of about 15 meters per year. Average speed of surface ice, computed using a series of vertical aerial photographs dating back to 2001, ranged from 2.2 to 21.8 meters per year. Runoff from the subbasin containing the glacier and from an adjacent non-glacierized basin was gaged during part of water year 2003. Air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric water-vapor pressure, wind speed, and incoming solar radiation were measured at selected locations on and near the glacier. Summer 2003 at the glacier was among the warmest for which data are available.
Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Zafiropoulos, A
The THz water content index of a sample is defined and advantages in using such metric in estimating a sample's relative water content are discussed. The errors from reflectance measurements performed at two different THz frequencies using a quasi-optical null-balance reflectometer are propagated to the errors in estimating the sample water content index.
ISSN 0378-4738 = Water SA Vol. 27 No. 1 January 2001 115. Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. Comments on: A flow balance approach to scenarios for water reclamation by Ania MW Grobicki and B Cohen. I would like to offer a brief comment on the above paper, which appeared in Water SA 25 (4), October ...
Jhorar, R.K.; Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Roest, C.W.J.
Soil water flow modelling approaches as used in four selected on-farm water management models, namely CROPWAT. FAIDS, CERES and SWAP, are compared through numerical experiments. The soil water simulation approaches used in the first three models are reformulated to incorporate ail evapotranspiration
Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J
What is the topic of this review? There is a need to revisit the basic principles of exercise mass and water balance, the use of common equations and the practice of interpreting outcomes. What advances does it highlight? We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying exercise mass and water balance calculations in conditions where food is not consumed and waste is not excreted: ∆body mass - 0.20 g/kcal -1 = ∆body water. The relative efficacy of exercise drinking behaviours can be judged using the following equation: percentage dehydration = [(∆body mass - 0.20 g kcal -1 )/starting body mass] × 100. Changes in body mass occur because of flux in liquids, solids and gases. This knowledge is crucial for understanding metabolism, health and human water needs. In exercise science, corrections to observed changes in body mass to estimate water balance are inconsistently applied and often misinterpreted, particularly after prolonged exercise. Although acute body mass losses in response to exercise can represent a close surrogate for body water losses, the discordance between mass and water balance equivalence becomes increasingly inaccurate as more and more energy is expended. The purpose of this paper is briefly to clarify the roles that respiratory water loss, gas exchange and metabolic water production play in the correction of body mass changes for fluid balance determinations during prolonged exercise. Computations do not include waters of association with glycogen because any movement of water among body water compartments contributes nothing to water or mass flux from the body. Estimates of sweat loss from changes in body mass should adjust for non-sweat losses when possible. We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying the study of exercise mass and water balance: ∆body mass - 0.20 g kcal -1 = ∆body water. This equation directly controls for the influence of energy expenditure on body mass
Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; McCabe, Gregory J.; Woodhouse, Connie A.
In this paper, we present a methodology to use annual tree-ring chronologies and a monthly water balance model to generate annual reconstructions of water balance variables (e.g., potential evapotrans- piration (PET), actual evapotranspiration (AET), snow water equivalent (SWE), soil moisture storage (SMS), and runoff (R)). The method involves resampling monthly temperature and precipitation from the instrumental record directed by variability indicated by the paleoclimate record. The generated time series of monthly temperature and precipitation are subsequently used as inputs to a monthly water balance model. The methodology is applied to the Upper Colorado River Basin, and results indicate that the methodology reliably simulates water-year runoff, maximum snow water equivalent, and seasonal soil moisture storage for the instrumental period. As a final application, the methodology is used to produce time series of PET, AET, SWE, SMS, and R for the 1404–1905 period for the Upper Colorado River Basin.
Kim, Yumi; Todd, Teri; Fujii, Takuto; Lim, Jae-Chun; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos; Jung, Taeyou
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Taekwondo (TKD) intervention on balance in children with autism spec-trum disorder (ASD). A total of 14 children with ASD participated in this study. Eight children (eight males; mean age, 10.25?2.38 yr) completed TKD intervention (50 min/2 times/8 week), and six children received no intervention serving as controls (five males, one female; mean age, 10.00?2.83 yr). A computed posturography system with a long forceplate (Ne...
Armstrong, P.; Ager, D.; Thompson, I.; McCulloch, M.
Thermal stratification within hot water tanks maximises the availability of stored energy and facilitates optimal use of both conventional and renewable energy sources. However, stratified tanks are also associated with the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, such as Legionella, due to the hospitable temperatures that arise during operation. Sanitary measures, aimed at homogenising the temperature distribution throughout the tank, have been proposed; such measures reduce the effective energy storage capability that is otherwise available. Here we quantify the conflict that arises between thermodynamic performance and bacterial sterilisation within 10 real world systems. Whilst perfect stratification enhances the recovery of hot water and reduces heat losses, water samples revealed significant bacterial growth attributable to stratification (P<0.01). Temperature measurements indicated that users were exposed to potentially unsanitary water as a result. De-stratifying a system to sterilise bacteria led to a 19% reduction in effective hot water storage capability. Increasing the tank size to compensate for this loss would lead to an 11% increase in energy consumed through standing heat losses. Policymakers, seeking to utilise hot water tanks as demand response assets, should consider monitoring and control systems that prevent exposures to unsanitary hot water. - Highlights: • Domestic hot water tanks are a potential demand side asset for power networks. • A preference for bacterial growth in stratified hot water tanks has been observed. • Temperatures in base of electric hot water tanks hospitable to Legionella. • Potential exposures to unsanitary water observed. • De-stratifying a tank to sterilise leads to reduced energy storage capability
MacLeod, Erin L; Hall, Kevin D; McGuire, Peter J
Nutritional management of acute metabolic decompensation in amino acid inborn errors of metabolism (AA IEM) aims to restore nitrogen balance. While nutritional recommendations have been published, they have never been rigorously evaluated. Furthermore, despite these recommendations, there is a wide variation in the nutritional strategies employed amongst providers, particularly regarding the inclusion of parenteral lipids for protein-free caloric support. Since randomized clinical trials during acute metabolic decompensation are difficult and potentially dangerous, mathematical modeling of metabolism can serve as a surrogate for the preclinical evaluation of nutritional interventions aimed at restoring nitrogen balance during acute decompensation in AA IEM. A validated computational model of human macronutrient metabolism was adapted to predict nitrogen balance in response to various nutritional interventions in a simulated patient with a urea cycle disorder (UCD) during acute metabolic decompensation due to dietary non-adherence or infection. The nutritional interventions were constructed from published recommendations as well as clinical anecdotes. Overall, dextrose alone (DEX) was predicted to be better at restoring nitrogen balance and limiting nitrogen excretion during dietary non-adherence and infection scenarios, suggesting that the published recommended nutritional strategy involving dextrose and parenteral lipids (ISO) may be suboptimal. The implications for patients with AA IEM are that the medical course during acute metabolic decompensation may be influenced by the choice of protein-free caloric support. These results are also applicable to intensive care patients undergoing catabolism (postoperative phase or sepsis), where parenteral nutritional support aimed at restoring nitrogen balance may be more tailored regarding metabolic fuel selection.
McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Jirikowic, Tracy; Price, Robert; Ciol, Marcia A; Hsu, Lin-Ya; Dellon, Brian; Kartin, Deborah
Diminished sensory adaptation has been associated with poor balance control for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A virtual reality system, Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement and Learning (STABEL), was developed to train sensory control for balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the STABEL system in children with FASD and children with typical development (TD) to (1) determine the feasibility of the STABEL system and (2) explore the immediate effects of the STABEL system on sensory attention and postural control. This is a technical report with observational study data. Eleven children with FASD and 11 children with TD, aged 8 to 16 years, completed 30 minutes of STABEL training. The children answered questions about their experience using STABEL. Sensory attention and postural control were measured pre- and post-STABEL training with the Multimodal Balance Entrainment Response system and compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. All children engaged in game play and tolerated controlled sensory input during the STABEL protocol. Immediate effects post-STABEL training in both groups were increased postural sway velocity and some changes in entrainment gain. Children with FASD showed higher entrainment gain to vestibular stimuli. There were no significant changes in sensory attention fractions. The small sample size, dose of STABEL training, and exploratory statistical analyses are study limitations, but findings warrant larger systematic study to examine therapeutic effects. Children completed the training protocol, demonstrating the feasibility of the STABEL system. Differences in postural sway velocity post-STABEL training may have been affected by fatigue, warranting further investigation. Limited immediate effects suggest more practice is needed to affect sensory attention; however, entrainment gain changes suggest the STABEL system provoked vestibular responses during balance practice. © 2015
A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
Schreuder, M.D.J.; Hove, van L.W.A.; Brewer, C.A.
Relatively little is known about the influences of growing-season background ozone (O3) concentrations on leaf cuticles and foliar water loss. Using fumigation chambers, leaf wettability and foliar water loss were studied in two poplar species, Populus nigra and P. euramericana, and a conifer,
Van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; et al., et al.; Moors, E.J.
Evaporation from wet canopies (. E) can return up to half of incident rainfall back into the atmosphere and is a major cause of the difference in water use between forests and short vegetation. Canopy water budget measurements often suggest values of E during rainfall that are several times greater
Lee, Y.S.; Im, J.N.
A field experiment was conducted to study seasonal evapotranspiration above soybean canopy and its relationship with dry matter production by the Bowen ratio-energy balance method. The soybean ''Paldalkong'' was sown with the space of 40 * 10 cm at Suwon on May 27, 1988. The daily net radiation ranged from 59 to 76 percents of the total shortwave radiation under cloudless conditions, which was lower than cloud overcast condition with record 63 to 83 percents. The latent heat flux under overcast condition was sometimes larger than the sum of net radiation, implying transportation of energy by advection of ambient air
Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Obersteiner, Michael; Biemans, Hester; Wada, Yoshihide; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco
Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while
Mussetta, Paula C
Basing on a selection of conflict situations and problems with water in some Latin American countries, this paper analyzes some important aspects of the disputes and the role of the state in conflicts and, more generally, in water management. This implies a dual purpose. On the one hand, to outline the most important dimensions repeated on the stage: the motifs and themes, actors, definitions of the situation. On the other hand, based on that scenario outlined, lay the analytical foundations defining the importance of the state as an axis from which to guide future studies of water conflicts.
Apr 21, 2011 ... Its waters are only partially replenished each season, making it ... (though they cannot currently afford to purchase the equipment), and having ... Understanding adaptation decisions in Morocco's plains and mountains.
Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim
The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…
Hoogeveen, J.; Faures, J.M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; Van de Giesen, N.C.
GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture; the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high resolution datasets that are
Liso, Vincenzo; Araya, Samuel Simon; Olesen, Anders Christian
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells require good hydration in order to deliver high performance and ensure long life operation. Water is essential for proton conductivity in the membrane which increases by nearly six orders of magnitude from dry to fully hydrated. Adequate water...... management in PEM fuel cell is crucial in order to avoid an imbalance between water production and water removal from the fuel cell. In the present study, a novel mathematical zero-dimensional model has been formulated for the water mass balance and hydration of a polymer electrolyte membrane. This model...... is validated against experimental data. In the results it is shown that the fuel cell water balance calculated by this model shows better fit with experimental data-points compared with model where only steady state operation were considered. We conclude that this discrepancy is due a different rate of water...
Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.
At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.
Cheryl L Gatto
Full Text Available Proper brain function requires stringent balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation during neural circuit assembly. Mutation of genes that normally sculpt and maintain this balance results in severe dysfunction, causing neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, epilepsy and Rett syndrome. Such mutations may result in defective architectural structuring of synaptic connections, molecular assembly of synapses and/or functional synaptogenesis. The affected genes often encode synaptic components directly, but also include regulators that secondarily mediate the synthesis or assembly of synaptic proteins. The prime example is Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the leading heritable cause of both intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. FXS results from loss of mRNA-binding FMRP, which regulates synaptic transcript trafficking, stability and translation in activity-dependent synaptogenesis and plasticity mechanisms. Genetic models of FXS exhibit striking excitatory and inhibitory synapse imbalance, associated with impaired cognitive and social interaction behaviors. Downstream of translation control, a number of specific synaptic proteins regulate excitatory versus inhibitory synaptogenesis, independently or combinatorially, and loss of these proteins is also linked to disrupted neurodevelopment. The current effort is to define the cascade of events linking transcription, translation and the role of specific synaptic proteins in the maintenance of excitatory versus inhibitory synapses during neural circuit formation. This focus includes mechanisms that fine-tune excitation and inhibition during the refinement of functional synaptic circuits, and later modulate this balance throughout life. The use of powerful new genetic models has begun to shed light on the mechanistic bases of excitation/inhibition imbalance for a range of neurodevelopmental disease states.
There are millions of lakes and ten thousands of reservoirs in the world. The number of reservoirs is still increasing through the construction of large dams to meet the growing demand for water resources, hydroelectricity and economic development. Accurate information on the water balance
Bugan, Richard DH
Full Text Available A detailed water balance and conceptual flow model was calculated and developed for the Sandspruit catchment for the period 1990 to 2010 on a winter rainfall water-year (1 April - 31 March) basis. The Sandspruit catchment (quaternary catchment G10J...
The oil water contact of an oil reservoir can be determined using some geophysical well logs. However, some of the methods might not be accurate. Therefore the material balanced equation which is an accurate means of formation evaluation is critically analysed in this study and then used to determine the oil water contact ...
Sivapalan, Murugesu; Ruprecht, John K.; Viney, Neil R.
A long-term water balance model has been developed to predict the hydrological effects of land-use change (especially forest clearing) in small experimental catchments in the south-west of Western Australia. This small catchment model has been used as the building block for the development of a large catchment-scale model, and has also formed the basis for a coupled water and salt balance model, developed to predict the changes in stream salinity resulting from land-use and climate change. The application of the coupled salt and water balance model to predict stream salinities in two small experimental catchments, and the application of the large catchment-scale model to predict changes in water yield in a medium-sized catchment that is being mined for bauxite, are presented in Parts 2 and 3, respectively, of this series of papers.The small catchment model has been designed as a simple, robust, conceptually based model of the basic daily water balance fluxes in forested catchments. The responses of the catchment to rainfall and pan evaporation are conceptualized in terms of three interdependent subsurface stores A, B and F. Store A depicts a near-stream perched aquifer system; B represents a deeper, permanent groundwater system; and F is an intermediate, unsaturated infiltration store. The responses of these stores are characterized by a set of constitutive relations which involves a number of conceptual parameters. These parameters are estimated by calibration by comparing observed and predicted runoff. The model has performed very well in simulations carried out on Salmon and Wights, two small experimental catchments in the Collie River basin in south-west Western Australia. The results from the application of the model to these small catchments are presented in this paper.
Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani
The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.
Dogramaci, S.; Firmani, G.; Hedley, P.; Skrzypek, G.; Grierson, P. F.
Discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may elevate groundwater levels and alter the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers but it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid subtropical Hamersley Basin that has received continuous mine discharge for more than five years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 74 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.24‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ~ 65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ~35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the creek has not extended beyond 27 km from the discharge point. Our approach using a combination of hydrochemical and isotope methods coupled with classical surface flow hydraulic modelling allowed evaluation of components of water budget otherwise not possible in a highly dynamic system that is mainly driven by infrequent but large episodic
Hoskovcová, Martina; Ulmanová, Olga; Sprdlík, Otakar; Sieger, Tomáš; Nováková, Jana; Jech, Robert; Růžička, Evžen
Disorders of balance and gait have been observed in patients with essential tremor (ET), but their association with tremor severity remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate postural instability and gait changes in ET patients and to investigate their relationship to tremor characteristics with regard to cerebellar dysfunction as a possible common pathogenetic mechanism in ET. Thirty ET patients (8F, mean (SD) age 55.8 (17.8), range 19-81 years) and 25 normal controls (7F, 53.0 (17.7), 19-81) were tested with the scales of Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB), and International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). Posturography and gait were assessed using a Footscan® system. Tremor was evaluated by the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (TRS) and accelerometry in five upper limb positions. A mean (SD) TRS sum score of 27.0 (13.2) corresponded to mild to moderate tremor severity in most patients. In comparison with controls, ET subjects exhibited lower tandem gait velocity (0.21 vs. 0.26 m/s, P = 0.028), more missteps (0.57 vs. 0.12, P = 0.039), and increased postural sway in tandem stance (sway area 301.1 vs. 202.9 mm(2), P = 0.045). In normal gait, step width increased with the midline tremor subscore of TRS (Pearson r = 0.60, P = 0.046). Moreover, significant correlations were found between age and quantitative measures of normal and tandem gait in ET patients but not in controls. ABC, FAB, and ICARS scores did not significantly differ between patients and controls. In conclusion, gait and balance alterations in ET patients occur even without subjective complaints. Their relationship with midline tremor and dependence on age suggest a connection with cerebellar dysfunction.
The monthly herbage production, water-use efficiency (WUE: above-ground phytomass production per unit of evapotranspiration), surface runoff and soil loss were determined on grassland in three different ecological conditions, viz. poor, moderate and good, over a four year (1995/1996 to 1998/1999) period. In addition ...
Laboratory of Comparative Policy in Water Resources Management, University of .... 2014). All parameters have physical meaning, but not all of them have a well- ... See text and table 1 for details. ..... Part I: A discussion of principles;. J. Hydrol ...
to meet the needs, a research team led by Al Akhawayn University is working with local communities and authorities to examine whether managing the demand for water can protect the basin's future in the context of growth and climate change. The focus of ... cases pitting upstream communities against their downstream.
Dr Brooks' extensive experience in energy and water conservation, environmental and natural resource policy, and sustainable development extends across both the industrialized and developing world. He has taught in programs on energy and environment around the world and is the author of numerous articles and ...
(SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), calcium oxide (CaO), copper (Cu), phosphorus. (P) and organic carbon (C) was ... internal storage for incoming materials and can provide ..... of iron in the sediments should bind the phosphorus and limit the .... birds which heavily depend on the water bodies for food.
Study Focus: Located in the Himalayas with elevation ranging 100–7550 m and with an area equivalent to Switzerland, Bhutan has great biodiversity despite its small area. A monsoon-dominated climate causes generally wet summer and dry winter. Bhutan is highly dependent of climatic conditions for its developmental activities. Using multiple regression analysis we have established models to predict the evapotranspiration (ETo and water balance and test the linkage to vegetation and land cover using meteorological data from 70 weather stations across Bhutan. Temperature-based ETo equations were evaluated in reference to the Penman-Monteith (PM method and a calibrated Hargreaves (H equation was used for computing the ETo. New Hydrological Insights for the Region. The calibrated Hargreaves equation gave good estimates of average daily ETo comparable to the PM ETo. The spatial variation in PM ETo is linked to variation in sunshine hours in summer and temperature in other seasons. Seasonal and annual ETo was mainly affected by elevation and latitude, which is linked to temperature and sunshine duration. Precipitation and water balance correlated positively with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI while ETo correlated negatively. Our models for predicting ETo and water balances performed clearly better than the global CRU gridded data for Bhutan. A positive water balance is found in broadleaf forest areas and small or negative water balance for coniferous forests.
The growing development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for the sustainable production of the food required by the increasing World's population. Such development is limited by the increasing scarcity and low quality of the available water resources and by the competitive use of the water for other purposes. There are also increasing problems of contamination of surface and ground waters to be used for other purposes by the drainage effluents of irrigated lands. Irrigation and drainage may cause drastic changes in the regime and balance of water and solutes (salts, sodium, contaminants) in the soil profile, resulting in problems of water supply to crops and problems of salinization, sodification and contamination of soils and ground waters. This is affected by climate, crops, soils, ground water depth, irrigation and groundwater composition, and by irrigation and drainage management. In order to predict and prevent such problems for a sustainable irrigated agriculture and increased efficiency in water use, under each particular set of conditions, there have to be considered both the hydrological, physical and chemical processes determining such water and solute balances in the soil profile. In this contribution there are proposed the new versions of two modeling approaches (SOMORE and SALSODIMAR) to predict those balances and to guide irrigation water use and management, integrating the different factors involved in such processes. Examples of their application under Mediterranean and tropical climate conditions are also presented.
Saxe, S.; Hay, L.; Farmer, W. H.; Markstrom, S. L.; Kiang, J. E.
Numerous research groups are independently developing data products to represent various components of the water balance (e.g. runoff, evapotranspiration, recharge, snow water equivalent, soil moisture, and climate) at the scale of the conterminous United States. These data products are derived from a range of sources, including direct measurement, remotely-sensed measurement, and statistical and deterministic model simulations. An evaluation tool is needed to compare these data products and the components of the water balance they contain in order to identify the gaps in the understanding and representation of continental-scale hydrologic processes. An ideal tool will be an objective, universally agreed upon, framework to address questions related to closing the water balance. This type of generic, model agnostic evaluation tool would facilitate collaboration amongst different hydrologic research groups and improve modeling capabilities with respect to continental-scale water resources. By adopting a comprehensive framework to consider hydrologic modeling in the context of a complete water balance, it is possible to identify weaknesses in process modeling, data product representation and regional hydrologic variation. As part of its National Water Census initiative, the U.S. Geological survey is facilitating this dialogue to developing prototype evaluation tools.
Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.
Recently we presented a first-generation all-atom Drude polarizable force field for DNA based on the classical Drude oscillator model, focusing on optimization of key dihedral angles followed by extensive validation of the force field parameters. Presently, we describe the procedure for balancing the electrostatic interactions between ions, water, and DNA as required for development of the Drude force field for DNA. The proper balance of these interactions is shown to impact DNA stability and...
Starkweather, Kathrine E
The Shodagor of Matlab, Bangladesh, are a seminomadic community of people who live and work on small wooden boats, within the extensive system of rivers and canals that traverse the country. This unique ecology places particular constraints on family and economic life and leads to Shodagor parents employing one of four distinct strategies to balance childcare and provisioning needs. The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions that lead a family to choose one strategy over another by testing predictions about socioecological factors that impact the sexual division of labor, including a family's stage in the domestic cycle, aspects of the local ecology, and the availability of alloparents. Results show that although each factor has an impact on the division of labor individually, a confluence of these factors best explains within-group, between-family differences in how mothers and fathers divide subsistence and childcare labor. These factors also interact in particular ways for Shodagor families, and it appears that families choose their economic strategies based on the constellation of constraints that they face. The results of these analyses have implications for theory regarding the sexual division of labor across cultures and inform how Shodagor family economic and parenting strategies should be contextualized in future studies.
... fully trust your sense of balance. Loss of balance also raises the risk of falls. This is a serious and even life-threatening ... 65. Balance disorders are serious because of the risk of falls. But occasionally balance problems may warn of another health condition, such ...
Water balance approach is the simplest method in the study of plant water consumption. The experiment was established in 4.0 x 5.0 m plots in a randomized complete block design containing six (6) treatments water application (3-days, 4-days, 5-days, 6-days, 7-days and 8-days which correspond to T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and ...
Water bird characteristics, nutrient loadings, and the levels of bottom sediment silicon oxide (SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), calcium oxide (CaO), copper (Cu), phosphorus (P) and organic carbon (C) was studied in eight high altitude (2040-2640m) small shallow (0.065-0.249 km2; 0.9-3.1 m) ...
Rutkowska, Joanna; Sadowska, Edyta T; Cichoń, Mariusz; Bauchinger, Ulf
Patterns of physiological flexibility in response to fasting are well established, but much less is known about the contribution of water deprivation to the observed effects. We investigated body composition and energy and water budget in three groups of zebra finches: birds with access to food and water, food-deprived birds having access to drinking water and food-and-water-deprived birds. Animals were not stimulated by elevated energy expenditure and they were in thermoneutral conditions; thus, based on previous studies, water balance of fasting birds was expected to be maintained by increased catabolism of proteins. In contrast to this expectation, we found that access to water did not prevent reduction of proteinaceous tissue, but it saved fat reserves of the fasting birds. Thus, water balance of birds fasting without access to water seemed to be maintained by elevated fat catabolism, which generated 6 times more metabolic water compared with that in birds that had access to water. Therefore, we revise currently established views and propose fat to serve as the primary source for metabolic water production. Previously assumed increased protein breakdown for maintenance of water budget would occur if fat stores were depleted or if fat catabolism reached its upper limits due to high energy demands. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Maria Lúcia Calijuri
Full Text Available The current scenario of water scarcity evidences the need for an adequate management of water resources. In karstic regions, the water flow through fractures significantly increases the water infiltration rate, which explains the small number of rivers and the importance of groundwater for urban supply. Therefore, the water balance is necessary since it may aid decision making processes and guide water management projects. The objective of this paper was to perform the water balance of a watershed situated in a karstic region quantifying infiltration, runoff and evapotranspiration. The study area is located near the Tancredo Neves International Airport in Confins, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Most of the area consists of forest formations (40.9%, and pastures (34.5%. In order to estimate deep infiltration, the BALSEQ model was used. BALSEQ is a numeric model of sequential water balance in which deep infiltration at the end of the day is given by the difference between daily precipitation and the sum of surface runoff, evapotranspiration and the variation of the amount of water stored in the soil. The results show that approximately 60% of total annual precipitation result in deep infiltration, considering the recharge period from September to March. After the dry period, the areas with no vegetal cover present higher deep infiltration. However, over the months, the contribution of the vegetated areas becomes greater, showing the importance of these areas to aquifer recharge.
Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.; Trujillo, G.
After the 30-year post-closure maintenance period at hazardous waste landfills, long-term stability must be assured without continued intervention. Understanding water balance in the established vegetative cover system is central to predicting such stability. A Los Alamos National Laboratory research project has established a series of experimental cover treatment plots on a closed waste disposal site which will permit the determination of the effects of such critical parameters as soil cover design, leaf area index, and rooting characteristics on water balance under varied conditions. Data from these experiments are being analyzed by water balance modeling and other means. The results show consistent differences in soil moisture storage between soil profiles and between vegetation cover treatments
Healy, R.W.; Gray, J.R.; De Vries, G. M.; Mills, P.C.
The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components (81 millimeters per year) indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful in estimating evapotranspiration, but questionable for estimation of other components. Precipitation depth and temporal distribution had a very strong effect on all other components of the water-balance equation. Due to the variability of precipitation from year to year, it appears that two years of data are inadequate for characterization of the long-term average water balance at the site.
Healy, R.W.; Gray, J.R.; de Vries, M.P.; Mills, P.C.
The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful in estimating evapotranspiration, but questionable for estimation of other components. Precipitation depth and temporal distribution had a very strong effect on all other components of the water-balance equation. Due to the variability of precipitation from year to year, it appears that two years of data are inadequate for characterization of the long-term average water balance at the site
Senay, G.B.; Leake, S.; Nagler, P.L.; Artan, G.; Dickinson, J.; Cordova, J.T.; Glenn, E.P.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important hydrological process that can be studied and estimated at multiple spatial scales ranging from a leaf to a river basin. We present a review of methods in estimating basin scale ET and its applications in understanding basin water balance dynamics. The review focuses on two aspects of ET: (i) how the basin scale water balance approach is used to estimate ET; and (ii) how ‘direct’ measurement and modelling approaches are used to estimate basin scale ET. Obviously, the basin water balance-based ET requires the availability of good precipitation and discharge data to calculate ET as a residual on longer time scales (annual) where net storage changes are assumed to be negligible. ET estimated from such a basin water balance principle is generally used for validating the performance of ET models. On the other hand, many of the direct estimation methods involve the use of remotely sensed data to estimate spatially explicit ET and use basin-wide averaging to estimate basin scale ET. The direct methods can be grouped into soil moisture balance modelling, satellite-based vegetation index methods, and methods based on satellite land surface temperature measurements that convert potential ET into actual ET using a proportionality relationship. The review also includes the use of complementary ET estimation principles for large area applications. The review identifies the need to compare and evaluate the different ET approaches using standard data sets in basins covering different hydro-climatic regions of the world.
Carey, S. K.; Ziegler, C. M.
In the mountainous Canadian subarctic, elevation gradients control the disposition of vegetation, permafrost, and characteristics of the soil profile. How intra-basin ecosystems combine to control catchment-scale water and biogeochimcal cycling is uncertain. To this end, a multi-year ecohydrological investigation was undertaken in Granger Basin (GB), a 7.6 km2 sub-basin of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. GB was divided into four sub-basins based on the dominant vegetation and permafrost status, and the timing and magnitude of hydrological processes were compared using hydrometric and hydrochemical methods. Vegetation plays an important role in end-of-winter snow accumulation as snow redistribution by wind is controlled by roughness length. In sub-basins of GB with tall shrubs, snow accumulation is enhanced compared with areas of short shrubs and tundra vegetation. The timing of melt was staggered with elevation, although melt-rates were similar among the sub-basins. Runoff was enhanced at the expense of infiltration in tall shrub areas due to high snow water equivalent and antecedent soil moisture. In the high-elevation tundra sub-basin, thin soils with cold ground temperatures resulted in increased surface runoff. For the freshet period, the lower and upper sub-basins accounted for 81 % of runoff while accounting for 58 % of the total basin area. Two-component isotopic hydrograph separation revealed that during melt, pre-event water dominated in all sub-basins, yet those with greater permafrost disposition and taller shrubs had increased event-water. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spiked prior to peak freshet in each sub-basin except for the highest with thin soils, and was associated with flushing of surficial organic soils. For the post-melt period, all sub-basins have similar runoff contributions. Solute and stable isotope data indicate that in sub-basins dominated by permafrost, supra-permafrost runoff pathways predominate as flow
Traditional water use statistics only include the blue water withdrawal/consumption of municipalities, industry and irrigated agriculture. When, however, green water use of the agricultural sector is included as well as the virtual water use/water footprint (WF), water use quantity statistics become very different. In common water use statistics, Austria withdraws in total about 2.5 km(3) per year, only 3% of available resources (total discharge 81.4 km(3) = surface and ground water). The total water consumption (0.5 km(3)) is less than 1% of available resources. Urban (municipal) water requirements account for 27% of total withdrawal or 33% of consumption. When agricultural green water use (cropland) is included in statistics, the fraction of municipal water requirements diminishes to 7.6% of total withdrawal and 2.5% of total consumption. If the evapotranspiration of grassland and alpine meadows is also included in agricultural green water use, this fraction decreases to 3.2% and 0.9% respectively. When the WF is assessed as base value for water use in Austria, the municipal water use represents 5.8% of this value. In this globalized world, these traditional water use statistics are no longer recommendable. Only a holistic water balance approach really represents water use statistics.
Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jaafar Sahari; Nik Suhaimi Mat Hassan
Gas and water management are key to achieving good performance from a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. Water plays a critical role in PEMFC. The proton conductivity is increase with the water content. In order to achieve enough hydration, water is normally introduced into the cell externally by a variety of methods such as liquid injection, steam introduction, and humidification of reactants by passing them through humidifiers before entering the cell. In this paper, mathematical modeling of water mass balance for PEMFC at anode and cathode side are proposed by using external humidification and assume that steady state, constant pressure, constant temperature and gases distribution are uniform
Musaeva, T S; Karipidi, M K; Zabolotskikh, I B
a comprehensive assessment of the water balance on the basis of daily, cumulative balance and 10% of the body weight gain and their role in the development of early complications after major abdominal surgery. A retrospective study of the perioperative period in 150 patients who underwent major abdomi- nal surgery was performed. The physical condition of the patients corresponded to ASA 3 class. The average age was 46 (38-62) years. The following stages ofresearch: an analysis of daily balance and cumulative balance in complicated and uncomplicated group and their role in the development of complications; the timing of development ofcomplications and possible relationship with fluid overload and the development of complications; changes in the level of albumin within 10 days of the postoperative period. The analysis of complications didn't show significant differences between complicated and uncomplicated groups according to the water balance during the surgery and by the end of the first day. When constructing the area under the ROC curve (A UROC) low resolution ofthe balance in intraoperative period and the first day and the balance on the second day to predict complications was shown. Significant diferences according to the cumulative balance was observed from the third day of the postoperative period Also with the third day of the postoperative period there is a good resolution for prediction ofpostoperative complications according to the cumulative balance with the cut-offpoint > of 50,7 ml/kg. the excessive infusion therapy is a predictor of adverse outcome in patients after major abdominal surgery. Therefore, after 3 days of postoperative period it is important to maintain mechanisms for the excretion of excess fluid or limitations of infusion therapy.
van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.
Australia's national agencies are developing a continental modelling system to provide a range of water information services. It will include rolling water balance estimation to underpin national water accounts, water resources assessments that interpret current water resources availability and trends in a historical context, and water resources predictions coupled to climate and weather forecasting. The nation-wide coverage, currency, accuracy, and consistency required means that remote sensing will need to play an important role along with in-situ observations. Different approaches to blending models and observations can be considered. Integration of on-ground and remote sensing data into land surface models in atmospheric applications often involves state updating through model-data assimilation techniques. By comparison, retrospective water balance estimation and hydrological scenario modelling to date has mostly relied on static parameter fitting against observations and has made little use of earth observation. The model-data fusion approach most appropriate for a continental water balance estimation system will need to consider the trade-off between computational overhead and the accuracy gains achieved when using more sophisticated synthesis techniques and additional observations. This trade-off was investigated using a landscape hydrological model and satellite-based estimates of soil moisture and vegetation properties for aseveral gauged test catchments in southeast Australia.
Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew
Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.
Fisher, Joshua B; Nawaz, Rizwan; Nawaz, Faiza; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Latif, Zulkiflee Abd; Blackett, Matthew
Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development-environment-culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West
Fisher, Joshua B [Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 0EZ (United Kingdom); Nawaz, Rizwan; Nawaz, Faiza [HydroRisk Ltd, Leeds University Union, Lifton Place, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Fauzi, Rosmadi [Department of Geography, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Latif, Zulkiflee Abd [Department of Surveying Science and Geomatics, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Blackett, Matthew [Department of Geography, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: email@example.com
Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development-environment-culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.
Haddeland, Ingjerd; Holmqvist, Erik
Hydroelectric power production is closely linked to the water cycle, and variations in power production numbers reflect variations in weather. The expected climate changes will influence electricity supply through changes in annual and seasonal inflow of water to hydropower reservoirs. In Norway, more than 95 percent of the electricity production is from hydroelectric plants, and industry linked to hydropower has been an important part of the society for more than a century. Reliable information on historical and future available water resources is hence of crucial importance both for short and long-term planning and adaptation purposes in the hydropower sector. Traditionally, the Multi-area Power-market Simulator (EMPS) is used for modelling hydropower production in Norway. However, due to the models' high level of details and computational demand, this model is only used for historical analyses and a limited number of climate projections. A method has been developed that transfers water fluxes (mm day-1) and states (mm) into energy units (GWh mm-1), based on hydrological modelling of a limited number of catchments representing reservoir inflow to more than 700 hydropower plants in Norway. The advantages of using the conversion factor method, compared to EMPS, are its simplicity and low computational requirements. The main disadvantages are that it does not take into account flood losses and the time lag between inflow and power production. The method is used operationally for weekly and seasonal energy forecasts, and has proven successful at the range of results obtained for reproducing historical hydropower production numbers. In hydropower energy units, mean annual precipitation for the period 1981-2010 is estimated at 154 TWh year-1. On average, 24 TWh year-1 is lost through evapotranspiration, meaning runoff equals 130 TWh year-1. There are large interannual variations, and runoff available for power production ranges from 91 to 165 TWh year-1. The snow pack
Salm, C. van der; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, W. de
A soil hydrological model based on Darcy's law was used to calculate hydrological fluxes for 245 intensively monitored forest plots in Europe. Local measured input data for the model were rather limited and input was partly based on generic data. To obtain the best results, the model was calibrated on measured throughfall at the plots. Median transpiration fluxes are 350 mm; median leaching fluxes are 150 mm yr -1 with the highest values in areas with high rainfall. Uncertainty analyses indicate that the use of local meteorological data instead of generic data leads to lower leaching fluxes at 70% of the plots due to an overestimation of the wind speed on basis of main meteorological stations. The underestimation of the leaching fluxes is confirmed by the median Cl fluxes which were slightly positive for the considered plots. - Assessment of water fluxes for 245 intensively monitored forest plots in Europe using a soil hydrological model combined with an interception model and a snow module
Bouwer, L.M.; Biggs, T.W.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.
Evaporation dominates the water balance in arid and semi-arid areas. The estimation of evaporation by land-cover type is important for proper management of scarce water resources. Here, we present a method to assess spatial and temporal patterns of actual evaporation by relating water balance
Malisova, Olga; Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Kolyzoi, Kleoniki; Lysandropoulos, Athanasios; Sfendouraki, Kalliopi; Kapsokefalou, Maria
Older adults are at risk for dehydration and its' potentially life-threatening consequences. Unrecognized dehydration can complicate chronic medical problems and increase morbidity. The objective of the study was to estimate water balance, intake and loss in elderly people living in Greece using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ). WBQ was administered in winter to 108 independents (65-81yrs) (Group A), 94 independents (82-92yrs) (Group B) and 51 hospitalized (65-92yrs) (Group C). A database from previous study of 335 adults (18-65yrs) (Control Group) used for comparison. Mean estimates of water balance, intake and loss were, respectively, for Group A -749 ± 1386 mL/day, 2571 ± 739 mL/day and 3320 ± 1216 mL/day, for Group B -38 ± 933 mL/day, 2571 ± 739 mL/day and 3320 ± 1216 mL/day, for Group C 64 ± 1399 mL/day, 2586 ± 1071 mL/day and 2522 ± 1048 mL/day and for Control Group -253 ± 1495 mL/day, 2912 ± 1025 mL/day and 3492 ± 2099 mL/day. Significant differences were detected in water balance, intake and loss (p < 0.01). Water balance and water intake in Group A was the lowest. For Groups A, B, C and Control, contribution of solid foods to water intake was 36%, 29%, 32%, 25%, of drinking water was 32%, 48%, 45%, 47%, of beverages was 32%, 23%, 23% and 28% respectively. Significant differences observed in the contribution of drinking water and beverages (p < 0.01). Group A had lower water balance and water intake. Groups B and C had lower water intake from beverages. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xina Henry Quadros
Full Text Available Introduction: Sitting balance is a prerequisite to upper extremity function, standing and walking, which is affected in various neurological diseases. It is important to attain a good level of sitting balance before one can proceed to standing. In recent years, virtual reality game training has gained a widespread application. Aim: This pilot study aimed to examine the role of additional virtual reality sitting balance training using a commercial interactive virtual reality system- Xbox Kinect™ in patients with neurological disorders. Materials and Methods: Four patients with sitting balance impairments following neurological disorders received two weeks of virtual reality based therapy along with the conventional physiotherapy. Sitting balance was evaluated using FIST (Function In Sitting Test scores at baseline, one week and after two weeks of intervention. Results: All four patients showed clinically significant improvement in FIST score between the pre and post intervention. Percentage of improvement in FIST score was approximately 27% with a minimum change of 10 points in the FIST score Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID=6.5. Conclusion: Additional virtual reality training may improve sitting balance control in neurological patients with balance impairments. It can be used as an adjunct in routine neurorehabilitation.
Perri, S.; Viola, F.; Molini, A.
Soil degradation and water scarcity pose important constraints on productivity and development of arid and semi-arid countries. Among the main causes of loss of soil fertility, aridification and soil salinization are deeply connected threats enhanced by climate change. Assessing water availability is fundamental for a large number of applications especially in arid regions. An approach often adopted to estimate the long-term rainfall partitioning into evapotranspiration and runoff is the Budyko's curve. However, the classical Budyko framework might not be able to properly reproduce the water balance in salt affected basins, especially under elevated soil salinization conditions. Salinity is a limiting factor for plant transpiration (as well as growth) affecting both short and long term soil moisture dynamics and ultimately the hydrologic balance. Soluble salts cause a reduction of soil water potential similar to the one arising from droughts, although plant adaptations to soil salinity show extremely different traits and can vary from species to species. In a similar context, the salt-tolerance plants are expected to control the amount of soil moisture lost to transpiration in saline soils, also because salinity reduces evaporation. We propose a simple framework to include the effects of salinization on the surface energy and water balance within a simple Budyko approach. By introducing the effects of salinity in the stochastic water balance we are able to include the influence of vegetation type (i.e. in terms of salt-tolerance) on evapotranspiration-runoff partitioning under different climatic conditions. The water balance components are thus compared to data obtained from arid salt-affected regions.
Thoma, David P.; Munson, Seth M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Witwicki, Dana L.; Bunting, Erin
Questions Can we improve understanding of vegetation response to water availability on monthly time scales in semi-arid environments using remote sensing methods? What climatic or water balance variables and antecedent windows of time associated with these variables best relate to the condition of vegetation? Can we develop credible near-term forecasts from climate data that can be used to prepare for future climate change effects on vegetation? Location Semi-arid grasslands in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, USA. Methods We built vegetation response models by relating the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from MODIS imagery in Mar–Nov 2000–2013 to antecedent climate and water balance variables preceding the monthly NDVI observations. We compared how climate and water balance variables explained vegetation greenness and then used a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance models to forecast monthly NDVI for three holdout years. Results Water balance variables explained vegetation greenness to a greater degree than climate variables for most growing season months. Seasonally important variables included measures of antecedent water input and storage in spring, switching to indicators of drought, input or use in summer, followed by antecedent moisture availability in autumn. In spite of similar climates, there was evidence the grazed grassland showed a response to drying conditions 1 mo sooner than the ungrazed grassland. Lead times were generally short early in the growing season and antecedent window durations increased from 3 mo early in the growing season to 1 yr or more as the growing season progressed. Forecast accuracy for three holdout years using a multi-model ensemble of climate and water balance variables outperformed forecasts made with a naïve NDVI climatology. Conclusions We determined the influence of climate and water balance on vegetation at a fine temporal scale, which presents an opportunity to forecast vegetation
Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.
Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass balance quantities for balance year 2002. The 2002 glacier-average maximum winter snow balance was 4.02 meters, the second largest since 1959. The 2002 glacier summer, net, and annual (water year) balances were -3.47, 0.55, and 0.54 meters, respectively. The area of the glacier near the end of the balance year was 1.92 square kilometers, and the equilibrium-line altitude and the accumulation area ratio were 1,820 meters and 0.84, respectively. During September 20, 2001 to September 13, 2002, the terminus retreated 4 meters, and computed average ice speeds in the ablation area ranged from 7.8 to 20.7 meters per year. Runoff from the subbasin containing the glacier and from an adjacent non-glacierized basin were measured during part of the 2002 water year. Air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric water-vapor pressure, wind speed and incoming solar radiation were measured at selected locations near the glacier.
Full Text Available The present paper introduces an analytical approach for the description of the soil water balance dynamics over a schematic river basin. The model is based on a stochastic differential equation where the rainfall forcing is interpreted as an additive noise in the soil water balance. This equation can be solved assuming known the spatial distribution of the soil moisture over the basin transforming the two-dimensional problem in space in a one dimensional one. This assumption is particularly true in the case of humid and semihumid environments, where spatial redistribution becomes dominant producing a well defined soil moisture pattern. The model allowed to derive the probability density function of the saturated portion of a basin and of its relative saturation. This theory is based on the assumption that the soil water storage capacity varies across the basin following a parabolic distribution and the basin has homogeneous soil texture and vegetation cover. The methodology outlined the role played by the soil water storage capacity distribution of the basin on soil water balance. In particular, the resulting probability density functions of the relative basin saturation were found to be strongly controlled by the maximum water storage capacity of the basin, while the probability density functions of the relative saturated portion of the basin are strongly influenced by the spatial heterogeneity of the soil water storage capacity. Moreover, the saturated areas reach their maximum variability when the mean rainfall rate is almost equal to the soil water loss coefficient given by the sum of the maximum rate of evapotranspiration and leakage loss in the soil water balance. The model was tested using the results of a continuous numerical simulation performed with a semi-distributed model in order to validate the proposed theoretical distributions.
de Lavenne, Alban; Andréassian, Vazken
This paper examines the hydrological impact of the seasonality of precipitation and maximum evaporation: seasonality is, after aridity, a second-order determinant of catchment water yield. Based on a data set of 171 French catchments (where aridity ranged between 0.2 and 1.2), we present a parameterization of three commonly-used water balance formulas (namely, Turc-Mezentsev, Tixeront-Fu and Oldekop formulas) to account for seasonality effects. We quantify the improvement of seasonality-based parameterization in terms of the reconstitution of both catchment streamflow and water yield. The significant improvement obtained (reduction of RMSE between 9 and 14% depending on the formula) demonstrates the importance of climate seasonality in the determination of long-term catchment water balance.
Rosemurgy, A S; Rodriguez, E; Hart, M B; Kurto, H Z; Albrink, M H
Bioimpedance technology is being used increasingly to determine drug volume of distribution, body water status, and nutrition repletion. Its accuracy in patients experiencing large volume flux is not established. To address this, we undertook this prospective study in 54 consecutive seriously injured adults who had emergency celiotomy soon after arrival in the emergency department. Bioimpedance measurements were obtained in the emergency department before the patient was transported to the operating room, on completion of celiotomy, and 24 hours and 48 hours after celiotomy. Bioimpedance measurements of body water were compared with measured fluid balance. If insensible losses are subtracted from measured fluid balance, the percentage of body weight, which is body water determined by bioimpedance, closely follows fluid flux. This study supports the use of bioimpedance measurements in determining total body water even during periods of surgery, blood loss, and vigorous resuscitation.
Full Text Available The paper is dealing with results of theoretical and experimental investigations related to the balance of energy and voltage distribution in units for electrochemical units for water treatment. The electrical energy conversion mechanism in electrochemical units equipped with ionic selective membrane is analyzed. The obtained results could be used for design of electrochemical units for the water conditioning for diverse technological processes in agriculture and biotechnology.
David R. DeWalle; Gordon M. Heisler
A water vapor mass balance technique that includes the use of common humidity-control equipment can be used to determine average air infiltration rates in buildings. Only measurements of the humidity inside and outside the home, the mass of vapor exchanged by a humidifier/dehumidifier, and the volume of interior air space are needed. This method gives results that...
Full Text Available There is currently no doubt about the existence of a widespread hydrological network under the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux–basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.
Zanchi, F. .B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Tapia, A.P.; Alvarado Barrientos, M.S.; Bolson, M.A.; Luizao, F.J.; Manzi, A.O.; Dolman, A.J.
Carbon storage values in the Amazon basin have been studied through different approaches in the last decades in order to clarify whether the rainforest ecosystem is likely to act as a sink or source for carbon in the near future. This water balance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrient export
Abdelrady, A.R.; Timmermans, J.; Vekerdy, Z.; Salama, M.S.
Current earth observation models do not take into account the influence of water salinity on the evaporation rate, even though the salinity influences the evaporation rate by affecting the density and latent heat of vaporization. In this paper, we adapt the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System) model
Effect of water intake on the nitrogen balance of sheep fed a low or a medium protein diet. JG van der Walt, EA Boomker, A Meintjes, WA Schultheiss. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Goeller, S.; Thoma, M.; Grosfeld, K.; Miller, H.
There is currently no doubt about the existence of a wide-spread hydrological network under the Antarctic ice sheet, which lubricates the ice base and thus leads to increased ice velocities. Consequently, ice models should incorporate basal hydrology to obtain meaningful results for future ice dynamics and their contribution to global sea level rise. Here, we introduce the balanced water layer concept, covering two prominent subglacial hydrological features for ice sheet modeling on a continental scale: the evolution of subglacial lakes and balance water fluxes. We couple it to the thermomechanical ice-flow model RIMBAY and apply it to a synthetic model domain inspired by the Gamburtsev Mountains, Antarctica. In our experiments we demonstrate the dynamic generation of subglacial lakes and their impact on the velocity field of the overlaying ice sheet, resulting in a negative ice mass balance. Furthermore, we introduce an elementary parametrization of the water flux-basal sliding coupling and reveal the predominance of the ice loss through the resulting ice streams against the stabilizing influence of less hydrologically active areas. We point out, that established balance flux schemes quantify these effects only partially as their ability to store subglacial water is lacking.
Full Text Available An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the spatially distributed and physically based model SIMODIS in order to individuate the best irrigation management maximizing the water use efficiency and minimizing water losses by deep percolation and soil evaporation. SIMODIS was applied taking in to account the soil spatial variability and localization of cadastral units for two crops, durum wheat and water melon. For water melon recognition in 2007 a remote sensed image, from SPOT5 satellite, at the spatial resolution of 10 m, has been used. In 2008, a multi-temporal data set was available, from SPOT5 satellite to produce a land cover map for the classes water melon and durum wheat. Water melon cultivation was simulated adopting different water supply managements: rainfed and four irrigation strategies based on (i soil water availability and (ii plant water status adopting a threshold daily stress value. For each management, several water management indicators were calculated and mapped in GIS environment. For seasonal irrigation depth, actual evapotranspiration and irrigation efficiency were also determined. The analysis allowed to individuate the areas particularly sensitive to water losses by deep percolation because of their hydraulic functions characterized by low water retention and large values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. For these areas, the irrigation based on plant water status caused very high water losses by drainage. On the contrary, the irrigation scheduled on soil base allowed to
Fong, Shirley S. M.; Tsang, William W. N.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have poorer postural control and are more susceptible to falls and injuries than their healthy counterparts. Sports training may improve sensory organization and balance ability in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three months of Taekwondo (TKD) training on the…
Full Text Available Michal Goetz,1 Jaroslava Paulasova Schwabova,2 Zdenek Hlavka,3 Radek Ptacek,4 Craig BH Surman5 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Second Faculty of Medicine, Motol University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Statistics, 4Department of Psychiatry, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is linked to the presence of motor deficiencies, including balance deficits. The cerebellum serves as an integrative structure for balance control and is also involved in cognition, including timing and anticipatory regulation. Cerebellar development may be delayed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and inconsistent reaction time is commonly seen in ADHD. We hypothesized that dynamic balance deficits would be present in children with ADHD and they would correlate with attention and cerebellar functions. Methods: Sixty-two children with ADHD and no other neurological conditions and 62 typically developing (TD children were examined with five trials of the Phyaction Balance Board, an electronic balancing platform. Cerebellar clinical symptoms were evaluated using an international ataxia rating scale. Conners’ Continuous Performance Test was used to evaluate patterns of reaction. Results: Children with ADHD had poorer performance on balancing tasks, compared to TD children (P<0.001. They exhibited significantly greater sway amplitudes than TD children (P<0.001 in all of the five balancing trials. The effect size of the difference between the groups increased continuously from the first to the last trial. Balance score in both groups was related to the variation in the reaction time, including reaction time standard error (r =0.25; P=0.0409, respectively, r =0.31; P=0.0131 and Variability of Standard Error (r =0.28; P=0.0252, respectively, r =0.41; P<0.001. The burden of cerebellar symptoms was strongly related to
Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron
We present a two-dimensional, well-balanced, central-upwind scheme for approximating solutions of the shallow water equations in the presence of a stationary bottom topography on triangular meshes. Our starting point is the recent central scheme of Kurganov and Petrova (KP) for approximating solutions of conservation laws on triangular meshes. In order to extend this scheme from systems of conservation laws to systems of balance laws one has to find an appropriate discretization of the source terms. We first show that for general triangulations there is no discretization of the source terms that corresponds to a well-balanced form of the KP scheme. We then derive a new variant of a central scheme that can be balanced on triangular meshes. We note in passing that it is straightforward to extend the KP scheme to general unstructured conformal meshes. This extension allows us to recover our previous well-balanced scheme on Cartesian grids. We conclude with several simulations, verifying the second-order accuracy of our scheme as well as its well-balanced properties.
Full Text Available Objectives: Poor balance is one of risk factors of falling, a cause of injury and even death in elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a water exercise program on static and dynamic balance in elder women. Methods & Materials: Thirty participants aged 55-70 years completed an exercise program (60 min, 3 days and 6 weeks, in 2 groups, exercise and control, voluntarily. Static and dynamic balances were measured before and after exercise program in both groups. Postural sway parameters, including mean displacement of center of pressure and velocity of center of pressure in Medio-Lateral (ML and Anterio-Posterior (AP directions, in single stance position, as a measure of static balance and functional reach test, functional reach right test and functional reach left test, as dynamic measure of balance was considered. T test for deepened groups was used for evaluation of changes within groups, and T test for independent groups was used for between groups' changes at threshold of 0.05 After 6 weeks. Results: Significant changes were observed in results of Functional Reach Test (FRT, Functional Reach Left Test (FRLT after exercise program, also in average displacement of cop and velocity of cop in ML direction. Between groups significant differences were observed in results of average cop displacement and velocity of displacement, FRT and FRLT. Conclusion: These results suggest that challenging the physiological systems involved in balance control, in water, while on the non stable support surface, improved both static and dynamic balance and probably might decrease the risk of falling.
Brandt, Thomas; Zwergal, Andreas; Jahn, Klaus; Strupp, Michael
In 2009 the German BMBF (German Ministry of Education and Research) established an Integrated Center for Research and Treatment (IFB(LMU)) of Vertigo, Balance and Ocular Motor Disorders in Munich. After the 10-year period of funding by the BMBF, it is envisioned that the (IFB(LMU)) will continue over the long term with the joint support of the University Hospital, the Medical Faculty, and the Bavarian State. Vertigo is one of the most common complaints in medicine. Despite its high prevalence, patients with vertigo generally receive either inappropriate or inadequate treatment. This deplorable situation is internationally well known and its causes are multiple: insufficient interdisciplinary cooperation, no standardized diagnostics and therapy, the failure to translate findings of basic science into clinical applications, and the scarcity of clinical multicenter studies. The (IFB(LMU)) will constitute a suitable tool with which these structural, clinical, and scientific deficits can be overcome. It will also make possible the establishment of an international interdisciplinary referral center. Munich has become the site of a unique concentration of leading experts on vertigo, balance and ocular motor disorders, both in the clinical and basic sciences. Academic structures have paved the way for the creation of an interdisciplinary horizontal network that also allows structured, vertical academic career paths via the Bachelor's and Master's degree programs in Neuroscience, a Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences, and the Munich Center for Neurosciences - Brain and Mind. The (IFB(LMU)) has the following objectives as regards structure and content: to create an independent patient-oriented clinical research center under the auspices of the Medical Faculty but with autonomous administration and budget; to overcome existing clinical and academic barriers separating the traditional specializations; to establish a standardized interdisciplinary longitudinal and
Wu, S.; Zhao, J.; Wang, H.
This paper develops a seasonal water balance model based on the hypothesis that natural catchments utilize hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climate seasonality. According to the monthly aridity index, one year is split into wet season and dry season. A seasonal water balance model is developed by analogy to a two-stage reservoir operation model, in which seasonal rainfall infiltration, evapotranspiration and saturation-excess runoff is corresponding to the inflow, release and surplus of the catchment system. Then the optimal hedging between wet season and dry season evapotranspiration is analytically derived with marginal benefit principle. Water budget data sets of 320 catchments in the United States covering the period from 1980 to 2010 are used to evaluate the performance of this model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient for evapotranspiration is higher than 0.5 in 84% of the study catchments; while the runoff is 87%. This paper validates catchments' hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climate seasonality and shows its potential application for seasonal water balance, which is valuable for water resources planning and management.
São Mateus, Maria do Socorro Costa; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Barbosa, Maria Cláudia
This paper presents an attempt to model the water balance in the metropolitan center landfill (MCL) in Salvador, Brazil. Aspects such as the municipal solid waste (MSW) initial water content, mass loss due to decomposition, MSW liquid expelling due to compression and those related to weather conditions, such as the amount of rainfall and evaporation are considered. Superficial flow and infiltration were modeled considering the waste and the hydraulic characteristics (permeability and soil-water retention curves) of the cover layer and simplified uni-dimensional empirical models. In order to validate the modeling procedure, data from one cell at the landfill were used. Monthly waste entry, volume of collected leachate and leachate level inside the cell were monitored. Water balance equations and the compressibility of the MSW were used to calculate the amount of leachate stored in the cell and the corresponding leachate level. Measured and calculated values of the leachate level inside the cell were similar and the model was able to capture the main trends of the water balance behavior during the cell operational period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce; Lopes, Maria de Fátima A; Cebolla, Elaine Cristine; Wolf, Renata; Rodacki, André L F
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a water-based exercise program on static and dynamic balance. Thirty-six older women were randomly assigned to a water-based training (3 days/week for 12 weeks) or control group. Water level was kept at the level of the xiphoid process and temperature at ∼28-30°C. Each session included aerobic activities and lower limb strength exercises. The medial-lateral, the anterior-posterior amplitude, and displacement of the center of pressure (CP-D) were measured in a quiet standing position (60 sec eyes opened and closed). The dynamic balance and 8-Foot Up-and-Go tests were also applied. Group comparisons were made using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. No differences were found in the center of pressure variables; however, the WBT group showed better performance in the 8 Foot Up-and-Go Test after training (5.61±0.76 vs. 5.18±0.42; pwater-based training was effective in improving dynamic balance, but not static balance.
Ogunkoya, O. O.
Three - year and annual catchment water balances were drawn for a small l catchment (44 ha.) in southwestern Nigeria. The equation: P - Q - E T - Δs = O was not resolved. Rather, the terms on the left did not sum to zero. The residual, which are between 4% and 5% of total rainfall, were consistently negative. A probable source of error is the use of Thornthwaite's potential evaporation in estimating catchment evapotranspiration. Potential evapotranspiration is higher than actual evapotranspiration in the study area due to the limited evaporation opportunity during the approximately five - mouth dry season. Given that the study catchment had runoff patterns that are simi liar to those of larger rivers in the region the computed catchment water balance indicated that 37% of annual rainfall may be taken as the runoff coefficient for the region. This suggests that the engineer's coefficient (0.35 - 0.45) used in assessment of surface water resources in southwestern Nigeria, is reasonable
In order to predict energy and water balances between the biosphere and atmosphere accurately, sophisticated schemes to calculate evaporation and adsorption processes in the soil and cloud (fog) water deposition on vegetation were implemented in the one-dimensional atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO 2 exchange process (SOLVEG2). Performance tests in arid areas showed that the above schemes have a significant effect on surface energy and water balances. The framework of the above schemes incorporated in the SOLVEG2 and instruction for running the model are documented. With further modifications of the model to implement the carbon exchanges between the vegetation and soil, deposition processes of materials on the land surface, vegetation stress-growth-dynamics etc., the model is suited to evaluate an effect of environmental loads to ecosystems by atmospheric pollutants and radioactive substances under climate changes such as global warming and drought. (author)
Full Text Available The importance of angiotensin II in the regulation of water and electrolyte balance in sheep is questionable. In this trial the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor were quantified in sheep on restricted water intake. Comparing the phase of water restriction only with that of water restriction plus ACE inhibition, significant increases were observed during the latter phase in urine volume, sodium and potassium excretion via the urine, sodium concentration in the plasma and osmolar clearance. Urine osmolarity decreased with inhibition of angiotensin II formation while variables such as water, sodium and potassium loss via the faeces were unaffected. Most of the renal effects of ACE inhibition, except the increase in urinary potassium excretion, were explicable in terms of the established functions of angiotensin II. Furthermore, results of this trial indicate that angiotensin II has no significant effect on the intestine in regulating water and electrolyte excretion via the faeces.
New hydrological insights: A water isotope framework for the Nam Co basin, including the Local Meteoric Water Line, limiting isotopic composition of evaporation and two hypothetical evaporation trajectories, is established. We further applied the isotope mass balance model to estimate the overall isotopic composition of input water to the Nam Co, the evaporation over inputs ratios (E/I for three consecutive years, and the water yields (Wy, depth equivalent runoff at a basin scale. Our results clearly suggest a positive water budget (i.e., E/I < 1, providing another line of evidence that the subsurface leakage from Nam Co is likely. The discrepancy between isotope-based water yields estimations and field-based runoff observations suggest that, compared to the well-studied Nyainqentanglha Mountains and southwestern mountains, the ridge-and-valley landscape in the western highlands and northwestern hogbacks are possibly low yields area, which should draw more research attentions in future hydrological investigations.
Gibson, J. J.; Reid, R.
Stable isotope measurements and isotope mass balance (IMB) calculations are presented in support of an unprecedented 20-year water balance assessment for a tailings pond and a chain of downstream lakes at the Salmita-Tundra mine site, situated near Courageous Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada (65°03‧N; 111°11‧W). The method is shown to provide a comprehensive annual and interannual perspective of water balance fluxes along a chain of lakes during the period 1991-2010, without the need for continuous streamflow gauging, and reveals important lake-order-dependent patterns of land-surface runoff, discharge accumulation, and several key diagnostic ratios, i.e., evaporation/inflow, evaporation/evapotranspiration, land-surface-runoff/precipitation and discharge/ precipitation. Lake evaporation is found to be a significant component of the water balance, accounting for between 26% and 32% of inflow to natural lakes and between 72% and 100% of inflow to mine-tailings ponds. Evaporation/evapotranspiration averages between 7% and 22% and is found to be higher in low-precipitation years, and in watersheds with a higher proportion of lakes. Runoff ratios for land-surface drainages and runoff ratios for watersheds (including lakes) ranged between 14-47% and 20-47%, respectively, and were higher in low precipitation years, in watersheds with a higher proportion of lakes, and in watersheds less affected by mining development. We propose that in general these two runoff ratios will likely converge as lake order increases and as land cover conditions become regionally representative. Notably, the study demonstrates application of IMB, validated with streamflow measurements, to constrain local water balance in a remote low-arctic region. For IMB chain-of-lakes applications, it underlines the importance of accounting for evaporatively-enriched upstream sources to avoid overestimation of evaporation losses.
years. Evaporation from pond surface which was from 408 mm (2009/2010 to 835 mm (2002/2003 was the dominant factor of outgoing part of water balance. Outflow from the pond to neighboring areas had significant participation – about 44% of precipitation, in water balance in wet 2009/2010 hydrological year.
Berning, Torsten; Odgaard, Madeleine; Kær, Søren Knudsen
A previously published computational multi-phase model of a polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell has been extended in order to account for the anode side and the electrolyte membrane. The model has been applied to study the water balance of a fuel cell during operation under various humidificat...... net water transport coefficient. Thus we can reduce flooding at the cathode and may obtain improved cell performance due to a better humidified membrane. The results also suggest that membrane dehydration may occur at either anode or cathode depending on the net water transport....
Christina E Wierenga
Full Text Available The primary defining characteristic of a diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED is the disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food (DSM V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. There is a spectrum, ranging from those who severely restrict eating and become emaciated on one end to those who binge and overconsume, usually accompanied by some form of compensatory behaviors, on the other. How can we understand reasons for such extremes of food consummatory behaviors? Recent work on obesity and substance use disorders has identified behaviors and neural pathways that play a powerful role in human consummatory behaviors. That is, corticostriatal limbic and dorsal cognitive neural circuitry can make drugs and food rewarding, but also engage self-control mechanisms that may inhibit their use. Importantly, there is considerable evidence that alterations of these systems also occur in ED. This paper explores the hypothesis that an altered balance of reward and inhibition contributes to altered extremes of response to salient stimuli, such as food. We will review recent studies that show altered sensitivity to reward and punishment in ED, with evidence of altered activity in corticostriatal and insula processes with respect to monetary gains or losses, and tastes of palatable foods. We will also discuss evidence for a spectrum of extremes of inhibition and dysregulation behaviors in ED supported by studies suggesting that this is related to top-down self-control mechanisms. The lack of a mechanistic understanding of ED has thwarted efforts for evidence-based approaches to develop interventions. Understanding how ED behavior is encoded in neural circuits would provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches.
Wierenga, Christina E; Ely, Alice; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Bailer, Ursula F; Simmons, Alan N; Kaye, Walter H
The primary defining characteristic of a diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) is the "disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food" (DSM V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). There is a spectrum, ranging from those who severely restrict eating and become emaciated on one end to those who binge and overconsume, usually accompanied by some form of compensatory behaviors, on the other. How can we understand reasons for such extremes of food consummatory behaviors? Recent work on obesity and substance use disorders has identified behaviors and neural pathways that play a powerful role in human consummatory behaviors. That is, corticostriatal limbic and dorsal cognitive neural circuitry can make drugs and food rewarding, but also engage self-control mechanisms that may inhibit their use. Importantly, there is considerable evidence that alterations of these systems also occur in ED. This paper explores the hypothesis that an altered balance of reward and inhibition contributes to altered extremes of response to salient stimuli, such as food. We will review recent studies that show altered sensitivity to reward and punishment in ED, with evidence of altered activity in corticostriatal and insula processes with respect to monetary gains or losses, and tastes of palatable foods. We will also discuss evidence for a spectrum of extremes of inhibition and dysregulation behaviors in ED supported by studies suggesting that this is related to top-down self-control mechanisms. The lack of a mechanistic understanding of ED has thwarted efforts for evidence-based approaches to develop interventions. Understanding how ED behavior is encoded in neural circuits would provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches.
Ajram, L A; Horder, J; Mendez, M A; Galanopoulos, A; Brennan, L P; Wichers, R H; Robertson, D M; Murphy, C M; Zinkstok, J; Ivin, G; Heasman, M; Meek, D; Tricklebank, M D; Barker, G J; Lythgoe, D J; Edden, R A E; Williams, S C; Murphy, D G M; McAlonan, G M
Currently, there are no effective pharmacologic treatments for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is, nevertheless, potential for progress. For example, recent evidence suggests that the excitatory (E) glutamate and inhibitory (I) GABA systems may be altered in ASD. However, no prior studies of ASD have examined the 'responsivity' of the E-I system to pharmacologic challenge; or whether E-I modulation alters abnormalities in functional connectivity of brain regions implicated in the disorder. Therefore, we used magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([1H]MRS) to measure prefrontal E-I flux in response to the glutamate and GABA acting drug riluzole in adult men with and without ASD. We compared the change in prefrontal 'Inhibitory Index'-the GABA fraction within the pool of glutamate plus GABA metabolites-post riluzole challenge; and the impact of riluzole on differences in resting-state functional connectivity. Despite no baseline differences in E-I balance, there was a significant group difference in response to pharmacologic challenge. Riluzole increased the prefrontal cortex inhibitory index in ASD but decreased it in controls. There was also a significant group difference in prefrontal functional connectivity at baseline, which was abolished by riluzole within the ASD group. Our results also show, for we believe the first time in ASD, that E-I flux can be 'shifted' with a pharmacologic challenge, but that responsivity is significantly different from controls. Further, our initial evidence suggests that abnormalities in functional connectivity can be 'normalised' by targeting E-I, even in adults.
Le, Van Chin; Ranzi, Roberto
Uneven precipitation in space and time together with mismanagement and lack of knowledge about quantity and quality of water resources, have caused water shortages for water supply to large cities and irrigation areas in many regions of Viet Nam in the dry season. The rainy season (from June to October) counts for 80% of the total annual rainfall, while the water volume of dry season (from November to May of the following year) accounts for 20% only. Lack of sufficient water volumes occurs in some areas where the pressure of a fast increasing population (1.3% per year on average in the last decade in Viet Nam), intensive agricultural and industrial uses is one of the major problems facing sustainable development. For those areas an accurate water assessment and balance at the riverbasin scale is needed to manage the exploitation and appropriate use of water resources and plan future development. The paper describes the preliminary phase of the pilot development of the river basin water balance for the Day River Basin in the Red River delta in Viet Nam. The Day river basin includes a 7,897 km² area in the south-western part of the Red River in Viet Nam. The total population in the Day river basin exceeds 8 millions inhabitants, including the Hanoi capital, Nam Dinh and other large towns. Agricultural land covered 390,294 ha in 2000 and this area is going to be increased by 14,000 ha in 2010 due to land reclamation and expansion toward the sea. Agricultural uses exploit about 90% of surface water resources in the Day river basin but have to compete with industrial and civil needs in the recent years. At the background of the brief characterization of the Day River Basin, we concentrate on the application of a water balance model integrated by an assessment of water quality after consumptive uses for civil, agricultural and industrial needs to assist water management in the basin. In addition, future development scenarios are taken into account, considering less
Tomasz Cichoń; Jadwiga Królikowska
A large-scale implementation of individual water meters in water charging systems has created problems with a water shortage that have to be settled between real estate managers and water and sewage utilities. The article presents the observations and experiences from operation of a water metering system at the Krakow agglomeration. The studies have confirmed that many small leaks in installations, taps, faucets, flush toilets as well as system failures and the incidences of water stealing ar...
Siegel, D. I.; Glaser, P. H.; So, J.
Organic acids supply most of the acidity in the surface waters of bogs in peatlands. Yet, the fundamental geochemical properties of peatland organic acids are still poorly known. To assess the geochemical properties of typical organic acid assemblages in peatlands, we used a triprotic analog model for peat pore waters and surface waters in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands, optimizing on charge balance and calibrated to estimates of mole site density in DOC and triprotic acid dissociation constants. Before the calibration process, all bog waters and 76% of fen waters had more than +20% charge imbalance. After calibration, most electrochemically balanced within 20%. In the best calibration, the mole site denisty of bog DOC was estimated as ~0.05 mmol/mmol C., approximately 6 times smaller than that for fen DOC or the DOC in the fen deeper fen peats that underlie bogs. The three modeled de-protonation constants were; pKa1 = ~3.0, pKa2 = ~4.5 and pKa3 = ~7.0 for the bog DOC, and; pKa1 = ~5.2, pKa2 =~ 6.5 and pKa3 = ~7.0 for the fen DOC. Bog DOC, behaves as a strong acid despite its small mole site density. The DOC in bog runoff can therefore theoretically acidify the surface waters in adjacent fens wherever these waters do not receive sufficient buffering alkalinity from active groundwater seepage.
Shakhshir, Saher Al; Hussain, Nabeel; Berning, Torsten
Water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) remains a critical problem for their durability, cost, and performance. Because the anode side of this fuel cell has the tendency to become dehydrated, measuring the water balance can be an important diagnosis tool during fuel cell...... operation. The water balance indicates how much of the product water leaves at the anode side versus the cathode side. Previous methods of determining the fuel cell water balance often relied on condensing the water in the exhaust gas streams and weighing the accumulated mass which is a time consuming...... process that has limited accuracy. Currently, our group is developing a novel method to accurately determine the water balance in a PEMFC in real time by employing hot-wire anemometry. The amount of heat transferred from the wire to the anode exhaust stream can be translated into a voltage signal which...
Full Text Available Quantification of the changes of water balance components is significant for water resource assessment and management. This paper employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to estimate the water balance in a mountainous watershed in northwest China at different spatial scales over the past half century. The results showed that both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and determination coefficient (R2 were over 0.90 for the calibration and validation periods. The water balance components presented rising trends at the watershed scale, and the total runoff increased by 30.5% during 1964 to 2013 period. Rising surface runoff and rising groundwater flow contributed 42.7% and 57.3% of the total rising runoff, respectively. The runoff coefficient was sensitive to increasing precipitation and was not significant to the increase of temperature. The alpine meadow was the main landscape which occupied 51.1% of the watershed and contributed 55.5% of the total runoff. Grass land, forest land, bare land, and glacier covered 14.2%, 18.8%, 15.4%, and 0.5% of the watershed and contributed 8.5%, 16.9%, 15.9%, and 3.2% of the total runoff, respectively. The elevation zone from 3500 to 4500 m occupied 66.5% of the watershed area, and contributed the majority of the total runoff (70.7%. The runoff coefficients in the elevation zone from 1637 to 2800 m, 2800 to 3500 m, 3500 to 4000 m, 4000 to 4500 m, and 4500 to 5062 m were 0.20, 0.27, 0.32, 0.43, and 0.78, respectively, which tend to be larger along with the elevation increase. The quantities and change trends of the water balance components at the watershed scale were calculated by the results of the sub-watersheds. Furthermore, we characterized the spatial distribution of quantities and changes in trends of water balance components at the sub-watershed scale analysis. This study provides some references for water resource management and planning in inland river basins.
J. M. Sánchez
Full Text Available Estimates of surface actual evapotranspiration (ET can assist in predicting crop water requirements. An alternative to the traditional crop-coefficient methods are the energy balance models. The objective of this research was to show how surface temperature observations can be used, together with a two-source energy balance model, to determine crop water use throughout the different phenological stages of a crop grown. Radiometric temperatures were collected in a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor field as part of an experimental campaign carried out in Barrax, Spain, during the 2010 summer growing season. Performance of the Simplified Two-Source Energy Balance (STSEB model was evaluated by comparison of estimated ET with values measured on a weighing lysimeter. Errors of ±0.14 mm h−1 and ±1.0 mm d−1 were obtained at hourly and daily scales, respectively. Total accumulated crop water use during the campaign was underestimated by 5%. It is then shown that thermal radiometry can provide precise crop water necessities and is a promising tool for irrigation management.
Full Text Available Strong global warming has been observed in the last three decades. Central Europe, including Poland, is not an exception. Moreover, climate projections for Poland foresee further warming as well as changes in the spatial and seasonal distribution and quantity of precipitation. However, climate models do not agree on the sign of change of precipitation. In Poland precipitation is projected to decrease in summer (this finding is not robust, being model-dependent and to increase in winter. Therefore, there is still considerable uncertainty regarding likely climate change impacts on water resources in Poland. However, there is no doubt that changes in the thermal characteristics as well as in precipitation will influence changes in the water balance of the country. In this study, the components of climatic water balance, that is, precipitation, evaporation, and runoff, are calculated for the average conditions in the control period of 1961–1990 and in the future (2071–2100 in Poland. The changes of the water balance components for the present and for the future are compared and analysed. Due to insufficient consistency between climate models a possible range of changes should be presented; hence the multimodel projections from ENSEMBLES Project of the European Union are used in this study.
Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Emmerich, Christopher; Talbert, Marian
The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal (https://my.usgs.gov/mows/) is a user-friendly interface that summarizes monthly historical and simulated future conditions for seven hydrologic and meteorological variables (actual evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, snow water equivalent, atmospheric temperature, and streamflow) at locations across the conterminous United States (CONUS).The estimates of these hydrologic and meteorological variables were derived using a Monthly Water Balance Model (MWBM), a modular system that simulates monthly estimates of components of the hydrologic cycle using monthly precipitation and atmospheric temperature inputs. Precipitation and atmospheric temperature from 222 climate datasets spanning historical conditions (1952 through 2005) and simulated future conditions (2020 through 2099) were summarized for hydrographic features and used to drive the MWBM for the CONUS. The MWBM input and output variables were organized into an open-access database. An Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc., Web Feature Service allows the querying and identification of hydrographic features across the CONUS. To connect the Web Feature Service to the open-access database, a user interface—the Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal—was developed to allow the dynamic generation of summary files and plots based on plot type, geographic location, specific climate datasets, period of record, MWBM variable, and other options. Both the plots and the data files are made available to the user for download
Westerterp, Klaas R
The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.
Johannsen, Neil M; Sullivan, Zebblin M; Warnke, Nicole R; Smiley-Oyen, Ann L; King, Douglas S; Sharp, Rick L
To determine whether chicken noodle soup before exercise increases ad libitum water intake, fluid balance, and physical and cognitive performance compared with water. Nine trained men (age 25 ± 3 yr, VO2peak 54.2 ± 5.1 ml · kg-1 · min-1; M ± SD) performed cycle exercise in the heat (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.9 ± 0.4 °C) for 90 min at 50% VO2peak, 45 min after ingesting 355 ml of either commercially available bottled water (WATER) or chicken noodle soup (SOUP). The same bottled water was allowed ad libitum throughout both trials. Participants then completed a time trial to finish a given amount of work (10 min at 90% VO2peak; n = 8). Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Stroop color-word task before, every 30 min during, and immediately after the time trial. Ad libitum water intake throughout steady-state exercise was greater in SOUP than with WATER (1,435 ± 593 vs. 1,163 ± 427 g, respectively; p SOUP than in WATER (87.7% ± 7.6% vs. 74.9% ± 21.7%, respectively; p = .09), possibly due to a change in free water clearance (-0.32 ± 1.22 vs. 0.51 ± 1.06 ml/min, respectively; p = .07). Fluid balance tended to be improved with SOUP (-106 ± 603 vs. -478 ± 594 g, p = .05). Likewise, change in plasma volume tended to be reduced in SOUP compared with WATER (p = .06). Only mild dehydration was achieved (SOUP throughout the entire trial (treatment effect; p = .04). SOUP before exercise increased ad libitum water intake and may alter kidney function.
Mao, Wei; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhu, Yan; Ye, Ming; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Jingwei
Most soil water balance models only consider downward soil water movement driven by gravitational potential, and thus cannot simulate upward soil water movement driven by evapotranspiration especially in agricultural areas. In addition, the models cannot be used for simulating soil water movement in heterogeneous soils, and usually require many empirical parameters. To resolve these problems, this study derives a new one-dimensional water balance model for simulating both downward and upward soil water movement in heterogeneous unsaturated zones. The new model is based on a hybrid of numerical and statistical methods, and only requires four physical parameters. The model uses three governing equations to consider three terms that impact soil water movement, including the advective term driven by gravitational potential, the source/sink term driven by external forces (e.g., evapotranspiration), and the diffusive term driven by matric potential. The three governing equations are solved separately by using the hybrid numerical and statistical methods (e.g., linear regression method) that consider soil heterogeneity. The four soil hydraulic parameters required by the new models are as follows: saturated hydraulic conductivity, saturated water content, field capacity, and residual water content. The strength and weakness of the new model are evaluated by using two published studies, three hypothetical examples and a real-world application. The evaluation is performed by comparing the simulation results of the new model with corresponding results presented in the published studies, obtained using HYDRUS-1D and observation data. The evaluation indicates that the new model is accurate and efficient for simulating upward soil water flow in heterogeneous soils with complex boundary conditions. The new model is used for evaluating different drainage functions, and the square drainage function and the power drainage function are recommended. Computational efficiency of the new
Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N
OBJECTIVE: Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development...... of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long......-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. METHODS: We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania...
Full Text Available The hydrologic cycle is a recurring consequence of different forms of movement of water and changes of its physical state on a given area of the earth. The land cover of a certain area is a significant factor affecting the watershed hydrology. This also affects the quantity of water supply within the watershed. This study assessed the impacts of the changing land cover of the Ipo watershed, a part of the Angat-Ipo-La Mesa water system which is the main source of Metro Manila’s water supply. The environmental impacts were assessed using the interaction of vegetation cover changes and the output flow rates in Ipo watershed. Using hydrologic modelling system, the hydrological balance using rainfall, vegetation and terrain data of the watershed was simulated. Over the years, there has been a decreasing land cover within the watershed caused mostly by deforestation and other human activities. This significant change in the land cover resulted to extreme increase in water discharge at all streams and rivers in the watershed and the water balance of the area were affected as saturation and shape of the land terrain changes.
Turner, K.; Wolfe, B. B.; Edwards, T. W.
The Old Crow Flats (OCF), Yukon Territory, is a wetland of international significance that comprises approximately 2700 shallow thermokarst lakes. Located near the northern limit of the boreal forest, the OCF provides vital habitat for abundant wildlife including waterfowl, moose, muskrat, and the Porcupine Caribou Herd, which support the traditional lifestyle of the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation. Thermokarst lakes, which occupy vast northern regions, are greatly influenced by climate conditions. In the OCF and other regions there have been observations of decreasing water levels and an increase in frequency of lake drainage events over recent decades. Though there is widespread concern that thermokarst landscape changes are accelerating as a result of ongoing climate change, there are few studies that have investigated current and past variability of lake water balances and climate interactions at the landscape scale. As part of a Government of Canada International Polar Year multidisciplinary project, the present and past hydrology of lakes spanning the OCF are being investigated using water isotope tracers and paleolimnological approaches. Water samples were obtained from 57 lakes three times over three ice-free seasons (2007-09) and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition in order to capture seasonal and interannual changes in water balance conditions. Results highlight strong diversity in the hydrology of lakes throughout the OCF. Based on patterns of isotopic evolution and calculations of input source compositions and evaporation-to-inflow ratios, we identified snowmelt-dominated, rainfall-dominated, groundwater-influenced, evaporation-dominated and drained lake types, which represent the dominant hydrological processes influencing lake water balances. Lake physical and catchment land cover characteristics influence dominant input type (rain or snow). Snowmelt-dominated catchments are large relative to lake surface areas and typically contain
McLin, S.G.; Koch, R.J.
Twenty-four monitoring wells were drilled and completed in December 1994 as part of a water and mass balance study for the shallow perched aquifer in the Mortandad Canyon alluvium and in the lower part of Ten-Site Canyon. The wells penetrated the alluvium containing the aquifer and were completed into the top of the weathered tuff. Twelve of these wells encountered the Tshirege Member (Cooing Unit 1 g) of the Bandelier Tuff below the canyon alluvium, while ten wells made contact with the Cerro Toledo interval, which lies between the Tshirege and Otowi Members of the Bandelier Tuff. The remaining two wells were completed into the alluvium above the weathered tuff contact. These wells provide access for continuous water level measurement and water sampling. Data from these new wells will be used to determine changes in alluvial aquifer water storage, water quality sampling, and estimation of seepage into the unsaturated Bandelier Tuff below the alluvium. This report documents drilling activities and well completion logs for the water and mass balance study. These wells also provide critical new data for fourteen north-south vertical cross-sections constructed for the canyon alluvium
Full Text Available Modern process studies of the hydrologic balance of Lake El'gygytgyn, central Chukotka, and the sediment income from the catchment were carried out during a field campaign in spring and summer 2003. Despite high uncertainties due to the limited data, the results provide important first estimates for better understanding the modern and past sedimentation processes in this basin. Formed ca. 3.6 million years ago as a result of a meteorite impact, the basin contains one of the longest paleoclimate records in the terrestrial Arctic. Fluvial activity is concentrated over the short snowmelt period (about 20 days in second part of June. Underground outflow plays a very important role in the water balance and predominates over surface outflow. The residence time of the lake water is estimated to be about 100 yr.
Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R
Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during
Jay V Gedir
Full Text Available Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons and moisture (autumn and winter during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains, female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental
Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Morgart, John R.
Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during
Rocha, Adrian; Mckenzie, Jeffrey; Lamontagne-Halle, Pierrick; Zipper, Samuel
Fire frequency and severity is increasing in high latitude regions, with large impacts on the water and energy balances. However, the degree to which groundwater flow impacts the permafrost response to fire remains poorly understood and understudied. Here, we use the Anaktuvuk River Fire (Alaska, USA) as an archetypal example to investigate groundwater-permafrost interactions following fire. We identify key thermal and hydrologic parameters controlling permafrost and active layer response to ...
Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.
Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.
Tang, G.; Bartlein, P. J.
Water balance models of simple structure are easier to grasp and more clearly connect cause and effect than models of complex structure. Such models are essential for studying large spatial scale land surface water balance in the context of climate and land cover change, both natural and anthropogenic. This study aims to (i) develop a large spatial scale water balance model by modifying a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), and (ii) test the model's performance in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture and surface runoff for the coterminous United States (US). Toward these ends, we first introduced development of the "LPJ-Hydrology" (LH) model by incorporating satellite-based land covers into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM instead of dynamically simulating them. We then ran LH using historical (1982-2006) climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells. The simulated ET, soil moisture and surface runoff were compared to existing sets of observed or simulated data for the US. The results indicated that LH captures well the variation of monthly actual ET (R2 = 0.61, p 0.46, p 0.52) with observed values over the years 1982-2006, respectively. The modeled spatial patterns of annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data. Compared to its predecessor, LH simulates better monthly stream flow in winter and early spring by incorporating effects of solar radiation on snowmelt. Overall, this study proves the feasibility of incorporating satellite-based land-covers into a DGVM for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balance. LH developed in this study should be a useful tool for studying effects of climate and land cover change on land surface hydrology at large spatial scales.
G. N. Flerchinger
Full Text Available Precipitation variability and complex topography often create a mosaic of vegetation communities in mountainous headwater catchments, creating a challenge for measuring and interpreting energy and mass fluxes. Understanding the role of these communities in modulating energy, water and carbon fluxes is critical to quantifying the variability in energy, carbon, and water balances across landscapes. The focus of this paper was: (1 to demonstrate the utility of eddy covariance (EC systems in estimating the evapotranspiration component of the water balance of complex headwater mountain catchments; and (2 to compare and contrast the seasonal surface energy and carbon fluxes across a headwater catchment characterized by large variability in precipitation and vegetation cover. Eddy covariance systems were used to measure surface fluxes over sagebrush (Artemesia arbuscula and Artemesia tridentada vaseyana, aspen (Populus tremuloides and the understory of grasses and forbs beneath the aspen canopy. Peak leaf area index of the sagebrush, aspen, and aspen understory was 0.77, 1.35, and 1.20, respectively. The sagebrush and aspen canopies were subject to similar meteorological forces, while the understory of the aspen was sheltered from the wind. Missing periods of measured data were common and made it necessary to extrapolate measured fluxes to the missing periods using a combination of measured and simulated data. Estimated cumulative evapotranspiratation from the sagebrush, aspen trees, and aspen understory were 384 mm, 314 mm and 185 mm. A water balance of the catchment indicated that of the 699 mm of areal average precipitation, 421 mm was lost to evapotranspiration, and 254 mm of streamflow was measured from the catchment; water balance closure for the catchment was within 22 mm. Fluxes of latent heat and carbon for all sites were minimal through the winter. Growing season fluxes of latent heat and carbon were consistently higher
M. A. Bari
Full Text Available A simple conceptual water balance model representing the streamflow generation processes on a daily time step following land use change is presented. The model consists of five stores: (i Dry, Wet and Subsurface Stores for vertical and lateral water flow, (ii a transient Stream zone Store (iii a saturated Goundwater Store. The soil moisture balance in the top soil Dry and Wet Stores are the most important components of the model and characterize the dynamically varying saturated areas responsible for surface runoff, interflow and deep percolation. The Subsurface Store describes the unsaturated soil moisture balance, extraction of percolated water by vegetation and groundwater recharge. The Groundwater Store controls the baseflow to stream (if any and the groundwater contribution to the stream zone saturated areas. The daily model was developed following a downward approach by analysing data from Ernies (control and Lemon (53% cleared catchments in Western Australia and elaborating a monthly model. The daily model performed very well in simulating daily flow generation processes for both catchments. Most of the model parameters were incorporated a priori from catchment attributes such as surface slope, soil depth, porosity, stream length and initial groundwater depth, and some were calibrated by matching the observed and predicted hydrographs. The predicted groundwater depth, and streamflow volumes across all time steps from daily to monthly to annual were in close agreement with observations for both catchments.
Le Lay, Matthieu; Garçon, Rémy; Gailhard, Joël; Garavaglia, Federico
With extensive use of hydrological models over a wide range of hydro-climatic contexts, bias in hydro-climatic data may lead to unreliable models and thus hydrological forecasts and projections. This issue is particularly pregnant when considering mountainous areas with great uncertainties on precipitations, or when considering complex unconservative catchments (e.g. karstic systems). The Turc-Pike water balance formula, analogous to the classical Budyko formula, is a simple and efficient mathematical formulation relating long-term average streamflow to long-term average precipitation and potential evaporation. In this study, we propose to apply this framework to assess and eventually adjust the water-balance before calibrating an operational hydrologic model (MORDOR model). Considering a large set of 350 french catchments, the Turc-Pike formula is regionalized based on ecohydrologic criterions to handle various hydro-climatic contexts. This interannual regional model is then applied to assess the water-balance over numerous catchments and various conditions, such as karstic, snow-driven or glaciarized and even anthropized catchments. Results show that it is possible to obtain pretty realistic corrections of meteorological inputs (precipitations, temperature or potential evaporation) or hydrologic surface (or runoff). These corrections can often be confirmed a posteriori by exogenous information. Positive impacts on hydrologic model's calibration are also demonstrated. This methodology is now operational for hydrologic applications at EDF (Electricité de France, French electric utility company), and therefore applied on hundreds of catchments.
Valentin, Melissa M.; Viger, Roland J.; Van Beusekom, Ashley E.; Hay, Lauren E.; Hogue, Terri S.; Foks, Nathan Leon
The U.S. Geological Survey monthly water balance model (MWBM) was enhanced with the capability to simulate glaciers in order to make it more suitable for simulating cold region hydrology. The new model, MWBMglacier, is demonstrated in the heavily glacierized and ecologically important Copper River watershed in Southcentral Alaska. Simulated water budget components compared well to satellite‐based observations and ground measurements of streamflow, evapotranspiration, snow extent, and total water storage, with differences ranging from 0.2% to 7% of the precipitation flux. Nash Sutcliffe efficiency for simulated and observed streamflow was greater than 0.8 for six of eight stream gages. Snow extent matched satellite‐based observations with Nash Sutcliffe efficiency values of greater than 0.89 in the four Copper River ecoregions represented. During the simulation period 1949 to 2009, glacier ice melt contributed 25% of total runoff, ranging from 12% to 45% in different tributaries, and glacierized area was reduced by 6%. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreasing and increasing trends in annual glacier mass balance occurred during the multidecade cool and warm phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, respectively, reinforcing the link between climate perturbations and glacier mass balance change. The simulations of glaciers and total runoff for a large, remote region of Alaska provide useful data to evaluate hydrologic, cryospheric, ecologic, and climatic trends. MWBM glacier is a valuable tool to understand when, and to what extent, streamflow may increase or decrease as glaciers respond to a changing climate.
Gee, G.W.; Fayer, M.J.; Rockhold, M.L.; Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.; Andraski, B.J.
Radioactive and hazardous waste landfills exist at numerous desert locations in the USA. At these locations, annual precipitation is low and soils are generally dry, yet little is known about recharge of water and transport of contaminants to the water table. Recent water balance measurements made at three desert locations, Las Cruces, NM, Beatty, NV, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in the state of Washington, provide information on recharge potential under three distinctly different climate and soil conditions. All three sites show water storage increases with time when soils are coarse textured and plants are removed from the surface, the rate of increase being influenced by climatic variables such as precipitation, radiation, temperature, and wind. Lysimeter data from Hanford and Las Cruces indicate that deep drainage (recharge) from bare, sandy soils can range from 10 to > 50% of the annual precipitation. At Hanford, when desert plants are present on sandy or gravelly surface soils, deep drainage is reduced but not eliminated. When surface soils are silt loams, deep drainage is eliminated whether plants are present or not. At Las Cruces and Beatty, the presence of plants eliminated deep drainage at the measurement sites. Differences in water balance between sites are attributed to precipitation quantity and distribution and to soil and vegetation types. The implication of waste management at desert locations is that surface soil properties and plant characteristics must be considered in waste site design in order to minimize recharge potential. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs
Jovan, Vladimir [Jo-ef Stefan Institute and Centre of Excellence Low-Carbon Technologies (Slovenia); Cufar, Alja [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Slovenia)], e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
PEM fuel cells use hydrogen as fuel. Since it is a very light element, its energy density is small despite its high caloric value. Thus hydrogen storage requires a lot of space. One possible solution is simultaneous production of hydrogen from higher-density materials, such as methanol. The object of this paper is to determine what is the total water balance in a system consisting of a methanol reformer and a fuel-cells-based generator set, and to determine if water should be supplied to, or removed from, the system. Based on relatively little information obtained from technical sources and on some simple assumptions, this paper presents a model which helps to determine the actual water balance in the system. In conclusion, commercially available fuel-cell systems with realistic water production can be used for fuel reforming purposes in the methanol reformer. It is also shown that under normal operating conditions, and using commercially available devices, there is always an excess of water produced.
René P. Mbanguka
Full Text Available We develop and present a novel integrated water balance model that accounts for lake water—groundwater interactions, and apply it to the semi-closed freshwater Lake Babati system, Northern Tanzania, East Africa. The model was calibrated and used to evaluate the lake level sensitivity to changes in key hydro-climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity and cloudiness. The lake response to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5 output on possible future climate outcomes was evaluated, an essential basis in understanding future water security and flooding risk in the region. Results show high lake level sensitivity to cloudiness. Increased focus on cloud fraction measurement and interpretation could likely improve projections of lake levels and surface water availability. Modelled divergent results on the future (21st century development of Lake Babati can be explained by the precipitation output variability of CMIP5 models being comparable to the precipitation change needed to drive the water balance model from lake dry-out to overflow; this condition is likely shared with many other East African lake systems. The developed methodology could be useful in investigations on change-driving processes in complex climate—drainage basin—lake systems, which are needed to support sustainable water resource planning in data scarce tropical Africa.
Full Text Available Irrigation is facing increasing pressure from other competitive water users to reduce water consumption in a water scarce region. Based on the Basin-wide Holistic Integrated Water Assessment (BHIWA model, the effects of water management strategies on water balance in the dry regions of North China were analyzed. The results show that, with the decrease of irrigation water supply reliability (IWSR and the increase of irrigation water use efficiency (WUE, irrigation water use decreased significantly, leading to reduced agriculture water consumption, and sustained ground water levels. Compared with the increase of WUE, the decrease of IWSR contributes more to reducing irrigation water consumption and protecting groundwater. Sensitivity tests show that among various water cycle components, irrigation water use is most sensitive to changes, followed by agriculture water consumption, and then groundwater level. Reducing IWSR is an effective strategy to reduce irrigation water consumption and promote sustainable water resources management, which could be the support of basic data and theory for regional water resources planning.
Huang, Yumei; Quinn, Paul; Liang, Qiuhua; Adams, Russell
Water is the key to food and human life. Farming is the main part of economic and society in Eden, with approximately 2000 farms which covers 95% of under crops. However, with the growth of farming practice and global climate changes, Eden has presented great challenges and bringing uncertainty in the water quality caused by the agricultural diffuse pollution. This expected to reduce negative impacts of the water diffuse pollution from agriculture in Eden. Therefore, there is a high need to ensure effective water resource management to enhance water quality, to address the flow pathways and sediment transport in different farming practice and cropland changes. Hence we need to understand nutrient and the hydrological flow pathways from soil to Hillslope to channel. The aim of this research is to evaluate the impacts of different cropland changes on water balance, sediment and nutrient transport. By using the hydrological models Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Catchment Runoff Attenuation Flux Tool (CRAFT), it can show the sediment and nutrient export from the load for each flow pathways (overland flow, soil water flow and ground water flow). We will show results from a small research catchment (10km2) area to the whole of Eden (800km2) at a daily time step.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Declines in cognition and mobility are frequently observed in the elderly, and it has been suggested that the appearance of gait disorders in older individuals may constitute a marker of cognitive decline that precedes significant findings in functional performance screening tests. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between functional capacities and gait and balance in an elderly community monitored by the Preventive and Integrated Care Unit of the Hospital Adventista Silvestre in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. METHODS: Elderly individuals (193 females and 90 males were submitted to a broad geriatric evaluation, which included the following tests: 1 a performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA to evaluate gait; 2 a mini-mental state examination (MMSE; 3 the use of Katz and Lawton scales to assess functional capacity; 4 the application of the geriatric depression scale (GDS; and 5 a mini-nutritional assessment (MNA scale. RESULTS: Reductions in MMSE, Katz and Lawton scores were associated with reductions in POMA scores, and we also observed that significant reductions in POMA scores were present in persons for whom the MMSE and Katz scores did not clearly indicate cognitive dysfunction. We also demonstrated that a decline in the scores obtained with the GDS and MNA scales was associated with a decline in the POMA scores. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that significant alterations in the POMA scores were observed prior to the identification of significant alterations in cognitive capacity using either the MMSE or the Katz systems, a prospective study seems warranted to assess the predictive capacity of POMA scores regarding the associated decline in functional capacity.
Teixeira-Leite, Homero; Manhães, Alex C
Declines in cognition and mobility are frequently observed in the elderly, and it has been suggested that the appearance of gait disorders in older individuals may constitute a marker of cognitive decline that precedes significant findings in functional performance screening tests. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between functional capacities and gait and balance in an elderly community monitored by the Preventive and Integrated Care Unit of the Hospital Adventista Silvestre in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Elderly individuals (193 females and 90 males) were submitted to a broad geriatric evaluation, which included the following tests: 1) a performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA) to evaluate gait; 2) a mini-mental state examination (MMSE); 3) the use of Katz and Lawton scales to assess functional capacity; 4) the application of the geriatric depression scale (GDS); and 5) a mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) scale. Reductions in MMSE, Katz and Lawton scores were associated with reductions in POMA scores, and we also observed that significant reductions in POMA scores were present in persons for whom the MMSE and Katz scores did not clearly indicate cognitive dysfunction. We also demonstrated that a decline in the scores obtained with the GDS and MNA scales was associated with a decline in the POMA scores. Considering that significant alterations in the POMA scores were observed prior to the identification of significant alterations in cognitive capacity using either the MMSE or the Katz systems, a prospective study seems warranted to assess the predictive capacity of POMA scores regarding the associated decline in functional capacity.
Ozcan, Hakan; Soeylemez, M.S.
The effect of water injection on a spark ignition engine thermal balance and performance has been experimentally investigated. A four stroke, four cylinder conventional engine was used with LPG (liquid petroleum gas) as fuel. Different water to fuel ratios by mass were used with variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4500 rpm. The results showed that as the water injection level to the engine increased, the percentage of useful work increased, while the losses other than unaccounted losses decreased. Additionally, the specific fuel consumption decreases, while the engine thermal efficiency increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for a 0.5 water to fuel mass ratio is approximately 2.7% over the use of LPG alone for the engine speed range studied
Jureczko, J.; Skowronek, E.
Results of investigations on the establishment of conditions of water flow in filling old workings with mud, in order to determine the degree of water hazard for mine workings in one of mines are given. For the inspection of flow, the stable tracer method and the neutron activation analysis were used. Chromium as a complex compound with EDTA was used as tracer. Geological and mining conditions in the area of investigations by tracers are given and the disposal of diluted stowing slurry is characterized. The method of interpretation of results is discussed in order to determine the water flow rate in the gob and to draw up the water balance on the basis of the curve of tracer travel. (author)
Full Text Available Objective: The presence of an association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH and the risk of falls in older people is uncertain, with little supporting prospective evidence available at present. We aimed to determine whether WMH was associated with dysfunctions of balance and gait, and other sensorimotor factors leading to falls, and the independent factors related to falls in older Chinese people. The protective effect of exercise against falls was also addressed. Methods: In a representative sample of hospital-based individuals aged 50 years and older in China, the patients' history of falls, magnetic resonance imaging data, scores on the 9-item Berg Balance Scale (BBS-9 test and timed up-and-go test (TUGT, and sensorimotor measures of computerized dynamic posturography (CDP were analyzed. Incident falls were recorded prospectively over a 12-month period. Using regression modeling, the association between the risk of falls and baseline WMH was estimated. Results: Only individuals with severe WMH were at an increased risk of falls, and CDP was more sensitive than BBS-9 in detecting WMH-related balance and gait dysfunction. However, WMH was not an independent predictor of falls. Taller height and overweight or obese body habitus were identified as novel protective factors for falls. Female, fall history, and increased TUGT score were identified as independent risk factors for falls in older Chinese people. Conclusion: Although WMH was associated with an increased risk of falls, it was not an independent predictor. Keywords: White matter hyperintensity, Balance disorder, Gait disorder, Fall risk
Kerkez, B.; Kelly, A. E.; Lucas, R. G.; Son, K.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.
Heterogeneity of Evapotranspiration (ET) is the result of poorly understood interactions between climate, topography, vegetation and soil. Accurate predictions of ET, and thus improved water balance estimates, hinge directly upon an improved understanding of the processes that drive ET across a wide spatio-temporal range. Recent warming trends in the Western US are shifting precipitation toward more rain-dominated patterns, significantly increasing vegetation water stress in historically snow-dominated regimes due to reduced soil moisture and increased vapor deficit during warm summer months. We investigate dominant controls that govern ET variability in a highly instrumented 1km2 mountain catchment at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, co-located in the Kings River Experimental Watershed. Various ET estimates are derived from a number of measurement approaches: an eddy flux covariance tower, ET chambers, stream flumes, groundwater monitoring wells, matric potential sensors, as well as data from a distributed wireless sensor network with over 300 sensors. Combined with precipitation data, and high-density distributed soil moisture and snowdepth readings, the ET estimates are utilized to reconstruct the overall catchment water balance. We also apply the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys), a physically based, spatially distributed hydrologic model, to estimate water balance components. The model predictions are compared with the water budget calculated from field data, and used to identify the key variables controlling spatial and temporal patterns of ET at multiple scales. Initial results show that ET estimates are scale-, and vegetation-dependent, with significant ET variability between vegetation types and physiographic parameters such as elevation, slope, and aspect. In mixed conifer forests terrain, ET is more dependent on soil moisture, while in the meadows, where the soil is generally saturated for the duration of the growing
Sheng, M.; Yang, D.; Tang, J.; Lei, H.
Enhanced plant biomass accumulation in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration could dampen the future rate of increase in CO2 levels and associated climate warming. However, many experiments around the world reported that nitrogen availability could limit the sustainability of the ecosystems' response to elevated CO2. In the recent 20 years, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, primarily from fossil fuel combustion, has increased sharply about 25% in China and meanwhile, China has the highest carbon emission in the world, implying a large opportunity to increase vegetation greenness and ecosystem carbon sequestration. Moreover, the water balance of the ecosystem will also change. However, in the future, the trajectory of increasing nitrogen deposition from fossil fuel use is to be controlled by the government policy that shapes the energy and industrial structure. Therefore, the historical and future trajectories of nitrogen deposition are likely very different, and it is imperative to understand how changes in nitrogen deposition will impact the ecosystem carbon sequestration and water balance in China. We here use the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5) to analyze how the change of nitrogen deposition has influenced and will influence the ecosystem carbon and water cycle in China at a high spatial resolution (0.1 degree). We address the following questions: 1) what is the contribution of the nitrogen deposition on historical vegetation greenness? 2) How does the change of nitrogen deposition affect the carbon sequestration? 3) What is its influence to water balance? And 4) how different will be the influence of the nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon and water cycling in the future?
Reitz, Meredith; Senay, Gabriel; Sanford, Ward E.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the hydrologic cycle, accounting for ~70% of precipitation in the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), but it has been a challenge to predict accurately across different spatio-temporal scales. The increasing availability of remotely sensed data has led to significant advances in the frequency and spatial resolution of ET estimates, derived from energy balance principles with variables such as temperature used to estimate surface latent heat flux. Although remote sensing methods excel at depicting spatial and temporal variability, estimation of ET independently of other water budget components can lead to inconsistency with other budget terms. Methods that rely on ground-based data better constrain long-term ET, but are unable to provide the same temporal resolution. Here we combine long-term ET estimates from a water-balance approach with the SSEBop (operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance) remote sensing-based ET product for 2000–2015. We test the new combined method, the original SSEBop product, and another remote sensing ET product (MOD16) against monthly measurements from 119 flux towers. The new product showed advantages especially in non-irrigated areas where the new method showed a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.44, compared to 0.41 for SSEBop or 0.35 for MOD16. The resulting monthly data set will be a useful, unique contribution to ET estimation, due to its combination of remote sensing-based variability and ground-based long-term water balance constraints.
Gervois, SéBastien; Ciais, Philippe; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Brisson, Nadine; Vuichard, Nicolas; Viovy, Nicolas
We assessed the effects of rising atmospheric CO2, changing climate, and farmers' practice on the carbon and water balance of European croplands during the past century (1901-2000). The coupled vegetation-crop model ORCHIDEE-STICS is applied over western Europe for C3 crops (winter wheat) and for maize, with prescribed historical agricultural practice changes. Not surprisingly, the enormous crop yield increase observed in all European regions, 300-400% between 1950 and 2000, is found to be dominantly explained by improved practice and varieties selection, rather than by rising CO2 (explaining a ˜11% uniform increase in yield) and changing climate (no further change in yield on average, but causing a decrease of ˜19% in the southern Iberian Peninsula). Agricultural soil carbon stocks in Europe are modeled to have decreased between 1950 and 1970, and since then to have increased again. Thus, the current stocks only differ by 1 ± 6 tC ha-1 from their 1900 value. Compensating effects of increasing yields on the one hand (increasing stocks) and of higher harvest index values and ploughing on the other hand (decreasing stocks) occur. Each of these processes taken individually has the potential to strongly alter the croplands soil carbon balance in the model. Consequently, large uncertainties are associated to the estimated change in carbon stocks between 1901 and 2001, roughly ±6 tC ha-1 a-1. In our most realistic simulation, the current cropland carbon balance is a net sink of 0.16 ± 0.15 tC ha-1 a-1. The annual water balance of cropland soils is influenced by increasing crop water use efficiency, one third of which is caused by rising CO2. However, increasing water use efficiency occurred mainly in spring and winter, when water is not limiting for plant growth, whereas no strong savings of soil water are achieved in summer through elevated CO2. Overall, trends in cultivation practices have caused a 3 times larger increase of water use efficiency than rising CO2.
Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.
Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought and shortage of water has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and vertical recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires not only reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Spatial variations in the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and meteorological conditions should be accounted for in the recharge estimation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal average spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB.
McCartney, Stephen E.; Carey, Sean K.; Pomeroy, John W.
The intra-basin variability of snowmelt and melt-water runoff hydrology in an 8 km2 subarctic alpine tundra catchment was examined for the 2003 melt period. The catchment, Granger Creek, is within the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon, which is typical of mountain subarctic landscapes in northwestern Canada. The study catchment was segmented into nine internally uniform zones termed hydrological response units (HRUs) based on their similar hydrological, physiographic, vegetation and soil properties. Snow accumulation exhibited significant variability among the HRUs, with greatest snow water equivalent in areas of tall shrub vegetation. Melt began first on southerly exposures and at lower elevations, yet average melt rates for the study period varied little among HRUs with the exception of those with steep aspects. In HRUs with capping organic soils, melt water first infiltrated this surface horizon, satisfying its storage capacity, and then percolated into the frozen mineral substrate. Infiltration and percolation into frozen mineral soils was restricted where melt occurred rapidly and organic soils were thin; in this case, melt-water delivery rates exceeded the frozen mineral soil infiltration rate, resulting in high runoff rates. In contrast, where there were slower melt rates and thick organic soils, infiltration was unlimited and runoff was suppressed. The snow water equivalent had a large impact on runoff volume, as soil storage capacity was quickly surpassed in areas of deep snow, diverting the bulk of melt water laterally to the drainage network. A spatially distributed water balance indicated that the snowmelt freshet was primarily controlled by areas with tall shrub vegetation that accumulate large quantities of snow and by alpine areas with no capping organic soils. The intra-basin water balance variability has important implications for modelling freshet in hydrological models.
Full Text Available For a sustainable forest management, a site-specific knowledge on the water balance is a prerequisite. A simple and popular field method for assessing the water balance of forest sites is based on overlaying relief and soil information. Furthermore, climatic influence on the water balance is often restricted to longtime average values of precipitation and air temperature (whole year and/or growing season. However, the impacts of climate change and climatic extremes, as well as silvicultural changes, are inadequately considered. To overcome these short-comings, we integrated the 1D-SVAT model BROOK90 and a radiation model in a GIS to simulate the spatially distributed components of water balance of forest sites. In this paper, we present the model concept and show an approach to describe the influence of a complex terrain on parameters controlling the spatial distribution of energy and water fluxes.
Kalita, P.K.; Kanwar, R.S.
The effects of water table management practices (WTMP) on corn growth in 1989 and 1990 at two field sites, Ames and Ankeny, Iowa, were evaluated by calculating crop water stress index (CWSI) and monitoring plant physiological parameters during the growing seasons. Experiments were conducted on field lysimeters at the Ames site by maintaining water tables at 0.3-, 0.6-, and 0.9-m depths and in a subirrigation field at the Ankeny site with 0.2-, 0.3-, 0.6-, 0.9-, and 1.1-m water table depths, and periodically measuring leaf and air temperature, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using leaf chamber techniques. Net radiation of canopy was estimated using the leaf energy balance equation and leaf chamber measurements and then correlated with PAR. Analysis of data revealed that net radiation, leaf air temperature differential, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and CWSI were strongly related to WTMP during vegetative and flowering stages of corn growth. Excess water in the root zone with a water table depth of 0.2 m caused the maximum crop water stress and ceased crop growth. Both water and oxygen could be adequately maintained for favorable crop growth by adopting the best WTMP. Results indicate that plant physiological parameters and CWSI could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of WTMP and develop the best WTMP for corn growth in the humid region
Full Text Available Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject's plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status.
Heil Daniel P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. Methods Thirty-eight subjects were matched by gender and self-reported physical activity (SRPA, hrs/week and then split into Control (12 women, 7 men; Mean +/- SD: 23 +/- 2 yrs; 7.2 +/- 3.6 hrs/week SRPA and Experimental (13 women, 6 men; 22 +/- 2 yrs; 6.4 +/- 4.0 hrs/week SRPA groups. The Control group consumed non-mineralized placebo bottled water over a 4-week period while the Experimental group consumed the placebo water during the 1st and 4th weeks and the AK water during the middle 2-week treatment period. Fingertip blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected three times each week for subsequent measures of blood and urine osmolality and pH, as well as total urine volume. Dependent variables were analyzed using multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc focused on evaluating changes over time within Control and Experimental groups (alpha = 0.05. Results There were no significant changes in any of the dependent variables for the Control group. The Experimental group, however, showed significant increases in both the blood and urine pH (6.23 to 7.07 and 7.52 to 7.69, respectively, a decreased blood and increased urine osmolality, and a decreased urine output (2.51 to 2.05 L/day, all during the second week of the treatment period (P Conclusions Consumption of AK water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the
The WIPP water-balance study area defined here comprises approx.2000 mi 2 in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico. Inflows to the study area are precipitation (roughly 1.47 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.1 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), water imported by municipalities and industries (roughly 3 x 10 4 ac-ft/y), and ground water (volume not estimated). Outflows from the area are evapotranspiration (roughly 1.5 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.2 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), and possibly some ground water. The volume of surface and ground water in storage in Nash Draw has increased since the beginning of potash refining. Regional ground-water flow in aquifers above the Salado Formation is from the northeast to the southwest, although this pattern is interrupted by Clayton Basin, Nash Draw, and San Simon Swale. The Pecos River is the only important perennial stream. Most of the area has no integrated surface-water drainage. The available data suggest that approx.1600 mi 2 of the study area are hydrologically separate from Nash Draw and the WIPP site. Ground water north of Highway 180 apparently discharges into Clayton Basin and evaporates. Water in San Simon Swale apparently percolates downward and flows to the southeast. Data are inadequate to create a water budget for the Nash Draw-WIPP site hydrologic system alone, although an attempt to do so can provide guidance for further study
Significance and impact of the study: This water stress index is a valuable tool for explaining the variations in grape yield and quality among various locations and years because it reflects the vineyard water stress history in relation to rainfall regime and soil conditions. Improvement would come from the simulation of FTSW during winter, notably for soils of high Total Transpirable Soil Water. One potential application is the quantification of water stress change brought by irrigation in Mediterranean vineyards, and its relation to grapevine production.
Mariana Gonçalves dos Reis
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813329Eucalyptus plots with initial development ages presented discontinuity in soil cover, resulting in greaterexposure of the leaves to wind and solar radiation, which alters soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. Theobjective of this study was to study the components of the water and energy balances along the first yearof eucalyptus development in the Brazilian coastal plain region. The experimental site is located in anarea belonging to the company Fibria in the municipality of Aracruz, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Thespace between the planted eucalyptus trees in the area studied was 3 x 3 m and the data of planting wason August 15th , 2004. The period of study lasted from the planting date until the plot reached an ageof 19 months. It was verified that there was a greater availability of energy during the summer and theprecipitation directly influenced the energy balance where during the period of study the energy available necessary for evapotranspiration was always greater than the fraction necessary for heating the soil-plantatmospheresystem, presenting a λE/Rn ratio of 59.57%. It was also observed that the water balance with themodeled evapotranspiration showed a good correspondence with the observed moisture content, presentinga determination coefficient of 0,94. In the majority of trees, greater indices of leaf and root system areasfavored evapotranspiration, indicating that most energy available was utilized for changing the phase ofwater
S. V. Galushka
Full Text Available Objective: to study the profile of water sectors in puerperas with preeclampsia and to determine whether it is expedient to include colloidal solutions into an infusion therapy program for this category of patients.Subjects and methods. Forty-two puerperas with moderate and severe preeclampsia, whose delivery was made by cesarean section, were examined. All the study puerperas were divided into 2 groups: 1 22 puerperas who received heta-hydroethylized starch (HES solutions as part of infusion therapy; 2 20 puerperas who did not.Results. At the beginning of the study, both groups had increased systemic water and higher extracellular and interstitial fluid volumes as compared with the normal values. With infusion therapy, Group 1 exhibited a decrease in systemic water from 123.8% on day 1 of the study to 106.7% by day 5 and reductions in interstitial hyperhydration from 141.5 to 110.1% and in extracellular fluid from 139.7 to 108.6% as compared with Group 2. By the end of the study, significant impairments in the balance of water sectors preserved in Group 2.Conclusion. Inclusion of heta-HES (Stabisole into infusion therapy in patients with preeclampsia on days 1—2 after delivery leads to a rapider normalization of impaired water balance.
Yukawa, Masae; Iso, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Kumiko; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Kazuko; Ishikawa, Yuji
Balance of essential elements in organisms might be changed by environmental stresses. Small fresh water fish, Medaka, was burdened with X-ray irradiation (total dose: 17 Gy), keeping in salty water (70% NaCl of sea water) and keeping in metal containing water (10 ppm of Cr and Co). These stresses are not lethal doses. Essential elements in liver, gall bladder, kidney, spleen, heart and brain in the stress-loaded fish were measured by PIXE method and compared with a control fish to determine the effect of the stresses. Various changes of the elemental contents were observed. Effect of X-ray irradiation was the smallest among the stresses. Relatively high content elements such as P, S, Cl and K were hardly affected with the stresses examined in this work. The effect of Cr on the metal balance seems to be larger than the other stresses. As PIXE method can analyze many elements in a small sample simultaneously, change of elemental distribution in small organisms induced by environmental stresses can be determined readily. (author)
Matthews, Jack S A; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvere R M; Lawson, Tracy
Stomatal control of transpiration is critical for maintaining important processes, such as plant water status, leaf temperature, as well as permitting sufficient CO 2 diffusion into the leaf to maintain photosynthetic rates ( A ). Stomatal conductance often closely correlates with A and is thought to control the balance between water loss and carbon gain. It has been suggested that a mesophyll-driven signal coordinates A and stomatal conductance responses to maintain this relationship; however, the signal has yet to be fully elucidated. Despite this correlation under stable environmental conditions, the responses of both parameters vary spatially and temporally and are dependent on species, environment, and plant water status. Most current models neglect these aspects of gas exchange, although it is clear that they play a vital role in the balance of carbon fixation and water loss. Future efforts should consider the dynamic nature of whole-plant gas exchange and how it represents much more than the sum of its individual leaf-level components, and they should take into consideration the long-term effect on gas exchange over time. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
Full Text Available Green roofs concept term is used for extensive green roofs which are planted with herbaceous plants that can be adapted into changeable environmental conditions on a shallow substrate layer, require minimal maintenance, installed for their benefits to building and urban scale. Main objective of this study is to determine the characteristics of a green roof such as thermal insulation, water holding capacity, runoff characteristics, plant growth and its interaction with environmental factors in Istanbul climate conditions by performing comparative measurements. In this study, a research site (IU Green Roof Research Station was founded to assess water and energy balance of green roofs. Thus, a typical green roof was evaluated in terms of water and energy balance and its interaction with the building and city was determined. energy efficiency of green roof system was 77% higher than reference roof. Temperature fluctuations on green roof section of the roof were 79% lower. In addition, green roof retained 12,8% - 100% of precipitation and delayed runoff up to 23 hours depending on water content of substrate.
Mohammed R. Karim
Full Text Available Expecting the projected regional or global climate change, weather could have a significant effect on soil moisture and thereby affecting the plant growth. Water deficiency is considered as one of the major climatic restraints for crop production in Bangladesh, especially in the dry season. To better understand the crop responses to moisture variation, a quantitative analysis is done for major water balance components named, potential evapotranspiration (PET, actual evapotranspiration (AET, soil moisture storage (ST, water deficiency (WD and water surplus (WS with the use of Thornthwaite monthly water balance program. Analyses were carried out for three different seasons, together with interannual variability for 12 major rice growing districts of Bangladesh representing the north, central, southern and coastal zones. Hindcasted monthly average surface air temperature and precipitation data were collected from Bangladesh meteorological department during 1986 to 2006. Results suggested, trend of PET was same in every station and generally higher values were observed in the month of July and August. Khulna, the coastal station had the highest annual average PET of 1369 mm. The lowest annual AET of 1108 mm was estimated for Teknaf, while Dinajpur stood in second lowest position. ST was found almost at field capacity from July to September and, the southern station Chittagong experienced the highest average monthly ST. Maximum WD was found in Bogra and second highest shortage was in Dinajpur. The assessment of average WD of 178 mm yr-1 in northern Bangladesh reflected the worst situation among all regions, besides focusing the winter as the most crucial season regarding the water scarcity. Least amount of WS was noticed for the southern station Khulna. Significant positive relationship (p<0.05 between soil moisture and current rice yields proved the importance of surplus water conservation for the drought prone zone of Bangladesh. To boost up the
Carey, Sean K.; Woo, Ming-Ko
A hydrological study was conducted between 1997 and 1999 in the subalpine open woodland of the Wolf Creek Basin, Yukon, to assess the interslope water balance variability. The water balance during the snowmelt and summer periods on four hillslopes revealed strong contrasts in process magnitudes and highlighted important factors including frost, vegetation, soils and microclimate that controlled vertical and lateral fluxes of water. Snow accounted for approximately half the annual water input, while differences in accumulation among hillslopes were related to interception properties of vegetation. Available energy at the snow surface controlled the melt sequence and the snow on some slopes disappeared up to two months earlier than others. Snowmelt runoff was confined to slopes with ice-rich substrates that inhibited deep percolation, with the runoff magnitude governed by the snow storage and the antecedent moisture of the desiccated organic soils prior to melt. During summer, evapotranspiration exceeded rainfall, largely sustained by water from the soil moisture reservoir recharged during the melt period. Differences in net radiation on slopes controlled the potential evapotranspiration, with the actual rates limited by the phenology of the deciduous forests and shrubs. Evapotranspiration was further suppressed on slopes where the organic soils became dry in late summer. Summer runoff was confined to slopes with porous organic layers overlying mineral soils to form a two-layer flow system: (1) quickflow in the surface organic layer and (2) slowflow in the mineral soil. Differences in the rates of flow were related to the position of the water table which may rise into the organic layer to activate quickflow. The presence of ice-rich frost and permafrost impeded vertical drainage and indirectly regulated the position of the water table. The location of the hillslope within a basin influenced recharge and discharge dynamics. Slope segments with large inflows sustained
Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ETc of a drip-irrigated apple orchard located in the semi-arid region of Talca Valley (Chile using a remote sensing-based soil water balance model. The methodology to estimate ETc is a modified version of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO dual crop coefficient approach, in which the basal crop coefficient (Kcb was derived from the soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI calculated from satellite images and incorporated into a daily soil water balance in the root zone. A linear relationship between the Kcb and SAVI was developed for the apple orchard Kcb = 1.82·SAVI − 0.07 (R2 = 0.95. The methodology was applied during two growing seasons (2010–2011 and 2012–2013, and ETc was evaluated using latent heat fluxes (LE from an eddy covariance system. The results indicate that the remote sensing-based soil water balance estimated ETc reasonably well over two growing seasons. The root mean square error (RMSE between the measured and simulated ETc values during 2010–2011 and 2012–2013 were, respectively, 0.78 and 0.74 mm·day−1, which mean a relative error of 25%. The index of agreement (d values were, respectively, 0.73 and 0.90. In addition, the weekly ETc showed better agreement. The proposed methodology could be considered as a useful tool for scheduling irrigation and driving the estimation of water requirements over large areas for apple orchards.
There has been considerable interest in absorbed dose water calorimetry. In order to accurately relate the temperature change to the absorbed dose, the energy balance of the overall chemistry of the system must be known. The radiolytic products and their yields are affected by dose rate, dose and added solutes. The yields of the radiolytic products have been calculated using a computer program developed at Atomic Energy of Canada. The chemical energy balance was determined as a function of dose for various dose rates and initial concentrations of hydrogen (H 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In solutions containing H 2 O 2 or O 2 and H 2 the chemical reactions were exothermic; in other cases they were endothermic. Approach to equilibrium and equilbrium conditions are discussed
Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Raska, Ivan; Benfenati, Emilio
Three different splits into the subtraining set (n = 22), the set of calibration (n = 21), and the test set (n = 12) of 55 antineoplastic agents have been examined. By the correlation balance of SMILES-based optimal descriptors quite satisfactory models for the octanol/water partition coefficient have been obtained on all three splits. The correlation balance is the optimization of a one-variable model with a target function that provides both the maximal values of the correlation coefficient for the subtraining and calibration set and the minimum of the difference between the above-mentioned correlation coefficients. Thus, the calibration set is a preliminary test set. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.
Freshwater ecosystems occupy approximately 1% of the earth's surface yet possess about 12% of all known animal species. By virtue of their position in the landscape they connect terrestrial and coastal marine biomes and provide and sustain ecosystem services vital to the health and persistence of human communities. These services include the supply of water for food production, urban and ind ustrial consumption, among others. Over the past century many freshwater ecosystems around the world have been heavily modified or lost due to the alteration of flow regimes (e.g. due to damming, canalization, diversion, over-abstraction). The synergistic impacts of land use change, changes in flows, chemical deterioration, and climate change have left many systems and their species very little room to adjust to change, while future projections indicate a steady increase in water demand for food and energy production and water supply to suit the needs of a growing world population. In Mexico, the focus has been to secure water for human development and maximize economic growth, which has resulted in allocation of water beyond available amounts. As a consequence episodic water scarcity severely constrains freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Climatic change and variability are presenting serious challenges to a country that already is experiencing serious strain on its water resources. However, freshwater ecosystems are recognized by law as legitimate user of water, and mandate a flow allocation for the environment ("water reserve" or "environmental flows"). Based on this legal provision the Mexican government through the National Water Commission (Conagua), with support of the Alliance WWF - Fundación Gonzalo Río Arronte, and the Interamerican Development Bank, has launched a national program to identify and implement "water reserves": basins where environmental flows will be secured and allocated and where the flow regime is then protected before over
Warscher, Michael; Kraller, Gabriele; Kunstmann, Harald; Strasser, Ulrich; Franz, Helmut
The water balance in high alpine regions in its full complexity is so far insufficiently understood. High altitudinal gradients, a strong variability of meteorological variables in time and space, complex hydrogeological situations, unquantified lateral snow transport processes and heterogenous snow cover dynamics result in high uncertainties in the quantification of the water balance. To achieve interpretable modeling results we have complemented the deterministic hydrological model WaSiM-ETH with the high-alpine specific snow model AMUNDSEN. The integration of the new snow module was done to improve the modeling of water fluxes influenced by the dynamics of the snow cover, which greatly affect the water cycle in high alpine regions. To enhance the reproduction of snow deposition and ablation processes, the new approach calculates the energy balance of the snow cover considering the terrain-dependent radiation fluxes, the interaction between tree canopy and snow cover as well as lateral snow transport processes. The test site for our study is the Berchtesgaden National Park which is characterized by an extreme topography with mountain ranges covering an altitude from 607 to 2713 m.a.s.l. About one quarter of the investigated catchment area, which comprises 433 km² in total, is terrain steeper than 35°. Due to water soluble limestone being predominant in the region, a high number of subsurface water pathways (karst) exist. The results of several tracer experiments and extensive data of spring observations provide additional information to meet the challenge of modeling the unknown subsurface pathways and the complex groundwater system of the region. The validation of the new snow module is based on a dense network of meteorological stations which have been adapted to measure physical properties of the snow cover like snow water equivalent and liquid water content. We will present first results which show that the integration of the new snow module generates a
Díaz-Rubia, L; Ramos-Sáez, S; Vázquez-Guillamet, R; Guerrero-López, F; Pino-Sánchez, F; García-Delgado, M; Gómez-Jiménez, F J; Fernández-Mondéjar, E
To analyze the efficacy of negative fluid balance in hypoxemic patients with an elevated extravascular lung water index (EVLWI). A retrospective observational study was made. Intensive Care Unit of Virgen de las Nieves Hospital (Spain). Forty-four patients participated in the study. We analyzed our database of hypoxemic patients covering a period of 11 consecutive months. We included all hemodynamically stable and hypoxemic patients with EVLWI>9ml/kg. The protocol dictates a negative fluid balance between 500 and 1500ml/day. We analyzed the impact of this negative fluid balance strategy upon pulmonary, hemodynamic, and renal function. Demographic data, severity scores, clinical, hemodynamic, pulmonary, metabolic and renal function data. Thirty-three patients achieved negative fluid balance (NFB group) and 11 had a positive fluid balance (PFB group). In the former group, PaO2/FiO2 improved from 145 (IQR 106, 200) to 210mmHg (IQR 164, 248) (pPFB group, EVLWI also decreased from 11 (10, 14) to 10ml/kg (8, 14) at the end of the protocol (p=0.004). For these patients there were no changes in oxygenation, with a PaO2/FiO2 of 216mmHg (IQR 137, 260) at the beginning versus 205mmHg (IQR 99,257) at the end of the study (p=0.08). Three out of four hypoxic patients with elevated EVLWI tolerated the NFB protocol. In these subjects, the improvement of various analyzed physiological parameters was greater and faster than in those unable to complete the protocol. Patients who did not tolerate the protocol were usually in more severe condition, though a larger sample would be needed to detect specific characteristics of this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M; Keesman, Karel J; Mels, Adriaan R; Rijnaarts, Huub H M
Earlier results indicated that, for an average household, self-sufficiency in water supply can be achieved by following the Urban harvest Approach (UHA), in a combination of demand minimization, cascading and multi-sourcing. To achieve these results, it was assumed that all available local resources can be harvested. In reality, however, temporal, spatial and location-bound factors pose limitations to this harvest and, thus, to self-sufficiency. This article investigates potential spatial and temporal limitations to harvest local water resources at building level for the Netherlands, with a focus on indoor demand. Two building types were studied, a free standing house (one four-people household) and a mid-rise apartment flat (28 two-person households). To be able to model yearly water balances, daily patterns considering household occupancy and presence of water using appliances were defined per building type. Three strategies were defined. The strategies include demand minimization, light grey water (LGW) recycling, and rainwater harvesting (multi-sourcing). Recycling and multi-sourcing cater for toilet flushing and laundry machine. Results showed that water saving devices may reduce 30% of the conventional demand. Recycling of LGW can supply 100% of second quality water (DQ2) which represents 36% of the conventional demand or up to 20% of the minimized demand. Rainwater harvesting may supply approximately 80% of the minimized demand in case of the apartment flat and 60% in case of the free standing house. To harvest these potentials, different system specifications, related to the household type, are required. Two constraints to recycle and multi-source were identified, namely i) limitations in the grey water production and available rainfall; and ii) the potential to harvest water as determined by the temporal pattern in water availability, water use, and storage and treatment capacities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Limitation of water resources in Iran motivates sustaining and preserving of the resources in order to supply future water needs. Fulfilling these objectives will not be possible unless having accurate water balance of watersheds. The purpose of this study is to estimate the water balance parameters using a distributed method. The large number of distributed models and methods was studied and “Quasi Distributed Water Balance model” (QDWB was written in the MATLAB programming environment. To conduct this model, it is needed that each data layer (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, land use, soil data,.. to be converted into grid format. In this research the 500m * 500m cell size was used and water balance parameters for each cell was estimated. Runoff and deep percolation obtained from surface balance equation and irrigation needs were estimated based on soil moisture deficit. The study area of 9157 square kilometers is Neyshabour- Rokh watershed. The results showed there is a good correlation between water balance parameters such as precipitation-runoff, precipitation-evapotranspiration, and precipitation- deep percoulation and demonstrate that QDWB model is consistent with the basin hydrological process.Change in soil moisture at basin wide is 1 MCM in 1388-89 and 40 MCM in 1380-81. The evapotranspiration results from a distributed model” SWAT” and QDWB model were in good agreement.
Lewis, Laura Foran
More than 20% of individuals experience a mood disorder in their lifetime. Qualitative studies have explored the experience of being a partner to an individual with a mood disorder, but these studies remain isolated pieces of a larger puzzle. In this metasynthesis, I aimed to integrate current qualitative research to describe the experience of being a partner to an individual with a mood disorder. A systematic search was conducted to identify qualitative research. Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography was used to translate key metaphors from individual studies into a single set of metaphors to describe the experience. Results indicated that these partners are disenfranchised caregivers balancing their own needs with partners' perceived and reported needs to strive for a stasis of guarded stability. Future research must explore ways to support these partners and include them in the health care team. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kooistra, Libbe; Ramage, Barbara; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Wormsbecker, Shirley; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J
There is an ongoing debate regarding the diagnostic overlap between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Differential diagnosis is important because of treatment implications. Children aged 7-10years (47 ADHD, 30 FASD, 39 controls) participated.
Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.
In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, subsistence agriculture is characterized by significant fluctuations in yield and production due to variations in moisture availability to staple crops. Widespread drought can lead to crop failures, with associated deterioration in food security. Ground data collection networks are sparse, so methods using geospatial rainfall estimates derived from satellite and gauge observations, where available, have been developed to calculate seasonal crop water balances. Using conventional crop production data for 4 years in Ethiopia (1996-1999), it was found that water-limited and water-unlimited growing regions can be distinguished. Furthermore, maize growing conditions are also indicative of conditions for sorghum. However, another major staple, teff, was found to behave sufficiently differently from maize to warrant studies of its own.
Salazar, J. F.; Villegas, J. C.; Bettin, D. M.; Molina, R.; Henao, J. J.; Rodríguez, E.; Rendón, A.; Hoyos, I.; Poveda, G.
In last decades, there has been increasing debate about the hydrological and meteorological role of forests, particularly regarding its role in the regulation of the energy and water balances. Here we summarize results from an ongoing research program studying this problem. First, we introduce the notion of ecohydrological scaling to show the existence of two alternative states of regulated or unregulated streamflows in the main tributaries of the Amazon river basin. The transition between both states is associated with the loss of forest cover, with a potential critical threshold at around 40% forest loss in the Amazon. These results imply that large-scale forest loss can force the entire Amazon basin system beyond a critical threshold where its natural streamflow regulation is lost. More generally, our proposed framework provides insights for a physical interpretation of the scaling relations in river basins, as well as foundations and tools to develop early warnings of critical transitions in river basins. Second, we show that long-term rainfall-streamflow ratios converge to low values with low spatial variability in forested basins of the world, independent of location, climatic regime, basin size or forest type. We interpret this as evidence that high forest cover provides long-term regulation of the water balance. Third, we examine the linkage between the presence of tropical forests in South America and the long-term spatial distribution of continental precipitation, and found evidence suggesting that the Amazon forests enhance the atmospheric rivers flowing inland from the Atlantic ocean, particularly during the austral and boreal summers. The associated effects on precipitation may be highly relevant for water availability in river basins located downstream such atmospheric rivers, such as the La Plata and the Orinoco river basins. Finally, we explore the linkage between forest-induced temperature inversions and the vertical transport of atmospheric
Olivia O. Green
Full Text Available Considering the challenges and threats currently facing water management and the exacerbation of uncertainty by climate change, the need for flexible yet robust and legitimate environmental regulation is evident. The European Union took a novel approach toward sustainable water resource management with the passage of the EU Water Framework Directive in 2000. The Directive promotes sustainable water use through long-term protection of available water resources, progressively reduces discharges of hazardous substances in ground and surface waters, and mitigates the effects of floods and droughts. The lofty goal of achieving good status of all waters requires strong adaptive capacity, given the large amounts of uncertainty in water management. Striking the right balance between flexibility in local implementation and robust and enforceable standards is essential to promoting adaptive capacity in water governance, yet achieving these goals simultaneously poses unique difficulty. Applied resilience science reveals a conceptual framework for analyzing the adaptive capacity of governance structures that includes multiple overlapping levels of control or coordination, information flow horizontally and vertically, meaningful public participation, local capacity building, authority to respond to changed circumstances, and robust monitoring, system feedback, and enforcement. Analyzing the Directive through the lens of resilience science, we highlight key elements of modern European water management and their contribution to the resilience of the system and conclude that the potential lack of enforcement and adequate feedback of monitoring results does not promote managing for resilience. However, the scale-appropriate governance aspects of the EU approach promotes adaptive capacity by enabling vertical and horizontal information flow, building local capacity, and delegating control at multiple relevant scales.
Hedrick, A. R.; Marks, D. G.; Havens, S.; Robertson, M.; Johnson, M.; Sandusky, M.; Bormann, K. J.; Painter, T. H.
Closing the water balance of a snow-dominated mountain basin has long been a focal point of the hydrologic sciences. This study attempts to more precisely quantify the solid precipitation inputs to a basin using the iSnobal energy balance snowmelt model and assimilated snow depth information from the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO). Throughout the ablation seasons of three highly dissimilar consecutive water years (2015 - 2017), the ASO captured high resolution snow depth snapshots over the Tuolumne River Basin in California's Central Sierra Nevada. These measurements were used to periodically update the snow depth state variable of iSnobal, thereby nudging the estimates of water storage (snow water equivalent, or SWE) and melt (surface water input, or SWI) toward a more accurate solution. Once precipitation inputs and streamflow outputs are better constrained, the additional loss terms of the water mass balance equation (i.e. groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration) can be estimated with less uncertainty.
Jorge Luiz Moretti Souza
Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify and compare water balance components over the course of a year for different Pinus taeda planting densities in an oxisol in southern Brazil. This experiment was conducted on 6-year-old trees in a clay oxisol at the Monte Alegre Farm, a property of the Klabin Company. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates and five treatments with different amounts of soil coverage: T100 (100% coverage - standard planting coverage; (T75, 75; T50, 50; and T25, 25%, and; T0 (without cover - clearcutting. The soil water storage and actual evapotranspiration under non-standard conditions were determined in a weekly estimated soil water balance (SWB with measured components. By the end of the year, the treatments had not reached field capacity or wilting point storage. The average value of total downward drainage was 100.2 mm, and the highest values occurred in the T75 and T100 treatments. The lowest population density (T25 had the highest actual evapotranspiration (ETr, due to the growth of the remaining Pinus taeda trees. The highest evapotranspiration occurred in September, due to the resumption of Pinus taeda growth.
As for the pH measurement system for high temperature, high pressure water, there have been the circumstances that first the reference electrodes for monitoring corrosion potential were developed, and subsequently, it was developed for the purpose of maintaining the soundness of metallic materials in high temperature, high pressure water in nuclear power generation. In the process of developing the reference electrodes for high temperature water, it was clarified that the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in BWRs is closely related to the corrosion potential determined by dissolved oxygen concentration. As the types of pH electrodes, there are metal-hydrogen electrodes, glass electrodes, ZrO 2 diaphragm electrodes and TiO 2 semiconductor electrodes. The principle of pH measurement using ZrO 2 diaphragms is explained. The pH measuring system is composed of YSZ element, pressure-balanced type external reference electrode, pressure balancer and compressed air vessel. The stability and pH response of YSZ elements are reported. (K.I.)
Full Text Available Current earth observation models do not take into account the influence of water salinity on the evaporation rate, even though the salinity influences the evaporation rate by affecting the density and latent heat of vaporization. In this paper, we adapt the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System model for large water bodies and add the effect of water salinity to the evaporation rate. Firstly, SEBS is modified for fresh-water whereby new parameterizations of the water heat flux and sensible heat flux are suggested. This is achieved by adapting the roughness heights for momentum and heat transfer. Secondly, a salinity correction factor is integrated into the adapted model. Eddy covariance measurements over Lake IJsselmeer (The Netherlands are carried out and used to estimate the roughness heights for momentum (~0.0002 m and heat transfer (~0.0001 m. Application of these values over the Victoria and Tana lakes (freshwater in Africa showed that the calculated latent heat fluxes agree well with the measurements. The root mean-square of relative-errors (rRMSE is about 4.1% for Lake Victoria and 4.7%, for Lake Tana. Verification with ECMWF data showed that the salinity reduced the evaporation at varying levels by up to 27% in the Great Salt Lake and by 1% for open ocean. Our results show the importance of salinity to the evaporation rate and the suitability of the adapted-SEBS model (AquaSEBS for fresh and saline waters.
McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.
A monthly water balance model (WB model) is used with CRUTS2.1 monthly temperature and precipitation data to generate time series of monthly runoff for all land areas of the globe for the period 1905 through 2002. Even though annual precipitation accounts for most of the temporal and spatial variability in annual runoff, increases in temperature have had an increasingly negative effect on annual runoff after 1980. Although the effects of increasing temperature on runoff became more apparent after 1980, the relative magnitude of these effects are small compared to the effects of precipitation on global runoff. ?? 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.
Roux, S; Baudoin, C; Boute, D; Brazier, M; De La Guéronniere, V; De Vernejoul, M C
To compare the effects of 2 drinking waters containing similar calcium (Ca) concentration in order to analyze the role of ions other than Ca on bone metabolism. These mineral drinking-waters differed by their mineral composition primarily concerning the concentration of bicarbonate (HCO3-), high in the HB, and sulfate, high in HS water. Of 60 included women, 39 completed the study. Patients were randomly assigned to an intake of 1 liter per day of mineral water HB or HS for 28 d, followed by cross-over to the alternative drinking-water for a further 28 d. At baseline and after each period of one month, Ca metabolism parameters, acid-base status, and bone remodeling markers were measured. Changes in Ca metabolism were significant in the HB group where the ionized Ca increased and the PTH decreased. Serum pH showed a similar increase whatever the used drinking water compared to baseline. In the HB group, significant increase in urine pH, and significant decrease in AT-HCO3- and NH4+ were observed. Bone resorption markers, urinary CTx/Cr, Pyr/Cr, and D-Pyr/Cr, significantly decreased in the HB group compared to baseline, and were not significantly modified in the HS group. These results showed a beneficial effect of the bicarbonaterich HB water on bone metabolism. This may account for a better bioavailability of the Ca, a greater alkalinization, and a larger decrease in PTH level secondary to a higher ionized Ca level. The higher content of silica in HB water may have also participated to the positive action on bone balance that was observed. In this short term study, these data underlined the potential role of the mineral drinking water composition on bone metabolism.
Ditroilo, Massimiliano; O'Sullivan, Rory; Harnan, Brian; Crossey, Aislinn; Gillmor, Beth; Dardis, William; Grainger, Adam
This study examined trunk muscle activation, balance and proprioception while squatting with a water-filled training tube (WT) and a traditional barbell (BB), with either closed (CE) or open eyes (OE). Eighteen male elite Gaelic footballers performed an isometric squat under the following conditions: BB-OE, BB-CE, WT-OE and WT-CE. The activity of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO) and multifidus (MF) was measured using electromyography, along with sway of the centre of pressure (CoP) using a force platform. Only the EO and the MF muscles exhibited an increased activity with WT (p velocity and range of the CoP increased significantly with WT (p velocity of the CoP was marginally reduced (d = 0.29). WT elicited a greater level core muscle activation and created a greater challenge to postural stability when compared to a BB. It appears that WT does not benefit from vision but emphasises the somatosensory control of balance. The use of WT may be beneficial in those sports requiring development of somatosensory/proprioceptive contribution to balance control.
Chevallier, P.; Eeckman, J.; Nepal, S.; Delclaux, F.; Wagnon, P.; Brun, F.; Koirala, D.
The hydrometeorological components of five Dudh Koshi River sub-basins on the Nepalese side of the Mount Everest have been monitored during four hydrological years (2013-2017), with altitudes ranging from 2000 m to Everest top, areas between 4.65 and 1207 km², and proportions of glaciated areas between nil and 45%. This data set is completed with glacier mass balance observations. The analysis of the observed data and the resulting water balances show large uncertainties of different types: aleatory, epistemic or semantic, following the classification proposed by Beven (2016). The discussion is illustrated using results from two modeling approaches, physical (ISBA, Noilhan and Planton, 1996) and conceptual (J2000, Krause, 2001), as well as large scale glacier mass balances obtained by the way of a recent remote sensing processing method. References: Beven, K., 2016. Facets of uncertainty: epistemic uncertainty, non-stationarity, likelihood, hypothesis testing, and communication. Hydrological Sciences Journal 61, 1652-1665. doi:10.1080/02626667.2015.1031761 Krause, P., 2001. Das hydrologische Modellsystem J2000: Beschreibung und Anwendung in groen Flueinzugsgebieten, Schriften des Forschungszentrum Jülich. Reihe Umwelt/Environment; Band 29. Noilhan, J., Planton, S., 1989. A single parametrization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Monthly Weather Review 536-549.
Liu, Bin; Gan, Hong
Rapid social and economic development results in increased demand for water resources. This can lead to the unsustainable development and exploitation of water resources which in turn causes significant environmental problems. Conventional water resource management approaches, such as supply and demand management strategies, frequently fail to restore regional water balance. This paper introduces the concept of water consumption balance, the balance between actual evapotranspiration (ET) and target ET, and establishes a framework to realize regional water balance. The framework consists of three stages: (1) determination of target ET and actual ET; (2) quantification of the water-saving requirements for the region; and (3) reduction of actual ET by implementing various water saving management strategies. Using this framework, a case study was conducted for Guantao County, China. The SWAT model was utilized to aid in the selection of the best water saving management strategy by comparing the ET of different irrigation methods and crop pattern adjustments. Simulation results revealed that determination of SWAT model parameters using remote sensing ET is feasible and that the model is a valuable tool for ET management. Irrigation was found to have a greater influence on the ET of winter wheat as compared to that of maize, indicating that reduction in winter wheat cultivation is the most effective way to reduce regional ET. However, the effect of water-saving irrigation methods on the reduction of ET was not obvious. This indicates that it would be difficult to achieve regional ET reduction using water-saving irrigation methods only. Furthermore, selecting the best water saving management strategy by relying solely on the amount of reduced ET was insufficient, because it ignored the impact of water conservation measures on the livelihood of the agricultural community. Incorporating these considerations with our findings, we recommend changing the current irrigation
Djuma, Hakan; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado; Eliades, Marinos
Studies on the enhancement of groundwater recharge by check-dams in arid and semi-arid environments mainly focus on deriving water infiltration rates from the check-dam ponding areas. This is usually achieved by applying simple water balance models, more advanced models (e.g., two dimensional groundwater models) and field tests (e.g., infiltrometer test or soil pit tests). Recharge behind the check-dam can be affected by the built-up of sediment as a result of erosion in the upstream watershed area. This natural process can increase the uncertainty in the estimates of the recharged water volume, especially for water balance calculations. Few water balance field studies of individual check-dams have been presented in the literature and none of them presented associated uncertainties of their estimates. The objectives of this study are i) to assess the effect of a check-dam on groundwater recharge from an ephemeral river; and ii) to assess annual sedimentation at the check-dam during a 4-year period. The study was conducted on a check-dam in the semi-arid island of Cyprus. Field campaigns were carried out to measure water flow, water depth and check-dam topography in order to establish check-dam water height, volume, evaporation, outflow and recharge relations. Topographic surveys were repeated at the end of consecutive hydrological years to estimate the sediment built up in the reservoir area of the check dam. Also, sediment samples were collected from the check-dam reservoir area for bulk-density analyses. To quantify the groundwater recharge, a water balance model was applied at two locations: at the check-dam and corresponding reservoir area, and at a 4-km stretch of the river bed without check-dam. Results showed that a check-dam with a storage capacity of 25,000 m3 was able to recharge to the aquifer, in four years, a total of 12 million m3 out of the 42 million m3 of measured (or modelled) streamflow. Recharge from the analyzed 4-km long river section without
Abadzadesahraei, S.; Déry, S.; Rex, J. F.
Northeastern British Columbia (BC) is undergoing rapid development for oil and gas extraction, largely depending on subsurface hydraulic fracturing (fracking), which relies on available freshwater. Even though this industrial activity has made substantial contributions to regional and provincial economies, it is important to ensure that sufficient and sustainable water supplies are available for all those dependent on the resource, including ecological systems. Further, BC statistics predict that the northeastern region's population will increase by 30% over the next 25 years, thereby amplifying the demands of domestic and industrial water usage. Hence, given the increasing demands for surface water in the complex wetlands of northeastern BC, obtaining accurate long-term water balance information is of vital importance. Thus, this study aims to simulate the 1979-2014 water balance at two boreal watersheds using the MIKE SHE model. More specifically, this research intends to quantify the historical, and regional, water budgets and their associated hydrological processes at two boreal watersheds—the Coles Lake and Tsea Lake watersheds—in northeastern BC. The development of coupled groundwater and surface water model of these watersheds are discussed. The model setup, calibration process, and results are presented, focusing on the water balance of boreal watersheds. Hydrological components within these watersheds are quantified through a combination of intensive fieldwork, observational data, analysis and numerical modeling. The output from the model provides important information for decision makers to manage water resources in northeastern BC. Keywords: Northeastern BC; boreal watershed; water balance; MIKE SHE hydrological model.
Brielle R. Ferguson
Full Text Available Elucidating the prefrontal cortical microcircuit has been challenging, given its role in multiple complex behaviors, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, attention, social interaction and emotional regulation. Additionally, previous methodological limitations made it difficult to parse out the contribution of certain neuronal subpopulations in refining cortical representations. However, growing evidence supports a fundamental role of fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV GABAergic interneurons in regulating pyramidal neuron activity to drive appropriate behavioral responses. Further, their function is heavily diminished in the prefrontal cortex (PFC in numerous psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and autism. Previous research has demonstrated the importance of the optimal balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I in cortical circuits in maintaining the efficiency of cortical information processing. Although we are still unraveling the mechanisms of information representation in the PFC, the E/I balance seems to be crucial, as pharmacological, chemogenetic and optogenetic approaches for disrupting E/I balance induce impairments in a range of PFC-dependent behaviors. In this review, we will explore two key hypotheses. First, PV interneurons are powerful regulators of E/I balance in the PFC, and help optimize the representation and processing of supramodal information in PFC. Second, diminishing the function of PV interneurons is sufficient to generate an elaborate symptom sequelae corresponding to those observed in a range of psychiatric diseases. Then, using this framework, we will speculate on whether this circuitry could represent a platform for the development of therapeutic interventions in disorders of PFC function.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little qualitative insight into how persons with chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorder cope on a day to day basis. This study seeks to identify the symptoms persons with Whiplash-Associated Disorder describe as dominating and explore their self-initiated coping strategies. Methods Qualitative study using focus groups interviews. Fourteen Norwegian men and women with Whiplash-Associated Disorder (I or II were recruited to participate in two focus groups. Data were analyzed according to a phenomenological approach, and discussed within the model of Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS. Results Participants reported neck and head pain, sensory hypersensitivity, and cognitive dysfunction following their whiplash injury. Based on the intensity of symptoms, participants divided everyday life into good and bad periods. In good periods the symptoms were perceived as manageable. In bad periods the symptoms intensified and took control of the individual. Participants expressed a constant notion of trying to balance their three main coping strategies; rest, exercise, and social withdrawal. In good periods participants experienced coping by expecting good results from the strategies they used. In bad periods they experienced no or negative relationships between their behavioral strategies and their complaints. Conclusions Neck and head pain, sensory hypersensitivity, and cognitive dysfunction were reported as participants' main complaints. A constant notion of balancing between their three main coping strategies; rest, exercise, and social withdrawal, was described.
This study is concerned with the physics of the fuel cycle the aim being to develop and make recommendations concerning schemes for calculating the neutronics of light water reactor fuel cycles. A preliminary study carried out using the old fuel cycle calculation scheme APOLLO1- KAFKA and the library SERMA79 has shown that for the compositions of totally dissolved assemblies from Pressurized Water Reactors (type 17*17) and also for the first time, for Boiling Water Reactor assemblies (type 8*8), the differences between calculation and measurement are large and must be reduced. The integration of the APOLLO2 neutronics code into the fuel cycle calculation scheme improves the results because it can model the situation more precisely. A comparison between APOLLO1 and APOLLO2 using the same options, demonstrated the consistency of the two methods for PWR and BWR geometries. Following this comparison, we developed an optimised scheme for PWR applications using the library CEA86 and the code APOLLO2. Depending on whether the information required is the detailed distribution of the composition of the irradiated fuel or the average composition (estimation of the total material balance of the fuel assembly), the physics options recommended are different. We show that the use of APOLLO2 and the library CEA86 improves the results and especially the estimation of the Pu 239 content. Concerning the Boiling Water Reactor, we have highlighted the need to treat several axial sections of the fuel assembly (variation of the void-fraction, heterogeneity of composition). A scheme using Sn transport theory, permits one to obtain a better coherence between the consumption of U 235 , the production of plutonium and burnup, and a better estimation of the material balance. (author) [fr
Wang, Tingting; Sun, Fubao; Liu, Changming; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Hong
An accurate estimation of ET in humid catchments is essential in water-energy budget research and water resource management etc, while it remains a huge challenge and there is no well accepted explanation for the difficulty of annual ET estimation in humid catchments so far. Here we presents the ET estimation in 102 humid catchments over China based on the Budyko framework and two hydrological models: abcd model and Xin'anjiang mdoel, in comparison with ET calculated from the water balance equation (ETwb) on the ground that the ΔS is approximately zero at multiannual and annual time scale. We provides a possible explanation for this poorly annual ET estimation in humid catchments as well. The results show that at multi-annual timescale, the Budyko framework works fine in ET estimation in humid catchments, while at annual time scale, neither the Budyko framework nor the hydrological models can estimate ET well. The major cause for this poorly estimated annual ET in humid catchments is the neglecting of the ΔS in ETwb since it enlarge the variability of real actual evapotranspiration. Much improvement has been made when compared estimated ET + ΔS with those ETwb, and the bigger the catchment area is, the better this improvement is. It provides a reasonable explanation for the poorly estimated annual ET in humid catchments and reveals the important role of the ΔS in ET estimation and validation. We highlight that the annual ΔS shouldn't be taken as zero in water balance equation in humid catchments.
The major elements of El-Burulus lake water system are rainfall, agricultural drainage discharge, groundwater, human activities, evaporation and water interaction between the lake and the Mediterranean sea. The principal input sources are agricultural drainage (8 drains at the southern borders of the lake), sea water as well as some contribution of precipitation, groundwater and human activities. Water is lost from the lake through evaporation and surface outflow. The present study has been conducted using isotopic / mass balance approach to investigate the water balance of El-Burulus lake and to emphasize the relative contribution of different input / output components which affect the environmental and hydrological terms of the system. An isotopic evaporation pan experiment was performed to estimate the parameters of relevance to water balance (isotopic composition of free air moisture and evaporating flux) and to simulate the isotopic enrichment of evaporation under atmospheric and hydraulic control. The isotopic mass balance approach employed herein facilitated the estimation of groundwater inflow to the lake, evaporated fraction of total lake inflow (E/I) and its fraction to outflow (E/O), ratio of surface inflow to surface outflow (I/O) as well as residence time of lake water. The isotopic mass balance approach has been validated by comparing the values of estimated parameters with the previous hydrological investigations; a quite good match has been indicated, the relevance of this approach is related to its integrative scale and the more simply implementation
Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena
The purpose of this study was to determine, on the animal model, the effect of modification of diet composition and administration of selected food additives on water balance in the body. The study was conducted with 48 males and 48 females (separately for each sex) of Wistar strain rats divided into four groups. For drinking, the animals from groups I and III were receiving water, whereas the animals from groups II and IV were administered 5 ml of a solution of selected food additives (potassium nitrate - E 252, sodium nitrite - E 250, benzoic acid - E 210, sorbic acid - E 200, and monosodium glutamate - E 621). Doses of the administered food additives were computed taking into account the average intake by men, expressed per body mass unit. Having drunk the solution, the animals were provided water for drinking. The mixture of selected food additives applied in the experiment was found to facilitate water retention in the body both in the case of both male and female rats, and differences observed between the volume of ingested fluids and the volume of excreted urine were statistically significant in the animals fed the basal diet. The type of feed mixture provided to the animals affected the site of water retention - in the case of animals receiving the basal diet analyses demonstrated a significant increase in water content in the liver tissue, whereas in the animals fed the modified diet water was observed to accumulate in the vascular bed. Taking into account the fact of water retention in the vascular bed, the effects of food additives intake may be more adverse in the case of females.
Dengue infections are estimated to total nearly 400 million per year worldwide, with both the geographic range and the magnitude of infections having increased in the past 50 years. The primary dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is closely associated with humans. It lives exclusively in urban and semi-urban areas, preferentially bites humans, and spends its developmental stages in artificial water containers. Climate regulates the development of Ae. aegypti immature mosquitoes in artificial containers. Potential containers for Ae. aegypti immature development include, but are not limited to, small sundry items (e.g., bottles, cans, plastic containers), buckets, tires, barrels, tanks, and cisterns. Successful development of immature mosquitoes from eggs to larvae, pupae, and eventually adults is largely dependent on the availability of water and the thermal properties of the water in the containers. Recent work has shown that physics-based approaches toward modeling container water properties are promising for resolving the complexities of container water dynamics and the effects on immature mosquito development. An energy balance container model developed by the author, termed the Water Height And Temperature in Container Habitats Energy Model (WHATCH'EM), solves for water temperature and height for user-specified containers with readily available weather data. Here we use WHATCH'EM with NASA Earth Science products used as input to construct global suitability maps based on established water temperature ranges for immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. A proxy for dengue risk is provided from habitat suitability, but also population estimates, as Ae. aegypti is closely associated with human activity. NASA gridded Global Population of the World data is used to mask out rural areas with low dengue risk. Suitability maps are illustrated for a variety of containers (size, material, color) and shading scenarios.
Avnstorp, Magnus B; Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice
both circumstances. No cerebral net exchange of Na(+) or K(+) was evident. Likewise, no significant net-exchange of water over the brain was demonstrated and the arterial and jugular venous hemoglobin concentrations were similar. CONCLUSION: Challenging exercise in hypoxia for 30 min affected muscle......Avnstorp, Magnus B., Peter Rasmussen, Patrice Brassard, Thomas Seifert, Morten Overgaard, Peter Krustrup, Niels H. Secher, and Nikolai B. Nordsborg. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise. High Alt Med Biol 16:000-000, 2015.-Background...... intense exercise is carried out in hypoxia and monitored the influence of muscle metabolism for changes in arterial variables. METHODS: On two separate days, in random order, 30 min cycling exercise was performed in either hypoxia (10% O2) or normoxia at an intensity that was exhaustive in the hypoxic...
Liu, Qiang; Liang, Liqiao
Water resources are contingent on the combined effects of climate change and watershed characteristics. An analytical model devised from the Budyko framework was used to investigate the partitioning of precipitation ( P) into actual evapotranspiration ( E) and streamflow ( Q) parameters for the Yellow River Basin (YRB), a water-limited basin, to estimate the response of E and Q to P and potential evapotranspiration ( E p ). Although a steady state was assumed, the analytical model, incorporating an adjustable parameter characteristic of catchment conditions ( ω), can be run to analyze the sensitivity of catchment characteristics on water resources. The theory predicts that Q and E are more sensitive to P than to E p . For example, a 10 % increase in P will result in a 22.8 % increase in Q, while a 10 % increase in E p will decrease Q by 13.2 %. The model shows that, to some extent, water balance is governed by changing catchment characteristics (such as changes in vegetation on annual scales). These findings indicate that additional elucidative data can be drawn from the Budyko framework when taking into account catchment characteristics. Furthermore, the model can analyze the response of water resources to climate change on different temporal and spatial scales.
Disinfection methods like chlorination are increasingly used to sanitize the water, equipment, tools and surfaces in aquaculture facilities. This is to improve water quality, and to maintain a hygienic environment for the well-being of aquatic organisms. However, chlorination can result in formation of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that can be carcinogenic and toxic. This study aims to evaluate if an optimal balance can be achieved between minimal regulated DBP formation and effective microbial inactivation with either chlorination or monochloramination for application in the Red Sea aquaculture waters. Upon chlorination, the concentration of total trihalomethanes (THMs), primarily bromoform, exceeded the regulatory limit of 80μg/L even at the lowest tested concentration of chlorine (1mg/L) and contact time (1h). Comparatively, regulated THMs concentration was only detectable at 30μg/L level in one of the three sets of monochloraminated marine aquaculture waters. The average log reduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) by chlorine ranged from 2.3-log to 3.2-log with different contact time. The average log reduction of ARB by monochloramine was comparatively lower at 1.9 to 2.9-log. Although viable Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from monochloraminated samples as opposed to chlorinated samples, the abundance of S. aureus was not high enough to result in any significant microbial risks. Both chlorination and monochloramination did not provide any significant improvement in the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study demonstrates that a systematic evaluation is needed to determine the optimal disinfectant required to balance both microbial and chemical risks. Compared to chlorine, monochloramine may be a more appropriate disinfection strategy for the treatment of aquaculture effluents prior to discharge or for recirculatory use in the aquaculture facility.
Wendland, E.; Barreto, C.; Gomes, L. H.
SummaryMain objective of this work was the study of the infiltration and recharge mechanisms in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) outcrop zone. The study was based on hydrogeologic monitoring, evapotranspiration and water balance in a pilot watershed. The pilot watershed (Ribeirão da Onça) is situated in the outcrop zone of the Guarani Aquifer between parallels 22°10' and 22°15' (south latitude) and meridians 47°55' and 48°00' (west longitude). For the execution of the research project, a monitoring network (wells, rain gauge and linigraph) was installed in the watershed. Data have been systematically collected during the period of a hydrological year. Water level fluctuation has been used to estimate deep recharge and subsurface storage variation. The method used to estimate the direct recharge adopted the hypothesis that the recession of the groundwater level obeys a function of power law type. Direct recharge is obtained through the difference between the actual level of an unconfined aquifer and the level indicated by extrapolation of the recession curve, in a given period. Base outflow is estimated through a mixed function (linear and exponential). Outflow in the creek has been measured with current meter and monitored continuously with a linigraph. The annual infiltration in 2005 was estimated to be 350 mm, while the deep recharge, based on water balance, appears to be 3.5% of the precipitation (1410 mm). These results indicate that the estimated long term water availability of the Guarani Aquifer System should be studied more carefully.
Wrzesien, M.; Durand, M. T.; Pavelsky, T.
The hydrologic cycle is a key component of many aspects of daily life, yet not all water cycle processes are fully understood. In particular, water storage in mountain snowpacks remains largely unknown. Previous work with a high resolution regional climate model suggests that global and continental models underestimate mountain snow accumulation, perhaps by as much as 50%. Therefore, we hypothesize that since snow water equivalent (one aspect of the water balance) is underestimated, accepted water balances for major river basins are likely wrong, particularly for mountainous river basins. Here we examine water balances for four major high latitude North American watersheds - the Columbia, Mackenzie, Nelson, and Yukon. The mountainous percentage of each basin ranges, which allows us to consider whether a bias in the water balance is affected by mountain area percentage within the watershed. For our water balance evaluation, we especially consider precipitation estimates from a variety of datasets, including models, such as WRF and MERRA, and observation-based, such as CRU and GPCP. We ask whether the precipitation datasets provide enough moisture for seasonal snow to accumulate within the basin and whether we see differences in the variability of annual and seasonal precipitation from each dataset. From our reassessment of high-latitude water balances, we aim to determine whether the current understanding is sufficient to describe all processes within the hydrologic cycle or whether datasets appear to be biased, particularly in high-elevation precipitation. Should currently-available datasets appear to be similarly biased in precipitation, as we have seen in mountain snow accumulation, we discuss the implications for the continental water budget.
Full Text Available The water balance and the upper limit of osmotic tolerance of premetamorphic Rhinella arenarum larvae (Gosner's stage 26 was evaluated after semistatic incubation in electrolyte (NaCl and non-electrolyte (mannitol media following a protocol of progressively increased osmotic pressure. Wet and dry weights were measured to calculate the water content as a derived variable indicative of the hydric balance. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and integrated multivariate analysis. Tadpoles survived in electrolyte and non-electrolyte solutions up to 200 mOsm. The discriminant function was the best tool to describe the responses of the animals to external environmental stress under experimental conditions. The results were compared with those obtained in previous studies using a protocol of acute exposure to the same media used in this study. It was concluded that a multivariate analysis is an appropriate approach to describe the responses of tadpoles to changes in the environmental physicochemical parameters, and b progressive and acute acclimation to the experimental solutions induced similar responses.
Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar
Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Slessarev, E. W.; Lin, Y.; Bingham, N. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Dai, Y.; Schimel, J. P.; Chadwick, O. A.
Soil pH regulates the capacity of soils to store and supply nutrients, and thus contributes substantially to controlling productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. However, soil pH is not an independent regulator of soil fertility—rather, it is ultimately controlled by environmental forcing. In particular, small changes in water balance cause a steep transition from alkaline to acid soils across natural climate gradients. Although the processes governing this threshold in soil pH are well understood, the threshold has not been quantified at the global scale, where the influence of climate may be confounded by the effects of topography and mineralogy. Here we evaluate the global relationship between water balance and soil pH by extracting a spatially random sample (n = 20,000) from an extensive compilation of 60,291 soil pH measurements. We show that there is an abrupt transition from alkaline to acid soil pH that occurs at the point where mean annual precipitation begins to exceed mean annual potential evapotranspiration. We evaluate deviations from this global pattern, showing that they may result from seasonality, climate history, erosion and mineralogy. These results demonstrate that climate creates a nonlinear pattern in soil solution chemistry at the global scale; they also reveal conditions under which soils maintain pH out of equilibrium with modern climate.
M. P. McCartney
Full Text Available Dambos, seasonally saturated wetlands, are widespread in headwater catchments in sub-Saharan Africa. It is widely believed that they play an important role in regional hydrology but, despite research conducted over the last 25 years, their hydrological functions remain poorly understood. To improve conceptualisation of hydrological flow paths and investigate the water balance of a small Zimbabwean catchment containing a single dambo, measurements of alkalinity and chloride in different water types within the catchment have been used as chemical markers. The temporal variation in alkalinity is consistent with the premise that all stream water, including the prolonged dry season recession, is derived predominantly from shallow sources. The proposition that dry season recession flows are maintained by water travelling at depth within the underlying saprolite is not substantiated. There is evidence that a low permeability clay lens, commonly present in many dambos, acts as a barrier for vertical water exchange. However, the highly heterogeneous chemical composition of different waters precludes quantitative hydrograph split-ting using end member mixing analysis. Calculation of the chloride mass-balance confirms that, after rainfall, evaporation is the largest component of the catchment water budget. The study provides improved understanding of the hydrological functioning of dambos. Such understanding is essential for the development and implementation of sustainable management strategies for this landform.
McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L
Despite the clear importance of water balance to the evolution of terrestrial life, much remains unknown about the effects of animal water balance on food webs. Based on recent research suggesting animal water imbalance can increase trophic interaction strengths in cages, we hypothesized that water availability could drive top-down effects in open environments, influencing the occurrence of trophic cascades. We manipulated large spider abundance and water availability in 20 × 20 m open-air plots in a streamside forest in Arizona, USA, and measured changes in cricket and small spider abundance and leaf damage. As expected, large spiders reduced both cricket abundance and herbivory under ambient, dry conditions, but not where free water was added. When water was added (free or within moist leaves), cricket abundance was unaffected by large spiders, but spiders still altered herbivory, suggesting behavioural effects. Moreover, we found threshold-type increases in herbivory at moderately low soil moisture (between 5.5% and 7% by volume), suggesting the possibility that water balance may commonly influence top-down effects. Overall, our results point towards animal water balance as an important driver of direct and indirect species interactions and food web dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. © 2016 The Author(s).
Weiskel, Peter K.; Wolock, David M.; Zarriello, Phillip J.; Vogel, Richard M.; Levin, Sara B.; Lent, Robert M.
Runoff-based indicators of terrestrial water availability are appropriate for humid regions, but have tended to limit our basic hydrologic understanding of drylands – the dry-subhumid, semiarid, and arid regions which presently cover nearly half of the global land surface. In response, we introduce an indicator framework that gives equal weight to humid and dryland regions, accounting fully for both vertical (precipitation + evapotranspiration) and horizontal (groundwater + surface-water) components of the hydrologic cycle in any given location – as well as fluxes into and out of landscape storage. We apply the framework to a diverse hydroclimatic region (the conterminous USA) using a distributed water-balance model consisting of 53 400 networked landscape hydrologic units. Our model simulations indicate that about 21% of the conterminous USA either generated no runoff or consumed runoff from upgradient sources on a mean-annual basis during the 20th century. Vertical fluxes exceeded horizontal fluxes across 76% of the conterminous area. Long-term-average total water availability (TWA) during the 20th century, defined here as the total influx to a landscape hydrologic unit from precipitation, groundwater, and surface water, varied spatially by about 400 000-fold, a range of variation ~100 times larger than that for mean-annual runoff across the same area. The framework includes but is not limited to classical, runoff-based approaches to water-resource assessment. It also incorporates and reinterprets the green- and blue-water perspective now gaining international acceptance. Implications of the new framework for several areas of contemporary hydrology are explored, and the data requirements of the approach are discussed in relation to the increasing availability of gridded global climate, land-surface, and hydrologic data sets.
Chalupnik, S.; Wysocka, M.
Saline waters from underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226 Ra from the uranium decay series and 228 Ra from the thorium series. More than 70% of the total amount of radium remains underground as radioactive deposits due to spontaneous co-precipitation or water treatment technologies, but several tens of MBq of 226 Ra and even higher activity of 228 Ra are released daily into the rivers along with the other mine effluents from all Polish coal mines. Mine waters can have a severe impact on the natural environment, mainly due to its salinity. Additionally high levels of radium concentration in river waters, bottom sediments and vegetation were also observed. Sometimes radium concentrations in rivers exceeded 0.7 kBq/m 3 , which was the permitted level for wastewaters under Polish law. The investigations described here were carried out for all coal mines and on this basis the total radium balance in effluents has been calculated. Measurements in the vicinity of mine settling ponds and in rivers have given an opportunity to study radium behaviour in river waters and to assess the degree of contamination. For removal of radium from saline waters a method of purification has been developed and implemented in full technical scale in two of Polish coal mines. The purification station in Piast Colliery was unique, the first underground installation for the removal of radium isotopes from saline waters. Very good results have been achieved - approximately 6 m 3 /min of radium-bearing waters were treated there, more than 100 MBq of 226 Ra and 228 Ra remained underground each day. Purification has been started in 1999, therefore a lot of experiences have been gathered during this period. Since year 2006, a new purification station is working in another colliery, Ziemowit, at the level -650 meters. Barium chloride is used as a cleaning , agent, and amount of water to be purified is reaching 9 m 3 /min. Technical measures such as
Full Text Available Although many sensitivity analyses using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT in a complex watershed have been conducted, little attention has been paid to the application potential of the model in unique plots. In addition, sensitivity analysis of percolation and evapotranspiration with SWAT has seldom been undertaken. In this study, SWAT99.2 was calibrated to simulate water balance components for unique plots in Southern China from 2000 to 2001, which included surface runoff, percolation, and evapotranspiration. Twenty-one parameters classified into four categories, including meteorological conditions, topographical characteristics, soil properties, and vegetation attributes, were used for sensitivity analysis through one-at-a-time (OAT sampling to identify the factor that contributed most to the variance in water balance components. The results were shown to be different for different plots, with parameter sensitivity indices and ranks varying for different water balance components. Water balance components in the broad-leaved forest and natural grass plots were most sensitive to meteorological conditions, less sensitive to vegetation attributes and soil properties, and least sensitive to topographical characteristics. Compared to those in the natural grass plot, water balance components in the broad-leaved forest plot demonstrated higher sensitivity to the maximum stomatal conductance (GSI and maximum leaf area index (BLAI.
Carbonnel, Vincent; Brion, Natacha; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.
Rivers and canals are often the location for the historical settlement of cities and the backbone for their expansion, as they permit the transport of goods and people, the access to water for industrial activities and energy production, and the evacuation of the domestic and industrial wastewaters. In turn, human activities can result in modifications of the natural river systems to allow for instance ship transport or protection against flooding. The complex interconnected hydrographic network composed of the Zenne and the parallel Charleroi-Brussels-Scheldt Canal, which supports the development of the economy and urbanization of Brussels Metropolitan Area (Belgium), is a good example of such an altered system. The natural water course has been profoundly modified by the deviation of rivers to feed the canal, the control of the water flow in the canal by locks and pumps and the overflow exchange of water between the river and the canal for flood protection purposes. Also, the functioning of this system is strongly impacted by urban hydrology in Brussels, which results in amounts of wastewater discharged in the Zenne River that are nearly equivalent to the natural riverine flow. Water and water quality management in such complex and altered systems correspond to difficult tasks. They require, as a first step, a deep understanding of their hydrological functioning. Building an accurate water budget is also a necessary step in the investigation of the pollution sources, sinks, dynamics and mass-balance. In order to assess the water quality and provide insights for water management in the Zenne-Canal hydrographic network (cf. other contributions in this session), we established a detailed box-model representation of the water budget for the whole system, with a particular interest on the importance and the effects of the exchanges of water between the river and the canal. A particularity of this study is that, in contrast to the widespread use of hydrological
Full Text Available Increasing dependence on groundwater requires a detailed determination of the different outputs and inputs of a basin for better water management. Determination of spatial and temporal actual evapotranspiration (ETa, in this regard, is of vital importance as there is significant water loss from drainage basins. This research paper uses the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL, as well as the water balance, to estimate the spatial and temporal ETa in the Al-Khazir Gomal Basin, Northern Iraq. To compensate for the shortage in rainfall, and to irrigate summer crops, farmers in this basin have been depending, to a large extent, on groundwater extracted from the underlying unconfined aquifer, which is considered the major source for both domestic and agricultural uses in this basin. Rainfed farming of wheat and barley is one of the most important activities in the basin in the winter season, while in the summer season, agricultural activity is limited to small rice fields and narrow strips of vegetable cultivation along the Al-Khazir River. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images (TM5 acquired on 21 November 2006, 9 March 2007, 5 May 2007, 21 July 2007, and 23 September 2007 were used, along with a digital elevation model (DEM and ground-based meteorological data, measured within the area of interest. Estimation of seasonal ETa from periods between satellite overpasses was computed using the evaporative fraction (Ʌ. The water balance approach was utilized, using meteorological data and river hydrograph analysis, to estimate the ETa as the only missing input in the predefined water balance equation. The results of the two applied methods were comparable. SEBAL results were compared with the land use land cover (LULC map. The river showed the highest ETa, as evaporation from the free-water surface. Rice fields, irrigated in the summer season, have a high ETa in the images, as these fields are immersed in water during June, July and August
Lima, Jose Romualdo de Sousa
In the areas of rain fed agriculture it is very important to quantify losses of water by evapotranspiration and soil evaporation. The methods used for measuring evapotranspiration and/or evaporation varies from direct measurements techniques, using lysimeters, to measurements of the water and energy balances. The precision lysimeters have high cost, being only used for research purposes. The water and energy balances methods have been very used due the simplicity, robustness and lower cost. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the water and energy balance components in the soil cultivated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) and without vegetation, besides comparing the methods used to determine the cowpea evapotranspiration. Two experiments (2002 and 2003) were performed in the 4 ha area of the Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, UFPB, municipality of Areia, Paraiba State (6 deg C 58 S, 5 deg C 41 W). To determine the energy balance, the area was instrumented with a rain gauge, a pyrano meter, a net radiometer, and sensors for measuring air temperature and humidity, and wind speed in two levels. Two locals, in the soil, were instrumented with two temperature sensors located at 2.0 cm and 8.0 cm below soil surface and one heat flux plate placed at 5.0 cm below soil surface. The measurements were recorded every 30 minutes on a data logger. To determine the water balance, three plots were installed, composed one-meter access tube for neutron probe measurements, and 8 tensiometers. The results show very good correlation between the aerodynamic method and the Bowen ration energy balance method, for all atmospherics and soil water conditions. For the two years, in average 72% of the net radiation was used by crop evapotranspiration. The energy and water balance can be used, the determine the crop evapotranspiration and soil evaporation, and regardless of the method used, the major water use by crop occurred in the reproductive stage. In the year of 2002
Li Shijuan; Zhu Yeping; Sun Kaimeng; E Yue
N uptake and N balance of different N rate applied to wheat under water-saving condition were investigated with 15 N tracer technique and the dynamic N uptake of economic N treatment under two irrigation conditions was compared. The results showed that (1) compared with conventional n treatment, the N loss of economic N treatment reduced while NUE and N residue in soil improved under water-saving condition; (2) Use efficiency of fertilizer applied as basal fertilizer was higher than that as top-dressing fertilizer under water-saving condition; (3) The fertilizer N residue rate was from 29% to 41%, and 60% of N residue, which distributed in 1 m depth soil concentrated in 0-20 cm surface layer; (4) In whole growing stage of wheat, fertilizer N hadn't leach to 130 cm depth; (5) NUE of economic N treatment under conventional irrigation decreased by 16.6% compared with the same n treatment under water-saving condition
Marhaento, Hero; Booij, Martijn J.; Rientjes, T. H.M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.
Changes in the water balance of the Samin catchment (277.9 km2) on Java, Indonesia, can be attributed to land use change using the Soil Water Assessment Tool model. A baseline-altered method was used in which the simulation period 1990–2013 was divided into 4 equal periods to represent baseline
Boisrame, G. F. S.; Thompson, S. E.; Stephens, S.; Collins, B.; Tague, N.
A century of fire suppression in the Western United States has drastically altered the historically fire-adapated ecology in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains. Fire suppression is understood to have increased the forest cover, as well as the stem density, canopy cover and water demand of montane forests, reducing resilience of the forests to drought, and increasing the risk of catastrophic fire by drying the landscape and increasing fuel loads. The potential to reverse these trends by re-introducing fire into the Sierra Nevada is highly promising, but the likely effects on vegetation structure and water balance are poorly quantified. The Illilouette Creek Basin in Yosemite National Park represents a unique experiment in the Sierra Nevada, in which managers have moved from fire suppression to allowing a near-natural fire regime to prevail since 1972. Changes in vegetation structure in the Illilouette since the restoration of natural burning provides a unique opportunity to examine how frequent, mixed severity fires can reshape the Sierra Nevada landscape. We characterize these changes from 1969 to the present using a combination of Landsat products and high-resolution aerial imagery. We describe how the landscape structure has changed in terms of vegetation composition and its spatial organization, and explore the drivers of different post-fire vegetation type transitions (e.g. forest to shrubland vs. forest to meadow). By upscaling field data using vegetation maps and Landsat wetness indices, we explore how these vegetation transitions have impacted the water balance of the Illilouette Creek Basin, potentially increasing its resilience in the face of drought, climate change, and catastrophic fire. In a region that is adapted to frequent disturbance from fire, this work helps us understand how allowing such natural disturbances to take place can increase the sustainability of diverse landscapes in the long term.
Arelia T. Werner
Full Text Available Infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs are critical water-supply features in several regions of the world. However, ongoing population growth, increased demand and climate variability/change necessitate the better understanding of these systems, particularly in terms of their long-term trends. The Sooke Reservoir (SR of British Columbia, Canada is one such reservoir that currently supplies water to ~300,000 people, and is subject to considerable inter and intra-annual climatic variations. The main objectives of this study are to better understand the characteristics of the SR through an in-depth assessment of the contemporary water balance when the basin was intensively monitored (1996–2005, to use standardized runoff to select the best timescale to compute the Standard Precipitation (SPI and Standard Precipitation Evaporation Indices (SPEI to estimate trends in water availability over 1919 to 2005. Estimates of runoff and evaporation were validated by comparing simulated change in storage, computed by adding inputs and subtracting outputs from the known water levels by month, to observed change in storage. Water balance closure was within ±11% of the monthly change in storage on average when excluding months with spill pre-2002. The highest evaporation, dry season (1998 and lowest precipitation, wet season (2000/2001 from the intensively monitored period were used to construct a worst-case scenario to determine the resilience of the SR to drought. Under such conditions, the SR could support Greater Victoria until the start of the third wet season. The SPEI and SPI computed on a three-month timescale had the highest correlation with the standardized runoff, R2 equaled 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. A trend toward drier conditions was shown by SPEI over 1919 to 2005, while moistening over the same period was shown by SPI, although trends were small in magnitude. This study contributes a validated application of SPI and SPEI, giving more
Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Adkinson, Brendan D; Ji, Jie Lisa; Yang, Genevieve; Srihari, Vinod H; McPartland, James C; Krystal, John H; Murray, John D; Anticevic, Alan
Recent theoretical accounts have proposed excitation and inhibition (E/I) imbalance as a possible mechanistic, network-level hypothesis underlying neural and behavioral dysfunction across neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These two disorders share some overlap in their clinical presentation as well as convergence in their underlying genes and neurobiology. However, there are also clear points of dissociation in terms of phenotypes and putatively affected neural circuitry. We highlight emerging work from the clinical neuroscience literature examining neural correlates of E/I imbalance across children and adults with ASD and adults with both chronic and early-course SCZ. We discuss findings from diverse neuroimaging studies across distinct modalities, conducted with electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional magnetic resonance imaging, including effects observed both during task and at rest. Throughout this review, we discuss points of convergence and divergence in the ASD and SCZ literature, with a focus on disruptions in neural E/I balance. We also consider these findings in relation to predictions generated by theoretical neuroscience, particularly computational models predicting E/I imbalance across disorders. Finally, we discuss how human noninvasive neuroimaging can benefit from pharmacological challenge studies to reveal mechanisms in ASD and SCZ. Collectively, we attempt to shed light on shared and divergent neuroimaging effects across disorders with the goal of informing future research examining the mechanisms underlying the E/I imbalance hypothesis across neurodevelopmental disorders. We posit that such translational efforts are vital to facilitate development of neurobiologically informed treatment strategies across neuropsychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Klammler, Gernot; Fank, Johann
The shallow Murtal aquifer south of Graz, Austria, provides easily withdrawable groundwater, which is supplied as drinking water without any chemical treatment. The aquifer is also used intensively by agriculture. Common agricultural management practices are the main source for diffuse nitrogen leaching and high groundwater nitrate concentrations. To safeguard the coexisting use of these two important resources, lysimeters are operated at the agricultural test site Wagna, Austria, and the influence of two beneficial management practices--low nitrogen input and organic farming--on nitrogen leaching towards groundwater is investigated. The technical lysimeter design as presented here consists of: (1) high-resolution weighing cells, (2) a suction controlled lower boundary condition for sucking off seepage water, thus emulating undisturbed field conditions, (3) comparative soil temperature, water content and matrix potential measurements inside and outside the lysimeter at different depths, (4) an installation of the lysimeters directly into test plots and (5) a removable upper lysimeter ring enabling machinery soil tillage. Our results indicate that oasis effects or fringe effects of the lysimeter cylinder on unsaturated water flow did not occur. Another lysimeter cultivated with lawn is operated for observing grass-reference evapotranspiration, which resulted in good agreement with calculated grass-reference evapotranspiration according to the FAO-Penman-Monteith method. We conclude that lysimeters installed at Wagna test site did not show any fringe effects and, thus, are appropriate tools for measuring water balance elements and nitrogen leaching of arable and grass land at point scale. Furthermore, our results for the period of 2005 to 2011 show that beneficial management practices reduced nitrate leaching and, hence, may allow for a sustainable coexistence of drinking water supply and agriculture in the Murtal aquifer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Thomson, Pippa A; Duff, Barbara; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Romaniuk, Liana; Watson, Andrew; Whalley, Heather C; Li, Xiang; Dauvermann, Maria R; Moorhead, T William J; Bois, Catherine; Ryan, Niamh M; Redpath, Holly; Hall, Lynsey; Morris, Stewart W; van Beek, Edwin J R
Rare genetic variants of large effect can help elucidate the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Here we expand the clinical and genetic analyses of a family with a (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation multiply affected by major psychiatric illness and test the effect of the translocation on the structure and function of prefrontal, and temporal brain regions. The translocation showed significant linkage (LOD score 6.1) with a clinical phenotype that included schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorde...
The opponents of nuclear power claim that as uranium resources get exhausted the energy needed to mine low grade uranium ore will be larger than the energy that can be obtained from fission in a nuclear power plant. This would result in loss of sustainability of nuclear power, with the negative energy balance expected within the next 40-60 years. Since the opponents state clearly that the ore containing less than 0.013% U 3 O 8 cannot yield positive energy balance, the study of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Poland referenced three mines of decreasing ore grade: Ranger 0.234% U 3 O 8 , Rossing 0.028% U 3 O 8 and Trekkopje 0.00126% U 3 O 8 , that is with ore grade below the postulated cut off value. The study considered total energy needs for uranium mining, including not only electricity needed for mining and milling, for water treatment and delivery, but also fuel for transportation and ore crushing, explosives for rock blasting, chemicals for uranium leaching and the energy needed for mine reclamation after completed exploitation. It has been shown that the energy estimates of nuclear opponents are wrong for Ranger mine and go off much further for the mines with lower uranium ore grades. The reasons for erroneous reasoning of nuclear opponents have been found. Their errors arise from treating the uranium ore deposits as if their layout and properties were the same as those of uranium ore mined in the US in the 70-ies. This results in an oversimplified formula, which yields large errors when the thickness of the overlayer is less than it was in the US. In addition the energy needs claimed for mine reclamation are much too high. The study showed that the energy needed for very low grade uranium ore mining and milling increases but the overall energy balance of the nuclear fuel cycle remains strongly positive. (author)
Pearlman, Joshua B.; Bhargav, Atul; Shields, Eric B.; Jackson, Gregory S.; Hearn, Patrick L.
Integrating PEM fuel cells effectively with liquid hydrocarbon reforming requires careful system analysis to assess trade-offs associated with H 2 production, purification, and overall water balance. To this end, a model of a PEM fuel cell system integrated with an autothermal reformer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (modeled as C 12H 23) and with H 2 purification in a water-gas-shift/membrane reactor is developed to do iterative calculations for mass, species, and energy balances at a component and system level. The model evaluates system efficiency with parasitic loads (from compressors, pumps, and cooling fans), system water balance, and component operating temperatures/pressures. Model results for a 5-kW fuel cell generator show that with state-of-the-art PEM fuel cell polarization curves, thermal efficiencies >30% can be achieved when power densities are low enough for operating voltages >0.72 V per cell. Efficiency can be increased by operating the reformer at steam-to-carbon ratios as high as constraints related to stable reactor temperatures allow. Decreasing ambient temperature improves system water balance and increases efficiency through parasitic load reduction. The baseline configuration studied herein sustained water balance for ambient temperatures ≤35 °C at full power and ≤44 °C at half power with efficiencies approaching ∼27 and ∼30%, respectively.
Huber-lee, A. T.; Wickel, B.; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Purkey, D. R.; Hoff, H.; Heaps, C.
There is increasing evidence that single-sector infrastructure planning is leading to severely stressed human and ecological systems. There are a number of cross-sectoral impacts in these highly inter-linked systems. Examples include: - Promotion of biofuels that leads to conversion from food crops, reducing both food and water security. - Promotion of dams solely built for hydropower rather than multi-purpose uses, that deplete fisheries and affect saltwater intrusion dynamics in downstream deltas - Historical use of water for cooling thermal power plants, with increasing pressure from other water uses, as well as problems of increased water temperatures that affect the ability to cool plants efficiently. This list can easily be expanded, as these inter-linkages are increasing over time. As developing countries see a need to invest in new infrastructure to improve the livelihoods of the poor, developed countries face conditions of deteriorating infrastructure with an opportunity for new investment. It is crucial, especially in the face of uncertainty of climate change and socio-political realities, that infrastructure planning factors in the influence of multiple sectors and the potential impacts from the perspectives of different stakeholders. There is a need for stronger linkages between science and policy as well. The Stockholm Environment Institute is developing and implementing practical and innovative nexus planning approaches in Latin America, Africa and Asia that brings together stakeholders and ways of integrating uncertainty in a cross-sectoral quantitative framework using the tools WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) and LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning). The steps used include: 1. Identify key actors and stakeholders via social network analysis 2. Work with these actors to scope out priority issues and decision criteria in both the short and long term 3. Develop quantitative models to clarify options and balances between the needs and
Full Text Available Background: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD, also known as developmental dyspraxia, is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood, that can affect planning of movements and coordination. Balance dysfunction is one of the most common sensorimotor impairments observed among children with DCD, which may have influence on daily living activities, such as walking. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare spatio-temporal parameters of gait between typically development (TD children and children at risk of DCD, who had also problems with balance and assess the impact of these problems on selected parameters and phases in a gait cycle. Methods: Children (n = 28, Mage = 8.6 ± 1.0 years were part of this study. The results of MABC-2 were used to classify motor competence level in children and also for a determinantion of the balance level. Optojump-Next was used to collect spatio-temporal parameters related to the gait patterns. The IBM SPSS-21 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that children at risk of DCD were different from TD children in the step length (p < .001, in the stride length (p < .001, in the stance phase (p = .007, resp. p = .017, in the double support phase (p = .011, resp. p = .032, in the single support phase (p < .001, in the contact phase (p = .021, in the loading phase (p = .047, in the pre-swing phase (p = .002, in the swing phase (p = .015, resp. p = .004 and in the step speed (p < .001. Conclusion: The majority of previous works, which are focused on walking in children at risk of DCD, are based only on results of the evaluation of the complex motor level of children and they ignore the results of the balance level. This can largely distort conclusions, because not all the children with DCD have balance problems. It is necessary to work with the result of single tests, which are closely connected with the task and not only with the total test
Alptekin, Kerem; Karan, Ayse; Dıracoglu, Demirhan; Yildiz, Aysel; Baskent, Akin; Eskiyurt, Nurten
Deterioration associated with aging in the erect posture and balance to change the location of the center increased the rate of fall in older age is one of the reasons. Loss of muscle strength is one of the major factors affecting the posture. In this prospective, randomized and controlled study, it was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of strengthening postural muscles through electrostimulation or by applying biofeedback exercises with static posturography in patients aged 60 years and over with balance disorder. Patients aged between 60-80 years, who applied to Istanbul Faculty of Medicine Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department outpatient clinic and had been diagnosed with balance disorder using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, were included. 250 patients were screened, from them 67 patients were enrolled and 57 of them completed the study. Patients were randomized to three groups. The patients in Tetrax® group (TG) group (n:18) participated in a 15-minute exercise with Tetrax® which consisted of 15 minutes exercise session 3 times weekly for 4 weeks. The patients in EG group (n:19) received an electrostimulation program of postural muscles of 40 minutes per session 3 times weekly for 4 weeks. Patients in the control group (n:20) did 6-week balance exercises which were performed by other groups as well. 48 out of 57 patients attended the 6th-month control. As determinants of balance status Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Fall Index measured by Tetrax® were calculated at baseline, 1-month and 6-month follw up assesments. The patient's quality of life was assesed by Turkish version of World Health Organisation Quality of Life Questionnaire in Older Adults (WHOQOL-OLD.TR) at baseline and 6-month follow up assesments. TUG values in both EG and TG decreased significantly between baseline assesment and 1-month (mean differences for TG: -4,00 ± 1,309 and EG -2,588 ± 1,839 p= 0,002 for the each of groups) and baseline assesment
Géssica Maria Cambrainha
Full Text Available Abstract Paper aims this paper proposes a model to aid a group of decision makers to establish a portfolio of feasible actions (alternatives that are able to balance water supply-demand strategies. Originality Long periods of water shortages cause problems in semi-arid region of northeast Brazil, which affects different sectors such as food, public health, among others. This problem situation is intensified by population growth. Therefore, this type of decision making is complex, and it needs to be solving by a structured model. Research method The model is based on a problem structuring method (PSM and a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method. Main findings Due to society and government influences, the proposed model showed appropriate to conduct a robust and well-structured decision making. Implications for theory and practice The main contributions were the study in regions suffering from drought and water scarcity, as well as the combination of PSM and MCDM methods to aid in this problem.
Stwertka, C.; Strong, C.
A main focus of the recently awarded National Science Foundation (NSF) EPSCoR Track-1 research project "innovative Urban Transitions and Arid-region Hydro-sustainability (iUTAH)" is to quantify the primary components of the water balance for the Wasatch region, and to evaluate their sensitivity to climate change and projected urban development. Building on the multiple-box model that we developed and validated for carbon dioxide (Strong et al 2011), mass balance equations for water in the atmosphere and surface are incorporated into the modeling framework. The model is used to determine how surface fluxes, ground-water transport, biological fluxes, and meteorological processes regulate water cycling within and around the urban Salt Lake Valley. The model is used to evaluate the hypotheses that increased water demand associated with urban growth in Salt Lake Valley will (1) elevate sensitivity to projected climate variability and (2) motivate more attentive management of urban water use and evaporative fluxes.
Yoder, J A; Benoit, J B; Rellinger, E J; Tank, J L
Recent reports indicate that the common brown dog tick, or kennel tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) is a competent vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the U.S.A. This tick is of concern to public health because of its high frequency of contact, as it has a unique ability to thrive within human homes. To assess the moisture requirements necessary for survival, water balance characteristics were determined for each developmental stage, from egg to adult. This is the first time that water relations in ticks have been assessed throughout the complete lifecycle. Notably, R. sanguineus is differentially adapted for life in a dry environment, as characterized by a suppressed water loss rate distinctive for each stage that distinguishes it from other ticks. Analysis of its dehydration tolerance limit and percentage body water content provides no evidence to suggest that the various stages of this tick can function more effectively containing less water, indicating that this species is modified for water conservation, not desiccation hardiness. All stages, eggs excepted, absorb water vapour from the air and can drink free water to replenish water stores. Developmentally, a shift in water balance strategies occurs in the transition from the larva, where the emphasis is on water gain (water vapour absorption from drier air), to the adult, where the emphasis is on water retention (low water loss rate). These results on the xerophilic-nature of R. sanguineus identify overhydration as the primary water stress, indicating that this tick is less dependent upon a moisture-rich habitat for survival, which matches its preference for a dry environment. We suggest that the controlled, host-confined conditions of homes and kennels have played a key role in promoting the ubiquitous distribution of R. sanguineus by creating isolated arid environments that enable this tick to establish within regions that are unfavourable for maintaining water balance.
Macedo, Christiane de Souza Guerino; Vicente, Rafael Chagas; Cesário, Mauricio Donini; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cold-water immersion on the electromyographic (EMG) response of the lower limb and balance during unipodal jump landing. The evaluation comprised 40 individuals (20 basketball players and 20 non-athletes). The EMG response in the lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, fibular longus, rectus femoris, hamstring and gluteus medius; amplitude and mean speed of the centre of pressure, flight time and ground reaction force (GRF) were analysed. All volunteers remained for 20 min with their ankle immersed in cold-water, and were re-evaluated immediately post and after 10, 20 and 30 min of reheating. The Shapiro-Wilk test, Friedman test and Dunn's post test (P lower for the athletes. Lower jump flight time and GRF, greater amplitude and mean speed of centre of pressure were predominant in the athletes. Cold-water immersion decreased the EMG activity of the lower limb, flight time and GRF and increased the amplitude and mean speed of centre of pressure.
Reshmidevi, T. V.; Nagesh Kumar, D.; Mehrotra, R.; Sharma, A.
This work evaluates the impact of climate change on the water balance of a catchment in India. Rainfall and hydro-meteorological variables for current (20C3M scenario, 1981-2000) and two future time periods: mid of the 21st century (2046-2065) and end of the century (2081-2100) are simulated using Modified Markov Model-Kernel Density Estimation (MMM-KDE) and k-nearest neighbor downscaling models. Climate projections from an ensemble of 5 GCMs (MPI-ECHAM5, BCCR-BCM2.0, CSIRO-mk3.5, IPSL-CM4, and MRI-CGCM2) are used in this study. Hydrologic simulations for the current as well as future climate scenarios are carried out using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) integrated with ArcGIS (ArcSWAT v.2009). The results show marginal reduction in runoff ratio, annual streamflow and groundwater recharge towards the end of the century. Increased temperature and evapotranspiration project an increase in the irrigation demand towards the end of the century. Rainfall projections for the future shows marginal increase in the annual average rainfall. Short and moderate wet spells are projected to decrease, whereas short and moderate dry spells are projected to increase in the future. Projected reduction in streamflow and groundwater recharge along with the increase in irrigation demand is likely to aggravate the water stress in the region under the future scenario.
Full Text Available Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development.
Oroud, Ibrahim M.
The Dead Sea (DS) is a terminal hypersaline water body situated in the deepest part of the Jordan Valley. There is a growing interest in linking the DS to the open seas due to severe water shortages in the area and the serious geological and environmental hazards to its vicinity caused by the rapid level drop of the DS. A key issue in linking the DS with the open seas would be an accurate determination of evaporation rates. There exist large uncertainties of evaporation estimates from the DS due to the complex feedback mechanisms between meteorological forcings and thermophysical properties of hypersaline solutions. Numerous methods have been used to estimate current and historical (pre-1960) evaporation rates, with estimates differing by ˜100%. Evaporation from the DS is usually deduced indirectly using energy, water balance, or pan methods with uncertainty in many parameters. Accumulated errors resulting from these uncertainties are usually pooled into the estimates of evaporation rates. In this paper, a physically based method with minimum empirical parameters is used to evaluate historical and current evaporation estimates from the DS. The more likely figures for historical and current evaporation rates from the DS were 1,500-1,600 and 1,200-1,250 mm per annum, respectively. Results obtained are congruent with field observations and with more elaborate procedures.
Lebrenz, H.; Bárdossy, A.
Subject of this study is the evaluation of globally available precipitation data products, which are intended to be used as input variables for water balance models in ungauged basins. The selected data sources are a) the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), b) the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and c) the Climate Research Unit (CRU), resulting into twelve globally available data products. The data products imply different data bases, different derivation routines and varying resolutions in time and space. For validation purposes, the ground data from South Africa were screened on homogeneity and consistency by various tests and an outlier detection using multi-linear regression was performed. External Drift Kriging was subsequently applied on the ground data and the resulting precipitation arrays were compared to the different products with respect to quantity and variance.
Khire, M.V.; Benson, C.H.; Bosscher, P.J.
Water balance data are presented that were obtained from two earthen cap test sections located in a semi-arid region. The test sections were constructed on a municipal solid waste landfill in East Wenatchee, Washington, USA. One test section represents a traditional resistive barrier, and is constructed with a compacted silty clay barrier 60 cm thick and a vegetated silty clay surface layer 15 cm thick. The other test section represents a capillary barrier and has a sand layer 75 cm thick overlain by a 15-cm-thick vegetated surface layer of silt. Extensive hydrological and meteorological data have been collected since November 1992. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils, hydrologic parameters, and vegetation have been extensively characterized. Results of the study show that capillary barriers can be effective caps in semi-arid and arid regions. They are also cheaper to construct and can perform better than traditional resistive barriers
Dorji, Ugyen; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig
Bhutan is located in the Himalayas with extreme variation in elevation, climatic conditions and land use. The high dependency of the economy on agriculture and natural resources emphasizes the importance of understanding inter- and intra-seasonal variation in water balance linked to monsoonal...... precipitation and evapotranspiration. We used data from 71 meteorological stations across Bhutan, each encompassing data series ranging from a few years till two decades. The temperature-based Hargreaves (H) equation for reference evapotranspiration (ETo) calculation was calibrated in reference to the FAO...... Penman-Monteith (PM) equation giving good estimates of average monthly ETo. Various published versions of the H equations consistently computed average ETo around 32% higher than the average ETo computed by PM. The difference could be largely attributed to higher mean relative humidity and a lower...
Aeration accounts for a large fraction of energy consumption in conventional water reclamation plants (WRPs). Although process operations at older WRPs can satisfy effluent permit requirements, they typically operate with excess aeration. More effective process controls at older WRPs can be challenging as operators work to balance higher energy costs and more stringent effluent limitations while managing fluctuating loads. Therefore, understandings of process resilience or ability to quickly return to original operation conditions at a WRP are important. A state-of-art WRP should maintain process resilience to deal with different kinds of perturbations even after optimization of energy demands. This work was to evaluate the applicability and feasibility of cyber-physical system (CPS) for improving operation at Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) Calumet WRP. In this work, a process model was developed and used to better understand the conditions of current Calumet WRP, with additional valuable information from two dissolved oxygen field measurements. Meanwhile, a classification system was developed to reveal the pattern of historical influent scenario based on cluster analysis and cross-tabulation analysis. Based on the results from the classification, typical process control options were investigated. To ensure the feasibility of information acquisition, the reliability and flexibility of soft sensors were assessed to typical influent conditions. Finally, the process resilience was investigated to better balance influent perturbations, energy demands, and effluent quality for long-term operations. These investigations and evaluations show that although the energy demands change as the influent conditions and process controls. In general, aeration savings could be up to 50% from the level of current consumption; with a more complex process controls, the saving could be up to 70% in relatively steady-state conditions and at least 40
pipelines. Thus, there is proposed a model of bacteriological pure underground artesian water supply from Georgia to Europe in the conditions of maintaining ecological balance. This model takes into account the analysis of water pipeline alternatives, “Georgia-Europe” pipeline construction, as Europe's population is in need of high-quality drinking water, and Georgia is interested in its export.
Cultrera, Pina; Pratelli, Elisa; Petrai, Veronica; Postiglione, Marco; Zambelan, Giulia; Pasquetti, Pietro
Osteoporosis is a systemic disease with reduced bone mass and qualitative alterations of the bone, associated to increased risk of fracture. Pathogenesis of osteoporosis fractures is multifactorial. Main risk factor is falls (except for vertebral fragility fractures which occurs often in absence of trauma). Aging by itself produces physiological changes: muscular hypotrophy with asthenia, deficit of visus and hearing together with associated pathologies and multi-drug therapies. In osteoporosis patients with vertebral fractures posture change occurs which reduces balance. After clinical postural evaluation it is possible to carry out instrumental evaluation of posture with computerized methods such as stabilometry, baropodometry, dynanometry and gait analysis. Examination carried out with use of stabilometric computerized platform allows stabilometric (body sway assessment) as well as posturometric examination (center of pressure assessment during quiet standing). Fundamental parameters obtained are: position of the body center of gravity, area and shape of sway density curve and velocity variables. Protocol of evaluation includes assessment of examination in standard condition and in condition of temporary sensorial deprivation (to investigate the influence of various afferent systems on the maintenance of posture and balance). Accurate evaluation of postural control in osteoporosis patients constitutes a fundamental tool in fracture risk evaluation due to fall and in identification and correction of modifiable factors responsible for balance defect. This approach, together with adequate drug therapy, may lead to significant reduction of fractures in osteoporosis patients with subsequent reduction of hospitalization and residual consequent disabilities.
Cultrera, Pina; Pratelli, Elisa; Petrai, Veronica; Postiglione, Marco; Zambelan, Giulia; Pasquetti, Pietro
Osteoporosis is a systemic disease with reduced bone mass and qualitative alterations of the bone, associated to increased risk of fracture. Pathogenesis of osteoporosis fractures is multifactorial. Main risk factor is falls (except for vertebral fragility fractures which occurs often in absence of trauma). Aging by itself produces physiological changes: muscular hypotrophy with asthenia, deficit of visus and hearing together with associated pathologies and multi-drug therapies. In osteoporosis patients with vertebral fractures posture change occurs which reduces balance. After clinical postural evaluation it is possible to carry out instrumental evaluation of posture with computerized methods such as stabilometry, baropodometry, dynanometry and gait analysis. Examination carried out with use of stabilometric computerized platform allows stabilometric (body sway assessment) as well as posturometric examination (center of pressure assessment during quiet standing). Fundamental parameters obtained are: position of the body center of gravity, area and shape of sway density curve and velocity variables. Protocol of evaluation includes assessment of examination in standard condition and in condition of temporary sensorial deprivation (to investigate the influence of various afferent systems on the maintenance of posture and balance). Accurate evaluation of postural control in osteoporosis patients constitutes a fundamental tool in fracture risk evaluation due to fall and in identification and correction of modifiable factors responsible for balance defect. This approach, together with adequate drug therapy, may lead to significant reduction of fractures in osteoporosis patients with subsequent reduction of hospitalization and residual consequent disabilities. PMID:22460016
Berning, Torsten; Al Shakhshir, Saher
In order to accurately determine the water balance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell it has recently been suggested to employ constant temperature anemometry (CTA), a frequently used method to measure the velocity of a fluid stream. CTA relies on convective heat transfer around a heated wire...... the equations required to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the resulting voltage signal as function of the fuel cell water balance. The most critical and least understood part is the determination of the Nusselt number to calculate the heat transfer between the wire and the gas stream. Different...... expressions taken from the literature will be examined in detail, and it will be demonstrated that the power-law approach suggested by Hilpert is the only useful one for the current purposes because in this case the voltage response from the hot-wire sensor E/E0 shows the same dependency to the water balance...
Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Qin, M.; Huang, X.; Fang, D.
Paddy rice wetlands are the main land use type across southern China, which impact the regional environments by affecting evapotranspiration (ET) and other water and energy related processes. Our study focuses on the effects of land-cover change on water and energy processes in the Qinhuai River Basin, a typical subtropical humid region that is under rapid ecological and economical transformations. This study integrates multiple methods and techniques including remote sensing, water and energy balance model (i.e., Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land, SEBAL), ecohydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT), and ground observation (Eddy Covariance measurement, etc.). We found that conversion of paddy rice field to urban use led to rise in vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and reduction in ET, and thus resulted in changes in local and regional water and heat balance. The effects of the land-use change on ET and VPD overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. We conclude that the ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions in humid southern China and East Asia will likely exacerbate environmental consequences (e.g., elevated storm-flow volume, aggravated flood risks, and intensified urban heat island and urban dry island effects). The potential role of vegetated land cover in moderating water and energy balances and maintaining a stable climate should be considered in massive urban planning and global change impact assessment in southern China.
Fu, Jin; Gasche, Rainer; Wang, Na; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf
The impacts of climate and management on the water balance and nutrient leaching of montane grasslands have rarely been investigated, though such ecosystems may represent a major source for ground and surface water nitrates. In this study nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic nitrogen) and dissolved organic carbon leaching as well as water balance components (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge) were quantified (2012-2014) by means of replicated (N=3 per site/ treatment) measurements of weighable grassland lysimeters (1 m2 area, 1.2 m soil depth) at three sites (E860: 860 m a.s.l., E770: 770 m a.s.l. and E600: 600 m a.s.l.) in the pre-alpine region of S-Germany. Two grassland management strategies were investigated: a) intensive management with 5 cuts per year and cattle slurry application rates of 280 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and b) extensive management with 3 cuts per year and cattle slurry application rates of 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results show that at E600, the site with highest air temperature (8.6 °C) and lowest precipitation (981.9 mm), evapotranspiration losses were 100.7 mm higher as at the E860 site, i.e. the site with lowest mean annual air temperature (6.5 °C) and highest precipitation (1359.3 mm). On the other hand groundwater recharge was substantial lower at E600 (-440.9 mm) as compared to E860. Compared to climate, impacts of grassland management on water balance components were negligible. However, intensive management significantly increased mean total nitrogen leaching rates across sites as compared to extensive management from 2.6 kg N ha-1 year-1 (range: 0.5-6.0 kg N ha-1 year-1) to 4.8 kg N ha-1 year-1 (range: 0.9-12.9 kg N ha-1 year-1). N leaching losses were dominated by nitrate (64.7 %) and equally less by ammonium (14.6 %) and DON (20.7 %). The rather low rates of N leaching (0.8 - 6.9 % of total applied N) suggest a highly efficient nitrogen uptake by plants as measured by plant total N content at harvest
Leimer, Sophia; Bischoff, Sebastian; Blaser, Stefan; Boch, Steffen; Busch, Verena; Escher, Peter; Fischer, Markus; Kaupenjohann, Martin; Kerber, Katja; Klaus, Valentin; Michalzik, Beate; Prati, Daniel; Schäfer, Deborah; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schwarz, Martin T.; Siemens, Jan; Thieme, Lisa; Wilcke, Wolfgang
The water cycle drives nutrient cycles and plant productivity. The impact of land use on the water cycle has been extensively studied and there is experimental evidence that biodiversity modifies the water cycle in grasslands. However, the combined influences of land-use and associated biodiversity on the water cycle in established land-use systems are unclear. Therefore, we investigated how evapotranspiration (ETa), downward water flux (DF), and capillary rise (CR) in topsoil and subsoil are related to land-use and plant diversity in established, commercially managed grassland and compared these results to findings from experiments where plant diversity was manipulated. In three Central European regions ("Biodiversity Exploratories"), we studied 29 grassland plots (50 m x 50 m; 9-11 plots per region) from 2010 to 2015. The land-use types cover pasture, mown pasture, and meadow in at least triplicate per region. On each plot, we measured soil water contents, meteorological data (hourly resolution), cumulative precipitation (biweekly), plant species richness, the number of plants in the functional groups of grasses, herbs, and legumes (annually), and root biomass (once). Potential evapotranspiration (ETp) was calculated from meteorological data per plot. Missing data points of ETp and soil water contents were estimated with Bayesian hierarchical models. ETa, DF, and CR were calculated for two soil layers with a soil water balance model. The model is based on changes in soil water storage between subsequent observation dates and ETp, which was partitioned between soil layers according to root distribution. Water fluxes in annual resolution were statistically analyzed for land-use and biodiversity effects using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Land-use type did not affect water fluxes. Species richness did not influence DF and CR. DF from topsoil was higher on plots with more grass species, which is opposite to the results from a manipulative
Drenkhan, Fabian; Huggel, Christian; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Seidel, Jochen; Muñoz Asmat, Randy
In the Santa River catchment [SRC] (Cordillera Blanca, Andes of Peru), human livelihoods strongly depend on year-round streamflow from glaciers and reservoirs, particularly in the dry season and in adjacent arid lowlands. Perennial glacial streamflow represents a buffer to water shortages, annual discharge variability and river contamination levels. However, climate change impacts, consecutive glacier shrinkage as well as new irrigated agriculture and hydropower schemes, population growth and thus water allocation might increase water scarcity in several areas of the SRC. This situation exerts further pressure and conflict potential over water resources and stresses the need to analyze both water supply and demand trends in a multidisciplinary and interlinked manner. In this context, an integrative glacio-hydrological framework was developed based on the Glacier and Snow Melt (GSM) and SOil CONTribution (SOCONT) models using the semi-distributed free software RS MINERVE. This water balance model incorporates hydroclimatic, socioeconomic and hydraulic objects and data at daily scale (with several gaps) for the last 50 years (1965-2015). A particular challenge in this context represents the poor data availability both in quantity and quality. Therefore, the hydroclimatic dataset to be used had to be carefully selected and data gaps were filled applying a statistical copula-based approach. The socioeconomic dataset of water demand was elaborated using several assumptions based on further census information and experiences from other projects in the region. Reservoirs and hydropower models were linked with additional hydraulic data. In order to increase model performance within a complex topography of the 11660 km2 SRC, the area was divided into 22 glaciated (GSM) and 42 non-glaciated (SOCONT) subcatchment models. Additionally, 382 elevation bands at 300 m interval were created and grouped into 22 different calibration zones for the whole SRC. The model was calibrated
Yu. A. Savel'ev
Full Text Available Nearly a half of all grain production in the Russian Federation is grown in dry regions. But crop production efficiency there depends on amount of moisture, available to plants. However deficit of soil moisture is caused not only by a lack of an atmospheric precipitation, but also inefficient water saving: losses reach 70 percent. With respect thereto it is important to reveal the factors influencing intensity of soil moisture evaporation and to develop methods of decrease in unproductive moisture losses due to evaporation. The authors researched soil water balance theoretically and determined the functional dependences of moisture loss on evaporation. Intensity of moisture evaporation depends on physicomechanical characteristics of the soil, a consistence of its surface and weather conditions. To decrease losses of moisture for evaporation it is necessary, first, to improve quality of crumbling of the soil and therefore to reduce the evaporating surface of the soil. Secondly - to create the protective mulching layer which will allow to enhance albedo of the soil and to reduce its temperature that together will reduce unproductive evaporative water losses and will increase its inflow in case of condensation from air vapors. The most widespread types of soil cultivation are considered: disk plowing and stubble mulch plowing. Agricultural background «no tillage» was chosen as a control. Subsoil mulching tillage has an essential advantage in a storage of soil moisture. So, storage of soil moisture after a disking and in control (without tillage decreased respectively by 24.9 and 19.8 mm while at the mulching tillage this indicator revised down by only 15.6 mm. The mulching layer has lower heat conductivity that provides decrease in unproductive evaporative water losses.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of various vegetation types on water balance variability in semi-arid Mediterranean landscapes, and the different strategies they may have developed to succeed in such water-limited environments. The existence of preferential associations between soil water holding capacity and vegetation species is assessed through an extensive soil geo-database focused on a study region in Southern Italy. Water balance constraints that dominate the organization of landscapes are investigated by a conceptual bucket approach. The temporal water balance dynamics are modelled, with vegetation water use efficiency being parameterized through the use of empirically obtained crop coefficients as surrogates of vegetation behavior in various developmental stages. Sensitivity analyses with respect to the root zone depth and soil water holding capacity are carried out with the aim of explaining the existence of preferential soil-vegetation associations and, hence, the spatial distribution of vegetation types within the study region. Based on these sensitivity analyses the degrees of suitability and adaptability of each vegetation type to parts of the study region are explored with respect of the soil water holding capacity, and the model results were found consistent with the observed affinity patterns.
Gal, Laetitia; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Hiernaux, Pierre; Mougin, Eric; Peugeot, Christophe
The Sahel has been characterized by a severe rainfall deficit since the mid-twentieth century, with extreme droughts in the early seventies and again in the early eighties. These droughts have strongly impacted ecosystems, water availability, fodder resources, and populations living in these areas. However, an increase of surface runoff has been observed during the same period, such as higher "summer discharge" of Sahelian's rivers generating local floods, and a general increase in pond's surface in pastoral areas of central and northern Sahel. This behavior, less rain but more surface runoff is generally referred to as the "Sahelian paradox". Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain this paradoxical situation. The leading role of increase in cropped areas, often cited for cultivated Sahel, does not hold for pastoral areas in central and northern Sahel. Processes such as degradation of vegetation subsequent to the most severe drought events, soils erosion and runoff concentration on shallow soils, which generate most of the water ending up in ponds, seem to play an important role. This still needs to be fully understood and quantified. Our study focuses on a model-based approach to better understand the hydrological changes that affected the Agoufou watershed (Gourma, Mali), typical of the central, non-cultivated Sahel. Like most of the Sahelian basins, the Agoufou watershed is ungauged. Therefore we used indirect data to provide the information required to validate a rainfall-runoff model approach. The pond volume was calculated by combining in-situ water level measurements with pond's surface estimations derived by remote sensing. Using the pond's water balance equation, the variations of pond volume combined to estimates of open water bodies' evaporation and infiltration determined an estimation for the runoff supplying the pond. This estimation highlights a spectacular runoff increase over the last sixty years on the Agoufou watershed. The runoff
Andrade, J. L.; Garruña-Hernandez, R.; Leon-Palomo, M.; Us-Santamaria, R.; Sima, J. L.
Tropical forests cool down locally because increase water evaporation from the soil to the atmosphere, reduce albedo and help forming clouds that reflect solar radiation back to the atmosphere; this, aligned to the carbon catchment, increase forests value. We will present an estimation of the sap flow and energy balance for the tropical dry semideciduous forest at Kiuic, Yucatan, Mexico during a year. We use a meteorological tower equipped with a rain gauge, temperature and relative humidity, heat flow plates, thermocouples and volumetric soil water content. We recorded net radiation and soil heat flux and estimated sensible heat and latent heat. Besides, we estimated latent heat by measuring sap flow directly in tres using disispation constant heat probes during the rainy season. Results show the influence of the seasonality on net radiation, air temperatura and vapor pressure deficit, because during the dry season his variables were higher and with more duation than during the rainy and early dry season. Sap flow was different for trees belonging to the family Fabaceae compared to trees from other families.
Full Text Available With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeled daily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoff process in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas. Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.
A. R. Adesiji
Full Text Available The estimation of runoff and soil moisture deficit in Guinea Savannah region using semi arid model based on soil water balance technique (SAMBA was carried out. The input to the SAMBA model are daily rainfall, daily evapotranspiration, type and date of planting of crop, and soil parameters. The estimated runoff was validated with field measurement taken in a 67.23 ha catchment in the study area. The annual rainfall for the year under study (2009 is 1356.2 mm, the estimated annual evapotranspiration. runoff and recharge are 638mm, 132.93mm, and 447.8mm respectively. Recharge was experienced 23 days after a significant depth of rainfall was recorded. For the crop growth in the catchment, the soil was cropped with a pepper and the growth monitored from the planting to the harvesting. The crop enjoyed so much moisture throughout the growing period as Total Available Water in the soil is greater than Soil Moisture Deficit (TAW>SMD. The model results show that the larger percentage of the total annual rainfall was lost to evaporation and recharge during the growing season. The low runoff and high recharge are attributed to soil characteristics of the area and moderate terrain of the study area.
Olive orchards are the main component of numerous agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. In this work we present the development of a simulation model of olive orchards, which is used here to illustrate some specific features of the water and carbon balances of olives. The fraction of daily Photosynthetically-Active Radiation (PAR) intercepted by the trees (Qd) changes substantially with solar declination. For a given LAI Qd increases as tree size is smaller. Canopy volume has a much larger effect on Qd than Leaf Area Density (LAD), implying that a submodel for canopy volume will be required. Estimates of Radiation-Use Efficiency for yield are 0.35 g dry matter/(MJ PAR) and 0.16 g oil/(MJ PAR) which are around 80% of those for sunflower under the same environment. Crop evaporation in olive orchards is characterized by a high proportion of evaporation from the soil surface (Es) and by the response of stomata to air humidity. Results from a evapotranspiration corresponds to Es, and that Water-Use Efficiency relative to transpiration is 0.9 kg fruit dry matter m-3, which is equal to that of sunflower. Important gaps in our knowledge of olive ecophysiology (dry matter partitioning and growth) require further research
Abatzoglou, John T.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.; Hegewisch, Katherine C.
We present TerraClimate, a dataset of high-spatial resolution (1/24°, ~4-km) monthly climate and climatic water balance for global terrestrial surfaces from 1958-2015. TerraClimate uses climatically aided interpolation, combining high-spatial resolution climatological normals from the WorldClim dataset, with coarser resolution time varying (i.e., monthly) data from other sources to produce a monthly dataset of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, wind speed, vapor pressure, and solar radiation. TerraClimate additionally produces monthly surface water balance datasets using a water balance model that incorporates reference evapotranspiration, precipitation, temperature, and interpolated plant extractable soil water capacity. These data provide important inputs for ecological and hydrological studies at global scales that require high spatial resolution and time varying climate and climatic water balance data. We validated spatiotemporal aspects of TerraClimate using annual temperature, precipitation, and calculated reference evapotranspiration from station data, as well as annual runoff from streamflow gauges. TerraClimate datasets showed noted improvement in overall mean absolute error and increased spatial realism relative to coarser resolution gridded datasets.
Bernal, D; Sepulveda, C; Graham, J B
The mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) has specialized vascular networks (retia mirabilia) forming counter-current heat exchangers that allow metabolic heat retention in certain regions of the body, including the aerobic, locomotor red muscle and the viscera. Red muscle, white muscle and stomach temperatures were measured in juvenile (5-13.6 kg) makos swimming steadily in a water tunnel and exposed to stepwise square-wave changes in ambient temperature (T(a)) to estimate the rates of heat transfer and to determine their capacity for the activity-independent control of heat balance. The rates of heat gain of red muscle during warming were significantly higher than the rates of heat loss during cooling, and neither the magnitude of the change in T(a) nor the direction of change in T(a) had a significant effect on red muscle latency time. Our findings for mako red muscle are similar to those recorded for tunas and suggest modulation of retial heat-exchange efficiency as the underlying mechanism controlling heat balance. However, the red muscle temperatures measured in swimming makos (0.3-3 degrees C above T(a)) are cooler than those measured previously in larger decked makos. Also, the finding of non-stable stomach temperatures contrasts with the predicted independence from T(a) recorded in telemetry studies of mako and white sharks. Our studies on live makos provide new evidence that, in addition to the unique convergent morphological properties between makos and tunas, there is a strong functional similarity in the mechanisms used to regulate heat transfer.
Güntner, Andreas; Reich, Marvin; Mikolaj, Michal; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Schroeder, Stephan; Wziontek, Hartmut
In spite of the fundamental role of the landscape water balance for the Earth's water and energy cycles, monitoring the water balance and its components beyond the point scale is notoriously difficult due to the multitude of flow and storage processes and their spatial heterogeneity. Here, we present the first field deployment of an iGrav superconducting gravimeter (SG) in a minimized enclosure for long-term integrative monitoring of water storage changes. Results of the field SG on a grassland site under wet-temperate climate conditions were compared to data provided by a nearby SG located in the controlled environment of an observatory building. The field system proves to provide gravity time series that are similarly precise as those of the observatory SG. At the same time, the field SG is more sensitive to hydrological variations than the observatory SG. We demonstrate that the gravity variations observed by the field setup are almost independent of the depth below the terrain surface where water storage changes occur (contrary to SGs in buildings), and thus the field SG system directly observes the total water storage change, i.e., the water balance, in its surroundings in an integrative way. We provide a framework to single out the water balance components actual evapotranspiration and lateral subsurface discharge from the gravity time series on annual to daily timescales. With about 99 and 85 % of the gravity signal due to local water storage changes originating within a radius of 4000 and 200 m around the instrument, respectively, this setup paves the road towards gravimetry as a continuous hydrological field-monitoring technique at the landscape scale.
Full Text Available In spite of the fundamental role of the landscape water balance for the Earth's water and energy cycles, monitoring the water balance and its components beyond the point scale is notoriously difficult due to the multitude of flow and storage processes and their spatial heterogeneity. Here, we present the first field deployment of an iGrav superconducting gravimeter (SG in a minimized enclosure for long-term integrative monitoring of water storage changes. Results of the field SG on a grassland site under wet–temperate climate conditions were compared to data provided by a nearby SG located in the controlled environment of an observatory building. The field system proves to provide gravity time series that are similarly precise as those of the observatory SG. At the same time, the field SG is more sensitive to hydrological variations than the observatory SG. We demonstrate that the gravity variations observed by the field setup are almost independent of the depth below the terrain surface where water storage changes occur (contrary to SGs in buildings, and thus the field SG system directly observes the total water storage change, i.e., the water balance, in its surroundings in an integrative way. We provide a framework to single out the water balance components actual evapotranspiration and lateral subsurface discharge from the gravity time series on annual to daily timescales. With about 99 and 85 % of the gravity signal due to local water storage changes originating within a radius of 4000 and 200 m around the instrument, respectively, this setup paves the road towards gravimetry as a continuous hydrological field-monitoring technique at the landscape scale.
González-Dugo, Maria P.; Andreu, Ana; Carpintero, Elisabet; Gómez-Giráldez, Pedro; José Polo, María
Drought is one of the major hazards faced by agroforestry systems in southern Europe, and an increase in frequency is predicted under the conditions of climate change for the region. Timely and accurate monitoring of vegetation water stress using remote sensing time series may assist early-warning services, helping to assess drought impacts and the design of management actions leading to reduce the economic and environmental vulnerability of these systems. A holm oak savanna, known as dehesa in Spain and montado in Portugal, is an agro-silvo-pastoral system occupying more than 3 million hectares the Iberian Peninsula and Greece. It consists of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs, and it is considered an example of sustainable land use, with great importance in the rural economy. Soil water dynamics is known to have a central role in current tree decline and the reduction of the forested area that is threatening its conservation. A two-source thermal-based evapotranspiration model (TSEB) has been applied to monitor the effect on vegetation water use of soil moisture stress in a dehesa located in southern Spain. The TSEB model separates the soil and canopy contributions to the radiative temperature and to the exchange of surface energy fluxes, so it is especially suited for partially vegetated landscapes. The integration of remotely sensed data in this model may support an evaluation of the whole ecosystem state at a large scale. During two consecutive summers, in 2012 and 2013, time series of optical and thermal MODIS images, with 250m and 1 km of spatial resolution respectively, have been combined with meteorological data provided by a ground station to monitor the evapotranspiration (ET) of the system. An eddy covariance tower (38°12' N; 4°17' W, 736 m a.s.l), equipped with instruments to measure all the components of the energy balance and 1 km of homogeneous fetch in the predominant wind
Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.
With increased demand on water sources for human use and likely diminished supplies due to climate change, it is important to understand the variation in evapotranspiration (ET) and vegetation water use by transpiration (T) in arid and semi-arid zone riparian areas in the western U.S. Understanding riparian plant water use is critical for accuracy of climate models, predictions used in water resources management, and assessment of land use change impacts on the water balance of ecosystems. Moore and Heilman (2011) suggested the following three principles for predicting when vegetation changes will impact the local or regional water budget: (i) variation will result if energy balance partitioning has been altered, (ii) if deeper or shallower active rooting depth has changed the amount of soil moisture accessible to plants, or (iii) if temporary changes in water use add up over longer time scales. They note that large changes in vegetation types do not necessarily result in changes in water discharge. We will use these principles to consider the case of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) on western U.S. rivers. Once considered a high-water-use plant that out-competed native trees, research over the past two decades has shown that saltcedar water use is low to moderate, and less than native trees. Consequently, the prospects of salvaging water for human use by replacing saltcedar with native trees, once thought to be bright, now appear questionable. Furthermore, saltcedar has come to occupy ecohydrological niches on altered river systems that are no longer available to native plants. However, with the widespread introduction and spread of saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) on western rivers, introduced in part to reduce riparian water use through reduction of saltcedar abundance, saltcedar ecology has now entered a new phase. The talk will present a synthesis of the recent literature on saltcedar water use and provide an overview of saltcedar ecohydrology in terms of
Full Text Available This paper presents the development and implementation of a distributed model of coupled water nutrient processes, based on the representative elementary watershed (REW approach, to the Upper Sangamon River Basin, a large, tile-drained agricultural basin located in central Illinois, mid-west of USA. Comparison of model predictions with the observed hydrological and biogeochemical data, as well as regional estimates from literature studies, shows that the model is capable of capturing the dynamics of water, sediment and nutrient cycles reasonably well. The model is then used as a tool to gain insights into the physical and chemical processes underlying the inter- and intra-annual variability of water and nutrient balances. Model predictions show that about 80% of annual runoff is contributed by tile drainage, while the remainder comes from surface runoff (mainly saturation excess flow and subsurface runoff. It is also found that, at the annual scale nitrogen storage in the soil is depleted during wet years, and is supplemented during dry years. This carryover of nitrogen storage from dry year to wet year is mainly caused by the lateral loading of nitrate. Phosphorus storage, on the other hand, is not affected much by wet/dry conditions simply because the leaching of it is very minor compared to the other mechanisms taking phosphorous out of the basin, such as crop harvest. The analysis then turned to the movement of nitrate with runoff. Model results suggested that nitrate loading from hillslope into the channel is preferentially carried by tile drainage. Once in the stream it is then subject to in-stream denitrification, the significant spatio-temporal variability of which can be related to the variation of the hydrologic and hydraulic conditions across the river network.
Gleason, Colin J.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wang, Jida
Declining gauging infrastructure and fractious water politics have decreased available information about river flows globally. Remote sensing and water balance modeling are frequently cited as potential solutions, but these techniques largely rely on these same in-decline gauge data to make accurate discharge estimates. A different approach is therefore needed, and we here combine remotely sensed discharge estimates made via at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) and the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological model to estimate discharge over the Lower Nile. Specifically, we first estimate initial discharges from 87 Landsat images and AMHG (1984-2015), and then use these flow estimates to tune the model, all without using gauge data. The resulting tuned modeled hydrograph shows a large improvement in flow magnitude: validation of the tuned monthly hydrograph against a historical gauge (1978-1984) yields an RMSE of 439 m3/s (40.8%). By contrast, the original simulation had an order-of-magnitude flow error. This improvement is substantial but not perfect: tuned flows have a 1-2 month wet season lag and a negative base flow bias. Accounting for this 2 month lag yields a hydrograph RMSE of 270 m3/s (25.7%). Thus, our results coupling physical models and remote sensing is a promising first step and proof of concept toward future modeling of ungauged flows, especially as developments in cloud computing for remote sensing make our method easily applicable to any basin. Finally, we purposefully do not offer prescriptive solutions for Nile management, and rather hope that the methods demonstrated herein can prove useful to river stakeholders in managing their own water.
Oregioni, B.; Gastaud, J.; Pham, M.K.; Povinec, P.P.
Full text: Environmental changes in the Caspian Sea have recently become of great interest in connection with fluctuations in sea level changes. Radioactive and stable isotopes have been used as powerful tracers to investigate water balance and dynamics and have contributed significantly to understanding climatically driven environmental changes in the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the world largest inland water body with a surface area of about 386000 km 2 and a volume of about 67000 km 3 , located in a large continental depression about 28 m below sea level. With no surface outlet, the Caspian Sea is particularly sensitive to climatic variations. The drainage area of the Caspian Sea is approximately 3.7 million square kilometers. The Volga, Ural and Terek empty into the North Caspian, with their combined annual flow accounting for 88% of all water entering the sea. The Sulak, Samur, Kura and a number of small rivers contribute about 7% of the inflow, the remainder comes from the rivers of the Iranian shore. The Caspian Sea is divided into three basins with approximately the same surface. The North Caspian Basin, maximum depth 15 m, average depth 5 m, contains 1% of the total water. The Middle Caspian (or Central) Basin has a maximum depth of 800 m and contains 22% of the total water. The South Caspian Basin, maximum depth 1024 m, average depth 330 m, contains 77% of the total Caspian Sea water. Recently there have been concerns over the environmental conditions of the Caspian Sea, especially over observed sea level changes, which have had a strong impact on the region. Anthropogenic radionuclides like 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 , 240 Pu are particularly useful tracers for the investigation of water dynamics. Two research-training cruises were carried out in September 1995 and August-September 1996. At every station, 60-70 liters samples of seawater from different depths were processed for sequential separation of plutonium, cesium and strontium isotopes. This was
Smith, Erik A.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.
Groundwater recharge is one of the most difficult components of a water budget to ascertain, yet is an important boundary condition necessary for the quantification of water resources. In Minnesota, improved estimates of recharge are necessary because approximately 75 percent of drinking water and 90 percent of agricultural irrigation water in Minnesota are supplied from groundwater. The water that is withdrawn must be supplied by some combination of (1) increased recharge, (2) decreased discharge to streams, lakes, and other surface-water bodies, and (3) removal of water that was stored in the system. Recent pressure on groundwater resources has highlighted the need to provide more accurate recharge estimates for various tools that can assess the sustainability of long-term water use. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, used the Soil-Water-Balance model to calculate gridded estimates of potential groundwater recharge across Minnesota for 1996‒2010 at a 1-kilometer (0.621-mile) resolution. The potential groundwater recharge estimates calculated for Minnesota from the Soil-Water Balance model included gridded values (1-kilometer resolution) of annual mean estimates (that is, the means for individual years from 1996 through 2010) and mean annual estimates (that is, the mean for the 15-year period 1996−2010).
Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Pieruccini-Faria, Frederico; Bartha, Robert; Black, Sandra E; Finger, Elizabeth; Freedman, Morris; Greenberg, Barry; Grimes, David A; Hegele, Robert A; Hudson, Christopher; Kleinstiver, Peter W; Lang, Anthony E; Masellis, Mario; McLaughlin, Paula M; Munoz, Douglas P; Strother, Stephen; Swartz, Richard H; Symons, Sean; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Zinman, Lorne; Strong, Michael J; McIlroy, William
The association of cognitive and motor impairments in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is thought to be related to damage in the common brain networks shared by cognitive and cortical motor control processes. These common brain networks play a pivotal role in selecting movements and postural synergies that meet an individual's needs. Pathology in this "highest level" of motor control produces abnormalities of gait and posture referred to as highest-level gait disorders. Impairments in cognition and mobility, including falls, are present in almost all neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting common mechanisms that still need to be unraveled. To identify motor-cognitive profiles across neurodegenerative diseases in a large cohort of patients. Cohort study that includes up to 500 participants, followed every year for three years, across five neurodegenerative disease groups: Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment, frontotemporal degeneration, vascular cognitive impairment, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Gait and balance will be assessed using accelerometers and electronic walkways, evaluated at different levels of cognitive and sensory complexity, using the dual-task paradigm. Comparison of cognitive and motor performances across neurodegenerative groups will allow the identification of motor-cognitive phenotypes through the standardized evaluation of gait and balance characteristics. As part of the Ontario Neurodegenerative Research Initiative (ONDRI), the gait and balance platform aims to identify motor-cognitive profiles across neurodegenerative diseases. Gait assessment, particularly while dual-tasking, will help dissect the cognitive and motor contribution in mobility and cognitive decline, progression to dementia syndromes, and future adverse outcomes including falls and mortality.
Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom backup units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce...... and increased degradation rates. Clearly, a fundamental understanding of all aspects of water management in PEMFC is imperative. This includes the fuel cell water balance, i.e. which fraction of the product water leaves the fuel cell via the anode channels versus the cathode channel. Our research group...... signal received gives valuable insight into heat and mass transfer phenomena in a PEMFC....
Tang, G.; Bartlein, P. J.
Satellite-based data, such as vegetation type and fractional vegetation cover, are widely used in hydrologic models to prescribe the vegetation state in a study region. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) simulate land surface hydrology. Incorporation of satellite-based data into a DGVM may enhance a model's ability to simulate land surface hydrology by reducing the task of model parameterization and providing distributed information on land characteristics. The objectives of this study are to (i) modify a DGVM for simulating land surface water balances; (ii) evaluate the modified model in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture, and surface runoff at regional or watershed scales; and (iii) gain insight into the ability of both the original and modified model to simulate large spatial scale land surface hydrology. To achieve these objectives, we introduce the "LPJ-hydrology" (LH) model which incorporates satellite-based data into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) DGVM. To evaluate the model we ran LH using historical (1981-2006) climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells for the conterminous US and for the entire world using coarser climate and land cover data. We evaluated the simulated ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff using a set of observed or simulated data at different spatial scales. Our results demonstrate that spatial patterns of LH-simulated annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data for the US; LH-modeled monthly stream flow for 12 major rivers in the US was consistent with observed values respectively during the years 1981-2006 (R2 > 0.46, p 0.52). The modeled mean annual discharges for 10 major rivers worldwide also agreed well (differences day method for snowmelt computation, the addition of the solar radiation effect on snowmelt enabled LH to better simulate monthly stream flow in winter and early spring for rivers located at mid-to-high latitudes. In addition, LH
Adam B. Mazurkiewicz; David G. Callery; Jeffrey J. McDonnell
Rain-on-snow (ROS) melt production and its contribution to water available for runoff is poorly understood. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the USA, ROS drives many runoff events with turbulent energy exchanges dominating the snow energy balance (EB). While previous experimental work in the PNW (most notably the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJAÃÂ» has quantified...
Full Text Available Obese people suffer from postural deficits and are more subject to falls than their lean counterpart. To improve prevention and post-fall rehabilitation programs, it seems important to better understand the posturo-kinetic disorders in daily life situations by determining the contribution of some key factors, mainly morphological characteristics and physical activity level, in the apparition of these disorders. Twelve severe android obese and eight healthy non obese adults performed a reaching task mobilizing the whole body. To further determine the origin of the postural and motor behavior differences, non obese individuals also performed an experimental session with additional constraints which simulated some of the obese morphological characteristics. Impact of the sedentary lifestyle was also studied by dissociation of the obese in two subgroups: physically « active » and physically « inactive ». Movement kinetics and kinematics were characterized with an optoelectronic system synchronized to a force platform. The mechanical equilibrium pattern was evaluated through the displacements of the Centre of Mass (CoM and the centre of foot pressure within the Base of Support (BoS. Results showed that obesity decreased movement speed (≈-23%, p<0.01, strongly increased CoM displacement (≈+30%, p<0.05 and induced an important spatio-temporal desynchronization (≈+40%, p<0.05 of the focal and postural components of the movement during the transition between the descending and ascending movements. The role of some morphological characteristics and of physical activity on obese patients' postural control disorder is discussed and set back in the more general context of overall factors contributing to postural deficits with obesity.
Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent
Obese people suffer from postural deficits and are more subject to falls than their lean counterpart. To improve prevention and post-fall rehabilitation programs, it seems important to better understand the posturo-kinetic disorders in daily life situations by determining the contribution of some key factors, mainly morphological characteristics and physical activity level, in the apparition of these disorders. Twelve severe android obese and eight healthy non obese adults performed a reaching task mobilizing the whole body. To further determine the origin of the postural and motor behavior differences, non obese individuals also performed an experimental session with additional constraints which simulated some of the obese morphological characteristics. Impact of the sedentary lifestyle was also studied by dissociation of the obese in two subgroups: physically « active » and physically « inactive ». Movement kinetics and kinematics were characterized with an optoelectronic system synchronized to a force platform. The mechanical equilibrium pattern was evaluated through the displacements of the Centre of Mass (CoM) and the centre of foot pressure within the Base of Support (BoS). Results showed that obesity decreased movement speed (≈-23%, p<0.01), strongly increased CoM displacement (≈+30%, p<0.05) and induced an important spatio-temporal desynchronization (≈+40%, p<0.05) of the focal and postural components of the movement during the transition between the descending and ascending movements. The role of some morphological characteristics and of physical activity on obese patients' postural control disorder is discussed and set back in the more general context of overall factors contributing to postural deficits with obesity.
Fries, Gabriel R; Gassen, Nils C; Schmidt, Ulrike; Rein, Theo
The immunophilin FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) has emerged as one of the most intensely investigated proteins in stress-related mental disorders. It was originally characterized as Hsp90 cochaperone and part of the receptor-chaperone heterocomplex that governs the activity of steroid receptors. It turned out that the presence of FKBP51 in this heterocomplex leads to diminished activity of the corticosteroid receptors. In particular, based on its inhibitory action on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), FKBP51 was included in a candidate gene approach to discover gene polymorphisms that might be relevant for the development and treatment of major depression. The discovery that polymorphisms in the gene coding for FKBP51 were linked to the treatment response of depressed patients intensified the research on the role of FKBP51 in stress-related diseases worldwide. It has become evident that FKBP51 is not only a regulator of GR action, but also a GR target. The function of this ultrashort intracellular feedback loop is critically important for cellular and physiological stress regulation as it does not only calibrate the function of GR, but also the levels of FKBP51. Given the pleiotropic functions of FKBP51, its levels might be equally important for mental disorders as GR function and hence for the development of potential FKBP51 drug targets.
Full Text Available Understanding the interactions among climate, vegetation cover and the water cycle lies at the heart of the study of watershed ecohydrology. Recently, considerable attention is being paid to the effect of climate variability on catchment water balance and also associated vegetation cover. In this paper, we investigate the general pattern of long-term water balance and vegetation cover (as reflected by fPAR among 193 study catchments in Australia through statistical analysis. We then employ the elasticity analysis approach for quantifying the effects of climate variability on hydrologic partitioning (including total, surface and subsurface runoff and on vegetation cover (including total, woody and non-woody vegetation cover. Based on the results of statistical analysis, we conclude that annual runoff (R, evapotranspiration (E and runoff coefficient (R/P increase with vegetation cover for catchments in which woody vegetation is dominant and annual precipitation is relatively high. Control of water available on annual evapotranspiration in non-woody dominated catchments is relatively stronger compared to woody dominated ones. The ratio of subsurface runoff to total runoff (Rg/R also increases with woody vegetation cover. Through the elasticity analysis of catchment runoff, it is shown that precipitation (P in current year is the most important factor affecting the change in annual total runoff (R, surface runoff (Rs and subsurface runoff (Rg. The significance of other controlling factors is in the order of annual precipitation in previous years (P−1 and P−2, which represents the net effect of soil moisture and annual mean temperature (T in current year. Change of P by +1% causes a +3.35% change of R, a +3.47% change of Rs and a +2.89% change of
Donizete dos Reis Pereira
Full Text Available The Brazilian East coast was intensely affected by deforestation, which drastically cut back the original biome. The possible impacts of this process on water resources are still unknown. The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the impacts of deforestation on the main water balance components of the Galo creek watershed, in the State of Espírito Santo, on the East coast of Brazil. Considering the real conditions of the watershed, the SWAT model was calibrated with data from 1997 to 2000 and validated for the period between 2001 and 2003. The calibration and validation processes were evaluated by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and by the statistical parameters (determination coefficient, slope coefficient and F test of the regression model adjusted for estimated and measured flow data. After calibration and validation of the model, new simulations were carried out for three different land use scenarios: a scenario in compliance with the law (C1, assuming the preservation of PPAs (permanent preservation areas; an optimistic scenario (C2, which considers the watershed to be almost entirely covered by native vegetation; and a pessimistic scenario (C3, in which the watershed would be almost entirely covered by pasture. The scenarios C1, C2 and C3 represent a soil cover of native forest of 76, 97 and 0 %, respectively. The results were compared with the simulation, considering the real scenario (C0 with 54 % forest cover. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.65 and 0.70 for calibration and validation, respectively, indicating satisfactory results in the flow simulation. A mean reduction of 10 % of the native forest cover would cause a mean annual increase of approximately 11.5 mm in total runoff at the watershed outlet. Reforestation would ensure minimum flows in the dry period and regulate the maximum flow of the main watercourse of the watershed.
Orth, Rene; Koster, Randal Dean; Seneviratne, Sonia I.
Soil moisture is known for its integrative behavior and resulting memory characteristics. Soil moisture anomalies can persist for weeks or even months into the future, making initial soil moisture a potentially important contributor to skill in weather forecasting. A major difficulty when investigating soil moisture and its memory using observations is the sparse availability of long-term measurements and their limited spatial representativeness. In contrast, there is an abundance of long-term streamflow measurements for catchments of various sizes across the world. We investigate in this study whether such streamflow measurements can be used to infer and characterize soil moisture memory in respective catchments. Our approach uses a simple water balance model in which evapotranspiration and runoff ratios are expressed as simple functions of soil moisture; optimized functions for the model are determined using streamflow observations, and the optimized model in turn provides information on soil moisture memory on the catchment scale. The validity of the approach is demonstrated with data from three heavily monitored catchments. The approach is then applied to streamflow data in several small catchments across Switzerland to obtain a spatially distributed description of soil moisture memory and to show how memory varies, for example, with altitude and topography.
Full Text Available The availability of precipitation data is the key driver in the application of hydrological models when simulating streamflow. Ground weather stations are regularly used to measure precipitation. However, spatial coverage is often limited in low-population areas and mountain areas. To overcome this limitation, gridded datasets from remote sensing have been widely used. This study evaluates four widely used global precipitation datasets (GPDs: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B43, the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR, the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN, and the Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP, against point gauge and gridded dataset observations using multiple monthly water balance models (MWBMs in four different meso-scale basins that cover the main climatic zones of Peninsular Spain. The volumes of precipitation obtained from the GPDs tend to be smaller than those from the gauged data. Results underscore the superiority of the national gridded dataset, although the TRMM provides satisfactory results in simulating streamflow, reaching similar Nash-Sutcliffe values, between 0.70 and 0.95, and an average total volume error of 12% when using the GR2M model. The performance of GPDs highly depends on the climate, so that the more humid the watershed is, the better results can be achieved. The procedures used can be applied in regions with similar case studies to more accurately assess the resources within a system in which there is scarcity of recorded data available.
Diabetes insipidus is an ancient disease considered under the rubric of diabetes, the Greek descriptive term for polyuria, which was unrecognized even after the sweetness of urine was reported as a characteristic of diabetes mellitus in the 17th century. It would be another century before diabetes insipidus was identified from the insipid rather than saccharine taste of urine in cases of polyuria. After its increased recognition, pathologic observations and experimental studies connected diabetes insipidus to the pituitary gland in the opening decades of the 20th century. Simultaneously, posterior pituitary lobe extracts were shown to be vasoconstrictive (vasopressin) and antidiuretic (antidiuretic hormone). As vasopressin was purified and synthesized and its assay became available, it was shown to be released in response to both osmotic and volume stimuli that are integrated in the hypothalamus, and vasopressin thereby was essential to maintaining internal water balance. The antidiuretic properties of vasopressin to treat the rare cases of diabetes insipidus were of limited clinical utility until its vasoconstrictive effects were resuscitated in the 1970s, with the consequent increasing wider use of vasopressin for the treatment of compromised hemodynamic states. In addition, the discovery of antidiuretic hormone receptor blockers has led to their increasing use in managing hypo-osmolar states. Copyright © 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The distribution of tritium flows was presented in tabular form for this period of time by means of monthly and annual values in the form of tritium contents and tritium transports for the individual component flows and interpreted by means of graphical representations. The contributions of the Northwest German canal system to the tritium input and discharge and the tritium emission from the nuclear power station 'Lingen' were also considered, whose shares refered to the inland Ems area only amount to approximately 2% or max. 1% of the tritium load. The most important tritium flows are the tritium evaporation with a mean value of 65% over many years, the tritium load with 28% and the tritium decompostion with 6.5% compared with the impact (100%). The division of the tritium discharge between groundwater discharge and direct discharge amounts, on average, to approximately 2 to 3; this ratio can drastically shift in the case of heavy changes of the tritium input. The applied balance model describes the groundwater by 4 compartments on the basis of data extrapolated and measured for surface water. (orig./HP) [de
Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; Salazar, J.A.
The goal of disposing of radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and to the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose a hazard. In order to achieve this, the performance of a landfill cover design without an engineered barrier (Conventional Design) was compared with three designs containing either a hydraulic barrier (EPA Design) or a capillary barrier (Loam and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier Designs). Water balance parameters were measured since 1991 at six-hour intervals for four different landfill cover designs in 1.0- by 10.0-m plots with downhill slopes of 5, 10, 15, and 25%. Whereas runoff generally accounted for only 2-3% of the precipitation losses on these designs, similar values for evapotranspiration ranged from 86% to 91%, with increased evapotranspiration occurring with increases in slope. Consequently, interflow and seepage usually decreased with increasing slope for each landfill cover design. Seepage consisted of up to 10% of the precipitation on the Conventional Design, whereas the hydraulic barrier in the EPA Design effectively controlled seepage at all slopes, and both of the capillary designs worked effectively to eliminate seepage at the higher slopes
El Hage, Yasmin; Politti, Fabiano; Herpich, Carolina Marciela; de Souza, Dowglas Fernando Magalhães; de Paula Gomes, Cid André Fidelis; Amorim, Cesar Ferreira; de Oliveira Gonzalez, Tabajara; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida
The influence of the neuromuscular system on the cervical region and mastication is directly associated with mandibular movements and neck posture. Normal occlusal homeostasis depends on complex sensory feedback mechanisms of the periodontal ligament, temporomandibular joint and other structures of the stomatognathic system. This feedback serves as a regulatory mechanism that helps determine the force and nature of muscle contractions. Alterations in the muscles of mastication, neck muscles, and occlusal characteristics constitute causal factors of imbalances in the postural muscle chains, leading to alterations in the center of pressure (CoP) of the feet. Thus, therapies that seek occlusal reestablishment, such as muscle relaxation techniques, may lead to a restructuring of the global equilibrium of the neuromuscular system and an improvement in body posture. The aim of the present pilot study was to investigate the immediate effect of facial massage on the CoP in the anteroposterior (CoPAP) and mediolateral (CoPML) directions in individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Twenty individuals with a diagnosis of TMD based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) were submitted to a facial massage technique. CoPAP and CoPML were evaluated using a force plate. Evaluations were performed under two visual conditions (eyes open and eyes closed) prior to resting in dorsal decubitus (baseline), after 10 minutes of rest (premassage) and after the administration of the massage technique (postmassage). No significant differences were found regarding CoPAP velocity with eyes open or the following aspects under either visual condition (eyes open or closed): CoPML velocity, RMS of CoPAP, RMS of CoPML, and sway area. The only significant difference was found for mean CoPAP velocity with eyes closed. While the results of the present study demonstrate the reliability of the reproduction of the data, facial massage had no immediate
Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.
Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the effects of land use / land cover must be a first step to find how they disturb cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and disuse recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables and other spatial variations including the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and vegetation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal and spatial distribution of surface runoff, interception, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB. The study shows that major role in the water balance of LCB. The mean yearly actual evapotranspiration (ET) from the basin range from 60mm - 400 mm, which is 90 % (69mm - 430) of the annual precipitation from 2003 - 2010. It is striking that about 50 - 60 % of the total runoff is produced on build-up (impervious surfaces), while much smaller contributions are obtained from vegetated
Wendland, Edson; Gomes, Luis H; Troeger, Uwe
The contribution of recharge to regional groundwater flow systems is essential information required to establish sustainable water resources management. The objective of this work was to determine the groundwater outflow in the Ribeirão da Onça Basin using a water balance model of the saturated soil zone. The basin is located in the outcrop region of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). The water balance method involved the determination of direct recharge values, groundwater storage variation and base flow. The direct recharge was determined by the water table fluctuation method (WTF). The base flow was calculated by the hydrograph separation method, which was generated by a rain-flow model supported by biweekly streamflow measurements in the control section. Undisturbed soil samples were collected at depths corresponding to the variation zone of the groundwater level to determine the specific yield of the soil (drainable porosity). Water balances were performed in the saturated zone for the hydrological years from February 2004 to January 2007. The direct recharge ranged from 14.0% to 38.0%, and groundwater outflow from 0.4% to 2.4% of the respective rainfall during the same period.
In this paper, long-term effects of different afforestation scenarios on landscape wa- ter balance will be analyzed taking into account the results of a regional case study. This analysis is based on using a GIS-coupled simulation model for the the spatially distributed calculation of water balance.For this purpose, the modelling system THE- SEUS with a simple GIS-interface will be used. To take into account the special case of change in forest cover proportion, THESEUS was enhanced with a simple for- est growth model. In the regional case study, model runs will be performed using a detailed spatial data set from North-East Germany. This data set covers a mesoscale catchment located at the moraine landscape of North-East Germany. Based on this data set, the influence of the actual landuse and of different landuse change scenarios on water balance dynamics will be investigated taking into account the spatial distributed modelling results from THESEUS. The model was tested using different experimen- tal data sets from field plots as well as obsverded catchment discharge. Additionally to such convential validation techniques, remote sensing data were used to check the simulated regional distribution of water balance components like evapotranspiration in the catchment.
Samper, J.; Huguet, L.; Ares, J.; Garcia, M. A.
This document contains the Users Manual of Visual Balan V1.0, an updated version of Visual Balan V0.0 (Samper et al., 1997). Visual Balan V1.0 performs daily water balances in the soil, the unsaturated zone and the aquifer in a user-friendly environment which facilitates both the input data process and the postprocessing of results. The main inputs of the balance are rainfall and irrigation while the outputs are surface runoff, evapotranspiration, interception, inter flow and groundwater flow. The code evaluates all these components in a sequential manner by starting with rainfall and irrigation, which must be provided by the user, and continuing with interception, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and potential recharge (water flux crossing the bottom of the soil). This potential recharge is the input to the unsaturated zone where water can flow horizontally as subsurface flow (inter flow) or vertically as percolation into the aquifer. (Author)
Gotsch, Sybil G; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Holwerda, Friso; Goldsmith, Gregory R; Weintraub, Alexis E; Dawson, Todd E
The ecophysiology of tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) trees is influenced by crown-level microclimate factors including regular mist/fog water inputs, and large variations in evaporative demand, which in turn can significantly impact water balance. We investigated the effect of such microclimatic factors on canopy ecophysiology and branch-level water balance in the dry season of a seasonal TMCF in Veracruz, Mexico, by quantifying both water inputs (via foliar uptake, FU) and outputs (day- and night-time transpiration, NT). Measurements of sap flow, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and pressure-volume relations were obtained in Quercus lanceifolia, a canopy-dominant tree species. Our results indicate that FU occurred 34% of the time and led to the recovery of 9% (24 ± 9.1 L) of all the dry-season water transpired from individual branches. Capacity for FU was independently verified for seven additional common tree species. NT accounted for approximately 17% (46 L) of dry-season water loss. There was a strong correlation between FU and the duration of leaf wetness events (fog and/or rain), as well as between NT and the night-time vapour pressure deficit. Our results show the clear importance of fog and NT for the canopy water relations of Q. lanceifolia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Benoit, Joshua B; Denlinger, David L
In this review, we describe water balance requirements of blood-feeding arthropods, particularly contrasting dehydration tolerance during the unfed, off-host state and the challenges of excess water that accompany receipt of the bloodmeal. Most basic water balance characteristics during the off-host stage are applicable to other terrestrial arthropods, as well. A well-coordinated suite of responses enable arthropods to conserve water resources, enhance their desiccation tolerance, and increase their water supplies by employing a diverse array of molecular, structural and behavioral responses. Water loss rates during the off-host phase are particularly useful for generating a scheme to classify vectors according to their habitat requirements for water, thus providing a convenient tool with potential predictive power for defining suitable current and future vector habitats. Blood-feeding elicits an entirely different set of challenges as the vector responds to overhydration by quickly increasing its rate of cuticular water loss and elevating the rate of diuresis to void excess water and condense the bloodmeal. Immature stages that feed on blood normally have a net increase in water content at the end of a blood-feeding cycle, but in adults the water content reverts to the pre-feeding level when the cycle is completed. Common themes are evident in diverse arthropods that feed on blood, particularly the physiological mechanisms used to respond to the sudden influx of water as well as the mechanisms used to counter water shortfalls that are encountered during the non-feeding, off-host state. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, G.; Mitra, B.; Domec, J. C.; Gavazi, M.; Yang, Y.; Tian, S.; Zietlow, D.; McNulty, S.; King, J.; Noormets, A.
partitioning of precipitation and solar energy in pine forests. In addition, we conclude that accessible groundwater was important factor for stabilizing forest water and energy balances during a drought in the lower coastal ecosystems.
Coulombe, Harry N
The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance and ecology of salt marsh rodents is dependent upon an evaluation of the composition of the available sources and the physiological properties of their potential consumers. Studies of the osmotic properties of succulent halophytes from southern California coastal salt marshes are presented, together with experiments regarding the utilization of Common Pickleweed (Salicornia virginica L.) by indigenous populations of cricetid rodents (harvest mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis limicola Von Bloecker, and meadow-mouse Microtus californicus stephensi Von Bloecker). These data are discussed in relation to other available information concerning the ecology of coastal salt marshes, particularly in western North America.Extruded sap of Common Pickleweed was found to have a mean total osmotic pressure (TOP) of 1,450 mOsm/liter, with an average chloride ion content of 876 mEq/liter (about 70% of the TOP). A related species, Salicornia subterminale, had a slightly lower TOP (1,300 mOsm/liter), of which about 29% was accounted for by chloride ion concentration. Sea Blight (Suaeda fruticosa) was the only species in which the TOP correlated with the distance from the tide level; sap TOP increased away from the lagoon's edge. In both Sea Blight and Common Pickle weed, TOP was not directly related to chloride content, indicating the importance of other osmotically active solutes.Harvest mice were placed on three experimental regimes: 1) millet seeds only, 2) pickleweed only, and 3) pickleweed and millet seed. Meadow mice were tested on the last regime only. Harvest mice survived best on a strict millet seed diet; when Salicornia was consumed to a detectable extent, the mice did not survive. Meadow mice, however, could survive using Salicornia as a dietary source in conjunction with seeds. Kidney electrolyte concentrating abilities indicated that harvest mice should be able to utilize pickleweed; this was not confirmed in my
Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste......-hoc and real time electrical signal of the fuel cell water balance by employing hot wire anemometry. The hot wire sensor is placed into a binary mixture of hydrogen and water vapour, and the voltage signal received gives valuable insight into heat and mass transfer phenomena in a PEMFC. A central question...
White and Rasmussen (Mutation Res. 410:223-236) used a mass balance approach to demonstrate that over 85% of the total genotoxic loading to the St. Lawrence River at Montreal is non-industrial. To validate the mass balance approach and investigate the sources of genotoxins in sur...
Full Text Available Satellite-based data, such as vegetation type and fractional vegetation cover, are widely used in hydrologic models to prescribe the vegetation state in a study region. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM simulate land surface hydrology. Incorporation of satellite-based data into a DGVM may enhance a model's ability to simulate land surface hydrology by reducing the task of model parameterization and providing distributed information on land characteristics. The objectives of this study are to (i modify a DGVM for simulating land surface water balances; (ii evaluate the modified model in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff at regional or watershed scales; and (iii gain insight into the ability of both the original and modified model to simulate large spatial scale land surface hydrology. To achieve these objectives, we introduce the "LPJ-hydrology" (LH model which incorporates satellite-based data into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ DGVM. To evaluate the model we ran LH using historical (1981–2006 climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells for the conterminous US and for the entire world using coarser climate and land cover data. We evaluated the simulated ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff using a set of observed or simulated data at different spatial scales. Our results demonstrate that spatial patterns of LH-simulated annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data for the US; LH-modeled monthly stream flow for 12 major rivers in the US was consistent with observed values respectively during the years 1981–2006 (R2 > 0.46, p < 0.01; Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient > 0.52. The modeled mean annual discharges for 10 major rivers worldwide also agreed well (differences < 15% with observed values for these rivers. Compared to a degree-day method for snowmelt computation, the addition of the solar radiation effect on snowmelt
García-Arias, Alicia; Ruiz-Pérez, Guiomar; Francés, Félix
Vegetation plays a main role in the water balance of most hydrological systems. However, in the past it has been barely considered the effect of the interception and evapotranspiration for hydrological modelling purposes. During the last years many authors have recognised and supported ecohydrological approaches instead of traditional strategies. This contribution is aimed to demonstrate the pivotal role of the vegetation in ecohydrological models and that a better understanding of the hydrological systems can be achieved by considering the appropriate processes related to plants. The study is performed in two scales: the plot scale and the reach scale. At plot scale, only zonal vegetation was considered while at reach scale both zonal and riparian were taken into account. In order to assure the main role of the water on the vegetation development, semiarid environments have been selected for the case studies. Results show an increase of the capabilities to predict plant behaviour and water balance when interception and evapotranspiration are taken into account in the soil water balance
Dogramaci, Shawan; Firmani, Giovanni; Hedley, Paul; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Grierson, Pauline F.
Dewatering associated with mining below water table to achieve dry mining conditions may exert significant pressure on water balance in terms of lowering the water table and change in the dynamics of interactions between surface water and groundwater. The discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may also affect the water balance, by elevating groundwater levels and altering the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers. However, it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid Hamersley Basin of northwest Australia that has received continuous mine discharge for more than six years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 73 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.2‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ∼65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ∼35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the water balance of the creek
Full Text Available Most hydrological models use continuous daily precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for streamflow estimation. With the projected increase in mean surface temperature, hydrological processes are set to intensify irrespective of the underlying changes to the mean precipitation. The effect of an increase in rainfall intensity on the long-term water balance is, however, not adequately accounted for in the commonly used hydrological models. This study follows from a previous comparative analysis of a non-stationary daily series of stream flow of a forested watershed (River Rimbaud in the French Alps (area = 1.478 km2 (1966–2006. Non-stationarity in the recorded stream flow occurred as a result of a severe wild fire in 1990. Two daily models (AWBM and SimHyd were initially calibrated for each of three distinct phases in relation to the well documented land disturbance. At the daily and monthly time scales, both models performed satisfactorily with the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE varying from 0.77 to 0.92. When aggregated to the annual time scale, both models underestimated the flow by about 22% with a reduced NSE at about 0.71. Exploratory data analysis was undertaken to relate daily peak hourly rainfall intensity to the discrepancy between the observed and modelled daily runoff amount. Preliminary results show that the effect of peak hourly rainfall intensity on runoff prediction is insignificant, and model performance is unlikely to improve when peak daily precipitation is included. Trend analysis indicated that the large decrease of precipitation when daily precipitation amount exceeded 10–20 mm may have contributed greatly to the decrease in stream flow of this forested watershed.
Rivera, Diego; Rivas, Yessica; Godoy, Alex
Hydrological models are simplified representations of natural processes and subject to errors. Uncertainty bounds are a commonly used way to assess the impact of an input or model architecture uncertainty in model outputs. Different sets of parameters could have equally robust goodness-of-fit indicators, which is known as Equifinality. We assessed the outputs from a lumped conceptual hydrological model to an agricultural watershed in central Chile under strong interannual variability (coefficient of variability of 25%) by using the Equifinality concept and uncertainty bounds. The simulation period ran from January 1999 to December 2006. Equifinality and uncertainty bounds from GLUE methodology (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation) were used to identify parameter sets as potential representations of the system. The aim of this paper is to exploit the use of uncertainty bounds to differentiate behavioural parameter sets in a simple hydrological model. Then, we analyze the presence of equifinality in order to improve the identification of relevant hydrological processes. The water balance model for Chillan River exhibits, at a first stage, equifinality. However, it was possible to narrow the range for the parameters and eventually identify a set of parameters representing the behaviour of the watershed (a behavioural model) in agreement with observational and soft data (calculation of areal precipitation over the watershed using an isohyetal map). The mean width of the uncertainty bound around the predicted runoff for the simulation period decreased from 50 to 20 m3s-1 after fixing the parameter controlling the areal precipitation over the watershed. This decrement is equivalent to decreasing the ratio between simulated and observed discharge from 5.2 to 2.5. Despite the criticisms against the GLUE methodology, such as the lack of statistical formality, it is identified as a useful tool assisting the modeller with the identification of critical parameters.
Shmakin, A.B.; Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.
The Land Dynamics (LaD) model is tested by comparison with observations of interannual variations in discharge from 44 large river basins for which relatively accurate time series of monthly precipitation (a primary model input) have recently been computed. When results are pooled across all basins, the model explains 67% of the interannual variance of annual runoff ratio anomalies (i.e., anomalies of annual discharge volume, normalized by long-term mean precipitation volume). The new estimates of basin precipitation appear to offer an improvement over those from a state-of-the-art analysis of global precipitation (the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation, CMAP), judging from comparisons of parallel model runs and of analyses of precipitation-discharge correlations. When the new precipitation estimates are used, the performance of the LaD model is comparable to, but not significantly better than, that of a simple, semiempirical water-balance relation that uses only annual totals of surface net radiation and precipitation. This implies that the LaD simulations of interannual runoff variability do not benefit substantially from information on geographical variability of land parameters or seasonal structure of interannual variability of precipitation. The aforementioned analyses necessitated the development of a method for downscaling of long-term monthly precipitation data to the relatively short timescales necessary for running the model. The method merges the long-term data with a reference dataset of 1-yr duration, having high temporal resolution. The success of the method, for the model and data considered here, was demonstrated in a series of model-model comparisons and in the comparisons of modeled and observed interannual variations of basin discharge.
Han, Seul Ki; Kim, Myung Chul; An, Chang Sik
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in balance ability of land exercise and underwater exercise on chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 60 patients received exercise for 40 minutes, three times a week, for 6 weeks. [Methods] Subjects from both groups performed general conventional treatment during the experimental period. In addition, all subjects engaged in extra treatment sessions. This extra treatment consisted of unstable surface exercise. The underwater exercise group used wonder boards in a pool (depth 1.1m, water temperature 33.5 °C, air temperature 27 °C) dedicated to underwater exercise, and the land exercise group used balance mats. [Result] The joint position sense, sway area, Berg Balance Scale showed significant improvements in both groups. However, the joint position sense test, sway area, and Berg Balance Scale showed there was more improvement in the underwater exercise group than in the land exercise group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that underwater exercise is more effective than land exercise at improving the joint position sense and balance of stroke patients.
S. P. Seibert
Full Text Available The baffling diversity of runoff generation processes, alongside our sketchy understanding of how physiographic characteristics control fundamental hydrological functions of water collection, storage, and release, continue to pose major research challenges in catchment hydrology. Here, we propose innovative data-driven diagnostic signatures for overcoming the prevailing status quo in catchment inter-comparison. More specifically, we present dimensionless double mass curves (dDMC which allow inference of information on runoff generation and the water balance at the seasonal and annual timescales. By separating the vegetation and winter periods, dDMC furthermore provide information on the role of biotic and abiotic controls in seasonal runoff formation. A key aspect we address in this paper is the derivation of dimensionless expressions of fluxes which ensure the comparability of the signatures in space and time. We achieve this by using the limiting factors of a hydrological process as a scaling reference. We show that different references result in different diagnostics. As such we define two kinds of dDMC which allow us to derive seasonal runoff coefficients and to characterize dimensionless streamflow release as a function of the potential renewal rate of the soil storage. We expect these signatures for storage controlled seasonal runoff formation to remain invariant, as long as the ratios of release over supply and supply over storage capacity develop similarly in different catchments. We test the proposed methods by applying them to an operational data set comprising 22 catchments (12–166 km2 from different environments in southern Germany and hydrometeorological data from 4 hydrological years. The diagnostics are used to compare the sites and to reveal the dominant controls on runoff formation. The key findings are that dDMC are meaningful signatures for catchment runoff formation at the seasonal to annual scale and that the type of
Kalicz, Péter; Herceg, András; Gribovszki, Zoltán
For Hungary regional climate models projections suggest a warmer climate and some changes in annual precipitation distribution. These changes force the whole agrarian sector to consider the traditional cropping technologies. This situation is more serious in forestry because some forest populations are on their xeric distributional limits (Gálos et. al, 2014). Additionally, a decision has an impact sometimes longer than one hundred years. To support the stakeholder there is a project which develops a GIS (Geographic Information System) based decision support system. Hydrology plays significant role in this system because water is often one of the most important limiting factor in Hungary. A modified Thorntwaite-type monthly water balance model was choosen to produce hydrological estimations for the GIS modules. This model is calibrated with the available data between 2000 and 2008. Beside other meteorological data we used mainly an actual evapotranspiration map in the calibration phase, which was derived with the Complementary-relationship-based evapotranspiration mapping (CREMAP; Szilágyi and Kovács, 2011) technique. The calibration process is pixel based and it has several stochastic steps. We try to find a flexible solution for the model implementation which easy to automatize and can be integrate in GIS systems. The open source R programming language was selected which well satisfied these demands. The result of this development is summarized as an R package. This publication has been supported by AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034 project. References Gálos B., Antal V., Czimber K., Mátyás Cs. (2014) Forest ecosystems, sewage works and droughts - possibilities for climate change adaptation. In: Santamarta J.C., Hernandez-Gutiérrez L.E., Arraiza M.P. (eds) 2014. Natural Hazards and Climate Change/Riesgos Naturales y Cambio Climático. Madrid: Colegio de Ingenieros de Montes. ISBN 978-84-617-1060-7, D.L. TF 565-2014, 91-104 pp Szilágyi J., Kovács Á. (2011
Csáki, Péter; Béla Brolly, Gábor; Czimber, Kornél; Kalicz, Péter; Kisfaludy, Balázs; Gribovszki, Zoltán
Water balance of Zala county (South Western Hungary) was analyzed using remote-sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) 1-km spatial resolution maps for Hungary by Szilagyi and Kovacs over the 1999-2008 period [Szilagyi J., Kovacs A., 2011: A calibration-free evapotranspiration mapping technique for spatially-distributed regional-scale hydrologic modeling. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 59, 2011, 2, 118-130.]. Mean (1999-2008 period) annual evapotranspiration and runoff (as the difference of precipitation and evapotranspiration: R = P - ET) were analyzed in the context of land cover types (artificial surfaces, agricultural areas, forest and semi natural areas, wetlands, water bodies). The average ET of Zala county was 581 mm/year, it was more than 89 percent of the mean annual precipitation (650 mm/year). The highest mean annual ET values (1999-2008) determined for water bodies and wetlands. Forest and semi natural areas had higher mean annual value than agricultural areas, the lowest rate belonged to artificial surfaces. The maximum ET value was very high in case of water bodies (845 mm) as well as forest and semi natural areas (828 mm). Runoff was the largest on artificial surfaces (89 mm/year), and it was especially low for wetlands. Spatially-distributed calibration parameter of Budyko-model (alfa) was calculated by using temperature, precipitation and ET values. Another parameter, beta (which gives the relationship between pan-evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration) was calculated for those pixels, where the ET value was higher than the precipitation value, because the Budyko-type model for such type of pixels is not valid. The two parameter maps (alfa and beta) aggregate all of the factors affecting ET, dominantly the surface cover. They can be used for evaluating future ET and runoff in spatially-distributed mode. ET and runoff predictions have been done for three periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070, 2071-2100) using the parameter maps (alfa and beta) and future
Full Text Available Climatic changes and man-induced environmental load cause to a shortage of drinking quality fresh water. Upon that, fresh water sufficiency is one of the preconditions for quality assurance in adequate living standards as well as for domestic and foreign political stability especially in developing countries. A lot of technologies of fresh drinking water production are known today. Most of them involve significant power consumption and endanger to environment. As a rule these technologies use non-renewable hydrocarbons as power source. The author-developed technology of fresh drinking water obtaining from atmospheric air involves the use of clean renewable energy of the sea. This article bases the method of water production from the air. It is also describes technology implementation energy balance.
Zhao, Wenzhi; Liu, Bing; Chang, Xuexiang; Yang, Qiyue; Yang, Yuting; Liu, Zhiling; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek
Partitioning evapotranspiration (ET) into its components reveals details of the processes that underlie ecosystem hydrologic budgets and their feedback to the water cycle. We measured rates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa), canopy transpiration (Tc), soil evaporation (Eg), canopy-intercepted precipitation (EI), and patterns of stomatal conductance of the desert shrub Calligonum mongolicum in northern China to determine the water balance of this ecosystem. The ETa was 251 ± 8 mm during the growing period, while EI, Tc, and Eg accounted for 3.2%, 63.9%, and 31.3%, respectively, of total water use (256 ± 4 mm) during the growing period. In this unique ecosystem, groundwater was the main water source for plant transpiration and soil evaporation, Tc and exceeded 60% of the total annual water used by desert plants. ET was not sensitive to air temperature in this unique desert ecosystem. Partitioning ET into its components improves our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie adaptation of desert shrubs, especially the role of stomatal regulation of Tc as a determinant of ecosystem water balance.
Al Shakhshir, Saher; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Berning, Torsten
In order to better understand and more accurately measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, our group has recently proposed to apply hot wire anemometry in the fuel cell's anode outlet. It was theoretically shown that the electrical signal obtained from the hot wire sensor...... can be directly converted into the fuel cell water balance. In this work an ex-situ experimental investigation is performed to examine the effect of the wire diameter and the outlet pipe diameter on the voltage signal. For a laboratory fuel cell where the mass flow rate the anode outlet is small...... number Nu range between m = 0.137 and m = 0.246. In general, it is shown that applying hot wire anemometry yields in fact very clear voltage readings with high frequency, and it can be used as a diagnosis tool in various fuel cell applications....
Full Text Available Water budget of lakes must be determined regarding to their sustainable usage as for all water resources. One of the major problems in the management of lakes is the estimation of water budget components. The lack of regularly measured data is the biggest problem in calculation of hydrological balance of a lake. A lake water budget is computed by measuring or estimating all of the lake’s water gains and losses and measuring the corresponding changes in the lake volume over the same time period. Eğirdir Lake is one of the most important freshwater lakes in Turkey and is the most important surface water resources in the region due to different usages. Recharge of the Eğirdir Lake is supplied from especially precipitation, surface and subsurface water inflow. The discharge components of the lake are evaporation and water intake for irrigation, drinking and energy purposes. The difference between recharge and discharge of the lake was calculated as 7.78 hm3 for 1970-2010 period. According to rainfall, evaporation and the lake water level relations, rainfall is dominantly effective on the lake water level such as direct recharge to the lake and indirect recharge with groundwater flow
Moro, M. J.; Were, A.; Morillas, L.; Villagarcia, L.; Canton, Y.; Lazaro, R.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Kowalski, A. S.; Domingo, F.
Dewfall deposition can be a significant source of moisture in arid and semiarid ecosystems, thus contribution to improve daily and annual water balances. Occurrence, frequency and amount of dewfall were measured in the Balsa Blanca site (Cabo de Gata, Almeria, Spain) from January 2007 to May 2008. this area has a sparse vegetation cover dominated by Stipa tenacissima combined with bare soil and biological soil crusts. (Author) 3 refs.
Abatzoglou, John T.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.; Hegewisch, Katherine C.
We present TerraClimate, a dataset of high-spatial resolution (1/24°, ~4-km) monthly climate and climatic water balance for global terrestrial surfaces from 1958–2015. TerraClimate uses climatically aided interpolation, combining high-spatial resolution climatological normals from the WorldClim dataset, with coarser resolution time varying (i.e., monthly) data from other sources to produce a monthly dataset of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, wind speed, vapor pressure, and sol...
Muideen O. Bakare
Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African (SSA population consists of about 45% children, while in Europe and North America children population is 10- 15%. Lately, attention has been directed at mitigating childhood infectious and communicable diseases to reduce under-five mortality. As the under-five mortality index in Sub-Saharan Africa has relatively improved over the last two decades, more Sub-Saharan African children are surviving beyond the age of five and, apparently, a sizeable percentage of this population would be living with one or more childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD. The distribution of child mental health service resources across the world is unequal. This manifests in the treatment gap of major childhood onset mental health problems in SSA, with the gap being more pronounced for childhood NDD. It is important to balance the public health focus and research funding priorities in Sub-Saharan Africa. We urgently need to define the burden of childhood NDD in the region for healthcare planning and policy formulation.
Breu, Thomas; Bader, Christoph; Messerli, Peter; Heinimann, Andreas; Rist, Stephan; Eckert, Sandra
This study examines the validity of the assumption that international large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) is motivated by the desire to secure control over water resources, which is commonly referred to as 'water grabbing'. This assumption was repeatedly expressed in recent years, ascribing the said motivation to the Gulf States in particular. However, it must be considered of hypothetical nature, as the few global studies conducted so far focused primarily on the effects of LSLA on host countries or on trade in virtual water. In this study, we analyse the effects of 475 intended or concluded land deals recorded in the Land Matrix database on the water balance in both host and investor countries. We also examine how these effects relate to water stress and how they contribute to global trade in virtual water. The analysis shows that implementation of the LSLAs in our sample would result in global water savings based on virtual water trade. At the level of individual LSLA host countries, however, water use intensity would increase, particularly in 15 sub-Saharan states. From an investor country perspective, the analysis reveals that countries often suspected of using LSLA to relieve pressure on their domestic water resources--such as China, India, and all Gulf States except Saudi Arabia--invest in agricultural activities abroad that are less water-intensive compared to their average domestic crop production. Conversely, large investor countries such as the United States, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan are disproportionately externalizing crop water consumption through their international land investments. Statistical analyses also show that host countries with abundant water resources are not per se favoured targets of LSLA. Indeed, further analysis reveals that land investments originating in water-stressed countries have only a weak tendency to target areas with a smaller water risk.
Full Text Available This study examines the validity of the assumption that international large-scale land acquisition (LSLA is motivated by the desire to secure control over water resources, which is commonly referred to as 'water grabbing'. This assumption was repeatedly expressed in recent years, ascribing the said motivation to the Gulf States in particular. However, it must be considered of hypothetical nature, as the few global studies conducted so far focused primarily on the effects of LSLA on host countries or on trade in virtual water. In this study, we analyse the effects of 475 intended or concluded land deals recorded in the Land Matrix database on the water balance in both host and investor countries. We also examine how these effects relate to water stress and how they contribute to global trade in virtual water. The analysis shows that implementation of the LSLAs in our sample would result in global water savings based on virtual water trade. At the level of individual LSLA host countries, however, water use intensity would increase, particularly in 15 sub-Saharan states. From an investor country perspective, the analysis reveals that countries often suspected of using LSLA to relieve pressure on their domestic water resources--such as China, India, and all Gulf States except Saudi Arabia--invest in agricultural activities abroad that are less water-intensive compared to their average domestic crop production. Conversely, large investor countries such as the United States, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan are disproportionately externalizing crop water consumption through their international land investments. Statistical analyses also show that host countries with abundant water resources are not per se favoured targets of LSLA. Indeed, further analysis reveals that land investments originating in water-stressed countries have only a weak tendency to target areas with a smaller water risk.
Cockenpot, S; Claude, C; Radakovitch, O
The radon-222 mass balance is now commonly used to quantify water fluxes due to Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) in coastal areas. One of the main loss terms of this mass balance, the radon evasion to the atmosphere, is based on empirical equations. This term is generally estimated using one among the many empirical equations describing the gas transfer velocity as a function of wind speed that have been proposed in the literature. These equations were, however, mainly obtained from areas of deep water and may be less appropriate for shallow areas. Here, we calculate the radon mass balance for a windy shallow coastal lagoon (mean depth of 6m and surface area of 1.55*10(8) m(2)) and use these data to estimate the radon loss to the atmosphere and the corresponding gas transfer velocity. We present new equations, adapted to our shallow water body, to express the gas transfer velocity as a function of wind speed at 10 m height (wind range from 2 to 12.5 m/s). When compared with those from the literature, these equations fit particularly well with the one of Kremer et al. (2003). Finally, we emphasize that some gas transfer exchange may always occur, even for conditions without wind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Land surface temperature is the link between soil-vegetation-atmosphere fluxes and soil water content through the energy water balance. This paper analyses the representativeness of land surface temperature (LST for a distributed hydrological water balance model (FEST-EWB using LST from AHS (airborne hyperspectral scanner, with a spatial resolution between 2–4 m, LST from MODIS, with a spatial resolution of 1000 m, and thermal infrared radiometric ground measurements that are compared with the representative equilibrium temperature that closes the energy balance equation in the distributed hydrological model.
Diurnal and nocturnal images are analyzed due to the non stable behaviour of the thermodynamic temperature and to the non linear effects induced by spatial heterogeneity.
Spatial autocorrelation and scale of fluctuation of land surface temperature from FEST-EWB and AHS are analysed at different aggregation areas to better understand the scale of representativeness of land surface temperature in a hydrological process.
The study site is the agricultural area of Barrax (Spain that is a heterogeneous area with a patchwork of irrigated and non irrigated vegetated fields and bare soil. The used data set was collected during a field campaign from 10 to 15 July 2005 in the framework of the SEN2FLEX project.
Hostetler, Steven W.; Alder, Jay R.
We simulate the 1950–2010 water balance for the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) with a monthly water balance model (MWBM) using the 800 m Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data set as model input. We employed observed snow and streamflow data sets to guide modification of the snow and potential evapotranspiration components in the default model and to evaluate model performance. Based on various metrics and sensitivity tests, the modified model yields reasonably good simulations of seasonal snowpack in the West (range of bias of ±50 mm at 68% of 713 SNOTEL sites), the gradients and magnitudes of actual evapotranspiration, and runoff (median correlation of 0.83 and median Nash-Sutcliff efficiency of 0.6 between simulated and observed annual time series at 1427 USGS gage sites). The model generally performs well along the Pacific Coast, the high elevations of the Basin and Range and over the Midwest and East, but not as well over the dry areas of the Southwest and upper Plains regions due, in part, to the apportioning of direct versus delayed runoff. Sensitivity testing and application of the MWBM to simulate the future water balance at four National Parks when driven by 30 climate models from the Climate Model Intercomparison Program Phase 5 (CMIP5) demonstrate that the model is useful for evaluating first-order, climate driven hydrologic change on monthly and annual time scales.
Full Text Available Future climate scenarios experiencing global warming are expected to strengthen the hydrological cycle during the 21st century (21C. We analyze the strengthening of the global-scale increase in precipitation from the perspective of changes in whole atmospheric water and energy balances. By combining energy and water equations for the whole atmosphere, we obtain constraints for the changes in surface fluxes and partitioning at the surface between sensible and latent components. We investigate the differences in the strengthening of the hydrological cycle in two centennial simulations performed with an Earth system model forced with specified atmospheric concentration pathways. Alongside the Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES A1B, which is a medium-high non-mitigation scenario, we consider a new aggressive-mitigation scenario (E1 with reduced fossil fuel use for energy production aimed at stabilizing global warming below 2 K.
Our results show that the mitigation scenario effectively constrains the global warming with a stabilization below 2 K with respect to the 1950–2000 historical period. On the other hand, the E1 precipitation does not follow the temperature field toward a stabilization path but continues to increase over the mitigation period. Quite unexpectedly, the mitigation scenario is shown to strengthen the hydrological cycle even more than SRES A1B till around 2070. We show that this is mostly a consequence of the larger increase in the negative radiative imbalance of atmosphere in E1 compared to A1B. This appears to be primarily related to decreased sulfate aerosol concentration in E1, which considerably reduces atmospheric absorption of solar radiation compared to A1B.
The last decades of the 21C show a marked increase in global precipitation in A1B compared to E1, despite the fact that the two scenarios display almost the same overall increase of radiative imbalance with respect to the 20th century. Our
Lundgren, K.; Wikmark, G.; Bengtsson, B.
The corrosion product balance in a PWR plant is of great importance for the fuel performance as well as for the radiation field buildup. This balance is of special concern in connection to steam generator replacement (SGR) and power uprate projects. The Ringhals PWRs are all of Westinghouse design. Two of the plants have performed Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) to I-690 SG tubes and such a replacement is being planned in the third and last unit in 2011. Two of the units are in different phases of power uprate projects. The plants are all on 10-14-months cycles operating with medium to high fuel duty. Water chemistry is controlled by a pH300 in the range ∼7.2 to 7.4 from beginning of cycle to end of cycle (BOC-EOC) in the units with new SGs while kept at a coordinated pH of 7.2 in the one still using I-600. The maximum Li content has recently been increased to about 4.5 to 5 ppm in all units. In order to be able to improve the assessment of corrosion product balances in the plants, comprehensive fuel crud measurements were performed in 2007. Improved integrated reactor water sampling techniques have also been introduced in order to make accurate mass balances possible. The corrosion products covered in the study are the main constituents, Ni, Fe and Cr in the primary circuit Inconel and stainless steel, together with Co. The activated corrosion products, Co-58, Co-60, Cr-51, Fe-59 and Mn-54, are all mainly produced through neutron irradiation of the covered corrosion products. The main results of the corrosion product balances are presented. Observed differences between the plants, indicating significant impact of pH control and SG tube materials, are presented and discussed. The importance of accurate sampling techniques is especially addressed in this paper. (author)
Full Text Available At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and grown only in the southern areas of the country. However, due to the Government’s support and promotion as well as economic reasons, the expansion of Para rubber plantations in the northeast has increased rapidly. This support has occurred without accounting for suitable cultivation of Para rubber conditions, particularly in areas with steep slopes and other factors which have significant impacts on hydrology and water quality. This study presents the impacts of Para rubber expansion by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT hydrological model on the hydrology and water balance of the Nam Loei River Basin, Loei Province. The results showed that the displacement of original local field crops and disturbed forest land by Para rubber production resulted in an overall increase of evapotranspiration (ET of roughly 3%. The major factors are the rubber canopy and precipitation. Moreover, the water balance results showed an annual reduction of about 3% in the basin average water yield, especially during the dry season.
Peng, Di; Saravia, Florencia; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald
Trihalomethanes (THM) are the most typical disinfection by-products (DBPs) found in public swimming pool water. DBPs are produced when organic and inorganic matter in water reacts with chemical disinfectants. The irregular contribution of substances from pool visitors and long contact time with disinfectant make the forecast of THM in pool water a challenge. In this work occurrence of THM in a public indoor swimming pool was investigated and correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Daily sampling of pool water for 26 days showed a positive correlation between DOC and THM with a time delay of about two days, while THM and DOC didn't directly correlate with the number of visitors. Based on the results and mass-balance in the pool water, a simple simulation model for estimating THM concentration in indoor swimming pool water was proposed. Formation of THM from DOC, volatilization into air and elimination by pool water treatment were included in the simulation. Formation ratio of THM gained from laboratory analysis using native pool water and information from field study in an indoor swimming pool reduced the uncertainty of the simulation. The simulation was validated by measurements in the swimming pool for 50 days. The simulated results were in good compliance with measured results. This work provides a useful and simple method for predicting THM concentration and its accumulation trend for long term in indoor swimming pool water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.
In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those
Santamato, Andrea; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cinone, Nicoletta; Stuppiello, Lucia Anna; Valeno, Giovanni; De Sanctis, Jula Laura; Fortunato, Francesca; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide; Panza, Francesco
Action observation treatment has been proposed as therapeutic option in rehabilitation of patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) to improve freezing of gait episodes. The purpose of this prospective open-label feasibility study was to evaluate the impact of 8-week action observation training (video-therapy) for the treatment of postural instability and balance impairment in PD patients. Fifteen PD patients aged under 80 years with scores of 1 to 3 on the Hoehn and Yahr staging and without evidence of freezing of gait were recruited. They underwent 24 sessions of video-therapy training based on carefully watching video clips on motor tasks linked to balance, subsequently performing the same observed movements. No statistically significant differences were observed in the identified outcome measures with the Berg Balance Scale and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale after two months of follow-up. In the present study, a short course of action observation treatment seems to be not effective in reducing balance impairments and postural instability in patients affected by mild to moderate PD. Further studies with larger samples, longer follow-up period, and standardized protocols of action observation treatment are needed to investigate the effects of this rehabilitation technique in the management of postural and balance disorders of PD patients. PMID:26798551
Full Text Available Action observation treatment has been proposed as therapeutic option in rehabilitation of patients affected by Parkinson’s disease (PD to improve freezing of gait episodes. The purpose of this prospective open-label feasibility study was to evaluate the impact of 8-week action observation training (video-therapy for the treatment of postural instability and balance impairment in PD patients. Fifteen PD patients aged under 80 years with scores of 1 to 3 on the Hoehn and Yahr staging and without evidence of freezing of gait were recruited. They underwent 24 sessions of video-therapy training based on carefully watching video clips on motor tasks linked to balance, subsequently performing the same observed movements. No statistically significant differences were observed in the identified outcome measures with the Berg Balance Scale and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale after two months of follow-up. In the present study, a short course of action observation treatment seems to be not effective in reducing balance impairments and postural instability in patients affected by mild to moderate PD. Further studies with larger samples, longer follow-up period, and standardized protocols of action observation treatment are needed to investigate the effects of this rehabilitation technique in the management of postural and balance disorders of PD patients.
Full Text Available Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ, a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years. In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years. Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43 mL/day and 2551 (SE 39 mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59 mL/day and 1832 (SE 56 mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake and milk (5% of total water intake. These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use.
Samira Kamalian Lari
Conclusion After changing and removing part of question 6 of the second domain, results demonstrated that the questionnaire BESTest is a valid and reliable test for assessing balance performance in multiple sclerosis patients. It can be used as an accurate tool, both in the areas of clinical (to evaluate the patients’ equilibrium status and purposeful therapy planning and to apply for scientific research in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Söhngen, D; Balzer, C; Fuchs, M; Waldschmidt, D
Patients with ileostomies regularly suffer from short bowel syndrome or high volume output associated with loss of absorptive surface and subsequent impairment of absorption for drugs and different nutrients resulting in electrolyte and fluid balance disorders as well as renal insufficiency. Adaptation of these fundamental functions of the gut with adequate fluid uptake, absorption of sufficient different nutrients and vitamins represents a major challenge to rehabilitate these patients shortly after surgery. Patients with ileostomy often develop metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap. In our retrospective study we would like to draw attention to these metabolic disorders in patients with ileostomy in comparison to patients with colostomy and patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer. In the period from 2005 to 2012 we examined 164 patients with ileostomy in our rehabilitation clinic, 109 patients with colostomy and 193 patients after surgery for gastric cancer of the possible presence of metabolic acidosis by using capillary blood gas analysis (metabolic acidosis was anticipated, if base excess was ≤- 3,0 mmol/l). Patients are treated as inpatients both in early stage and for follow-up rehabilitation. The length of time in our rehabilitation clinic lies in between 24-28 days. On the basis of random samples we tested blood samples in 19 patients with ileostomy in succession for ferritin, folic acid, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12. Statistical analysis comprised the classical intervals (mean and standard deviation, range and T-test for dependent and independent samples). In total we tested 164 inpatients with ileostomy in our rehabilitation clinic (median age 67.4 years, range 19-79 years). Surgery for ileostomy took place about 1.4 months on average ago (range ¼-56 months). 60 (36.5%) inpatients suffered from metabolic acidosis often combined with renal insufficiency. Supportive therapy intravenously administered in 10 patients and sodium bicarbonate
MacDonald, Lauren A.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Turner, Kevin W.; Anderson, Lesleigh; Arp, Christopher D.; Birks, Jean; Bouchard, Frédéric; Edwards, Thomas W.D.; Farquharson, Nicole; Hall, Roland I.; McDonald, Ian; Narancic, Biljana; Ouimet, Chantal; Pienitz, Reinhard; Tondu, Jana; White, Hilary
Numerous studies utilizing remote sensing imagery and other methods have documented that thermokarst lakes are undergoing varied hydrological transitions in response to recent climate changes, from surface area expansion to drainage and evaporative desiccation. Here, we provide a synthesis of hydrological conditions for 376 lakes of mainly thermokarst origin across high-latitude North America. We assemble surface water isotope compositions measured during the past decade at five lake-rich landscapes including Arctic Coastal Plain (Alaska), Yukon Flats (Alaska), Old Crow Flats (Yukon), northwestern Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba), and Nunavik (Quebec). These landscapes represent the broad range of thermokarst environments by spanning gradients in meteorological, permafrost, and vegetation conditions. An isotope framework was established based on flux-weighted long-term averages of meteorological conditions for each lake to quantify water balance metrics. The isotope composition of source water and evaporation-to-inflow ratio for each lake were determined, and the results demonstrated a substantial array of regional and subregional diversity of lake hydrological conditions. Controls on lake water balance and how these vary among the five landscapes and with differing environmental drivers are assessed. Findings reveal that lakes in the Hudson Bay Lowlands are most vulnerable to evaporative desiccation, whereas those in Nunavik are most resilient. However, we also identify the complexity in predicting hydrological responses of these thermokarst landscapes to future climate change.
Abatzoglou, John T.; Ficklin, Darren L.
The geographic variability in the partitioning of precipitation into surface runoff (Q) and evapotranspiration (ET) is fundamental to understanding regional water availability. The Budyko equation suggests this partitioning is strictly a function of aridity, yet observed deviations from this relationship for individual watersheds impede using the framework to model surface water balance in ungauged catchments and under future climate and land use scenarios. A set of climatic, physiographic, and vegetation metrics were used to model the spatial variability in the partitioning of precipitation for 211 watersheds across the contiguous United States (CONUS) within Budyko's framework through the free parameter ω. A generalized additive model found that four widely available variables, precipitation seasonality, the ratio of soil water holding capacity to precipitation, topographic slope, and the fraction of precipitation falling as snow, explained 81.2% of the variability in ω. The ω model applied to the Budyko equation explained 97% of the spatial variability in long-term Q for an independent set of watersheds. The ω model was also applied to estimate the long-term water balance across the CONUS for both contemporary and mid-21st century conditions. The modeled partitioning of observed precipitation to Q and ET compared favorably across the CONUS with estimates from more sophisticated land-surface modeling efforts. For mid-21st century conditions, the model simulated an increase in the fraction of precipitation used by ET across the CONUS with declines in Q for much of the eastern CONUS and mountainous watersheds across the western United States.
Mykleby, P.; Lenters, J. D.; Cutrell, G. J.; Herrman, K.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Scott, D.
Vegetation plays an important role in the surface energy and water balance of wetlands. Transpiration from phreatophytes, in particular, withdraws water directly from groundwater, often impacting streamflow rates in adjacent tributaries. In the Republican River basin of the Central Plains (USA), streamflow has declined significantly in the past 30-40 years. Invasive vegetation species (such as Phragmites australis) have been removed from portions of the riparian corridor in an effort to halt or reverse the downward trend in streamflow. In this study, we investigated the energy and water balance of a P. australis-dominated riparian wetland in south-central Nebraska to assess the potential effectiveness of such an approach. Evapotranspiration (ET) rates were measured during two growing seasons - one being 2009, when the P. australis was at full growth, and the other during 2010, after the vegetation had been sprayed with herbicide (and remained only as dead, standing biomass). Energy balance measurements at the field site included net radiation, heat storage rates in the canopy, soil, and standing water, and sensible heat flux, which was measured using a large-aperture scintillometer (LAS). Latent heat flux (i.e., ET) was calculated as a residual of the energy balance, and comparisons were made between the two growing seasons. As a result of the spraying of the P. australis vegetation, season-mean ET rates dropped from 4.4 mm day-1 in 2009 to 3.0 mm day-1 in 2010. This decrease in ET was associated with a large increase in sensible heat flux, which more than doubled between the two years (from 33 W m-2 in 2009 to 76 W m-2 in 2010). Meteorological conditions at the site were slightly different from one year to the next, but the differences were not large enough to account for the dramatic changes in latent and sensible heat flux that were observed. We conclude, therefore, that the majority of the ~30% decrease in ET (and ~130% increase in sensible heat flux) was the
Benthaus, Friedrich-Carl [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (LMBV), Senftenberg (Germany). Ingenieurbereich Sanierung, Strategie und Entwicklung; Scholz, Eckhard [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (LMBV), Senftenberg (Germany). Ingenieurbereich Sanierung; Uhlig, Christiane [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (LMBV), Senftenberg (Germany). Ingenieurbereich Sanierung, Geotechnik Mitteldeutschland; Heine, Rudi [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (LMBV), Senftenberg (Germany). Ingenieurbereich Sanierung, Planung Wasserbau Lausitz; Totsche, Oliver [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH (LMBV), Senftenberg (Germany). Ingenieurbereich Sanierung, Geotechnik Lausitz
The lignite mining industry in central Germany and Lusatia has interfered with the water balance in the regions by long-standing lowering of the ground water and changing of the surface waters. The restoration is aimed at re-establishment of a largely self-regulating water balance by flooding and aftercare. The planning of the linkage of the 220 lakes in the aftermath of the mining industry to the public waterway network should be based on the conditions prevailing after abandonment of the mining industry. Innovative geochemical and biological processes are being further developed to improve the water quality, which is characterised by oxidation of the iron sulphides. (orig.)
Latz, Amanda O.; Rediger, James N.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand if and how community college faculty construct work-life balance, as our review of the literature pointed toward a lack of research on this topic. Twenty-eight community college faculty members were interviewed, and six major findings were generated through the data analysis. Metaphors…
March, Rod S.; O'Neel, Shad
The measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances for 1997-2001 in the Gulkana Glacier basin are determined at specific points and over the entire glacier area using the meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data. We provide descriptions of glacier geometry to aid in estimation of conventional and reference surface mass balances and descriptions of ice motion to aid in the understanding of the glacier's response to its changing geometry. These data provide annual estimates for area altitude distribution, equilibrium line altitude, and accumulation area ratio during the study interval. New determinations of historical area altitude distributions are given for 1900 and annually from 1966 to 2001. As original weather instrumentation is nearing the end of its deployment lifespan, we provide new estimates of overlap comparisons and precipitation catch efficiency. During 1997-2001, Gulkana Glacier showed a continued and accelerated negative mass balance trend, especially below the equilibrium line altitude where thinning was pronounced. Ice motion also slowed, which combined with the negative mass balance, resulted in glacier retreat under a warming climate. Average annual runoff augmentation by glacier shrinkage for 1997-2001 was 25 percent compared to the previous average of 13 percent, in accordance with the measured glacier volume reductions.
Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav; Pohanková, Eva; Hlavinka, Petr; Tripathi, Abishek; Žalud, Zdeněk
Roč. 991, JUN 04-07 (2013), s. 401-408 ISSN 0567-7572 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : short rotation poplar coppice * water balance * sap flow * Bowen ratio and energy balance method * modeling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Michalik, Thomas; Multsch, Sebastian; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz
Water for agriculture is strongly limited in arid and semi-arid regions and often of low quality in terms of salinity. The application of saline waters for irrigation increases the salt load in the rooting zone and has to be managed by leaching to maintain a healthy soil, i.e. to wash out salts by additional irrigation. Dynamic simulation models are helpful tools to calculate the root zone water fluxes and soil salinity content in order to investigate best management practices. However, there is little information on structural and parameter uncertainty for simulations regarding the water and salt balance of saline irrigation. Hence, we established a multi-model system with four different models (AquaCrop, RZWQM, SWAP, Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM) to analyze the structural and parameter uncertainty by using the Global Likelihood and Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method. Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM and SWAP were set up with multiple sets of different implemented functions (e.g. matric and osmotic stress for root water uptake) which results in a broad range of different model structures. The simulations were evaluated against soil water and salinity content observations. The posterior distribution of the GLUE analysis gives behavioral parameters sets and reveals uncertainty intervals for parameter uncertainty. Throughout all of the model sets, most parameters accounting for the soil water balance show a low uncertainty, only one or two out of five to six parameters in each model set displays a high uncertainty (e.g. pore-size distribution index in SWAP and Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM). The differences between the models and model setups reveal the structural uncertainty. The highest structural uncertainty is observed for deep percolation fluxes between the model sets of Hydrus1D/UNSATCHEM (~200 mm) and RZWQM (~500 mm) that are more than twice as high for the latter. The model sets show a high variation in uncertainty intervals for deep percolation as well, with an interquartile range (IQR) of
Souza, B D M; Lückemeyer, D D; Reyes-Carmona, J F; Felippe, W T; Simões, C M O; Felippe, M C S
To evaluate the effectiveness of various storage media at 5 °C for maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF). Plates with PDLF were soaked in recently prepared Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), skimmed milk, whole milk, Save-A-Tooth(®) system's HBSS (Save), natural coconut water, industrialized coconut water or tap water (negative control) at 5 °C for 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Minimum essential medium (MEM) at 37 °C served as the positive control. PDL cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Data were statistically analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test complemented by the Scheffé test (α=5%). The greatest number of viable cells was observed for MEM. Skimmed and whole milk, followed by natural coconut water and HBSS, were the most effective media in maintaining cell viability (Pmilk had the greatest capacity to maintain PDLF viability when compared with natural coconut water, HBSS, Save, industrialized coconut water and tap water. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.
Laban, S.; Oue, H.; Rampisela, D. A.
Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during the 2nd dry season were analyzed in this study. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated by Bowen Ratio Energy Budget (BREB) method, potential evaporation (EP) was calculated by Penman method, and irrigation volume of water was measured manually. Meteorological instruments were installed in the experimental field during hot pepper cultivation. Leaf area index increased during the growing stages where the highest LAI of 1.65 in the generative stage. The daily average of ET was 1.94 and EP was 6.71 mm resulting in low Kc. The Kc values were significantly different between stage to stage under T-test analysis (α = 0.05). Moreover, Kc in every stage could be related to soil water content (SWC) in logarithmic function. Totally, ET during hot pepper cultivation was 179.19 mm, while rainfall was 180.0 mm and irrigation water was 27.42 mm. However, there was a water shortages during vegetative and generative stages. This study suggested that consumptive water of hot pepper was complimented by soil and groundwater under the condition of water shortages in the vegetative and generative stages during the 2nd dry season.
McClain, Michael E
Sustainable development in Africa is dependent on increasing use of the continent's water resources without significantly degrading ecosystem services that are also fundamental to human wellbeing. This is particularly challenging in Africa because of high spatial and temporal variability in the availability of water resources and limited amounts of total water availability across expansive semi-arid portions of the continent. The challenge is compounded by ambitious targets for increased water use and a rush of international funding to finance development activities. Balancing development with environmental sustainability requires (i) understanding the boundary conditions imposed by the continent's climate and hydrology today and into the future, (ii) estimating the magnitude and spatial distribution of water use needed to meet development goals, and (iii) understanding the environmental water requirements of affected ecosystems, their current status and potential consequences of increased water use. This article reviews recent advancements in each of these topics and highlights innovative approaches and tools available to support sustainable development. While much remains to be learned, scientific understanding and technology should not be viewed as impediments to sustainable development on the continent.
Tillman, Fred D.
The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.
Considering the challenges and threats currently facing water management and the exacerbation of uncertainty by climate change, the need for flexible yet robust and legitimate environmental regulation is evident. The European Union took a novel approach toward sustainable water r...
By completing the tasks and subtasks of the project, the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) through its state regulatory agency members and oil and gas industry partners, will bring attention to water quality and quantity issues and make progress toward water and energy sustainability though enhanced water protection and conservation thus enhancing the viability of the domestic fossil fuel industry. The project contains 4 major independent Tasks. Task 1 - Work Plan: Water-Energy Sustainability: A Symposium on Resource Viability. Task 2 - Work Plan: A Regional Assessment of Water and Energy Sustainability. Task 3 - Work Plan: Risk Based Data Management System-Water Water and Energy Module. Task 4 - Work Plan: Identification and Assessment of States Regulatory Programs Regarding Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems. Each task has a specific scope (details given).
Feb 16, 2011 ... processes that underpin all water resource and land use issues. (Hughes et al., 2007). ..... gain or loss of water by soil water or groundwater seepage. ... concerning infiltration rates and overland flow in the vicinity of the study ...
The uranium mining region of the Northern Territory of Australia is characterised by extremes in rainfall. This must be considered in planning mining operations in the area. Plans must include provision of water during the dry season, control of water during the wet season, provision of access throughout all seasons and management of water to minimise environmental pollution
Hoyos, Isabel; Baquero-Bernal, Astrid; Hagemann, Stefan
In Colombia, the access to climate related observational data is restricted and their quantity is limited. But information about the current climate is fundamental for studies on present and future climate changes and their impacts. In this respect, this information is especially important over the Colombian Caribbean Catchment Basin (CCCB) that comprises over 80 % of the population of Colombia and produces about 85 % of its GDP. Consequently, an ensemble of several datasets has been evaluated and compared with respect to their capability to represent the climate over the CCCB. The comparison includes observations, reconstructed data (CPC, Delaware), reanalyses (ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR), and simulated data produced with the regional climate model REMO. The capabilities to represent the average annual state, the seasonal cycle, and the interannual variability are investigated. The analyses focus on surface air temperature and precipitation as well as on surface water and energy balances. On one hand the CCCB characteristics poses some difficulties to the datasets as the CCCB includes a mountainous region with three mountain ranges, where the dynamical core of models and model parameterizations can fail. On the other hand, it has the most dense network of stations, with the longest records, in the country. The results can be summarised as follows: all of the datasets demonstrate a cold bias in the average temperature of CCCB. However, the variability of the average temperature of CCCB is most poorly represented by the NCEP/NCAR dataset. The average precipitation in CCCB is overestimated by all datasets. For the ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR, and REMO datasets, the amplitude of the annual cycle is extremely high. The variability of the average precipitation in CCCB is better represented by the reconstructed data of CPC and Delaware, as well as by NCEP/NCAR. Regarding the capability to represent the spatial behaviour of CCCB, temperature is better represented by Delaware and REMO, while
Biskop, S.; Maussion, F.; Krause, P.; Fink, M.
The contrasting patterns of lake-level fluctuations across the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are indicators of differences in the water balance over the TP. However, little is known about the key hydrological factors controlling this variability. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a more quantitative understanding of these factors for four selected lakes in the southern-central part of the TP: Nam Co and Tangra Yumco (increasing water levels), and Mapam Yumco and Paiku Co (stable or slightly decreasing water levels). We present the results of an integrated approach combining hydrological modeling, atmospheric-model output and remote-sensing data. The J2000g hydrological model was adapted and extended according to the specific characteristics of closed-lake basins on the TP and driven with High Asia Refined analysis (HAR) data at 10 km resolution for the period 2001-2010. Differences in the mean annual water balances among the four basins are primarily related to higher precipitation totals and attributed runoff generation in the Nam Co and Tangra Yumco basins. Precipitation and associated runoff are the main driving forces for inter-annual lake variations. The glacier-meltwater contribution to the total basin runoff volume (between 14 and 30 % averaged over the 10-year period) plays a less important role compared to runoff generation from rainfall and snowmelt in non-glacierized land areas. Nevertheless, using a hypothetical ice-free scenario in the hydrological model, we indicate that ice-melt water constitutes an important water-supply component for Mapam Yumco and Paiku Co, in order to maintain a state close to equilibrium, whereas the water balance in the Nam Co and Tangra Yumco basins remains positive under ice-free conditions. These results highlight the benefits of linking hydrological modeling with atmospheric-model output and satellite-derived data, and the presented approach can be readily transferred to other data-scarce closed lake basins, opening new
Mediterranean countries have a severe shortage of water resources for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes. This situation is aggravated daily due to the rapidly increasing population in the area. Agriculture is the biggest consumer of water with about 80% of the renewable resource used for irrigation. Traditional irrigation methods are highly inefficient: only about one-third of the applied water is actually transpired by the crops. Clearly, there is great scope for improved irrigation management. Intensification of agricultural production to meet growing market demand requires the simultaneous application of irrigation water and fertilizers. Application of fertilizer in drip irrigation (fertigation) is an effective way to promote efficient use of these scarce and expensive resources. There is widespread interest in Mediterranean countries in fertigation. Nevertheless, information on the form and concentration of the nutrients required for different crops is presently inadequate. Moreover, the low fertilizer recoveries due to extensive fertilization practiced during the last few decades have created serious agricultural and environmental problems. High nitrate concentrations in groundwater and deterioration of some important quality parameters of agricultural products are the main concerns. Recognizing the potential role of nuclear techniques in identifying improved water and fertilizer management practices, the IAEA implemented two regional technical co-operation projects during the period 1995-2000 with eight participating countries from the West Asia region: The Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, the Syria Arab Republic, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The main objective was to establish water balance and fertigation practices using nuclear techniques, with a view to improving crop production in arid and semi-arid zones. The projects aimed to compare the following parameters under conventional fertilizer and water
Bergonzini, L.; Gibert, E.; Winckel, A.
Full text: The stable oxygen and deuterium isotope compositions of a lake depend upon its water balance. Therefore the balance equations of stable isotopes, which imply calculation of the composition of evaporating moisture α E , provide information for assessing the water balance. In most cases, this approach is used to investigate the relationships between lakes and groundwater. Lake Massoko (8 deg. 20'S, 33 deg. 45'E, 870 m.a.s.l.) is a freshwater maar-lake without surface outlet. The lake surface and its runoff area cover 0.38 and 0.55 km 2 respectively. In contrast with the mean annual rainfall in the other parts of south Tanzania (1000-1200 mm y -1 ), the presence of Lake Malawi to the South, and the high ranges to the North (Mounts Poroto, Rungwe and Livingstone) imply local climatic features. Air masses overloaded with humidity bypassing Lake Malawi are submitted, especially in April, to ascending currents, producing rainfalls up to 2450 mm y -1 over Massoko area. Because of the evaporation rate from the lake's surface (around 2100 mm y -1 ) and without taking into account the runoff from the drainage basin, hydrological balance is positive and imply underground lost. One of most difficult points in the establishment of the isotope balances is the calculation of the composition of the evaporated water (δ E ), which requires an estimation of the isotopic composition of the water vapour in the atmosphere over the lake (δ Atm ). Without direct measurements, two ways can be used for the determination of the vapour composition (i) equilibrium with precipitation and reconstitution from them, or (ii) calculation from the balances of a terminal lake of the region. Both approaches are presented and compared, but only the second one allows physical solutions. δ Atm determined from Lake Rukwa hydrological and isotope balances has been used to calculate values for δ E over Lake Massoko. The estimation of δ Atm obtained from Lake Rukwa budgets presents a deuterium
Wada, Akira; Miyaike, Katsuto
The study on the effect of warm water discharged from large capacity thermal and nuclear power stations on the local climate around the power stations is necessary for promoting the development of power resources in harmony with natural environment. In this study, Mikawa Bay was selected as the object of research, and the simulation analysis of water temperature was carried out by the water column model, based on the result of analysis of the local weather and sea observation data. Thus, the amount of heat exchange between the atmosphere and sea water in natural sea area was grasped, and how the change in the amount of heat exchange when the thermal load due to warm water discharge was imposed is ranked in natural sea environment was examined. The variation of surface water temperature in Mikawa Bay tended to be large in summer and small in winter. It was clarified that the factor controlling the water temperature in the bay was the variation of climatic factors. In the sea area where the effect of open sea water was relatively small, the variation of water temperature was able to be expressed by the water column model. The change in the amount of heat exchange in the range of warm water diffusion with 2 deg C temperature rise was determined. (Kato, I.)
Ahmed, Muna M M; El Kheir, I M
Nine desert goats were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design in which they were subjected to (a) ad libitum water and food (control), (b) ad libitum food and water restricted to about 40% of the control, and (c) ad libitum water and restricted food (same amount as given to group b). Parameters measured were dry matter intake (DMI), water intake, rectal temperature (Tr), respiration rate (RR), water balance and body weight (BW) changes. The acute effects of the above treatments on these parameters were monitored during the dry summer using two types of feed. The ratio of DMI to water intake decreased (p < 0.01) due to water restriction but increased (p < 0.01) with Lucerne hay compared to grass hay. With both feeds, BW decreased (p < 0.01) with water restriction, with a further decrease (p < 0.01) observed with food restriction. The control group showed a higher (p < 0.01) gain with Lucerne hay than grass hay. Tr and RR increased (p < 0.01) from morning to afternoon; Tr decreased due to food restriction during both morning and afternoon with Lucerne hay (p < 0.05) and grass hay (p < 0.05), whereas RR decreased (p < 0.01) with both types of feeds. For all groups of animals, Tr was higher (p < 0.05) with Lucerne hay than with grass hay, this effect being more pronounced (p < 0.01) with the control group. With both feeds, water restriction decreased (p < 0.01) water turnover rate and evaporative losses, with decreased (p < 0.05) faecal losses observed in the water-restricted groups on Lucerne hay but higher (p < 0.05) losses of urine. The tolerance of desert goats to thermal stress and their coping with shortage of water and food depended on their capacity to lose heat through panting and cutenaous evaporation as well as their ability to concentrate urine.
Full Text Available There is considerable concern that the water resources of Central and Eastern Europe region can be adversely affected by climate change. Projections of future water balance and streamflow conditions can be obtained by forcing hydrological models with the output from climate models. In this study, we employed the SWAT hydrological model driven with an ensemble of nine bias-corrected EURO-CORDEX climate simulations to generate future hydrological projections for the Vistula and Odra basins in two future horizons (2024–2050 and 2074–2100 under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs. The data set consists of three parts: (1 model inputs; (2 raw model outputs; (3 aggregated model outputs. The first one allows the users to reproduce the outputs or to create the new ones. The second one contains the simulated time series of 10 variables simulated by SWAT: precipitation, snow melt, potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, soil water content, percolation, surface runoff, baseflow, water yield and streamflow. The third one consists of the multi-model ensemble statistics of the relative changes in mean seasonal and annual variables developed in a GIS format. The data set should be of interest of climate impact scientists, water managers and water-sector policy makers. In any case, it should be noted that projections included in this data set are associated with high uncertainties explained in this data descriptor paper.
Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.
The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3
Ye. M. Gusev
Full Text Available Scenario projections of the dynamics of meteorological characteristics for the basins of the Olenek and Indigirka rivers (the Republic of Sakha in the XXI century have been obtained for four IPCC global climate change scenarios of SRES family which correspond to specified scenarios of economic, technological, political, and demographic development of human civilization. The projections have been used to calculate scenarios of possible changes in water balance components for the basins under consideration up to the year of 2063. The calculation procedure involves a physically-based model for heat and mass exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere SWAP and climate scenario generator MAGICC/SCENGEN.
Quezada de Luna, M.; Farthing, M.; Guermond, J. L.; Kees, C. E.; Popov, B.
The Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) are popular for modeling non-dispersive incompressible water waves where the horizontal wavelength is much larger than the vertical scales. They can be derived from the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations assuming a constant vertical velocity. The SWEs are important in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics for modeling surface gravity waves in shallow regimes; e.g., in the deep ocean. Some common geophysical applications are the evolution of tsunamis, river flooding and dam breaks, storm surge simulations, atmospheric flows and others. This work is concerned with the approximation of the time-dependent Shallow Water Equations with friction using explicit time stepping and continuous finite elements. The objective is to construct a method that is at least second-order accurate in space and third or higher-order accurate in time, positivity preserving, well-balanced with respect to rest states, well-balanced with respect to steady sliding solutions on inclined planes and robust with respect to dry states. Methods fulfilling the desired goals are common within the finite volume literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, schemes with the above properties are not well developed in the context of continuous finite elements. We start this work based on a finite element method that is second-order accurate in space, positivity preserving and well-balanced with respect to rest states. We extend it by: modifying the artificial viscosity (via the entropy viscosity method) to deal with issues of loss of accuracy around local extrema, considering a singular Manning friction term handled via an explicit discretization under the usual CFL condition, considering a water height regularization that depends on the mesh size and is consistent with the polynomial approximation, reducing dispersive errors introduced by lumping the mass matrix and others. After presenting the details of the method we show numerical tests that demonstrate the well-balanced
Crow, W. T.; Kustas, W. P.
Two types of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) modeling approaches are commonly applied to monitoring root-zone soil water availability. Water and Energy Balance (WEB) SVAT modeling are based forcing a prognostic water balance model with precipitation observations. In constrast, thermal Remote Sensing (RS) observations of canopy radiometric temperatures can be integrated into purely diagnostic SVAT models to predict the onset of vegetation water stress due to low root-zone soil water availability. Unlike WEB-SVAT models, RS-SVAT models do not require observed precipitation. Using four growings seasons (2001 to 2004) of profile soil moisture, micro-meteorology, and surface radiometric temperature observations at the USDA's OPE3 site, root-zone soil moisture predictions made by both WEB- and RS-SVAT modeling approaches are intercompared with each other and availible root- zone soil moisture observations. Results indicate that root-zone soil moisture estimates derived from a WEB- SVAT model have slightly more skill in detecting soil moisture anomalies at the site than comporable predictions from a competing RS-SVAT modeling approach. However, the relative advantage of the WEB-SVAT model disappears when it is forced with lower-quality rainfall information typical of continental and global-scale rainfall data sets. Most critically, root-zone soil moisture errors associated with both modeling approaches are sufficiently independent such that the merger of both information from both proxies - using either simple linear averaging or an Ensemble Kalman filter - creates a merge soil moisture estimate that is more accurate than either of its parent components.
Full Text Available The water balance in high Alpine regions is often characterized by significant variation of meteorological variables in space and time, a complex hydrogeological situation and steep gradients. The system is even more complex when the rock composition is dominated by soluble limestone, because unknown underground flow conditions and flow directions lead to unknown storage quantities. Reliable distributed modeling cannot be implemented by traditional approaches due to unknown storage processes at local and catchment scale. We present an artificial neural network extension of a distributed hydrological model (WaSiM-ETH that allows to account for subsurface water transfer in a karstic environment. The extension was developed for the Alpine catchment of the river "Berchtesgadener Ache" (Berchtesgaden Alps, Germany, which is characterized by extreme topography and calcareous rocks. The model assumes porous conditions and does not account for karstic environments, resulting in systematic mismatch of modeled and measured runoff in discharge curves at the outlet points of neighboring high alpine subbasins. Various precipitation interpolation methods did not allow to explain systematic mismatches, and unknown subsurface hydrological processes were concluded as the underlying reason. We introduce a new method that allows to describe the unknown subsurface boundary fluxes, and account for them in the hydrological model. This is achieved by an artificial neural network approach (ANN, where four input variables are taken to calculate the unknown subsurface storage conditions. This was first developed for the high Alpine subbasin Königsseer Ache to improve the monthly water balance. We explicitly derive the algebraic transfer function of an artificial neural net to calculate the missing boundary fluxes. The result of the ANN is then implemented in the groundwater module of the hydrological model as boundary flux, and considered during the consecutive model
Makarieva, Olga; Nesterova, Nataliia; Lebedeva, Lyudmila; Sushansky, Sergey
In 2018, 70 years have passed since the beginning of observations at the Kolyma Water-Balance Station (KWBS), a unique scientific research hydrological and permafrost catchment. The volume and duration (50 continuous years) of hydrometeorological standard and experimental data, characterizing the natural conditions and processes occurring in mountainous permafrost conditions, significantly exceed any counterparts elsewhere in the world. The data are representative of mountainous territory of the North-East of Russia. In 1997, the station was terminated, thereby leaving Russia without operating research watersheds in the permafrost zone. This paper describes the dataset containing the series of daily runoff from 10 watersheds with an area from 0.27 to 21.3 km2, precipitation, meteorological observations, evaporation from soil and snow, snow surveys, soil thaw and freeze depths, and soil temperature for the period 1948-1997. It also highlights the main historical stages of the station's existence, its work and scientific significance, and outlines the prospects for its future, where the Kolyma Water-Balance Station could be restored to the status of a scientific research watershed and become a valuable international centre for hydrological research in permafrost. The data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881731.
Frappart, F; Ramillien, G; Famiglietti, JS
International audience; Land water and snow mass anomalies versus time were computed from the inversion of 50 GRACE geoids (August 2002 to February 2007) from the RL04 GFZ release and used to characterize the hydrology of the Arctic drainage system. GRACE-based time series have been compared to snow water equivalent and snow depth climatologies, and snowfall for validation purpose. Time series of regional averages of water volume were estimated for the 11 largest Peri-Arctic basins. Strong co...
Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol
A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.
Hooz A Mendivelso
Full Text Available A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs. There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.
Mendivelso, Hooz A.; Camarero, J. Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol
A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001
Riboust, Philippe; Thirel, Guillaume; Le Moine, Nicolas; Ribstein, Pierre
A better knowledge of the accumulated snow on the watersheds will help flood forecasting centres and hydro-power companies to predict the amount of water released during spring snowmelt. Since precipitations gauges are sparse at high elevations and integrative measurements of the snow accumulated on watershed surface are hard to obtain, using snow models is an adequate way to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) on watersheds. In addition to short term prediction, simulating accurately SWE with snow models should have many advantages. Validating the snow module on both SWE and snowmelt should give a more reliable model for climate change studies or regionalization for ungauged watersheds. The aim of this study is to create a new snow module, which has a structure that allows the use of measured snow data for calibration or assimilation. Energy balance modelling seems to be the logical choice for designing a model in which internal variables, such as SWE, could be compared to observations. Physical models are complex, needing high computational resources and many different types of inputs that are not widely measured at meteorological stations. At the opposite, simple conceptual degree-day models offer to simulate snowmelt using only temperature and precipitation as inputs with fast computing. Its major drawback is to be empirical, i.e. not taking into account all of the processes of the energy balance, which makes this kind of model more difficult to use when willing to compare SWE to observed measurements. In order to reach our objectives, we created a snow model structured by a simplified energy balance where each of the processes is empirically parameterized in order to be calculated using only temperature, precipitation and cloud cover variables. This model's structure is similar to the one created by M.T. Walter (2005), where parameterizations from the literature were used to compute all of the processes of the energy balance. The conductive fluxes into the
Full Text Available Grapes for wine production are a highly climate sensitive crop and vineyard water budget is a decisive factor in quality formation. In order to conduct risk assessments for climate change effects in viticulture, models are needed which can be applied to complete growing regions. We first modified an existing simplified geometric vineyard model of radiation interception and resulting water use to incorporate numerical Monte Carlo simulations and the physical aspects of radiation interactions between canopy and vineyard slope and azimuth. We then used four regional climate models to assess for possible effects on the water budget of selected vineyard sites up to 2100. The model was developed to describe the partitioning of short-wave radiation between grapevine canopy and soil surface, respectively green cover, necessary to calculate vineyard evapotranspiration. Soil water storage was allocated to two sub reservoirs. The model was adopted for steep slope vineyards based on coordinate transformation and validated against measurements of grapevine sap flow and soil water content determined down to 1.6 m depth at three different sites over two years. The results showed good agreement of modelled and observed soil water dynamics of vineyards with large variations in site specific soil water holding capacity and viticultural management. Simulated sap flow was in overall good agreement with measured sap flow but site-specific responses of sap flow to potential evapotranspiration were observed. The analyses of climate change impacts on vineyard water budget demonstrated the importance of site-specific assessment due to natural variations in soil water holding capacity. The model was capable of describing seasonal and site-specific dynamics in soil water content and could be used in an amended version to estimate changes in the water budget of entire grape growing areas due to evolving climatic changes.
Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells requires an appropriate hydration in order to ensure high efficiency and long durability. As water is essential for promoting proton conductivity in the membrane, it is important to control membrane water hydration to avoid flooding. In this study we...
Relations were derived for the calculation of heat liberated during the sodium water reaction in a tube failure in different parts of a steam generator. The results are graphically shown in i-T diagrams. Heat removal is described from the reaction zone to water and steam in undisturbed tubes and to the steam generator metal structure. (author)
Ufnar, David F.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Brenner, Richard L.; Witzke, B.J.
A latitudinal gradient in meteoric ??18O compositions compiled from paleosol sphaerosiderites throughout the Cretaceous Western Interior Basin (KWIB) (34-75??N paleolatitude) exhibits a steeper, more depleted trend than modern (predicted) values (3.0??? [34??N latitude] to 9.7??? [75??N] lighter). Furthermore, the sphaerosiderite meteoric ??18O latitudinal gradient is significantly steeper and more depleted (5.8??? [34??N] to 13.8??? [75??N] lighter) than a predicted gradient for the warm mid-Cretaceous using modern empirical temperature-??18O precipitation relationships. We have suggested that the steeper and more depleted (relative to the modern theoretical gradient) meteoric sphaerosiderite ??18O latitudinal gradient resulted from increased air mass rainout effects in coastal areas of the KWIB during the mid-Cretaceous. The sphaerosiderite isotopic data have been used to constrain a mass balance model of the hydrologic cycle in the northern hemisphere and to quantify precipitation rates of the equable 'greenhouse' Albian Stage in the KWIB. The mass balance model tracks the evolving isotopic composition of an air mass and its precipitation, and is driven by latitudinal temperature gradients. Our simulations indicate that significant increases in Albian precipitation (34-52%) and evaporation fluxes (76-96%) are required to reproduce the difference between modern and Albian meteoric siderite ??18O latitudinal gradients. Calculations of precipitation rates from model outputs suggest mid-high latitude precipitation rates greatly exceeded modern rates (156-220% greater in mid latitudes [2600-3300 mm/yr], 99% greater at high latitudes [550 mm/yr]). The calculated precipitation rates are significantly different from the precipitation rates predicted by some recent general circulation models (GCMs) for the warm Cretaceous, particularly in the mid to high latitudes. Our mass balance model by no means replaces GCMs. However, it is a simple and effective means of obtaining
González-Dugo, Maria P.; Chen, Xuelong; Andreu, Ana; Carpintero, Elisabet; Gómez-Giraldez, Pedro; Su, Z.(Bob)
Drought is one of the major hazards faced by natural and cropped vegetation in the Mediterranean Sea Basin. Water scarcity is likely to be worsened under the predicted conditions of climate change, which is expected to make this region both warmer and drier. A Holm oak savanna, known as dehesa in Spain and montado in Portugal, is an agro-silvo-pastoral system occupying more than 3 million hectares the Iberian Peninsula and Greece. It consists of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs. This ecosystem is considered an example of sustainable land use, supporting a large number of species and diversity of habitats and for its importance in rural economy. A similar ecosystem is worldwide distributed in areas with Mediterranean climate (as California or South Africa) and shares structural and functional properties with tropical savannas in Africa, Australia and South America. Remote sensing time series can assist the monitoring of the energy balance components, with special attention to the evapotranspiration and vegetation water stress over these areas. Long-term data analysis may improve our understanding of the functioning of the system, helping to assess drought impacts and leading to reduce the economic and environmental vulnerability of this ecosystem. This work analyzes the evolution the surface energy balance components, mapping the evapotranspiration