Sample records for water availability index

  1. Potential Water Availability Index (PWAI): A New Water Vulnerability Index for Africa Based on GRACE Data (United States)

    Hasan, E.; Tarhule, A.; Hong, Y.; Moore, B., III


    The critical role of water in enabling or constraining human wellbeing and socio-economic activities has led to interest in quantitatively establishing the status or index of water (in)sufficiency over time and space. Introduced in 1989, the first widely accepted index expressed the status of water resources availability in terms of vulnerability, stress, or scarcity. Since then, numerous refinements and modifications to the concept have been published but nearly all adopt the same basic formulation; water status is a function of available water resources and demand or use. However, accurately defining and assessing `available water' has proved problematic especially in data scarce regions, such as Africa. In this paper, we use Total Water Storage (TWS) estimated from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) in lieu of observational hydrologic data, to estimate the Water Scarcity Index (WSI) for Africa at country level. The monthly TWS Positive anomalies represent periods of net system recharge while negative anomalies represent net system loss due to evapotranspiration and anthropogenic withdrawals. The procedure is as follows. First, we calculated the long-term (2002-2014) Internal Water Storage (IWS) for each country using the monthly precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). Next, the yearly cumulative positive and negative anomalies were added to the long-term IWS to obtain volumetric Potential Water Storage (VPWS) per country. By dividing VPWS by population, we obtain estimates of per capita water availability which can be grouped into vulnerability classes using established thresholds. Our VPWS showed very high correlation (R2 =0.94, p=0.0001) with the values of Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR) estimated by AQUSTAT. Additionally, the GWSI is highly correlated (R2 =0.94, p=0.0001) with the existing WSI index from the world bank data center. The novelty and contribution of our approach is in using GRACE

  2. Root-zone plant available water estimation using the SMOS-derived soil water index (United States)

    González-Zamora, Ángel; Sánchez, Nilda; Martínez-Fernández, José; Wagner, Wolfgang


    Currently, there are several space missions capable of measuring surface soil moisture, owing to the relevance of this variable in meteorology, hydrology and agriculture. However, the Plant Available Water (PAW), which in some fields of application could be more important than the soil moisture itself, cannot be directly measured by remote sensing. Considering the root zone as the first 50 cm of the soil, in this study, the PAW at 25 cm and 50 cm and integrated between 0 and 50 cm of soil depth was estimated using the surface soil moisture provided by the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. For this purpose, the Soil Water Index (SWI) has been used as a proxy of the root-zone soil moisture, involving the selection of an optimal T (Topt), which can be interpreted as a characteristic soil water travel time. In this research, several tests using the correlation coefficient (R), the Nash-Sutcliffe score (NS), several error estimators and bias as predictor metrics were applied to obtain the Topt, making a comprehensive study of the T parameter. After analyzing the results, some differences were found between the Topt obtained using R and NS as decision metrics, and that obtained using the errors and bias, but the SWI showed good results as an estimator of the root-zone soil moisture. This index showed good agreement, with an R between 0.60 and 0.88. The method was tested from January 2010 to December 2014, using the database of the Soil Moisture Measurements Stations Network of the University of Salamanca (REMEDHUS) in Spain. The PAW estimation showed good agreement with the in situ measurements, following closely the dry-downs and wetting-up events, with R ranging between 0.60 and 0.92, and error values lower than 0.05 m3m-3. A slight underestimation was observed for both the PAW and root-zone soil moisture at the different depths; this could be explained by the underestimation pattern observed with the SMOS L2 soil moisture product, in line with previous

  3. The sensitivity of water availability to changes in the aridity index and other factors—A probabilistic analysis in the Budyko space (United States)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Greve, P.; Seneviratne, S. I.


    One of the pending questions in the context of global change is whether climatic drivers or other factors have stronger influences on water availability. Here we present an approach that allows to estimate the probability that changes in the aridity index have a larger effect on water availability than equal relative changes in other factors. The analysis builds upon a probabilistic extension of the Budyko framework, which is subject to an analytical sensitivity assessment. The results show that changes in water availability are only dominated by changes in the aridity index in very humid climates. This implies that projected intensifications of aridity in drylands may have less influence on water availability than commonly assumed. Instead, other climatic or nonclimatic factors are dominating. The analysis does hence allow to map regions in which water availability is more sensitive to equal relative changes in either the aridity index or all other factors.

  4. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus


    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  5. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.


    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  6. Aerobic and anaerobic incubation: Biological indexes of soil nitrogen availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresović Mirjana M.


    Full Text Available Our researches have been made on brown forest soil that had been used in long-term experiments set up according to specified fertilization system for over 30 years. We have chosen those experiment variants in which quantities of nitrogen fertilizers were gradually increased. The soil samples taken from 0 cm to 30 cm depth were used to determine biological indexes of nitrogen availability (aerobic and anaerobic incubation. The same samples were also used for pot experiments with oat. Plant and soil parameters obtained in controlled conditions were used for determination of biological indexes reliability in measuring the soil nitrogen availability. On the grounds of correlation analysis, it can be concluded that biological index of nitrogen availability achieved by the anaerobic incubation (without substraction of the initial content of available nitrogen of the investigated brown forest soil is the reliable indicator of soil nitrogen availability. That is not the case with the aerobic incubation in which reliability has not been established.

  7. Water availability and management for food security (United States)

    Food security is directly linked to water security for food production. Water availability for crop production will be dependent upon precipitation or irrigation, soil water holding capacity, and crop water demand. The linkages among these components in rainfed agricultural systems shows the impact ...

  8. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan (United States)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.


    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  9. Glycaemic index of four commercially available breads in Malaysia. (United States)

    Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Abd Talib, Ruzita; Karim, Norimah A; Kamarudin, Nor Azmi; Arshad, Fatimah


    This study was carried out to determine the blood glucose response and glycaemic index (GI) values of four types of commercially available breads in Malaysia. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men, six women; body mass index, 21.9±1.6 kg/m(2); age, 22.9±1.7 years) participated in this study. The breads tested were multi-grains bread (M-Grains), wholemeal bread (WM), wholemeal bread with oatmeal (WM-Oat) and white bread (WB). The subjects were studied on seven different occasions (four tests for the tested breads and three repeated tests of the reference food) after an overnight fast. Capillary blood samples were taken immediately before (0 min) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after consumption of the test foods. The blood glucose response was obtained by calculating the incremental area under the curve. The GI values were determined according to the standardized methodology. Our results showed that the M-Grains and WM-Oat could be categorized as intermediate GI while the WM and WB breads were high GI foods, respectively. The GI of M-Grains (56±6.2) and WM-Oat (67±6.9) were significantly lower than the reference food (glucose; GI = 100) (P food and the GI of WM (85±5.9) and WB (82±6.5) (P > 0.05). Among the tested breads, the GI values of M-Grains and WM-Oat were significantly lower (P foods.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 31, 2013 ... measurement units in a single metric and its effectiveness as a communication tool. ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.

  11. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling (United States)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun


    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  12. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor


    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  13. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.


    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  14. Water use and water availability constraints to decarbonised electricity systems (United States)

    Byers, Edward; Qadrdan, Meysam; Hall, Jim; Amezaga, Jaime; Chaudry, Modassar; Kilsby, Chris; Martino, Tran; Alderson, David


    Analysis of numerous low carbon electricity strategies have been shown to have very divergent water requirements, normally needed for cooling of thermoelectric power stations. Our regional river-basin scale analysis of water use for future UK electricity strategies shows that, whilst in the majority of cases freshwater use is expected to decline, pathways with high levels of carbon capture and storage (CCS) will result in significantly elevated and concentrated water demands in a few key river basins. Furthermore, these growing demands are compared to both current water availability, and our expected regional water availability under the impacts of climate change. We identify key freshwater constraints to electricity strategies with high levels of CCS and show how these risks may be mitigated with higher levels of hybrid cooling and alternative cooling water sources.

  15. Water Availability Indices – A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Fresh water is a critical resource for humanity and the ecosystem. In general, water resources can be partitioned into two major categories: blue water and green water (Falkenmark and Rockström 2006). Precipitation that runs off or percolates into the deep aquifer is defined as blue water, and precipitation that filtrates into soil, which eventually returns to the atmosphere as evaporation, is called green water (Hoekstra et al. 2011). For human purposes, green water is almost exclusively used for agricultural production, but blue water can be used for multiple competing sectors, such as irrigation and municipal water.

  16. Water availability study for California wetlands [ Modoc (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Conclusions to evaluation: Water supply appears to be adequate for present and future water requirements. The legality of South Fork Pit River diversions and the...

  17. Water quality index for Al-Gharraf River, southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Hussein Ewaid


    Full Text Available The Water Quality Index has been developed mathematically to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the main branch of the Tigris River in the south of Iraq. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2015–2016, and 11 parameters were analyzed: biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, the concentration of hydrogen ions, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, as well as turbidity, total hardness, electrical conductivity and alkalinity. The index classified the river water, without including turbidity as a parameter, as good for drinking at the first station, poor at stations 2, 3, 4 and very poor at station 5. When turbidity was included, the index classified the river water as unsuitable for drinking purposes in the entire river. The study highlights the importance of applying the water quality indices which indicate the total effect of the ecological factors on surface water quality and which give a simple interpretation of the monitoring data to help local people in improving water quality.

  18. 32 CFR 701.65 - Availability, public inspection, and indexing of other documents affecting the public. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability, public inspection, and indexing of... Indexing, Public Inspection, and Federal Register Publication of Department of the Navy Directives and Other Documents Affecting the Public § 701.65 Availability, public inspection, and indexing of...

  19. Evaluation index system for positive operation of water conservancy projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-yuan ZHU


    Full Text Available The conditions for the positive operation of water conservancy projects are described in this paper. A scientific and effective evaluation index system was established based on frequency analysis, theoretical analysis, and expert consultation. This evaluation index system can be divided into six first-level indices: the degree to which facilities are intact and functionality standards are reached, the status of operation and management funds, the rationality and degree of advancement of the management team structure, the adaptability and rationality of the water conservancy project management system, the degree of automatization and informationization of the management techniques, and the conduciveness of the exterior environment. The weights for evaluation indices were obtained through the analytic hierarchy process method with consideration of the difference between public welfare and profit-oriented water conservancy projects. This study provides a scientific method for evaluating the positive operation of water conservancy projects.

  20. Water-resources data index for Osceola National Forest, Florida (United States)

    Seaber, Paul R.; Hull, Robert W.


    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an intensive investigation from December 1975 to December 1977 of the geohydrology of Osceola National Forest, Fla. The primary purpose was to provide the geohydrological understanding needed to predict the impact of potential phosphate industry operations in the forest on the natural hydrologic system. The investigation involved test drilling, implementation of a hydrologic monitoring network, water-quality sampling, comprehensive aquifer tests, and literature study. This report is an index to the type, source, location, and availability of the data used in the interpretive investigation. The indexes include: geological, geophysical, ground water, surface water, quality of water, meteorological, climatological, aquifer tests, maps, photographs, elevations, and reference publications. The manner of storage and retrieval of the data is decribed also. (Woodard-USGS).

  1. 76 FR 62061 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions (United States)


    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... added by EPA because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for , or by writing or calling Ms. Diane Smith...

  2. 77 FR 54909 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions (United States)


    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... certain water quality limited waters and the associated pollutant to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that each state identify...

  3. Vegetation/Soil Synthesis Water Index Using MODIS Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In consideration of the spectral character of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data and the reflective spectrum of vegetation and soil, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index) are deduced using one visible band (0.66μm) and two near-infrared bands (0.86μm, 1.24 μm). Vegetation canopy temperature is derived using two thermal infrared bands (8.6 μm and 11μm). Then the vegetation/soil synthesis water index (VSWI) is acquired through analyzing the coupling character of three indexes which can reflect the water condition of vegetation. Finally, the synthesis index is verified by equivalent water content of a single leaf. The matching results show that the synthesis index is directly proportional to the modeled data, which means that the vegetation water content can be reflected using the synthesis index effectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat


    Full Text Available Issues connected with the standardization of radiation protection indexes of natural mineral waters are considered in the article. It is shown that classification of natural mineral waters according to their intended use which is accepted in GOST R 54316-2011 is close to their classification in the EU countries. Justification is given of the approaches to standardization of natural radionuclides content in natural mineral waters. It is shown that it is more acceptable to use the values of interventional levels for individual radionuclides given in Radiation Safety Standard-99/2009 for this purpose in comparing with the values given in WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Rojek


    Full Text Available The standardized precipitation index (SPI, standardized reference evapotranspiration index (SEI and standardized climatic water balance (SCWB were used to analyze the humidity conditions in the vegetation period of years 1964–2006 in Wrocław-Swojec Observatory. SPI and SEI were calculated on the assumption that empirical monthly precipitation sums and monthly sums of reference evapotraspiration, obtained from Wrocław-Swojec data, are gamma distributed. Since monthly sums of climatic water balance for analogous data are normally distributed, CWB required standardization to SCWB. The aim of study was to compare those three indexes: standardized precipitation index (SPI, standardized reference evapotranspiration index (SEI and standardized climatic water balance (SCWB.

  6. 25 CFR 137.2 - Availability of water. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of water. 137.2 Section 137.2 Indians BUREAU... COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.2 Availability of water. Pursuant to section... notice to announce when water is actually available for lands in private ownership under the project...

  7. Water Quality Index for Assessment of Rudrasagar Lake Ecosystem, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyanta pal


    Full Text Available Water quality of lakes, rivers and reservoirs in developing countries like India is being degraded because of the contaminated inflows and surrounding influence. There is a serious need for appropriate water quality monitoring for future planning and management of Lake and other type of water resources. Quality of water in Rudrasagar Lake, Tripura, India has been investigated in this paper. Water Quality Index (WQI was applied in Rudrasagar Lake India using water quality parameters like pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, Hardness, Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Nitrate. Based on the importance of the parameter for aquatic life the relative weight is assigned to each water quality parameter ranged from 1 to 4. Tests were performed on site using electronic measuring device as well as on Laboratory with samples of water collected from different locations of Rudrasagar Lake. It shows that water quality of Rudrasagar Lake falls within the ‗good water‘ category but marginally. Continuous monitoring of Rudrasagar lake is suggested for proper management.

  8. 'plant available water' aspects of water use efficiency under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review provides an overview of Water Research Commission (WRC)-funded research over the past 36 years. A total .... Management strategies and water balance measurements made to ...... Development in Africa and Asia, 14 to 16 July 2009, Göttingen,. Germany. ... Plots in the Central Region of South Africa.

  9. Water quality index using multivariate factorial analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiane Coletti; Roberto Testezlaf; Túlio A. P. Ribeiro; Renata T. G. de Souza; Daniela de A. Pereira


    The evaluation of environmental effects generated by agricultural production on water quality became essential in Brazil after the creation of policies for the use and conservation of water resources...

  10. A Three-Dimensional Index for Characterizing Crop Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Torrion


    Full Text Available The application of remotely sensed estimates of canopy minus air temperature (Tc-Ta for detecting crop water stress can be limited in semi-arid regions, because of the lack of full ground cover (GC at water-critical crop stages. Thus, soil background may restrict water stress interpretation by thermal remote sensing. For partial GC, the combination of plant canopy temperature and surrounding soil temperature in an image pixel is expressed as surface temperature (Ts. Soil brightness (SB for an image scene varies with surface soil moisture. This study evaluates SB, GC and Ts-Ta and determines a fusion approach to assess crop water stress. The study was conducted (2007 and 2008 on a commercial scale, center pivot irrigated research site in the Texas High Plains. High-resolution aircraft-based imagery (red, near-infrared and thermal was acquired on clear days. The GC and SB were derived using the Perpendicular Vegetation Index approach. The Ts-Ta was derived using an array of ground Ts sensors, thermal imagery and weather station air temperature. The Ts-Ta, GC and SB were fused using the hue, saturation, intensity method, respectively. Results showed that this method can be used to assess water stress in reference to the differential irrigation plots and corresponding yield without the use of additional energy balance calculation for water stress in partial GC conditions.

  11. 78 FR 20912 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions (United States)


    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice and initial request for public input. SUMMARY: The Clean Water Act requires that States... Richardson at (215) 814-5675. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires...

  12. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions (United States)


    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean Water... INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) (hereinafter referred to as ``Section...

  13. Applying water quality indexes (WQI to the use of water sources for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres


    Full Text Available Naturally occurring and anthropic contamination of water sources limits the use of water for human consumption. Fast and representative tools, such as water quality indexes (WQI,allow performing an integral assessment of the resource, this being essential when making decisions about the management and control of sanitary risks through different purification processes. A comparative analysis of applying WQINSF,Dinius WQI, ICAUCA and UWQI indexes at five points or stations on the Cauca River located in the Salvajina–Puerto Mallarino water uptake section, gave evidence of growing river deterioration due to the different socio-economic activities carried out in the river basin. This water quality condition brings about the incorporation of additional or specific treatment operations such as activated carbon or adsorption for the destination of the resource for human consumption. The presence of pathogens and particulate material were the variables mostly affecting WQI value. It is thus recommended that the development or adaptation of an index having a similar structure to the DQWI index should be considered to make a thorough river assessment and the additional use of soil which might generate the presence of other substances causing a sanitary risk in the source, considering variation in time and space of the parameters comprising it and its comparison with current legislation.

  14. Water Availability as a Measure of Cellulose Hydrolysis Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen

    of sugars, salts, and surfactants impact the water relaxation time. Systems with high concentrations of sugars and salts tend to have low water availability, as these form strong interactions with water to keep their solubility, leaving less water available for hydrolysis. Thus, cellulase performance...... to measure properties of the liquid phase, where water protons are characterized based on their mobility in the system as measured by their relaxation time. Studies of cellulose hydrolysis at low dry matter show that the contents of the liquid phase influence the final hydrolysis yield, as the presence...

  15. Water Availability for the Western United States - Key Scientific Challenges (United States)

    Anderson, Mark Theodore; Woosley, Lloyd H.


    In the Western United States, the availability of water has become a serious concern for many communities and rural areas. Near population centers, surface-water supplies are fully appropriated, and many communities are dependent upon ground water drawn from storage, which is an unsustainable strategy. Water of acceptable quality is increasingly hard to find because local sources are allocated to prior uses, depleted by overpumping, or diminished by drought stress. Some of the inherent characteristics of the West add complexity to the task of securing water supplies. The Western States, including the arid Southwest, have the most rapid population growth in the United States. The climate varies widely in the West, but it is best known for its low precipitation, aridity, and drought. There is evidence that the climate is warming, which will have consequences for Western water supplies, such as increased minimum streamflow and earlier snowmelt events in snow-dominated basins. The potential for departures from average climatic conditions threatens to disrupt society and local to regional economies. The appropriative rights doctrine governs the management of water in most Western States, although some aspects of the riparian doctrine are being incorporated. The 'use it or lose it' provisions of Western water law discourage conservation and make the reallocation of water to instream environmental uses more difficult. The hydrologic sciences have defined the interconnectedness of ground water and surface water, yet these resources are still administered separately by most States. The definition of water availability has been expanded to include sustaining riparian ecosystems and individual endangered species, which are disproportionately represented in the Western States. Federal reserved rights, common in the West because of the large amount of Federal land, exist with quite senior priority dates whether or not water is currently being used. A major challenge for water

  16. Topographic, edaphic, and vegetative controls on plant-available water (United States)

    Dymond, Salli F.; Bradford, John B.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Kolka, Randall K.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; DeSutter, Thomas S.


    Soil moisture varies within landscapes in response to vegetative, physiographic, and climatic drivers, which makes quantifying soil moisture over time and space difficult. Nevertheless, understanding soil moisture dynamics for different ecosystems is critical, as the amount of water in a soil determines a myriad ecosystem services and processes such as net primary productivity, runoff, microbial decomposition, and soil fertility. We investigated the patterns and variability in in situ soil moisture measurements converted to plant-available water across time and space under different vegetative cover types and topographic positions at the Marcell Experimental Forest (Minnesota, USA). From 0 – 228.6 cm soil depth, plant-available water was significantly higher under the hardwoods (12%), followed by the aspen (8%) and red pine (5%) cover types. Across the same soil depth, toeslopes were wetter (mean plant-available water = 10%) than ridges and backslopes (mean plant-available water was 8%), although these differences were not statistically significant (p plant-available water and that topography was not significantly related to plant-available water within this low-relief landscape. Additionally, during the three-year monitoring period, red pine and quaking aspen sites experienced plant-available water levels that may be considered limiting to plant growth and function. Given that increasing temperatures and more erratic precipitation patterns associated with climate change may result in decreased soil moisture in this region, these species may be sensitive and vulnerable to future shifts in climate.

  17. Socioeconomic differentials and availability of domestic water in South Africa (United States)

    Dungumaro, Esther W.

    The past few decades has seen massive efforts to increasing provision of domestic water. However, water is still unavailable to many people most of them located in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia. Furthermore, availability of water varies greatly both spatially and temporary. While other people pay so dearly for domestic water others have an easy access to adequate clean water and sanitation. Accessibility and affordability of domestic water and sanitation is determined by a great variety of factors including socioeconomic status of households. The main objective of the paper is to inform on factors which need to be taken into account when coming up with projects to provide domestic water. It is more critical when the issue of water pricing comes into the equation. Water pricing has many facets, including equity, willingness to pay and affordability. In this premise, it is deemed important to understand the socioeconomic characteristics of the people before deciding on the amount of money they will have to pay for water consumption. It is argued that understanding people’s socioeconomic situation will greatly help to ensure that principles of sustainability and equity in water allocation and pricing are achieved. To do so, the paper utilized 2002 South Africa General Household Survey (GHS), to analyze socioeconomic variables and availability of domestic water. Analysis was mainly descriptive. However, logistic regression analysis was also utilized to determine the likelihood of living in a household that obtain water from a safe source. The study found that there is a strong relationship between availability of domestic water and socioeconomic conditions. Economic status, household size and to a lesser extent gender of head of household were found to be strong predictors of living in a household which obtained water from a safe source. The paper recommends that needs and priorities for interventions in water provision should take into account

  18. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma


    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  19. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Young Hong


    Full Text Available The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at −10 and −1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at −10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively. Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

  20. The assessment of khorramabad River water quality with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index and Zoning by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolrahim Yusefzadeh


    Full Text Available Background : Rivers are a fraction of flowing waters in the worlds and one of the important sources of water for different consumptions such as agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. The aim of this study was to assess water quality of the Khorramrood River in Khorramabad by NSFWQI index. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quality parameters needed for NASWQI index calculation such as BOD5, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrate, fecal coliform, pH, total phosphate, temperature, turbidity and total suspended solids content were measured for six months (from July to December 2012using standard methods at six selected stations. The river zoning conducted by GIS software. Results: According to the results obtained through this study, the highest and the lowest water quality value was observed in stations 1 and 6 with NSFWQI indexes 82 water with good quality, 42 water with bad quality, respectively. With moving toward last station (from 1 to 6 station water pollution increased. Conclusion: Results of the study indicated that water quality index NSFWQI is a good index to identify the effect of polluter sources on the river water. Based on the average of the index NSFWQI, water quality in station one was good, in the second, third and fourth stations were mediocre and the fifth and sixth stations had bad quality. These results allow to make decisions about monitoring and controlling water pollution sources, as well as provide different efficient uses of it by relevant authorities.

  1. Predicting and mapping soil available water capacity in Korea. (United States)

    Hong, Suk Young; Minasny, Budiman; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Yihyun; Lee, Kyungdo


    The knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil available water capacity at a regional or national extent is essential, as soil water capacity is a component of the water and energy balances in the terrestrial ecosystem. It controls the evapotranspiration rate, and has a major impact on climate. This paper demonstrates a protocol for mapping soil available water capacity in South Korea at a fine scale using data available from surveys. The procedures combined digital soil mapping technology with the available soil map of 1:25,000. We used the modal profile data from the Taxonomical Classification of Korean Soils. The data consist of profile description along with physical and chemical analysis for the modal profiles of the 380 soil series. However not all soil samples have measured bulk density and water content at -10 and -1500 kPa. Thus they need to be predicted using pedotransfer functions. Furthermore, water content at -10 kPa was measured using ground samples. Thus a correction factor is derived to take into account the effect of bulk density. Results showed that Andisols has the highest mean water storage capacity, followed by Entisols and Inceptisols which have loamy texture. The lowest water retention is Entisols which are dominated by sandy materials. Profile available water capacity to a depth of 1 m was calculated and mapped for Korea. The western part of the country shows higher available water capacity than the eastern part which is mountainous and has shallower soils. The highest water storage capacity soils are the Ultisols and Alfisols (mean of 206 and 205 mm, respectively). Validation of the maps showed promising results. The map produced can be used as an indication of soil physical quality of Korean soils.

  2. Understanding the dynamics of water availability and use in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Engi, E.


    This report presents the preliminary results of an analysis of China`s water resources, part of an effort undertaken by the National Intelligence Council Medea scientists to improve the understanding of future food production and consumption in the People`s Republic of China. A dynamic water model was developed to simulate the hydrological budgetary processes in five river drainage basins located in northeastern, central, and southern China: the Chang Jiang (Yangtse River), Huanghe (Yellow River), Haihe, Huaihe, and Liaohe. The model was designed to assess the effects of changes in urban, industrial, and agricultural water use requirements on the availability of water in each basin and to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in China through the year 2025. The model imposes a sustainable yield constraint, that is, groundwater extraction is not allowed to exceed the sustainable yield; if the available water does not meet the total water use requirements, a deficit results. An agronomic model was also developed to generate projections of the water required to service China`s agricultural sector and compare China`s projected grain production with projected grain consumption requirements to estimate any grain surplus and/or deficit. In future refinements, the agronomic model will interface directly with the water model to provide for the exchange of information on projected water use requirements and available water. The preliminary results indicate that the Chang Jiang basin will have a substantial surplus of water through 2025 and that the Haihe basin is in an ongoing situation. The agricultural water use requirements based on grain production indicate that an agricultural water deficit in the Haihe basin begins before the onset of the modeling period (1980) and steadily worsens through 2025. This assumption is confirmed by reports that groundwater mining is already under way in the most intensely cultivated and populated areas of northern China.

  3. use of geographic information system and water quality index to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    3Scientific Data Management Directorate, Tigray Science and. Technology Agency, Mekelle ... information system (GIS) and water quality index. (WQI). Methodology ... State, Hintalo Wajirat wereda. ..... In this research paper the application of.

  4. Use of geographic information system and water quality index to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of geographic information system and water quality index to assess ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The study area Hewane is situated in the southern zone of Tigray Regional State, ... Article Metrics.

  5. Sap flow index as an indicator of water storage use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhdina Nadezhda


    Full Text Available Symmetrical temperature difference also known as the sap flow index (SFI forms the basis of the Heat Field Deformation sap flow measurement and is simultaneously collected whilst measuring the sap flow. SFI can also be measured by any sap flow method applying internal continuous heating through the additional installation of an axial differential thermocouple equidistantly around a heater. In earlier research on apple trees SFI was found to be an informative parameter for tree physiological studies, namely for assessing the contribution of stem water storage to daily transpiration. The studies presented in this work are based on the comparative monitoring of SFI and diameter in stems of different species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea omorika, Pinus sylvestris and tree sizes. The ability of SFI to follow the patterns of daily stem water storage use was empirically confirmed by our data. Additionally, as the HFD multipointsensors can measure sap flow at several stem sapwood depths, their use allowed to analyze the use of stored water in different xylem layers through SFI records. Radial and circumferential monitoring of SFI on large cork oak trees provided insight into the relative magnitude and timing of the contribution of water stored in different sapwood layers or stem sectors to transpiration.

  6. 78 FR 45925 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that each state identify...

  7. 78 FR 27233 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions (United States)


    ... decree, or settlement agreement required EPA to take action on a list in 2000 (65 FR 17170). Consistent... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires that...

  8. Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers , Senegal. (United States)

    Sambou, D.; Weihrauch, D.; Hellwing, V.; Diekkrüger, B.; Höllermann, B.; Gaye, A. T.


    Assessment of water availability and demand in Lake Guiers, SenegalWater resources are critical to economic growth and social development. In most African countries, supply of drinking water to satisfy population needs is a key issue because of population growth and climate and land use change. During the last three decades, increasing population, changing patterns of water demand, and concentration of population and economic activities in urban areas has pressurize Senegal's freshwater resources. To overcome this deficit, Senegal turned, to the exploitation of the Lake Guiers. It is the sole water reservoir which can be used extensively as a stable freshwater. Its water is use for irrigating crops and sugar refinery and as a drinking water resource for urban centres, including Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, as well as for the local population and animal herds. To ensure sustainability, a greater understanding of Lake Guiers's water resources and effective management of its use will be required. In this study we developed and quantified future water situation (water availability and demand) in Lake Guiers under scenarios of climate change and population growth until 2050, using the water management model WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning system). The results show that the pressure on Lake Guiers's water resources will increase, leading to greater competition between agriculture and municipal demand site. Decreasing inflows due to climate change will aggravate this situation. WEAP results offer basis to assister lake Guiers water resources manager for an efficient long-term planning and management. Keywords: climate change, population growth , IWRM, Lake Guiers, Senegal

  9. Water for utilities: climate change impacts on water quality and water availability for utilities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bonte, M.; Gorski, N.; Flörke, M.; Eisner, S.; Ludwig, F.


    This report provides an assessment of the consequences of changing water availability for production of drinking water, the manufacturing industry and power production in Europe, due to climate change and socio-economic developments. The report is based up on projections of demographic and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Jena


    Full Text Available Water quality index (WQI is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for the rainy, winter and summer seasons. The parameters namely pH, Total hardness, TDS,Calcium, Chloride, Sulphate, Sodium, Potassium, EC and DO values were within the permissible limits on the other hand total alkalinities and magnesium values were exceeding the permissible limits as prescribed by IndianStandards. However, the W.Q.I values in the present investigation were reported to be 83.43, 76.598 and 91.52 for different season indicating that the pond water quality is very poor and not totally safe for human consumption.

  11. Changes in Terrestrial Water Availability under Global Warming (United States)

    Lan, C. W.; Lo, M. H.; Chou, C.


    Under global warming, the annual range of precipitation is widening (Chou and Lan, 2012; Chou et al., 2013) and the frequency of precipitation extreme events also increases. Due to nonlinear responses of land hydrological process to precipitation extremes, runoff can increase exponentially, and on the hard hand, soil water storage may decline. In addition, IPCC AR5 indicates that soil moisture decreases in most areas under the global warming scenario. In this study, we use NCAR Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to simulate changes in terrestrial available water (TAW, defined as the precipitation minus evaporation minus runoff, and then divided by the precipitation) under global warming. Preliminary results show that the TAW has clear seasonal variations. Compared to previous studies, which do not include the runoff in the calculations of the available water, our estimates on the TAW has much less available water in high latitudes through out the year, especially under extreme precipitation events.

  12. Water and land availability for energy farming. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooley, F.A.; Mara, S.J.; Mendel, D.A.; Meagher, P.C.; So, E.C.


    The physical and economic availability of land and water resources for energy farming were determined. Ten water subbasins possessing favorable land and water availabilities were ranked according to their overall potential for biomass production. The study results clearly identify the Southeast as a favorable area for biomass farming. The Northwest and North-Central United States should also be considered on the basis of their highly favorable environmental characteristics. Both high and low estimates of water availability for 1985 and 2000 in each of 99 subbasins were prepared. Subbasins in which surface water consumption was more than 50% of surface water supply were eliminated from the land availability analysis, leaving 71 subbasins to be examined. The amount of acreage potentially available for biomass production in these subbasins was determined through a comparison of estimated average annual net returns developed for conventional agriculture and forestry with net returns for several biomass production options. In addition to a computerized method of ranking subbasins according to their overall potential for biomass production, a methodology for evaluating future energy farm locations was developed. This methodology included a general area selection procedure as well as specific site analysis recommendations. Thirty-five general factors and a five-step site-specific analysis procedure are described.

  13. Estimating MCC System Dryness Index using the Vineyard Water Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Marco Antônio Fonseca


    Full Text Available The Dryness Index (DI is one of the three Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (MCC System indices and its calculation is based on a soil water balance approach. However, other climatic indices can be used for the same purpose. One of them is the Vineyard Water Indicator (VWI that represents the ratio between the total rainfall and the vineyard water requirement during the productive period of the culture. When compared to DI, the VWI presents a simpler calculation methodology. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish a model to estimate DI based on VWI values. Climate data of 80 winegrowing regions in 18 countries were used. Four regression models were evaluated: linear, quadratic, logarithmic and the Mitscherlich model. Real and simulated data were compared using the confidence coefficient (c that corresponds to the product of the correlation coefficient (r by the exactness coefficient (d. The best fit was obtained employing the quadratic model and DI can be calculated using the following equation: DI = −363.84 VWI2+ 834.47 VWI – 257.17 (R2 = 0.93, for VHI <0.905. For VHI values equal to or greater than 0.905, DI is constant and equal to 200.

  14. Reduction of turbidity of water using locally available natural coagulants. (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md; Fakhruddin, A N M; Hossain, Md Alamgir


    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed.

  15. Plant-available soil water capacity: estimation methods and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Montoani Silva


    Full Text Available The plant-available water capacity of the soil is defined as the water content between field capacity and wilting point, and has wide practical application in planning the land use. In a representative profile of the Cerrado Oxisol, methods for estimating the wilting point were studied and compared, using a WP4-T psychrometer and Richards chamber for undisturbed and disturbed samples. In addition, the field capacity was estimated by the water content at 6, 10, 33 kPa and by the inflection point of the water retention curve, calculated by the van Genuchten and cubic polynomial models. We found that the field capacity moisture determined at the inflection point was higher than by the other methods, and that even at the inflection point the estimates differed, according to the model used. By the WP4-T psychrometer, the water content was significantly lower found the estimate of the permanent wilting point. We concluded that the estimation of the available water holding capacity is markedly influenced by the estimation methods, which has to be taken into consideration because of the practical importance of this parameter.

  16. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias. (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D


    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school.

  17. Water scarcity: moving beyond indexes to innovative institutions. (United States)

    Jarvis, W Todd


    Water scarcity is a media darling often times described as a trigger of conflict in arid regions, a by-product of human influences ranging from desertification to climate change, or a combination of natural- and human-induced changes in the water cycle. A multitude of indexes have been developed over the past 20 years to define water scarcity to map the "problem" and guide international donor investment. Few indexes include groundwater within the metrics of "scarcity." Institutional communication contributes to the recognition of local or regional water scarcity. However, evaluations that neglect groundwater resources may incorrectly define conditions as scarce. In cases where there is a perception of scarcity, the incorporation of groundwater and related storage in aquifers, political willpower, new policy tools, and niche diplomacy often results in a revised status, either reducing or even eliminating the moniker locally. Imaginative conceptualization and innovative uses of aquifers are increasingly used to overcome water scarcity.

  18. SeaDataNet network services monitoring: Definition and Implementation of Service availability index (United States)

    Lykiardopoulos, Angelos; Mpalopoulou, Stavroula; Vavilis, Panagiotis; Pantazi, Maria; Iona, Sissy


    SeaDataNet (SDN) is a standardized system for managing large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the automatic observation systems. The SeaDataNet network is constituted of national oceanographic data centres of 35 countries, active in data collection. SeaDataNetII project's objective is to upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art infrastructure; therefore Network Monitoring is a step to this direction. The term Network Monitoring describes the use of system that constantly monitors a computer network for slow or failing components and that notifies the network administrator in case of outages. Network monitoring is crucial when implementing widely distributed systems over the Internet and in real-time systems as it detects malfunctions that may occur and notifies the system administrator who can immediately respond and correct the problem. In the framework of SeaDataNet II project a monitoring system was developed in order to monitor the SeaDataNet components. The core system is based on Nagios software. Some plug-ins were developed to support SeaDataNet modules. On the top of Nagios Engine a web portal was developed in order to give access to local administrators of SeaDataNet components, to view detailed logs of their own service(s). Currently the system monitors 35 SeaDataNet Download Managers, 9 SeaDataNet Services, 25 GeoSeas Download Managers and 23 UBSS Download Managers . Taking advantage of the continuous monitoring of SeaDataNet system components a total availability index will be implemented. The term availability can be defined as the ability of a functional unit to be in a state to perform a required function under given conditions at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, assuming that the required external resources are provided. Availability measures can be considered as a are very important benefit becauseT - The availability trends that can be

  19. Availability of Water in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Coplen, T.B.; Plummer, L.N.; Rezai, M.T.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.


    The availability of water resources is vital to the social and economic well being and rebuilding of Afghanistan. Kabul City currently (2010) has a population of nearly 4 million and is growing rapidly as a result of periods of relative security and the return of refugees. Population growth and recent droughts have placed new stresses on the city's limited water resources and have caused many wells to become contaminated, dry, or inoperable in recent years. The projected vulnerability of Central and West Asia to climate change (Cruz and others, 2007; Milly and others, 2005) and observations of diminishing glaciers in Afghanistan (Molnia, 2009) have heightened concerns for future water availability in the Kabul Basin of Afghanistan.

  20. Does water availability regulate biomass partitioning between trunk and branches? (United States)

    Magnin, Amaru; Torres, Cristian Daniel; Villalba, Ricardo; Puntieri, Javier Guido


    The extent to which a vertical trunk is differentiated from its branches is a key trait for the architecture of trees and may affect interspecific relationships. In this study, we analyzed the effect of soil water availability on biomass partitioning for Nothofagus pumilio by means of a nursery experiment. Juvenile trees were subject to three irrigation conditions: no irrigation, intermediate irrigation and high irrigation. Irrigation conditions emulated the mean precipitation of the most representative environments inhabited by N. pumilio. Changes in soil water availability modified the biomass partitioning patterns of trees. In comparison to the other two conditions, high irrigation caused: (1) higher ratio of biomass partitioning to stems than roots; (2) more trunk growth in relation to its branches; and (3) more photosynthetic organs relative to the aboveground biomass. Trunk size relative to that of its most recent branches was not increased by water availability. Water availability may play a significant role in the capacity of N. pumilio for space occupation due to the effects on axis differentiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting chronic stinger syndrome using the mean subaxial space available for the cord index. (United States)

    Greenberg, Jared; Leung, Dan; Kendall, Jenny


    A 21-year-old division I collegiate football player who had a history of several stingers presented with 5 days of persistent left neck and shoulder pain associated with paresthesias and upper extremity weakness. His symptoms began immediately during a game when he was struck on the right side of his helmet, which induced a compression-extension mechanism of injury to his neck. Clinical and electrodiagnostic evaluation was consistent with a left C5 radiculopathy, but magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine yielded normal results. The mean subaxial cervical space available for the cord (MSCSAC) index is a novel tool to predict chronic stinger syndrome. It is calculated by subtracting the sagittal diameter of the spinal cord from the disc-level sagittal diameter of the spinal canal at levels C3 through C6 and then averaging these values. A cutoff of < 4.3 mm has been shown to predict a greater-than-13-fold increase in risk of developing chronic stinger syndrome. This patient had a MSCSAC index of 3.2 mm, which correlated with his history of multiple stingers. The MSCSAC index may be a useful tool to help counsel athletes on the risk of developing future stingers, although more extensive research on this measurement tool is indicated.

  2. Alleviation of Zn toxicity by low water availability. (United States)

    Disante, Karen B; Cortina, Jordi; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Fuentes, David; Hernández, Encarni I; Ljung, Karin


    Heavy metal contamination and drought are expected to increase in large areas worldwide. However, their combined effect on plant performance has been scantly analyzed. This study examines the effect of Zn supply at different water availabilities on morpho-physiological traits of Quercus suber L. in order to analyze the combined effects of both stresses. Seedlings were treated with four levels of zinc from 3 to 150 µM and exposed to low watering (LW) or high watering (HW) frequency in hydroponic culture, using a growth chamber. Under both watering regimes, Zn concentration in leaves and roots increased with Zn increment in nutrient solution. Nevertheless, at the highest Zn doses, Zn tissue concentrations were almost twice in HW than in LW seedlings. Functional traits as leaf photosynthetic rate and root hydraulic conductivity, and morphological traits as root length and root biomass decreased significantly in response to Zn supply. Auxin levels increased with Zn concentrations, suggesting the involvement of this phytohormone in the seedling response to this element. LW seedlings exposed to 150 µM Zn showed higher root length and root biomass than HW seedlings exposed to the same Zn dose. Our results suggest that low water availability could mitigate Zn toxicity by limiting internal accumulation. Morphological traits involved in the response to both stresses probably contributed to this response.

  3. Detection of Ground Water Availability at Buhias Island, Sitaro Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetly E Tamod


    Full Text Available The study aims to detect ground water availability at Buhias Island, Siau Timur Selatan District, Sitaro Regency. The research method used the survey method by geoelectrical instrument based on subsurface rock resistivity as a geophysical exploration results with geoelectrical method of Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Resistivity geoelectrical method is done by injecting a flow into the earth surface, then it is measured the potential difference. This study consists of 4 tracks in which each track is made the stretch model of soil layer on subsurface of ground.  Then, the exploration results were processed using software RES2DINV to look at the data of soil layer based on the value of resistivity (2D. Interpretation result of the track 1 to 4 concluded that there is a layer of ground water. State of dominant ground water contains the saline (brackish. Location of trajectory in the basin to the lowland areas is mostly mangrove swamp vegetation. That location is the junction between the results of the runoff of rainfall water that falls down from the hills with sea water. Bedrock as a constituent of rock layer formed from marine sediments that carry minerals salts.

  4. Calculation of available water supply in crop root zone and the water balance of crops (United States)

    Haberle, Jan; Svoboda, Pavel


    Determination of the water supply available in soils for crops is important for both the calculation of water balance and the prediction of water stress. An approach to calculations of available water content in layers of the root zone, depletion of water during growth, and water balance, with limited access to data on farms, is presented. Soil water retention was calculated with simple pedotransfer functions from the texture of soil layers, root depth, and depletion function were derived from observed data; and the potential evapotranspiration was calculated from the temperature. A comparison of the calculated and experimental soil water contents showed a reasonable fit.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  6. Does mountain permafrost in Mongolia control water availability? (United States)

    Menzel, Lucas; Kopp, Benjamin; Munkhjargal, Munkhdavaa


    In semi-arid Mongolia, continuous and discontinuous permafrost covers wide parts of the mountains, especially in the northwest of the country. Long-term analysis of annual discharge from rivers draining the mountainous parts shows high temporal variability, with some evidence of decreasing trends, accompanied by decreased intra-annual variability. Investigations show that annual precipitation features small changes while annual air temperature significantly increased over the last decades, with warming rates clearly outranging the global average. Widespread and drastic changes in land cover through forest fires in northern Mongolia might have an additional impact on water retention and the stability of permafrost. Hence, there is concern about an increased degradation of mountain permafrost and a possible impact on river discharge and water availability. Decreased water availability from the mountains would have strong socio-economic implications for the population living in the steppe belt downstream the mountains. Therefore, a monitoring program has been conducted in northern Mongolia that aims to improve the understanding of how climate change and forest fires are influencing mountain permafrost and water resources. The study region, Sugnugur valley, is located about 100 km north of Ulaanbaatar and includes the transition belt between the steppe, the boreal zone and the alpine tundra of the Khentii Mountains. Extensive measurements of soil temperatures, soil moisture, discharge and climatic parameters have been carried out along transects which stretch across the Sugnugur river valley and include steppe, boreal forest as well as burnt forest. First results indicate that the environmental conditions show drastic changes after forest fire, with reduced water retention in the headwaters. After forest fires, changing runoff processes above the permafrost table have been observed, where water drains rapidly along preferential flow paths. This eventually leads to

  7. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India


    I Nanda Balan; Shivakumar, M.; Madan Kumar, P. D.


    Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and ...

  8. Compounding Impacts of Human-Induced Water Stress and Climate Change on Water Availability (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Stewardson, Michael J.; Peel, Murray C.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Wada, Yoshihide; Ravalico, Jakin K.


    The terrestrial phase of the water cycle can be seriously impacted by water management and human water use behavior (e.g., reservoir operation, and irrigation withdrawals). Here we outline a method for assessing water availability in a changing climate, while explicitly considering anthropogenic water demand scenarios and water supply infrastructure designed to cope with climatic extremes. The framework brings a top-down and bottom-up approach to provide localized water assessment based on local water supply infrastructure and projected water demands. When our framework is applied to southeastern Australia we find that, for some combinations of climatic change and water demand, the region could experience water stress similar or worse than the epic Millennium Drought. We show considering only the influence of future climate on water supply, and neglecting future changes in water demand and water storage augmentation might lead to opposing perspectives on future water availability. While human water use can significantly exacerbate climate change impacts on water availability, if managed well, it allows societies to react and adapt to a changing climate. The methodology we present offers a unique avenue for linking climatic and hydrologic processes to water resource supply and demand management and other human interactions.

  9. Silicate fertilization of tropical soils: silicon availability and recovery index of sugarcane

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    Mônica Sartori de Camargo


    Full Text Available Sugarcane is considered a Si-accumulating plant, but in Brazil, where several soil types are used for cultivation, there is little information about silicon (Si fertilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the silicon availability, uptake and recovery index of Si from the applied silicate on tropical soils with and without silicate fertilization, in three crops. The experiments in pots (100 L were performed with specific Si rates (0, 185, 370 and 555 kg ha-1 Si, three soils (Quartzipsamment-Q, 6 % clay; Rhodic Hapludox-RH, 22 % clay; and Rhodic Acrudox-RA, 68 % clay, with four replications. The silicon source was Ca-Mg silicate. The same Ca and Mg quantities were applied to all pots, with lime and/or MgCl2, when necessary. Sugarcane was harvested in the plant cane and first- and second-ratoon crops. The silicon rates increased soil Si availability and Si uptake by sugarcane and had a strong residual effect. The contents of soluble Si were reduced by harvesting and increased with silicate application in the following decreasing order: Q>RH>RA. The silicate rates promoted an increase in soluble Si-acetic acid at harvest for all crops and in all soils, except RA. The amounts of Si-CaCl2 were not influenced by silicate in the ratoon crops. The plant Si uptake increased according to the Si rates and was highest in RA at all harvests. The recovery index of applied Si (RI of sugarcane increased over time, and was highest in RA.

  10. Survey of water quality in Moradbeik river basis on WQI index by GIS

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    Mohammad Taghi Samadi


    Full Text Available Background: Survey of pollution and evaluation of water quality in rivers with Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI and GIS are effective tools for management of the impact of environmental water resources. The information in calculating the WQI of Moradbeikriver allowed us to take our tests results and make a scientific conclusion about the quality of water. GIS can be a powerful tool for developing solutions for water resources problems for assessing water quality, determining water availability, preventing flooding, understanding the natural environment, and managing water resources on a local or regional scale. Methods: The WQI of Moradbeikriver consists of nine tests: Fecal Coliform (FC, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5, Nitrates (NO3, Total Phosphate (PO4, pH, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, turbidity, and Total Solid (TS. Water quality of Moradbeikriver was investigated for 12 months. Concentrations of these nine variables were normalized on a scale from 0 to 100 and translated into statements of water quality (excellent, good, regular, fair, and poor. Also this data were analyzed with WQI index, and then river basis on water quality was zoning by GIS. Results: The average of WQI was 61.62, which corresponded to ‘‘medium’’ quality water at the sampling point 1 (best station and decreased to around 26.41 (bad quality at sampling point 6. The association between sampling points and water quality indexes was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Based on physical, chemical and biological agent monitoring and also with control of water quality indexes of these points, we observed wastewater and other river pollutants.

  11. Development, application, and sensitivity analysis of a water quality index for drinking water management in small systems. (United States)

    Scheili, A; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, R


    The aim of this study was to produce a drinking water assessment tool for operators of small distribution systems. A drinking water quality index (DWQI) was developed and applied to small systems based on the water quality index of the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment. The drinking water quality index was adapted to specific needs by creating four drinking water quality scenarios. First, the temporal and spatial dimensions of drinking water quality variability were taken into account. The DWQI was designed to express global drinking water quality according to different monitoring frequencies. Daily, monthly, and seasonal assessment was also considered. With the data made available, it was possible to use the index as a spatial monitoring tool and express water quality in different points in the distribution system. Moreover, adjustments were made to prioritize the type of contaminant to monitor. For instance, monitoring contaminants with acute health effects led to a scenario based on daily measures, including easily accessible and affordable water quality parameters. On the other hand, contaminants with chronic effects, especially disinfection by-products, were considered in a seasonal monitoring scenario where disinfection by-product reference values were redefined according to their seasonal variability. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to validate the index. Globally, the DWQI developed is adapted to the needs of small systems. In fact, expressing drinking water quality using the DWQI contributes to the identification of problematic periods and segments in the distribution system. Further work may include this index in the development of a customized decision-making tool for small-system operators and managers.

  12. Quantifying Impacts of Food Trade on Water Availability Considering Water Sources (United States)

    Oki, T.; Yano, S.; Hanasaki, N.


    Food production requires a lot of water, and traded food potentially has external impacts on environment through reducing the water availability in the producing region. Water footprint is supposed to be an indicator to reflect the impacts of water use. However, impacts of water use on environment, resource, and sustainability are different in place and time, and according to the sources of water withdrawals. Therefore it is preferable to characterize the water withdrawals or consumptions rather than just accumulate the total amount of water use when estimating water footprint. In this study, a new methodology, global green-water equivalent method, is proposed in which regional characterization factors are determined based on the estimates of natural hydrological cycles, such as precipitation, total runoff, and sub-surface runoff, and applied for green-water, river(+reservoir) water, and non-renewable ground water uses. Water footprint of the world associated with the production of 19 major crops was estimated using an integrated hydrological and water resources modeling system (H08), with atmospheric forcing data for 1991-2000 with spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 longitudinal and latitudinal degrees. The impacts is estimated to be 6 times larger than the simple summation of green and blue water uses, and reflect the climatological water scarcity conditions geographically. The results can be used to compare the possible impacts of food trade associated with various crops from various regions on environment through reducing the availability of water resources in the cropping area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Rybkina


    Full Text Available The study of problem associated with water availability and its mapping is due to the need to solve urgent water problems of the Russian regions for their sustainable development. At the same time, sustainability is understood as rational use of water resources and their conservation to maintain the ecological balance of territories, and water security of regions is evaluated from the standpoint of water supply to municipalities. The shortage of water resources in Russia is perceived skeptically since our country is rich in water resources and the scarcity of fresh water threatens only a small part of its territory. However, the experts consider [Danilov-Danilyan, Galfan, 2015] that such a myopic point of view can lead in the long term to emergencies. The potential danger and risk of water use are already typical for the areas, which experience water stress. These are the territories with extremely low water availability per capita, less than 1.0-2.0 thousand m3/person/year [Shiklomanov, 2000; Danilov-Danilyan, Losev, 2006]. Geoinformation-cartographic modeling allows to differentiate the area under study according to water resource potential, to identify municipalities with low water availability and to estimate the population living in the area of potential danger and risk of water use.

  14. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India (United States)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.


    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  15. Water quality assessment in Qu River based on fuzzy water pollution index method. (United States)

    Li, Ranran; Zou, Zhihong; An, Yan


    A fuzzy improved water pollution index was proposed based on fuzzy inference system and water pollution index. This method can not only give a comprehensive water quality rank, but also describe the water quality situation with a quantitative value, which is convenient for the water quality comparison between the same ranks. This proposed method is used to assess water quality of Qu River in Sichuan, China. Data used in the assessment were collected from four monitoring stations from 2006 to 2010. The assessment results show that Qu River water quality presents a downward trend and the overall water quality in 2010 is the worst. The spatial variation indicates that water quality of Nanbashequ section is the pessimal. For the sake of comparison, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and grey relational method were also employed to assess water quality of Qu River. The comparisons of these three approaches' assessment results show that the proposed method is reliable.

  16. Determination of Water Sensitivity Index in EstakoWest and Esan Central, Nigeria

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    Philipa O. Idogho


    Full Text Available As world population and industrial-agricultural outputs have increased, the use of water has accelerated. This development leads to extreme difficulty to provide sufficient safe drinking water in Etasko-West and Esan Central. Water sensitivity was measured in six major towns in Etasko-West and Esan Central. Water Measuring Indicators such as Water Poverty Index-Real Time (WPIr, Water Factor Value (WFV and Access-Demand Factor (γ were applied to generate water sensitivity iterations. The outputs of these iterations show that Irrua has the fairest water supply and distribution with WPIr, WFA and γ index value of 0.22; 0.77 and 0.76, while Auchi and Ewu experience acute water shortage with the following index values: WPIr-0.43, 0.39; WFV-0.06, 0.16; and γ-0.64, 0.6 respectively. Results of One-Sample Test and Paired Sample Statistics show that the proportion of monthly income spent on portable water is significant at 0.95 confidence interval in all towns, except Auchi. Comparative analysis indicates strong relationship (R 2=0.667 between the resources spent in procuring clean water and accessibility-demand ratio in the region. Private sector participation recorded highest investment value of 62% on water sector; government and corporate organization recorded 23% and 15% respectively. Since private sector determines the progresses of water sector, this accounts for the exorbitant tariff of 1, 500 N per m 3 in this region. It is deduced that the most significant problems faced with water accessibility-affordability are transportation, finance and power supply with computed constraint index value of 47%, 40% and 13% respectively. Finally, Etasko-West and Esan Central are highly waterstressed. Government, corporate organization and private investors need to establish technically-based measures to ensure perfect accessibility and affordability of this scarce utility.

  17. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Masui


    Full Text Available A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs. SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also qualitative ones such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. In this paper, water availability and water scarcity were assessed using a global hydrological model called H08. H08 simulates both the natural water cycle and major human activities such as water withdrawal and reservoir operation. It simulates water availability and use at daily time intervals at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. A series of global hydrological simulations were conducted under the SSPs, taking into account different climate policy options and the results of climate models. Water scarcity was assessed using an index termed the Cumulative Withdrawal to Demand ratio, which is expressed as the accumulation of daily water withdrawal from a river over the potential daily water consumption demand. This index can be used to express whether renewable water resources are available from rivers when required. The results suggested that by 2071–2100 the population living under severely water stressed conditions for SSP1-5 will reach 2588–2793 × 106 (39–42% of total population, 3966–4298 × 106 (46–50%, 5334–5643 × 106 (52–55%, 3427–3786 × 106 (40–45%, 3164–3379 × 106 (46–49%, respectively, if climate policies are not adopted. Even in SSP1 (the scenario with least change in water use and climate global water scarcity increases considerably, as compared to the present day. This is mainly due to the growth in population and economic

  18. Measuring urban water conservation policies: Toward a comprehensive index (United States)

    Hess, David; Wold, Christopher; Worland, Scott C.; Hornberger, George M.


    This article (1) discusses existing efforts to measure water conservation policies (WCPs) in the United States (U.S.); (2) suggests general methodological guidelines for creating robust water conservation indices (WCIs); (3) presents a comprehensive template for coding WCPs; (4) introduces a summary index, the Vanderbilt Water Conservation Index (VWCI), which is derived from 79 WCP observations for 197 cities for the year 2015; and (5) compares the VWCI to WCP data extracted from the 2010 American Water Works Association (AWWA) Water and Wastewater Rates survey. Existing approaches to measuring urban WCPs in U.S. cities are limited because they consider only a portion of WCPs or they are restricted geographically. The VWCI consists of a more comprehensive set of 79 observations classified as residential, commercial/industrial, billing structure, drought plan, or general. Our comparison of the VWCI and AWWA survey responses indicate reasonable agreement (ρ = 0.76) between the two WCIs for 98 cities where the data overlap. The correlation suggests the AWWA survey responses can provide fairly robust longitudinal WCP information, but we argue the measurement of WCPs is still in its infancy, and our approach suggests strategies for improving existing methods.

  19. Optimising The Available Scarce Water Resources At European Scale In A Modelling Environment: Results And Challenges (United States)

    de Roo, Ad; Burek, Peter; Gentile, Alessandro; Udias, Angel; Bouraoui, Faycal


    As a next step to European drought monitoring and forecasting, which is covered in the European Drought Observatory (EDO) activity of JRC, a modeling environment has been developed to assess optimum measures to match water availability and water demand, while keeping ecological, water quality and flood risk aspects also into account. A multi-modelling environment has been developed to assess combinations of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures for continental Europe. These simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of those measures on several hydro-chemical indicators, such as the Water Exploitation Index, Environmental Flow indicators, low-flow frequency, N and P concentrations in rivers, the 50-year return period river discharge as an indicator for flooding, and economic losses due to water scarcity for the agricultural sector, the industrial sector, and the public sector. Also, potential flood damage of a 100-year return period flood has been used as an indicator. This modeling environment consists of linking the agricultural CAPRI model, the land use LUMP model, the water quantity LISFLOOD model, the water quality EPIC model, the combined water quantity/quality and hydro-economic LISQUAL model and a multi-criteria optimization routine. A python interface platform (IMO) has been built to link the different models. The work was carried out in the framework of a new European Commission policy document "Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources", COM(2012)673), launched in November 2012. Simulations have been carried out to assess the effects of water retention measures, water savings measures, and nutrient reduction measures on several hydro-chemical indicators, such as the Water Exploitation Index, Environmental Flow indicators, N and P concentrations in rivers, the 50-year return period river discharge as an indicator for flooding, and economic losses due to water scarcity for the agricultural

  20. A novel water poverty index model for evaluation of Chinese regional water security (United States)

    Gong, L.; Jin, C. L.; Li, Y. X.; Zhou, Z. L.


    This study proposed an improved Water Poverty Index (WPI) model employed in evaluating Chinese regional water security. Firstly, the Chinese WPI index system was constructed, in which the indicators were obtained according to China River reality. A new mathematical model was then established for WPI values calculation on the basis of Center for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) model. Furthermore, this new model was applied in Shiyanghe River (located in western China). It turned out that the Chinese index system could clearly reflect the indicators threatening security of river water and the Chinese WPI model is feasible. This work has also developed a Water Security Degree (WSD) standard which is able to be regarded as a scientific basis for further water resources utilization and water security warning mechanism formulation.

  1. Establishment of water quality index (Na+, Ca2+) for purified water reused to zinc electrolysis process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Li-yuan; XIAO Hai-juan; WANG Yun-yan; PEI Fei; SHU Yu-de; ZHANG Jin-long


    The effects of Na+ and Ca2+ in the purified water on the conductivity of zinc electrolyte and the current efficiency of zinc electrolysis were studied by the alternating current bridge method and the simulated electrolysis experiments, and the water quality index of reused water was established. The results show that the conductivity of the solution and the current efficiency decrease as these two kinds of positive ions are added in the electrolyte. The effect of Ca2+ is much more remarkable than that of Na+. ρ(Na+)≤ 8 g/L and ρ(Ca2+)≤20 mg/L are the quality indexes in the zinc electrolysis process and the concentrations of Na+ and Ca2+ in the purified water reused to the process should be less than the limited values, i.e. the water quality index of the purified water should be controlled by its reused amount.

  2. Fuzzy Logic Water Quality Index and Importance of Water Quality Parameters

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    Raman Bai. V


    Full Text Available Determination of status of water quality of a river or any other water sources is highly indeterminate. It is necessary to have a competent model to predict the status of water quality and to advice for type of water treatment for meeting different demands. One such model (UNIQ2007 is developed as an application software in water quality engineering. The unit operates in a fuzzy logic mode including a fuzzification engine receiving a plurality of input variables on its input and being adapted to compute membership function parameters. A processor engine connected downstream of the fuzzification unit will produce fuzzy set, based on fuzzy variable viz. DO, BOD, COD, AN, SS and pH. It has a defuzzification unit operative to translate the inference results into a discrete crisp value of WQI. The UNIQ2007 contains a first memory device connected to the fuzzification unit and containing the set of membership functions, a secondary memory device connected to the defuzzification unit and containing the set of crisp value which appear in the THEN part of the fuzzy rules and an additional memory device connected to the defuzzification unit. More advantageously, UINQ2007 is constructed with control elements having dynamic fuzzy logic properties wherein target non-linearity can be input to result in a perfect evaluation of water quality. The development of the fuzzy model with one river system is explained in this paper. Further the model has been evaluated with the data from few rivers in Malaysia, India and Thailand. This water quality assessor probe can provide better quality index or identify the status of river with 90% perfection. Presently, WQI in most of the countries is referring to physic-chemical parameters only due to great efforts needed to quantify the biological parameters. This study ensures a better method to include pathogens into WQI due to superior capabilities of fuzzy logic in dealing with non-linear, complex and uncertain systems.

  3. Adaptation of Leaf Water Relations to Climatic and Habitat Water Availability

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    Patrick J. Mitchell


    Full Text Available Successful management of forest systems requires a deeper understanding of the role of ecophysiological traits in enabling adaptation to high temperature and water deficit under current and anticipated changes in climate. A key attribute of leaf water relations is the water potential at zero turgor (πtlp, because it defines the operating water potentials over which plants actively control growth and gas exchange. This study examines the drivers of variation in πtlp with respect to species climate of origin and habitat water availability. We compiled a water relations database for 174 woody species occupying clearly delineated gradients in temperature and precipitation across the Australian continent. A significant proportion of the variability in πtlp (~35% could be explained by climatic water deficit and its interaction with summertime maximum temperature, demonstrating the strong selective pressure of aridity and high temperature in shaping leaf water relations among Australian species. Habitat water availability (midday leaf water potential, was also a significant predictor of πtlp (R2 = 0.43, highlighting the importance of species ecohydrologic niche under a set of climatic conditions. Shifts in πtlp in response to both climatic and site-based drivers of water availability emphasises its adaptive significance and its suitability as a predictor of plant performance under future climatic change.

  4. The implementation of an aquatic toxicity index as a water quality monitoring tool in the Olifants River (Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wepener


    Full Text Available Large sets of water quality data can leave water quality managers and decision-makers totally overwhelmed. In order to convey the interpretation of the data in a simplified and understandable manner, the water quality results from bi-monthly surveys undertaken at seven different sampling sites in the Letaba, Olifants, and Selati rivers over a two year period (February 1990 to April 1992 were reduced to index values, using a water quality index. The water quality index (Aquatic Toxicity Index or ATI revealed spatial and temporal trends. The higher index values, recorded for the sampling sites towards the eastern part of the Kruger National Park (KNP, revealed that the water quality was better than the quality measured in the Olifants River on the western bound-ary. The lowest index values were calculated for the Selati River, with index values consistently below 50. Index values indicate that the water quality in the Selati River was unsuitable for supporting normal physiological processes in fish. The water quality of the Selati River had an immediate impact on the water quality of the Olifants River directly below the confluence. Lower index values recorded at sites further downstream was also attributed to the influence of the Selati River since there are no known point sources of contaminants within the boundaries of the KNP. The index scores also elucidated temporal trends with lower scores evident during winter months. This was due to reduced flow in the Olifants River and a greater contribution of contaminated water from the Selati River. Index values increased following the first seasonal rains due to a dilution effect. Very low index values were recorded at certain sites during flood periods due to increased turbidity, reduced oxygen, and increased metal concentrations.

  5. Developing an operational rangeland water requirement satisfaction index (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Rowland, J.


    Developing an operational water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) for range-land monitoring is an important goal of the famine early warning systems network. An operational WRSI has been developed for crop monitoring, but until recently a comparable WRSI for rangeland was not successful because of the extremely poor performance of the index when based on published crop coefficients (Kc) for rangelands. To improve the rangeland WRSI, we developed a simple calibration technique that adjusts the Kc values for rangeland monitoring using long-term rainfall distribution and reference evapotranspiration data. The premise for adjusting the Kc values is based on the assumption that a viable rangeland should exhibit above-average WRSI (values >80%) during a normal year. The normal year was represented by a median dekadal rainfall distribution (satellite rainfall estimate from 1996 to 2006). Similarly, a long-term average for potential evapotranspiration was used as input to the famine early warning systems network WRSI model in combination with soil-water-holding capacity data. A dekadal rangeland WRSI has been operational for east and west Africa since 2005. User feedback has been encouraging, especially with regard to the end-of-season WRSI anomaly products that compare the index's performance to 'normal' years. Currently, rangeland WRSI products are generated on a dekadal basis and posted for free distribution on the US Geological Survey early warning website at

  6. USGS Water Availability and Use Science Program - research Towards a national water budget (United States)

    Dalton, M.


    A key part of achieving the US Department of the Interior's sustainability goals is informing the public and decision makers about the status and trends of the Nation's water resources. To achieve these goals the USGS has implemented a National Water Census (NWC) to provide a more accurate picture of the quantity of the Nation's water resources and improve forecasting of water availability for current and future economic, energy production, and environmental uses. In 2016, to streamline water sustainability activities, the USGS realigned all water availability and use oriented research, including the NWC, within a new Program - the Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP). WAUSP supports producing a current, comprehensive scientific assessment of the factors that influence water availability through development of nationally consistent datasets on the status and trends of water budget components (precipitation, streamflow, groundwater, and evapotranspiration), as well as human water use; improving the current understanding of flow requirements for ecological purposes; and evaluating water-resource conditions in selected river basins, or Focus Area Studies, where competition for water is a local concern. In addition to supporting research that provides water budget component estimates at the smallest possible spatial and temporal scale, WAUSP has supported the development of new methods and techniques to improve estimation of water use through the National Water Use Science project. These efforts include developing a heat budget-based model to improve estimates of thermoelectric water use, evaluating direct and indirect water use associated with unconventional oil and gas production, and developing methods to estimate irrigation consumptive use at both the local and regional scale. Additionally, WAUSP collaborates with federal, State, local, and University partners on a number of other water use related research including the new Water Use Data and

  7. Application of a revised Water Poverty Index to target the water poor. (United States)

    Garriga, R Giné; Foguet, A Pérez


    The Water Poverty Index (WPI) has been recognized as a useful tool in policy analysis. The index integrates various physical, social and environmental aspects to enable more holistic assessment of water resources. However, soundness of this tool relies on two complementary aspects: (i) inadequate techniques employed in index construction would produce unreliable results, and (ii) poor dissemination of final outcome would reduce applicability of the index to influence policy-making. From a methodological point of view, a revised alternative to calculate the index was developed in a previous study. This paper is therefore concerned not with the method employed in index construction, but with how the composite can be applied to support decision-making processes. In particular, the paper examines different approaches to exploit the index as a policy tool. A number of alternatives to disseminate achieved results are presented. The implications of applying the composite at different spatial scales are highlighted. Turkana District, in Kenya has been selected as initial case study to test the applicability and validity of the index. The paper concludes that the WPI approach provides a relevant tool for guiding appropriate action and policy-making towards more equitable allocation of water resources.

  8. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

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    Shaohua Liu


    Full Text Available The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI, and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, the Standardized Water Budget Index (SWBI is constructed based on the difference between areal precipitation and actual evapotranspiration (AET, which can describe the actual water budget but also assess the drought at multiple time scales. Then, sc-PDSI was taken as the reference drought index to compare with multiscalar drought indices at different time scale in Haihe River basin. The result shows that SWBI correlates better with sc-PDSI and the RMSE of SWBI is less than other multiscalar drought indices. In addition, all of drought indices show a decreasing trend in Haihe River Basin, possibly due to the decreasing precipitation from 1961 to 2010. The decreasing trends of SWBI were significant and consistent at all the time scales, while the decreasing trends of other multiscalar drought indices are insignificant at time scale less than 3 months.

  9. Water availability determines branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether distributions in soils of the Iberian Peninsula

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    J. Menges


    Full Text Available The MBT/CBT has recently gained significant attention as a novel paleotemperature proxy. It is based on the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs in soils. The CBT quantifies the degree of cyclisation and relates to soil pH. The MBT' quantifies the degree of methylation and relates to mean annual temperature and soil pH. Combining these two indices allows estimation of mean annual temperature (MAT. However other factors such as soil water availability or moisture conditions have been suggested to influence the MBT'. To assess the effect of moisture conditions on the MBT'/CBT a set of 23 Iberian Peninsula soil samples covering a temperature range from 10–18 °C and a wide range of soil moisture regimes (405 mm to 1455 mm mean annual precipitation per year, was analyzed. We find that CBT is significantly correlated to soil pH confirming it as a robust proxy. In contrast the MBT' index was not correlated to MAT and was weakly correlated to annual mean precipitation (MAP. Instead we found a significant correlation between MBT' and the Aridity Index (AI, a parameter related to water availability in soils. The AI can explain 70% of the residuals of MAT estimation and 50% of the actual variation of the MBT'. This suggests that in dry environments or under moisture shortage the degree of methylation of branched GDGTs is not controlled by temperature but rather by the degree of water available. Our results suggest that the MBT/CBT index is not applicable as a paleotemperature proxy in dry subhumid to hyperarid environments.

  10. Distribution of available soil water capacity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUWenzuo; LIUGaohuan; PANJianjun; FENGXianfeng


    The available soil water capacity (ASWC) is important for studying crop production, agro-ecological zoning, irrigation planning, and land cover changes. Laboratory determined data of ASWC are often not available for most of soil profiles and the nationwide ASWC largely remains lacking in relevant soil data in China. This work was to estimate ASWC based on physical and chemical properties and analyze the spatial distribution of ASWC in China. The pedo-transfer functions (PTFs), derived from 220 survey data of ASWC, and the empirical data of ASWC based on soil texture were applied to quantify the ASWC. GIS technology was used to develop a spatial file of ASWC in China and the spatial distribution of ASWC was also analyzed. The results showed the value of ASWC ranges from 15×10-2 cm3·cm-3 to 22×10-2 cm3·cm-3 for most soil types, and few soil types are lower than 15×10-2 cm3·cm-3 or higher than 22×10-2 cm3·cm-3, The ASWC is different according to the complex soil types and their distribution, It is higher in the east than that in the west, and the values reduce from south to north except the northeastern part of China. The “high” values of ASWC appear in southeast, northeastern mountain regions and Northeast China Plain. The relatively “high” values of ASWC appear in Sichuan basin, Huang-Huai-Hai plain and the east of Inner Mongolia. The relatively “low” values are distributed in the west and the Loess Plateau of China. The “very low” value regions are the northern Tibetan Plateau and the desertified areas in northern China. In some regions, the ASWC changes according to the complex topography and different types of soils. Though there remains precision limitation, the spatial data of ASWC derived from this study are improved on current data files of soil water retention properties for Chinese soils. This study presents basic data and analysis methods for estimation and evaluation of ASWC in China.

  11. Water quality index calculated from biological, physical and chemical attributes. (United States)

    Rocha, Francisco Cleiton; Andrade, Eunice Maia; Lopes, Fernando Bezerra


    To ensure a safe drinking water supply, it is necessary to protect water quality. To classify the suitability of the Orós Reservoir (Northeast of Brazil) water for human consumption, a Water Quality Index (WQI) was enhanced and refined through a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Samples were collected bi-monthly at seven points (P1 - P7) from July 2009 to July 2011. Samples were analysed for 29 physico-chemical attributes and 4 macroinvertebrate metrics associated with the macrophytes Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. PCA allowed us to reduce the number of attributes from 33 to 12, and 85.32% of the variance was explained in five dimensions (C1 - C5). Components C1 and C3 were related to water-soluble salts and reflect the weathering process, while C2 was related to surface runoff. C4 was associated with macroinvertebrate diversity, represented by ten pollution-resistant families. C5 was related to the nutrient phosphorus, an indicator of the degree of eutrophication. The mean values for the WQIs ranged from 49 to 65 (rated as fair), indicating that water can be used for human consumption after treatment. The lowest values for the WQI were recorded at the entry points to the reservoir (P3, P1, P5, and P4), while the best WQIs were recorded at the exit points (P6 and P7), highlighting the reservoir's purification ability. The proposed WQI adequately expressed water quality, and can be used for monitoring surface water quality.

  12. Proposal for an index to classify irrigation water quality: a case study in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celsemy Eleutério Maia


    Full Text Available One way of classifying water quality is by means of indices, in which a series of parameters analyzed are joined a single value, facilitating the interpretation of extensive lists of variables or indicators, underlying the classification of water quality. The objective of this study was to develop a statistically based index to classify water according to the Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI, to evaluate the ionic composition of water for use in irrigation and classify it by its source. For this purpose, the database generated during the Technology Generation and Adaptation (GAT program was used, in which, as of 1988, water samples were collected monthly from water sources in the states of Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará. To evaluate water quality, the electrical conductivity (EC of irrigation water was taken as a reference, with values corresponding to 0.7 dS m-1. The chemical variables used in this study were: pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, HCO3, CO3, and SO4. The data of all characteristics evaluated were standardized and data normality was confirmed by Lilliefors test. Then the irrigation water quality index was determined by an equation that relates the standardized value of the variable with the number of characteristics evaluated. Thus, the IWQI was classified based on indices, considering normal distribution. Finally, these indices were subjected to regression analysis. The method proposed for the IWQI allowed a satisfactory classification of the irrigation water quality, being able to estimate it as a function of EC for the three water sources. Variation in the ionic composition was observed among the three sources and within a single source. Although the water quality differed, it was good in most cases, with the classification IWQI II.

  13. Development of a water quality loading index based on water quality modeling. (United States)

    Song, Tao; Kim, Kyehyun


    Water quality modeling is an ideal tool for simulating physical, chemical, and biological changes in aquatic systems. It has been utilized in a number of GIS-based water quality management and analysis applications. However, there is considerable need for a decision-making process to translate the modeling result into an understandable form and thereby help users to make relevant judgments and decisions. This paper introduces a water quality index termed QUAL2E water quality loading index (QWQLI). This new WQI is based on water quality modeling by QUAL2E, which is a popular steady-state model for the water quality of rivers and streams. An experiment applying the index to the Sapgyo River in Korea was implemented. Unlike other WQIs, the proposed index is specifically used for simulated water quality using QUAL2E to mainly reflect pollutant loading levels. Based on the index, an iterative modeling-judgment process was designed to make decisions to decrease input pollutants from pollutant sources. Furthermore, an indexing and decision analysis can be performed in a GIS framework, which can provide various spatial analyses. This can facilitate the decision-making process under various scenarios considering spatial variability. The result shows that the index can evaluate and classify the simulation results using QUAL2E and that it can effectively identify the elements that should be improved in the decision-making process. In addition, the results imply that further study should be carried out to automate algorithms and subsidiary programs supporting the decision-making process.

  14. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.


    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  15. Assessing surface water availability considering human water use and projected climate variability (United States)

    Ashraf, Batool; AghaKouchak, Amir; Mousavi-Baygi, Mohammd; Moftakhari, Hamed; Anjileli, Hassan


    Climate variability along with anthropogenic activities alter the hydrological cycle and local water availability. The overarching goal of this presentation is to demonstrate the compounding interactions between human water use/withdrawals and climate change and variability. We focus on Karkheh River basin and Urmia basin, in western Iran, that have high level of human activity and water use, and suffer from low water productivity. The future of these basins and their growth relies on sustainable water resources and hence, requires a holistic, basin-wide management to cope with water scarcity challenges. In this study, we investigate changes in the hydrology of the basin including human-induced alterations of the system, during the past three decades. Then, we investigate the individual and combined effects of climate variability and human water withdrawals on surface water storage in the 21st century. We use bias-corrected historical simulations and future projections from ensemble mean of eleven General Circulation Models (GCMs) under two climate change scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The results show that, hydrology of the studied basins are significantly dominated by human activities over the baseline period (1976 - 2005). Results show that the increased anthropogenic water demand resulting from substantial socio-economic growth in the past three decades have put significant stress on water resources. We evaluate a number of future water demand scenarios and their interactions with future climate projections. Our results show that by the end of the 21st century, the compounding effects of increased irrigation water demand and precipitation variability may lead to severe local water scarcity in these basins. Our study highlights the necessity for understanding and considering the compounding effects of human water use and future climate projections. Such studies would be useful for improving water management and developing adaption plans in water scarce regions.

  16. Mediterranean shrub vegetation: soil protection vs. water availability (United States)

    García Estringana, Pablo; Nieves Alonso-Blázquez, M.; Alegre, Alegre; Cerdà, Artemi


    Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensiy or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant covers is the main factor that controls the soil erosion (Haregeweyn, 2013). Plant cover is the main factor of soil erosion processes as the vegetation control the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012). Vegetation cover acts in a complex way in influencing on the one hand on runoff and soil loss and on the other hand on the amount and the way that rainfall reaches the soil surface. In arid and semiarid regions, where erosion is one of the main degradation processes and water is a scant resource, a minimum percentage of vegetation coverage is necessary to protect the soil from erosion, but without compromising the availability of water (Belmonte Serrato and Romero Diaz, 1998). This is mainly controlled by the vegetation distribution (Cerdà, 1997a; Cammeraat et al., 2010; Kakembo et al., 2012). Land abandonment is common in Mediterranean region under extensive land use (Cerdà, 1997b; García-Ruiz, 2010). Abandoned lands typically have a rolling landscape with steep slopes, and are dominated by herbaceous communities that grow on pasture land interspersed by shrubs. Land abandonment use to trigger an increase in soil erosion, but the vegetation recovery reduces the impact of the vegetation. The goal of this work is to assess the effects of different Mediterranean shrub species (Dorycnium pentaphyllum Scop., Medicago strasseri, Colutea arborescens L., Retama sphaerocarpa, L., Pistacia Lentiscus L. and Quercus coccifera L.) on soil protection (runoff and soil losses) and on rainfall reaching soil surface (rainfall partitioning fluxes). To characterize the effects of shrub vegetation and to evaluate their effects on soil protection, two field experiments were carried out. The presence of shrub vegetation reduced runoff by

  17. Selection of an evaluation index for water ecological civilizations of water-shortage cities based on the grey rough set (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhu, J. W.; Xie, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, R. G.


    According to the characteristics and existing problems of water ecological civilization of water-shortage cities, the evaluation index system of water ecological civilization was established using a grey rough set. From six aspects of water resources, water security, water environment, water ecology, water culture and water management, this study established the prime frame of the evaluation system, including 28 items, and used rough set theory to undertake optimal selection of the index system. Grey correlation theory then was used for weightings in order that the integrated evaluation index system for water ecology civilization of water-shortage cities could be constituted. Xi’an City was taken as an example, for which the results showed that 20 evaluation indexes could be obtained after optimal selection of the preliminary framework of evaluation index. The most influential indices were the water-resource category index and water environment category index. The leakage rate of the public water supply pipe network, as well as the disposal, treatment and usage rate of polluted water, urban water surface area ratio, the water quality of the main rivers, and so on also are important. It was demonstrated that the evaluation index could provide an objectively reflection of regional features and key points for the development of water ecology civilization for cities with scarce water resources. It is considered that the application example has universal applicability.

  18. Vegetative response to water availability on the San Carlos Apache Reservation (United States)

    Petrakis, Roy; Wu, Zhuoting; McVay, Jason; Middleton, Barry R.; Dye, Dennis G.; Vogel, John M.


    On the San Carlos Apache Reservation in east-central Arizona, U.S.A., vegetation types such as ponderosa pine forests, pinyon-juniper woodlands, and grasslands have significant ecological, cultural, and economic value for the Tribe. This value extends beyond the tribal lands and across the Western United States. Vegetation across the Southwestern United States is susceptible to drought conditions and fluctuating water availability. Remotely sensed vegetation indices can be used to measure and monitor spatial and temporal vegetative response to fluctuating water availability conditions. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index II (MSAVI2) to measure the condition of three dominant vegetation types (ponderosa pine forest, woodland, and grassland) in response to two fluctuating environmental variables: precipitation and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study period covered 2002 through 2014 and focused on a region within the San Carlos Apache Reservation. We determined that grassland and woodland had a similar moderate to strong, year-round, positive relationship with precipitation as well as with summer SPEI. This suggests that these vegetation types respond negatively to drought conditions and are more susceptible to initial precipitation deficits. Ponderosa pine forest had a comparatively weaker relationship with monthly precipitation and summer SPEI, indicating that it is more buffered against short-term drought conditions. This research highlights the response of multiple, dominant vegetation types to seasonal and inter-annual water availability. This research demonstrates that multi-temporal remote sensing imagery can be an effective tool for the large scale detection of vegetation response to adverse impacts from climate change and support potential management practices such as increased monitoring and management of drought-affected areas. Different

  19. Water availability and genetic effects on water relations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A; Martin, Timothy A


    The effect of water availability on water relations of 11-year-old loblolly pine stands was studied over two growing seasons in material from two contrasting seed sources. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased transpiration rate, and maximum daily transpiration rate on irrigated plots was similar for both seasons, reaching values of 4.3 mm day(-)(1). Irrigation also changed soil water extraction patterns. In the rain-fed control plots, 73% of the average daily transpiration was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of the soil profile. Under irrigated conditions, 92% of transpired water was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of soil, with 79% of transpired water coming from the upper 0.35 m of the profile; only 10% of total transpiration in this treatment was extracted from the soil below 1 m. There was an irrigation x seed source interaction in the response of canopy conductance to water vapor (G(C)) to vapor pressure deficit (D). Under water-limited conditions, trees from the South Carolina seed source (SC) had stronger stomatal control than trees from the Florida seed source (FL), but this difference was not present when water was not limiting. The transpiration-induced water potential gradient from roots to shoots (DeltaPsi) was relatively constant across treatments (P = 0.52) and seed sources (P = 0.72), averaging 0.75 MPa. This reflects strong stomatal control that maintains relatively constant DeltaPsi but at the same time allows leaf water potential (Psi(l)) to fluctuate dramatically in synchrony with soil water potential (Psi(s)). The two seed sources evaluated also showed differences in foliar N and delta(13)C, possibly reflecting differences in adaptation to ambient humidity and water availability regimes in their respective ranges. These differences among seed sources under different water availability scenarios may be informative to natural resource managers and breeders as they design tree improvement and genetic deployment programs for

  20. Using the Method of Water Poverty Index (WPI) to Evaluate the Region Water Security (United States)

    Fu, Q.; Kachanoski, G.


    Water security is a widely concerned issue in the world nowadays. A new method, water poverty index (WPI), has been used to evaluate the regional water security. Twelve state farms in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China were selected to evaluate water security status based on the data of 2006 by using WPI and mean deviation grading method. The method of WPI includes five key indexes, such as resources(R), access (A), capacity(C), utilization (U) and environment (E). Each key index includes several sub-indexes. According to the results of WPI, the grade of each farm has been calculated by using the method of mean deviation grading. Thus, the radar images can be protracted of each farm. From the radar images, the conclusions can be drawn that the WPI values of Farms 853 and Hongqiling were in very safe status, while that of Farm Raohe was in safe status, those of Farms Youyi, 597, 852, 291 and Jiangchuan were in moderate safe status, that of Farm Beixing was in low safe status and those of Farms Shuangyashan, Shuguang and Baoshan were in unsafe status. The results from this study can provide basic information for decision making on rational use of water resources and regulations for regional water safety guarantee system.

  1. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water Quality Index Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Olatunji


    Full Text Available Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in Nigeria. Therefore, the need to ascertain the continuing potability of the sources cannot be over emphasised. This study is aimed at assessing the quality of selected groundwater samples from Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria, using the water quality index (WQI method. Twenty two water samples were collected, 10 samples from boreholes and 12 samples from hand dug wells. All these were analysed for their physico – chemical properties. The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total dissolved solid, calcium, fluoride, iron, potassium, sulphate, nitrate and carbonate. The water quality index for the twenty two samples ranged from 0.66 to 756.02 with an average of 80.77. Two of the samples exceeded 100, which is the upper limit for safe drinking water. The high values of WQI from the sampling locations are observed to be due to higher values of iron and fluoride. This study reveals that the investigated groundwaters are mostly potable and can be consumed without treatment. Nonetheless, the sources identified to be unsafe should be treated before consumption.

  2. The sensitivity of water availability to aridity changes and other factors - a probabilistic analysis in the Budyko-space (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Lukas; Greve, Peter


    One of the pending questions in the context of global change is (i) whether climatic drivers or (ii) other factors have a stronger influence on water availability. Here we present an idealised approach that allows to estimate the probability that changes in climatological aridity have a larger effect on water availability than other factors. The analysis builds upon a probabilistic extension of the Budyko framework, which is subject to an analytical sensitivity assessment. The results show that changes in water availability are dominated by changes in the aridity index in humid climates. In arid climates other factors are dominating. A global application predicts only little influence of aridity changes on water availability in drylands. This implies that the projected intensification of aridity in dry regions may have less influence on water availability than commonly assumed. Instead other factors, including e.g. land use change, are likely dominating.

  3. Index of current water-resources activities in Ohio, 1985 (United States)

    Eberle, Michael


    This report summarizes the U. S. Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division 's program in Ohio in 1985. The work of the Ohio District is carried out through the District office in Columbus and a field office in New Philadelphia. Collection of basic data needed for continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of Ohio 's water resources is the responsibility of the District 's Hydrologic Surveillance Section. The Hydrologic Investigations Section conducts analytical and interpretive water-resource appraisals describing the occurrence, availability, and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and groundwater. In addition to introductory material describing the structure of the Ohio District, information is presented on current projects, sites at which basic surface- and groundwater data are collected , and reports of Ohio 's water resources published by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies. (USGS)

  4. Identifying ancient water availability through phytolith analysis: An experimental approach.


    Jenkins, Emma L.; Jamjoum, K; Nuimat, S.; Stafford, Rick; Nortcliff, S.; Mithen, S.J.


    Water management was critical to the development of complex societies but such systems are often difficult, if not impossible, to recognise in the archaeological record, particularly in prehistoric communities when water management began. This is because early irrigation systems are likely to have been ephemeral and as such would no longer be visible in the archaeological record. We conducted a three year crop growing experiment in Jordan to test the hypothesis that phytoliths (opaline silica...

  5. Assessment of availability water at Boi Branco watershed through the water climate balance and growing (United States)

    Alexandre de Lima Sales, Mariana; Máximo Sanchez-Román, Rodrigo; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Ribeiro da Silva de Souza, Joao Victor; Nonato Farias Monteiro, Raimundo


    The water resources are fundamental to the development of several economic activities. Concerning the agriculture production, the water can represent close to 90% of the physical constitution of the plant. The low water supply during the growing stage of vegetables can make the agricultural production not viable and can even seriously affect the balance of the ecosystem. One way to calculate the amount of water in a determined system is by means of the water balance, that is an important tool for the assessment process of the water cycle in a specific region. The main goal of this work was to establish the water balance in the watershed Boi Branco-SP, so that it can be used as a tool for the hydro-agricultural and environmental planning of the region. For the water climate balance, it was used data of the historical series of the region (1971 - 1995). The data of evapotranspiration were estimated by the method Thornthwaite. The water climate balance showed low water supply total annual of 10.1 mm, and exceeding of 319.7 mm, wherein in month January an exceeding of 92.6 to the average monthly precipitation; given the effective monthly precipitation with probability of 75% low water supply in the soil it is 238.8 mm and the exceeding 56.8 mm. When these data are added to the ones of the crop, as a crop coefficient and availability factor of water in the soil, it is observed that all crops which are inserted in the watershed present low water supply in all the months they are in the field. As the water balance is an important assessment of a specific region, further studies are recommended, with data collected in the region, so that the update in the results is obtained. Thus, it is also recommended the establishment of a system for agrometerological collecting data to help the irrigation management and other agricultural activities. Keyword: Water agricultural planning, water capability available in the soil, evapotranspiration.

  6. Development of a Fuzzy Water Quality Index (FWQI – Case study: Saveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hosseini-Moghari


    Full Text Available Introduction: Groundwater resources are the main source of fresh water in many parts of Iran. Groundwater resources are limited in quantity and recently due to increase of withdrawal, these resources are facing great stress. Considering groundwater resources scarcity, maintaining the quality of them are vital. Traditional methods to evaluate water quality insist on determining water quality parameter and comparison between them and available standards. The decisions in these methods rely on just specific parameters, in order to overcome this issue, water quality indices (WQIs are developed. Water quality indexes include a range of water quality parameters and using mathematical operation represent an index to classify water quality. Applying the classic WQI will cause deterministic and inflexible classifications associated with uncertainties and inaccuracies in knowledge and data. To overcome this shortcoming, using the fuzzy logic in water resources problems under uncertainty is highly recommended. In this paper, two approaches are adopted to assess the water quality status of the groundwater resources of a case study. The first approach determined the classification of water samples, whilst the second one focused on uncertainty of classification analysis with the aid of fuzzy logic. In this regard, the paper emphasizes on possibility of water quality assessment by developing a fuzzy-based quality index even if required parameters are inadequate. Materials and Methods: The case study is located in the northwest of Markazi province, Saveh Plain covers an area of 3245 km2 and lies between 34º45′-35º03′N latitude and 50º08′-50º50′E longitudes. The average height of the study area is 1108 meter above mean sea level. The average precipitation amount is 213 mm while the mean annual temperature is 18.2oC. To provide a composite influence from individual water quality parameters on total water quality, WQI is employed. In other words, WQI

  7. Water-scarcity patterns : spatiotemporal interdependencies between water use and water availability in a semi-arid river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oel, van Pieter Richard


    This thesis addresses the interdependencies between water use and water availability and describes a model that has been developed to improve understanding of the processes that drive changes and variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in a semi-arid river basin. These

  8. Comparative analysis of regional water quality in Canada using the Water Quality Index. (United States)

    de Rosemond, Simone; Duro, Dennis C; Dubé, Monique


    The Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) has developed a Water Quality Index (WQI) to simplify the reporting of complex water quality data. This science-based communication tool tests multi-variable water data against numeric water quality guidelines and/or objectives to produce a single unit-less number that represents overall water quality. The CCME WQI has been used to rate overall water quality in spatial and temporal comparisons of site(s). However, it has not been used in a comparative-analysis of exposure sites to reference sites downstream of point source discharges. This study evaluated the ability of the CCME WQI to differentiate water quality from metal mines across Canada at exposure sites from reference sites using two different types of numeric water quality objectives: (1) the water quality guidelines (WQG) for the protection of freshwater aquatic life and (2) water quality objectives determined using regional reference data termed Region-Specific Objectives (RSO). The application of WQG to the CCME WQI was found to be a good tool to assess absolute water quality as it relates to national water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life, but had more limited use when evaluating spatial changes in water quality downstream of point source discharges. The application of the RSO to the CCME WQI resulted in assessment of spatial changes in water quality downstream of point source discharges relative to upstream reference conditions.

  9. Association of central serotonin transporter availability and body mass index in healthy Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Swen; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Zientek, Franziska


    UNLABELLED: Serotonin-mediated mechanisms, in particular via the serotonin transporter (SERT), are thought to have an effect on food intake and play an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, imaging studies that examined the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and SERT...... are sparse and provided contradictory results. The aim of this study was to further test the association between SERT and BMI in a large cohort of healthy subjects. METHODS: 127 subjects of the ENC DAT database (58 females, age 52 ± 18 years, range 20-83, BMI 25.2 ± 3.8 kg/m(2), range 18.2-41.1) were...

  10. Groundwater quality and water quality index at Bhandara District. (United States)

    Rajankar, Prashant N; Tambekar, Dilip H; Wate, Satish R


    The present investigation reports the results of a monitoring study focusing on groundwater quality of Bhandara District of central India. Since, remediation of groundwater is very difficult, knowledge of the existing nature, magnitude, and sources of the various pollution loads is a prerequisite to assessing groundwater quality. The water quality index (WQI) value as a function of various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters was determined for groundwater obtained from a total of 21 locations. The WQI during pre-monsoon season varied from 68 to 83, while for post-monsoon, it was between 56 and 76. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower WQI for the post-monsoon season was observed, indicating deterioration of the groundwater overall in corresponding season. The study revealed that groundwater from only 19% locations was fit for domestic use, thus indicating the need of proper treatment before use.

  11. Water Availability as a Measure of Cellulose Hydrolysis Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen

    Enzymatic hydrolysis involves the use of cellulases to break down cellulose in the presence of water. Therefore, not only are enzyme and substrate properties important for efficient hydrolysis, but also the hydrolysis medium, i.e. the liquid phase. The LF-NMR technique is used in this work...... to measure properties of the liquid phase, where water protons are characterized based on their mobility in the system as measured by their relaxation time. Studies of cellulose hydrolysis at low dry matter show that the contents of the liquid phase influence the final hydrolysis yield, as the presence...

  12. Hot water always immediately available; Warmwasser stets sofort verfuegbar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, M.


    This article describes a system that guarantees the immediate supply of hot water at taps using heating strips that accompany the pipes leading from the boiler to the point of usage whilst avoiding energy losses incurred when hot-water circulation systems are used. The self-regulating system is described and application examples are quoted. The topic of legionella bacteria prevention is discussed and the efficiency of the system is looked at. Notes on the installation of the heating tapes are given and the system's controller is briefly looked at.

  13. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan


    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moscuzza


    Full Text Available The contributions of nutrients and xenobiotics by anthropogenic activities developed in riverside deteriorate water quality. In this context, the impact of different agroindustry effluents on the water quality of Salado River in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina was analyzed applying water quality indexes (WQI. Water quality index is an efficient a simple monitoring tool to instrument corrective and remediation policies. Winter and summer samplings were performed. A minimal water quality index (WQImin was calculated using only two parameters which can be easy determined in situ. The use of WQImin may be a useful methodology for river management. Meat industry appears as the most pollutant source. Since it is considered as point pollution source, effluents should be treated previous to its disposal with the available technologies.

  15. Water availability reconstructions using tree-rings in the Valdivian rainforest ecoregion, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrutia, Rocio; Pena, M P; Christie, Duncan A [Laboratorio de DendrocronologIa, Instituto de Silvicultura, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Lara, Antonio, E-mail: rociourrutia@uach.c


    Water availability can be considered as one of the main restrictions for future development in South-Central Chile, due to the reported decreasing trends in precipitation in the last decades and the increasing demand for this resource. This issue makes the study of past water availability fundamental for the understanding of present and future variations. This paper presents a comparison of two water availability reconstructions within the Valdivian rainforest ecoregion (35{sup 0}-48{sup 0}S), one corresponding to a precipitation (37{sup 0}-39.5{sup 0} S) and the other to a streamflow reconstruction (41{sup 0} S). This study shows that there are fundamental differences between them especially in the long term variability. However, there are also coincidences, mainly at higher frequency variations, such as at a bidecadal, decadal and annual scale. Another important finding is that these reconstructions show significant correlations with different climatic forcings in this area. The northern reconstruction presents a significant relationship with ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation), while the southern does the same with the AAO (Antarctic Oscillation Index).

  16. Nanoparticle silver released into water from commercially available sock fabrics. (United States)

    Benn, Troy M; Westerhoff, Paul


    Manufacturers of clothing articles employ nanosilver (n-Ag) as an antimicrobial agent, but the environmental impacts of n-Ag release from commercial products are unknown. The quantity and form of the nanomaterials released from consumer products should be determined to assess the environmental risks of nanotechnology. This paper investigates silver released from commercial clothing (socks) into water, and its fate in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Six types of socks contained up to a maximum of 1360 microg-Ag/g-sock and leached as much as 650 microg of silver in 500 mL of distilled water. Microscopy conducted on sock material and wash water revealed the presence of silver particles from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. Physical separation and ion selective electrode (ISE) analyses suggest that both colloidal and ionic silver leach from the socks. Variable leaching rates among sock types suggests that the sock manufacturing process may control the release of silver. The adsorption of the leached silver to WWTP biomass was used to develop a model which predicts that a typical wastewater treatment facility could treat a high concentration of influent silver. However, the high silver concentration may limitthe disposal of the biosolids as agricultural fertilizer.

  17. Index decomposition analysis of urban crop water footprint


    Zhao, X.; Tillotson, MR; Liu, YW; Guo, W.; Yang, AH; Li, YF


    Rapid urbanization has resulted in often unplanned increases in population, and food demand in cities. Historically, hinterlands to these cities have acted as breadbaskets producing food to the urban residents. Accordingly, a large amount of available freshwater has been needed to support these croplands. However, the rapid expansion of cities in developing countries has significantly changed both the croplands around cities and the water demand. It is thus important to quantitatively investi...

  18. Evaluation of nutrient index using organic carbon, available P and available K concentrations as a measure of soil fertility in Varahi River basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravikumar


    Full Text Available Varahi River basin is in the midst of Udupi district in the western part of Karnataka state, covering parts of Kundapura and Udupi taluks in Udupi District, Karnataka, India. Spatial distributions for twenty physical and chemical properties were examined in the soil samples of selected agricultural fields in 28 different locations in Varahi River basin. The present study revealed that there is not much variation in soil fertility status of soils developed on various landforms in the area as the soils were having low to medium in organic carbon (0.06 to 1.20 % and available nitrogen (6.27 to 25.09 Kg/ha content; low to medium in available P (2.24 to 94.08 Kg/ha and deficient to doubtful in available K (20.10 - 412.3 Kg/ha contents. The soils of Varahi River basin were characterized as low-medium-low (LML category based on the nutrient index calculated w.r.t. available organic carbon, available P and available K. Further, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP indicated that the soils were excellent for irrigation.

  19. Hydrologic modeling for monitoring water availability in Africa and the Middle East (United States)

    McNally, A.; Getirana, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.


    Drought impacts water resources required by crops and communities, in turn threatening lives and livelihoods. Early warning systems, which rely on inputs from hydro-climate models, are used to help manage risk and provide humanitarian assistance to the right place at the right time. However, translating advancements in hydro-climate science into action is a persistent and time-consuming challenge: scientists and decision-makers need to work together to enhance the salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the hydrological data products being produced. One organization that tackles this challenge is the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), which has been using evidence-based approaches to address food security since the 1980s.In this presentation, we describe the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), developed by FEWS NET and NASA hydrologic scientists to maximize the use of limited hydro-climatic observations for humanitarian applications. The FLDAS, an instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS), is comprised of land surface models driven by satellite rainfall inputs already familiar to FEWS NET food security analysts. First, we evaluate the quality of model outputs over parts of the Middle East and Africa using remotely sensed soil moisture and vegetation indices. We then describe derived water availability indices that have been identified by analysts as potentially useful sources of information. Specifically, we demonstrate how the Baseline Water Stress and Drought Severity Index detect recent water availability crisis events in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin and the Gaborone Reservoir, Botswana. Finally we discuss ongoing work to deliver this information to FEWS NET analysts in a timely and user-friendly manner, with the ultimate goal of integrating these water availability metrics into regular decision-making activities.

  20. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India. (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam


    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  1. Calibration of System Input Volume and Non-Revenue Water Index in Edo North, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho


    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a serious problem in developing world. It could be physical scarcity or economic water shortage. The output of physicsbased study conducted in Edo North, Nigeria revealed that physical water losses in the water distribution network have compounded the accessibility and affordability of safe drinking water. Water supply and loss variables such as Water Supply (WS Physical Water Loss (WLρ Apparent Water Loss (WLE Water Loss Reduction Index (WLRI and Available Water (AW were mathematically modeled to produce realistic and efficient water loss management and improve water revenue. The result of the modeling iterations show that the average physical and apparent losses of 4,000m 3 and 2,700m 3 of (WLρ and (WLE correspond to 13,200m 3 , 6,400m 3 and 0.5 of WS/SIV, AW and WLRI in 2007. Strong indication exists between the WLRI for both physical and apparent losses with the coefficient of determination R 2=0.83 and 0.99 respectively. This relationship shows that more water is being lost through real loss with average total of 59.2% and 40.8% of apparent losses. However, a reduction of Total Non-Revenue Water (TNRW from 50.7% to 10.6% was recorded between 2007 to 2011. This reduction led to a total increase of 4,400m 3 of Revenue Water, decrease in Non-Revenue Water reduction cost from 36% in 2007 to 7% in 2011 and saving of US$17,400 which could be used to provide health facility for malaria treatment for 14,500 people on daily basis. Water efficiency, and particularly drinking water loss, is a serious issue which has significant financial and economic depression; awareness in this respect is totally unrecognized by both individual and governmental sector. Generally, long-term strategies towards the reduction of water losses should continue to be sustained by Edo State government, donor agencies and some private sectors in the area of water supply in order to support the fulfillment of the Millennium Development Goals, control of

  2. Fraser River watershed, Colorado : assessment of available water-quantity and water-quality data through water year 1997 (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori Estelle; Bails, Jeffrey B.


    The water-quantity and water-quality data for the Fraser River watershed through water year 1997 were compiled for ground-water and surface-water sites. In order to assess the water-quality data, the data were related to land use/land cover in the watershed. Data from 81 water-quantity and water-quality sites, which consisted of 9 ground-water sites and 72 surface-water sites, were available for analysis. However, the data were limited and frequently contained only one or two water-quality analyses per site.The Fraser River flows about 28 miles from its headwaters at the Continental Divide to the confluence with the Colorado River. Ground-water resources in the watershed are used for residential and municipal drinking-water supplies. Surface water is available for use, but water diversions in the upper parts of the watershed reduce the flow in the river. Land use/land cover in the watershed is predominantly forested land, but increasing urban development has the potential to affect the quantity and quality of the water resources.Analysis of the limited ground-water data in the watershed indicates that changes in the land use/land cover affect the shallow ground-water quality. Water-quality data from eight shallow monitoring wells in the alluvial aquifer show that iron and manganese concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level. Radon concentrations from these monitoring wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level. The proposed radon contaminant level is currently being revised. The presence of volatile organic compounds at two monitoring wells in the watershed indicates that land use affects the shallow ground water. In addition, bacteria detected in three samples are at concentrations that would be a concern for public health if the water was to be used as a drinking supply. Methylene blue active substances were detected in the ground water at some sites and are a

  3. Assessment of Ground Water Quality by Using Water Quality Index Method of Berhampur Town in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ahmed


    Full Text Available Berhampur, the silk city of Odisha (India is under the process of rapid urbanization with human population exceeding more than four lacks. Such growth in population of Berhampur Municipal Corporation has increased the requirement of water for human activities. Due to this reason the huge amount of waste water is generated which is discharged to the Bay of Bengal through small sewage system. The present study is carried out the impact of ground water quality status of Berhampur town. The water samples collected from ten different locations have been chosen separately across Berhampur Municipal Corporation depending on pollution load and water logging. The samples were collected in three different seasons i.e monsoon (MN, June-September, post monsoon (PM, November-January and pre monsoon (PRM, March-May and to determine the physical, chemical and biological parameters. The WQI reflects a composite influence of contributing factors on the quality of water for any type of water system. So WQI is an important parameter for assessment and management of ground water. Now a day’s water quality of different water system has been communicated on the basis of calculated WQI. The presents study revels that water quality index is 1 to 10 sampling station (S-1, S-2, S-4, S-5, S-6, S-7, S-8 come under good water quality and station (S-3, S-9, S-10 belongs to poor water. This may be due the sewage water logging in those study area which will definitely put serious impact up on socio-economic development of the people in this area in future.

  4. An application of water quality index to reduce the effect of flood on water quality of rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Nooralinejad


    Full Text Available The rivers are among the most important resources of water supplying used for drinking consumptions, agriculture, industry, etc. Creation of a regular control plan and monitoring the water quality of these resources are the most important solutions in order to reduce the pollution and promote their qualitative conditions. The changes in climatic such as low levels of rainfall, is one of the factors influencing on the quantitative level of rivers. In addition, weather pollution and reduction in the power of soil resources are very important. This paper presents an investigation to investigate on how to reduce the influences of flood water on the water quality of the rivers based on the model of water quality index. The applied methodology is descriptive-analytical, which uses SPSS software, and t-test and correlation tests are used to analyze the data. The investigation carried out on the influences of the flood water due to raining on the qualitative changes of the water of Cesar River represented that there was a significant relationship between raining, discharge and the parameters of water quality. These relations indicate that the occurrence of raining and increase in the discharge follow the increase in the water quality of the river.

  5. A Global Index for Mapping the Exposure of Water Resources to Wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Nicolas Robinne


    Full Text Available Wildfires are keystone components of natural disturbance regimes that maintain ecosystem structure and functions, such as the hydrological cycle, in many parts of the world. Consequently, critical surface freshwater resources can be exposed to post-fire effects disrupting their quantity, quality and regularity. Although well studied at the local scale, the potential extent of these effects has not been examined at the global scale. We take the first step toward a global assessment of the wildfire water risk (WWR by presenting a spatially explicit index of exposure. Several variables related to fire activity and water availability were identified and normalized for use as exposure indicators. Additive aggregation of those indicators was then carried out according to their individual weight. The resulting index shows the greatest exposure risk in the tropical wet and dry forests. Intermediate exposure is indicated in mountain ranges and dry shrublands, whereas the lowest index scores are mostly associated with high latitudes. We believe that such an approach can provide important insights for water security by guiding global freshwater resource preservation.

  6. Escherichia Coli and Biophysicochemical Relationships of Seawater and Water Pollution Index in the Jakarta Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endan Suwandana


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Relationships between Escherichia coli (E. coli and biophysicochemical properties of seawater at different seasons and water pollution index were investigated in the Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. Approach: Water quality data taken at different seasons (Early Rainy Season (ERS in November 2007 and Late Dry Season (LDS in August 2008 were analyzed. Additionally, to compare pollution level at different seasons, Nemerow-Sumitomo Water Pollution Index (WPI was used. Results: Significant correlation of E. coli occured with only few parameters in the ERS, but with more parameters in the LDS. This might be due to the rainfall intensity in the ERS that was potential to dilute seawater and reduce concentration of some parameters, especially along the offshore stations. However, at the same time, the freshwater coming from land had capacity to force out the polluted water in 13 river systems flowing into the bay; hence it could generate more pollution along the onshore stations. Seawater pollution level slightly increased in the ERS in respect to the addition of polluted water from rivers. In this season, none station was clean, 20 stations were slightly polluted, six stations were moderately polluted and six stations were highly polluted. Meanwhile in the LDS, the number of stations following the above WPI criteria were 9, 16, 3 and 4, respectively, indicating less pollution level. Conclusion/Recommendations: The overall results showed that E. coli exhibited significant correlations with more water parameters in the LDS and the WPI showed a little increase in the ERS.

  7. Web Search Engines and Indexing and Ranking the Content Object Including Metadata Elements Available at the Dynamic Information Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh sadat Tabatabai Amiri


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to make exam the indexing and ranking of XML content objects containing Dublin Core and MARC 21 metadata elements in dynamic online information environments by general search engines and comparing them together in a comparative-analytical approach. 100 XML content objects in two groups were analyzed: those with DCXML elements and those with MARCXML elements were published in website from late Mordad 1388 till Khordad 1389. Then the website was introduced to Google and Yahoo search engines. Google search engine was able to retrieve fully all the content objects during the study period through their Dublin Core and MARC 21 metadata elements; Yahoo search engine, however, did not respond at all. The indexing of metadata elements embedded in content objects in dynamic online information environments and different between indexing and ranking of them were examined. Findings showed all Dublin Core and MARC 21 metadata elements by Google search engine were indexed. And there was not observed difference between indexing and ranking DCXML and MARCXML metadata elements in dynamic online information environments by Google search engine.

  8. Anthropological perspectives on water availability, water quality and water managament in the IMPETUS research areas of Benin and Morocco (United States)

    Kirscht, H.; Bollig, M.; Casciarri, B.; Casimir, M.; Rössler, M.; Bako-Arifari, N.


    The anthropological research in the framework of the interdisciplinary IMPETUS West Africa-project focuses on water availability, water quality and on social problems and conflicts concerning the management of this sometimes scarce or polluted resource. The northern project area, the catchment of the Drâa river in Southern Moroco, is characterised by a very low precipitation rate and an overall shortage of available water, a situation which has been aggravated by a drought in recent years. But even in the much moister southern research region, the catchment of the river Ouémé in Benin, water is not always available in the required quantity and quality. Although Morocco and Benin share no common cultural or ethnic identities, local 'traditional' water management institutions exist in both countries. The common objective of anthropological research is to identify and analyse these institutions on a micro- or mezzo-level, and to look into the social and cultural processes which lead to a sustainable - or ineffective - use of water. The prime research unit for anthropologists is the household, which is in general congruent with the basic economic unit. It is obvious that gender relations are an important aspect to consider if one looks into the management of water resources. Women are often in charge of supplying the household with drinking water, and in Benin many women are farmers, who, according to local concepts, spend more time on the fields than men. In addition, social changes caused by the shortage of water and their consequences for water management systems are investigated. In Morocco, the emigration of young men is a reaction to the recent droughts, transforming the household structure and gender relations in rural settlements. In return, the investment of the remittances into agriculture, for instance the purchase of motor-pumps for irrigation, affects the water management by circumventing traditional social and politically accepted water distribution

  9. The development of an aquatic toxicity index as a tool in the operational management of water quality in the Olifants River (Knsger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wepener


    Full Text Available The development of an aquatic toxicity index and its application is described. In this index the protection of aquatic life is always referred to in terms of toxic effects of different water quality variables to fish, as health indicators of the aquatic ecosystem. The final index score is produced by means of standard additive techniques as well as by using the water quality variable giving the lowest index score (minimum operator. The minimum operator is employed in order not to conceal important water quality information. The aquatic toxicity index development has been linked to toxicological data, international water quality standards and South African guidelines. The index provides valuable information concerning toxic effects of a specific variable on fish should the threshold level for normal maintanence of aquatic life be exceeded. This index is intended as an aid in the interpretation of water quality information in order to facilitate management decisions.

  10. Ecohydrology of agroecosystems: probabilistic description of yield reduction risk under limited water availability (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare


    Supplemental irrigation represents one of the main strategies to mitigate the effects of climate variability and stabilize yields. Irrigated agriculture currently provides 40% of food production and its relevance is expected to further increase in the near future, in face of the projected alterations of rainfall patterns and increase in food, fiber, and biofuel demand. Because of the significant investments and water requirements involved in irrigation, strategic choices are needed to preserve productivity and profitability, while maintaining a sustainable water management - a nontrivial task given the unpredictability of the rainfall forcing. To facilitate decision making under uncertainty, a widely applicable probabilistic framework is proposed. The occurrence of rainfall events and irrigation applications are linked probabilistically to crop development during the growing season and yields at harvest. Based on these linkages, the probability density function of yields and corresponding probability density function of required irrigation volumes, as well as the probability density function of yields under the most common case of limited water availability are obtained analytically, as a function of irrigation strategy, climate, soil and crop parameters. The full probabilistic description of the frequency of occurrence of yields and water requirements is a crucial tool for decision making under uncertainty, e.g., via expected utility analysis. Furthermore, the knowledge of the probability density function of yield allows us to quantify the yield reduction hydrologic risk. Two risk indices are defined and quantified: the long-term risk index, suitable for long-term irrigation strategy assessment and investment planning, and the real-time risk index, providing a rigorous probabilistic quantification of the emergence of drought conditions during a single growing season in an agricultural setting. Our approach employs relatively few parameters and is thus easily and

  11. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Jiang

    Full Text Available To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index. Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar

  12. Uncertainty result of biotic index in analysing the water quality of Cikapundung river catchment area, Bandung (United States)

    Surtikanti, Hertien Koosbandiah


    The Biotic Index was developed in Western Countries in response to the need in water quality evaluation. This method analysis is based on the classification of aquatic macrobenthos as a bioindicator for clean and polluted water. The aim of this study is to compare the analysis of Cikapundung river using 6 different Biotic Indexes. BI Shannon-Weiner, Belgian Biological Index (BBI), Family Biotic Index (FBI), Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), Biological Monitoring Working Party-Average Score Per Taxon (BMWP-ASPT), and A Scoring System for Macroinvertebrate in Australian River (A SIGNAL). Those analysis are compared with Physical Water Index (CPI) which is developed in Indonesia. The result shows that a decreasing water quality is detected upstream to downstream of Cikapundung River. However, based on the CPI analysis result, the BMWP-ASPT biotic index analysis is more comprehensive than other BI in explaining Cikapundung water quality.

  13. Weekly Water Stress Monitoring in a Savannah Environment using a new Data Fusion Drought Index (United States)

    Azmi, M.; Rudiger, C.; Walker, J. P.


    Due to the increasing pressure on water resources, water stress monitoring has become one of the most significant issues in water resources planning and management, especially during periods of extreme climate conditions. The present study compares the performance of four currently used data fusion based drought indices (DFDIs) to evaluate the weekly water stress at the Howard Springs OzFlux Tower in Northern Australia, covering a 3-year period from January 2011 to December 2013. In addition, a new DFDI has been developed and applied to address the individual shortcomings of the traditional indices. The proposed DFDI comprehensively considers all types of drought through a selection of indices and proxies associated with each drought type (water, vegetation etc). Here, weekly data from three different data sources (OzFlux Network, Asia-Pacific Water Monitor, and MODIS-Terra satellite) were utilized for the evaluations. To derive the new DFDI, an appropriate set of individual standardized drought indices (SDIs) was derived, that are categorized through an advanced clustering method. For two groups in which the clustered SDIs best reflected the water availability and vegetation conditions, the variables are aggregated based on an averaging between the standardized first principal components of three different multivariate methods of PCA, FA and ICA. Then, considering those aggregated indices as well as the classifications of months into dry/wet and active/non-active, the time series of the proposed DFDI is finalized. A comparison, employing the Spearman correlation coefficient, between the proposed index and the traditional data fusion based indices shows a range of correlations from 0.46 to 0.85. The results underline that the proposed index can be more reliable in compare to the previous indices, due to simultaneously relating hydro-meteorological and ecological concepts to define the actual water stress throughout the study area.

  14. Developing a vulnerability mapping methodology: applying the water-associated disease index to dengue in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickin, Sarah K; Schuster-Wallace, Corinne J; Elliott, Susan J


    The Water-associated Disease Index (WADI) was developed to identify and visualize vulnerability to different water-associated diseases by integrating a range of social and biophysical determinants in map format...

  15. Survey of water quality in Moradbeik river basis on WQI index by GIS


    Mohammad Taghi Samadi; Shahram Sadeghi; Alireza Rahmani; Mohammad Hossien Saghi


    Background: Survey of pollution and evaluation of water quality in rivers with Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and GIS are effective tools for management of the impact of environmental water resources. The information in calculating the WQI of Moradbeikriver allowed us to take our tests results and make a scientific conclusion about the quality of water. GIS can be a powerful tool for developing solutions for water resources problems for assessing water quality, determining water availabili...

  16. Indexing Publicly Available Health Data with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Evaluation of Term Coverage. (United States)

    Marc, David T; Zhang, Rui; Beattie, James; Gatewood, Laël C; Khairat, Saif S


    As part of the Open Government Initiative, the United States federal government published datasets to increase collaboration, transparency, consumer participation, and research, and are available online at Currently, does not adequately support the accessibility goal of the Open Government Initiative due to issues of retrieving relevant data because of inadequately cataloguing and lack of indexing with a standardized terminology. Given the commonalities between the and MEDLINE metadata, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) may offer an indexing solution, but there needs to be a formal evaluation of the efficacy of MeSH for covering the dataset concepts. The purpose of this study was to determine if MeSH adequately covers the concepts. The noun and noun phrases from the metadata were extracted and mapped to MeSH using MetaMap. The frequency of no exact, partical and no matches with MeSH terms were determined. The results of this study revealed that about 70% of the concepts partially or exactly matched MeSH terms. Therefore, MeSH may be a favorable terminology for indexing the datasets.

  17. Classifying Natural Waters with the Forel-Ule Colour Index System: Results, Applications, Correlations and Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba


    Full Text Available Societal awareness of changes in the environment and climate has grown rapidly, and there is a need to engage citizens in gathering relevant scientific information to monitor environmental changes due to recognition that citizens are a potential source of critical information. The apparent colour of natural waters is one aspect of our aquatic environment that is easy to detect and an essential complementary optical water quality indicator. Here we present the results and explore the utility of the Forel-Ule colour index (FUI scale as a proxy for different properties of natural waters. A FUI scale is used to distinguish the apparent colours of different natural surface water masses. Correlation analysis was completed in an effort to determine the constituents of natural waters related to FUI. Strong correlations with turbidity, Secchi-disk depth, and coloured dissolved organic material suggest the FUI is a good indicator of changes related to other constituents of water. The increase in the number of tools capable of determining the FUI colours, (i ocean colour remote sensing products; (ii a handheld scale; and (iii a mobile device app, make it a versatile relative measure of water quality. It has the potential to provide higher spatial and temporal resolution of data for a modernized classification of optical water quality. This FUI colour system has been favoured by several scientists in the last century because it is affordable and easy to use and provides indicative information about the colour of water and the water constituents producing that colour. It is therefore within the scope of a growing interest in the application and usefulness of basic measurement methodologies with the potential to provide timely benchmark information about the environment to the public, scientists and policymakers.

  18. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica


    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  19. A methodology to assess water availability for food production under climate change (United States)

    Gonzalez Zeas, D.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.


    In many countries around the world, water demand for agricultural production already exceeds water availability. Such situation imposes a challenge for food production under future climate change conditions and indicates the need for a policy assessment in order to identify adaptation strategies in the water sector. This contribution provides a methodology to compute water availability for irrigation using a GIS-based model, called "Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Assessment" (WAAPA). The model computes the net water availability for consumptive use for a river basin taking into account the regulation capacity of its water supply system and a set of management standards defined through water policy. The model was applied in 567 basins that cover the entire continental territory of Spain to estimate water availability under different climate change projections. The outputs of the PRUDENCE European project provide the information of the climate change scenarios. Two alternatives of management are proposed based on: reducing water allocation for agriculture, in order to obtain satisfactory water supply reliability or maintaining current water allocation for agriculture, but with the probability of reducing supply reliability. The results show equilibrium between water availability and agricultural demand in current conditions in the great majority of the River Basin Districts of Spain, nonetheless under climate change scenarios, the capability to satisfy the water requirements for agricultural production is significantly reduced, so as the management needs are necessary to mitigate the expected impacts to long term.

  20. Ground-Water Availability Assessment for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho (United States)



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the availability and use of the Nation's water resources to gain a clearer understanding of the status of our water resources and the land-use, water-use, and climatic trends that affect them. The goal of the National assessment is to improve our ability to forecast water availability for future economic and environmental uses. Assessments will be completed for regional aquifer systems across the Nation to help characterize how much water we have now, how water availability is changing, and how much water we can expect to have in the future (Reilly and others, 2008). Water availability is a function of many factors, including the quantity and quality of water, and the laws, regulations, economics, and environmental factors that control its use. The focus of the Columbia Plateau regional ground-water availability assessment is to improve fundamental knowledge of the ground-water balance of the region, including the flows, storage, and ground-water use by humans. An improved quantitative understanding of the region's water balance not only provides key information about water quantity, but also can serve as a fundamental basis for many analyses of water quality and ecosystem health.

  1. Glophymed: an index to establish the ecological status for the Water Framework Directive based on phytoplankton in coastal waters. (United States)

    Romero, I; Pachés, M; Martínez-Guijarro, R; Ferrer, J


    Phytoplankton and its attributes (biomass, abundance, composition, and frequency and intensity of phytoplankton blooms) are essential to establish the ecological status in the Water Frame Directive. The aim of this study is to develop an index "Glophymed" based on all phytoplankton attributes for coastal water bodies according to the directive requirements. It is also developed an anthropogenic pressure index that takes into account population density, tourism, urbanization, industry, agriculture, fisheries and maritime transport for Comunitat Valenciana (Spain). Both indexes (Glophymed and human pressure index) based on a multisampling dataset collected monthly during several years, show a significant statistical correlation (r2 0.75 α<0.01) for typology IIA and (r2 0.93 α<0.01) for typology III-W. The relation between these indexes provides suitable information about the integrated management plans and protection measures of water resources since the Glophymed index is very sensitive to human pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Review and classification of indicators of green water availability and scarcity (United States)

    Schyns, J. F.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Booij, M. J.


    Research on water scarcity has mainly focussed on blue water (ground- and surface water), but green water (soil moisture returning to the atmosphere through evaporation) is also scarce, because its availability is limited and there are competing demands for green water. Crop production, grazing lands, forestry and terrestrial ecosystems are all sustained by green water. The implicit distribution or explicit allocation of limited green water resources over competitive demands determines which economic and environmental goods and services will be produced and may affect food security and nature conservation. We need to better understand green water scarcity to be able to measure, model, predict and handle it. This paper reviews and classifies around 80 indicators of green water availability and scarcity, and discusses the way forward to develop operational green water scarcity indicators that can broaden the scope of water scarcity assessments.

  3. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; de Vries, Marjella J.; van Oel, P.R.; Carlos de Araújo, José


    Semi-arid river basins often rely on reservoirs for water supply. Small reservoirs may impact on large-scale water availability both by enhancing availability in a distributed sense and by subtracting water for large downstream user communities, e.g. served by large reservoirs. Both of these impacts

  4. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Maarten S.; Vries, de Marjella J.; Oel, van Pieter R.; Carlos de Araújo, José


    Semi-arid river basins often rely on reservoirs for water supply. Small reservoirs may impact on large-scale water availability both by enhancing availability in a distributed sense and by subtracting water for large downstream user communities, e.g. served by large reservoirs. Both of these impacts

  5. Analysis of Groundwater Quality of Aligarh City, (India: Using Water Quality Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwaja M. Anwar


    Full Text Available Water is essential for all living organisms for their existence and metabolic process. Unethical human intervention in natural system and over exploitation of groundwater resources induces degradation of its quality. In many instances groundwater is used directly for drinking as well as for other purposes, hence the evaluation of groundwater quality is extremely important. The present study is aimed to analyze the underground water quality at Aligarh. In this study 80 water samples were collected from 40 places and analyzed for 14 water quality parameters for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons (2012. The water quality index of these samples ranges from 18.92 to 74.67 pre-monsoon and 16.82 to 70.34 during post-monsoon. The study reveals that 50 % of the area under study falls in moderately polluted category. The ground water of Aligarh city needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  6. Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes. (United States)

    Massas, Ioannis; Kalivas, Dionisios; Ehaliotis, Constantions; Gasparatos, Dionisios


    The Thriassio plain is located 25 km west of Athens city, the capital of Greece. Two major towns (Elefsina and Aspropyrgos), heavy industry plants, medium to large-scale manufacturing, logistics plants, and agriculture comprise the main land uses of the studied area. The aim of the present study was to measure the total and available concentrations of Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe in the top soils of the plain, and to asses soil contamination by these metals by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo), the enrichment factor (EF), and the availability ratio (AR) as soil pollution indexes. Soil samples were collected from 90 sampling sites, and aqua regia and DTPA extractions were carried out to determine total and available metal forms, respectively. Median total Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe concentrations were 78, 155, 81, 112, 24, 321, 834, 38, and 16 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively. The available fractions showed much lower values with medians of 0.4, 5.6, 1.7, 6.9, 0.8, 5.7, 19.8, 2.1, and 2.9 mg kg(-1). Though median total metal concentrations are not considered as particularly high, the I geo and the EF values indicate moderate to heavy soil enrichment. For certain metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the different distribution patterns between the EFs and the ARs suggest different origin of the total and the available metal forms. The evaluation of the EF and AR data sets for the soils of the two towns further supports the argument that the EFs can well demonstrate the long-term history of soil pollution and that the ARs can adequately portray the recent history of soil pollution.

  7. Lake Water Quality Indexing To Identify Suitable Sites For Household Utility: A Case Study Jambhulwadi Lake;Pune(MS

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    Aher D. N.


    Full Text Available Water management practices need a fresh look in order to avoid water crisis in the next two decades. This essentially requires looking for proper management practices for growing economy and population. The water resources of the Lake basins remain almost constant while demand of water for various purposes is increasing. Water pollution as a corollary of accelerated industrial growth has drawn concerns over public health and environment. Water is required for different purposes like domestic, agricultural, hydro-power, navigation, recreation, etc. Utilization in all these diverse uses of water should be optimized and an awareness of water as a inadequate resource should be fostered. Water quality index (WQI is precious and unique rating to depict the overall water quality status in appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. This paper elaborates on the WQI concepts and current scenario of Jambhulwadi Lake which will help in future as natural potable groundwater resource. It also focuses on case scenario of calculating WQI using Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index an example dataset. The quality of water way to evaluate by testing various physicochemical parameters such as pH, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS,Alkalinity Total Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD,Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Nitrites, Phosphate, Conductivity.

  8. A water sustainability index for West Java. Part 1: developing the conceptual framework. (United States)

    Juwana, I; Perera, B J C; Muttil, N


    Sustainable water resources management is essential since it ensures the integration of social, economical and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. The development and application of water sustainability indices to achieve sustainable water management has been successfully done in the last few years. Although existing water sustainability indices have successfully provided information on current conditions of water resources and prioritised water related issues, they have been developed for specific case study areas. This study therefore aims at developing a water sustainability index for West Java, Indonesia. The overall steps for developing the index include developing a conceptual framework, application of Delphi technique to finalise the components/indicators of the index, applying the index to case studies and robustness analysis of the index. This paper, which is the first in a two-part series, discusses the first step, namely developing the conceptual framework of the West Java Water Sustainability Index (WJWSI). It outlines the criteria for identifying the initial set of components/indicators and based on those criteria, a detailed justification for selecting each component and indicator is also presented. The second paper of the series presents the application of Delphi technique to finalise the framework of WJWSI based on feedback from selected stakeholders. The remaining steps of developing WJWSI will be undertaken in the future.

  9. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access, and demand. (United States)

    Calow, Roger C; Macdonald, Alan M; Nicol, Alan L; Robins, Nick S


    Drought in Africa has been extensively researched, particularly from meteorological, agricultural, and food security perspectives. However, the impact of drought on water security, particularly ground water dependent rural water supplies, has received much less attention. Policy responses have concentrated on food needs, and it has often been difficult to mobilize resources for water interventions, despite evidence that access to safe water is a serious and interrelated concern. Studies carried out in Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, and Ethiopia highlight how rural livelihoods are affected by seasonal stress and longer-term drought. Declining access to food and water is a common and interrelated problem. Although ground water plays a vital role in buffering the effects of rainfall variability, water shortages and difficulties in accessing water that is available can affect domestic and productive water uses, with knock-on effects on food consumption and production. Total depletion of available ground water resources is rarely the main concern. A more common scenario is a spiral of water insecurity as shallow water sources fail, additional demands are put on remaining sources, and mechanical failures increase. These problems can be planned for within normal development programs. Water security mapping can help identify vulnerable areas, and changes to monitoring systems can ensure early detection of problems. Above all, increasing the coverage of ground water-based rural water supplies, and ensuring that the design and siting of water points is informed by an understanding of hydrogeological conditions and user demand, can significantly increase the resilience of rural communities to climate variability.

  10. Carbon stable isotope analysis of cereal remains as a way to reconstruct water availability: preliminary results


    Flohr, Pascal; Muldner, Gundula; Jenkins, Emma


    Reconstructing past water availability, both as rainfall and irrigation, is important to answer questions about the way society reacts to climate and its changes and the role of irrigation in the development of social complexity. Carbon stable isotope analysis of archaeobotanical remains is a potentially valuable method for reconstructing water availability. To further define the relationship between water availability and plant carbon isotope composition and to set up baseline values for the...

  11. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica T. Perrier


    Full Text Available While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2 collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort.

  12. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo


    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  13. Application of a sustainability index for integrated urban water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to an inability by policy makers to address urban water management in a holistic manner. ... the 'triple bottom line' approach to planning and implementa- .... Risk Management and disaster mitigation ..... School of Architecture and Planning,.

  14. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... copper, lead, manganese, nickel, cadmium and chromium characterized in three ... With the exception of nickel other physicochemical parameters characterized ... that the water quality at station 1 was poor while stations 2 and 3 were good.

  15. The Effect of Water Shortage on Water Quality of Different Resources in Jerash Governorate/Jordan, Based On New Water Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eham Al-Ajlouni


    Full Text Available The individual average of water share In Jerash governorate is only 71 litres per day and that is the lowest allotment in Jordan. The aim of the study is to assess water quality of different resources in Jerash governorate, based on demographic, chemical and biological changes within a period of 11 years. Cluster survey method was applied and samples of drinking water were taken from different resources. Water of municipality and bottled groundwater resources were of acceptable quality; groundwater of tanker trucks and wells were also acceptable except that of high level of nitrate; spring water and harvested rainwater were potentially not safe and susceptible for biological contamination. At level of sub-districts, based on a new developed water quality index, it was chemically found that water in Mastaba sub-district was more complying with standards than Jerash and Burma sub-districts, but in biological respect both Jerash and Burma sub-districts were more compliance with the standards than Mastaba sub-district. In general, drinking water in Jerash governorate was chemically found of medium quality, and biologically of good quality.

  16. Distribution and Availability of State and Areawide Water Quality Reports in Oklahoma Libraries. (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Million, Anne

    This report examines the distribution and availability of water quality reports in the state of Oklahoma. Based on legislation from the Clean Water Act and regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency's "Public Participation Handbook for Water Quality Management," depository libraries must be established to provide citizen access to…

  17. Prediction of ground water quality index to assess suitability for drinking purposes using fuzzy rule-based approach (United States)

    Gorai, A. K.; Hasni, S. A.; Iqbal, Jawed


    Groundwater is the most important natural resource for drinking water to many people around the world, especially in rural areas where the supply of treated water is not available. Drinking water resources cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality of water is properly assessed. To this end, an attempt has been made to develop a suitable methodology for the assessment of drinking water quality on the basis of 11 physico-chemical parameters. The present study aims to select the fuzzy aggregation approach for estimation of the water quality index of a sample to check the suitability for drinking purposes. Based on expert's opinion and author's judgement, 11 water quality (pollutant) variables (Alkalinity, Dissolved Solids (DS), Hardness, pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Fluoride, As, Sulphate, Nitrates) are selected for the quality assessment. The output results of proposed methodology are compared with the output obtained from widely used deterministic method (weighted arithmetic mean aggregation) for the suitability of the developed methodology.

  18. GIS-Based Evaluation of Water Quality Index of Ground Water Resources in West Bokaro Coalfield, India

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    Ashwani Kumar Tiwari


    Full Text Available Water Quality Index (WQI, a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess quality and ensure sustainable safe use of water for drinking. The present work is aimed to assess the groundwater quality of West Bokaro coalfield region for knowing the suitability of drinking purpose by calculating the WQI and using Geographical Information System (GIS techniques. Thirty three groundwater samples were collected from dug wells during post-monsoon, 2012 for comprehensive physico-chemical analysis. Ten parameters were considered for calculating the WQI such as: pH, fluoride (F-, chloride (Cl-, nitrate (NO3-, sulphate(SO42-, bicarbonate (HCO3- calcium(Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+, total hardness (TH and total dissolved solid (TDS. The spatial distribution maps of the above mentioned parameters were prepared by using GIS, software. The computed WQI value ranges from 21 to 131 with an overall average of WQI value 73. More than half of the locations fall in Excellent to Good category indicating the ground water in the study area is suitable for drinking purposes.

  19. Assessing water availability over peninsular Malaysia using public domain satellite data products (United States)

    Ali, M. I.; Hashim, M.; Zin, H. S. M.


    Water availability monitoring is an essential task for water resource sustainability and security. In this paper, the assessment of satellite remote sensing technique for determining water availability is reported. The water-balance analysis is used to compute the spatio-temporal water availability with main inputs; the precipitation and actual evapotranspiration rate (AET), both fully derived from public-domain satellite products of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and MODIS, respectively. Both these satellite products were first subjected to calibration to suit corresponding selected local precipitation and AET samples. Multi-temporal data sets acquired 2000-2010 were used in this study. The results of study, indicated strong agreement of monthly water availability with the basin flow rate (r2 = 0.5, p < 0.001). Similar agreements were also noted between the estimated annual average water availability with the in-situ measurement. It is therefore concluded that the method devised in this study provide a new alternative for water availability mapping over large area, hence offers the only timely and cost-effective method apart from providing comprehensive spatio-temporal patterns, crucial in water resource planning to ensure water security.

  20. Index of surface-water stations in Texas, January 1988 (United States)

    Rawson, Jack; Carrillo, E.R.; Buckner, H.D.


    As of January 1, 1988, the surface-water data-collection network in Texas included 368 continuous streamflow, 12 continuous or daily reservoir-content, 38 gage height, 15 crest-stage partia 1-record, 4 periodic discharge through range, 32 floodhydrocjraph partial-record, 9 flood-profile partial-record, 36 low-flow partial-record 45 daily chemical-quality, 19 continuous-recording water-quality, 83 periodic biological, 19 lake surveys, 160 periodic organic and (or) nutrient, 3 periodic insecticide, 33 periodic pesticide, 20 automatic sampler, 137 periodic minor elements, 125 periodic chemical-quality, 74 periodic physica1-organic, 24 continuous-recording three- or four-parameter water-quality, 34 periodic sediment, 21 continuous-recording temperature, and 30 national stream-quality accounting network stations. Plate 1 shows the location of surface-water streamflow or reservoir-content and chemicalquality or sediment stations in Texas. Plate 2 shows the location of partial-record surface-water stations.

  1. Spatial variability of available water and micro-sprinkler irrigation in cambisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Luana Nicodemos Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The technology of irrigation is vital for agricultural production. Thus, description of spatial patterns of both water application and available water capacity in the soil, as well as their interactions, is essential to maximize efficiency of water use in irrigated areas. The objective of this study was to analyze spatial variability of available water capacity in the soil and water application via irrigation using geostatistics. The experiment was conducted in a commercial mango orchard in Cambisol irrigated by micro sprinkler system, in the municipality of Alto do Rodrigues, RN. Analyses of descriptive statistics and geostatistics were performed using the programs GeoR and GS+. Geostatistics was found suitable for describing the structure of spatial dependence of available water capacity in the soil and the flow rate distributed in the area by sprinklers. Moreover, even with good results for Christiansen Uniformity Coefficient (CU and Distribution Uniformity Coefficient (DU, the area showed spatial variability of flow rate.

  2. The relationship between prevalence of active trachoma, water availability and its use in a Tanzanian village. (United States)

    Polack, Sarah; Kuper, Hannah; Solomon, Anthony W; Massae, Patrick A; Abuelo, Carolina; Cameron, Ewen; Valdmanis, Vivian; Mahande, Michael; Foster, Allen; Mabey, David


    This study aimed to establish the relationship between the prevalence of active trachoma in children, water availability and household water use in a village in Tanzania. Nine hundred and fourteen children aged 1-9 years were examined for signs of trachoma. Data were collected on time taken to collect water, amount of water collected and other trachoma risk factors. In a sub-study, 99 randomly selected households were visited twice daily on two consecutive days to document patterns of water use. The prevalence of active trachoma in the children examined was 18.4% (95% CI 15.9-20.9). Active trachoma prevalence increased with increasing water collection time (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.13-4.46) but was unrelated to the amount of water collected. In the sub-study, active trachoma prevalence was substantially lower in children from households where more water was used for personal hygiene (P for trend < or =0.01), independent of the total amount of water used. The allocation of water to hygiene was predicted by lower water collection time. The key element in the relationship between water availability and trachoma is the allocation of water within households. Collection time may influence both the quantity of water collected and its allocation within the household.

  3. The iterative self-consistent reaction-field method: The refractive index of pure water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.; Mikkelsen, K. V.; Ratner, M.A.


    We present different microscopic models for describing electromagnetic properties of condensed phases and the models involve iterative self-consistent procedures for calculating the properties. We report calculations of the frequency-dependent refractive index of pure water. We investigate...

  4. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and...

  5. Future Water Availability from Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya upper Indus Basin under Conflicting Climate Change Scenarios


    Shabeh ul Hasson


    Future of the crucial Himalayan water supplies has generally been assessed under the anthropogenic warming, typically consistent amid observations and climate model projections. However, conflicting mid-to-late melt-season cooling within the upper Indus basin (UIB) suggests that the future of its melt-dominated hydrological regime and the subsequent water availability under changing climate has yet been understood only indistinctly. Here, the future water availability from the UIB is presente...

  6. Index of surface-water stations in Texas, January 1987 (United States)

    Rawson, Jack; Carrillo, E.R.; Buckner, H.D.


    As of January 1, 1987, the surface-water data-collection network in Texas included 376 continuous streamflow, 76 continuous or daily reservoir-content, 34 gage height, 16 crest-stage partial-record, 8 periodic discharge through range, 33 floodhydrograph partial-record, 9 flood-profile partial-record, 36 low-flow partial-record, 46 daily chemical-quality, 19 continuous-recording water-quality, 84 periodic biological, 17 lake surveys, 162 periodic organic and (or) nutrient, 3 periodic insecticide, 42 periodic pesticide, 19 automatic sampler, 141 periodic minor elements, 130 periodic chemical-quality, 78 periodic physical-organic, 22 continuous-recording three- or four-parameter water-quality, 34 periodic sediment, 22 continuous-recording temperature, and 30 national stream-quality accounting network stations. Plate 1 shows the location of surface-water streamflow or reservoir-content and chemical-quality or sediment'stations in Texas. Plate 2 shows the location of partial-record surfacewater stations.

  7. Zoning of Water Quality of Hamadan Darreh-Morad Beyg River Based on NSFWQI Index Using Geographic Information System

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    A.R. Rahmani


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rivers are one of the main water supply resources for various uses such as agricultural, industrial and drinking purposes. As population and consumption increase, monitoring of rivers water quality becomes an important function of environmental management field. Because Darreh-Morad Beyg river of Hamadan is a water supply for different purposes and many pollutants are discharged in it, its water quality assessment seems necessary. Zoning of pollution and depicting a detailed image of surface water resources quality using geographic information system (GIS are the key factors for the better management of these resources.Materials & Methods: This research is a cross sectional- descriptive study and river water samples were taken for 7 months from 6 sampling stations on the length of the river. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (D.O., pH, fecal coli form, nitrate, temperature, phosphate and total solids were determined in the samples. Obtained data were analyzed by national sanitation foundation water quality index (NSFWQI and the river was zoned using GIS software.Results: Results of the analyses by NSFWQI showed the best water quality for station 1 and the worst water quality for station 6 with scores of 62.78 and 27.49, respectively.Conclusion: The NSFWQI is a suitable index for zoning of Darreh-Morad Beyg river. Monitoring of physical, chemical, bacteriological quality parameters and using water quality index in various sampling stations are used in the assessment of water pollution. It also helps the officials to correctly decide about the water uses for different purposes.

  8. Drinking water composition and incidence of urinary calculus: introducing a new index. (United States)

    Basiri, Abbas; Shakhssalim, Nasser; Khoshdel, Ali Reza; Pakmanesh, Hamid; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi


    INTRODUCTION. We searched for a pathophysiologically based feature of major water electrolytes, which may define water quality better than the water hardness, respecting urinary calculus formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Utilizing a multistage stratified sampling, 2310 patients were diagnosed in the imaging centers of the provincial capitals in Iran between 2007 and 2008. These were composed of 1755 patients who were settled residents of 24 provincial capitals. Data on the regional drinking water composition, obtained from an accredited registry, and their relationships with the region's incidence of urinary calculi were evaluated by metaregression models. The stone risk index (defined as the ratio of calcium to magnesium-bicarbonate product in drinking water) was used to assess the risk of calculus formation. RESULTS. No correlation was found between the urinary calculus incidence and the amount of calcium, bicarbonate, or the total hardness of the drinking water. In contrast, water magnesium had a marginally significant nonlinear inverse relationship with the incidence of the disease in the capitals (R(2) = 26%, P = .05 for a power model). The stone risk index was associated nonlinearly with the calculus incidence (R(2) = 28.4%, P = .04). CONCLUSIONS. Urinary calculus incidence was inversely related with drinking water magnesium content. We introduced a new index constructed on the foundation of a pathophysiologically based formula; the stone risk index had a strong positive association with calculus incidence. This index can have therapeutic and preventive applications, yet to be confirmed by clinical trials.

  9. Infrared Thermometry to Estimate Crop Water Stress Index and Water Use of Irrigated Maize in Northeastern Colorado

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    Neil C. Hansen


    Full Text Available With an increasing demand of fresh water resources in arid/semi-arid parts of the world, researchers and practitioners are relying more than ever on remote sensing techniques for monitoring and evaluating crop water status and for estimating crop water use or crop actual evapotranspiration (ETa. In this present study, infrared thermometry was used in conjunction with a few weather parameters to develop non-water-stressed and non-transpiring baselines for irrigated maize in a semi-arid region of Colorado in the western USA. A remote sensing-based Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI was then estimated for four hourly periods each day during 5 August to 2 September 2011 (29 days. The estimated CWSI was smallest during the 10:00–11:00 a.m. and largest during the 12:00–13:00 p.m. hours. Plotting volumetric water content of the topsoil vs. CWSI revealed that there is a high correlation between the two parameters during the analyzed period. CWSI values were also used to estimate maize actual transpiration (Ta. Ta estimates were more influenced by crop biomass rather than irrigation depths alone, mainly due to the fact that the effects of deficit irrigation were largely masked by the significant precipitation during the growing season. During the study period, applying an independent remotely sensed energy balance model showed that maize ETa was 159 mm, 30% larger than CWSI-Ta (122 mm and 9% smaller than standard-condition maize ET (174 mm.

  10. Application of the Water Needs Index: Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam (United States)

    Moglia, Magnus; Neumann, Luis E.; Alexander, Kim S.; Nguyen, Minh N.; Sharma, Ashok K.; Cook, Stephen; Trung, Nguyen H.; Tuan, Dinh D. A.


    SummaryProvision of urban water supplies to rapidly growing cities of South East Asia is difficult because of increasing demand for limited water supplies, periodic droughts, and depletion and contamination of surface and groundwater. In such adverse environments, effective policy and planning processes are required to secure adequate water supplies. Developing a Water Needs Index reveals key elements of the complex urban water supply by means of a participatory approach for rapid and interdisciplinary assessment. The index uses deliberative interactions with stakeholders to create opportunities for mutual understanding, confirmation of constructs and capacity building of all involved. In Can Tho City, located at the heart of the Mekong delta in Vietnam, a Water Needs Index has been developed with local stakeholders. The functional attributes of the Water Needs Index at this urban scale have been critically appraised. Systemic water issues, supply problems, health issues and inadequate, poorly functioning infrastructure requiring attention from local authorities have been identified. Entrenched social and economic inequities in access to water and sanitation, as well as polluting environmental management practices has caused widespread problems for urban populations. The framework provides a common language based on systems thinking, increased cross-sectoral communication, as well as increased recognition of problem issues; this ought to lead to improved urban water management. Importantly, the case study shows that the approach can help to overcome biases of local planners based on their limited experience (information black spots), to allow them to address problems experienced in all areas of the city.

  11. Predicting Vegetation Condition from ASCAT Soil Water Index over Southwest India (United States)

    Pfeil, Isabella Maria; Hochstöger, Simon; Amarnath, Giriraj; Pani, Peejush; Enenkel, Markus; Wagner, Wolfgang


    In India, extreme water scarcity events are expected to occur on average every five years. Record-breaking droughts affecting millions of human beings and livestock are common. If the south-west monsoon (summer monsoon) is delayed or brings less rainfall than expected, a season's harvest can be destroyed despite optimal farm management, leading to, in the worst case, life-threatening circumstances for a large number of farmers. Therefore, the monitoring of key drought indicators, such as the healthiness of the vegetation, and subsequent early warning is crucial. The aim of this work is to predict vegetation state from earth observation data instead of relying on models which need a lot of input data, increasing the complexity of error propagation, or seasonal forecasts, that are often too uncertain to be used as a regression component for a vegetation parameter. While precipitation is the main water supply for large parts of India's agricultural areas, vegetation datasets such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide reliable estimates of vegetation greenness that can be related to vegetation health. Satellite-derived soil moisture represents the missing link between a deficit in rainfall and the response of vegetation. In particular the water available in the root zone plays an important role for near-future vegetation health. Exploiting the added-value of root zone soil moisture is therefore crucial, and its use in vegetation studies presents an added value for drought analyses and decision-support. The soil water index (SWI) dataset derived from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) on board the Metop satellites represents the water content that is available in the root zone. This dataset shows a strong correlation with NDVI data obtained from measurements of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which is exploited in this study. A linear regression function is fit to the multi-year SWI and NDVI dataset with a temporal

  12. The effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Espinoza


    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of water availability on plastic responses and biomass allocation in early growth traits of Pinus radiata D. Don.Area of study: Seedlings of 69 families of P. radiata belonging to five different sites in Central Chile, ranging from coastal range to fothills of the Andes, were grown in controlled conditions to evaluate differences in response to watering.Material and methods: The seedlings were subjected to two watering regimes: well-watered treatment, in which seedlings were watered daily, and water stress treatment in which seedlings were subjected to three cyclic water deficits by watering to container capacity on 12 days cycles each. After twenty-eight weeks root collar diameter, height, shoot dry weight (stem + needles, root dry weight, total dry weight, height/diameter ratio and root/shoot ratio were recorded. Patterns and amounts of phenotypic changes, including changes in biomass allocation, were analyzed.Main results: Families from coastal sites presented high divergence for phenotypic changes, allocating more biomass to shoots, and those families from interior sites presented low phenotypic plasticity, allocating more biomass to roots at the expense of shoots. These changes are interpreted as a plastic response and leads to the conclusion that the local landrace of P. radiata in Chile originating from contrasting environments possess distinct morphological responses to water deficit which in turn leads to phenotypic plasticity.Research highlights: Families belonging to sandy soil sites must be considered for tree breeding in dry areas, selecting those with high root: shoot ratio.Key words: early testing; environmental interaction; ontogeny; plasticity index; water stress.

  13. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability. (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S


    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  14. Energy Reliability Related to Water Availability under Climate Extremes in Texas (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Duncan, I.; Young, M.; Wolaver, B. D.


    Understanding linkages between water and energy is critical during climate extremes, particularly droughts. With 40% reduction in per capita water storage since the 1980s, Texas is much more vulnerable to droughts now than in the past. Texas experienced the most extreme one year drought on record in 2011, with 60% reduction in precipitation and 40% reduction in reservoir storage relative to the long term mean. Power plants in Texas rely almost entirely on surface water for cooling. We evaluated water requirements for power plants based on fuel types and cooling technologies to assess their vulnerability to future droughts. Water demand was estimated for electricity generation using multiple sources, including Energy Information Agency, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, and Texas Water Development Board. The following analysis reflects 2010 data; however, 2011 data will be analyzed as soon as they are made available. Analysis of 2010 data showed that Texas generated 411 million MWHr of electricity, mostly from natural gas (46%), coal (37%), nuclear (10%), and renewables (7%). Approximately 70% of net electricity generation in 2010 required water for cooling. Water consumption for electricity generation totaled 0.6 km3, which represents 3% of the states total water consumption in 2010 (22 km3). Water withdrawals totaled 28 km3; however, 97% of this water is returned to the system. Water consumption varies with fuel source (coal, natural gas, nuclear, renewables) and cooling system technology (once-through, pond, and recirculating tower). Coal plants accounted for the majority of water consumption in 2010, followed by natural gas, nuclear, and other. Water consumption varied by cooling system technology, with ponds accounting for most water consumption, followed by recirculating towers, and once-through cooling systems. The vulnerability of the different systems to drought was examined with water requirements for withdrawal and consumption relative to water

  15. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China. (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui


    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas.

  16. Population and annual renewable fresh water availability: selected countries, 1955-2050. (United States)


    This chart presents population figures and total annual renewable fresh water available by country for 100 countries as well as estimates of per capita water availability based on these figures for 1955, for 1990, and for the UN medium population projection for 2025 and 2050. Graphs are provided which illustrate the population experiencing fresh water scarcity for 1990-2050 according to the UN's low, medium, and high population projections. The low projection (7.9 billion) shows 3.5 billion people living in 51 water-short countries, the medium projection (nearly 10 billion) has 4.4 billion people living in 58 water-short countries, and the high projection (11.9 billion) places 7.7 billion people in 66 water-short nations. Thus, there is an urgent need for population stabilization policies as well as efforts to ensure that all people have access to clean fresh water.

  17. MTA index: a simple 2D-method for assessing atrophy of the medial temporal lobe using clinically available neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eMenéndez-González


    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Despite a strong correlation between severity of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA, its measurement has not been widely used in daily clinical practice as a criterion in the diagnosis of prodromal and probable AD. This is mainly because the methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In this pilot study we aim to describe a novel, simple and objective method for measuring the rate of MTA in relation to the global atrophy using clinically available neuroimaging and describe the rationale behind this method.Description: This method consists of calculating a ratio of 3 regions traced manually on one single coronal MRI slide at the level of the interpeduncular fossa: i the medial temporal lobe region (A; ii the parenchyma within the medial temporal region, that includes the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus -the fimbriae taenia and choroid plexus are excluded- (B; and iii the body of the ipsilateral lateral ventricle (C. Therefore we can compute the ratio Medial Temporal Atrophy index at both sides as follows: MTAi = (A-B x10/C.Conclusions: The MTAi is a simple 2D-method for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. This method can be useful for a more accurate diagnosis of AD in routine clinical practice. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of MTAi in the diagnosis of early AD, in tracking the progression of AD and in the differential diagnosis of AD with other dementias.

  18. Responses of Different Physiological Indices for Maize (Zea mays) to Soil Water Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yuan-Zhi; HUANG Ming-Bin; D. N. WARRINGTON


    Knowledge of plant responses to soil water availability is essential for the development of efficient irrigation strategies.However,notably different results have been obtained in the past on the responses of various physiological indices for different plants to soil water availability.In this study,the responses of various plant processes to soil water availability were compared with data from pot and field plot experiments conducted on maize (Zea mays L.).Consistent results were obtained between pot and field plot experiments for the responses of various relative plant indices to changes in the fraction of available soil water (FASW).A threshold value,where the relative plant indices began to decrease with soil drying,and a lower water limit,where the decline of relative plant indices changed to a very slow rate,were found.Evaporative demand not only influenced the transpiration rate over a daily scale but also determined the difference in transpirational response to soil water availability among the transient,daily and seasonal time scales.At the seasonal scale,cumulative transpiration decreased linearly with soil drying,but the decrease of transpiration from FASW =1 in response to water deficits did not affect dry weight until FASW =0.75.On the other hand,the decrease in dry weight was comparable with plant height and leaf area.Therefore,the plant responses to soil water availability were notably different among various plant indices of maize and were influenced by the weather conditions.

  19. Livelihood Strategies as Responses to Water Availability in Pusur Subwatershed, Bengawan Solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathna Wijayanti


    Full Text Available Water availability has a significant role on human life, particularly for the rural, agrarian communities. This study aimed to investigate the diverse conditions of water availability in Pusur sub-watershed, Bengawan Solo watershed, and the livelihood strategies of the local community in responding to the water availability. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis, and the data was collected through questionnaire, in-depth interview, and observation. On the water availability, the study used the following variables: (1 quality, (2 quantity, (3 spatial and temporal distribution, (4 access, (5 social-economy, and (5 institutional aspect. On the livelihood strategies, it uses: (1 reaction and (2 anticipation for water deficit. In term of sampling methods, the study used area and purposive sampling, by splitting the study site into the upper, middle, and lower area. The analysis of this study indicates that the level of water availability in the upper area is considered low. The community living in the upper area depends upon rainwater for its agricultural sector, and upon the water supply distributed by pipelines and tanker trucks for its household. The study also indicates that the middle area has abundant water supply, but the quality has been declined due to pollution, poor sanitation system, and potential conflict among the community members. Meanwhile, in the lower area, particularly in the dry season, irrigation water has been inadequate. Responding to the diverse water availability, the community has applied the following livelihood strategies: (1 leaving the agricultural land uncultivated in the upper area, and (2 pumping wells and rivers in the middle and lower areas. In addition, as part of its precautions actions, the community has applied: (1 agroforestry system at the upper area, (2 improved the irrigation system of the middle area, and (3 creating wells and using water pumps in the lower area.

  20. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez


    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863 is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

  1. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjiro Yano


    Full Text Available We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA. Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally.

  2. Effect of water stress on total biomass, tuber yield, harvest index and water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...

  3. Comparative Investigation of River Water Quality by OWQI, NSFWQI and Wilcox Indexes (Case study: the Talar River – IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darvishi Gholamreza


    Full Text Available Rivers are considered as one of the main resources of water supply for various applications such as agricultural, drinking and industrial purposes. Also, these resources are used as a place for discharge of sewages, industrial wastewater and agricultural drainage. Regarding the fact that each river has a certain capacity for acceptance of pollutants, nowadays qualitative and environmental investigations of these resources are proposed. In this study, qualitative investigation of the Talar river was done according to Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI, National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI and Wilcox indicators during 2011–2012 years at upstream, midstream and downstream of the river in two periods of wet and dry seasons. According to the results of OWQI, all of the values at 3 stations and both periods are placed at very bad quality category and the water is not acceptable for drinking purposes. According to NSFWQI, the best condition was related to the upstream station at wet season period (58, medium quality and the worst condition was related to the downstream in wet season period (46, very bad quality. Also the results of Wilcox showed that in both periods of wet season and dry season, the water quality is getting better from upstream station to the downstream station, and according to the index classification, the downstream water quality has shown good quality and it is suitable for agriculture.

  4. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez


    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  5. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ


    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  6. Development of Watershed Evaluation Index for Water Resources Considering Climate Change (United States)

    Lee, K. S.; Oh, J.; Lee, S.; Chung, E.


    The concept of sustainable development is the center of issue between economic development and environmental protection. Water resources development and management is a main part of the issue. With this, integrated watershed management (IWM) which considers flood, drought and water quality control together is needed for watershed management. The Green house effect has been increased by the carbon based and thoughtless development, and climate change caused by global warming will affect all human activities. Accordingly, this study developed watershed evaluation index for water resources to assess water resources of watershed considering flood, drought, water quality control, and climate change and then applied results to actual watershed. This study consists of mainly 2 parts. The first is development of watershed evaluation index to analyze water resources vulnerability considering flood, drought, water quality, and climate change. Watershed evaluation index for water resources consists of flood indicator with climate change, drought indicator with climate change, and water quality indicator with climate change. There are two frameworks to make indices. One is a cause-effect chain framework and the other is a theme framework. Watershed evaluation index for water resources has been developed using DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-Impact-Response) framework by EEA (European Environment Agency) that can explain interactions between socio-economic and water resources. The second is applying the index to study watershed. Three kinds of date sets are needed to apply the index. These are socio-economic data, meteorological and hydrologic data, and GCM (General Circulation Model) as a future climate change scenario. In this study, the North Han River watershed was selected as a study area. The socio-economic data set was collected using municipal statistics. The meteorological and hydrologic data, especially flow and water quality (BOD, DO et al.) data has been simulated


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff


    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn.  The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.  


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff


    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn. The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.

  9. Climate change impacts on snow water availability in the Euphrates-Tigris basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Özdoğan


    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of projected climate change on snow water availability in the Euphrates-Tigris basin using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC macro scale hydrologic model and a set of regional climate-change outputs from 13 global circulation models (GCMs forced with two greenhouse gas emission scenarios for two time periods in the 21st century (2050 and 2090. The hydrologic model produces a reasonable simulation of seasonal and spatial variation in snow cover and associated snow water equivalent (SWE in the mountainous areas of the basin, although its performance is poorer at marginal snow cover sites. While there is great variation across GCM outputs influencing snow water availability, the majority of models and scenarios suggest a significant decline (between 10 and 60 percent in available snow water, particularly under the aggressive A2 climate change scenario and later in the 21st century. The changes in SWE are more stable when multi-model ensemble GCM outputs are used to minimize inter-model variability, suggesting a consistent and significant decrease in snow-covered areas and associated water availability in the headwaters of the Euphrates Tigris basin. Detailed analysis of future climatic conditions point to the combined effects of reduced precipitation and increased temperatures as primary drivers of reduced snowpack. Results also indicate a more rapid decline in snow cover in the lower elevation zones than the higher areas in a changing climate. The simulated changes in snow water availability have important implications for the future of water resources and associated hydropower generation and land-use management and planning in a region already ripe for interstate water conflict. While the changes in the frequency and intensity of snow-bearing circulation systems or the interannual variability related to climate were not considered, the simulated changes in snow water availability presented here are likely

  10. Ensuring water availability in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia: evaluation of the water supply sub-project (United States)

    Oyedotun, Temitope D. Timothy


    The need and demand for water in the world are becoming acute with the growing population. This is mostly pressing in developing countries of which Mekelle City in Northern Ethiopia is not an exception. World Bank borehole-support sub-project was aimed at addressing this challenge. The evaluation of the intervention indicates that there is a significant increase in water supply in the city because of the sub-project. However, the increase in water supply has not been able to meet up with the already established and increasing demand. Coupled with this challenge are: the limited capacity of human capital and expertise that will ensure the proper management of borehole interventions; insufficient cost recovery for proper operation and maintenance of the projects; loss of land and farmlands and lack of compensations because of the projects which affect the livelihood.

  11. Future Water Availability from Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya upper Indus Basin under Conflicting Climate Change Scenarios

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    Shabeh ul Hasson


    Full Text Available Future of the crucial Himalayan water supplies has generally been assessed under the anthropogenic warming, typically consistent amid observations and climate model projections. However, conflicting mid-to-late melt-season cooling within the upper Indus basin (UIB suggests that the future of its melt-dominated hydrological regime and the subsequent water availability under changing climate has yet been understood only indistinctly. Here, the future water availability from the UIB is presented under both observed and projected—though likely but contrasting—climate change scenarios. Continuation of prevailing climatic changes suggests decreased and delayed glacier melt but increased and early snowmelt, leading to reduction in the overall water availability and profound changes in the overall seasonality of the hydrological regime. Hence, initial increases in the water availability due to enhanced glacier melt under typically projected warmer climates, and then abrupt decrease upon vanishing of the glaciers, as reported earlier, is only true given the UIB starts following uniformly the global warming signal. Such discordant future water availability findings caution the impact assessment communities to consider the relevance of likely (near-future climate change scenarios—consistent to prevalent climatic change patterns—in order to adequately support the water resource planning in Pakistan.

  12. Identification of glacial melt water runoff in a karstic environment and its implication for present and future water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Finger


    Full Text Available Glaciers all over the world are expected to continue to retreat due to the global warming throughout the 21st century. Consequently, future seasonal water availability might become scarce once glacier areas have declined below a certain threshold affecting future water management strategies. Particular attention should be paid to glaciers located in a karstic environment, as parts of the melt water can be drained by souterrain karst systems. In this study tracer experiments, karst modeling and glacier melt modeling are combined in order to identify flow paths in a high alpine, glacierized, karstic environment (Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland and to investigate current and predict future downstream water availability. Flow paths through the karst underground were determined with natural and fluorescent tracers. Subsequently, tracer results and geologic information were assembled in a karst model. Finally, glacier melt projections driven with a climate scenario were performed to discuss future water availability in the area surrounding the glacier. The results suggest that during late summer glacier melt water is rapidly drained through well-developed channels at the glacier bottom to the north of the glacier, while during low flow season melt water enters into the karst and is drained to the south. Climate change projections reveal that by the end of the century glacier melt will be significantly reduced in the summer, jeopardizing water availability in glacier-fed karst springs.

  13. Minimizing instrumentation requirement for estimating crop water stress index and transpiration of maize (United States)

    Research was conducted in northern Colorado in 2011 to estimate the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) and actual water transpiration (Ta) of maize under a range of irrigation regimes. The main goal was to obtain these parameters with minimum instrumentation and measurements. The results confirmed that ...

  14. Water Availability for the Western United States: The Role for Science (United States)

    Anderson, M. T.; Woosley, L. H.


    In the American West, the availability of water has become a serious concern for many communities and rural homeowners. Water of acceptable quality is harder to find because local sources are allocated to prior uses, depleted by overuse, or diminished by drought stress. Some of the inherent characteristics of the West add complexity to the task. The most rapidly growing States in population are in the Southwest-the most arid region on the continent. There is evidence that the climate is warming, which will have consequences for the Western water supplies, such as increasing minimum streamflow and earlier snowmelt events in snow-dominated basins. Endangered species are disproportionately represented in the Western States, and water availability now means sustaining riparian ecosystems and individual endangered species. Periodic inventory and assessment of the amounts and trends of water available in surface water and ground water are needed to support water management. The widespread perception that the amount of water available is diminishing with time needs to be replaced with fact. For the major Western rivers, there is either no long-term streamflow trend or the trend is increasing. In contrast, systematic information is lacking to make broad assessments of ground-water availability, but for specific aquifers where data are available, the aquifers are being depleted. The complexity added to the issue of Western water availability by these and other factors gives rise to a significant role for science. Science has played a role in support of Western water development from the beginning, and the role has evolved and changed over time along with society's values. The role for science is discussed in three phases-development and construction, consequences and environmental awareness, and sustainability. The development and construction includes some historical accounting of water development for the West and how some precedents set then, still exist today. Science

  15. GIS-Based Evaluation of Water Quality Index of Ground Water Resources in West Bokaro Coalfield, India


    Ashwani Kumar Tiwari; Prasoon Kumar Singh; Mukesh Kumar Mahato


    Water Quality Index (WQI), a technique of rating water quality, is an effective tool to assess quality and ensure sustainable safe use of water for drinking. The present work is aimed to assess the groundwater quality of West Bokaro coalfield region for knowing the suitability of drinking purpose by calculating the WQI and using Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Thirty three groundwater samples were collected from dug wells during post-monsoon, 2012 for comprehensive physico-c...

  16. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert


    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  17. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  18. Assessment of the Water Quality of Hussain Sagar, Fox Sagar and Kattamysamma Lakes of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India: Using Water Quality Index (WQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchala Lingaswamy


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the water quality of three lakes of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India viz., Hussain Sagar, Fox Sagar and Kattamysamma Lake by using water quality index (WQI. For this study systematic sampling has been carried out by collecting sixteen samples from each lake. The collected samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Total Hardness (TH, Total Alkalinity (TA, Sodium (Na+, Potassium (K+, Calcium (Ca2+, Magnesium (Mg2+, Nitrates (NO32-, Sulphates (SO42-, Fluoride (F- and Chloride (Cl- according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA 2005 and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB guide manual: Water and Waste water analysis. The results were compared with water quality guidelines for drinking purpose (BIS 2012. The mean values of most water quality parameters were significantly higher than the accept limits in all three lakes. Ten important water variables were chosen to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI. All the three lakes fall under unsuitable for drinking purpose (>100 according to WQI scale.

  19. Assessing physiological responses of dune forest functional groups to changing water availability: from Tropics to Mediterranean. (United States)

    Antunes, Cristina; Lo Cascio, Mauro; Correia, Otília; Vieira, Simone; Cruz Diaz Barradas, Maria; Zunzunegui, Maria; Ramos, Margarida; João Pereira, Maria; Máguas, Cristina


    Alterations in water availability are important to vegetation as can produce dramatic changes in plant communities, on physiological performance or survival of plant species. Particularly, groundwater lowering and surface water diversions will affect vulnerable coastal dune forests, ecosystems particularly sensitive to groundwater limitation. Reduction of water tables can prevent the plants from having access to one of their key water sources and inevitably affect groundwater-dependent species. The additional impact of drought due to climatic change on groundwater-dependent ecosystems has become of increasing concern since it aggravates groundwater reduction impacts with consequent uncertainties about how vegetation will respond over the short and long term. Sand dune plant communities encompass a diverse number of species that differ widely in root depth, tolerance to drought and capacity to shift between seasonal varying water sources. Plant functional groups may be affected by water distribution and availability differently. The high ecological diversity of sand dune forests, characterized by sandy soils, well or poorly drained, poor in nutrients and with different levels of salinity, can occur in different climatic regions of the globe. Such is the case of Tropical, Meso-mediterranean and Mediterranean areas, where future climate change is predicted to change water availability. Analyses of the relative natural abundances of stable isotopes of carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) have been used across a wide range of scales, contributing to our understanding of plant ecology and interactions. This approach can show important temporal and spatial changes in utilization of different water sources by vegetation. Accordingly, the core idea of this work is to evaluate, along a climatic gradient, the responses and capacity of different coastal plant communities to adapt to changing water availability. This large-climatic-scale study, covering Brazil, Portugal and

  20. [Significance of extravascular lung water index, pulmonary vascular permeability index, and in- trathoracic blood volume index in the differential diagnosis of burn-induced pulmonary edema]. (United States)

    Lei, Li; Jiajun, Sheng; Guangyi, Wang; Kaiyang, Lyu; Jing, Qin; Gongcheng, Liu; Bing, Ma; Shichu, Xiao; Shihui, Zhu


    To appraise the significance of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI), and intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) in the differential diagnosis of the type of burn-induced pulmonary edema. The clinical data of 38 patients, with severe burn hospitalized in our burn ICU from December 2011 to September 2014 suffering from the complication of pulmonary edema within one week post burn and treated with mechanical ventilation accompanied by pulse contour cardiac output monitoring, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into lung injury group ( L, n = 17) and hydrostatic group (H, n = 21) according to the diagnosis of pulmonary edema. EVLWI, PVPI, ITBVI, oxygenation index, and lung injury score ( LIS) were compared between two groups, and the correlations among the former four indexes and the correlations between each of the former three indexes and types of pulmonary edema were analyzed. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson correlation test, and accuracy test [receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve]. There was no statistically significant difference in EVLWI between group L and group H, respectively (12.9 ± 3.1) and (12.1 ± 2.1) mL/kg, U = 159.5, P > 0.05. The PVPI and LIS of patients in group L were respectively 2.6 ± 0.5 and (2.1 ± 0.6) points, and they were significantly higher than those in group H [1.4 ± 0.3 and (1.0 ± 0.6) points, with U values respectively 4.5 and 36.5, P values below 0.01]. The ITBVI and oxygenation index of patients in group L were respectively (911 197) mL/m2 and (136 ± 69) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), which were significantly lower than those in group H [(1,305 ± 168) mL/m2 and (212 ± 60) mmHg, with U values respectively 21.5 and 70.5, P values below 0.01]. In group L, there was obviously positive correlation between EVLWI and PVPI, or EVLWI and ITBVI (with r values respectively 0.553 and 0.807, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and

  1. Multilayer geospatial analysis of water availability for shale resources development in Mexico (United States)

    Galdeano, C.; Cook, M. A.; Webber, M. E.


    Mexico’s government enacted an energy reform in 2013 that aims to foster competitiveness and private investment throughout the energy sector value chain. As part of this reform, it is expected that extraction of oil and gas via hydraulic fracturing will increase in five shale basins (e.g. Burgos, Sabinas, Tampico, Tuxpan, and Veracruz). Because hydraulic fracturing is a water-intensive activity, it is relevant to assess the potential water availability for this activity in Mexico. This research aims to quantify the water availability for hydraulic fracturing in Mexico and identify its spatial distribution along the five shale basins. The methodology consisted of a multilayer geospatial analysis that overlays the water availability in the watersheds and aquifers with the different types of shale resources areas (e.g. oil and associated gas, wet gas and condensate, and dry gas) in the five shale basins. The aquifers and watersheds in Mexico are classified in four zones depending on average annual water availability. Three scenarios were examined based on different impact level on watersheds and aquifers from hydraulic fracturing. For the most conservative scenario analyzed, the results showed that the water available could be used to extract between 8.15 and 70.42 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of energy in the typical 20–30 year lifetime of the hydraulic fracturing wells that could be supplied with the annual water availability overlaying the shale areas, with an average across estimates of around 18.05 Quads. However, geographic variation in water availability could represent a challenge for extracting the shale reserves. Most of the water available is located closer to the Gulf of Mexico, but the areas with the larger recoverable shale reserves coincide with less water availability in Northern Mexico. New water management techniques (such as recycling and re-use), more efficient fracturing methods, shifts in usage patterns, or other water sources

  2. Impact of root growth and root hydraulic conductance on water availability of young walnut trees (United States)

    Jerszurki, Daniela; Couvreur, Valentin; Hopmans, Jan W.; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Shackel, Kenneth A.; de Souza, Jorge L. M.


    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a tree species of high economic importance in the Central Valley of California. This crop has particularly high water requirements, which makes it highly dependent on irrigation. The context of decreasing water availability in the state calls for efficient water management practices, which requires improving our understanding of the relationship between water application and walnut water availability. In addition to the soil's hydraulic conductivity, two plant properties are thought to control the supply of water from the bulk soil to the canopy: (i) root distribution and (ii) plant hydraulic conductance. Even though these properties are clearly linked to crop water requirements, their quantitative relation remains unclear. The aim of this study is to quantitatively explain walnut water requirements under water deficit from continuous measurements of its water consumption, soil and stem water potential, root growth and root system hydraulic conductance. For that purpose, a greenhouse experiment was conducted for a two month period. Young walnut trees were planted in transparent cylindrical pots, equipped with: (i) rhizotron tubes, which allowed for non-invasive monitoring of root growth, (ii) pressure transducer tensiometers for soil water potential, (iii) psychrometers attached to non-transpiring leaves for stem water potential, and (iv) weighing scales for plant transpiration. Treatments consisted of different irrigation rates: 100%, 75% and 50% of potential crop evapotranspiration. Plant responses were compared to predictions from three simple process-based soil-plant-atmosphere models of water flow: (i) a hydraulic model of stomatal regulation based on stem water potential and vapor pressure deficit, (ii) a model of plant hydraulics predicting stem water potential from soil-root interfaces water potential, and (iii) a model of soil water depletion predicting the water potential drop between the bulk soil and soil-root interfaces

  3. Water availability limits tree productivity, carbon stocks, and carbon residence time in mature forests across the western US (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Law, Beverly E.; Hudiburg, Tara W.


    Water availability constrains the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems and is projected to change in many parts of the world over the coming century. We quantified the response of tree net primary productivity (NPP), live biomass (BIO), and mean carbon residence time (CRT = BIO / NPP) to spatial variation in water availability in the western US. We used forest inventory measurements from 1953 mature stands (> 100 years) in Washington, Oregon, and California (WAORCA) along with satellite and climate data sets covering the western US. We summarized forest structure and function in both domains along a 400 cm yr-1 hydrologic gradient, quantified with a climate moisture index (CMI) based on the difference between precipitation and reference evapotranspiration summed over the water year (October-September) and then averaged annually from 1985 to 2014 (CMIwy). Median NPP, BIO, and CRT computed at 10 cm yr-1 intervals along the CMIwy gradient increased monotonically with increasing CMIwy across both WAORCA (rs = 0.93-0.96, p changes over the western US, though these data sets tended to plateau in the wettest areas, suggesting that additional efforts are needed to better quantify NPP and BIO from satellites in high-productivity, high-biomass forests. Our results illustrate that long-term average water availability is a key environmental constraint on tree productivity, carbon storage, and carbon residence time in mature forests across the western US, underscoring the need to assess potential ecosystem response to projected warming and drying over the coming century.

  4. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Improved Water Quality Index in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pei-Yue


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the groundwater quality in Pengyang County based on an improved water quality index. An information entropy method was introduced to assign weight to each parameter. For calculating WQI and assess the groundwater quality, total 74 groundwater samples were collected and all these samples subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. Each of the groundwater samples was analyzed for 26 parameters and for computing WQI 14 parameters were chosen including chloride, sulphate, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total dissolved solid (TDS, total hardness (TH, nitrate, ammonia nitrogen, fluoride, total iron (Tfe, arsenic, iodine, aluminum, nitrite, metasilicic acid and free carbon dioxide. At last a zoning map of different water quality was drawn. Information entropy weight makes WQI perfect and makes the assessment results more reasonable. The WQI for 74 samples ranges from 12.40 to 205.24 and over 90% of the samples are below 100. The excellent quality water area covers nearly 90% of the whole region. The high value of WQI has been found to be closely related with the high values of TDS, fluoride, sulphate, nitrite and TH. In the medium quality water area and poor quality water area, groundwater needs some degree of pretreated before consumption. From the groundwater conservation view of point, the groundwater still need protection and long term monitoring in case of future rapid industrial development. At the same time, preventive actions on the agricultural non point pollution sources in the plain area are also need to be in consideration.

  5. 76 FR 20664 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions (United States)


    ... decree, or settlement agreement required EPA to take action on a list in 2000 (65 FR 17170). Consistent... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires...

  6. 76 FR 74057 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions (United States)


    ... decree, or settlement agreement required EPA to take action on a list in 2000 (65 FR 17170). Consistent... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires...

  7. Hindcast of water availability in regional aquifer systems using MODFLOW Farm Process (United States)

    Schmid, Wolfgang; Hanson, Randall T.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Phillips, Steven P.


    Coupled groundwater and surface-water components of the hydrologic cycle can be simulated by the Farm Process for MODFLOW (MF-FMP) in both irrigated and non-irrigated areas and aquifer-storage and recovery systems. MF-FMP is being applied to three productive agricultural regions of different scale in the State of California, USA, to assess the availability of water and the impacts of alternative management decisions. Hindcast simulations are conducted for similar periods from the 1960s to near recent times. Historical groundwater pumpage is mostly unknown in one region (Central Valley) and is estimated by MF-FMP. In another region (Pajaro Valley), recorded pumpage is used to calibrate model-estimated pumpage. Multiple types of observations are used to estimate uncertain parameters, such as hydraulic, land-use, and farm properties. MF-FMP simulates how climate variability and water-import availability affect water demand and supply. MF-FMP can be used to predict water availability based on anticipated changes in anthropogenic or natural water demands. Keywords groundwater; surface-water; irrigation; water availability; response to climate variability/change

  8. 75 FR 78231 - Management of Energy and Water Efficiency in Federal Buildings: Availability of Guidance (United States)


    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Management of Energy and Water Efficiency in Federal... water management. This draft guidance is available at: Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy...

  9. 75 FR 30013 - South Feather Water and Power Agency; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Feather Water and Power Agency; Notice of Availability of...), Commission staff has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) regarding South Feather Water and Power Agency... Creek development of the South Feather Power Project (FERC No. 2088). Sly Creek is located on Sly...

  10. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan. (United States)

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne


    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  11. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

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    Ahmed Ramadan

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  12. Effects of Light and Water Availability on the Performance of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). (United States)

    Hickin, Mauri; Preisser, Evan L


    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) is a dominant shade-tolerant tree in northeastern United States that has been declining since the arrival of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). Determining where A. tsugae settles under different abiotic conditions is important in understanding the insect's expansion. Resource availability such as light and water can affect herbivore selectivity and damage. We examined how A. tsugae settlement and survival were affected by differences in light intensity and water availability, and how adelgid affected tree performance growing in these different abiotic treatments. In a greenhouse at the University of Rhode Island, we conducted an experiment in which the factors light (full-sun, shaded), water (water-stressed, watered), and adelgid (infested, insect-free) were fully crossed for a total of eight treatments (20 two-year-old hemlock saplings per treatment). We measured photosynthesis, transpiration, water potential, relative water content, adelgid density, and survival throughout the experiment. Adelgid settlement was higher on the old-growth foliage of shaded and water-stressed trees, but their survival was not altered by foliage age or either abiotic factor. The trees responded more to the light treatments than the water treatments. Light treatments caused a difference in relative water content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration, and water potential; however, water availability did not alter these variables. Adelgid did not enhance the impact of these abiotic treatments. Further studies are needed to get a better understanding of how these abiotic factors impact adelgid densities and tree health, and to determine why adelgid settlement was higher in the shaded treatments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma; analysis of available water-quality data through 1987 (United States)

    Parkhurst, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Schlottmann, J.L.


    Beginning in 1986, the Congress annually has appropriated funds for the U.S. Geological Survey to test and refine concepts for a National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of a full-scale program would be to: (1) Provide a nationally consistent description of current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources; (2) Define long-term trends (or lack of trends) in water quality; and (3) Identify, describe, and explain, as possible, the major factors that affect the observed water-quality conditions and trends. The results of the NAWQA Program will be made available to water managers, policy makers, and the public, and will provide an improved scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of water-quality management programs. At present (1988), the assessment program is in a pilot phase in seven project areas throughout the country that represent diverse hydrologic environments and water-quality conditions. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three pilot ground-water projects. One of the initial activities performed by each pilot project was to compile, screen, and interpret the large amount of water-quality data available within each study area. The purpose of this report is to assess the water quality of the Central Oklahoma aquifer using the information available through 1987. The scope of the work includes compiling data from Federal, State, and local agencies; evaluating the suitability of the information for conducting a regional water-quality assessment; mapping regional variations in major-ion chemistry; calculating summary statistics of the available water-quality data; producing maps to show the location and number of samples that exceeded water-quality standards; and performing contingency-table analyses to determine the relation of geologic unit and depth to the occurrence of chemical constituents that exceed water-quality standards. This report provides an initial

  14. Water Quality Index Assessment ofGroundwater in Todaraisingh Tehsil of Rajasthan State, India-A Greener Approach

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    Ashok Kumar Yadav


    Full Text Available This study deals with the statistical analysis and study of water quality index to assess hardness of groundwater in Todaraisingh tehsil of Tonk district of Rajasthan state. The study has been carried out to examine its suitability for drinking, irrigation and industrial purpose. The presence of problematic salts contains in groundwater due to local pollutants and affected the groundwater quality adversely. The estimated values were compared with drinking water quality standards prescribed by B.I.S. It was found that drinking water is severely polluted with hardness causing salts. This study reveals that people dependent on water sources of the study area are prone to health hazards of contaminated water and quality managements to hardness urgently needed.

  15. Freshwater availability and water fetching distance affect child health in sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer


    Currently, more than two-thirds of the population in Africa must leave their home to fetch water for drinking and domestic use. The time burden of water fetching has been suggested to influence the volume of water collected by households as well as time spent on income generating activities and child care. However, little is known about the potential health benefits of reducing water fetching distances. Data from almost 200, 000 Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 26 countries were used to assess the relationship between household walk time to water source and child health outcomes. To estimate the causal effect of decreased water fetching time on health, geographic variation in freshwater availability was employed as an instrumental variable for one-way walk time to water source in a two-stage regression model. Time spent walking to a household's main water source was found to be a significant determinant of under-five child health. A 15-min decrease in one-way walk time to water source is associated with a 41% average relative reduction in diarrhea prevalence, improved anthropometric indicators of child nutritional status, and a 11% relative reduction in under-five child mortality. These results suggest that reducing the time cost of fetching water should be a priority for water infrastructure investments in Africa.

  16. The Impact of Various Types of Tillage on the Soil Water Availability

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    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the role that various ways of soil tillage may have on the increase of soil water availability to the plant roots. The research was carried out in Tirana, Albania, and the experiment was established in a vineyard field. The soil was cultivated in three different ways (three treatments: conventional (plowing plus surface cultivation, conservative (subsoiling plus surface cultivation, conservative (chisel plowing plus surface cultivation. In order to quantify the available soil water to plants, the pF-soil moisture curves were determined. The determined pF-soil moisture curves belong to two layers: 0-25 cm and 25-50 cm, taken into consideration for each treatment. The soil water content between the field capacity (FWC and the permanent wilting point (PWP was considered as potentially available to plant roots. The results showed clearly that the way the tillage was applied has a significant effect on soil water capacity potentially available to plant roots. Loosening the soil by breaking up the impermeable layers, the conservative tillage makes possible the increase of the amount of water held by soil particles in the range between FWC and PWP, in comparison with the conventional tillage. This increase of available soil water capacity is due to the soil loosening in deeper layers of soil profile as well, which leads to the situation where the plant roots can penetrate deeper and occupy more space, consequently, drawing more water to meet their needs. Within the conservative tillage versions, sub soiling seems to be more effective in the increase of available soil water capacity comparing with the chisel plowing. The study contributes, as well, to the determination of the pF-soil moisture curves in a way that is theoretically well based. The founded curves fit with the exponential form of functions and the coefficients of determinations, for each case under study, are significant in high probability levels.

  17. Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.


    Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandrasekar


    Full Text Available An attempt was made to address the early season agriculture drought, by monitoring the surface soil wetness during 2010 cropping seasons in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Short Wave Infrared (SWIR based Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and Soil Water Balance (SWB model using inputs from remote sensing and ancillary data were used to monitor early season agriculture drought. During the crop season, investigation was made on LSWI characteristics and its response to the rainfall. It was observed that the Rate of Increase (RoI of LSWI was the highest during the fortnights when the onset of monsoon occurred. The study showed that LSWI is sensitive to the onset of monsoon and initiation of cropping season. The second part of this study attempted to develop a simple book keeping – bucket type – water tight soil water balance model to derive the top 30cm profile soil moisture using climatic, soil and crop parameters as the basic inputs. Soil moisture derived from the model was used to compute the Area Conducive for Sowing (ACS during the sowing window of the cropping season. The soil moisture was validated spatially and temporally with the ground observed soil moisture values. The ACS was compared with the RoI of LSWI. The results showed that the RoI was high during the sowing window whenever the ACS was greater than 50% of the district area. The observation was consistent in all the districts of the two states. Thus the analysis revealed the potential of LSWI for early season agricultural drought management.

  19. Looking at the spatial and temporal distribution of global water availability and demand (United States)

    Burek, Peter; Satoh, Yusuke; Wada, Yoshihide; Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stefanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wiberg, David


    The human water demand for agriculture, industry, energy and domestic is less than ten per cent of the global freshwater production of around 54,000 km3 per year. Water is distributed unequally in time and space. Not a new insight, but when we zoom in and look at country and regional level and monthly time scale the global picture is dispatching into areas and periods of water abundance and water scarcity, which we can quantify. This study uses the multi-model approach of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) to build up a consistent set of global water scenarios based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for the IIASA Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFaS). The WFaS "fast-track" assessment applies three water scenarios based on feasible combinations of two different RCPs and three SSPs, then five different hydrological models are used to estimate water availability and three water use models to estimate water demand from different sectors. Results are shown as indicators for e.g. water stress and water dependency between countries for present time and for future projections up to 2050. The alterations to previous studies are the multi-model approach and the finer temporal monthly scale, showing the temporal and spatial diversity of water demand and availability. One example scenario is based on the combination of SSP2 and RCP6.0. While in 2010 17 countries out of 249 facing severe water stress on an annual basis, the number is likely to increase up to 26 countries by 2050. Looking at the monthly time dimension 51 countries with altogether 3.8 billion people are under severe water stress in at least one month in 2010. This will rise up to 57 countries and 4.9 billion people by 2050. Main driver of this development will be the rising water demand of a growing population and to a lesser extend the changing distribution of water availability. Model biases are inevitable in



    Silva,Patrícia F. da; Dantas Neto, José; Vera L. A. de Lima; Santos,Delfran B. Dos; Ribeiro,Pedro H. P.


    ABSTRACT The use of tools such as process capability index for irrigation aims to observe how this irrigation is adequate in terms of quality. The aim of the study was analyzing the Christiansen uniformity coefficient and the flow of a drip irrigation system with self-compensating emitters under water different salt concentrations, using the process capability index. The research was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG). The experimental design was a ra...

  1. Water retention and s index of an oxisol subjected to weed control methods in a coffee crop

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    Raphael Henrique da Silva Siqueira


    Full Text Available Weed control in different crops affects the chemical, physical, and biological properties of the soil and consequently its structural quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using water retention characteristics and the S index, the physical quality of an Oxisol (Red-Yellow Latosol, subjected to weed control during the cultivation of coffee. The following weed control methods were evaluated: harrowing, brushcutting, residue crushing, manual weeding, post-emergence herbicide application, pre-emergence herbicide application, and maintenance of soil cover with peanut forage, Brachiaria grass, and spontaneous vegetation (no weed treatment. The following properties were determined for physical characterization of the soil: bulk density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, water retention, and the S index. The weed control method significantly affected the physical properties and water retention in the subsurface layer of the Oxisol. Soil bulk density, total porosity, macroporosity, and microporosity were significantly correlated with the S index. According to the S index, the physical quality of the soil was classified as very good for the various weed control methods investigated.

  2. The Effects of Groundwater and Surface Water Use on Total Water Availability and Implication for Water Management: The Case of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oel, van P.R.; Mulatu, D.W.; Odongo, V.O.; Meins, F.M.; Hogeboom, R.J.; Brecht, R.; Stein, A.; Onyando, J.O.; Veen, van der A.


    This study discusses the effects of water abstractions from two alternative sources on the available water volume around Lake Naivasha, Kenya: the lake itself and a connected aquifer. An estimation of the water abstraction pattern for the period 1999–2010 is made and its effect on the available wate

  3. The effects of groundwater and surface water use on total water availability and implications for water management : the case of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oel, van Pieter R.; Mulatu, Dawit W.; Odongo, Vincent O.; Meins, Frank M.; Hogeboom, Rick J.


    This study discusses the effects of water abstractions from two alternative sources on the available water volume around Lake Naivasha, Kenya: the lake itself and a connected aquifer. An estimation of the water abstraction pattern for the period 1999–2010 is made and its effect on the available wate

  4. Water Availability in Indus River at the Upper Indus Basin under Different Climate Change Scenarios (United States)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen


    The last decade of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century showed that climate change or global warming is happening and the latter one is considered as the warmest decade over Pakistan ever in history where temperature reached 53 0C on May 26, 2010. The changing climate has impact on various areas including agriculture, water, health, among others. There are two main forces which have central role in changing climate: one is natural variability and the other one is human evoked changes, increasing the density of green house gases. The elements in the bunch of Energy-Food-Water are interlinked with one another and among them water plays a crucial role for the existence of the other two parts. This nexus is the central environmental issue around the globe generally, and is of particular importance in the developing countries. The study evaluated the importance and the availability of water in Indus River under different emission scenarios. Four emission scenarios are included, that is, the A2, B2, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. One way coupling of regional climate models (RCMs) and Hydrological model have been implemented in this study. The PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies) and CCAM (Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model) climate models and UBCWM (University of British Columbia Watershed Model) hydrological model are used for this purpose. It is observed that Indus River contributes 80 % of the hydro-power generation and contributes 44 % to available water annually in Pakistan. It is further investigated whether sufficient water will be available in the Indus River under climate change scenarios. Toward this goal, Tarbela Reservoir is used as a measurement tool using the parameters of the reservoir like maximum operating storage, dead level storage, discharge capacity of tunnels and spillways. The results of this study are extremely important for the economy of Pakistan in various key areas like agriculture, energy, industries and ecosystem

  5. Effect of a School-Based Water Intervention on Child Body Mass Index and Obesity (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Leardo, Michele; Aneja, Siddhartha; Elbel, Brian


    IMPORTANCE Decreasing the amount of caloric beverages consumed and simultaneously increasing water consumption is important to promoting child health and decreasing the prevalence of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of water jets (electrically cooled, large clear jugs with a push lever for fast dispensing) on standardized body mass index, overweight, and obesity in elementary school and middle school students. Milk purchases were explored as a potential mechanism for weight outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This quasi-experimental study used a school-level database of cafeteria equipment deliveries between the 2008-2009 and 2012-2013 and included a sample of 1227 New York, New York, public elementary schools and middle schools and the 1 065 562 students within those schools. INTERVENTION Installation of water jets in schools. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Individual body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all students in the sample using annual student-level height and weight measurements collected as part of New York’s FITNESSGRAM initiative. Age- and sex-specific growth charts produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to categorize students as overweight and obese. The hypothesis that water jets would be associated with decreased standardized BMI, overweight, and obesity was tested using a difference-in-difference strategy, comparing outcomes for treated and nontreated students before and after the introduction of a water jet. RESULTS This study included 1 065 562 students within New York City public elementary schools and middle schools. There was a significant effect of water jets on standardized BMI, such that the adoption of water jets was associated with a 0.025 (95% CI, −0.038 to −0.011) reduction of standardized BMI for boys and a 0.022 (95% CI, −0.035 to −0.008) reduction of standardized BMI for girls (P < .01). There was also a significant effect on being overweight. Water jets were

  6. Water availability and land subsidence in the Central Valley, California, USA (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia; Sneed, Michelle; Traum, Jonathan A.; Brandt, Justin


    The Central Valley in California (USA) covers about 52,000 km2 and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. This agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage to meet irrigation water demand. Because the valley is semi-arid and surface-water availability varies substantially, agriculture relies heavily on local groundwater. In the southern two thirds of the valley, the San Joaquin Valley, historic and recent groundwater pumpage has caused significant and extensive drawdowns, aquifer-system compaction and subsidence. During recent drought periods (2007–2009 and 2012-present), groundwater pumping has increased owing to a combination of decreased surface-water availability and land-use changes. Declining groundwater levels, approaching or surpassing historical low levels, have caused accelerated and renewed compaction and subsidence that likely is mostly permanent. The subsidence has caused operational, maintenance, and construction-design problems for water-delivery and flood-control canals in the San Joaquin Valley. Planning for the effects of continued subsidence in the area is important for water agencies. As land use, managed aquifer recharge, and surface-water availability continue to vary, long-term groundwater-level and subsidence monitoring and modelling are critical to understanding the dynamics of historical and continued groundwater use resulting in additional water-level and groundwater storage declines, and associated subsidence. Modeling tools such as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model, can be used in the evaluation of management strategies to mitigate adverse impacts due to subsidence while also optimizing water availability. This knowledge will be critical for successful implementation of recent legislation aimed toward sustainable groundwater use.

  7. Water availability and land subsidence in the Central Valley, California, USA (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.; Sneed, Michelle; Traum, Jon; Brandt, Justin T.


    The Central Valley in California (USA) covers about 52,000 km2 and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. This agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage to meet irrigation water demand. Because the valley is semi-arid and surface-water availability varies substantially, agriculture relies heavily on local groundwater. In the southern two thirds of the valley, the San Joaquin Valley, historic and recent groundwater pumpage has caused significant and extensive drawdowns, aquifer-system compaction and subsidence. During recent drought periods (2007-2009 and 2012-present), groundwater pumping has increased owing to a combination of decreased surface-water availability and land-use changes. Declining groundwater levels, approaching or surpassing historical low levels, have caused accelerated and renewed compaction and subsidence that likely is mostly permanent. The subsidence has caused operational, maintenance, and construction-design problems for water-delivery and flood-control canals in the San Joaquin Valley. Planning for the effects of continued subsidence in the area is important for water agencies. As land use, managed aquifer recharge, and surface-water availability continue to vary, long-term groundwater-level and subsidence monitoring and modelling are critical to understanding the dynamics of historical and continued groundwater use resulting in additional water-level and groundwater storage declines, and associated subsidence. Modeling tools such as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model, can be used in the evaluation of management strategies to mitigate adverse impacts due to subsidence while also optimizing water availability. This knowledge will be critical for successful implementation of recent legislation aimed toward sustainable groundwater use.

  8. Assessing changes in availability of land and water for food (1960-2050) : An analysis linking food demand and available resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola Rivas, M. J.; Nonhebel, S.


    Future global food demand will require more land and water. We group the global population into six Gross Domestic Product groups and study changes in the availability of land and water for food in relation to demographic and nutrition transition theories. We show large differences in land and water

  9. Assessing changes in availability of land and water for food (1960-2050) : An analysis linking food demand and available resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola Rivas, M. J.; Nonhebel, S.

    Future global food demand will require more land and water. We group the global population into six Gross Domestic Product groups and study changes in the availability of land and water for food in relation to demographic and nutrition transition theories. We show large differences in land and water

  10. Water availability and vulnerability of 225 large cities in the United States (United States)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Jawitz, James W.


    This study presents a quantitative national assessment of urban water availability and vulnerability for 225 U.S. cities with population greater than 100,000. Here, the urban assessments account for not only renewable water flows, but also the extracted, imported, and stored water that urban systems access through constructed infrastructure. These sources represent important hydraulic components of the urban water supply, yet are typically excluded from water scarcity assessments. Results from this hydraulic-based assessment were compared to those obtained using a more conventional method that estimates scarcity solely based on local renewable flows. The inclusion of hydraulic components increased the mean availability to cities, leading to a significantly lower portion of the total U.S. population considered "at risk" for water scarcity (17%) than that obtained from the runoff method (47%). Water vulnerability was determined based on low-flow conditions, and smaller differences were found for this metric between at-risk populations using the runoff (66%) and hydraulic-based (54%) methods. The large increase in the susceptible population between the scarcity measures evaluated using the hydraulic method may better reconcile the seeming contradiction in the United States between perceptions of natural water abundance and widespread water scarcity. Additionally, urban vulnerability measures developed here were validated using a media text analysis. Vulnerability assessments that included hydraulic components were found to correlate with the frequency of urban water scarcity reports in the popular press while runoff-based measures showed no significant correlation, suggesting that hydraulic-based assessments provide better context for understanding the nature and severity of urban water scarcity issues.

  11. Analysis of plant available water in the context of climate change using Thornthwaite type monthly water balance model (United States)

    Herceg, Andras; Gribovszki, Zoltan; Kalicz, Peter


    The hydrological impact of climate change can be dramatic. The primary objective of this paper was to analyze plant available water in the context of climate change using Thornthwaite type monthly water balance calibrated by remote sensing based ET maps. The calibrated model was used for projection on the basis of 4 climate model datasets. The 3 periods of projection were: 2010-2040, 2040-2070, and 2070-2100. The benefit of this method is its robust build up, which can be applied if temperature and precipitation time series are accessible. The key parameter is the water storage capacity of the soil (SOILMAX), which can be calibrated using the actual available evapotranspiration data. If the soil's physical properties are available, the maximal rooting depth is also projectable. Plant available water was evaluated for future scenarios focusing water stress periods. For testing the model, a dataset of an agricultural parcel next to Mosonmagyaróvár and a dataset of a small forest covered catchment next to Sopron were successfully used. Each of the models projected slightly ascending evapotranspiration values (+7 percent), but strongly decreasing soil moisture values (-15 percent) for the 21st century. The soil moisture minimum values (generally appeared at the end of the summer) reduced more than 50 percent which indicate almost critical water stress for vegetation. This research has been supported by Agroclimate.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034 project.

  12. EPA Office of Water (OW): 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters program system provides impaired water data and impaired water features reflecting river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated...

  13. Climate change impacts on snow water availability in the Euphrates-Tigris basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Özdoğan


    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of projected climate change on snow water availability in the Euphrates-Tigris basin using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC macro scale hydrologic model and a set of regional climate-change outputs from 13 global circulation models (GCMs forced with two greenhouse gas emission scenarios for two time periods in the 21st century (2050 and 2090. The hydrologic model produces a reasonable simulation of seasonal and spatial variation in snow cover and associated snow water equivalent (SWE in the mountainous areas of the basin, although its performance is poorer at marginal snow cover sites. While there is great variation across GCM outputs influencing snow water availability, the majority of models and scenarios suggest a significant decline (between 10 and 60 percent in available snow water, particularly under the high-impact A2 climate change scenario and later in the 21st century. The changes in SWE are more stable when multi-model ensemble GCM outputs are used to minimize inter-model variability, suggesting a consistent and significant decrease in snow-covered areas and associated water availability in the headwaters of the Euphrates-Tigris basin. Detailed analysis of future climatic conditions point to the combined effects of reduced precipitation and increased temperatures as primary drivers of reduced snowpack. Results also indicate a more rapid decline in snow cover in the lower elevation zones than the higher areas in a changing climate but these findings also contain a larger uncertainty. The simulated changes in snow water availability have important implications for the future of water resources and associated hydropower generation and land-use management and planning in a region already ripe for interstate water conflict. While the changes in the frequency and intensity of snow-bearing circulation systems or the interannual variability related to climate were not considered, the simulated

  14. Availability and Quality of Water from Underground Coal Mines in Johnson and Martin Counties, Kentucky (United States)

    Mull, D.S.; Cordivio1a, Steven; Risser, Dennis W.


    This report provides water users with detailed information on the location, quantity, and quality of water available from underground coal mines in the Breathitt Formation of Pennsylvanian age in part of eastern Kentucky. The principal coal seams mined are the Van Lear in Johnson County and the Alma in Martin County. Coal mines that contained water were located by field inventory and coal-mine maps. The principal factors that affect the occurrence of water in coal mines are the size of the recharge area overlying the mine, the intensity and duration of precipitation, and the altitude of the mine relative to that of the nearest perennial stream. Ten above-drainage mines (that is, mines at higher elevations than that of the nearest perennial stream) are considered potential sources of water. Discharge from these mines ranged from 12 to 1,700 gallons per minute. The highest sustained discharge from a mine ranged from 750 to 1,200 gallons per minute. The water in coal mines is part of the hydrologic system and varies seasonally with precipitation. Annual discharge from most above-drainage mines ranged from 3 to 10 percent of annual precipitation on the 1and-surface area above the mine. Eight below-drainage mines are considered potential sources of water. Two were test-pumped at rates of 560 to 620 gallons per minute for as long as 6 hours. After test pumping the Warfield Mining No. 1 mine during September 1977 and March 1978, the recovery (or recharge) rates were significantly different. In September, the recharge rate was about 1,150 gallons per minute, but in March the recharge rate was 103,500 gallons per minute. This difference reflects the seasonal variations in the amount of water available to the ground-water system. Estimates of water stored in below-drainage mines ranged from 22 to 1,462 million gallons. This storage represents a safety factor sufficient to provide water through periods of limited recharge to the mine. Most mine water is of the calcium

  15. Olive response to water availability: yield response functions, soil water content indicators and evaluation of adaptability to climate change (United States)

    Riccardi, Maria; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; De Lorenzi, Francesca


    Climate evolution, with the foreseen increase of temperature and frequency of drought events during the summer, could cause significant changes in the availability of water resources specially in the Mediterranean region. European countries need to encourage sustainable agriculture practices, reducing inputs, especially of water, and minimizing any negative impact on crop quantity and quality. Olive is an important crop in the Mediterranean region that has traditionally been cultivated with no irrigation and is known to attain acceptable production under dry farming. Therefore this crop will not compete for foreseen reduced water resources. However, a good quantitative knowledge must be available about effects of reduced precipitation and water availability on yield. Yield response functions, coupled with indicators of soil water availability, provide a quantitative description of the cultivar- specific behavior in relation to hydrological conditions. Yield response functions of 11 olive cultivars, typical of Mediterranean environment, were determined using experimental data (unpublished or reported in scientific literature). The yield was expressed as relative yield (Yr); the soil water availability was described by means of different indicators: relative soil water deficit (RSWD), relative evapotranspiration (RED) and transpiration deficit (RTD). Crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions and exhibit threshold responses, so for the yield functions of each olive cultivar both linear regression and threshold-slope models were considered to evaluate the best fit. The level of relative yield attained in rain-fed conditions was identified and defined as the acceptable yield level (Yrrainfed). The value of the indicator (RSWD, RED and RTD) corresponding to Yrrainfed was determined for each cultivar and indicated as the critical value of water availability. The error in the determination of the critical value was estimated. By means of a

  16. Dynamic aspects of soil water availability for isohydric plants: Focus on root hydraulic resistances (United States)

    Couvreur, V.; Vanderborght, J.; Draye, X.; Javaux, M.


    Soil water availability for plant transpiration is a key concept in agronomy. The objective of this study is to revisit this concept and discuss how it may be affected by processes locally influencing root hydraulic properties. A physical limitation to soil water availability in terms of maximal flow rate available to plant leaves (Qavail) is defined. It is expressed for isohydric plants, in terms of plant-centered variables and properties (the equivalent soil water potential sensed by the plant, ψs eq; the root system equivalent conductance, Krs; and a threshold leaf water potential, ψleaf lim). The resulting limitation to plant transpiration is compared to commonly used empirical stress functions. Similarities suggest that the slope of empirical functions might correspond to the ratio of Krs to the plant potential transpiration rate. The sensitivity of Qavail to local changes of root hydraulic conductances in response to soil matric potential is investigated using model simulations. A decrease of radial conductances when the soil dries induces earlier water stress, but allows maintaining higher night plant water potentials and higher Qavail during the last week of a simulated 1 month drought. In opposition, an increase of radial conductances during soil drying provokes an increase of hydraulic redistribution and Qavail at short term. This study offers a first insight on the effect of dynamic local root hydraulic properties on soil water availability. By better understanding complex interactions between hydraulic processes involved in soil-plant hydrodynamics, better prospects on how root hydraulic traits mitigate plant water stress might be achieved.

  17. Drought, Land-Use Change, and Water Availability in California's Central Valley (United States)

    Faunt, C. C.; Sneed, M.; Traum, J.


    The Central Valley is a broad alluvial-filled structural trough that covers about 52,000 square kilometers and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. Because the valley is semi-arid and the availability of surface water varies substantially from year to year, season to season, and from north to south, agriculture developed a reliance on groundwater for irrigation. During recent drought periods (2007-09 and 2012-present), groundwater pumping has increased due to a combination of factors including drought and land-use changes. In response, groundwater levels have declined to levels approaching or below historical low levels. In the San Joaquin Valley, the southern two thirds of the Central Valley, the extensive groundwater pumpage has caused aquifer system compaction, resulting in land subsidence and permanent loss of groundwater storage capacity. The magnitude and rate of subsidence varies based on geologic materials, consolidation history, and historical water levels. Spatially-variable subsidence has changed the land-surface slope, causing operational, maintenance, and construction-design problems for surface-water infrastructure. It is important for water agencies to plan for the effects of continued water-level declines, storage losses, and/or land subsidence. To combat these effects, excess surface water, when available, is artificially recharged. As surface-water availability, land use, and artificial recharge continue to vary, long-term groundwater-level and land-subsidence monitoring and modelling are critical to understanding the dynamics of the aquifer system. Modeling tools, such as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model, can be used in the analysis and evaluation of management strategies to mitigate adverse impacts due to subsidence, while also optimizing water availability. These analyses will be critical for successful implementation of recent legislation aimed toward sustainable groundwater use.

  18. Analysing changes in water availability to assess environmental water requirements in the Rivirivi River basin, Southern Malawi (United States)

    Chimtengo, Mavuto; Ngongondo, Cosmo; Tumbare, Michael; Monjerezi, Maurice

    The headwater catchments of the Rivirivi River basin in Malawi play a vital role in meeting downstream water requirements. In recent years, the Rivirivi River flow regime has experienced changes in its hydrological regime, including an increased number of zero-flow days. This study was aimed at investigating some of the causes of these changes. Water quantity indicators were assessed through flow duration analysis of the river flow regime behavior before and after the introduction of the traditional water allocation practices and dam construction. Further, a desktop reserve model was applied to estimate the environmental water requirements. Anthropogenic land use induced change patterns were investigated by time series analysis of satellite imagery and their potential effect on water resources were inferred. The results indicate that there was a considerable difference in average annual stream flow between two identified main periods (between 1963-1983 and 1984-2004) and zero flows increased from 5% to 12%. In addition, the area experienced a 65% reduction in forest cover from 1992 to 2008 which resulted in increased high flow index by 16%. Furthermore, the ecosystems need approximately the range of 35-40% of the MAR to be maintained at Class A and the range of 9-13% of MAR for class D. The results suggest that anthropogenic activities have negatively affected low flow environmental flows requirements by increasing zero flow days in Rivirivi River catchment. However, total water usage remains below the river's MAR and the river can meet all water needs with proper management of the river flow regime.

  19. Availability and quality of ground water, southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado (United States)

    Brogden, Robert E.; Hutchinson, E. Carter; Hillier, Donald E.


    Population growth and the potential development of subsurface mineral resources have increased the need for information on the availability and quality of ground water on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southern Ute Tribal Council, the Four Corners Regional Planning Commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, conducted a study during 1974-76 to assess the ground-water resources of the reservation. Water occurs in aquifers in the Dakota Sandstone, Mancos Shale, Mesaverde Group, Lewis Shale, Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, Fruitland Formation, Kirtland Shale, Animas and San Jose Formations, and terrace and flood-plain deposits. Well yields from sandstone and shale aquifers are small, generally in the range from 1 to 10 gallons per minute with maximum reported yields of 75 gallons per minute. Well yields from terrace deposits generally range from 5 to 10 gallons per minute with maximum yields of 50 gallons per minute. Well yields from flood-plain deposits are as much as 25 gallons per minute but average 10 gallons per minute. Water quality in aquifers depends in part on rock type. Water from sandstone, terrace, and flood-plain aquifers is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, whereas water from shale aquifers is predominantly a sodium bicarbonate type. Water from rocks containing interbeds of coal or carbonaceous shales may be either a calcium or sodium sulfate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water ranged from 115 to 7,130 milligrams per liter. Water from bedrock aquifers is the most mineralized, while water from terrace and flood-plain aquifers is the least mineralized. In many water samples collected from bedrock, terrace, and flood-plain aquifers, the concentrations of arsenic, chloride, dissolved solids, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, selenium, and sulfate exceeded U.S. Public Health Service (1962) recommended limits for drinking water. Selenium in the ground water in excess of U

  20. Viability of Commercially Available Bleach for Water Treatment in Developing Countries (United States)


    Treating household water with low-cost, widely available commercial bleach is recommended by some organizations to improve water quality and reduce disease in developing countries. I analyzed the chlorine concentration of 32 bleaches from 12 developing countries; the average error between advertised and measured concentration was 35% (range = –45%–100%; standard deviation = 40%). Because of disparities between advertised and actual concentration, the use of commercial bleach for water treatment in developing countries is not recommended without ongoing quality control testing. PMID:19762657

  1. Issue Paper Potential Water Availability Problems Associated with Geothermal Energy Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report is the first to study and discuss the effect of water supply problems of geothermal development. Geothermal energy resources have the potential of making a significant contribution to the U.S. energy supply situation, especially at the regional and local levels where the resources are located. A significant issue of concern is the availability and cost of water for use in a geothermal power operation primarily because geothermal power plants require large quantities of water for cooling, sludge handling and the operation of environmental control systems. On a per unit basis, geothermal power plants, because of their inherent high heat rejection rates, have cooling requirements several times greater than the conventional fossil fuel plants and therefore the supply of water is a critical factor in the planning, designing, and siting of geothermal power plants. However, no studies have been specifically performed to identify the water requirements of geothermal power plants, the underlying causes of water availability problems, and available techniques to alleviate some of these problems. There is no cost data included in the report. The report includes some descriptions of known geothermal areas. [DJE-2005

  2. Superficial Water Resource at Tempisque River Watershed, Costa Rica: Availability and Requirement Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Guzmán-Arias


    Full Text Available This paper describes the status of water resources availability and demand in the upper and middle Tempisque watershed projected up to 2030 and the proposed actions to start a planning process. The resource availability scenarios incorporate the modifications inwater flows due to land use and cli­mate changes; these combined effects increases the problems of water shortages during the dry season. The resource demand scenarios include projections provided by the major users in the watershed, of which very few can envision growth expectations in terms of water consumption. The proposed resource planning process integrates the analysis conducted in this thesis and tries to identify the basic steps to be followed for the pro­per management of the resource in the future.

  3. GIS based water quality indexing of Malad creek, Mumbai (India): an impact of sewage discharges. (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Bhattacharyya, Tapas; Joshi, Rucha R; Dhage, S S; Sohony, R A


    Malad creek is one of the most heavily polluted water bodies in Mumbai, India. Presently, creek receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and nallahs as well as partially treated wastewater from treatment facilities. The objective of the present study was to assess and classify the water quality zones spatially and temporally based on physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. For this, GIS based methodology was integrated with water quality indexing, according to National Sanitation Foundation. Nine water quality parameters were considered to generate the indices that represent the overall status of creek water quality. Based on field observations and spatial distribution of water quality, various options were suggested for improvement in water quality of the creek.

  4. Water Bodies’ Mapping from Sentinel-2 Imagery with Modified Normalized Difference Water Index at 10-m Spatial Resolution Produced by Sharpening the SWIR Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Du


    Full Text Available Monitoring open water bodies accurately is an important and basic application in remote sensing. Various water body mapping approaches have been developed to extract water bodies from multispectral images. The method based on the spectral water index, especially the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MDNWI calculated from the green and Shortwave-Infrared (SWIR bands, is one of the most popular methods. The recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite can provide fine spatial resolution multispectral images. This new dataset is potentially of important significance for regional water bodies’ mapping, due to its free access and frequent revisit capabilities. It is noted that the green and SWIR bands of Sentinel-2 have different spatial resolutions of 10 m and 20 m, respectively. Straightforwardly, MNDWI can be produced from Sentinel-2 at the spatial resolution of 20 m, by upscaling the 10-m green band to 20 m correspondingly. This scheme, however, wastes the detailed information available at the 10-m resolution. In this paper, to take full advantage of the 10-m information provided by Sentinel-2 images, a novel 10-m spatial resolution MNDWI is produced from Sentinel-2 images by downscaling the 20-m resolution SWIR band to 10 m based on pan-sharpening. Four popular pan-sharpening algorithms, including Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Intensity Hue Saturation (IHS, High Pass Filter (HPF and À Trous Wavelet Transform (ATWT, were applied in this study. The performance of the proposed method was assessed experimentally using a Sentinel-2 image located at the Venice coastland. In the experiment, six water indexes, including 10-m NDWI, 20-m MNDWI and 10-m MNDWI, produced by four pan-sharpening algorithms, were compared. Three levels of results, including the sharpened images, the produced MNDWI images and the finally mapped water bodies, were analysed quantitatively. The results showed that MNDWI can enhance water bodies and suppressbuilt


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TESTI


    Full Text Available Soil water content is a critical factor in Mediterranean forest vegetation, especially in areas subjected to prolonged summer drought where winter and autumn rainfall are the main sources of water. Available soil water capacity (AWC is the maximum amount of water available for plants that a soil could possibly contain. Each soil has a specific available water capacity, however, most of the published literature on AWC refers 10 agricultural settings, although the interaction between the soil and the vegetation dynamics has long been recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this edaphic factor could be discriminant in species assemblage of communities belonging to the thermophylous oak forest (order Quercetalia pubescentis. Thirty-two vegetation relevés and soil profiles were carried out in five different sites, with a similar pluvio-thermic regime, located in the sub-coastal belt of Latium, Central Italy. From the physical\\-chemical analyses of soil profiles, the AWC values, of the related relevés, were calculated. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the vegetation surveys, using Cluster Analysis from which a classification in three different clusters was obtained; subsequently the AWC values were grouped according to the c1assification obtained. Analysis of variance was used to test similarity and the output pointed out a significant difference among the three clusters (F=6.35; P


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Soil water content is a critical factor in Mediterranean forest vegetation, especially in areas subjected to prolonged summer drought where winter and autumn rainfall are the main sources of water. Available soil water capacity (AWC is the maximum amount of water available for plants that a soil could possibly contain. Each soil has a specific available water capacity, however, most of the published literature on AWC refers 10 agricultural settings, although the interaction between the soil and the vegetation dynamics has long been recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this edaphic factor could be discriminant in species assemblage of communities belonging to the thermophylous oak forest (order Quercetalia pubescentis. Thirty-two vegetation relevés and soil profiles were carried out in five different sites, with a similar pluvio-thermic regime, located in the sub-coastal belt of Latium, Central Italy. From the physical-chemical analyses of soil profiles, the AWC values, of the related relevés, were calculated. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the vegetation surveys, using Cluster Analysis from which a classification in three different clusters was obtained; subsequently the AWC values were grouped according to the c1assification obtained. Analysis of variance was used to test similarity and the output pointed out a significant difference among the three clusters (F=6.35; P

  7. Genetic variability for iron and zinc content in common bean lines and interaction with water availability. (United States)

    Pereira, H S; Del Peloso, M J; Bassinello, P Z; Guimarães, C M; Melo, L C; Faria, L C


    The common bean is an important source of iron and zinc in humans. Increases in the contents of these minerals can combat mineral deficiencies, but these contents are influenced by environmental conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the interaction between common bean lines and water availability on iron and zinc contents (CFe and CZn, respectively), identify superior lines with stable CFe and CZn, and test for a genetic relationship between CFe and CZn. Six crop trials were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The trials were performed during the winter sowing period for three different combinations of year and site in Brazil. For each combination, 53 lines were evaluated across two parallel trials; one trial was irrigated according to the crop requirements, and the other trial operated under a water deficit. Interaction was detected between lines and environments, and between lines and water availability for CFe and CZn. However, some lines exhibited high CFe and CZn in both conditions. Lines G 6492 and G 6490 exhibited high mean values, stability, and adaptability for both minerals. Other lines exhibited high CFe (Xamego) or CZn (Bambuí and Iapar 65). A moderate genetic correlation (0.62) between CFe and CZn was detected. Water availability during the common bean cycle had an effect on CFe and CZn; however, lines with high CFe and CZn in different conditions of water availability and environment were detected.

  8. Creating a spatially-explicit index: a method for assessing the global wildfire-water risk (United States)

    Robinne, François-Nicolas; Parisien, Marc-André; Flannigan, Mike; Miller, Carol; Bladon, Kevin D.


    The wildfire-water risk (WWR) has been defined as the potential for wildfires to adversely affect water resources that are important for downstream ecosystems and human water needs for adequate water quantity and quality, therefore compromising the security of their water supply. While tools and methods are numerous for watershed-scale risk analysis, the development of a toolbox for the large-scale evaluation of the wildfire risk to water security has only started recently. In order to provide managers and policy-makers with an adequate tool, we implemented a method for the spatial analysis of the global WWR based on the Driving forces-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This framework relies on the cause-and-effect relationships existing between the five categories of the DPSIR chain. As this approach heavily relies on data, we gathered an extensive set of spatial indicators relevant to fire-induced hydrological hazards and water consumption patterns by human and natural communities. When appropriate, we applied a hydrological routing function to our indicators in order to simulate downstream accumulation of potentially harmful material. Each indicator was then assigned a DPSIR category. We collapsed the information in each category using a principal component analysis in order to extract the most relevant pixel-based information provided by each spatial indicator. Finally, we compiled our five categories using an additive indexation process to produce a spatially-explicit index of the WWR. A thorough sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to understand the relationship between the final risk values and the spatial pattern of each category used during the indexation. For comparison purposes, we aggregated index scores by global hydrological regions, or hydrobelts, to get a sense of regional DPSIR specificities. This rather simple method does not necessitate the use of complex physical models and provides a scalable and efficient tool

  9. Instream flow and water availability in the Rio das Pedras basin, Guarapuava-PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ederson Dias de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Knowledge of instream flow is of paramount importance to determine water availability for water resources management. This study estimated instream flow and evaluated water availability in the stretch of the Rio das Pedras, which supplies water to Guarapuava, a town in the mid-southern region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Several different methods were employed to obtain instream flow, a reference discharge for water consumption permit, and the river regime. Methods comprised 7-day mean minimum with a 10-year return period, discharges associated to 95% and 90% permanence, yearly 7-day mean minimum discharge and basic water discharge. Discharge data were obtained from the meteorological station at the Water Station of Guarapuava (ETA. Results show that yearly river debit between 1985 and 2009 had a daily mean of 9.12 m³ s-1 and a median discharge of 9.16 m³ s-1. Estimated instream flow, measured by methods used for the Rio das Pedras stretch, ranged from 1.72 to 2.74 m³ s-1, with an average of 2.20 m³ s-1 and a coefficient of variation of 19.5%. Discharge for the stretch was estimated as 0.91 m³ s-1, following criteria used in the state of Paraná. The relationship of the evaluated stretch between daily flow and the intake volume granted by the government revealed the inefficiency of the applied methods for instream flow assessment. In fact, they failed to warrant a minimum water volume required for the conservation of the river ecosystem.

  10. Classification of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids under different water availability based on biometric traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Silva


    Full Text Available Aim of study: The eucalyptus grows rapidly and is well suitable to edaphic and bioclimatic conditions in several regions of of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids grown under different water availability conditions.Area of study: The study was performed in south-eastern of BrazilMaterial and Methods: We evaluated five commercial hybrids cultivated in pots with the substrate maintained at 65, 50, 35 and 20% maximum water retention capacity. The evaluation was based on the following characteristics: total height (cm, diameter (mm, number of leaves, leaf area (dm2, and dry weight (g plant-1 of leaf, stem + branches,   root, shoot and total and root/shoot ratio.Main results: All the characteristics evaluated were adversely affected by reduced availability of water in the substrate. The hybrids assessed performed differently in terms of biometric characteristics, irrespective of water availability. Water deficit resulted in a greater reduction in the dry weight production compared to number of leaves, diameter and height. Hybrids H2 and H5 have favorable traits for tolerating drought. The hybrid H2 shows a stronger slowdown in growth as soil moisture levels drop, although its growth rate is low, and H5 increases the root/shoot ratio but maintains growth in terms of height, even under drought conditions.Research highlights: The results obtained in our experiment show that productive hybrids sensitive to drought could also perform better under water deficit conditions, maintaining satisfactory growth despite significant drops in these characteristics.Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; water deficit; drought tolerance. 

  11. Water-use efficiency in cork oak (Quercus suber) is modified by the interaction of water and light availabilities. (United States)

    Aranda, Ismael; Pardos, Marta; Puértolas, Jaime; Jiménez, Maria Dolores; Pardos, Jose Alberto


    We studied the interaction of light and water on water-use efficiency in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings. One-year-old cork oak seedlings were grown in pots in a factorial experiment with four light treatments (68, 50, 15 and 5% of full sunlight) and two irrigation regimes: well watered (WW) and moderate drought stress (WS). Leaf predawn water potential, which was measured at the end of each of two cycles, did not differ among the light treatments. Water-use efficiency, assessed by carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C), tended to increase with increasing irradiance. The trend was similar in the WW and WS treatments, though with lower delta(13)C in all light treatments in the WW irrigation regime. Specific leaf area increased with decreasing irradiance, and was inversely correlated with delta(13)C. Thus, changes in delta(13)C could be explained in part by light-induced modifications in leaf morphology. The relationship between stomatal conductance to water vapor and net photosynthesis on a leaf area basis confirmed that seedlings in higher irradiances maintained a higher rate of carbon uptake at a particular stomatal conductance, implying that shaded seedlings have a lower water-use efficiency that is unrelated to water availability.

  12. Water Availability of São Francisco River Basin Based on a Space-Borne Geodetic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengke Sun


    Full Text Available Brazil has recently experienced one of its worst droughts in the last 80 years, with wide-ranging consequences for water supply restrictions, energy rationing, and agricultural losses. Northeast and Southeast Brazil, which share the São Francisco River basin (SFRB, have experienced serious precipitation reduction since 2011. We used terrestrial water-storage (TWS fields, inverted from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission measurements, to assess and quantify the ongoing drought over the SFRB. We found a water loss rate of 3.30 km3/year over the time-span of April 2002 to March 2015. In addition, the TWS drought index (TWSDI showed the extension of the recent drought that has jeopardized the SFRB since January 2012, and which reached its maximum in July 2015 (the end of TWS time series. In this sense there seems to be a linkage between the TWSDI (wetness/dryness and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, in terms of the wavelet coherence, at the semi-annual and biennial bands, suggesting a relationship between the two. While acknowledging that further investigation is needed, we believe that our findings should contribute to the water management policies by quantifying the impact of this drought event over the SFRB.

  13. Methods for Quantifying Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Larson, Kyle B.


    As part of regulatory requirements for shallow-water habitat (SWH) restoration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completes periodic estimates of the quantity of SWH available throughout the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. To date, these estimates have been made by various methods that consider only the water depth criterion for SWH. The USACE has completed estimates of SWH availability based on both depth and velocity criteria at four river bends (hereafter called reference bends), encompassing approximately 8 river miles within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. These estimates were made from the results of hydraulic modeling of water depth and velocity throughout each bend. Hydraulic modeling of additional river bends is not expected to be completed for deriving estimates of available SWH. Instead, future estimates of SWH will be based on the water depth criterion. The objective of this project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the USACE Omaha District, was to develop geographic information system methods for estimating the quantity of available SWH based on water depth only. Knowing that only a limited amount of water depth and channel geometry data would be available for all the remaining bends within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River, the intent was to determine what information, if any, from the four reference bends could be used to develop methods for estimating SWH at the remaining bends. Specifically, we examined the relationship between cross-section channel morphology and relative differences between SWH estimates based on combined depth and velocity criteria and the depth-only criterion to determine if a correction factor could be applied to estimates of SWH based on the depth-only criterion. In developing these methods, we also explored the applicability of two commonly used geographic information system interpolation methods (TIN and ANUDEM) for estimating SWH using four different elevation data

  14. Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water. (United States)

    Bao, Yun; Aggarwal, Pooja; Robbins, Neil E; Sturrock, Craig J; Thompson, Mark C; Tan, Han Qi; Tham, Cliff; Duan, Lina; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Vernoux, Teva; Mooney, Sacha J; Bennett, Malcolm J; Dinneny, José R


    The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the availability of water across the circumferential axis of the root create spatial cues that determine the position of lateral root branches. We show that roots of several plant species can distinguish between a wet surface and air environments and that this also impacts the patterning of root hairs, anthocyanins, and aerenchyma in a phenomenon we describe as hydropatterning. This environmental response is distinct from a touch response and requires available water to induce lateral roots along a contacted surface. X-ray microscale computed tomography and 3D reconstruction of soil-grown root systems demonstrate that such responses also occur under physiologically relevant conditions. Using early-stage lateral root markers, we show that hydropatterning acts before the initiation stage and likely determines the circumferential position at which lateral root founder cells are specified. Hydropatterning is independent of endogenous abscisic acid signaling, distinguishing it from a classic water-stress response. Higher water availability induces the biosynthesis and transport of the lateral root-inductive signal auxin through local regulation of tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 and PIN-formed 3, both of which are necessary for normal hydropatterning. Our work suggests that water availability is sensed and interpreted at the suborgan level and locally patterns a wide variety of developmental processes in the root.

  15. Photochemical reflectance index as a mean of monitoring early water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarlikioti, V.; Driever, S.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.


    Water stress in plants affects a number of physiological processes such as photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance as well as the operating efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is reported to be sensitive to changes in xan

  16. Availability of clean tap water and medical services prevents the incidence of typhoid Fever. (United States)

    Lee, Deog-Yong; Lee, Esther; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Seonghan


    In this study, the factors that induced a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever were analyzed. Based on the study results, we propose a quantitative and concrete solution to reduce the incidence of typhoid fever. We analyzed the incidence and fatality rate of typhoid fever in Korea. Tap water service rate and the number of pharmacies, which affect the incidence rate of typhoid fever, were used as environmental factors. To prevent typhoid fever in the community, it is necessary to provide clean tap water service to 35.5% of the population, with an individual requiring 173 L of clean water daily. Appropriate access to clean water (51% service coverage, 307 L) helped the population to maintain individual hygiene and food safety practices, which brought about a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever, and subsequently a decrease in fatality rate, which was achieved twice. During the 8-year study period, the fatality rate decreased to 1% when the population has access to proper medical service. The fatality rate was primarily affected by the availability of medical services as well as by the incidence of typhoid fever. However, an analysis of the study results showed that the incidence of typhoid fever was affected only by the availability of clean water through the tap water system.

  17. Impacts of Saharan dust on downward irradiance and photosynthetically available radiation in the water column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ohde


    Full Text Available A semi-empirical approach was used to quantify the modification of the underwater light field in amplitude (magnitude effect and spectral distribution (spectral effect by different atmospheric conditions altering the incident light. The approach based on an optical model in connection with radiation measurements in the area off Northwest Africa. Key inputs of the model were parameterized magnitude and spectral effects. Various atmospheric conditions were considered: clear sky, dusty sky without clouds, cloudy sky without dust and skies with different ratios of dust and clouds. Their impacts were investigated concerning the modification of the downward irradiance and photosynthetically available radiation in the water column. The impact on downward irradiance depended on the wavelength, the water depth, the optical water properties, the dust and cloud properties, and the ratio of clouds to dust. The influence of clouds on the amplitude can be much higher than that of dust. Saharan dust reduced the photosynthetically available radiation in the water column. Ocean regions were more influenced than coastal areas. Compensations of the magnitude and spectral effects were observed at special water depths in ocean regions and at atmospheric conditions with definite cloud to dust ratios.

  18. Cell and tissue dynamics of olive endocarp sclerification vary according to water availability. (United States)

    Hammami, Sofiene B M; Costagli, Giacomo; Rapoport, Hava F


    Endocarp developmental timing in drupe-type fruits, involving tissue expansion and sclerification processes, is increasingly used as marker for biological studies and crop management. In spite of its wide application, however, little is known regarding how these morphogenetic processes unfold or the factors that modify it. This study evaluates endocarp expansion and sclerification of olive (Olea europaea) fruits, used as an example of drupe-type fruits, from trees growing under different water regimes: full irrigated, deficit irrigated (moderate reduction of water availability) and rainfed (severe reduction of water availability). Fruits were sampled weekly until pit hardening, and fruit and endocarp areas were evaluated in histological preparations. An image analysis process was tested and adjusted to quantify sclerified area and distribution within the endocarp. Individual stone cells differentiated independently but distribution and timing indicated the overall coordination of endocarp tissue sclerification. Increase in sclerified area was initially gradual, accelerated abruptly the week prior to the end of endocarp expansion and then continued at an intermediate rate. These results suggest that the end of the expansion period is driven by sclerification and the morphogenetic signals involved act first on sclerification rather than endocarp size. Intensification of sclerification and the end of expansive growth occurred first with lowest water supply. Moderate and severe reductions in water availability proportionately decreased endocarp expansion and prolonged the sclerification, delaying the date of physically perceived hardening but not affecting the final degree of endocarp sclerification.

  19. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites. (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel


    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  20. The WULCA consensus characterization model for water scarcity footprints: assessing impacts of water consumption based on available water remaining (AWARE)


    Boulay, A.-M.; Bare, J.; Benini, L.; Berger, M.; Lathuillière, M.J.; Manzardo, A.; Margni, M.; Motoshita, M.; Núñez, M.; Pastor, A.V.; Ridoutt, B.; Oki, T.; Worbe, S.; Pfister, S.


    Purpose Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to assess freshwater-related impacts according to a new water footprint framework formalized in the ISO 14046 standard. To date, no consensus-based approach exists for applying this standard and results are not always comparable when different scarcity or stress indicators are used for characterization of impacts. This paper presents the outcome of a 2-year consensus building process by the Water Use in Life Cycle Assessment (WULCA), a wor...

  1. Estimation of underground river water availability based on rainfall in the Maros karst region, South Sulawesi (United States)

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Ihsan, Nasrul; Tiwow, Vistarani Arini


    Maros karst region, covering an area of 43.750 hectares, has water resources that determine the life around it. Water resources in Maros karst are in the rock layers or river underground in the cave. The data used in this study are primary and secondary data. Primary data includes characteristics of the medium. Secondary data is rainfall data from BMKG, water discharge data from the PSDA, South Sulawesi province in 1990-2010, and the other characteristics data Maros karst, namely cave, flora and fauna of the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. Data analysis was conducted using laboratory test for medium characteristics Maros karst, rainfall and water discharge were analyzed using Minitab Program 1.5 to determine their profile. The average rainfall above 200 mm per year occurs in the range of 1999 to 2005. The availability of the water discharge at over 50 m3/s was happened in 1993 and 1995. Prediction was done by modeling Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), with the rainfall data shows that the average precipitation for four years (2011-2014) will sharply fluctuate. The prediction of water discharge in Maros karst region was done for the period from January to August in 2011, including the type of 0. In 2012, the addition of the water discharge started up in early 2014.

  2. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemann, S.; Chen, Cui; Clark, D.B.; Folwell, S.; Gosling, S.; Haddeland, I.; Hanasaki, N.; Heinke, J.; Ludwig, F.


    Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three) and hydrological 5 models (eight) were used to systematically

  3. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...

  4. The influence of savanna trees on nutrient, water and light availability and the understorey vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Kroon, J.C.J.M. de; Berendse, F.; Prins, H.H.T.


    In an East African savanna herbaceous layer productivity and species composition were studied around Acacia tortilis trees of three different age classes, as well as around dead trees and in open grassland patches. The effects of trees on nutrient, light and water availability were measured to

  5. 75 FR 27926 - Notice of Availability of Interpretive Rule on the Applicability of Current Water Conservation... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 Notice of Availability of Interpretive Rule on the Applicability of Current Water Conservation... ``showerhead'' in the DOE's regulations related to the energy conservation program for consumer products....

  6. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemann, S.; Chen, Cui; Clark, D.B.; Folwell, S.; Gosling, S.; Haddeland, I.; Hanasaki, N.; Heinke, J.; Ludwig, F.


    Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three) and hydrological 5 models (eight) were used to systematically

  7. A risk-based framework for water resource management under changing water availability, policy options, and irrigation expansion (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia


    Long-term water resource management requires the capacity to evaluate alternative management options in the face of various sources of uncertainty in the future conditions of water resource systems. This study proposes a generic framework for determining the relative change in probabilistic characteristics of system performance as a result of changing water availability, policy options and irrigation expansion. These probabilistic characteristics can be considered to represent the risk of failure in the system performance due to the uncertainty in future conditions. Quantifying the relative change in the performance risk can provide a basis for understanding the effects of multiple changing conditions on the system behavior. This framework was applied to the water resource system of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. A "bottom-up" flow reconstruction algorithm was used to generate multiple realizations for water availability within a feasible range of change in streamflow characteristics. Consistent with observed data and projected change in streamflow characteristics, the historical streamflow was perturbed to stochastically generate feasible future flow sequences, based on various combinations of changing annual flow volume and timing of the annual peak. In addition, five alternative policy options, with and without potential irrigation expansion, were considered. All configurations of water availability, policy decisions and irrigation expansion options were fed into a hydro-economic water resource system model to obtain empirical probability distributions for system performance - here overall and sectorial net benefits - under the considered changes. Results show that no one specific policy can provide the optimal option for water resource management under all flow conditions. In addition, it was found that the joint impacts of changing water availability, policy, and irrigation expansion on system performance are complex and

  8. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Assessed Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  9. EPA Office of Water (OW): TMDLs on Impaired Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Tracking System contains information on waters that are Not Supporting their designated uses. These waters are listed by the...

  10. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  11. Water quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    water, and expressing them to non-technical people may not always be easy. Water quality ... Trend analysis: The WQI method is widely used in the rehabilitation of ..... Comparison chart River Cere: Minimum Operator & NSF. 0. 10. 20. 30. 40.

  12. EPA Office of Water (OW): Impaired Waters with TMDLs NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Tracking System contains information on waters that are Not Supporting their designated uses. These waters are listed by the...

  13. EPA Office of Water (OW): Impaired Waters with TMDLs NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Tracking System contains information on waters that are Not Supporting their designated uses. These waters are listed by the...

  14. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Assessed Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  15. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Waters as Assessed NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  16. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) (United States)

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.


    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  17. Water Availability for Winter Wheat Affected by Summer Fallow Tillage Practices in Slope Dryland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-bin; YANG Bo; Roger Hartmann; Donald Gabriels; CAI Dian-xiong; JIN Ke; WU Hui-jun; BAI Zhan-guo; ZHANG Can-jun; YAO Yu-qing; LU Jun-jie; WANG Yu-hong


    The tillage experiments for winter wheat were conducted on the slope farmland in Luoyang,Henan Province in the semihumid to arid loess plateau areas of North China. Different tillage methods inclu-ding reduced tillage (RT), no-till (NT), 2 crops/year (2C), subsoiling(SS), and conventional tillage (CT)were compared to determine the effects of tillage methods on soil water conservation, water availability, andwheat yields in a search for better farming systems in the areas. The NT and SS showed good effects on waterconservation. The soil water storage increased 12 - 33 mm with NT and 9 - 24 mm with SS at the end of sum-mer fallow periods. The soil evaporation with NT and SS decreased 7 - 8 mm and 34 - 36 mm during the fallowperiods of 1999 and 2001, respectively. Evapotranspiration (ET) with NT and SS increased about 47 mm dur-ing wheat growth periods of 2000 to 2001. Treatment RT and 2C had low water storage and high water lossesduring the fallow periods. The winter wheat yields with conservation tillage practices were improved in the 2ndyear, increased by 3, 5 and 8 % with RT, NT and SS, respectively, compared with CT. The highest wheatyields were obtained with subsoiling, and the maximum economic benefits from no-till. All conservation tillagepractices provided great benefits to saving energy and labors, reducing operation inputs, and increasing eco-nomic returns. No-till and subsoiling have shown promise in increasing water storage, reducing water loss, en-hancing water availability, and saving energy, as well as increasing wheat yield.

  18. Field scale spatio-temporal soil moisture variability for trafficability and crop water availability (United States)

    Carranza, Coleen; van der Ploeg, Martine; Ritsema, Coen


    Spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture have been studied mostly for inputs in land surface models for weather and climate predictions. Remote sensing techniques for estimation of soil moisture have been explored because of the good spatial coverage at different scales. Current available satellite data provide surface soil moisture as microwave systems only measure soil moisture content up to 5cm soil depth. The OWAS1S project will focus on estimation of soil moisture from freely available Sentinel-1 datasets for operational water management in agricultural areas. As part of the project, it is essential to develop spatio-temporal methods to estimate root zone soil moisture from surface soil moisture. This will be used for crop water availability and trafficability in selected agricultural fields in the Netherlands. A network of single capacitance sensors installed per field will provide continuous measurements of soil moisture in the study area. Ground penetrating radar will be used to measure soil moisture variability within a single field for different time periods. During wetter months, optimal conditions for traffic will be assessed using simultaneous soil strength and soil moisture measurements. Towards water deficit periods, focus is on the relation (or the lack thereof) between surface soil moisture and root zone soil moisture to determine the amount of water for crops. Spatio-temporal distribution will determine important physical controls for surface and root zone soil moisture and provide insights for root-zone soil moisture. Existing models for field scale soil-water balance and data assimilation methods (e.g. Kalman filter) will be combined to estimate root zone soil moisture. Furthermore, effects of root development on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties and subsequent effects on trafficability and crop water availability will be investigated. This research project has recently started, therefore we want to present methods and framework of

  19. Water quality index development for groundwater quality assessment of Greater Noida sub-basin, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh


    Full Text Available The water quality index (WQI is an important parameter for determining the drinking water quality for the end users. The study for the same has been carried on the groundwater by collecting 47 groundwater samples from 25 blocks of Greater Noida city, India. In order to develop WQI the samples were subjected to a comprehensive physicochemical and biological analysis of 11 parameters such as pH, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, total dissolved solids, fluorides, bicarbonate, sodium and potassium. Geographical information system has been used to map the sampling area. The coordinates in terms of latitude and longitude of the sampling locations were recorded with the help of global positioning system. Piper plots and cation–anion correlation matrix were plotted from the values obtained by the analysis of various parameters. The WQI index for the same has been calculated and the values ranged from 53.69 to 267.85. The WQI values from present study indicate the very poor quality water in the area dominated by industrial and construction activities. Poor water quality has been observed in commercial zone of the study area. The analysis reveals the fact that the ground water of the Greater Noida needs a degree of treatment before consumption and needs to be protected from further contamination.

  20. An evaluation index system of water security in China based on macroeconomic data from 2000 to 2012 (United States)

    Li, X. S.; Peng, Z. Y.; Li, T. T.


    This paper establishes an evaluation index system of water security. The index system employs 5 subsystems (water circulation security, water environment security, water ecology security, water society security and water economy security) and has 39 indicators. Using the AHP method, each indicator is given a relative weight to integrate within the whole system. With macroeconomic data from 2000 to 2012, a model of water security evaluation is applied to assess the state of water security in China. The results show an improving trend in the overall state of China's water security. In particular, the cycle of water security is at a high and low fluctuation. Water environment security presents an upward trend on the whole; however, this trend is unsteady and has shown a descending tendency in some years. Yet, water ecology security, water society security, and water economy security are basically on the rise. However, the degree of coordination of China's water security system remains in need of consolidation.

  1. Historic, Current, and Future Availability of Surface Water for Agricultural Groundwater Banking in the Central Valley, California (United States)

    Kocis, T. N.; Dahlke, H. E.


    Groundwater banking, the intentional recharge of groundwater from surface water for storage and recovery, is an important conjunctive use strategy for water management in California. A largely unexplored approach to groundwater banking, agricultural groundwater banking (ag-GB), utilizes flood flows and agricultural lands for recharging groundwater. Understanding the availability of excess streamflow (e.g., the magnitude, frequency, timing, and duration of winter flood flows) is fundamental to assessing the feasibility of local-scale implementation of ag-GB. In this study, we estimate the current availability and forecast the future availability of winter (Nov to Apr) flood flows based on current and historic daily streamflow records for 200 stream gauges on tributaries to and streams within the Central Valley, California. For each gauge, we consider flows above a stationary 90th percentile as ideal for ag-GB because reservoir operations mitigate flood risk by releasing early winter flood flows. Results based on 70 years of data show that for 25% of the gauges there are significantly decreasing flow volumes above the 90th percentile and a decreasing number of days with flows above the 90th percentile. These flows, on average, make up 20% of the total annual winter flows. The majority of gauges further show, over the past 70 years, a decrease in total annual streamflow magnitude, a decrease in the magnitude of extreme flood events, and an increase in the frequency of flood events. Variations in winter flood flows due to climate change and climate variability are a challenge to water management in California. To aid the long-term forecast of streamflow conditions in California, we present a new water year type index for the Central Valley, which considers the variation in flow percentiles over time. Together, our results suggest that flexible, coordinated efforts for the local diversion of flood flows are needed to better utilize the increasingly rare winter flood

  2. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (United States)

    Kammerer, John C.


    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  3. Assessment of Water Quality Index and Heavy Metal Contamination in Active and Abandoned Iron Ore Mining Sites in Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madzin Zafira


    Full Text Available The composition of heavy metals in water and surface soils of iron ore mining sites were investigated to evaluate on the potential occurrence of heavy metal contamination. Physico-chemical characteristics of the waters were also investigated to determine the current status of water quality index (WQI of the sites. Samples of water and surface soils of active mine (Kuala Lipis and abandoned mine (Bukit Ibam in Pahang were collected at four locations, respectively. The physico-chemical parameters measured for WQI were pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and ammoniacal nitrogen (AN. The water quality parameters were classified according to the Department of Environment (DOE water quality classification. The study revealed that most of the sites in Bukit Ibam and Kuala Lipis were categorized as clean to slightly polluted. On the other hand, heavy metal analysis in water showed that aluminium and manganese level in both sites have exceeded the allowable limits for raw and treated water standards by the Ministry of Health. For heavy metal compositions in soils showed most of the heavy metal concentrations were below the recommended guideline values except for lead, arsenic, zinc and copper.

  4. Changing water availability during the African maize-growing season, 1979-2010 (United States)

    Estes, Lyndon D.; Chaney, Nathaniel W.; Herrera-Estrada, Julio; Sheffield, Justin; Caylor, Kelly K.; Wood, Eric F.


    Understanding how global change is impacting African agriculture requires a full physical accounting of water supply and demand, but accurate, gridded data on key drivers (e.g., humidity) are generally unavailable. We used a new bias-corrected meteorological dataset to analyze changes in precipitation (supply), potential evapotranspiration ({{E}_{p}}, demand), and water availability (expressed as the ratio P/{{E}_{p}}) in 20 countries (focusing on their maize-growing regions and seasons), between 1979 and 2010, and the factors driving changes in {{E}_{p}}. Maize-growing areas in Southern Africa, particularly South Africa, benefitted from increased water availability due in large part to demand declines driven primarily by declining net radiation, increasing vapor pressure, and falling temperatures (with no effect from changing windspeed), with smaller increases in supply. Sahelian zone countries in West Africa, as well as Ethiopia in East Africa, had strong increases in availability driven primarily by rainfall rebounding from the long-term Sahelian droughts, with little change or small reductions in demand. However, intra-seasonal supply variability generally increased in West and East Africa. Across all three regions, declining net radiation contributed downwards pressure on demand, generally over-riding upwards pressure caused by increasing temperatures, the regional effects of which were largest in East Africa. A small number of countries, mostly in or near East Africa (Tanzania and Malawi) experienced declines in water availability primarily due to decreased rainfall, but exacerbated by increasing demand. Much of the reduced water availability in East Africa occurred during the more sensitive middle part of the maize-growing season, suggesting negative consequences for maize production.

  5. Simulation of water-energy fluxes through small-scale reservoir systems under limited data availability (United States)

    Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Pollakis, Giorgos; Moustakis, Yiannis; Markopoulos, Apostolis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas


    Small islands are regarded as promising areas for developing hybrid water-energy systems that combine multiple sources of renewable energy with pumped-storage facilities. Essential element of such systems is the water storage component (reservoir), which implements both flow and energy regulations. Apparently, the representation of the overall water-energy management problem requires the simulation of the operation of the reservoir system, which in turn requires a faithful estimation of water inflows and demands of water and energy. Yet, in small-scale reservoir systems, this task in far from straightforward, since both the availability and accuracy of associated information is generally very poor. For, in contrast to large-scale reservoir systems, for which it is quite easy to find systematic and reliable hydrological data, in the case of small systems such data may be minor or even totally missing. The stochastic approach is the unique means to account for input data uncertainties within the combined water-energy management problem. Using as example the Livadi reservoir, which is the pumped storage component of the small Aegean island of Astypalaia, Greece, we provide a simulation framework, comprising: (a) a stochastic model for generating synthetic rainfall and temperature time series; (b) a stochastic rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters cannot be inferred through calibration and, thus, they are represented as correlated random variables; (c) a stochastic model for estimating water supply and irrigation demands, based on simulated temperature and soil moisture, and (d) a daily operation model of the reservoir system, providing stochastic forecasts of water and energy outflows. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students

  6. Evaluation of water quality using water quality index (WQI) method and GIS in Aksu River (SW-Turkey). (United States)

    Şener, Şehnaz; Şener, Erhan; Davraz, Ayşen


    The aim of this study is evaluate water quality of the Aksu River, the main river recharging the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake and flowing approximately 145km from Isparta province to Mediterranean. Due to plan for obtaining drinking water from the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake for Antalya Province, this study has great importance. In this study, physical and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 21 locations (in October 2011 and May 2012, two periods) through flow path of the river were investigated. The analysis results were compared with maximum permissible limit values recommended by World Health Organization and Turkish drinking water standards. The water quality for drinking purpose was evaluated using the water quality index (WQI) method. The computed WQI values are between 35.6133 and 337.5198 in the study. The prepared WQI map shows that Karacaören-1 Dam Lake generally has good water quality. However, water quality is poor and very poor in the north and south of the river basin. The effects of punctual and diffuse pollutants dominate the water quality in these regions. Furthermore, the most effective water quality parameters are COD and Mg on the determination of WQI for the present study.

  7. Effects of soil water and nitrogen availability on photosynthesis and water use efficiency of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiping Liu; Yangyang Fan; Junxia Long; Ruifeng Wei; Roger Kjelgren; Chunmei Gong; Jun Zhao


    The efficient use of water and nitrogen (N) to promote growth and increase yield of fruit trees and crops is well studied.However,little is known about their effects on woody plants growing in arid and semiarid areas with limited water and N availability.To examine the effects of water and N supply on early growth and water use efficiency (WUE) of trees on dry soils,one-year-old seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia were exposed to three soil water contents (non-limiting,medium drought,and severe drought) as well as to low and high N levels,for four months.Photosynthetic parameters,leaf instantaneous WUE (WUEi) and whole tree WUE (WUEb)were determined.Results showed that,independent of N levels,increasing soil water content enhanced the tree transpiration rate (Tr),stomatal conductance (Gs),intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci),maximum net assimilation rate (Amax),apparent quantum yield (AQY),the range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) due to both reduced light compensation point and enhanced light saturation point,and dark respiration rate (Rd),resulting in a higher net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and a significantly increased whole tree biomass.Consequently,WUEi and WUEb were reduced at low N,whereas WUEi was enhanced at high N levels.Irrespective of soil water availability,N supply enhanced Pn in association with an increase of Gs and Ci and a decrease of the stomatal limitation value (Ls),while Tr remained unchanged.Biomass and WUEi increased under non-limiting water conditions and medium drought,as well as WUEb under all water conditions; but under severe drought,WUEi and biomass were not affected by N application.In conclusion,increasing soil water availability improves photosynthetic capacity and biomass accumulation under low and high N levels,but its effects on WUE vary with soil N levels.N supply increased Pn and WUE,but under severe drought,N supply did not enhance WUEi and biomass.

  8. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models (United States)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.


    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  9. Influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China. (United States)

    Sun, Wenchao; Wang, Jie; Li, Zhanjie; Yao, Xiaolei; Yu, Jingshan


    The influences of climate change on water resources availability in Jinjiang Basin, China, were assessed using the Block-wise use of the TOPmodel with the Muskingum-Cunge routing method (BTOPMC) distributed hydrological model. The ensemble average of downscaled output from sixteen GCMs (General Circulation Models) for A1B emission scenario (medium CO2 emission) in the 2050s was adopted to build regional climate change scenario. The projected precipitation and temperature data were used to drive BTOPMC for predicting hydrological changes in the 2050s. Results show that evapotranspiration will increase in most time of a year. Runoff in summer to early autumn exhibits an increasing trend, while in the rest period of a year it shows a decreasing trend, especially in spring season. From the viewpoint of water resource availability, it is indicated that it has the possibility that water resources may not be sufficient to fulfill irrigation water demand in the spring season and one possible solution is to store more water in the reservoir in previous summer.

  10. On determining field water capacity and available water in uniform and layered soil profiles: Critical accounts and Proposals (United States)

    Ceres, F.; Chirico, G. B.; Romano, N.


    Field water capacity and available water concepts are major agronomic parameters widely used for irrigation management, especially in Mediterranean zones facing with shortage of water. However, their definitions are still under discussion among scientists and practitioners. Field water capacity is often determined using empirical relationships (e.g. pedotransfer functions) or from water retention points obtained in the laboratory, thus underplaying or even ignoring the important role exerted by the actual evolution of water redistribution processes in a soil profile, especially if it is a layered one. An objective and replicable method for determining the field water capacity requires monitoring a water redistribution process evolving in a soil profile thoroughly wetted by a preliminary infiltration phase. Accordingly, in this study free drainage processes in soil profiles have been simulated by applying the numerical model developed by Romano et al. (1998) and verified by Brunone et al. (2003). This model solves Richards' equation by applying the Crank-Nicolson finite difference technique and uses a numerical algorithm specifically designed in case of layered soils for calculating the hydraulic conductivity between soil layers. In addition, to ensure a good correspondence between the analyses performed and actual situations, an extensive database of uniform and layered soil profiles have been employed. Outcome from the scenarios on uniform soils have shown that soil water content values under the condition of field capacity do not match water content values obtained from water retention point measured at preselected matric pressure head. Similar results have been obtained when using retention data points retrieved from the use of well-established pedotransfer functions (such as the HYPRES-PTF). In case of layered soil profiles, which actually represent the rule rather than an exception, the layer sequence and reciprocal differences in the soil hydraulic properties

  11. Availability of Irrigation Water for Domestic Use in Pakistan: Its Impact on Prevalence of Diarrhoea and Nutritional Status of Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wim van der Hoek; Sabiena G. Feenstra; Flemming Konradsen


    This study assessed whether availability of water for domestic use had any impact on nutritional status of children in an area where people depend on irrigation water for all their domestic water needs...

  12. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Elsayed


    Full Text Available The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs located along Mahmoudia Canal. The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

  13. Water availability for development of major tar sands areas in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefer, T.N.; McQuivey, R.S.


    The Sutron Corporation, under contract with Colorado State University, has conducted a study for the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) to determine the availability of water for future extraction of viscous petroleum (bitumen) from the six major tar sands deposits in Utah. Specifically, the areas are: Asphalt Ridge and Whiterocks, which lie immediately west of Vernal, Utah; P.R. Spring, a large area extending from the Colorado River to the White River along Utah's eastern border; Hill Creek, adjacent to P.R. Spring to the west; Sunnyside, immediately across the Green River from Hill Creek between the Price and Green Rivers; and Tar Sand Triangle, near the confluence of the Colorado and Dirty Devil Rivers. The study, conducted between September and December of 1978, was a fact-finding effort involving the compilation of information from publications of the US Geological Survey (USGS), Utah State Engineer, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and other federal and state agencies. The information covers the general physiographic and geologic features of the total area, the estimated water requirements for tar sands development, the availability of water in each of the six areas, and the legal and sociological restraints and impacts. The conclusions regarding water availability for tar sands development in each of the six areas and specific recommendations related to the development of each area are presented also.

  14. Recharging California's Groundwater: Crop Suitability and Surface Water Availability for Agricultural Groundwater Banking (United States)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Kocis, T. N.; Brown, A.


    Groundwater banking, the intentional recharge of groundwater from surface water for storage and recovery, is an important conjunctive use strategy for water management in California (CA). A largely unexplored approach to groundwater banking, agricultural groundwater banking (ag-GB), utilizes flood flows and agricultural lands (alfalfa/pasture) for recharging groundwater. Understanding soil suitability for ag-GB, crop health and flooding tolerance, leaching of soil nitrate and salts, the availability of surface water for recharge, and the economic costs and benefits of ag-GB is fundamental to assessing the feasibility of local-scale implementation of ag-GB. The study presented here considers both the availability of excess streamflow (e.g., the magnitude, frequency, timing, and duration of winter flood flow) for ag-GB and the risks and benefits associated with using alfalfa fields as spreading grounds for ag-GB. The availability of surface water for winter (Nov to Apr) ag-GB were estimated based on daily streamflow records for 93 stream gauges within the Central Valley, CA. Analysis focused on high-magnitude (>90thpercentile) flows because most lower flows are likely legally allocated in CA. Results based >50 years of data indicate that an average winter/spring (Nov. - Apr.) in the Sacramento River Basin could provide 7 million acre-feet (AF) (8.6 km3) of water for ag-GB from flows above the 90th percentile. These flows originate from few storm events (5-7 events) and occur on average for 25-30 days between November and April. Wintertime on-farm recharge experiments were conducted on a 9-yr old, 15-acre alfalfa field in the Scott Valley, CA, where 135 AF and 107 AF of water were recharged during the winters of 2015 and 2016, respectively. Biomass data collected indicates that pulsed application of 6-10 ft of water on dormant alfalfa results in minimal yield loss (0.5 ton/acre reduction), short-duration saturated conditions in the root-zone, and high recharge

  15. Integrated biomarker response index using a Neotropical fish to assess the water quality in agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Delfino Vieira

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems in areas with intense agricultural activity are subject to pesticide contamination, which may compromise the health of the fish. In order to verify the quality of the water and the possible effects of pesticides on fish, a method that combines different biomarker responses into an index named "integrated biomarker response" (IBR was applied using the biological alterations in the Neotropical fish Astyanax altiparanae. Fish were maintained in situ at five sites along a stream that runs in an agricultural area and in a stream within a forest fragment, considered a reference site. After seven days of exposure the following alterations were observed in fish confined at experimental sites: increased activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT and increase in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH in liver and gills, reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain and muscle, increase in the occurrence of DNA strand breaks and in the frequency of micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormalities (ENA in erythrocytes. The IBR highlighted three sites as the most affected, as the animals confined at these sites showed greater variations in biological responses. The biomarkers most important for the IBR results were GST, AChE, DNA breaks and ENA.

  16. Polder Effects on Sediment-to-Soil Conversion: Water Table, Residual Available Water Capacity, and Salt Stress Interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Tojo Radimy


    Full Text Available The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields.

  17. Availability of ground water in the lower Pawcatuck River basin, Rhode Island (United States)

    Gonthier, Joseph B.; Johnston, Herbert E.; Malmberg, Glenn T.


    The lower Pawcatuck River basin in southwestern Rhode Island is an area of about 169 square miles underlain by crystalline bedrock over which lies a relatively thin mantle of glacial till and stratified drift. Stratified drift, consisting dominantly of sand and gravel, occurs in irregularly shaped linear deposits that are generally less than a mile wide and less than 125 feet thick; these deposits are found along the Pawcatuck River, its tributaries, and abandoned preglacial channels. Deposits of stratified sand and gravel constitute the principal aquifer in the lower Pawcatuck basin and the only one capable of sustaining yields of 100 gallons per minute or more to individual wells. Water available for development in this aquifer consists of water in storage--potential ground-water runoff to streams--plus infiltration that can be induced from streams. Minimum annual ground-water runoff from the sand and gravel aquifer is calculated to be at least 1.17 cubic feet per second per square mile, or 0.76 million gallons per day per square mile. Potential recharge by induced infiltration is estimated to range from about 250 to 600 gallons per day per linear foot of streambed for the principal streams. In most areas, induced infiltration from streams constitutes the major source of water potentially available for development by wells. Because subsurface hydraulic connection in the sand and gravel aquifer is poor in several places, the deposits are conveniently divisible into several ground-water reservoirs. The potential yield from five of the most promising ground-water reservoirs is evaluated by means of mathematical models. Results indicate that continuous withdrawals ranging from 1.3 to 10.3 million gallons per day, and totaling 31 million gallons per day, are obtainable from these reservoirs. Larger yields may be recovered by different well placement, spacing, construction and development, pumping practice, and so forth. Withdrawals at the rates indicated will reduce

  18. Summary of resources available to small water systems for meeting the 10 ppb arsenic drinking water limit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Thomson, Bruce M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ziegler, Matt (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Susan (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Himmelberger, Heather (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Holt, Kathleen Caroline


    With the lowering of the EPA maximum contaminant level of arsenic from 50 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 ppb, many public water systems in the country and in New Mexico in particular, are faced with making decisions about how to bring their system into compliance. This document provides detail on the options available to the water systems and the steps they need to take to achieve compliance with this regulation. Additionally, this document provides extensive resources and reference information for additional outreach support, financing options, vendors for treatment systems, and media pilot project results.

  19. WET MARS: Plentiful, Readily-Available Martian Water and its Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.; Ishikawa, M.; Nuckolls, J.; Whitehead, J.; Wood, L.


    Water and its major constituent, oxygen, in large specific quantities are essential for maintenance of human life. Providing them in adequate quantities is widely believed to be a major challenge for human exploration and settlement of Mars. The Martian regolith isn't known to bear either water or hydrogen, the ice-rich Martian polar regions are thermally inhospitable, and the measured water content of Mars' thin atmosphere represents a layer of liquid water of average thickness only {approx}1% that available on the Moon, or {approx}0.001 cm. Crucially, however, the atmospheric Martian water inventory is advected meteorologically to everyplace on Mars, so that the few cubic kilometers of liquid water-equivalent in the atmosphere are available anywhere when, merely for the effort of condensing it. Well-engineered apparatus deployed essentially anywhere on Mars can condense water from the atmosphere in daily quantities not much smaller than its own mass, rejecting into space from radiators deployed over the local terrain the water's heat-of-condensation and the heat from non-ideality of the equipment's operation. Thus, an optimized, photovoltaically-powered water-condensing system of {approx}0.3 tons mass could strip 40 tons of water each year from {approx} 10{sup 4} times this mass of thin, dry Martian air. Given a 490 set I{sup sp} of H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} propulsion systems exhausting into the 6 millibar Mars-surface atmosphere and the 5.0 km/s Martian gravity well, {approx}40 tons of water two-thirds converted into 5:1 O{sub 2}/H{sub 2} cryogenic fuel could support exploration and loft a crew-of-four and their 8-ton ascent vehicle into Earth-return trajectory. The remaining H{sub 2}O and excess O{sub 2} would suffice for half-open-cycle life support for a year's exploration-intensive stay on Mars. A Mars Expedition thus needs to land only explorers, dehydrated food, habitation gear and unfueled exploration/Earth-return equipment--and a water

  20. Geocomposite with Superabsorbent as an Element Improving Water Availability for Plants on Slopes (United States)

    Pawlowski, A.; Lejcus, K.; Garlikowski, D.; Orzeszyna, H.


    Water availability for plants on a slope is usually worse, then on a plane surface. Exposure on sun radiation makes these conditions even more difficult. The key problem is how to supply plants with water. Frequently watering is good but expensive solution. To avoid often repeating of such action and/or to use as much as possible water from precipitation, it has to be retained in soil. One of the ways to increase soil water retention is superabsorbents (SAP), called often hydrogel addition to the soil. They can absorb 300 - 1000 times more water, then theirs own weight. This water can be later taken by roots system. Addition to the soil small amount of dry superabsorbent, which, after absorbing water, forms gel can affect stability of the slope top layer, diminishing soil strength parameters. Part of the strength lose can be recompensed by reinforcing action of better developed roots system, which, according to the tests are increasing soil shear strength. However because it is a living system still rest some uncertainty about its functioning over many vegetation seasons. From engineering point of view, these strength parameters are very difficult for precise calculation, control and determination of long term behaviour. Important factor of superabsorbent influence on soil shear parameters is its dosage and, as a result, final volume and properties after water absorption. If the volume of superabsorbent is not greater then available pore volume of soil, this influence is not decisive. By bigger dosage, when volume of superabsorbent with retained water is much greater then pore space volume. The soil form a suspension in hydrogel and in laboratory condition one can observe sedimentation of soil fraction at the early stage of saturation. After longer time gel's density is already high enough to support grains of soils and stop sedimentation process. By highly permeable soils, which are sometimes used in embankment construction, eg. for buttress, gel, just after

  1. Available Water Capacity for the Upper Colorado River Basin in Daymet Climate Data resolution (awc_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — awc_UCRB_Daymet_resolution.txt is an Esri ASCII grid representing the available water capacity (AWC) for the Upper Colorado River Basin. AWC (available water...

  2. [Simplification of crop shortage water index and its application in drought remote sensing monitoring]. (United States)

    Liu, Anlin; Li, Xingmin; He, Yanbo; Deng, Fengdong


    Based on the principle of energy balance, the method for calculating latent evaporation was simplified, and hence, the construction of the drought remote sensing monitoring model of crop water shortage index was also simplified. Since the modified model involved fewer parameters and reduced computing times, it was more suitable for the operation running in the routine services. After collecting the concerned meteorological elements and the NOAA/AVHRR image data, the new model was applied to monitor the spring drought in Guanzhong, Shanxi Province. The results showed that the monitoring results from the new model, which also took more considerations of the effects of the ground coverage conditions and meteorological elements such as wind speed and the water pressure, were much better than the results from the model of vegetation water supply index. From the view of the computing times, service effects and monitoring results, the simplified crop water shortage index model was more suitable for practical use. In addition, the reasons of the abnormal results of CWSI > 1 in some regions in the case studies were also discussed in this paper.

  3. Isotopic values of plants in relation to water availability in the Eastern Mediterranean region. (United States)

    Hartman, Gideon; Danin, Avinoam


    Plant C and N isotope values often correlate with rainfall on global and regional scales. This study examines the relationship between plant isotopic values and rainfall in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The results indicate significant correlations between both C and N isotope values and rainfall in C(3) plant communities. This significant relationship is maintained when plant communities are divided by plant life forms. Furthermore, a seasonal increase in C isotope values is observed during the dry season while N isotope values remain stable across the wet and dry seasons. Finally, the isotopic pattern in plants originating from desert environments differs from those from Mediterranean environments because some desert plants obtain most of their water from secondary sources, namely water channeled by local topographic features rather than direct rainfall. From these results it can be concluded that water availability is the primary factor controlling C and N isotope variability in plant communities in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  4. Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Kumari, Puja; Bano, Shamima; Kumari, Shweta


    Opencast as well as underground coal mining are likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. Added to this is the problem of leachates from the large number of industrial waste and overburden dumps that are in abundance in mining areas, reaching the ground water and adversely affecting its quality. Enhancement of heavy metals contamination of the ground water is one eventuality. In the present work, concentrations of 7 heavy metals have been evaluated at 20 important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbad township situated very near to Jharia coalfields. The concentration of heavy metals in general was found to be below the permissible levels although concentration of iron and manganese was found above the permissible limits at a few stations. These data have been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI of ground water in total was found to be 6.8860 which is far below the critical index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that the ground water is not polluted with respect to heavy metals in spite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrial activities near the town.

  5. The potential of the spectral 'water balance index' (WABI) for crop irrigation scheduling. (United States)

    Rapaport, Tal; Hochberg, Uri; Cochavi, Amnon; Karnieli, Arnon; Rachmilevitch, Shimon


    Hyperspectral sensing can detect slight changes in plant physiology, and may offer a faster and nondestructive alternative for water status monitoring. This premise was tested in the current study using a narrow-band 'water balance index' (WABI), which is based on independent changes in leaf water content (1500 nm) and the efficiency of the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) photo-protective mechanism (531 nm). The hydraulic, photo-protective and spectral behaviors of five important crops - grapevine, corn, tomato, pea and sunflower - were evaluated under water deficit conditions in order to associate the differences in stress physiology with WABI suitability. Rapid alterations in both leaf water content and NPQ were observed in grapevine, pea and sunflower, and were effectively captured by WABI. Apart from water status monitoring, the index was also successful in scheduling the irrigation of a vineyard, despite phenological and environmental variability. Conversely, corn and tomato displayed a relatively strict stomatal regime and/or mild NPQ responses and were, thus, unsuitable for WABI-based monitoring. WABI shows great potential for irrigation scheduling of various crops, and has a clear advantage over spectral models that focus on either of the abovementioned physiological mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes. (United States)

    Seeboonruang, Uma


    The release of wastewater from various land uses is threatening the quality of surface water. Different land uses pose varying degrees of danger to water resources. The hazardous extent of each activity depends on the amount and characteristics of the wastewater. The concept of the contamination potential index (CPI) of an activity is introduced and applied here. The index depends on the quantity of wastewater from a single source and on various chemicals in the waste whose concentrations are above allowable standards. The CPI concept and the land use impact assessment are applied to the surface water conditions in Nakhon Nayok Province in the central region of Thailand. The land uses considered in this study are residential area, industrial zone, in-season and off-season rice farming, and swine and poultry livestock. Multiple linear regression analysis determines the impact of the CPIs of these land uses on certain water quality characteristics, i.e., total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, phosphate, and chloride concentrations, using CPIs and previous water quality measurements. The models are further verified according to the current CPIs and measured concentrations. The results of the backward and forward modeling show that the land uses that affect water quality are off-season rice farming, raising poultry, and residential activity. They demonstrate that total dissolved solids and conductivity are reasonable parameters to apply in the land use assessment.

  7. Seasonal Water Availability and Mountain Forest Dynamics in the Southwestern U.S.A. (United States)

    Brown-Mitic, C. M.; Parajuli, K.; Telewski, F.; Shuttleworth, W. J.


    Water availability in the semi arid United States varies seasonally, annually, and on multi-year cycles, affecting mountain forest carbon exchange directly by influencing primary production and respiration and indirectly through drought, forest fires and insect infestation. Explicitly quantifying the carbon-water relationship in mountain island ecosystems depends largely on understanding both the temporal distribution of water availability and the response of the vegetation to seasonal inputs. Understanding how ecosystems, particularly those which are positioned along sensitive vegetation ecotones and steep transitional climate zones, function and respond to perturbations in climatic conditions is critical to our understanding of the expected range of changes that are possible with changes to our climate. What are the possible responses in ecosystem composition, diversity and biotic feedbacks, not only to changes in the amount of precipitation, but also shifts in its' seasonal pattern, frequency distribution and intensity? Southern Arizona provides a natural laboratory with an annual bimodal precipitation pattern, steep transitional climatic zones, sensitive ecotones, with clear demarcation resulting from large elevation and precipitation gradients and high water limiting conditions with extreme climate variability. This presentation highlights the seasonal carbon-water relationship of a coniferous mountain island forest in the Santa Catalina Mountains of Southern Arizona. Hydro-micrometeorological observations from an eddy covariance flux tower made over five years encompass periods of severe multi-year drought punctuated by strong El Nino winter seasons. Distinct seasonal water use efficiency and carbon assimilation highlights the unique dynamics of this ecosystem and provide part of the fundamental reasons for the observed northward migration of semi-arid coniferous species.

  8. Future water availability in North African dams simulated by high-resolution regional climate models (United States)

    Tramblay, Yves; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Somot, Samuel


    In North Africa, the countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are already experiencing water scarcity and a strong interannual variability of precipitation. To better manage their existing water resources, several dams and reservoirs have been built on most large river catchments. The objective of this study is to provide quantitative scenarios of future changes in water availability for the 47 major dams and reservoirs catchments located in North Africa. An ensemble of regional climate models (RCM) with a spatial resolution of 12km, driven by different general circulation models (GCM), from the EuroCORDEX experiment have been considered to analyze the projected changes on temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) for two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two time horizons (2040-2065 and 2065-2090). PET is estimated from RCM outputs either with the FAO-Penman-Monteith (PM) equation, requiring air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation and wind, or with the Hargreave Samani (HS) equation, requiring only air temperature. The water balance is analyzed by comparing the climatic demand and supply of water, considering that for most of these catchments groundwater storage is negligible over long time periods. Results indicated a future temperature increase for all catchments between +1.8° and +4.2°, depending on the emission scenario and the time period considered. Precipitation is projected to decrease between -14% to -27%, mainly in winter and spring, with a strong East to West gradient. PET computed from PM or HS formulas provided very similar estimates and projections, ranging between +7% to +18%. Changes in PET are mostly driven by rising temperatures and are greatest during dry summer months than for the wet winter season. Therefore the increased PET has a lower impact than declining precipitation on future water availability, which is expected to decrease by -19% to -33% on average.

  9. Water availability is the main climate driver of neotropical tree growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Wagner

    Full Text Available • Climate models for the coming century predict rainfall reduction in the Amazonian region, including change in water availability for tropical rainforests. Here, we test the extent to which climate variables related to water regime, temperature and irradiance shape the growth trajectories of neotropical trees. • We developed a diameter growth model explicitly designed to work with asynchronous climate and growth data. Growth trajectories of 205 individual trees from 54 neotropical species censused every 2 months over a 4-year period were used to rank 9 climate variables and find the best predictive model. • About 9% of the individual variation in tree growth was imputable to the seasonal variation of climate. Relative extractable water was the main predictor and alone explained more than 60% of the climate effect on tree growth, i.e. 5.4% of the individual variation in tree growth. Furthermore, the global annual tree growth was more dependent on the diameter increment at the onset of the rain season than on the duration of dry season. • The best predictive model included 3 climate variables: relative extractable water, minimum temperature and irradiance. The root mean squared error of prediction (0.035 mm x d(-1 was slightly above the mean value of the growth (0.026 mm x d(-1. • Amongst climate variables, we highlight the predominant role of water availability in determining seasonal variation in tree growth of neotropical forest trees and the need to include these relationships in forest simulators to test, in silico, the impact of different climate scenarios on the future dynamics of the rainforest.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahjalal Khandaker


    Full Text Available In this investigation, locally available and inexpensive Taro and Water Hyacinth were used as biosorbents to remove chromium from synthetic wastewater. The removal of this metal ion from water in the batch and column method have been studied and discussed. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm studies were also carried out. The material exhibits good adsorption capacity and the data follow both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Scanning Electronic Microscopic image was also used to understand the surface characteristics of biosorbent before and after biosorption studies. Effects of various factors such as pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate initial concentration, particle size etc. were analyzed. The initial concentrations of chromium were considered 5-30mgL-1 in batch method and only 4mgL-1 in column method. The maximum chromium adsorbed was 1.64 mgg-1 and 4.44 mgg-1 in Batch method and 1.15 mgg-1 and 0.75 mgg-1 in Column method. Batch and Column desorption and regeneration studies were conducted. Column desorption studies indicated that both of these biosorbents could be reused for removing heavy metals. Results of the laboratory experiments show that the performance of Taro and Water Hyacinth prove that they can effectively be used as low cost biosorbents for the removal of chromium from wastewater.KEYWORDS:   adsorption; chromium removal; Taro; water hyacinth; batch method; column studies

  11. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B.; Schmid, Wolfgang


    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori. The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the current water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations

  12. Competitive interactions between established grasses and woody plant seedlings under elevated CO₂ levels are mediated by soil water availability. (United States)

    Manea, A; Leishman, M R


    The expansion of woody plants into grasslands has been observed worldwide and is likely to have widespread ecological consequences. One proposal is that woody plant expansion into grasslands is driven in part by the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We have examined the effect of CO2 concentration on the competitive interactions between established C4 grasses and woody plant seedlings in a model grassland system. Woody plant seedlings were grown in mesocosms together with established C4 grasses in three competition treatments (root competition, shoot competition and root + shoot competition) under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. We found that the growth of the woody plant seedlings was suppressed by competition from grasses, with root and shoot competition having similar competitive effects on growth. In contrast to expectations, woody plant seedling growth was reduced at elevated CO2 levels compared to that at the ambient CO2 level across all competition treatments, with the most plausible explanation being reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms was associated with an increased leaf area index of the grasses which offset the reductions in stomatal conductance and increased rainfall interception. The woody plant seedlings also had reduced 'escapability' (stem biomass and stem height) under elevated compared to ambient CO2 levels. Our results suggest that the expansion of woody plants into grasslands in the future will likely be context-dependent, with the establishment success of woody plant seedlings being strongly coupled to the CO2 response of competing grasses and to soil water availability.

  13. A method for canopy water content estimation for highly vegetated surfaces-shortwave infrared perpendicular water stress index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GHULAM; Abduwasit; LI; Zhao-Liang; QIN; QiMing; TONG; QingXi; WANG; JiHua; KASIMU; Alimujiang; ZHU; Lin


    In this paper, a new method for canopy water content (FMC) estimation for highly vegetated surfaces- shortwave infrared perpendicular water stress index (SPSI) is developed using NIR, SWIR wavelengths of Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) on the basis of spectral features and distribution of surface targets with different water conditions in NIR-SWIR spectral space. The developed method is further explored with radiative transfer simulations using PROSPECT, Lillesaeter, SailH and 6S. It is evident from the results of validation derived from satellite synchronous field measurements that SPSI is highly correlated with FMC, coefficient of determination (R squared) and root mean square error are 0.79 and 26.41%. The paper concludes that SPSI has a potential in vegetation water content estimation in terms of FMC.

  14. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Lockwood, Brian; Schmid, Wolfgang


    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori.

  15. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability. (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P


    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate.

  16. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P.


    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate. PMID:25504656

  17. Description of a Multimetric Phytoplankton Index (MPI) for the assessment of transitional waters. (United States)

    Facca, Chiara; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Socal, Giorgio; Ponis, Emanuele; Acri, Francesco; Bianchi, Franco; Giovanardi, Franco; Sfriso, Adriano


    A Multimetric Phytoplankton Index (MPI) is proposed to support management policies for the assessment of transitional ecosystems and the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The MPI incorporates Hulburt's dominance index, bloom frequency and Menhinick's diversity index, calculated on the basis of phytoplankton species composition. Chlorophyll a concentrations were also included, to provide biomass data and to guarantee continuity and comparison with past evaluations. The MPI was calculated by averaging the ratios of the resulting values of each metric to those of a reference site characterised by low anthropogenic impact. The MPI was set up using data from over a 10-year period in several stations in Venice Lagoon (North-western Adriatic region), a highly valuable and heterogeneous transitional environment, subject to significant anthropogenic pressures. The dataset included physico-chemical data, nutrient and contaminant concentrations. Statistical analyses allowed us to gauge the MPI's responses to anthropogenic pressures and to verify its reliability.

  18. Climate change impacts on snow water availability in the Euphrates-Tigris basin


    Özdoğan, M.


    This study investigates the effects of projected climate change on snow water availability in the Euphrates-Tigris basin using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro scale hydrologic model and a set of regional climate-change outputs from 13 global circulation models (GCMs) forced with two greenhouse gas emission scenarios for two time periods in the 21st century (2050 and 2090). The hydrologic model produces a reasonable simulation of seasonal and spatial variation in snow cover and ...

  19. Climate change impacts on snow water availability in the Euphrates-Tigris basin


    Özdoğan, M.


    This study investigates the effects of projected climate change on snow water availability in the Euphrates-Tigris basin using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro scale hydrologic model and a set of regional climate-change outputs from 13 global circulation models (GCMs) forced with two greenhouse gas emission scenarios for two time periods in the 21st century (2050 and 2090). The hydrologic model produces a reasonable simulation of seasonal and spatial variation ...

  20. Sensitivity of grapevine phenology to water availability, temperature and CO2 concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Martínez-Lüscher


    Full Text Available In recent decades, mean global temperatures have increased in parallel with a sharp rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 levels, with apparent implications for precipitation patterns. The aim of the present work is to assess the sensitivity of different phenological stages of grapevine to temperature and to study the influence of other factors related to climate change (water availability and CO2 concentration on this relationship. Grapevine phenological records from 9 plantings between 42.75°N and 46.03°N consisting of dates for budburst, flowering and fruit maturity were used. In addition, we used phenological data collected from two years of experiments with grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings with two grapevine varieties under two levels of water availability, two temperature regimes and two levels of CO2. Dormancy breaking and flowering were strongly dependent on spring temperature, while neither variation in temperature during the chilling period nor precipitation significantly affected budburst date. The time needed to reach fruit maturity diminished with increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation. Experiments under semi-controlled conditions revealed great sensitivity of berry development to both temperature and CO2. Water availability had significant interactions with both temperature and CO2; however, in general, water deficit delayed maturity when combined with other factors. Sensitivities to temperature and CO2 varied widely, but higher sensitivities appeared in the coolest year, particularly for the late ripening variety, ‘White Tempranillo’. The knowledge gained in whole plant physiology and multi stress approaches is crucial to predict the effects of climate change and to design mitigation and adaptation strategies allowing viticulture to cope with climate change.

  1. Hydrologic models and analysis of water availability in Cuyama Valley, California (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Gibbs, Dennis R.; Schmid, Wolfgang


    Changes in population, agricultural development practices (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are placing increasingly larger demands on available water resources, particularly groundwater, in the Cuyama Valley, one of the most productive agricultural regions in Santa Barbara County. The goal of this study was to produce a model capable of being accurate at scales relevant to water management decisions that could be considered in the evaluation of the sustainable water supply. The Cuyama Valley Hydrologic Model (CUVHM) was designed to simulate the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system, including components dependent on variations in climate, thereby providing a reliable assessment of groundwater conditions and processes that can inform water users and help to improve planning for future conditions. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, construction of a precipitation-runoff model using the Basin Characterization Model (BCM), and construction of an integrated hydrologic flow model with MODFLOW-One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (MF-OWHM). The hydrologic models were calibrated to historical conditions of water and land use and, then, used to assess the use and movement of water throughout the Valley. These tools provide a means to understand the evolution of water use in the Valley, its availability, and the limits of sustainability. The conceptual model identified inflows and outflows that include the movement and use of water in both natural and anthropogenic systems. The groundwater flow system is characterized by a layered geologic sedimentary sequence that—in combination with the effects of groundwater pumping, natural recharge, and the application of irrigation water at the land surface—displays vertical hydraulic-head gradients. Overall, most of the agricultural demand for water in the Cuyama Valley in the initial part of the growing season is

  2. A Comparison of Land Surface Water Mapping Using the Normalized Difference Water Index from TM, ETM+ and ALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyu Sun


    Full Text Available Remote sensing has more advantages than the traditional methods of land surface water (LSW mapping because it is a low-cost, reliable information source that is capable of making high-frequency and repeatable observations. The normalized difference water indexes (NDWIs, calculated from various band combinations (green, near-infrared (NIR, or shortwave-infrared (SWIR, have been successfully applied to LSW mapping. In fact, new NDWIs will become available when Advanced Land Imager (ALI data are used as the ALI sensor provides one green band (Band 4, two NIR bands (Bands 6 and 7, and three SWIR bands (Bands 8, 9, and 10. Thus, selecting the optimal band or combination of bands is critical when ALI data are employed to map LSW using NDWI. The purpose of this paper is to find the best performing NDWI model of the ALI data in LSW map. In this study, eleven NDWI models based on ALI, Thematic Mapper (TM, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data were compared to assess the performance of ALI data in LSW mapping, at three different study sites in the Yangtze River Basin, China. The contrast method, Otsu method, and confusion matrix were calculated to evaluate the accuracies of the LSW maps. The accuracies of LSW maps derived from eleven NDWI models showed that five NDWI models of the ALI sensor have more than an overall accuracy of 91% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.78 of LSW maps at three test sites. In addition, the NDWI model, calculated from the green (Band 4: 0.525–0.605 μm and SWIR (Band 9: 1.550–1.750 μm bands of the ALI sensor, namely NDWIA4,9, was shown to have the highest LSW mapping accuracy, more than the other NDWI models. Therefore, the NDWIA4,9 is the best indicator for LSW mapping of the ALI sensor. It can be used for mapping LSW with high accuracy.

  3. Carbon Allocation in Mojave Desert Plant-Soil Systems as Affected by Nitrogen and Water Availability (United States)

    Verburg, P. S.; Kapitzke, S. E.


    Changes in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition due to increased urbanization and precipitation due to climate change are likely to affect carbon (C) allocation in plants and soils in arid ecosystems in the Southwestern United States where net primary production is often limited by N and water availability. We conducted a greenhouse study to determine the effects of N and water availability on one year old creosote (Larrea tridentata) plants, the dominant shrub in the Mojave Desert. In our greenhouse study we employed two N levels (0 and 40 kg ha-1) and two soil moisture levels (7% and 15%). We grew creosote seedlings in PVC columns filled with topsoil from the Mojave Global Change Facility at the Nevada Test Site. The columns were covered and sealed at the base of the plant to separate the above- from belowground plant compartment. Plants were distributed over two growth chambers receiving ambient light while day/night temperatures were set at 25° C/15° C. In one chamber plants were labeled once a week with 13C-enriched CO2 while a second chamber acted as an unlabeled control. Throughout the six month study we measured soil CO2 concentrations, respired CO2 as well as their isotopic signatures. At the end of the study plants were harvested and we measured plant above- and belowground biomass and isotopic composition of the vegetation. In addition, we measured isotopic composition of soil organic and inorganic C. Increased N availability stimulated stem weight and decreased total C losses through soil respiration. Other plant and soil parameters including isotopic composition were not affected by changes in N availability. Increased soil moisture stimulated plant biomass mainly due to an increase in leaf weight while root biomass tended to decrease. Soil CO2 concentrations increased with increasing water availability despite a reduction in root biomass. The isotopic data showed that net new C uptake increased mostly in leaves, soil organic matter and soil

  4. EPA Office of Water (OW): Facilities that Discharge to Water NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States is regulated under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), a mandated provision of the...

  5. EPA Office of Water (OW): 2002 Impaired Waters Baseline NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of geospatial and attribute data identifying the spatial extent of state-reported impaired waters (EPA's Integrated Reporting categories 4a,...

  6. It is possible to increase by over thirty per cent the Nile Water availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemperiere, F.


    The population of the Nile catchment is presently 250 Million and will probably reach 400 Million in 2040. The catchment includes two parts of about same population but with a very different climate. - The upstream rainy part (most of this area is in Ethiopia, Uganda and South Sudan). - The downstream dry part i.e North Sudan and Egypt. The available water from the Nile runoff is evaluated as average as 72 Billion m{sup 3} /year; it is quite totally coming from the upstream part and used in the downstream part. For their development the upstream populations (including also part of Tanzania, Kenya, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi) are now requiring a significant share of the run off generated from local rains when Egypt and North Sudan claim historic rights on the Nile Waters. The best way to avoid conflicts is to increase the water availability for keeping in Egypt and North Sudan at least the water volume presently used and to allow to upstream countries the water resources necessary for their development, possibly in the range of 100 m{sup 3} / year / capita in 2030 or 2040. The average total runoff of the Nile is in fact close to 140 Billion m{sup 3} / year but over 40 Billion evaporate in the South Sudan Swamps and 15 Billion in the reservoirs of Aswan and Northern Sudan. A solution for reducing by half these two main losses is presented in this paper: it is based upon a concrete knowledge of the local very specific data and upon a successful experience of adapted technical solutions

  7. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine. (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie


    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  8. An integrated approach to aquatic health assessment: water quality index and multibiomarker response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedeno-Diaz, J. E.; Lopez-Lopez, E.; Jimenez-Trujillo, P.; Tejeda-Vera, R.; Espainal Carrion, T.


    The pollution of water bodies reduces their quality and is stressful to their biota. In a river, water usually is of the high-est quality in its headwaters reaches, becoming dirtier along its length as it passes through different land uses. Therefore, the aquatic environment should be assessed using physicochemical and biological features in order to provide a full spectrum of aquatic ecosystem health. Water Quality Indexes can be used to aggregate data on water quality parameters and to translate this information into a single value. The use of bio markers as indicators of toxicity delineates the effects of xenobiotics before the appearance of diseases in aquatic organism. The use of a battery bio markers may be useful to evaluate the various response to mixtures of pollutants. (Author)

  9. Measuring the refractive index of water with a pulsed laser diode (United States)

    Cataldo, Enrico; Di Lieto, Alberto; Maccarrone, Francesco; Paffuti, Giampiero


    In a previous paper published in this journal (Ronzani et al 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 957), an estimate of the light speed in air, obtained by measuring the time of flight of a pulsed laser beam, was reported. Using the same method and apparatus, we have improved the measure of the light speed in air, by increasing the data sample, and measured the light speed in water, obtaining an estimate of the water refractive index equal to n = 1.323 (0.016), at the wavelength of 665 nm.

  10. IWQ index: a GIS-integrated technique to assess irrigation water quality. (United States)

    Simsek, Celalettin; Gunduz, Orhan


    The irrigation water quality and the associated hazards to soil characteristics and crop yield is often a complex phenomenon that involves the combined effect of many parameters. From a management point of view, it is sometimes necessary to analyze all related parameters as a combination rather than focusing on a single isolated parameter. With this objective in mind, a new GIS-integrated tool is proposed in this study to evaluate the quality of irrigation waters with regards to potential soil and crop problems. The proposed procedure is mainly an index method that utilizes five hazard groups: (a) salinity hazard, (b) infiltration and permeability hazard, (c) specific ion toxicity, (d) trace element toxicity; and, (e) miscellaneous impacts on sensitive crops. A linear combination of these groups is formulated to form the so-called IWQ index, which is a technique that could be used to classify irrigation waters with respect to three suitability classes. The proposed technique is applied to assess the irrigation water quality of the Simav Plain located in western Anatolia, Turkey. The Simav application is implemented by using a GIS database developed for the plain. Based on the results of this application, the general groundwater quality in the surfacial aquifer is found to be fairly good and the aquifer waters are mostly suitable for irrigation purposes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mourato


    Full Text Available Regional climate models provided precipitation and temperature time series for control (1961–1990 and scenario (2071–2100 periods. At southern Portu gal, the climate models in the control period systematically present higher temp eratures and lower precipitation than the observations. Therefore, the direct inpu t of climate model data into hydrological models might result in more severe scenarios for future water availability. Three bias correction methods (Delta Change, Dire ct Forcing and Hybrid are analysed and their performances in water availability impac t studies are assessed. The Delta Change method assumes that the observed series variab ility is maintained in the scenario period and is corrected by the evolution predicted by the climate models. The Direct Forcing method maintains the scenario series variabi lity, which is corrected by the bias found in the control period, and the Hybrid method maintains the control model series variability, which is corrected by the bias found in the control period and by the evolution predicted by the climate models. To assess the climate impacts in the water resources expected for the scenario period, a physically based spatially distributed hydrological model, SHETRAN, is used for runoff pro jections in a southern Portugal basin. The annual and seasonal runoff shows a runoff d ecrease in the scenario period, increasing the water shor tage that is already experienc ed. The overall annual reduction varies between –80% and –35%. In general, the results show that the runoff reductions obtained with climate models corrected with the Delt a Change method are highest but with a narrow range that varies between –80% and –5 2%.

  12. Availability of safe drinking-water: the answer to cholera outbreak? Nabua, Camarines Sur, Philippines, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethea De Guzman


    Full Text Available Background: In May 2012, there were increasing diarrhoea cases and deaths reported from Nabua, Camarines Sur to the Philippines event-based surveillance system. An investigation was conducted to identify risk factors and determine transmission dynamics. Methods: A suspected case was defined as a resident of Nabua with at least three episodes of watery diarrhoea per day from 16 March to 22 June 2012. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case positive for Vibrio cholerae. An environmental investigation was conducted and rectal swabs and water samples sent to the national reference laboratory for bacterial isolation. A 1:2 case-control study matching for age and sex was conducted. Data were analyzed using Epi Info. Results: There were 309 suspected cases with two deaths, and the most affected age group was children under five years (45%. Eight cases were positive for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa El Tor and one for Non-01. Water samples were positive for faecal coliforms and Aeromonas caviae. The case-control study showed that cases had a higher odds than controls of using unchlorinated water sources (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6–8.5 and having toilets located within 20 metres of a septic tank (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.3. In multivariate analysis, the only significant factor was drinking from piped water (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09–0.49. Discussion: In this cholera outbreak, drinking-water from unchlorinated wells was a significant risk factor. Future cholera control efforts should include not just improving water and sanitation systems but also intensified behaviour change campaigns.

  13. Factors influencing stomatal conductance in response to water availability in grapevine: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Lavoie-Lamoureux, Anouk; Sacco, Dario; Risse, Paul-André; Lovisolo, Claudio


    The main factors regulating grapevine response to decreasing water availability were assessed under statistical support using published data related to leaf water relations in an extensive range of scion and rootstock genotypes. Matching leaf water potential (Ψleaf ) and stomatal conductance (gs ) data were collected from peer-reviewed literature with associated information. The resulting database contained 718 data points from 26 different Vitis vinifera varieties investigated as scions, 15 non-V. vinifera rootstock genotypes and 11 own-rooted V. vinifera varieties. Linearised data were analysed using the univariate general linear model (GLM) with factorial design including biological (scion and rootstock genotypes), methodological and environmental (soil) fixed factors. The first GLM performed on the whole database explained 82.4% of the variability in data distribution having the rootstock genotype the greatest contribution to variability (19.1%) followed by the scion genotype (16.2%). A classification of scions and rootstocks according to their mean predicted gs in response to moderate water stress was generated. This model also revealed that gs data obtained using a porometer were in average 2.1 times higher than using an infra-red gas analyser. The effect of soil water-holding properties was evaluated in a second analysis on a restricted database and showed a scion-dependant effect, which was dominant over rootstock effect, in predicting gs values. Overall the results suggest that a continuum exists in the range of stomatal sensitivities to water stress in V. vinifera, rather than an isohydric-anisohydric dichotomy, that is further enriched by the diversity of scion-rootstock combinations and their interaction with different soils. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Interactive effects of UV radiation and water availability on seedlings of six woody Mediterranean species. (United States)

    Bernal, Meritxell; Llorens, Laura; Badosa, Jordi; Verdaguer, Dolors


    To assess the effects of UV radiation and its interaction with water availability on Mediterranean plants, we performed an experiment with seedlings of six Mediterranean species (three mesophytes vs three xerophytes) grown in a glasshouse from May to October under three UV conditions (without UV, with UVA and with UVA+UVB) and two irrigation levels (watered to saturation and low watered). Morphological, physiological and biochemical measures were taken. Exposure to UVA+UVB increased the overall leaf mass per area (LMA) and the leaf carotenoids/chlorophyll a + b ratio of plants in relation to plants grown without UV or with UVA, respectively. In contrast, we did not find a general effect of UV on the leaf content of phenols or UVB-absorbing compounds of the studied species. Regarding plant growth, UV inhibited the above-ground biomass production of well-watered plants of Pistacia lentiscus. Conversely, under low irrigation, UVA tended to abolish the reduction in growth experienced by P. lentiscus plants growing in a UV-free environment, in accordance with UVA-enhanced apparent electron transport rate (ETR) values under drought in this species. UVA also induced an overall increase in root biomass when plants of the studied species were grown under a low water supply. In conclusion, while plant exposition to UVA favored root growth under water shortage, UVB addition only gave rise to photoprotective responses, such as the increase in LMA or in the leaf carotenoids/chlorophyll a + b ratio of plants. Species-specific responses to UV were not related with the xerophytic or mesophytic character of the studied species.

  15. Relevance of water quality index for groundwater quality evaluation: Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India (United States)

    Singaraja, C.


    The present hydrogeochemical study was confined to the Thoothukudi District in Tamilnadu, India. A total of 100 representative water samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon and analyzed for the major cations (sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium) and anions (chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, fluoride and nitrate) along with various physical and chemical parameters (pH, total dissolved salts and electrical conductivity). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify the overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to dilution of ions and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC corresponds to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. Sodium (Na %), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), residual sodium bicarbonate, permeability index (PI), magnesium hazards (MH), Kelly's ratio (KR), potential salinity (PS) and Puri's salt index (PSI) and domestic quality parameters such as total hardness (TH), temporary, permanent hardness and corrosivity ratio (CR) were calculated. The majority of the samples were not suitable for drinking, irrigation and domestic purposes in the study area. In this study, the analysis of salinization/freshening processes was carried out through binary diagrams such as of mole ratios of {SO}_{ 4}^{ 2- } /Cl- and Cl-/EC that clearly classify the sources of seawater intrusion and saltpan contamination. Spatial diagram BEX was used to find whether the aquifer was in the salinization region or in the freshening encroachment region.

  16. Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Averaged Water Quality Index: A Case Study of Lahore City, Punjab, Pakistan (United States)

    Umair Shahid, Syed; Iqbal, Javed


    Water quality is considered as a major issue in mega cities of developing countries. The city of Lahore has over 10 million populations with the highest population density in the Punjab Province, Pakistan. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in Lahore. The groundwater quality should be regularly monitored to cope up with drinking water quality issues. The water quality index (WQI), previously used in many studies was usually based on one-year data to analyze the water quality situation of the study area. However, the results obtained from the data, based on single observation from different points may have distortion. This might have occurred due to the inclusion of multiple types of errors induced in the data as a result of improper sampling design, lack of expertise in terms of both sampling method and sample testing, instrumental and human errors, etc. Therefore, the study evaluated the groundwater physicochemical parameters (turbidity, pH, total dissolved solids, hardness, chlorides, alkalinity and calcium) for three years. The averaged water quality index (AWQI) was computed using ArcGIS 10.3 model builder. The AWQI map indicated that the water quality in the study area was generally good except in few places like Anarkali, Baghbanpura, Allama Iqbal Town, Mughalpura and Mozang due to relatively higher turbidity levels. The results of this study can be used for decision making regarding provision of clean drinking water to the city of Lahore. Moreover, the methodology adopted in this study can be implemented in other mega cities as well to monitor groundwater quality.

  17. Index of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group and associated publications available in the Coordination and Information Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, B.G.


    This publication was created by the Coordination and Information Center (CIC) to provide a readily available research tool for use by researchers interested in a specific area covered in the holdings of the CIC Archives. The Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) was formed and functioned in agreement with Planning Directive NVO-76 (July 29, 1970 and revised January 1, 1974, (CIC-165845 and CIC-16439) respectively) to coordinate the ecological and other environmental programs necessary to support the continued nuclear testing activities; and to provide a mechanism to effectively comply with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Executive Order 11514, and AEC Manual Chapter 0510.'' The publication contains only citations to documents currently available at the CIC. It represents a significant portion of the principal research findings of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group.

  18. The Impact of Changes in Water Availability on Geothermal Power Generation (United States)

    Glassley, W. E.


    The conventional geothermal electrical generation capacity potential in the United States is estimated to be as high as 90 GW (USGS, 2008). If Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are included, the estimated capacity soars beyond 800 GW. Current generation capacity in the U.S. is approximately 1,000 GW. With a capacity factor close to 0.9, these numbers suggest that geothermal energy has the potential to be the primary provider of electrical energy in the United States. Realizing that potential is important, since geothermal energy is renewable, has low to no emissions, involves no fuel cycle, has one of the lowest spatial footprints per MW, has one of the lowest levelized costs of energy and the highest energy returned on energy invested values. However, access to water is an important prerequisite for geothermal power generation. It is required in drilling, heat transfer and power production. For EGS applications, water is also needed for stimulation. Much of the water currently utilized in these geothermal applications is groundwater. The impact of climate change on geothermal power generation will be expressed primarily through water availability. The details of potential water change impacts on power generation in existing and future geothermal sites will be presented in three case studies. It will be shown that strategies for mitigating groundwater losses are available, and include: use of degraded water in geothermal systems; use of captured CO2 for heat transfer; expanded use of dry cooling; improved resolution of subsurface permeability mapping; improved efficiencies in power generation; and expanded access to high enthalpy resources. Achieving these benefits will require aggressive research programs. Developing model hybrid technologies that combine geothermal-solar-biomass-wind-small hydro should be part of this research effort. Coupling geothermal resource exploration and mapping with detailed analysis of groundwater resources (recharge sites; climate

  19. Development of a water state index to assess the severity of impacts on and changes in natural water resources. (United States)

    Suridge, A K J; Brent, A C


    Lifecycle assessment (LCA) is a standardised methodology that is used to assess the impact of techno-economic systems on the natural environment. By compiling an inventory of energy and material inputs and environmental releases or outputs of a system, and evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with the inventory, one can make an informed decision regarding the sustainability of a techno-economic system in question. However, the current lifecycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodologies that form part of LCA studies do not effectively consider the impacts of techno-economic systems on ground and surface water resources in South Africa (and elsewhere). It is proposed that a microbiology based index method, similar to methods proposed for terrestrial resources, can establish the states of water resources for six classes of current economic exploitation: protected, moderate use, degraded, cultivated, plantation, and urban. It is further suggested that changes in these classes (and states) can be used meaningfully in LCIA methodologies to quantify the extent to which techno-economic interventions may alter natural water resources. Research is recommended to further improve the accuracy and reliability of the water state index. IWA Publishing 2008.

  20. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water Available in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fouladi Fard


    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of bottled waters has received popularity and more acceptances. Fluoride is necessary for human life. But high levels of fluoride can cause some problems for human health such as Fluorosis and teeth and bones problems. The aim of this study is measure the fluoride content in bottled waters consumed in North West of Iran and comparison with the amount listed on their labels and with the drinking water standards. Methods: In this study, 10 brands of bottled water were sampled from markets over the two seasons randomly. Samples were analyzed for fluoride using Ion Chromatography (IC method. Results: Results showed that fluoride concentration in different brands had a significant difference (P <0.05. The concentration of fluoride in samples ranged between 0.04 and 0.32 mg/L. Among analyzed selected brands four brands were observed significant differences with the measured values. Conclusion:  Totally the measured values didn’t match with the values declared on the labels (Reliability coefficient <0. It was revealed that fluoride concentration in all brands was less than the lower range of Iranian national standard (0.7-1.2 mg/lit.

  1. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)


    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  2. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil water availability: consequences for tree-insect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, S.; McDonald, E. P.; Lindroth, R. L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology


    The consequences of elevated CO{sub 2} on the interactions in maple and poplar seedlings and associated insects and the influence of the availability of other plant resources, such as water, were studied. Seedlings were grown under ambient or elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations and under well-watered and drought conditions. Rates of gas exchange were measured and the foliage was subjected to phytochemical analysis. Larval performance on the foliage were quantified. Elevated CO{sub 2} was found to increase the rate photosynthesis, but had no effect on stomatal conductance. Drought conditions reduced both parameters. Under elevated CO{sub 2} concentration foliar nitrogen levels declined and secondary metabolite concentrations increased, however, starch and sugar levels were unaffected. Under drought conditions all phytochemicals, except simple sugars, declined and forest caterpillar growth was reduced, although the reduction differed from species to species. The general conclusion was that the availability of water will affect response to CO{sub 2} concentrations and the direction and magnitude of the responses will be species-specific. Host use by herbivorous insects will also be affected. 53 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Advantages of using satellite soil moisture estimates over precipitation products to assess regional vegetation water availability and activity (United States)

    Chen, Tiexi


    To improve the understanding of water-vegetation relationships, direct comparative studies assessing the utility of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture, gridded precipitation products, and land surface model output are needed. A case study was investigated for a water-limited, lateral inflow receiving area in northeastern Australia during December 2008 to May 2009. In January 2009, monthly precipitation showed strong positive anomalies, which led to strong positive soil moisture anomalies. The precipitation anomalies disappeared within a month. In contrast, the soil moisture anomalies persisted for months. Positive anomalies of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) appeared in February, in response to water supply, and then persisted for several months. In addition to these temporal characteristics, the spatial patterns of NDVI anomalies were more similar to soil moisture patterns than to those of precipitation and land surface model output. The long memory of soil moisture mainly relates to the presence of clay-rich soils. Modeled soil moisture from four of five global land surface models failed to capture the memory length of soil moisture and all five models failed to present the influence of lateral inflow. This case study indicates that satellite-based soil moisture is a better predictor of vegetation water availability than precipitation in environments having a memory of several months and thus is able to persistently affect vegetation dynamics. These results illustrate the usefulness of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture in ecohydrology studies. This case study has the potential to be used as a benchmark for global land surface model evaluations. The advantages of using satellite remotely sensed soil moisture over gridded precipitation products are mainly expected in lateral-inflow and/or clay-rich regions worldwide.

  4. Lake-level variability and water availability in the Great Lakes (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J.R.


    In this report, we present recorded and reconstructed (pre-historical) changes in water levels in the Great Lakes, relate them to climate changes of the past, and highlight major water-availability implications for storage, coastal ecosystems, and human activities. 'Water availability,' as conceptualized herein, includes a recognition that water must be available for human and natural uses, but the balancing of how much should be set aside for which use is not discussed. The Great Lakes Basin covers a large area of North America. The lakes capture and store great volumes of water that are critical in maintaining human activities and natural ecosystems. Water enters the lakes mostly in the form of precipitation and streamflow. Although flow through the connecting channels is a primary output from the lakes, evaporation is also a major output. Water levels in the lakes vary naturally on timescales that range from hours to millennia; storage of water in the lakes changes at the seasonal to millennial scales in response to lake-level changes. Short-term changes result from storm surges and seiches and do not affect storage. Seasonal changes are driven by differences in net basin supply during the year related to snowmelt, precipitation, and evaporation. Annual to millennial changes are driven by subtle to major climatic changes affecting both precipitation (and resulting streamflow) and evaporation. Rebounding of the Earth's surface in response to loss of the weight of melted glaciers has differentially affected water levels. Rebound rates have not been uniform across the basin, causing the hydrologic outlet of each lake to rise in elevation more rapidly than some parts of the coastlines. The result is a long-term change in lake level with respect to shoreline features that differs from site to site. The reconstructed water-level history of Lake Michigan-Huron over the past 4,700 years shows three major high phases from 2,300 to 3,300, 1,100 to 2,000, and 0 to 800

  5. Water Use, Ground-Water Recharge and Availability, and Quality of Water in the Greenwich Area, Fairfield County, Connecticut and Westchester County, New York, 2000-2002 (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.


    Ground-water budgets were developed for 32 small basin-based zones in the Greenwich area of southwestern Connecticut, where crystalline-bedrock aquifers supply private wells, to determine the status of residential ground-water consumption relative to rates of ground-water recharge and discharge. Estimated residential ground-water withdrawals for small basins (averaging 1.7 square miles (mi2) ranged from 0 to 0.16 million gallons per day per square mile (Mgal/d/mi2). To develop these budgets, residential ground-water withdrawals were estimated using multiple-linear regression models that relate water use from public water supply to data on residential property characteristics. Average daily water use of households with public water supply ranged from 219 to 1,082 gallons per day (gal/d). A steady-state finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to track water budgets, and to estimate optimal values for hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock (0.05 feet per day) and recharge to the overlying till deposits (6.9 inches) using nonlinear regression. Estimated recharge rates to the small basins ranged from 3.6 to 7.5 inches per year (in/yr) and relate to the percentage of the basin underlain by coarse-grained glacial stratified deposits. Recharge was not applied to impervious areas to account for the effects of urbanization. Net residential ground-water consumption was estimated as ground-water withdrawals increased during the growing season, and ranged from 0 to 0.9 in/yr. Long-term average stream base flows simulated by the ground-water-flow model were compared to calculated values of average base flow and low flow to determine if base flow was substantially reduced in any of the basins studied. Three of the 32 basins studied had simulated base flows less than 3 in/yr, as a result of either ground-water withdrawals or reduced recharge due to urbanization. A water-availability criteria of the difference between the 30-day 2-year low flow and the recharge rate

  6. Summary of hydrologic modeling for the Delaware River Basin using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.; Claggett, Peter; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Milly, Paul C.D.; Nelson, Hugh L.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Colarullo, Susan J.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.


    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. In order to quantify the uncertainty associated with these simulations, however, streamflow and the associated hydroclimatic variables of potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, and snow accumulation and snowmelt must be simulated and compared to long-term, daily observations from sites. This report details model development and optimization, statistical evaluation of simulations for 57 basins ranging from 2 to 930 km2 and 11.0 to 99.5 percent forested cover, and how this statistical evaluation of daily streamflow relates to simulating environmental changes and management decisions that are best examined at monthly time steps normalized over multiple decades. The decision support system provides a database of historical spatial and climatic data for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover and general circulation model forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that were parameterized by using three hydrologic response units: forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. This integration enables the regional hydrologic modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model.

  7. Assessment of water quality index of bore well water samples from some selected locations of South Gujarat, India. (United States)

    Tripathi, S; Patel, H M; Srivastava, P K; Bafna, A M


    The present study calculates the water quality index (WQI) of some selected sites from South Gujarat (India) and assesses the impact of industries, agriculture and human activities. Chemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of WQI of some selected bore well samples. The results revealed that the WQI of the some bore well samples exceeded acceptable levels due to the dumping of wastes from municipal, industrial and domestic sources and agricultural runoff as well. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) was implemented for interpolation of each water quality parameter (pH, EC, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate) for the entire sampled area. The bore water is unsuitable for drinking and if the present state of affairs continues for long, it may soon become an ecologically dead bore.

  8. Fungal endophyte (Epichloe festucae alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+ and non-infected (E- plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%, Zn (58% and N (19% than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  9. Effect of reduced soil water availability on productivity of short rotation coppice (United States)

    Orság, Matěj; Fischer, Milan; Mani Tripathi, Abhishek; Trnka, Miroslav


    "Wood, in fact, is the unsung hero of the technological revolution that has brought us from a stone and bone culture to our present age.'' Perlin and Journey (1991). Given its high-energy content and versatile use, biomass in a form of wood has been used for energy purposes since millennia and through times has been preferred source of biomass. Ever since, the production and use of woody biomass resources expands globally. Main drivers for its use as a source of energy are diversification and the mitigation of energy related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through partial substitution of fossil fuels. An alternative option for wood biomass sourcing from natural forests is short rotation woody coppice. Its productivity is largely dependent on the environment in terms of climatic conditions. Especially drought is the major constraint of woody biomass production involving serious economic consequences. In the central Europe, increased global radiation and air temperature together with decreased relative humidity increases the reference evapotranspiration resulting in an increased demand for soil water during growing season. For that reason, our field experiment was designed to evaluate impact of decreased soil water availability on productivity of poplar based short rotation coppice plantation during multiple growing seasons. Throughfall exclusion system based on plastic roof strips placed under the canopy was used to drain up to 70 % of the incoming rain water. Usual methods were used to assess the annual above ground biomass increment expressed in dry matter content. Not surprisingly our results show systematic decline in the productivity of plots subjected to decreased soil water availability but also considerable resilience of the drought-stressed trees which will be also discussed. This study was supported by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought", No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248 and PASED - project supported by Czech program

  10. Evaluation of methods for determination free available chlorine in public water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Silva Soares


    Full Text Available To assurance the drinking water quality, the disinfecting has to be guaranteed. In this sense, chlorination is the most widely used method, which promotes the inactivation and/or destruction of pathogenic microorganisms. The analytic methods more common for free available chlorine in drinking water are based on the DPD colorimetric method. In this way, the main core of this research is to compare the results obtained between two devices that can use two types reagents: visual and digital equipments; and powder and tablet reagents. Moreover, was analyzed whatever correlation between the others measured parameters: pH, turbidity, electric conductivity, fluoride, total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Were collected 40 samples in particular homes, which were distributed in six districts of three different areas of the city of Goiânia (Goiás, Brazil. The results were that the powder reagent had higher values than tablet ones, and that the measures of the digital equipment were lower than the visual disk. By other hand, was found one linear correlation between turbidity and the free available chlorine, and one soft inverse relationship between the fluorine and the electric conductivity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Gabrig Turbay Rangel-Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available Soil microbial biomass (SMB plays an important role in nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and is limited by several factors, such as soil water availability. This study assessed the effects of soil water availability on microbial biomass and its variation over time in the Latossolo Amarelo concrecionário of a secondary forest in eastern Amazonia. The fumigation-extraction method was used to estimate the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content (SMBC and SMBN. An adaptation of the fumigation-incubation method was used to determine basal respiration (CO2-SMB. The metabolic quotient (qCO2 and ratio of microbial carbon:organic carbon (CMIC:CORG were calculated based on those results. Soil moisture was generally significantly lower during the dry season and in the control plots. Irrigation raised soil moisture to levels close to those observed during the rainy season, but had no significant effect on SMB. The variables did not vary on a seasonal basis, except for the microbial C/N ratio that suggested the occurrence of seasonal shifts in the structure of the microbial community.

  12. Effects of water and nutrient availability on fine root growth in eastern Amazonian forest regrowth, Brazil. (United States)

    Lima, Tâmara Thaiz Santana; Miranda, Izildinha Souza; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva


    *Fine root dynamics is widely recognized as an important biogeochemical process, but there are few data on fine root growth and its response to soil resource availability, especially for tropical forests. *We evaluated the response of fine root dynamics to altered availability of soil water and nutrients in a 20-yr-old forest regrowth in eastern Amazonia. In one experiment the dry season reduction in soil moisture was alleviated by irrigation. In the other experiment, nutrient supply was reduced by litter removal. We used the ingrowth core technique to measure fine root mass growth, length growth, mortality and specific root length. *Dry-season irrigation had no significant effect on mass and length of live and dead roots, whereas litter removal reduced mass and length of live roots. For both irrigation and litter removal experiments, root growth was significantly greater in the dry season than in the wet season. *Increased root growth was associated with decreased soil water availability. However, root growth did not increase in response to nutrient reduction in litter removal plots. Overall, our results suggest that belowground allocation may differ according to the type of soil resource limitation.

  13. Managing the financial risk of low water levels in Great Lakes with index-based contracts (United States)

    Meyer, E.; Characklis, G. W.; Brown, C. M.; Moody, P.


    Low water levels in the Great Lakes have recently had significant financial impacts on the region's commercial shipping, responsible for transporting millions of dollars' worth of bulk goods each year. Low lake levels can significantly affect shipping firms, as cargo capacity is a function of draft, or the distance between water level and the ship's bottom. Draft increases with weight, and lower lake levels force ships to reduce cargo to prevent running aground in shallow harbors, directly impacting the finances of shipping companies. Risk transfer instruments may provide adaptable, yet unexplored, alternatives for managing these financial risks, at significantly less expense than more traditional solutions (e.g., dredging). Index-based financial instruments can be particularly attractive as contract payouts are directly linked to well-defined transparent metrics (e.g., lake levels), eliminating the need for subjective adjustors, as well as concerns over moral hazard. In developing such instruments, a major challenge is identifying an index that is well correlated with financial losses, and thus a contract that reliably pays out when losses are experienced (low basis risk). In this work, a relationship between lake levels and shipping revenues is developed, and actuarial analyses of the frequency and magnitude of revenue losses is completed using this relationship and synthetic water level data. This analysis is used to develop several types of index-based contracts. A standardized suite of binary contracts is developed, with each indexed to lake levels and priced according to predefined thresholds. These are combined to form portfolios with different objectives (e.g. options, collars), with optimal portfolio structure and length of coverage determined by limiting basis risk and contract cost, using simulations over the historic dataset. Results suggest that portfolios of these binary contracts can substantially reduce the risk of financial losses during periods of

  14. 76 FR 79176 - Notice of Availability of Draft Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Request for Scientific Views (United States)


    ... quality criteria to protect designated uses (e.g., aquatic life, recreational use). The EPA's water... AGENCY Notice of Availability of Draft Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Request for Scientific... availability of the draft document Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC). The document contains the EPA's...

  15. Remediation of floating, open water oil spills: Comparative efficacy of commercially available polypropylene sorbent booms (United States)

    Schrader, Ed L.


    Several complex methods of remediation are applied to open water oil spills. Sorbing the liquid hydrocarbons with polypropylene booms is an effective and less complex means of treating such events. There are, however, a variety of commercially available booms which display different performances in sorbing different viscosity hydrocarbons. There is no acceptable A.S.T.M. protocol to evaluate these booms for performance efficiency in various weather and hydrocarbon viscosity scenarios. The current paper proposes such a protocol and evaluates the most commonly used sorbent products with the new test procedures. Nine specific performance criteria, based on actual field applications, are demonstrated.

  16. Determination of the refractive index of glucose-ethanol-water mixtures using spectroscopic refractometry near the critical angle. (United States)

    Sobral, H; Peña-Gomar, M


    A spectroscopic refractometer was used to investigate the dispersion curves of ethanol and D-glucose solutions in water near the critical angle; here, the reflectivity was measured using a white source. Dispersion curves were obtained in the 320-1000 nm wavelength range with a resolution better than 10(-4) for the refractive index, n. The differential refractive index is measured as a function of wavelength, and a simple expression is proposed to obtain the refractive index of the glucose-ethanol-water ternary system. Using this expression, combined with the experimental differential refractive index values, the concentrations of individual components can be calculated.

  17. Asymmetry of Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Availability in Dorsal Putamen and Body Mass Index in Non-obese Healthy Males. (United States)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Sang Eun


    The dopaminergic system is involved in the regulation of food intake, which is crucial for the maintenance of body weight. We examined the relationship between striatal dopamine (DA) D2/3 receptor availability and body mass index (BMI) in 25 non-obese healthy male subjects using [(11)C]raclopride and positron emission tomography. None of [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP) values (measures of DA D2/3 receptor availability) in striatal subregions (dorsal caudate, dorsal putamen, and ventral striatum) in the left and right hemispheres was significantly correlated with BMI. However, there was a positive correlation between the right-left asymmetry index of [(11)C]raclopride BP in the dorsal putamen and BMI (r=0.43, pputamen relative to the left in non-obese individuals. The present results, combined with previous findings, may also suggest neurochemical mechanisms underlying the regulation of food intake in non-obese individuals.

  18. Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) for estimating water availability during water scarcity conditions: rainfall-runoff modelling of the ungauged diversion inflows to the Ridracoli water supply reservoir (United States)

    Toth, Elena


    The Ridracoli reservoir is the main drinking water supply reservoir serving the whole Romagna region, in Northern Italy. Such water supply system has a crucial role in an area where the different characteristics of the communities to be served, their size, the mass tourism and the presence of food industries highlight strong differences in drinking water needs. Its operation allows high quality drinking water supply to a million resident customers, plus a few millions of tourists during the summer of people and it reduces the need for water pumping from underground sources, and this is particularly important since the coastal area is subject also to subsidence and saline ingression into aquifers. The system experienced water shortage conditions thrice in the last decade, in 2002, in 2007 and in autumn-winter 2011-2012, when the reservoir water storage fell below the attention and the pre-emergency thresholds, thus prompting the implementation of a set of mitigation measures, including limitations to the population's water consumption. The reservoir receives water not only from the headwater catchment, closed at the dam, but also from four diversion watersheds, linked to the reservoir through an underground water channel. Such withdrawals are currently undersized, abstracting only a part of the streamflow exceeding the established minimum flows, due to the design of the water intake structures; it is therefore crucial understanding how the reservoir water availability might be increased through a fuller exploitation of the existing diversion catchment area. Since one of the four diversion catchment is currently ungauged (at least at the fine temporal scale needed for keeping into account the minimum flow requirements downstream of the intakes), the study first presents the set up and parameterisation of a continuous rainfall-runoff model at hourly time-step for the three gauged diversion watersheds and for the headwater catchment: a regional parameterisation

  19. Optimizing available water capacity using microwave satellite data for improving irrigation management (United States)

    Gupta, Manika; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat


    This work addresses the improvement of available water capacity by developing a technique for estimating soil hydraulic parameters through the utilization of satellite-retrieved near surface soil moisture. The prototype involves the usage of Monte Carlo analysis to assimilate historical remote sensing soil moisture data available from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) within the hydrological model. The main hypothesis used in this study is that near-surface soil moisture data contain useful information that can describe the effective hydrological conditions of the basin such that when appropriately In the method followed in this study the hydraulic parameters are derived directly from information on the soil moisture state at the AMSR-E footprint scale and the available water capacity is derived for the root zone by coupling of AMSR-E soil moisture with the physically-based hydrological model. The available capacity water, which refers to difference between the field capacity and wilting point of the soil and represent the soil moisture content at 0.33 bar and 15 bar respectively is estimated from the soil hydraulic parameters using the van Genuchten equation. The initial ranges of soil hydraulic parameters are taken in correspondence with the values available from the literature based on Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database within the particular AMSR-E footprint. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the ranges are narrowed in the region where simulation shows a good match between predicted and near-surface soil moisture from AMSR-E. In this study, the uncertainties in accurately determining the parameters of the nonlinear soil water retention function for large-scale hydrological modeling is the focus of the development of the Bayesian framework. Thus, the model forecasting has been combined with the observational information to optimize the model state and the soil hydraulic parameters simultaneously. The optimization process is divided into

  20. The Pattern Across the Continental United States of Evapotranspiration Variability Associated with Water Availability (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Rigden, Angela J.; Jung, Martin; Collatz, G. James; Schubert, Siegfried D.


    The spatial pattern across the continental United States of the interannual variance of warm season water-dependent evapotranspiration, a pattern of relevance to land-atmosphere feedback, cannot be measured directly. Alternative and indirect approaches to estimating the pattern, however, do exist, and given the uncertainty of each, we use several such approaches here. We first quantify the water dependent evapotranspiration variance pattern inherent in two derived evapotranspiration datasets available from the literature. We then search for the pattern in proxy geophysical variables (air temperature, stream flow, and NDVI) known to have strong ties to evapotranspiration. The variances inherent in all of the different (and mostly independent) data sources show some differences but are generally strongly consistent they all show a large variance signal down the center of the U.S., with lower variances toward the east and (for the most part) toward the west. The robustness of the pattern across the datasets suggests that it indeed represents the pattern operating in nature. Using Budykos hydroclimatic framework, we show that the pattern can largely be explained by the relative strength of water and energy controls on evapotranspiration across the continent.

  1. Climate impacts on human livelihoods: where uncertainty matters in projections of water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Lissner


    Full Text Available Climate change will have adverse impacts on many different sectors of society, with manifold consequences for human livelihoods and well-being. However, a systematic method to quantify human well-being and livelihoods across sectors is so far unavailable, making it difficult to determine the extent of such impacts. Climate impact analyses are often limited to individual sectors (e.g. food or water and employ sector-specific target-measures, while systematic linkages to general livelihood conditions remain unexplored. Further, recent multi-model assessments have shown that uncertainties in projections of climate impacts deriving from climate and impact models as well as greenhouse gas scenarios are substantial, posing an additional challenge in linking climate impacts with livelihood conditions. This article first presents a methodology to consistently measure Adequate Human livelihood conditions for wEll-being And Development (AHEAD. Based on a transdisciplinary sample of influential concepts addressing human well-being, the approach measures the adequacy of conditions of 16 elements. We implement the method at global scale, using results from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP to show how changes in water availability affect the fulfilment of AHEAD at national resolution. In addition, AHEAD allows identifying and differentiating uncertainty of climate and impact model projections. We show how the approach can help to put the substantial inter-model spread into the context of country-specific livelihood conditions by differentiating where the uncertainty about water scarcity is relevant with regard to livelihood conditions – and where it is not. The results indicate that in many countries today, livelihood conditions are compromised by water scarcity. However, more often, AHEAD fulfilment is limited through other elements. Moreover, the analysis shows that for 44 out of 111 countries, the water

  2. Establishing axenic cultures from mature pecan embryo explants on media with low water availability. (United States)

    Obeidy, A A; Smith, M A


    Endophytic fungi associated with mature pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch) nuts prevented successful, contaminant-free in vitro culture of embryo expiants, even after rigorous surface disinfestation of the nuts and careful aseptic shelling. Disinfestation with sodium hypochlorite after shell removal was also unsuccessful, because even dilute concentrations which were ineffective against the fungal contaminants prevented subsequent growth from the embryo. Explanting media with low water availability which would not sustain growth of fungal contaminants, but supported growth from mature pecan embryos, were developed as an alternative disinfestation method. The explanting media were supplemented with 0.9-1.5% agar, and other media components were selectively omitted to test their influence on water availability and fungal growth. Disinfestation of up to 65% of the cultures was accomplished, depending on the medium formulation, compared to 100% loss to contamination on control medium (0.5% agar). A complete medium (containing sucrose, salts, vitamins, 18 μM BAP, and 5 μM IBA) with 1.5% agar provided control of contamination, and encouraged subsequent regeneration from the embryo expiants, which remained free of contaminant growth through subsequent subcultures.

  3. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Uses. (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Chakraborty, Surajit


    The present investigation is aimed at understanding the hydrogeochemical parameters and development of a water quality index (WQI) to assess groundwater quality of a rural tract in the northwest of Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater occurs at shallow depths with the maximum flow moving southeast during pre-monsoon season and south in post-monsoon period. The physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples shows the major ions in the order of HCO3>Ca>Na>Mg>Cl>SO4 and HCO3>Ca>Mg>Na>Cl>SO4 in pre- and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The groundwater quality is safe for drinking, barring the elevated iron content in certain areas. Based on WQI values, groundwater falls into one of three categories: excellent water, good water, and poor water. The high value of WQI is because of elevated concentration of iron and chloride. The majority of the area is occupied by good water in pre-monsoon and poor water in post-monsoon period.

  4. Can rainfed agriculture adapt to uncertainty in availability of water in Indus Basin? (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Sen, S.


    Understanding impacts of hydrological and climatological functions under changing climate on regional floods, droughts as well as agricultural commodities remain a serious challenge in tropical agricultural basins. These "tropical agricultural basins" are regions where: (i) the understanding on hydrologic functions (such as precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, vegetation) are not well established; (ii) increasing population is at the convergence of rural and urban boundaries; (iii) resilience and sustainability of the water resources under different climatic conditions is unknown; and, (iv) agriculture is the primary occupation for majority of the population. More than 95% of the farmed lands in tropical regions are rainfed and 60% of total agricultural production in South Asia relying on seasonal rainfall. Tropical regions frequently suffer from unexpected droughts and sudden flash floods, resulting in massive losses in human lives and affecting regional economy. Prediction of frequency, intensity and magnitude of floods in tropical regions is still a subject of debate and research. A clear example is from the massive floods in the Eastern Indus River in July 2010 that submerged 17 million acre of fertile cropland. Yet, seasonal droughts, such as 2014 rain deficits in Indus Basin, had no effects on annual crop yields - thus creating a paradox. Large amounts of groundwater is being used to supplement water needs for crops during drought conditions, leading to oversubscription of natural aquifers. Key reason that rainfed agriculture is relying heavily on groundwater is because of the uncertainty in timing and distribution of precipitation in the tropical regions, where such data are not routinely collected as well as the basins are transnational, thus limiting sharing of data. Assessment of availability of water for agricultural purposes a serious challenge in tropical regions. This study will provide a framework for using multi

  5. Germination requirements and seedling responses to water availability and soil type in four eucalypt species (United States)

    Schütz, Wolfgang; Milberg, Per; Lamont, Byron B.


    We conducted experiments on seed germination, seedling survival and seedling growth of four Eucalyptus species to identify factors that might explain why they are restricted to the two major soil types in southwestern Australia, deep sands ( E. macrocarpa, E. tetragona) and lateritic loam ( E. loxophleba, E. wandoo). At high temperatures (28 °C), germination in darkness was lower for the two 'loam species' than for the 'sand species', while there were no differences in light or at low temperatures (10 °C). Germination commenced earlier, and was faster in the sand species than in the loam species, but was almost inhibited in all species by -1.0 MPa. E. tetragona proved the most drought-tolerant in terms of germination level and seedling survival. Seedlings of the sand species had much longer roots two weeks after germination in the absence of water stress, and the roots of more seedlings continued to elongate under moderate water stress (-1.0 MPa), than the two loam species. Roots were longer in all species, except E. macrocarpa, at -0.5 MPa than at -0.1 MPa, despite seedlings having a smaller mass and hypocotyl length. As water availability declined, there was a tendency for the sand species to survive longer on sand than on loam while soil type had no effect on the loam species. Pattern and duration of seedling survival of the loam species was similar to that of the sand species despite their smaller seeds. We conclude that seedlings from the large-seeded sand species are able to penetrate the soil profile faster and deeper, but that they are not less prone to drying soils than seedlings from the small-seeded loam species. Instead, seed size and germination speed are important prerequisites to cope successfully with unstable soil surfaces and to exploit the rapidly descending water in deep sands.

  6. Water availability and branch length determine delta(13)C in foliage of Pinus pinaster. (United States)

    Warren, Charles R.; Adams, Mark A.


    The stable carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) of foliage integrates signals resulting from environmental and hydraulic constraints on water movement and photosynthesis. We used branch length as a simple predictor of hydraulic constraints to water fluxes and determined the response of delta(13)C to varying water availability. Foliage up to 6 years old was taken from Pinus pinaster Ait. trees growing at four sites differing in precipitation (P; 414-984 mm year(-1)) and potential evaporation (ET; 1091-1750 mm year(-1)). Branch length was the principal determinant of temporal trends in delta(13)C. The strong relationship between delta(13)C and branch length was a function of hydraulic conductance, which was negatively correlated with branch length (r(2) = 0.84). Variation in P and ET among sites was reflected in delta(13)C, which was negatively correlated with P/ET (r(2) = 0.66). However, this analysis was confounded by differences in branch length. If the effects of branch length on delta(13)C were first removed, then the 'residual' delta(13)C was more closely related to P/ET (r(2) = 0.99), highlighting the importance of accounting for variation in hydraulic constraints to water flux between sites and years. For plant species that exhibit considerable phenotypic plasticity in response to changes in environment (e.g., variation in leaf area, branch length and number, or stem form), the environmental effects on delta(13)C in foliage can only be reliably assessed if deconvoluted from hydraulic constraints.

  7. Narrowing the range of water availability projections in China using the Budyko framework (United States)

    Osborne, Joe; Lambert, Hugo


    There is a growing demand for reliable 21st-century projections of water availability at the regional scale. Used alone, global climate models (GCMs) are unsuitable for generating such projections at catchment scales in the presence of simulated aridity biases. This is because the Budyko framework dictates that the partitioning of precipitation into runoff and evapotranspiration scales as a non-linear function of aridity. Therefore, GCMs are typically used in tandem with global hydrological models (GHMs), but this process is computationally expensive. Here, considering a Chinese case study, we utilise the Budyko framework to make use of plentiful GCM output, without the need for GHMs. We first apply the framework to 20th-century observations to show that the significant declines in Yellow river discharge between 1951 and 2000 cannot be accounted for by modelled climate change alone, with human activities playing a larger but poorly quantified role. We further show that the Budyko framework can be used to narrow the range of water availability projections in the Yangtze and Yellow river catchments by 33% an 72%, respectively, in the 21st-century RCP8.5 business-as-usual emission scenario. In the Yellow catchment the best-guess end-of-21st-century change in runoff decreases from an increase of 0.09 mm/d in raw multi-model mean output to an increase of 0.04 mm/d in Budyko corrected multi-model mean output. While this is a valuable finding, we stress that these changes could be dwarfed by changes due to human activity in the 21st century, unless strict water management policies are implemented.

  8. Application of the Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 to benthos in Dutch transitional and coastal waters (United States)

    van Loon, W. M. G. M.; Boon, A. R.; Gittenberger, A.; Walvoort, D. J. J.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Verschoor, A. J.


    The Benthic Ecosystem Quality Index 2 (BEQI2) is the Dutch multi-metric index (MMI) for assessing the status and trend of benthic invertebrates in transitional and coastal waters for the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It contains the same indicators, i.e. species richness, Shannon index and AMBI, as in the multivariate m-AMBI. The latter MMI has been adopted by several European countries in the context of WFD implementation. In contrast to m-AMBI, the BEQI2 calculation procedure has been strongly simplified and consists of two steps, i.e. the separate indicator values are normalized using their long-term reference values resulting in three Ecological Quality Ratios (EQRs), which are subsequently averaged to give one BEQI2 value. Using this method only small numbers of samples need to be analysed by Dutch benthos laboratories annually, without the necessity to co-analyse a larger historical dataset. BEQI2 EQR values appeared to correlate quantitatively very well with m-AMBI EQR values. In addition, a data pooling procedure has been added to the BEQI2 tool which enables the pooling of small core samples (0.01-0.025 m2) into larger standardized data pools of 0.1 m2 in order to meet the data requirements of the AMBI indicator and to obtain comparable reference values. Furthermore, the BEQI2 tool automatically and efficiently converts species synonym names into standardized species names. The BEQI2 tool has been applied to all Dutch benthos data monitored by Rijkswaterstaat in the period of 1991-2010 in the transitional and coastal waters and salt lakes and these results are reported here for the first time. Reference values for species richness and Shannon index (99 percentile values) and AMBI reference values (1 percentile values) were estimated for all water body-ecotopes and are discussed. BEQI2 results for all these water bodies are discussed in view of natural and human pressures. The pressure sensitivity of the BEQI2 for sewage and dredging/dumping, via the

  9. Effects of Surface-Water Diversions on Habitat Availability for Native Macrofauna, Northeast Maui, Hawaii (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Wolff, Reuben H.


    Effects of surface-water diversions on habitat availability for native stream fauna (fish, shrimp, and snails) are described for 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. Five streams (Waikamoi, Honomanu, Wailuanui, Kopiliula, and Hanawi Streams) were chosen as representative streams for intensive study. On each of the five streams, three representative reaches were selected: (1) immediately upstream of major surface-water diversions, (2) midway to the coast, and (3) near the coast. This study focused on five amphidromous native aquatic species (alamoo, nopili, nakea, opae, and hihiwai) that are abundant in the study area. The Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) System, which incorporates hydrology, stream morphology and microhabitat preferences to explore relations between streamflow and habitat availability, was used to simulate habitat/discharge relations for various species and life stages, and to provide quantitative habitat comparisons at different streamflows of interest. Hydrologic data, collected over a range of low-flow discharges, were used to calibrate hydraulic models of selected transects across the streams. The models were then used to predict water depth and velocity (expressed as a Froude number) over a range of discharges up to estimates of natural median streamflow. The biological importance of the stream hydraulic attributes was then assessed with the statistically derived suitability criteria for each native species and life stage that were developed as part of this study to produce a relation between discharge and habitat availability. The final output was expressed as a weighted habitat area of streambed for a representative stream reach. PHABSIM model results are presented to show the area of estimated usable bed habitat over a range of streamflows relative to natural conditions. In general, the models show a continuous decrease in habitat for all modeled species as streamflow is decreased from natural conditions. The PHABSIM modeling results

  10. Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Biopolymers and Water: Viscosity, Refractive Index, and Density (United States)

    Silva, Bárbara Louise L. D.; Costa, Bernardo S.; Garcia-Rojas, Edwin E.


    Biopolymers have been the focus of intense research because of their wide applicability. The thermophysical properties of solutions containing biopolymers have fundamental importance for engineering calculations, as well as for thermal load calculations, energy expenditure, and development of new products. In this work, the thermophysical properties of binary and ternary solutions of carboxymethylcellulose and/or high methoxylation pectin and water at different temperatures have been investigated taking into consideration different biopolymer concentrations. The experimental data related to the thermophysical properties were correlated to obtain empirical models that can describe the temperature-concentration combined effect on the density, refractive index, and dynamic viscosity. From data obtained from the experiments, the density, refractive index, and dynamic viscosity increase with increasing biopolymer concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The polynomial models showed a good fit to the experimental data and high correlation coefficients (R2ge 0.98) for each studied system.

  11. High sensitivity of broadleaf trees to water availability in northeastern United States (United States)

    Levesque, Mathieu; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Pederson, Neil


    Broadleaf dominated forests of eastern US cover more than one million km2 and provide ecosystem services to millions of people. High species diversity and a varied sensitivity to drought make it uncertain whether these forests will be carbon sinks or sources under climate change. Ongoing climate change, increased in atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) and strong reductions in acidic depositions are expected to alter growth and gas exchange of trees, and ultimately forest productivity. Still, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. A better comprehension of the species-specific responses to environmental changes will better inform models and managers on the vulnerability and resiliency of these forests. Here, we combined tree-ring width data with δ13C and δ18O measurements to investigate growth and physiological responses of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in northeastern US to changes in water availability, ca and acidic depositions for the period 1950-2014. Based on structural equation modeling approaches, we found that summer water availability (June-August) is the main environmental variable driving growth, water-use efficiency and δ18O of broadleaf trees whereas ca and acidic depositions have little effects. This high sensitivity to moisture availability was also supported by the very strong correlations found between summer vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and tree-ring δ13C (r = 0.67 and 0.71), and δ18O series (r = 0.62 and 0.72), for red oak and tulip poplar, respectively. In contrast, tree-ring width was less sensitive to summer VPD (r = -0.44 and-0.31). Since the mid 1980s, pluvial conditions occurring in northeastern US have increased stomatal conductance, carbon uptake, and growth of both species. Further, the strong spatial field correlations found between the tree-ring δ13C and δ18O and summer VPD indicate a greater sensitivity of eastern US broadleaf forests to moisture availability than previously known


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  13. Experimental study on immiscible jet breakup using refractive index matched oil-water pair (United States)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph


    A subsea oil well blowout creates an immiscible crude oil jet. This jet fragments shortly after injection, resulting in generation of a droplet cloud. Detailed understanding of the processes involved is crucial for modeling the fragmentation and for predicting the droplet size distribution. High density of opaque droplets near nozzle limits our ability to visualize and quantify the breakup process. To overcome this challenge, two immiscible fluids: silicone oil and sugar water with the same index of refraction (1.4015) are used as surrogates for crude oil and seawater, respectively. Their ratios of kinematic viscosity (5.64), density (0.83) and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Distribution of the oil phase is visualized by fluorescent tagging. Both phases are also seeded with particles for simultaneous PIV measurements. The measurements are performed within atomization range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. Index matching facilitates undistorted view of the phase distribution in illuminated section. Ongoing tests show that the jet surface initially rolls up into Kelvin-Helmholtz rings, followed by development of dispersed phase ligaments further downstream, which then break into droplets. Some of these droplets are re-entrained into the high momentum core, resulting in secondary breakup. As the oil layer and ligaments evolve, they often entrain water, resulting in generation of multiple secondary water droplets encapsulated within the oil droplets. This research is made possible by a Grant from Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  14. Performance evaluation of River Basin Organizations to implement integrated water resources management using composite indexes (United States)

    Gallego-Ayala, Jordi; Juízo, Dinis

    In the Southern African Development Community region, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles and tools are being implemented through the existing regional framework for water resources development and management. The IWRM approach is applied at river basin level seeking a balance between the economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability in water resources management and development. This paper uses composite indexes to analyze the performance of River Basin Organizations (RBOs) as key implementing agents of the IWRM framework. The assessment focuses on three RBOs that fall under the Regional Water Administration for Southern Mozambique (ARA-Sul) jurisdiction, namely: Umbeluzi, Incomati and Limpopo River Basin Management Units. The analysis focus on the computation of a set of multidimensional key performance indicators developed by Hooper (2010) but adapted to the Mozambican context. This research used 24 out of 115 proposed universal key performance indicators. The indicators for this case study were selected based on their suitability to evaluate performance in line with the legal and institutional framework context that guides the operations of RBOs in Mozambique. Finally these indicators were integrated in a composite index, using an additive and multiplicative aggregation method coupled with the Analytic Hierarchy Process technique employed to differentiate the relative importance of the various indicators considered. The results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the methodology developed to analyze the RBOs performance and proved useful in identifying the main performance areas in need of improvement for better implementation of IWRM at river basin level in Mozambique. This information should support both the IWRM framework adaptation to local context and the implementation at river basin level in order to improve water governance.

  15. Managing water utility financial risks through third-party index insurance contracts (United States)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Characklis, Gregory W.


    As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit (i.e., regulatory approval), utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on streamflow indices. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: Drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e., self-insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multireservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, and the financial effects of these events are simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party index insurance contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools, can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.

  16. Available water modifications by topsoil treatments under mediterranean semiarid conditions: afforestation plan (United States)

    Hueso Gonzalez, Paloma; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose


    During dry periods in the Mediterranean area, the lack of water entering the soil matrix reduces organic contributions to the soil. These processes lead to reduced soil fertility and soil vegetation recovery which creates a positive feedback process that can lead to desertification. Restoration of native vegetation is the most effective way to regenerate soil health, and control runoff and sediment yield. In Mediterranean areas, after a forestry proposal, it is highly common to register a significant number of losses for the saplings that have been introduced due to the lack of rainfall. When no vegetation is established, organic amendments can be used to rapidly protect the soil surface against the erosive forces of rain and runoff. In this study we investigated the hydrological effects of five soil treatments in relation to the temporal variability of the available water for plants. Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage sludge; sheep manure and control. Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. In control plots, during June, July, August and September, soils were registered below the wilting point, and therefore, in the area of water unusable by plants. These months were coinciding with the summer mediterranean drought. This fact justifies the high mortality found on plants after the seeding plan. Similarly, soils have never exceeded the field capacity value measured for control plots. Conversely, in the straw and pinus mulch, soils were above the wilting point during a longer time than in control plots. Thus, the soil moisture only has stayed below the 4.2 pF suction in July, July and August. Regarding the amount of water available was also higher, especially in the months of December, January and February. However, the field capacity

  17. Distribution and origin of biologically available phosphorus in the water of the Meiliang Bay in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The investigation and continuous monitoring with an innovative iron oxide embedded cellulose acetate membrane (FeO/CAM) on the concentrations of biologically available phosphorus (BAP) were conducted in the Meiliang Bay of the Taihu Lake during summer in 2004. The results showed that the concentrations of dissolved (FeO-DP), particulate (FeO-PP) and total bioavailable phosphorus (FeO-P) had similar horizontal distribution. The BAP concentrations were the highest in those estuaries in the northern bay. With the decrease of the distance to the estuary or long shore,there was little difference between BAP concentrations in an open lake area. During the observation period, algal blooms occurred in most waters of the northern bay, which was reflected from the high concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl-a). While they were not highest in the estuarine waters of those major rivers, this is the case for the BAP concentrations. The concentrations of Chl-a had a significantly positive correlation with those of bioavailable phosphorus in the open area of the Meiliang Bay.With the sediment resuspension induced by wind and wave, BAP concentrations increased in a short-term, indicating that the riverine P inputs mainly contribute to the concentrations of BAP in the estuarine water while internal P release was the major source of BAP in the open lake area. In the eutrophic shallow lake, the blooms of alga may cause pH increase and further result in internal P release. The above results showed that the new membrane of FeO/CAM can be used to monitor the concentrations of BAP and provide the scientific justifications for the control strategy of the lake eutrophication.

  18. High-resolution prediction of soil available water content within the crop root zone (United States)

    Haghverdi, Amir; Leib, Brian G.; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Ayers, Paul D.; Buschermohle, Michael J.


    A detailed understanding of soil hydraulic properties, particularly soil available water content (AWC) within the effective root zone, is needed to optimally schedule irrigation in fields with substantial spatial heterogeneity. However, it is difficult and time consuming to directly measure soil hydraulic properties. Therefore, easily collected and measured soil properties, such as soil texture and/or bulk density, that are well correlated with hydraulic properties are used as proxies to develop pedotransfer functions (PTF). In this study, multiple modeling scenarios were developed and evaluated to indirectly predict high resolution AWC maps within the effective root zone. The modeling techniques included kriging, co-kriging, regression kriging, artificial neural networks (NN) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The efficiency of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as proximal data in the modeling process was assessed. There was a good agreement (root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.052 cm3 cm-3 and r = 0.88) between observed and point prediction of water contents using pseudo continuous PTFs. We found that both GWR (mean RMSE = 0.062 cm3 cm-3) and regression kriging (mean RMSE = 0.063 cm3 cm-3) produced the best water content maps with these accuracies improved up to 19% when ECa was used as an ancillary soil attribute in the interpolation process. The maps indicated fourfold differences in AWC between coarse- and fine-textured soils across the study site. This provided a template for future investigations for evaluating the efficiency of variable rate irrigation management scenarios in accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic attributes.

  19. Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate reproductive trait plasticity in response to water availability. (United States)

    Nilson, Sarah E; Assmann, Sarah M


    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to display different phenotypes under different environmental conditions. Although variation for phenotypic plasticity has been documented in numerous species, little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. Given their widespread roles in hormonal and environmental signaling, we examined whether genes which encode heterotrimeric G proteins are plasticity genes. We grew multiple alleles of heterotrimeric G-protein mutants, together with wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana, under different watering regimes to determine the contributions of G-protein genes to phenotypic plasticity for a number of developmental and reproduction-related traits. G-protein mutations did not affect significantly the amount of phenotypic variation within an environment for any trait, but did affect significantly the amount of phenotypic plasticity for certain traits. AGB1, which encodes the beta subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis, is a plasticity gene and regulates reproductive trait plasticity in response to water availability, resulting in increased fitness (defined as seed production) under drought stress.

  20. The Effect of Land Use on Availability of Japanese Freshwater Resources and Its Significance for Water Footprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Motoshita


    Full Text Available All relevant effects on water must be assessed in water footprinting for identifying hotspots and managing the impacts of products, processes, and services throughout the life cycle. Although several studies have focused on physical water scarcity and degradation of water quality, the relevance of land use in water footprinting has not been widely addressed. Here, we aimed to verify the extent of land-use effect in the context of water footprinting. Intensity factors of land use regarding the loss of freshwater availability are modeled by calculating water balance at grid scale in Japan. A water footprint inventory and impacts related to land use are assessed by applying the developed intensity factors and comparing them with those related to water consumption and degradation. Artificial land use such as urban area results in the loss of many parts of available freshwater input by precipitation. When considering water footprint inventory, the dominance of land use is less than that of water consumption. However, the effect of land use is relevant to the assessment of water footprint impact by differentiating stress on water resources. The exclusion of land use effect underestimates the water footprint of goods produced in Japan by an average of around 37%.

  1. Assessment of the water chemical quality improvement based on human health risk indexes: Application to a drinking water treatment plant incorporating membrane technologies. (United States)

    López-Roldán, Ramón; Rubalcaba, Alicia; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; González, Susana; Martí, Vicenç; Cortina, Jose Luis


    A methodology has been developed in order to evaluate the potential risk of drinking water for the health of the consumers. The methodology used for the assessment considered systemic and carcinogenic effects caused by oral ingestion of water based on the reference data developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) for chemical contaminants. The exposure includes a hypothetical dose received by drinking this water according to the analysed contaminants. An assessment of the chemical quality improvement of produced water in the Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) after integration of membrane technologies was performed. Series of concentration values covering up to 261 chemical parameters over 5 years (2008-2012) of raw and treated water in the Sant Joan Despí DWTP, at the lower part of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain), were used. After the application of the methodology, the resulting global indexes were located below the thresholds except for carcinogenic risk in the output of DWTP, where the index was slightly above the threshold during 2008 and 2009 before the upgrade of the treatment works including membrane technologies was executed. The annual evolution of global indexes showed a reduction in the global values for all situations: HQ systemic index based on RAIS dropped from 0.64 to 0.42 for surface water and from 0.61 to 0.31 for drinking water; the R carcinogenic index based on RAIS was negligible for input water and varied between 4.2×10(-05) and 7.4×10(-06) for drinking water; the W systemic index based on the WHO data varied between 0.41 and 0.16 for surface water and between 0.61 and 0.31 for drinking water. A specific analysis for the indexes associated with trihalomethanes (THMs) showed the same pattern.

  2. Crop Water Stress Index and Yield Components for Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes in Greenhouse and Field Environments (United States)

    Methods to detect and characterize the magnitude of drought stress are an area of active research. With the development and increased popularity of the infrared thermometer, a thermal stress index has been proposed and applied. One of the most popular and useful is the crop water stress index (CWS...

  3. Changes of Chlorophyll Index (SPAD, Relative Water Content, Electrolyte Leakage and Seed Yield in Spring Safflower Genotypes under Irrigation Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Moosavifar


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation termination and genotype on chlorophyll index (SPAD, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and seed yield in spring safflower, an experiment was conducted, in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, during 2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation (whole season irrigation, irrigation until grain filling, flowering and heading-bud and genotypes (Mahali Isfahan (a local variety, Isfahan28 and IL111 were arranged in main and subplots, respectively. Results showed chlorophyll content, relative water content, cell membrane stability and seed yield were influenced by irrigation termination. Provided that with terminating irrigation at an earlier stage, an increase in electrolyte leakage and reduction in relative water content and seed yield was observed in plants. There were negative relations between electrolyte leakage from plants leaf cells and seed yield. Plants which experienced irrigation termination in an earlier growth stage, suffered more damage to their cell membranes, leading to depression of their production potential. Based on the results, Mahali Isfahan and Isfahan28 can be introduced as drought resistant genotypes, because of their lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content. But, in general, Mahali Isfahan had the highest seed yield due to its nativeness and high adaptation to arid conditions southern of Khorasan, and therefore this genotype suggests for planting in the region.

  4. A Satellite-Derived Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Transport Index for Climate Studies (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gray J.; Lerner, Jeffrey A.; Atkinson, Robert J.


    A new approach is presented to quantify upper-level moisture transport from geostationary satellite data. Daily time sequences of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES-7 water vapor imagery were used to produce estimates of winds and water vapor mixing ratio in the cloud-free region of the upper troposphere sensed by the 6.7- microns water vapor channel. The winds and mixing ratio values were gridded and then combined to produce a parameter called the water vapor transport index (WVTI), which represents the magnitude of the two-dimensional transport of water vapor in the upper troposphere. Daily grids of WVTI, meridional moisture transport, mixing ratio, pressure, and other associated parameters were averaged to produce monthly fields for June, July, and August (JJA) of 1987 and 1988 over the Americas and surrounding oceanic regions, The WVTI was used to compare upper-tropospheric moisture transport between the summers of 1987 and 1988, contrasting the latter part of the 1986/87 El Nino event and the La Nina period of 1988. A similar product derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) 40-Year Reanalysis Project was used to help to validate the index. Although the goal of this research was to describe the formulation and utility of the WVTI, considerable insight was obtained into the interannual variability of upper-level water vapor transport. Both datasets showed large upper-level water vapor transport associated with synoptic features over the Americas and with outflow from tropical convective systems. Minimal transport occurred over tropical and subtropical high pressure regions where winds were light. Index values from NCEP-NCAR were 2-3 times larger than that determined from GOES. This difference resulted from large zonal wind differences and an apparent overestimate of upper-tropospheric moisture in the reanalysis model. A comparison of the satellite-derived monthly

  5. Investigation of ground-water availability and quality in Orange County, North Carolina (United States)

    Cunningham, William L.; Daniel, Charles C.


    A countywide inventory was conducted of 649 wells in nine hydrogeologic units in Orange County, North Carolina. As a result of this inventory, estimates of ground-water availability and use were calculated, and water-quality results were obtained from 51 wells sampled throughout the County from December 1998 through January 1999. The typical well in Orange County has an average depth of 208 feet, an average casing length of 53.6 feet, a static water level of 26.6 feet, a yield of 17.6 gallons per minute, and a well casing diameter of 6.25 inches. The saturated thickness of the regolith averages 27.0 feet and the yield per foot of total well depth averages 0.119 gallon per minute per foot. Two areas of the County are more favorable for high-yield wells.a west-southwest to east-northeast trending area in the northwestern part of the County, and a southwest to northeast trending area in the southwestern part of the County. Well yields in Orange County show little correlation with topographic or hydrogeologic setting. Fifty-one sampling locations were selected based on (a) countywide areal distribution, (b) weighted distribution among hydrogeologic units, and (c) permission from homeowners. The list of analytes for the sampling program consisted of common anions and cations, metals and trace elements, nutrients, organic compounds, and radon. Samples were screened for the presence of fuel compounds and pesticides by using immuno-assay techniques. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity were measured in the field. The median pH was 6.9, which is nearly neutral, and the median hardness was 75 milligrams per liter calcium carbonate. The median dissolved solids concentration was 125 milligrams per liter, and the median specific conductance was 175 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Orange County ground water is classified as a calcium-bicarbonate type. High nutrient concentrations were not found in samples collected for this

  6. Disponibilidad de agua-aire en sustratos para plantas Water-air availability in plant substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Beatriz Vence


    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas de los sustratos especialmente las relacionadas con la disponibilidad de agua-aire para las raíces de las plantas son las más importantes dentro del estudio de estos materiales usados en cultivos en contenedores. Para un óptimo crecimiento de la planta un sustrato debe contener suficiente cantidad de agua y aire y ambos estar disponibles. A nivel mundial el estudio de las propiedades que determinan esta disponibilidad comenzó desde las ciencias del suelo y fue adaptándose a las características propias de la amplia gama de productos que pueden ser utilizados, surgiendo así variables y métodos de medida específicos para la caracterización física de sustratos. En la Argentina el estudio de sustratos para plantas constituye un área de conocimiento nueva y en desarrollo, por ello exige un trabajo interdisciplinario donde hay que concordar un lenguaje común de términos técnicos, la elección de los métodos analíticos de referencia específicos y una legislación actualizada para sustratos. Haciendo un estudio crítico de la gran cantidad de información al respecto que proviene de otros países se podrán adaptar a nuestra realidad y a nuestros materiales. En esta revisión se enumeran resumidamente los más importantes conceptos a tener en cuenta para la evaluación física de sustratos a fin de que puedan servir de base para una mejor comprensión y discusión del tema.The study of the physical properties of substrates for container plant production is very important because the water and air availability for plant roots is involved. A substrate must contain a sufficient amount of available water and air to produce an optimum plant growth and development. Worldwide, the study of the properties that determine the water and air availability started from soil sciences and has been evolving to the present existence of a great variety of products that can be used, concomitant with the identification of parameters

  7. Assessment of total PPCP Pollution in Water Samples Using a New Contamination Index (United States)

    Conkle, J. L.; Huang, W.; Sickman, J. O.; Gan, J.


    Numerous studies document the presence of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment, specifically near treated wastewater effluent, septic discharge and large-scale agricultural operations. Additionally, managed aquifer recharge may be a source of these contaminants. Groundwater quality is a major concern in California, as ~40% of residents consume it domestically and some communities such as Beaumont, depend on it entirely. Groundwater in Beaumont is influenced by all of the PPCP sources mentioned above. In the Beaumont Groundwater Management Zone we observed four distinct regions of groundwater that could be described according to their levels of anthropogenic impacts. The groundwater regions heavily influenced by wastewater effluent, high densities of septic systems and managed aquifer recharge had the highest concentrations and detections of PPCPs. To better describe the total levels of pollution and place our findings in the context of the greater body of data on PPCPs in the aquatic environment, a PPCP contamination index was developed from the peer-reviewed literature. The index equation was developed and validated using 21 previously published studies (285 total samples) on PPCPs in the aquatic environment as well as through sensitivity analysis. From the published literature we determined index values that fall into three classes: light (4.1). PPCP contamination in Coopers Creek near the Beaumont WWTP discharge was at the upper end of the moderate range (3.6 to 3.8). The groundwater wells along the flow path of Coopers Creek were lightly contaminated (1.3 to 1.8) and groundwater wells influenced by septic waste and managed aquifer recharge were all values are typical for groundwater and wastewater effluent mixed with surface water found in the literature at PPCP contaminated sites. In addition to describing total PPCP contamination within a study, this index will also allow for researchers to compare contamination levels across

  8. Development of spatial water resources vulnerability index considering climate change impacts. (United States)

    Jun, Kyung Soo; Chung, Eun-Sung; Sung, Jin-Young; Lee, Kil Seong


    This study developed a new framework to quantify spatial vulnerability for sustainable water resources management. Four hydrologic vulnerability indices--potential flood damage (PFDC), potential drought damage (PDDC), potential water quality deterioration (PWQDC), and watershed evaluation index (WEIC)--were modified to quantify flood damage, drought damage, water quality deterioration, and overall watershed risk considering the impact of climate change, respectively. The concept of sustainability in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was applied in selecting all appropriate indicators (criteria) of climate change impacts. In the examination of climate change, future meteorological data was obtained using CGCM3 (Canadian Global Coupled Model) and SDSM (Statistical Downscaling Model), and future stream run-off and water quality were simulated using HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program - Fortran). The four modified indices were then calculated using TOPSIS, a multi-attribute method of decision analysis. As a result, the ranking obtained can be changed in consideration of climate change impacts. This study represents a new attempt to quantify hydrologic vulnerability in a manner that takes into account both climate change impacts and the concept of sustainability.

  9. Reactivity of the Bacteria-Water Interface: Linking Nutrient Availability to Bacteria-Metal Interactions (United States)

    Fowle, D. A.; Daughney, C. J.; Riley, J. L.


    Identifying and quantifying the controls on metal mobilities in geologic systems is critical in order to understand processes such as global element cycling, metal transport in near-surface water-rock systems, sedimentary diagenesis, and mineral formation. Bacteria are ubiquitous in near-surface water-rock systems, and numerous laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that bacteria can facilitate the formation and dissolution of minerals, and enhance or inhibit contaminant transport. However, despite the growing evidence that bacteria play a key role in many geologic processes in low temperature systems, our understanding of the influence of the local nutrient dynamics of the system of interest on bacteria-metal interactions is limited. Here we present data demonstrating the effectiveness of coupling laboratory experiments with geochemical modeling to isolate the effect of nutrient availability on bacterially mediated proton and metal adsorption reactions. Experimental studies of metal-bacteria interactions were conducted in batch reactors as a function of pH, and solid-solute interactions after growth in a variety of defined and undefined media. Media nutrient composition (C,N,P) was quantified before and after harvesting the cells. Surface complexation models (SCM) for the adsorption reactions were developed by combining sorption data with the results of acid-base titrations, and in some cases zeta potential titrations of the bacterial surface. Our results indicate a clear change in both buffering potential and metal binding capacity of the cell walls of Bacillus subtilis as a function of initial media conditions. Combining current studies with our past studies on the effects of growth phase and others work on temperature dependence on metal adsorption we hope to develop a holistic surface complexation model for quantifying bacterial effects on metal mass transfer in many geologic systems.

  10. Regional estimation of base recharge to ground water using water balance and a base-flow index. (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F


    Naturally occurring long-term mean annual base recharge to ground water in Nebraska was estimated with the help of a water-balance approach and an objective automated technique for base-flow separation involving minimal parameter-optimization requirements. Base recharge is equal to total recharge minus the amount of evapotranspiration coming directly from ground water. The estimation of evapotranspiration in the water-balance equation avoids the need to specify a contributing drainage area for ground water, which in certain cases may be considerably different from the drainage area for surface runoff. Evapotranspiration was calculated by the WREVAP model at the Solar and Meteorological Surface Observation Network (SAMSON) sites. Long-term mean annual base recharge was derived by determining the product of estimated long-term mean annual runoff (the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration) and the base-flow index (BFI). The BFI was calculated from discharge data obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey's gauging stations in Nebraska. Mapping was achieved by using geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics. This approach is best suited for regional-scale applications. It does not require complex hydrogeologic modeling nor detailed knowledge of soil characteristics, vegetation cover, or land-use practices. Long-term mean annual base recharge rates in excess of 110 mm/year resulted in the extreme eastern part of Nebraska. The western portion of the state expressed rates of only 15 to 20 mm annually, while the Sandhills region of north-central Nebraska was estimated to receive twice as much base recharge (40 to 50 mm/year) as areas south of it.

  11. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index (WQI): case study of the Kolong River, Assam, India (United States)

    Bora, Minakshi; Goswami, Dulal C.


    The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year 1964. The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard. The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value. The Central Pollution Control Board, in one of its report has placed the Kolong River among 275 most polluted rivers of India. Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index (WQI). The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of 122.47 as compared to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season having average WQI value of 85.73 and 80.75, respectively. Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site (S1) and Nagaon Town site (S4) are observed to be the most polluted sites.


    Krasovskiy, G N; Rakhmanin, Yu; Egorova, N


    The present study is devoted to theoretical questions of optimization of integrated assessment of the composition and properties of drinking water with the use of the Water Quality Index (WQI) and considering in it all 4 criteria for its hygienic quality-sanitary-toxicological, microbiological, radiation and organoleptic. There is presented a sequence of the analysis of benchmark data of the laboratory study of drinking water, including the selection of priority indices, their distribution into 4 groups according to hygienic criteria, calculations the ratios of real values (C) of indices to their hygiene MPC and the final calculation of the WQI. There is emphasized the importance of classes of hazard of substances, and the need for the special attention to the substances-carcinogens in the integrated assessment of water quality. To overcome the non-equivalence of contributions to the assessment of water quality factors, measured in different units, often disparated in their effect on human health, there are used the principles of combined action at levels below the MCL:C/MPC indices of performance of the unidirectional action are summed (e.g. carcinogenic substances), from indices of the independent action there are selected the most significant ones with the highest values of C/MPC, besides that there are also used counterbalancing factors K determined accordingly to Delphi method, with a maximum values of 5 for carcinogens and the minimum value of 1 for the substances affecting the organoleptic properties ofwater. There is presented the scheme of the final calculation of the value of WQI.

  13. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.


    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  14. The science, information, and engineering needed to manage water availability and quality in 2050: Chapter 23 (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.


    This chapter explores four water resources issues: 1) hydrologic variability, hazards, water supply and ecosystem preservation; 2) urban landscape design; 3) non-point source water quality, and 4) climate change, resiliency, and nonstationarity. It also considers what science, technology, and engineering practice may be needed in the coming decades to sustain water supplies and ecosystems in the face of increasing stresses from a growing demand for water. Dealing with these four water resource issues in the highly uncertain future would will demand predictive models that are rooted in real-world data. In a non-stationary world, continuity of observations is crucial. All watersheds are influenced by human actions through changes in land use, water use, and climate. The focus of water planning and management between today and 2050 will depend more than ever on collection and analysis of long-term data to learn about the evolving state of the system, understanding ecosystem processes in the water and on the landscape, and finding innovative ways to manage water as a shared resource. This includes sharing water with our neighbors on the landscape, sharing with the other species that depend on water, and sharing with future generations.

  15. Estimation of available water capacity components of two-layered soils using crop model inversion: Effect of crop type and water regime (United States)

    Sreelash, K.; Buis, Samuel; Sekhar, M.; Ruiz, Laurent; Kumar Tomer, Sat; Guérif, Martine


    Characterization of the soil water reservoir is critical for understanding the interactions between crops and their environment and the impacts of land use and environmental changes on the hydrology of agricultural catchments especially in tropical context. Recent studies have shown that inversion of crop models is a powerful tool for retrieving information on root zone properties. Increasing availability of remotely sensed soil and vegetation observations makes it well suited for large scale applications. The potential of this methodology has however never been properly evaluated on extensive experimental datasets and previous studies suggested that the quality of estimation of soil hydraulic properties may vary depending on agro-environmental situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach on an extensive field experiment. The dataset covered four crops (sunflower, sorghum, turmeric, maize) grown on different soils and several years in South India. The components of AWC (available water capacity) namely soil water content at field capacity and wilting point, and soil depth of two-layered soils were estimated by inversion of the crop model STICS with the GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach using observations of surface soil moisture (SSM; typically from 0 to 10 cm deep) and leaf area index (LAI), which are attainable from radar remote sensing in tropical regions with frequent cloudy conditions. The results showed that the quality of parameter estimation largely depends on the hydric regime and its interaction with crop type. A mean relative absolute error of 5% for field capacity of surface layer, 10% for field capacity of root zone, 15% for wilting point of surface layer and root zone, and 20% for soil depth can be obtained in favorable conditions. A few observations of SSM (during wet and dry soil moisture periods) and LAI (within water stress periods) were sufficient to significantly improve the estimation of AWC

  16. Balancing global water availability and use at basin scale in an integrated assessment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Son H.; Hejazi, Mohamad; Liu, Lu; Calvin, Katherine; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, Jae; Kyle, Page; Patel, Pralit; Wise, Marshall; Davies, Evan


    Water is essential for the world’s food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions of the world and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide for a larger and more prosperous human population. Numerous studies have pointed to growing pressures on the world’s scarce fresh water resources from population and economic growth, and climate change. This study goes further. We use the Global Change Assessment Model to analyze interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system where competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 14 geopolitical regions, 151 agriculture-ecological zones, and 235 major river basins. We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated. Model simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the importance of accounting for water as a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in IAMs and implications for global responses to water scarcity, particularly in the trade of agricultural commodities and land-use decisions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwasi Asamoah


    Full Text Available Rainwater is not readily available to sandy loam Ghanaian ferric lixisols. In an attempt to increase water availability to Nyankpala ferric lixisols, their impervious iron pan was broken. Average yield (number of bags of maize from ferric lexisol with ironpan broken was compared with that with iron pan unbroken. At an average annual rainfall of 64.125 to 106.775 mm for Nyampkala, ferric lexisol with or without iron pan broken yielded similar quantity (20-25bgs/ha of maize. Breaking of ironpan alone cannot increase water availability to Nyankpala ferric lixisols. Measures other than the breaking of iron pan are needed to increase water availability to ferreiclesisols and similar soils. Research into sustainable technologies such as permanent amendments for increased soil water availability to ferric lixisol and similar soils is required.

  18. Leaf morphology correlates with water and light availability:What consequences for simple and compound leaves?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Xu; Weihua Guo; Weihong Xu; Yinghua Wei; Renqing Wang


    Leaves are organs sensitive to environmental changes in the process of evolution and may exhibit phenotypic plasticity as a response to abiotic stress.However,affirmation of leaf morphological plasticity and its regulations in different environments are still unclear.We performed a simulated experiment to study the variations of leaf morphology in different gradients of water and light availability.Considering different types of leaves and venation,we chose pinnate-veined simple leaves of Quercus acutissima and compound leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia as the study objects.The morphological parameters we investigated include leaf size,shape and venation pattern which can be easily measured in the field.Significant variations occurred in many parameters due to the effects of the environment and/or allometry.There were broadly consistent trends for leaf morphological variations along the gradients.The leaf size became smaller with a short supply of resources.Leaf elongation and fractions of the lamina area altered to enhance resources acquisition and conservation.Trade-offs between investments in support and functional structures optimized the venation pattern of major and minor veins.Leaflets partially played a role such as leaf teeth,for they are not only individual units,but also a part of the compound leaf.We suggest that more or less the same trends in morphological variations may be an important explanation for coexisting species to adapt to similar habitats and form the niche differentiation.

  19. Impact of Water Availability on Land and Water Productivity: A Temporal and Spatial Analysis of the Case Study Region Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. A. Lamers


    Full Text Available Since irrigation water is assumedly the predominant factor determining crop yield, the difference in irrigation water availability across the administrative sub-districts of the Khorezm region, Central Asia, also inflicts an unequal distribution of agricultural revenues. Considering the national aim of a fair distribution and efficient use of resources, here we analyze the relationships between irrigation water access and rural welfare from 2000 to 2007 by descriptive statistics. Analyses revealed not only the general dependency of agricultural revenue on irrigation water availability, but also occurrence of low land productivity during water scarce years and, irrespective of the annual water availability, in some tail end regions each year. Furthermore, apart from irrigation water availability, land productivity was also impacted by soil quality, cropping structure, and type of land ownership. Fair distribution of water and land resources should also take into consideration population density. It is argued that an anticipated equal and efficient water allocation necessitates improved irrigation water conveyance, distribution, and application efficiency via best water management practices. Liberalization of markets, development of a market infrastructure and improvement in yields also contribute to increased land and water productivity.

  20. Modelling the effects of land-use and land-cover change on water availability in the Jordan River region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schaldach


    Full Text Available Within the GLOWA Jordan River project, a first-time overview of the current and possible future land and water conditions of a major part of the Eastern Mediterranean region (ca. 100 000 km2 is given. First, we applied the hydrological model TRAIN to simulate current water availability (runoff and groundwater recharge and irrigation water demand on a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution. The results demonstrate the scarcity of water resources in the study region, with extremely low values of water availability in the semi-arid and arid parts. Then, a set of four divergent scenarios on the future of water has been developed using a stakeholder driven approach. Relevant drivers for land-use/land-cover change were fed into the LandSHIFT.R model to produce land-use and land-cover maps for the different scenarios. These maps were used as input to TRAIN in order to generate scenarios of water availability and irrigation water demand for the region. For this study, two intermediate scenarios were selected, with projected developments ranging between optimistic and pessimistic futures (with regard to social and economic conditions in the region. Given that climate conditions remain unchanged, the simulations show both increases and decreases in water availability, depending on the future pattern of natural and agricultural vegetation and the related dominance of hydrological processes.

  1. Drought assessment in the Dongliao River basin: traditional approaches vs. generalized drought assessment index based on water resources systems (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.


    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao River basin in northeastern China. The results simulated by the GDAI are compared to observed drought disaster records in the Dongliao River basin. In addition, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approaches in general (i.e., standard precipitation index, Palmer drought severity index and rate of water deficit index). Then, generalized drought times, generalized drought duration, and generalized drought severity were calculated by theory of runs. Application of said runs at various drought levels (i.e., mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) during the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them all distribute in the middle reaches of Dongliao River basin, and change with time. The proposed methodology may help water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, and consequently, to make decisions for coping with drought.

  2. Free Available Chlorine Disinfection Criteria for Fixed Army Installation Primary Drinking Water (United States)


    disease Disinfection criteria Potable water Enterobacteria Water treatment 20. 3&TACT(een~usm r v fv . it ,ecossoy asd Identify, by b:ock floccu•ation durinF, water treatment.? Oliver aad Visserl0 have shown that fulvic acld fractions of aquatic humic material are n•jor chloroform...already infected bv a virulent organism, or lacks proper immune response, as in cancer therapy . Other pathogenic yeasts and fungi are transmitted to man

  3. Extravascular lung water index improves the diagnostic accuracy of lung injury in patients with shock. (United States)

    Chew, Michelle S; Ihrman, Lilian; During, Joachim; Bergenzaun, Lill; Ersson, Anders; Undén, Johan; Ryden, Jörgen; Åkerman, Eva; Larsson, Marina


    The diagnosis of acute lung injury (ALI) may be more robust if more accurate physiological markers can be identified. Extravascular lung water (EVLW) is one possible marker, and it has been shown to correlate with respiratory function and mortality in patients with sepsis. Whether EVLW confers diagnostic value in a general population with shock, as well as which index performs best, is unclear. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of various EVLW indices in patients with shock. We studied a prospective, observational cohort of 51 patients with shock admitted to a tertiary ICU. EVLW was measured within 6 hours of ICU admission and indexed to actual body weight (EVLW/ABW), predicted body weight (EVLW/PBW) and pulmonary blood volume (EVLW/PBV). The relationship of these indices to the diagnosis and severity of lung injury and ICU mortality were studied. Positive and negative likelihood ratios, pre- and posttest odds for diagnosis of lung injury and mortality were calculated. All EVLW indices were higher among patients with lung injury and significantly correlated with respiratory parameters. Furthermore, all EVLW indices were significantly higher in nonsurvivors. The use of EVLW improves the posttest OR for the diagnosis of ALI, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severe lung injury (sLI) by up to eightfold. Combining increased EVLW and a diagnosis of ALI, ARDS or sLI increases the posttest odds of ICU mortality. EVLW/ABW and EVLW/PBV demonstrated the best diagnostic performance in this population. EVLW was associated with degree of lung injury and mortality, regardless of the index used, confirming that it may be used as a bedside indicator of disease severity. The use of EVLW as a bedside test conferred added diagnostic value for the identification of patients with lung injury.

  4. Availability of irrigation water for domestic use in Pakistan: its impact on prevalence of diarrhoea and nutritional status of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Feenstra, Sabiena G; Konradsen, Flemming


    , hygiene, and socioeconomic status. Height-for-age and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea were used as outcome measures. Quantity of water available in households was a strong predictor of height-for-age and prevalence of diarrhoea. Children from households with a large storage capacity for water...... of diarrhoea and malnutrition in this area. An integrated approach to water management is needed in irrigation schemes, so that supply of domestic water is given priority when allocating water in time and space within the systems....

  5. Equation of state, refractive index and polarizability of compressed water to 7 GPa and 673 K. (United States)

    Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Mantegazzi, Davide; Bass, Jay D; Reusser, Eric


    The equation of state (EoS), refractive index n, and polarizability α of water have been determined up to 673 K and 7 GPa from acoustic velocity measurements conducted in a resistively heated diamond anvil cell using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. Measured acoustic velocities compare favorably with previous experimental studies but they are lower than velocities calculated from the extrapolation of the IAPWS95 equation of state above 3 GPa at 673 K and deviations increase up to 6% at 7 GPa. Densities calculated from the velocity data were used to propose an empirical EoS suitable in the 0.6-7 GPa and 293-673 K range with a total estimated uncertainty of 0.5% or less. The density model and thermodynamic properties derived from the experimental EoS have been compared to several EoS proposed in the literature. The IAPWS95 EoS provides good agreement, although underestimates density by up to 1.2% at 7 GPa and 673 K and the thermodynamic properties deviate greatly (10%-20%) outside the estimated uncertainties above 4 GPa. The refractive index n of liquid water increases linearly with density and do not depend intrinsically on temperature. The polarizability decreases with pressure by less than 4% within the investigated P-T range, suggesting strong intermolecular interactions in H(2)O that are consistent with the prevalence of the hydrogen bond network in the fluid. The results will allow the refinement of interaction potentials that consider polarization effects for a better understanding of solvent-solvent and ion-solvent interactions in aqueous fluids at high pressure and temperature conditions.

  6. A water sustainability index for West Java - Part 2: refining the conceptual framework using Delphi technique. (United States)

    Juwana, I; Perera, B J C; Muttil, N


    In the first paper of this two-part series on the development of a water sustainability index for West Java, a conceptual framework of West Java Water Sustainability Index (WJWSI) was developed. It consists of three main parts: components, indicators/sub-indicators and threshold values. This second paper of the series presents the application of the Delphi technique, followed by in-depth interviews with selected key experts, to refine the conceptual WJWSI framework. The Delphi application includes the design of the questionnaires, the selection of respondents, the distribution and collection of the completed questionnaires and the analysis of data. After Round One of the Delphi application, the respondents reached consensus for all proposed components in the conceptual framework. However, some modifications to the components were also suggested by few respondents. Regarding the indicators/sub-indicators, consensus for 9 of the proposed 12 indicators was reached, and 5 new indicators were suggested. For the threshold values, consensus was reached for threshold values of 5 indicators. In Round Two of the Delphi application, respondents were asked questions related to results from Round One, which include the modification on the components, indicators/sub-indicators which have not been agreed, and newly suggested indicators/sub-indicators and threshold values. Results of Round Two show that modifications on the components were agreed, and consensus was reached for 8 out of the proposed 9 indicators/sub-indicators. In terms of its components and indicators, the framework was then finalised in the in-depth interview with four key experts, selected from different respondent categories. For the threshold values not yet finalised, further study will be carried out, as there was not much input from the respondents in the Delphi application and the in-depth interview.

  7. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel


    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  8. Index of surface-water records, part 3, Ohio River basin, to September 30, 1948 (United States)



    This report summarizes ground-water-quality data, for Wisconsin, stored in the U.S. Geological Survey 's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water-quality data for 2,443 wells which tap one of the State 's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells where data are available are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnestium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents present in Wisconsin 's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water-quality problems in much of the State. Statewide summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals, arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that they impair water quality in only a few isolated wells. A bibliography of published reports that describe or summarize various aspects of ground-water quality in Wisconsin is included. (USGS)

  9. Development of a water quality index (WQI) for the Loktak Lake in India (United States)

    Das Kangabam, Rajiv; Bhoominathan, Sarojini Devi; Kanagaraj, Suganthi; Govindaraju, Munisamy


    The present work was carried out to assess a water quality index (WQI) of the Loktak Lake, an important wetland which has been under pressure due to the increasing anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters like temperature (Tem), potential hydrogen (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity (T), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), fluoride (F), sulphate ({SO}4^{2-} ), magnesium (Mg), phosphate (PO4^{3-} ), sodium (Na), potassium (K), nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), total dissolved solids (TDS), total carbon (TC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using standard procedures. The values obtained were compared with the guidelines for drinking purpose suggested by the World Health Organization and Bureau of Indian Standard. The result shows the higher concentration of nitrite in all the location which is beyond the permissible limit. Eleven parameters were selected to derive the WQI for the estimation of water potential for five sampling sites. A relative weight was assigned to each parameter range from 1.46 to 4.09 based on its importance. The WQI values range from 64 to 77 indicating that the Loktak Lake water is not fit for drinking, including both human and animals, even though the people living inside the Lake are using it for drinking purposes. The implementation of WQI is necessary for proper management of the Loktak Lake and it will be a very helpful tool for the public and decision makers to evaluate the water quality of the Loktak Lake for sustainable management.

  10. Classification of groundwater based on irrigation water quality index and GIS in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, NE Iraq


    Abdullah, Twana; Ali, Salahalddin; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Knutsson, Sven


    Assessment of groundwater for irrigation purpose is proposed using the Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI) within the GIS environment. The model was applied to several aquifers in the study basin. Water samples were collected from thirty-nine sites from both water wells and springs from the dry season (September 2014) and the wet season (May 2015). Samples were tested chemically and physically for several variables: EC, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, Na+ and HCO3- and SAR. The accuracy and precision meth...

  11. A comparison of hydrologic models for ecological flows and water availability (United States)

    Peter V. Caldwell; Jonathan G. Kennen; Ge Sun; Julie E. Kiang; Jon B. Butcher; Michele C. Eddy; Lauren E. Hay; Jacob H. LaFontaine; Ernie F. Hain; Stacy A. C. Nelson; Steve G. McNulty


    Robust hydrologic models are needed to help manage water resources for healthy aquatic ecosystems and reliable water supplies for people, but there is a lack of comprehensive model comparison studies that quantify differences in streamflow predictions among model applications developed to answer management questions. We assessed differences in daily streamflow...

  12. Projections of Declining Surface-Water Availability for the Southwestern United States (United States)

    Seager, Richard; Ting, Mingfang; Li, Cuihua; Naik, Naomi; Cook, Benjamin; Nakamura, Jennifer; Liu, Haibo


    bias for the Colorado headwaters as also shown in Figure S1. Here the observed runoff values are taken from simulations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface-hydrology model (3) forced by observed meteorology (5) that were conducted as part of the North American Land Data Assimilation System project phase 2 ( (NLDAS-2), Runoff for California-Nevada is better simulated but there is a positive bias over Texas despite no strong precipitation bias. To check whether regional climate models better simulate P and runoff in these regions we analyzed the historical simulation with the Regional Climate Model version 3 driven by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 available from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program ( This model configuration retained these biases in P and runoff although they were reduced in amplitude. Given these varying biases we plot P and P - E changes in actual values but apply the simplest bias correction possible to the runoff and soil moisture values and show the modeled changes in terms of percentages of the 20th Century model climatologies. A thorough assessment of the simulation of North American climate in CMIP5 models is conducted in Sheffield at al. (North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part I: Evaluation of 20th Century Continental and Regional Climatology, manuscript submit ted to J. Climate, available at pa/ mapp/cmip5 publications.html). Sheffield et al. analyze the climatology of precipitation, surface air temperature, low level winds, moisture fluxes, runoff etc. and conclude that the main features of the hydrological cycle, including characteristics of the atmospheric moisture balance and its seasonality, are captured in the CMP5 models subject to biases in total precipitation amounts. We chose to use all available models instead

  13. Morphological and physiological responses of two coffee progenies to soil water availability. (United States)

    Dias, Paulo C; Araujo, Wagner L; Moraes, Gustavo A B K; Barros, Raimundo S; DaMatta, Fábio M


    Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and production of coffee. The effects of water supply on growth, biomass allocation, water relations, and gas exchange in two coffee progenies representing drought-tolerant (Siriema) and drought-sensitive (Catucaí) genotypes were compared. They were grown in 12-L pots until 4-months old, when they were submitted to two watering treatments for 60 d: plants receiving either 100% transpired water (control plants) or a fraction (about 40%) of the amount of water transpired by control plants (drought-stressed plants). Under control conditions, Siriema grew faster than Catucaí. Regardless of the watering regimes and progenies, relative growth rate (RGR) was positively correlated both with net assimilation rate (NAR) and long-term water-use efficiency (WUE), but not with differences in biomass allocation. Both progenies responded to drought stress through (i) similar decreases in both RGR and NAR with marginal, if any, changes in allocation; (ii) decreases in leaf water potential, which occurred to a greater extent in Catucaí than in Siriema, even though they have showed similar abilities to adjust osmotically and elastically; (iii) similar reductions in net photosynthesis due mainly to nonstomatal factors; and (iv) decreases in transpiration rate coupled with increased long-term WUE. However, the lower transpiration rate and the higher long-term WUE as found in Siriema relative to Catucaí under control conditions persisted under drought conditions. Overall, the major differences between these progenies were largely associated with differences in plant water use, which was likely related to the improved water status of Siriema. The possible implications of selecting coffee genotypes for high WUE are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Malusà


    Full Text Available Low water availability for agriculture is a rising problem in temperate countries. The effect of two different rhizospheric microbial consortia on the tolerance to water deficiency of maize was evaluated under controlled watering regimes. One consortium was a mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizospheric bacteria isolated under osmotic stress selective pressure; the other consortium was a commercial product. A higher tolerance of plants to water deficiency was observed when roots were inoculated with microbial consortia. Plant gas exchange parameters were positively affected by inoculation, and a improvements of the leaves mineral nutrients content and of the biomass yield were also recorded. The positive effect should be ascribed to an increased roots development more than to an increased uptake from extraradical mycorrhizal hyphae. The use of microbial inoculants appears to be a suitable practice to improve the crop performances under low water availability.

  15. Effectiveness of Low-Cost Planting Techniques for Improving Water Availability to Olea europaea Seedlings in Degraded Drylands


    Valdecantos Dema, Alejandro; Fuentes Delgado, David; Smanis, Athanasios; Llovet López, Joan; Morcillo Juliá, Luna; Bautista Aguilar, Susana


    Reforestation projects in semiarid lands often yield poor results. Water scarcity, poor soil fertility, and structure strongly limit the survival and growth of planted seedlings in these areas. At two experimental semiarid sites, we evaluated a variety of low-cost planting techniques in order to increase water availability to plants. Treatments included various combinations of traditional planting holes; water-harvesting microcatchments; stone or plastic mulches; small waterproof sheets to in...

  16. Variability of the water availability in a river lake system – A case study of Lake Symsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuriata-Potasznik Angela B.


    Full Text Available It is predicted that climate change will result in the diminution of water resources available both on global and regional scales. Local climate change is harder to observe and therefore, while counteracting its effects, it seems advisable to undertake studies on pertinent regional and local conditions. In this research, our aim was to assess the impact of a river and its catchment on fluctuations in the water availability in a natural lake which belongs to a post-glacial river and lake system. River and lake systems behave most often like a single interacting hydrological unit, and the intensity of water exchange in these systems is quite high, which may cause temporary water losses. This study showed that water in the analyzed river and lake system was exchanged approx. every 66 days, which resulted from the total (horizontal and vertical water exchange. Also, the management of a catchment area seems to play a crucial role in the local water availability, as demonstrated by this research, where water retention was favoured by wooded and marshy areas. More intensive water retention was observed in a catchment dominated by forests, pastures and wetlands. Wasteland and large differences in the land elevation in the tested catchment are unfavourable to water retention because they intensify soil evaporation and accelerate the water run-off outside of the catchment. Among the actions which should be undertaken in order to counteract water deficiencies in catchment areas, rational use and management of the land resources in the catchment are most often mentioned.

  17. Developing Index for Sustainable Water Use with Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators: an Application for Hydrologic Units in South Korea (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Kong, I.


    This study aimed to develop index for sustainable water use over hydrologic units in South Korea. We identified major indicators for sustainable water use with considering multiple aspects of water use: not only physical, biological and chemical aspects but also social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, stressors for sustainable water use were of major interests because they were straightforward and easy to measure in comparison to indicators representing the state- and impact-related indictors. As a result, sustainability index was constructed with a theme-based hierarchical approach. It is comprised of two components of stress and response to sustainable water use and each component includes five sub-components of human water requirements, water quality requirements, 4) h, equitable water use and others. Then for each sub-component, multiple indicators, i.e., proxy variables were identified. For drainage basins in South Korea, standard hydrologic units with their total number of about 100 across the country, total 19 indicators were identified and their data from the various sources such as remote-sensing based datasets and survey-based national datasets were collected for current times. Then they were integrated to estimate the sustainability index with a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach. At last, we evaluated sustainability index with focusing on the spatial variability of indices and indicators and the sensitivity of indices to individual indicators to better understand the sustainability of water use in Korea. In addition, we derived the indices with different MCDM methods to evaluate the sensitivity of index to various mathematical techniques.

  18. Exploring the temporal effects of seasonal water availability on the snail kite of Florida: Part III (United States)

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bissonette, John A.; Storch, Ilse


    The Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is an endangered raptor that occurs as an isolated population, currently of about 2,000 birds, in the wetlands of southern and central Florida, USA. Its exclusive prey species, the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) is strongly influenced by seasonal changes in water abundance. Droughts during the snail kite breeding season have a direct negative effect on snail kite survival and reproduction, but droughts are also needed to maintain aquatic vegetation types favorable to snail kite foraging for snails. We used a spatially explicit matrix model to explore the effects of temporal variation in water levels on the viability of the snail kite population under different temporal drought regimes in its wetland breeding habitat. We focused on three aspects of variations in water levels that were likely to affect kites: (1) drought frequency; (2) drought duration; and (3) drought timing within the year. We modeled a 31-year historical scenario using four different scenarios in which the average water level was maintained constant, but the amplitude of water level fluctuations was modified. Our results reveal the complexity of the effects of temporal variation in water levels on snail kite population dynamics. Management implications of these results are discussed. In particular, management decisions should not be based on annual mean water levels alone, but must consider the intra-annual variability.

  19. Availability of ground water in parts of the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations, New Mexico (United States)

    Dinwiddie, George A.; Motts, Ward Sundt


    The need for additional water has increased in recent years on the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations in west-central New Mexico because the population and per capita use of water have increased; the tribes also desire water for light industry, for more modern schools, and to increase their irrigation program. Many wells have been drilled in the area, but most have been disappointing because of small yields and poor chemical quality of the water. The topography in the Acoma and Laguna Indian Reservations is controlled primarily by the regional and local dip of alternating beds of sandstone and shale and by the igneous complex of Mount Taylor. The entrenched alluvial valley along the Rio San Jose, which traverses the area, ranges in width from about 0.4 mile to about 2 miles. The climate is characterized by scant rainfall, which occurs mainly in summer, low relative humidity, and large daily fluctuations of temperature. Most of the surface water enters the area through the Rio San Jose. The average annual streamflow past the gaging station Rio San Jose near Grants, N. Mex. is about 4,000 acre-feet. Tributaries to the Rio San Jose within the area probably contribute about 1,000 acre-feet per year. At the present time, most of the surface water is used for irrigation. Ground water is obtained from consolidated sedimentary rocks that range in age from Triassic to Cretaceous, and from unconsolidated alluvium of Quaternary age. The principal aquifers are the Dakota Sandstone, the Tres Hermanos Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, and the alluvium. The Dakota Sandstone yields 5 to 50 gpm (gallons per minute) of water to domestic and stock wells. The Tres Hermanos sandstone Member generally yields 5 to 20 gpm of water to domestic and stock wells. Locally, beds of sandstone in the Chinle and Morrison Formations, the Entrada Sandstone, and the Bluff Sandstone also yield small supplies of water to domestic and stock wells. The alluvium yields from 2 gpm to as much as 150

  20. Calibration of Soil Available Nitrogen and Water Content with Grain Yield of Dry land Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl


    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrogen (N is one of the most important growth-limiting nutrients for dryland wheat. Mineral nitrogen or ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− are two common forms of inorganic nitrogen that can serve as limiting factors for plant growth. Nitrogen fertilization in dryland area can increase the use of soil moisture, and improve wheat yields to some extent. Many researchers have been confirmed interactions between water stress and nitrogen fertilizers on wheat, especially under field conditions. Because of water stress affects forms of nitrogen uptake that leads to disorder in plant metabolism, reduction in grain yield and crop quality in dryland condition. On the other hand, use of suitable methods for determining nitrogen requirement can increase dryland wheat production. However, nitrogen recommendations should be based on soil profile content or precipitation. An efficient method for nitrogen fertilizer recommendation involves choosing an effective soil extractant and calibrating soil nitrogen (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ tests against yield responses to applied nitrogen in field experiments. Soil testing enables initial N supply to be measured and N supply throughout the season due to mineralization to be estimated. This study was carried out to establish relationship between nitrogen forms (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ in soil and soil profile water content with plant response for recommendation of nitrogen fertilizer. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in split-split plot in a RCBD in Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI, Maragheh, Iranwhere N application times (fall, 2/3 in fall and 1/3 in spring were assigned to the main plots, N rates to sub plot (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha, and 7 dryland wheat genotypes to sub-sub plots (Azar2, Ohadi, Rasad and 1-4 other genotypes in three replications in 2010-2011. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm in sub-sub plots in shooting stage (ZGS32. Ammonium

  1. Evaluation of available saline water resources in New Mexico for the production of microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R.; Hernandez, J.; Enis, P.; Truby, D.; Mapel, C.


    Researchers evaluated saline water resources in New Mexico for their suitability as sites for large-scale microalgae production facilities. Production of microalgae could provide a renewable source of fuel, chemicals, and food. In addition, making use of the unused saline water resources would increase the economic activity in the state. After analyzing the 15 billion acre-ft of unused saline water resources in the state, scientists narrowed the locations down to six sites with the most potential. With further analysis, they chose the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico as the best-suited area for 100-hectare microalgae production facility. 34 refs., 38 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Optical teledetection of the vertical attenuation coefficient for downward quantum irradiance of photosynthetically available radiation in turbid inland waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gons, H.J.; Ebert, J.; Kromkamp, J.C.


    Depth profiles of downward quantum irradiance of photosynthetically available radiation in situ and spectral subsurface irradiance reflectance, obtained from water-leaving radiance, were determined in different inland water types. These included the large, shallow and eutrophic IJssel lagoon in the

  3. Optical teledetection of the vertical attenuation coefficient for downward quantum irradiance of photosynthetically available radiation in turbid inland waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gons, H.J.; Ebert, J.; Kromkamp, J.C.


    Depth profiles of downward quantum irradiance of photosynthetically available radiation in situ and spectral subsurface irradiance reflectance, obtained from water-leaving radiance, were determined in different inland water types. These included the large, shallow and eutrophic IJssel lagoon in the

  4. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states). (United States)

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto


    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  5. Indexes and efficiencies of N optimum dose reviewed as water- and Nitrogen- footprint (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Cabello, Maria Jesus; Rivas, Francisco; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Arce, Augusto


    In order to establish rational nitrogen (N) fertilization and reduce groundwater contamination, a clearer understanding of the N distribution through the growing season and its balance is crucial. In three successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L. cv. Sancho) was grown under field conditions to determine the uptake of N fertilizer, applied by means of fertigation at different stages of plant growth. In addition, Strategies are being sought to increase water use in cropping systems and to reduce drainage. The estimation of N mineralized from soil organic matter is an essential tool to determine the amount necessary to optimize crop yield and minimize the environmental impact of excess N. In this study we propose a methodology that allows us to study fertigated management integrating several aspects: economic and environmental. Even the complexity of the system, we have reduced the number of indexes and efficiencies need to establish the framework of N management and its economical and environmental consequences. At the same time, we have translated all them into a water- and Nitrogen- footprint in each year. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work has been partially supported by INIA under Project INIA-RTA 2010-00110-C03-02

  6. The hydraulic conductance of Fraxinus ornus leaves is constrained by soil water availability and coordinated with gas exchange rates. (United States)

    Gortan, Emmanuelle; Nardini, Andrea; Gascó, Antonio; Salleo, Sebastiano


    Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) is known to be an important determinant of plant gas exchange and photosynthesis. Little is known about the long-term impact of different environmental factors on the hydraulic construction of leaves and its eventual consequences on leaf gas exchange. In this study, we investigate the impact of soil water availability on Kleaf of Fraxinus ornus L. as well as the influence of Kleaf on gas exchange rates and plant water status. With this aim, Kleaf, leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), leaf water potential (Psileaf) and leaf mass per area (LMA) were measured in F. ornus trees, growing in 21 different sites with contrasting water availability. Plants growing in arid sites had lower Kleaf, gL and Psileaf than those growing in sites with higher water availability. On the contrary, LMA was similar in the two groups. The Kleaf values recorded in sites with two different levels of soil water availability were constantly different from each other regardless of the amount of precipitation recorded over 20 days before measurements. Moreover, Kleaf was correlated with gL values. Our data suggest that down-regulation of Kleaf is a component of adaptation of plants to drought-prone habitats. Low Kleaf implies reduced gas exchange which may, in turn, influence the climatic conditions on a local/regional scale. It is concluded that leaf hydraulics and its changes in response to resource availability should receive greater attention in studies aimed at modelling biosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  7. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability (United States)


    ... for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply projects intended to serve... alternative that warrants a more detailed investigation through a feasibility study. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... address those needs through appraisal investigations and feasibility studies. ] Background The...

  8. Quantifying changes in water use and groundwater availability in a megacity using novel integrated systems modeling (United States)

    Hyndman, D. W.; Xu, T.; Deines, J. M.; Cao, G.; Nagelkirk, R.; Viña, A.; McConnell, W.; Basso, B.; Kendall, A. D.; Li, S.; Luo, L.; Lupi, F.; Ma, D.; Winkler, J. A.; Yang, W.; Zheng, C.; Liu, J.


    Water sustainability in megacities is a growing challenge with far-reaching effects. Addressing sustainability requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach able to capture interactions among hydrology, population growth, and socioeconomic factors and to reflect changes due to climate variability and land use. We developed a new systems modeling framework to quantify the influence of changes in land use, crop growth, and urbanization on groundwater storage for Beijing, China. This framework was then used to understand and quantify causes of observed decreases in groundwater storage from 1993 to 2006, revealing that the expansion of Beijing's urban areas at the expense of croplands has enhanced recharge while reducing water lost to evapotranspiration, partially ameliorating groundwater declines. The results demonstrate the efficacy of such a systems approach to quantify the impacts of changes in climate and land use on water sustainability for megacities, while providing a quantitative framework to improve mitigation and adaptation strategies that can help address future water challenges.

  9. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria. (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo


    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  10. Remote detection of water stress conditions via a diurnal photochemical reflectance index (PRI) improves yield prediction in rainfed wheat (United States)

    Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.


    Employing remotely sensed techniques to quantify the existence and magnitude of midday photosynthetic downregulation using the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) may reveal new information about plant responses to abiotic stressors in space and time. However, the interpretation and application of the PRI can be confounded because of its sensitivity to several variables changing at the diurnal (e.g., irradiation, shadow fraction) and seasonal (e.g., leaf area, chlorophyll and carotene pigment concentrations, irradiation) time scales. We explored different techniques to correct the PRI for variations in canopy structure and relative chlorophyll content (ChlR) using highly temporally resolved (frequency = five minutes) in-situ radiometric measurements of PRI and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over eight soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)field plots under varying nitrogen and soil water conditions over two seasons. Our results suggest that the influence of seasonal variation in canopy ChlR and LAI on the diurnally measured PRI (PRIdiurnal) can be minimized using simple correction techniques, therefore improving the strength of PRI as a tool to quantify abiotic stressors such as daily changes in soil volumetric water content (SVWC), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). PRIdiurnal responded strongly to available nitrogen, and linearly tracked seasonal changes in SVWC, VPD, and stomatal conductance (gc). Utilizing the PRI as an indicator of stress, yield predictions significantly over greenness indices such as the NDVI. This study provides insight towards the future interpretation and scaling of PRI to quantify rapid changes in photosynthesis, and as an indicator of plant stress.

  11. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index improve remote-sensing gross primary production estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carvalhais, N.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Julitta, T.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.


    This study investigates the performances of different optical indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP) of herbaceous stratum in a Mediterranean savanna with different nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) availability. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence yield computed at 760 nm (Fy760), scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using high spectral resolution spectrometers covering the visible near-infrared regions. GPP was measured using canopy chambers on the same locations sampled by the spectrometers. We tested whether light-use efficiency (LUE) models driven by remote-sensing quantities (RSMs) can better track changes in GPP caused by nutrient supplies compared to those driven exclusively by meteorological data (MM). Particularly, we compared the performances of different RSM formulations - relying on the use of Fy760 or sPRI as a proxy for LUE and NDVI or MTCI as a fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - with those of classical MM. Results showed higher GPP in the N-fertilized experimental plots during the growing period. These differences in GPP disappeared in the drying period when senescence effects masked out potential differences due to plant N content. Consequently, although MTCI was closely related to the mean of plant N content across treatments (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), it was poorly related to GPP (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.05). On the contrary sPRI and Fy760 correlated well with GPP during the whole measurement period. Results revealed that the relationship between GPP and Fy760 is not unique across treatments, but it is affected by N availability. Results from a cross-validation analysis showed that MM (AICcv = 127, MEcv = 0.879) outperformed RSM (AICcv =140, MEcv = 0.8737) when soil moisture was used to constrain the seasonal dynamic of LUE. However

  12. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry


    efforts. Using tree-level observations, the National Park Service-led Greater Yellowstone Interagency Whitebark Pine Long-term Monitoring Program provided important ecological insight on the size-dependent effects of white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, and water availability on whitebark pine mortality. This ongoing monitoring campaign will continue to offer observations that advance conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

  13. Potassium nutrition and water availability affect phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon in eucalypt trees (United States)

    Epron, Daniel; Cabral, Osvaldo; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Dannoura, Masako; Packer, Ana Paula; Plain, Caroline; Battie-Laclau, Patricia; Moreira, Marcelo; Trivelin, Paulo; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Gérant, Dominique; Nouvellon, Yann


    Potassium fertilisation strongly affects growth and carbon partitioning of eucalypt on tropical soil that are strongly weathered. In addition, potassium fertilization could be of great interest in mitigating the adverse consequences of drought in planted forests, as foliar K concentrations influence osmotic adjustment, stomatal regulation and phloem loading. Phloem is the main pathway for transferring photosynthate from source leaves to sink organs, thus controlling growth partitioning among the different tree compartments. But little is known about the effect of potassium nutrition on phloem transport of photosynthetic carbon and on the interaction between K nutrition and water availability. In situ 13C pulse labelling was conducted on tropical eucalypt trees (Eucalyptus grandis L.) grown in a trial plantation with plots in which 37% of throughfall were excluded (about 500 mm/yr) using home-made transparent gutters (-W) or not (+W) and plots that received 0.45 mol K m-2 applied as KCl three months after planting (+K) or not (-K). Three trees were labelled in each of the four treatments (+K+W, +K-W, -K+W and -K-W). Trees were labelled for one hour by injecting pure 13CO2 in a 27 m3 whole crown chamber. We estimated the velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk by comparing time lags between the uptake of 13CO2 and its recovery in trunk CO2 efflux recorded by off axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research) in two chambers per tree, one just under the crown and one at the base of the trunk. We analyzed the dynamics of the label recovered in the foliage and in the phloem sap by analysing carbon isotope composition of bulk leaf organic matter and phloem extracts using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The velocity of carbon transfer in the trunk and the initial rate 13C disappearance from the foliage were much higher in +K trees than in -K trees with no significant effect of rainfall. The volumetric flow of phloem, roughly estimated by multiplying

  14. Availability and chemical characteristics of ground water in central La Plata County, Colorado (United States)

    Brogden, R.E.; Giles, T.F.


    The central part of La Plata County, Colo., has undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in central La Plata County include: alluvium, Animas Formation of Quaternary and Tertiary age, Fruitland Formation, Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, three formations of the Mesa Verde Group, the Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation of Cretaceous and Jurassic age, and undifferentiated formations. Well yields generally are low, usually less than 25 gallons per minute. However, higher yields, 25 to 50 gallons per minute may be found locally in aquifers in the alluvium and the Animas Formation. The quality of water from the aquifers is dependent on rock type. Most of the water is a calcium bicarbonate type. However, aquifers that are predominantly fine-grained or contain interbeds of shale may contain sodium bicarbonate type water. The dissolution of minerals in the coal beds, which are present in the Mesa Verde Group and the Dakota Sandstone, can contribute high concentrations of iron, sulfate, and chloride to ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Identification of glacial meltwater runoff in a karstic environment and its implication for present and future water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Finger


    Full Text Available Glaciers all over the world are expected to continue to retreat due to the global warming throughout the 21st century. Consequently, future seasonal water availability might become scarce once glacier areas have declined below a certain threshold affecting future water management strategies. Particular attention should be paid to glaciers located in a karstic environment, as parts of the meltwater can be drained by underlying karst systems, making it difficult to assess water availability. In this study tracer experiments, karst modeling and glacier melt modeling are combined in order to identify flow paths in a high alpine, glacierized, karstic environment (Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland and to investigate current and predict future downstream water availability. Flow paths through the karst underground were determined with natural and fluorescent tracers. Subsequently, geologic information and the findings from tracer experiments were assembled in a karst model. Finally, glacier melt projections driven with a climate scenario were performed to discuss future water availability in the area surrounding the glacier. The results suggest that during late summer glacier meltwater is rapidly drained through well-developed channels at the glacier bottom to the north of the glacier, while during low flow season meltwater enters into the karst and is drained to the south. Climate change projections with the glacier melt model reveal that by the end of the century glacier melt will be significantly reduced in the summer, jeopardizing water availability in glacier-fed karst springs.

  16. Transpiration and stomatal resistance variations of perennial tropical crops under soil water availability conditions and water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ozinaldo Alves de Sena


    Full Text Available During the dry and rainy seasons, determinations of stomatal resistance and transpiration of five tropical crops were carried out: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, coffee (Coffea arabica L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., guava (Psidium guajava L. and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg. trees. Experimental design was done at randomized complete blocks with five replications. During the dry season there was a decrease in values of stomatal resistance in the following order: guarana > coffee> cashew> guava > rubber, with values from 2.5 to 30.0 During the rainy season the stomatal resistance values varied from 1.5 to 3.0 The guarana and coffee crops showed higher resistance to water transpiration when compared to other crops. During the rainy season, the rubber tree continued to present lower stomatal resistance and, consequently, higher transpiration.O experimento foi realizado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando-se as culturas de guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana Kunth, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg.. No período de seca (setembro/94 e de chuvas (novembro/94, realizaram-se determinações de resistência estomática (RE (s cm-1 e transpiração (T (µg cm-1 s-1 nas diferentes espécies. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. A partir das análises dos dados pode-se concluir: 1. diferenças significativas entre espécies, em termos das variáveis avaliadas no período de deficiência hídrica, com valores decrescentes de resistência estomática e crescente de transpiração na seguinte ordem: guaranazeiro > cafeeiro > cajueiro > goiabeira > seringueira; 2. Nas águas as diferenças entre espécies, para ambas as variáveis, foram menos evidentes, continuando a

  17. Assessing Water Availability in the Rio Grande Basin using NOAH Land Surface Model and NLDAS2 Forcing Data (United States)

    Khedun, C. P.; Giardino, J. R.; Singh, V. P.; Bolten, J. D.


    The Rio Grande/Río Bravo basin is a transboundary basin shared between several states in the United States and trends along part of the border between the United States and Mexico. The basin has a varied climatology - desert with high temperature and low water resources in the northern part and a tropical climate in the southern part. The surface water in the basin is over allocated, and some cities already rely solely on ground water to meet municipal water needs. The population and urban water demand are expected to double in the next 50 years. Climate variability and change, along with persistent long-term droughts, exacerbate the problem of meeting water demands. Uncertainty in the ways these climatic phenomena will affect the water availability in the coming decades will impact the effective long-term policies and management of water resources in the basin in the United States and Mexico, and this can lead to tensions over water allocation across the border. In order to study the impact of demographic changes and climate variability and change on future water availability, it is important to develop a model that can assess the current water availability and evaluate the effect of projected climate change, based on IPCC’s scenarios, on the hydrology of the basin. For this study we developed a model based on the community NOAH land surface model (LSM) within NASA’s GSFC Land Information System. The LSM is a 1-D column model that runs in coupled or uncoupled mode, and it simulates soil moisture, soil temperature, skin temperature, snowpack depth, snow water equivalent, canopy water content, and energy flux and water flux of the surface energy and water balance. The North American Land Data Assimilation Scheme (NLDAS2) is used to drive the model. The NLDAS2 datasets extends back to 1979, thereby allowing the model to be run retrospectively for a period of 30 years. Additional model parameters include seasonal maximum snow free albedo maps, monthly greenness

  18. Removal of arsenic from water streams: an overview of available techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaclavikova, Miroslava; Hredzak, Slavomir; Jakabsky, Stefan [Institute of Geotechnics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia); Gallios, George P. [Aristotle University, Lab. Gen. and Inorg. Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry, Thessaloniki (Greece)


    Arsenic poisoning has become one of the major environmental worries worldwide, as millions of people, which have been exposed to high arsenic concentrations (through contaminated drinking water), developed severe health problems. The high toxicity of this element made necessary the enforcement of stringent maximum allowable limits in drinking water. So, the development of novel techniques for its removal from aqueous streams is a very important issue. This paper offers an overview of geochemistry, distribution, sources, toxicity, regulations and applications of selected techniques for arsenic removal. The contribution briefly summarizes adsorption processes and mechanism of arsenic species removal from water streams by means of iron oxide/oxyhydroxide based materials. Sorption capacities of various sorbents (e.g. akaganeite, goethite, hydrous ferric oxide, iron oxide coated sand, Fe(III) loaded resin, granular ferric hydroxide, Ce(IV) doped iron oxide, natural iron ores, iron oxide coated cement, magnetically modified zeolite, Fe-hydroxide coated alumina) have been compared. (orig.)

  19. Availability of safe drinking-water: the answer to cholera outbreak? Nabua, Camarines Sur, Philippines, 2012. (United States)

    De Guzman, Alethea; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique


    In May 2012, there were increasing diarrhoea cases and deaths reported from Nabua, Camarines Sur to the Philippines event-based surveillance system. An investigation was conducted to identify risk factors and determine transmission dynamics. A suspected case was defined as a resident of Nabua with at least three episodes of watery diarrhoea per day from 16 March to 22 June 2012. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case positive for Vibrio cholerae. An environmental investigation was conducted and rectal swabs and water samples sent to the national reference laboratory for bacterial isolation. A 1:2 case-control study matching for age and sex was conducted. Data were analysed using Epi Info. There were 309 suspected cases with two deaths, and the most affected age group was children under five years (45%). Eight cases were positive for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa El Tor and one for Non-01. Water samples were positive for faecal coliforms and Aeromonas caviae. The case-control study showed that cases had a higher odds than controls of using unchlorinated water sources (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6-8.5) and having toilets located within 20 m of a septic tank (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.3). In multivariate analysis, the only significant factor was drinking from piped water (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09-0.49). In this cholera outbreak, drinking-water from unchlorinated wells was a significant risk factor. Future cholera control efforts should include not just improving water and sanitation systems but also intensified behaviour change campaigns.

  20. Association between cerebral cannabinoid 1 receptor availability and body mass index in patients with food intake disorders and healthy subjects: a [(18)F]MK-9470 PET study. (United States)

    Ceccarini, J; Weltens, N; Ly, H G; Tack, J; Van Oudenhove, L; Van Laere, K


    Although of great public health relevance, the mechanisms underlying disordered eating behavior and body weight regulation remain insufficiently understood. Compelling preclinical evidence corroborates a critical role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the central regulation of appetite and food intake. However, in vivo human evidence on ECS functioning in brain circuits involved in food intake regulation as well as its relationship with body weight is lacking, both in health and disease. Here, we measured cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]MK-9470 in 54 patients with food intake disorders (FID) covering a wide body mass index (BMI) range (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, functional dyspepsia with weight loss and obesity; BMI range=12.5-40.6 kg/m(2)) and 26 age-, gender- and average BMI-matched healthy subjects (BMI range=18.5-26.6 kg/m(2)). The association between regional CB1R availability and BMI was assessed within predefined homeostatic and reward-related regions of interest using voxel-based linear regression analyses. CB1R availability was inversely associated with BMI in homeostatic brain regions such as the hypothalamus and brainstem areas in both patients with FID and healthy subjects. However, in FID patients, CB1R availability was also negatively correlated with BMI throughout the mesolimbic reward system (midbrain, striatum, insula, amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex), which constitutes the key circuit implicated in processing appetitive motivation and hedonic value of perceived food rewards. Our results indicate that the cerebral homeostatic CB1R system is inextricably linked to BMI, with additional involvement of reward areas under conditions of disordered body weight.

  1. Free and Inexpensive Materials Available for Teaching Conservation Education: Soil and Water. (United States)

    Cousins, Genevieve; Smith, Bonnie Mae

    This publication was prepared to accompany the revised "Soil and Water Section" of "Guides for Teacher Conservation in the Schools of Louisiana." Its purpose is to provide teachers with information about possible sources of teaching materials that can be obtained free or with only a small expenditure of funds. Each item listed…

  2. Regional consequences of the way land users respond to future water availability in Murcia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Nainggolan, D.; Temansen, M.; Hubacek, K.; Reed, M.S.


    Agricultural development in the Murcia autonomous region, Spain, has led to overexploitation of groundwater resources, and climate change will further increase pressures. Policy options to tackle the current unsustainable situation include the development of inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) schemes

  3. Nutrient availability constrains the hydraulic architecture and water relations of savannah trees. (United States)

    S.J. Bucci; F.G. Scholz; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; A.C. Franco; P.I. Campanello; R. Villalobos-Vega; M. Bustamante; F. Miralles-Wilhelm


    Several plant functional traits were studied in five dominant woody savanna species in a Brazilian savanna to determine whether removal of nutrient limitations has an effect on carbon allocation, water relations, and hydraulic architecture. Four treatments consisting of a control, and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and N plus P additions were maintained for 5 years....

  4. Can cover crops reduce the hydrological connectivity in rainfed orchards with limited water availability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Meerkerk; B. van Wesemael; L.H. Cammeraat


    Land degradation forms a severe problem in the extensive olive and almond plantations in Southeast Spain. Under rainfed conditions, the canopy cover of these systems is typically below 30%: the soil is frequently tilled to avoid competition for water between the tree crop and weeds and to increase t

  5. Projecting impacts of climate change on water availability using artificial neural network techniques (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Gomez-Fragoso, Julieta; Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo


    Lago Loíza reservoir in east-central Puerto Rico is one of the primary sources of public water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. To evaluate and predict the Lago Loíza water budget, an artificial neural network (ANN) technique is trained to predict river inflows. A method is developed to combine ANN-predicted daily flows with ANN-predicted 30-day cumulative flows to improve flow estimates. The ANN application trains well for representing 2007–2012 and the drier 1994–1997 periods. Rainfall data downscaled from global circulation model (GCM) simulations are used to predict 2050–2055 conditions. Evapotranspiration is estimated with the Hargreaves equation using minimum and maximum air temperatures from the downscaled GCM data. These simulated 2050–2055 river flows are input to a water budget formulation for the Lago Loíza reservoir for comparison with 2007–2012. The ANN scenarios require far less computational effort than a numerical model application, yet produce results with sufficient accuracy to evaluate and compare hydrologic scenarios. This hydrologic tool will be useful for future evaluations of the Lago Loíza reservoir and water supply to the San Juan metropolitan area.

  6. Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, J.; Deryng, D.; Muller, C.; Frieler, K.; Konzmann, M.; Gerten, D.; Glotter, M.; Florke, M.F.; Wada, Y.; Ludwig, F.


    We compare ensembles of water supply and demand projections from 10 global hydrological models and six global gridded crop models. These are produced as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project, with coordination from the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Pro

  7. Application of index number theory to the construction of a water quality index: aggregated nutrient loadings related to the areal extent of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    The development of an index for description and monitoring of surface water quality has received significant attention in the water resources literature in recent years, primarily because of the increasing need for assessing water quality and the complex, multidimensional data collected from water q...

  8. Availability, Sustainability, and Suitability of Ground Water, Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado - Types of Analyses and Data for Use in Subdivision Water-Supply Reports (United States)

    Watts, Kenneth R.


    The population of Delta County, Colorado, like that in much of the Western United States, is forecast to increase substantially in the next few decades. A substantial portion of the increased population likely will reside in rural subdivisions and use residential wells for domestic water supplies. In Colorado, a subdivision developer is required to submit a water-supply plan through the county for approval by the Colorado Division of Water Resources. If the water supply is to be provided by wells, the water-supply plan must include a water-supply report. The water-supply report demonstrates the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the water supply for the proposed subdivision. During 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Delta County, Colorado, began a study to develop criteria that the Delta County Land Use Department can use to evaluate water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. A table was prepared that lists the types of analyses and data that may be needed in a water-supply report for a water-supply plan that proposes the use of ground water. A preliminary analysis of the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the ground-water resources of Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado, was prepared for a hypothetical subdivision to demonstrate hydrologic analyses and data that may be needed for water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. Rogers Mesa is a 12-square-mile upland mesa located along the north side of the North Fork Gunnison River about 15 miles east of Delta, Colorado. The principal land use on Rogers Mesa is irrigated agriculture, with about 5,651 acres of irrigated cropland, grass pasture, and orchards. The principal source of irrigation water is surface water diverted from the North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek. The estimated area of platted subdivisions on or partially on Rogers Mesa in 2007 was about 4,792 acres of which about 2,756 acres was irrigated land in 2000. The principal aquifer on Rogers

  9. Use of biological indexes of the common reed (Phragmites australis) seed progeny in the environmental safety of radioactive contaminated water bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavnyuk, A. [National Aviation University, Kiev (Ukraine); Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)


    Environmental protection requires effective monitoring system of radionuclide contamination and radiobiological effects as well as development of their prevention and minimizing measures for humans and biota. There is a majority of conventional techniques for living organisms' habitat quality assessment. One of the most widespread, convenient and accessible ones, is the seed progeny analysis, for example of conifers, cereals and wild herbaceous plants. Availability of vitality, growth, mutability indexes and abnormalities of vascular plant germs for environment quality express assessment was discussed in numerous publications. However, this point is studied insufficiently concerning aquatic vascular plants, forming communities playing significant role in radionuclides distribution in contaminated water bodies. Common reed (Phragmites australis (Trin) Ex. Steud) is a widespread species mostly dominating in air-aquatic vascular plant communities of freshwater bodies; it is a first-order {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr accumulating species. To assess the common reed germs growth indexes availability, seeds were sampled in polygon water bodies of different radionuclide contamination levels and 0.7-22 mcGy h{sup -1} total absorbed dose range, within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In water bodies with background level of radionuclide contamination, for comparison, total absorbed dose varied in range of 0.03-0.3 mcGy h{sup -1}. Series of seeds germination experiments was carried out in laboratory conditions. Complex of germs indexes was investigated, conditionally divided into three groups: (1) Vitality indexes. In course of experiment series, vitality was assessed via germinating energy, germinating ability indexes, germination period (first and last germ appearance) and survivability study; (2) Growth indexes. Root and leaf length, occurrence of plant groups with different vegetative organs length were determined for germs growth speed assessment; (3) Teratological