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Sample records for water admixtures elektrokhimicheskoe

  1. Effects of Mineral Admixtures, Water Binder Ratio and Curing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the laboratory investigation on the effects of mineral admixtures and water binder ratio on compressive strength is discussed. The study was conducted for three different mineral admixtures namely; FA, SF and Mk with different water cement ratios of 0.32, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.5. The admixture proportion ...

  2. Compatibility issues of cement with water reducing admixture in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Shrivastava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple brand of cement and water reducing admixtures are available in the market, even though these cements and admixture comply with the respective codal provisions there performance are not same in the concrete for each and every brand of cement and water reducing admixture, even if quality and source of other ingredients of concrete is kept same. This has created a lot of confusion among the user about what type/brand of admixture is used with what type/brand of cement and what should be optimum dose of admixture. Common problem associated with incompatibility issue is flash setting, delayed setting, rapid slump loss, improper strength gain and cracking, these not only effect the strength of the concrete but also the durability of the structure. Hence, in the present study different brand/type of cement and water reducing admixture available in the market is used to find study the compatibility issue and optimum dose of admixture. To achieve this marsh cone test has been performed. Test results indicate that the optimum dose of admixture vary from 0.9 to 1.1% of the weight of cement with different type/brand of cement and type/brand of admixture.

  3. the performance of cassava flour as a water-reducing admixture for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINYERE

    ABSTRACT. The performance of cassava flour as a water reducing admixture in concrete was investigated. Four concrete mixes of widely differing water/cement ratios were made and each of the mixes contained three different dosage levels of cassava flour as admixture. The properties tested include workability of the fresh ...

  4. Effect of Gum Arabic Karroo as a water-reducing admixture in cement mortar

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    Rose Mbugua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop Gum Acacia Karroo (GAK as set retarding-water reducing admixture in cement mortars. Retarding admixtures are used to counter effect the accelerated hydration of cement at elevated temperatures by slowing down the retarding process especially during the day when concreting work is done. However most retarding admixtures available in the market are expensive, thereby making them out of reach for small consumers of concrete in Africa are expensive and not readily available. GAK, which contains soluble sugars, was investigated as a set-retarding water reducing-admixture. Setting time was measured in cement pastes with different dosages of GAK and a commercial retarding agent (Tard CE. Compressive strength, bleeding and flow test were investigated on cement mortars with the control being cement mortar without admixture. GAK was found to increase final setting time by 6 h above control. Compressive strength increased when water cement ratio was reduced from 0.5 to 0.4. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed increased dosage of GAK reduced hydration rate.

  5. Effect of Gum Arabic karroo as a Water-Reducing Admixture in Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, Rose; Salim, Ramadhan; Ndambuki, Julius

    2016-01-28

    Concrete is one of the most popular construction materials in the world. Chemical admixtures are ingredients added to concrete to enhance its properties. However, most chemical admixtures on the market today are expensive, thereby making them out of reach for small consumers of concrete. In Africa, use of chemical admixtures is rare despite the harsh weather conditions. In the current study, Gum from Acacia karroo (GAK) was used as a water-reducing admixture in concrete. A slump test, density and compressive strength were studied using different dosages of GAK while neat concrete was the control. Results showed that slump increased by 200% at a 2% dosage of GAK. This enabled reduction of water-to-binder (w/b) ratio from 0.61 to 0.48 for samples with a 3% dosage. Reduction in w/b resulted in increased compressive strength of 37.03% above the control after 180 days of curing for a 3% dosage. XRD studies also showed a decreased rate of hydration in the presence of GAK in concrete. It was concluded that GAK can be used in concrete as a water-reducing admixture, which is environmentally-friendly, thus producing sustainable and greener concrete.

  6. Effect of Gum Arabic karroo as a Water-Reducing Admixture in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mbugua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is one of the most popular construction materials in the world. Chemical admixtures are ingredients added to concrete to enhance its properties. However, most chemical admixtures on the market today are expensive, thereby making them out of reach for small consumers of concrete. In Africa, use of chemical admixtures is rare despite the harsh weather conditions. In the current study, Gum from Acacia karroo (GAK was used as a water-reducing admixture in concrete. A slump test, density and compressive strength were studied using different dosages of GAK while neat concrete was the control. Results showed that slump increased by 200% at a 2% dosage of GAK. This enabled reduction of water-to-binder (w/b ratio from 0.61 to 0.48 for samples with a 3% dosage. Reduction in w/b resulted in increased compressive strength of 37.03% above the control after 180 days of curing for a 3% dosage. XRD studies also showed a decreased rate of hydration in the presence of GAK in concrete. It was concluded that GAK can be used in concrete as a water-reducing admixture, which is environmentally-friendly, thus producing sustainable and greener concrete.

  7. the performance of cassava flour as a water-reducing admixture for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINYERE

    to remove any chaff present in the flour. The processed flour was then stored in plastic bags. Chemical analysis of the cassava flour used in this study can be found ..... Straw Pulp Waste Liquor As A Water-. Reducing Admixture, Magazine of. Concrete Research, Vol. 47, No. 171,. 1995, pp. 113-118. 5. Chia, K. S. and Zhang, ...

  8. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A [San Francisco, CA; Bradshaw, Robert W [Livermore, CA; Dedrick, Daniel E [Berkeley, CA; Anderson, David W [Riverbank, CA

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  9. THEORY OF ACTIVE HITTINGS IS IN PROCESSES OF ELECTRO-COAGULATION THE ADMIXTURES IN WATER TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Березуцький

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  In the article theoretical bases of electro-coagulation of admixtures are examined in a water technological environment with the use of theory of the active hittings, which are based on the results of the executed researches and analysis of scientific information. Application of theory of the active hittings is in coagulation, provides high efficiency of process of extraction of admixtures from water environments during minimization of energy consumption and expenses of materials.

  10. Use of ready-mixed concrete plant sludge water in concrete containing an additive or admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using sludge water from a ready-mixed concrete plant as mixing water in concrete containing either fly ash as an additive or a superplasticizer admixture based on sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates (SNF). The chemical and physical properties of the sludge water and the dry sludge were investigated. Cement pastes were mixed using sludge water containing various levels of total solids content (0.5, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15%) in order to determine the optimum content in the sludge water. Increasing the total solids content beyond 5-6% tended to reduce the compressive strength and shorten the setting time. Concrete mixes were then prepared using sludge water containing 5-6% total solids content. The concrete samples were evaluated with regard to water required, setting time, slump, compressive strength, permeability, and resistance to acid attack. The use of sludge water in the concrete mix tended to reduce the effect of both fly ash and superplasticizer. Sludge water with a total solids content of less than 6% is suitable for use in the production of concrete with acceptable strength and durability.

  11. Utilization of water-reducing admixtures in cemented paste backfill of sulphide-rich mill tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Cihangir, Ferdi; Kesimal, Ayhan; Deveci, Haci; Alp, Ibrahim

    2010-07-15

    This study presents the effect of three different water-reducing admixtures (WRAs) on the rheological and mechanical properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) samples. A 28-day strength of > or = 0.7 MPa and the maintenance of the stability (i.e. > or = 0.7 MPa) over 360 days of curing were desired as the design criteria. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and Portland composite cement (PCC) were used as binders at 5 wt.% dose. WRAs were initially tested to determine the dosage of a WRA for a required consistency of 7'' for CPB mixtures. A total of 192 CPB samples were then prepared using WRAs. The utilization of WRAs enhanced the flow characteristics of the CPB mixture and allowed to achieve the same consistency at a lower water-to-cement ratio. For OPC, the addition of WRAs appeared to improve the both short- and long-term performance of CPB samples. However, only polycarboxylate-based superplasticiser produced the desired 28-day strength of > or = 0.7 MPa when PCC was used as the binder. These findings suggest that WRAs can be suitably exploited for CPB of sulphide-rich tailings to improve the strength and stability in short and long terms allowing to reduce binder costs in a CPB plant. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced admixture of North Atlantic Deep Water to the deep central South Pacific during the last two glacial periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Kescher, Mario; Frank, Martin; Tapia, Raúl; Ronge, Thomas A.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    The South Pacific is a sensitive location for the variability of the global oceanic thermohaline circulation given that deep waters from the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Pacific Basin are exchanged. Here we reconstruct the deep water circulation of the central South Pacific for the last two glacial cycles (from 240,000 years ago to the Holocene) based on radiogenic neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotope records complemented by benthic stable carbon data obtained from two sediment cores located on the flanks of the East Pacific Rise. The records show small but consistent glacial/interglacial changes in all three isotopic systems with interglacial average values of -5.8 and 18.757 for ɛNd and 206Pb/204Pb, respectively, whereas glacial averages are -5.3 and 18.744. Comparison of this variability of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) to previously published records along the pathway of the global thermohaline circulation is consistent with reduced admixture of North Atlantic Deep Water to CDW during cold stages. The absolute values and amplitudes of the benthic δ13C variations are essentially indistinguishable from other records of the Southern Hemisphere and confirm that the low central South Pacific sedimentation rates did not result in a significant reduction of the amplitude of any of the measured proxies. In addition, the combined detrital Nd and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope signatures imply that Australian and New Zealand dust has remained the principal contributor of lithogenic material to the central South Pacific.

  13. Parameterization of light scattering for solving the inverse problem of determining the concentrations of the principal light scattering and absorbing admixtures in shelf waters

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    Vadim N. Pelevin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for estimating the water backscattering coefficient was put forward on the basis of experimental data of diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance and irradiance reflectance. Calculations were carried out for open sea waters of different types and the spectral dependencies were found ("anomalous" spectra and explained. On this basis, a new model of light backscattering on particles in the sea is proposed. This model may be useful for modelling remote sensing reflectance spectra in order to solve the inverse problems of estimating the concentration of natural admixtures in shelf waters.

  14. CRYSTALLINE ADMIXTURES AND THEIR EFFECT ON SELECTED PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

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    Jiří Pazderka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been many experimental measurements of the waterproofing ability and durability of concrete with a crystalline admixture, but some other important properties have not been reliably tested yet. The results of the tests, carried out by the authors, showed that crystalline admixtures reduce the water vapor permeability of concrete by 16-20 %. The authors also carried out the water pressure test in different time intervals, during the initial phase of cement hydration. The test results have shown that the full waterproofing effect of concrete with a crystalline admixture is available approximately on the 12th day after the concrete creation. The crystalline admixture effect on the compressive strength of concrete was also the subject of the testing. The results have shown that the compressive strength of the concrete with a crystalline admixture (added in an amount of 2 % and the compressive strength of the specimens from concrete without admixture were almost identical after 28 days.

  15. Admixture in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Chacón-Duque, Juan Camilo; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    Latin Americans arguably represent the largest recently admixed populations in the world. This reflects a history of massive settlement by immigrants (mostly Europeans and Africans) and their variable admixture with Natives, starting in 1492. This process resulted in the population of Latin America showing an extensive genetic and phenotypic diversity. Here we review how genetic analyses are being applied to examine the demographic history of this population, including patterns of mating, population structure and ancestry. The admixture history of Latin America, and the resulting extensive diversity of the region, represents a natural experiment offering an advantageous setting for genetic association studies. We review how recent analyses in Latin Americans are contributing to elucidating the genetic architecture of human complex traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis Technique on Water Permeability in Concrete with Cold Joint considering Micro Pore Structure and Mineral Admixture

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    Se-Jin Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold joint in concrete due to delayed concrete placing may cause a reduced shear resistance and increased water permeation. This study presents an analytical model based on the concept of REV (Representative Element Volume to assess the effect of water permeability in cold joint concrete. Here, OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement concrete samples with cold joint are prepared and WPT (Water Permeability Test is performed on the samples cured for 91 days. In order to account for the effect of GGBFS (Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag on water permeability, concrete samples with the same W/B (Water to Binder ratio and 40% replacement ratio of GGBFS are tested as well. Utilizing the previous models handling porosity and saturation, the analysis technique for equivalent water permeability with effective cold joint width is proposed. Water permeability in cold joint increases to 140.7% in control case but it decreases to 120.7% through GGBFS replacement. Simulation results agree reasonably well with experimental data gathered for sound and cold joint concrete.

  17. Effective distribution coefficients of admixtures in plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofova, D. (Vitkovicke Zelezarny Klementa Gottwalda, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)); Kuchar, L.; Wozniakova, B. (Vysoka Skola Banska, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Nezeleznych Kovu a Jaderne Metalurgie)

    1980-01-01

    The values of effective distribution coefficients of Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Si in plutonium were determined on the basis of distributing these admixtures during zone refining of plutonium. The results confirm the theoretical assumptions for distributing admixtures in plutonium which were expressed in periodical dependence of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of admixtures in plutonium on the atomic number of admixture.

  18. Practical handling of AIO admixtures – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 10

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    Stanga, Z.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available All-in-one admixtures (AIO-admixtures provide safe, effective and low-risk PN (parenteral nutrition for practically all indications and applications. Water, energy (carbohydrates and lipids, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements are infused together with PN either as industrially-manufactured AIO admixtures provided as two- or three-chamber bags (shelf life usually more than 12 months completed with electrolytes and micronutrients where appropriate or as individually compounded ready-to-use AIO admixtures (compounding, usually prepared by a pharmacy on either a daily or weekly basis and stored at 2–8°C. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of an AIO admixture is essential for the safety and effectiveness of patient-specific PN, and its assurance requires specialist pharmaceutical knowledge. The stability should be documented for an application period of 24 (–48 hours. It is advisable to offer a limited selection of different PN regimes in each hospital. For reasons of drug and medication safety, PN admixtures prepared for individual patients must be correctly labelled and specifications for storage conditions must also be followed during transport. Monitoring is required where applicable. Micronutrients are usually administered separately to AIO admixtures. In case compatibility and stability have been well documented trace elements and/or combination preparations including water-soluble or water-soluble/fat soluble vitamin supplements can be added to PN admixtures under strict aseptic conditions. AIO admixtures are usually not used as vehicles for drugs (incompatibilities.

  19. The Potentials of Cassava Flour as a Set-Retarding Admixture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of cassava flour as a set-retarding admixture in concrete were investigated. Concrete mix proportion of 1:2:4 by weight of cement, sand and coarse aggregate and, water/cement ratio of 0.46 was made with six different dosage levels of cassava flour as admixture. The properties tested include setting time, ...

  20. Characteristics of Concrete with Admixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Roşca; P. Mihai

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, tremendous success has been achieved in the advancement of chemical admixtures for Portland cement concrete. Most efforts have centered on improving the properties of concrete with minimal investments by ready-mix suppliers and contractors in the way of specialized equipment or special skills and education of their labor forces. This approach has resulted in construction cost reductions and universally accepted ready-made remedies for unexpected problems during construction...

  1. Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

    1997-03-01

    Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.

  2. Admixture Indicative Interval (AII): a new approach to assess trends in genetic admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourjon, Géraud; Saliba-Serre, Bérengère; Degioanni, Anna

    2014-10-01

    The genetic admixture is a dynamic and diachronic process, taking place during a great number of generations. Consequently, a sole admixture rate does not represent such an event and several estimates could help to take into account its dynamics. We developed an Admixture Indicative Interval (AII) which gives a mathematical key to avoid this problem by integrating several admixture estimators and their respective accuracy into a single metric and provides a trend in genetic admixture. To illustrate AIIs interests in admixture studies, AII were calculated using seven estimators on two sets of simulated SNPs data generated under two different admixture scenarios and were then calculated from several published admixed population data: a Comorian population and several Puerto-Rican and Colombian populations for recent admixture events as well as European populations representing the Neolithic/Paleolithic admixture for an older event. Our method provides intervals taking properly the variability and accuracy of admixture estimates into account. The AII lays in the intuitive interval in all actual and simulated datasets and is not biased by divergent points by the mean of a double-weighting step. The great quantity of heterogeneous parental contributions is synthesized by a few AII, which turn out to be more manageable and meaningful than aplenty variable point estimates. This offers an improvement in admixture study, allowing a better understanding of migratory flows. Furthermore, it offers a better assessment of admixture than the arithmetic mean, and enhances comparisons between regions, samples, and between studies on same population.

  3. Characteristics of Concrete with Admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Roşca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, tremendous success has been achieved in the advancement of chemical admixtures for Portland cement concrete. Most efforts have centered on improving the properties of concrete with minimal investments by ready-mix suppliers and contractors in the way of specialized equipment or special skills and education of their labor forces. This approach has resulted in construction cost reductions and universally accepted ready-made remedies for unexpected problems during construction. The behavior of concrete improved with superplasticizers additives is studied.

  4. Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-07-01

    investigation. A reaction in trhich ,,on- dolomitic carbonate rocks pm-ticipate recently been discovered bt personnel at the ŕterways J:eri-’ent...C 233 (latest ed~Ition 3.909). Tenatie S-nefictios fr Riror Calcined Natur-al. Pozzoivis for Use in Portlatnd OCmcnt Ccornete, ASTA~ Dusicnation: C

  5. Expiry date guidelines for a centralized IV admixture service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, J W; Mighton-Eryou, L M

    1986-06-01

    Expiry date guidelines for a centralized pharmacy-based IV admixture program are documented. These guidelines form part of an overall quality assurance program for the IV admixture service. Factors affecting IV admixture expiry times include drug compatibility with the vehicle(s) and container, microbiological parameters, and established standards of practice for pharmacy-based IV admixture programs.

  6. Admixture in Mexico City: implications for admixture mapping of type 2 diabetes genetic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marignac, Veronica L; Valladares, Adan; Cameron, Emily; Chan, Andrea; Perera, Arjuna; Globus-Goldberg, Rachel; Wacher, Niels; Kumate, Jesús; McKeigue, Paul; O'Donnell, David; Shriver, Mark D; Cruz, Miguel; Parra, Esteban J

    2007-02-01

    Admixture mapping is a recently developed method for identifying genetic risk factors involved in complex traits or diseases showing prevalence differences between major continental groups. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is at least twice as prevalent in Native American populations as in populations of European ancestry, so admixture mapping is well suited to study the genetic basis of this complex disease. We have characterized the admixture proportions in a sample of 286 unrelated T2D patients and 275 controls from Mexico City and we discuss the implications of the results for admixture mapping studies. Admixture proportions were estimated using 69 autosomal ancestry-informative markers (AIMs). Maternal and paternal contributions were estimated from geographically informative mtDNA and Y-specific polymorphisms. The average proportions of Native American, European and, West African admixture were estimated as 65, 30, and 5%, respectively. The contributions of Native American ancestors to maternal and paternal lineages were estimated as 90 and 40%, respectively. In a logistic model with higher educational status as dependent variable, the odds ratio for higher educational status associated with an increase from 0 to 1 in European admixture proportions was 9.4 (95%, credible interval 3.8-22.6). This association of socioeconomic status with individual admixture proportion shows that genetic stratification in this population is paralleled, and possibly maintained, by socioeconomic stratification. The effective number of generations back to unadmixed ancestors was 6.7 (95% CI 5.7-8.0), from which we can estimate that genome-wide admixture mapping will require typing about 1,400 evenly distributed AIMs to localize genes underlying disease risk between populations of European and Native American ancestry. Sample sizes of about 2,000 cases will be required to detect any locus that contributes an ancestry risk ratio of at least 1.5.

  7. AS AN ADMIXTURE IN CONCRETE PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the cubes of the combination of PKHA/CaO and cement were higher for the. 7 and 14 days strength test but reduced drastically to values below that of OPC alone for the 28 days cube strength test. Keywords: palm kernel husk ash, free lime, admixture, accelerator, cement, compressive strength, setting time. 1. Introduction.

  8. Portland cement hydration in the presence of admixtures: black gram pulse and superplasticizer

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    Viveka Nand Dwivedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of admixtures such as black gram pulse (BGP and sulfonated naphthalene based superplasticizer (SP on the hydration of Portland cement has been studied. The hydration characteristics of OPC in the presence of BGP and SP were studied with the help of non evaporable water content determinations, calorimetric method, Mössbauer spectroscopic and atomic force microscopic techniques. Results have shown that both BGP and SP get adsorbed at the surface of cement and its hydration products. The hydration of Portland cement is retarded in the presence of both the admixtures and nanosize hydration products are formed.

  9. ADSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY DIFFERENT ADMIXTURES – A BATCH EQUILIBRIUM TEST STUDY

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    K. SHIVA PRASHANTH KUMAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wide variety of inorganic compounds such as nutrients and trace metals, organic chemicals, radioactive contaminants and pathogens are commonly present as contaminants in the groundwater. Migration of contaminants in soil involves important mechanisms such as molecular diffusion, dispersion under physical processes, adsorption, precipitation and oxidation - reduction under chemical processes and biodegradation under biological process. Cr (VI is a major and dangerous contaminant as per the ground water is concerned. There are numerous research work carried out with concentrated efforts by the researchers towards removal of Cr (VI contaminant from aqueous solutions. There are few studies relevant to Cr (VI removal with respect to utilization of low cost admixtures and also soil type. In the present study, different low cost admixtures like rice husk (RH, shredded tyre (ST and fly ash (FA are used to understand the performance in removal of Cr (VI from aqueous solution and also two different soil types are used along with the admixture. The results are discussed in terms of sorption capacity and performance of individual admixture and combination of admixture with soil in removal of contaminant. The fly ash, rice husk and shredded tyre admixtures are used and the results revealed that the shredded tyre showed higher performance in removal of contaminant concentration. Also, the soil which has more fine particle content (size<0.075 mm IS sieve showed reasonable reduction in concentration of contaminant at the lower levels of contaminant initial concentration. The sorption capacity results of Cr (VI contaminant, treated with various admixtures are further validated with the published work of other investigators. The shredded tyre (ST showed more adsorption capacity, i.e., 3.283 mg/g at pH of 4.8. For other admixtures, adsorption capacity value is varying in the range of 0.07 mg/g to 1.7 mg/g. Only in case of activated alumina and modified saw dust

  10. Experimental Study on Durability Improvement of Fly Ash Concrete with Durability Improving Admixture

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    Hong-zhu Quan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the durability of fly ash concrete, a series of experimental studies are carried out, where durability improving admixture is used to reduce drying shrinkage and improve freezing-thawing resistance. The effects of durability improving admixture, air content, water-binder ratio, and fly ash replacement ratio on the performance of fly ash concrete are discussed in this paper. The results show that by using durability improving admixture in nonair-entraining fly ash concrete, the compressive strength of fly ash concrete can be improved by 10%–20%, and the drying shrinkage is reduced by 60%. Carbonation resistance of concrete is roughly proportional to water-cement ratio regardless of water-binder ratio and fly ash replacement ratio. For the specimens cured in air for 2 weeks, the freezing-thawing resistance is improved. In addition, by making use of durability improving admixture, it is easier to control the air content and make fly ash concrete into nonair-entraining one. The quality of fly ash concrete is thereby optimized.

  11. Early hydration cement Effect of admixtures superplasticizers

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    Puertas, F.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Early hydration of portland cement with superplasticizer admixtures of different nature has been studied. These admixtures were: one based on melamine synthetic, other based on vinyl copolymer and other based on polyacrylate copolymers. The dosage of the formers were constant (1% weigth of cement and for the third, the influence of admixture dosage was also evaluated, giving dosage values among 1-0.3%. The pastes obtained were studied by conduction calorimetry, XRD and FTIR. Also the apparent fluidity was determined by "Minislump" test. The main results obtained were: a superplasticizers admixtures used, regardless of their nature and for the polycarboxilate one the dosage, retard the silicate hydration (specially, alite phase, b The ettringite formation is affected by the nature of the admixture. cA relationship between the dosage of admixture based on polycarboxilates and the time at the acceleration has been established. A lineal relation (y = 11.03 + 16.05x was obtained. From these results is possible to know, in function of dosage admixture, the time when the masive hydration products and the setting times are produced. Also the total heat releases in these reactions is independent of the nature and dosage of admixture, saying that in all cases the reactions are the same.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la hidratación inicial de un cemento portland aditivado con superplastificantes de diferente naturaleza. Dichos aditivos fueron: uno basado en melaminas sintéticas, otro en copolímeros vinilicos y otro en policarboxilatos. La dosificación de los dos primeros se fijó constante en 1% en peso con relación al cemento, mientras que para el tercero se evaluó, también, la influencia de la dosificación, tomando proporciones desde el 1% hasta el 0,3%. Las pastas obtenidas se estudiaron por: calorimetría de conducción, DRX y FTIR. También se determinó la fluidez de la pasta a través del ensayo del "Minislump ". Los

  12. Chemical, Mechanical, and Durability Properties of Concrete with Local Mineral Admixtures under Sulfate Environment in Northwest China

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    Qingke Nie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the vast Northwest China, arid desert contains high concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and other chemicals in the ground water, which poses serious challenges to infrastructure construction that routinely utilizes portland cement concrete. Rapid industrialization in the region has been generating huge amounts of mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slags from energy and metallurgical industries. These industrial by-products would turn into waste materials if not utilized in time. The present study evaluated the suitability of utilizing local mineral admixtures in significant quantities for producing quality concrete mixtures that can withstand the harsh chemical environment without compromising the essential mechanical properties. Comprehensive chemical, mechanical, and durability tests were conducted in the laboratory to characterize the properties of the local cementitious mineral admixtures, cement mortar and portland cement concrete mixtures containing these admixtures. The results from this study indicated that the sulfate resistance of concrete was effectively improved by adding local class F fly ash and slag, or by applying sulfate resistance cement to the mixtures. It is noteworthy that concrete containing local mineral admixtures exhibited much lower permeability (in terms of chloride ion penetration than ordinary portland cement concrete while retaining the same mechanical properties; whereas concrete mixtures made with sulfate resistance cement had significantly reduced strength and much increased chloride penetration comparing to the other mixtures. Hence, the use of local mineral admixtures in Northwest China in concrete mixtures would be beneficial to the performance of concrete, as well as to the protection of environment.

  13. A Generic Procedure for the Assessment of the Effect of Concrete Admixtures on the Sorption of Radionuclides on Cement: Concept and Selected Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, M.A.; Laube, A.; Van Loon, L.R

    2004-03-01

    A screening procedure is proposed for the assessment of the effect of concrete admixtures on the sorption of radionuclides by cement. The procedure is both broad and generic, and can thus be used as input for the assessment of concrete admixtures which might be used in the future. The experimental feasibility and significance of the screening procedure are tested using selected concrete admixtures: i.e. sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates, lignosulfonates, and a plasticiser used at PSI for waste conditioning. The effect of these on the sorption properties of Ni(II), Eu(III) and Th(IV) in cement is investigated using crushed Hardened Cement Paste (HCP), as well as cement pastes prepared in the presence of these admixtures. Strongly adverse effects on the sorption of the radionuclides tested are observed only in single cases, and under extreme conditions: i.e. at high ratios of concrete admixtures to HCP, and at low ratios of HCP to cement pore water. Under realistic conditions, both radionuclide sorption and the sorption of isosaccharinic acid (a strong complexant produced in cement-conditioned wastes containing cellulose) remain unaffected by the presence of concrete admixtures, which can be explained by the sorption of them onto the HCP. The pore-water concentrations of the concrete admixtures tested are thereby reduced to levels at which the formation of radionuclide complexes is no longer of importance. Further, the Langmuir sorption model, proposed for the sorption of concrete admixtures on HCP, suggests that the HCP surface does not become saturated, at least for those concrete admixtures tested. (author)

  14. Palm Kernel Husk Ash (PKHA) as an Admixture (Accelerator) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost all admixtures used in concrete production in Nigeria are imported. This study was carried out to determine the suitability of PKHA as an admixture, while still retaining the compressive strength characteristics. Results revealed that the setting time of the mixture of the PKHA and cement cube decreases as the ...

  15. Genetic admixture, self-reported ethnicity, self-estimated admixture, and skin pigmentation among Hispanics and Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Yann C; Miller, Geoffrey F; Shriver, Mark D

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between ethnicity and biology is of interest to anthropologists, biomedical scientists, and historians in understanding how human groups are constructed. Ethnic self-identification in recently admixed groups such as Hispanics, African Americans, and Native Americans (NA) is likely to be complex due to the heterogeneity in individual admixture proportions and social environments within these groups. This study examines the relationships between self-identified ethnicity, self-estimated admixture proportions, skin pigmentation, and genetic marker estimated admixture proportions. These measures were assessed using questionnaires, skin color measurements, and genotyping of a panel of 76 ancestry informative markers, among 170 Hispanics and NAs from New Mexico, a state known for its complex history of interactions between people of NA and European (EU) ancestry. Results reveal that NAs underestimate their degree of EU admixture, and that Hispanics underestimate their degree of NA admixture. Within Hispanics, genetic-marker estimated admixture is better predicted by forehead skin pigmentation than by self-estimated admixture. We also find that Hispanic individuals self-identified as "half-White, half Hispanic" and "Spanish" have lower levels of NA admixture than those self-identified as "Mexican" and "Mexican American." Such results highlight the interplay between culture and biology in how individuals identify and view themselves, and have implications for how ethnicity and disease risk are assessed in a medical setting.

  16. Habitat Predicts Levels of Genetic Admixture in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viranga Tilakaratna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic admixture can provide material for populations to adapt to local environments, and this process has played a crucial role in the domestication of plants and animals. The model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been domesticated multiple times for the production of wine, sake, beer, and bread, but the high rate of admixture between yeast lineages has so far been treated as a complication for population genomic analysis. Here, we make use of the low recombination rate at centromeres to investigate admixture in yeast using a classic Bayesian approach and a locus-by-locus phylogenetic approach. Using both approaches, we find that S. cerevisiae from stable oak woodland habitats are less likely to show recent genetic admixture compared with those isolated from transient habitats such as fruits, wine, or human infections. When woodland yeast strains do show recent genetic admixture, the degree of admixture is lower than in strains from other habitats. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae populations from oak woodlands are genetically isolated from each other, with only occasional migration between woodlands and local fruit habitats. Application of the phylogenetic approach suggests that there is a previously undetected population in North Africa that is the closest outgroup to the European S. cerevisiae, including the domesticated Wine population. Careful testing for admixture in S. cerevisiae leads to a better understanding of the underlying population structure of the species and will be important for understanding the selective processes underlying domestication in this economically important species.

  17. Learning with Admixture: Modeling, Optimization, and Applications in Population Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Jade Yu

    2016-01-01

    with the big data era. In this PhD dissertation, I present my work on methods and tools developed for two projects, Admixture CoalHMM and Ohana, both of which have been designed to study historical admixture and its influence on population evolution. In Admixture CoalHMM, I make use of full genomic sequences...... University dates back to 2007. CoalHMM is a hidden Markov model constructed on the foundation of coalescence theory with the key approximation that the distribution of local genealogies is Markovian along the sequence alignment. Through parametrized modeling, CoalHMM attempts to recover a full demography...

  18. Behavior of passive admixture in a vortical hydrodynamic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O.Bobrov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion of passive admixture of spherical particles in the stationary hydrodynamic field of a swirling flow is studied. A spherical particle of a given mass in the hydrodynamic field of a swirling flow is located on a certain circular orbit, where the centrifugal force is compensated by the radial drag force due to the sink. This leads to the separation of the host fluid and admixture. A theory of Brownian motion of admixture in dilute solutions with a non-uniform flow is constructed.

  19. Experimental Study on Modification of Concrete with Asphalt Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bołtryk, Michał; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Pawluczuk, Edyta

    2017-10-01

    Durability of engineering structures made of cement concrete with high compressive strength is a very vital issue, especially when they are exposed to different aggressive environments and dynamic loads. Concrete resistance to weathering actions and chemical attack can be improved by combined chemical and mechanical modification of concrete microstructure. Asphalt admixture in the form of asphalt paste (AP) was used for chemical modification of cement composite microstructure. Concrete structure was formed using special technology of compaction. A stand for vibro-vibropressing with regulated vibrator force and pressing force was developed. The following properties of the modified concrete were tested: compressive strength, water absorption, freeze-thaw resistance, scaling resistance in the presence of de-icing agents, chloride migration, resistance to CO2 and corrosion in aggressive solutions. Corrosion resistance was tested alternately in 1.8% solutions of NH4Cl, MgSO4, (NH2)2CO and CaCl2, which were altered every 7 days; the experiment lasted 9.5 months. Optimum compaction parameters in semi-industrial conditions were determined: ratio between piston stress (Qp ) and external top vibrator force (Po ) in the range 0.4÷-0.5 external top vibrator force 4 kN. High strength concretes with compressive strength fcm = 60÷70 MPa, very low water absorption (engineering constructions.

  20. Prestressed concrete bridge beams with microsilica admixture : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Microsilica fume admixture in concrete beams was used in two coastal bridges to reduce chloride permeability. Cylinders were cast from the beam mixture for strength and permeability tests. : The fabricator found no problems with making these beams, e...

  1. Prediction of the stability of meclofenoxate injection in parenteral admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiro, A; Fujita, T

    1981-05-01

    A new method for predicting pharmaceutical stability in parenteral admixtures was studied using meclofenoxate hydrochloride injection as a model preparation. The pH and temperature of clinical parenteral admixtures are not constant, unlike experimental buffer solutions, and it is impossible to predict the accurate degradation ratio by the preceding method described by many authors. This study provides a solution to this problem making possible the accurate prediction of degradation ratios of pharmaceuticals even in such complicated systems.

  2. Geographic patterns of genome admixture in Latin American Mestizos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region.

  3. Indian Siddis: African descendants with Indian admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anish M; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S; Bhaskar, L V K S; Reddy, Alla G; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2011-07-15

    The Siddis (Afro-Indians) are a tribal population whose members live in coastal Karnataka, Gujarat, and in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the Siddis to India from Africa about 300-500 years ago; however, there is little information about their more precise ancestral origins. Here, we perform a genome-wide survey to understand the population history of the Siddis. Using hundreds of thousands of autosomal markers, we show that they have inherited ancestry from Africans, Indians, and possibly Europeans (Portuguese). Additionally, analyses of the uniparental (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA) markers indicate that the Siddis trace their ancestry to Bantu speakers from sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate that the admixture between the African ancestors of the Siddis and neighboring South Asian groups probably occurred in the past eight generations (∼200 years ago), consistent with historical records. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of a biopolymer admixture on corrosion behaviour of steel rebars in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, S.; Bur, N.; Feugeas, F. [LGECO - LISS, INSA de Strasbourg, 24 bd de la Victoire, 67 084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Ferrari, G. [TNO Science and Industry, Bevesierweg, 1781 CA Den Helder (Netherlands); Tribollet, B. [UPR15 du CNRS, LISE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75 252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2010-12-15

    Among the multitude of concrete structure pathologies, corrosion of rebars is one of the most important problems of concrete durability. In the context of sustainable development, it appears of primary importance to develop new means to protect the rebars against corrosion. This study aims to develop a new eco-friendly and corrosion-inhibiting admixture based on EPS 180 exopolysaccharides, biopolymers used in coatings already studied for the corrosion inhibition on steel in seawater. C15 rebars embedded in CEMI and CEMV cement paste containing EPS 180 were immersed in natural seawater and their electrochemical behaviour was studied using open circuit potential measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These tests highlight the decrease of the cathodic reaction kinetics due to the EPS 180 action at the rebars surface, and the absence of effect on the passive layer. Capillary imbibition tests carried out on cement paste and mortars showed that although limiting the imbibition kinetics for cement pastes, the EPS 180 did not influence the water imbibition of mortars. Tests comparing capillary imbibition of soaked cement pastes and mortars with EPS 180 solution and the same samples containing the EPS 180 admixture highlight that the corrosion inhibition induced by EPS 180 admixture is more due to the modification of the cement - rebars interface than to the clogging of the cement porous network. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. The admixture structure and genetic variation of the archipelago of Cape Verde and its implications for admixture mapping studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Beleza

    Full Text Available Recently admixed populations offer unique opportunities for studying human history and for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits that differ in prevalence between human populations. Historical records, classical protein markers, and preliminary genetic data indicate that the Cape Verde islands in West Africa are highly admixed and primarily descended from European males and African females. However, little is known about the variation in admixture levels, admixture dynamics and genetic diversity across the islands, or about the potential of Cape Verde for admixture mapping studies. We have performed a detailed analysis of phenotypic and genetic variation in Cape Verde based on objective skin color measurements, socio-economic status (SES evaluations and data for 50 autosomal, 34 X-chromosome, and 21 non-recombinant Y-chromosome (NRY markers in 845 individuals from six islands of the archipelago. We find extensive genetic admixture between European and African ancestral populations (mean West African ancestry = 0.57, sd = 0.08, with individual African ancestry proportions varying considerably among the islands. African ancestry proportions calculated with X and Y-chromosome markers confirm that the pattern of admixture has been sex-biased. The high-resolution NRY-STRs reveal additional patterns of variation among the islands that are most consistent with differentiation after admixture. The differences in the autosomal admixture proportions are clearly evident in the skin color distribution across the islands (Pearson r = 0.54, P-value<2e-16. Despite this strong correlation, there are significant interactions between SES and skin color that are independent of the relationship between skin color and genetic ancestry. The observed distributions of admixture, genetic variation and skin color and the relationship of skin color with SES relate to historical and social events taking place during the settlement history of Cape Verde, and have

  6. Performance of alusilica as mineral admixture in cementitious systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Lin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    to the total binder mass (cement+ALS). The water/binder-ratio (w/b) is 0.5 for all mixtures. The produced ALS-substituted powder was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) to investigate if the ALS agglomerates in the raw material were broken by the grinding....... On hardened samples air content was additionally measured by point counting. The inclusion of ALS in the mortar as a mineral admixture with the cement substitution ratio of 10% resulted in a higher air content and lower flowability in comparison with the reference mortar. Compared with blending ALS during...... that ALS can be a useful cement substitution. For further tests it might be relevant to investigate the performance of ALS-systems at a low w/b, e.g. 0.3 and at higher temperatures, e.g. 40-60°C which is realistic to be encountered also in practice. For such conditions a more clear advantage of ALS...

  7. Plastic shrinkage of mortars with shrinkage reducing admixture and lightweight aggregates studied by neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrzykowski, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.wyrzykowski@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Trtik, Pavel [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Münch, Beat [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Weiss, Jason [Purdue University, School of Civil Engineering, West Lafayette (United States); Vontobel, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Lura, Pietro [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Water transport in fresh, highly permeable concrete and rapid water evaporation from the concrete surface during the first few hours after placement are the key parameters influencing plastic shrinkage cracking. In this work, neutron tomography was used to determine both the water loss from the concrete surface due to evaporation and the redistribution of fluid that occurs in fresh mortars exposed to external drying. In addition to the reference mortar with a water to cement ratio (w/c) of 0.30, a mortar with the addition of pre-wetted lightweight aggregates (LWA) and a mortar with a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) were tested. The addition of SRA reduced the evaporation rate from the mortar at the initial stages of drying and reduced the total water loss. The pre-wetted LWA released a large part of the absorbed water as a consequence of capillary pressure developing in the fresh mortar due to evaporation.

  8. EFFICIENT NANO-SCALE ADMIXTURE FOR FOAM STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CELLULAR CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishina Аnna Nikolaevna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors present their methodology of synthesis of a nano-scale additive designated for the stabilization of synthetic foaming agents. The nano-scale admixture is composed of iron hydroxide (III sol and aqueous sodium hydro silicates (water glass. Besides the above method, the topological structural model of the nano-scale additive is proposed. The additive stability was assessed upon its one-day storage (with the foaming agent added, and the assessment data are provided in the article. The authors have discovered that it is advisable to use an iron chloride solution in the concentration of 1 % to manufacture the iron hydroxide (III sol. The authors have also discovered that the rate of jellification goes up in the process of injecting the foaming agent into the foam that contains the nano-scale admixture developed by the authors. Dependence between the amount of sodium hydro silicate and the viscosity of the system composed of the water glass and the sol of iron hydroxide (III is examined in detail. The authors have identified that the average water glass viscosity curve demonstrates an extreme nature. The additive is used for the stabilization of the foam generated by synthetic foaming agents. The injection of the proposed additive improves foam stability. It is noteworthy that this positive result is free from any negative side effects.

  9. Survey of plutonium-admixture systems in the solidus-liquidus region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniakova, B.; Kuchar, L. (Vysoka Skola Banska, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Nezeleznych Kovu a Jaderne Metalurgie)

    1978-01-01

    A systematic study of the plutonium-admixture binary systems in the solidus-liquidus region was carried out. 28 binary plutonium-admixture diagrams were determined and for 14 of them the computations of solidus and liquidus curves and equilibrium distribution coefficients were made. The periodical dependence of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of admixtures in plutonium on the atomic number of an admixture was found.

  10. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxychloride cement (magnesia cement) has many superior properties to that of portland cement (Sorel 1867; Beau- din and Ramachandra 1975; Beaudin et al 1977). The chemical composition of the additive or admixture availa- ble in commercial grade is AlPO4. Little scientific data are available about its effect on ...

  11. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R.; Civit, Sergi

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient popu...

  12. Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhenxin; Silva, Pedro; Gronau, Ilan; Wang, Shuoguo; Armero, Aitor Serres; Schweizer, Rena M; Ramirez, Oscar; Pollinger, John; Galaverni, Marco; Ortega Del-Vecchyo, Diego; Du, Lianming; Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xing, Jinchuan; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Godinho, Raquel; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-02-01

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a widely distributed top predator and ancestor of the domestic dog. To address questions about wolf relationships to each other and dogs, we assembled and analyzed a data set of 34 canine genomes. The divergence between New and Old World wolves is the earliest branching event and is followed by the divergence of Old World wolves and dogs, confirming that the dog was domesticated in the Old World. However, no single wolf population is more closely related to dogs, supporting the hypothesis that dogs were derived from an extinct wolf population. All extant wolves have a surprisingly recent common ancestry and experienced a dramatic population decline beginning at least ∼30 thousand years ago (kya). We suggest this crisis was related to the colonization of Eurasia by modern human hunter-gatherers, who competed with wolves for limited prey but also domesticated them, leading to a compensatory population expansion of dogs. We found extensive admixture between dogs and wolves, with up to 25% of Eurasian wolf genomes showing signs of dog ancestry. Dogs have influenced the recent history of wolves through admixture and vice versa, potentially enhancing adaptation. Simple scenarios of dog domestication are confounded by admixture, and studies that do not take admixture into account with specific demographic models are problematic. © 2016 Fan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Statistics of admixture distribution in flows through rigid foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Petr; Le Fur, Pierre; Vlaskamp, Jozef; Williams, Mark; Fan, Xiaolei; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-11-01

    Diffusion and dispersion of admixture in flows through rigid foams need to be accounted for when modelling catalytic reactions on the foam surface. We study diffusion of admixture and scaling exponents of admixture concentration both experimentally and by numerical simulations. A liquid admixture was continuously released from a point source at the upstream boundary of a block of rigid SiC foam. Foam thickness was varied from 20 to 80 average pore sizes. A flow with Re of up to 300 based on the pore size was imposed by a progressive cavity pump. The distribution of the tracer at the exit from the foam was measured using LIF and the concentration moments have been calculated. Numerical simulation of the flow in laminar regime has been performed within OpenFoam for the Re from 1 to 100. Geometry of the sample was acquired by Micro Computed Tomography scanning of the actual foam sample. A steady-state SIMPLE method was used to solve the incompressible steady flow in the volume of 20 × 20 × 40 average pore sizes. Diffusion and dispersion of passive scalar has been studied by following individual streamlines. Results are interpreted in terms of mixing, heat transfer, and selectivity of catalytic reactions at the foam surface. This Research is supported by European Commission under the 7th Framework Program.

  14. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sánchez-Quinto

    Full Text Available One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North African locations and searched for their ancestral/derived state in comparison to different human populations and Neandertals. We found that North African populations have a significant excess of derived alleles shared with Neandertals, when compared to sub-Saharan Africans. This excess is similar to that found in non-African humans, a fact that can be interpreted as a sign of Neandertal admixture. Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with Neandertals.

  15. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R; Civit, Sergi; Arenas, Conxita; Avila-Arcos, María C; Bustamante, Carlos D; Comas, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North African locations and searched for their ancestral/derived state in comparison to different human populations and Neandertals. We found that North African populations have a significant excess of derived alleles shared with Neandertals, when compared to sub-Saharan Africans. This excess is similar to that found in non-African humans, a fact that can be interpreted as a sign of Neandertal admixture. Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with Neandertals.

  16. Infrared scan of concrete admixtures and structural steel paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluates correlation coefficients for concrete admixtures and structural steel paints by : performing IR scans using ASTM C494-05a specifications. The intent of this study is to perform a : sufficient number of IR scans from different bat...

  17. Estimating individual admixture proportions from next generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Inference of population structure and individual ancestry is important both for population genetics and for association studies. With next generation sequencing technologies it is possible to obtain genetic data for all accessible genetic variations in the genome. Existing methods for admixture a...

  18. Toxicity of coal fly ash (CFA) and toxicological response of switchgrass in mycorrhiza-mediated CFA-soil admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyemi, Olushola M; Dzantor, E Kudjo

    2017-10-01

    Increasing support for the use of Coal fly ash (CFA) in agriculture has necessitated a better understanding of the effects of the CFA in various cropping schemes. Experiments were conducted to assess mutagenic response of a mutant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (TA100) to varying concentrations of CFA-water extracts, determine oxidative stress in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) at varying levels of CFA-soil admixtures, and evaluate mycorrhiza-mediated modulation of oxidative stress responses of CFA-grown switchgrass. The TA100 exposed to 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% (w/v) CFA-water extracts elicited significant (p < 0.05) mutagenic responses at 20% and 25% extract levels but not below the 15% level. In greenhouse pot experiment, CFA-soil admixtures at 7.5% and 15% (w/w) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 19.1% and 28.3% respectively, compared to control soil (0% w/w CFA/soil). Under the same conditions, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased by 75.9% and 66.9%. In contrast to the antioxidant enzyme activities, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) an indicator of lipid peroxidation increased significantly (p < 0.05) by 30.49% and 38.38%. Inoculation of 7.5% and 15% CFA-soil admixtures with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Rhizophaga clarus enhanced the activities of both SOD and GPx in the switchgrass, while it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the levels of MDA. The study demonstrated that incorporation of CFA (at concentrations considered to be non-mutagenic against TA100) as soil amendment produced concentration-dependent oxidative stress responses in switchgrass; however, inoculation of the CFA-soil admixtures with AMF significantly modulated the oxidative stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of chemical admixtures and mineral additives on the properties of self-compacting mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Heru Ari Christianto; Ismail Ozgur Yaman [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Mortar serves as the basis for the workability properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and these properties could be assessed by self-compacting mortars (SCM). In fact, assessing the properties of SCM is an integral part of SCC design. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various mineral additives and chemical admixtures in producing SCMs. For this purpose, four mineral additives (fly ash, brick powder, limestone powder, and kaolinite), three superplasticizers (SP), and two viscosity modifying admixtures (VMA) were used. Within the scope of the experimental program, 43 mixtures of SCM were prepared keeping the amount of mixing water and total powder content (Portland cement and mineral additives) constant. Workability of the fresh mortar was determined using mini V-funnel and mini slump flow tests. The setting time of the mortars, were also determined. The hardened properties that were determined included ultrasonic pulse velocity and strength determined at 28 and 56 days. It was concluded that among the mineral additives used, fly ash and limestone powder significantly increased the workability of SCMs. On the other hand, especially fly ash significantly increased the setting time of the mortars, which can, however, be eliminated through the use of ternary mixtures, such as mixing fly ash with limestone powder. The two polycarboxyl based SPs yield approximately the same workability and the melamine formaldehyde based SP was not as effective as the other two.

  20. Alkali-activated complex binders from class C fly ash and Ca-containing admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolu; Shi, Huisheng; Chen, Liming; Dick, Warren A

    2010-01-15

    Processes that maximize utilization of industrial solid wastes are greatly needed. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution were used to create alkali-activated complex binders (AACBs) from class C fly ash (CFA) and other Ca-containing admixtures including Portland cement (PC), flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), and water treatment residual (WTR). Specimens made only from CFA (CFA100), or the same fly ash mixed with 40 wt% PC (CFA60-PC40), with 10 wt% FGDG (CFA90-FGDG10), or with 10 wt% WTR (CFA90-WTR10) had better mechanical performance compared to binders using other mix ratios. The maximum compressive strength of specimens reached 80.0 MPa. Geopolymeric gel, sodium polysilicate zeolite, and hydrated products coexist when AACB reactions occur. Ca from CFA, PC, and WTR precipitated as Ca(OH)(2), bonded in geopolymers to obtain charge balance, or reacted with dissolved silicate and aluminate species to form calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. However, Ca from FGDG probably reacted with dissolved silicate and aluminate species to form ettringite. Utilization of CFA and Ca-containing admixtures in AACB is feasible. These binders may be widely utilized in various applications such as in building materials and for solidification/stabilization of other wastes, thus making the wastes more environmentally benign.

  1. The phenotypic legacy of admixture between modern humans and Neanderthals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonti, Corinne N.; Vernot, Benjamin; Bastarache, Lisa; Bottinger, Erwin; Carrell, David S.; Chisholm, Rex L.; Crosslin, David R.; Hebbring, Scott J.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Li, Rongling; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Roden, Dan M.; Verma, Shefali S.; Tromp, Gerard; Prato, Jeffrey D.; Bush, William S.; Akey, Joshua M.; Denny, Joshua C.; Capra, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Many modern human genomes retain DNA inherited from interbreeding with archaic hominins, such as Neanderthals, yet the influence of this admixture on human traits is largely unknown. We analyzed the contribution of common Neanderthal variants to over 1,000 electronic health record (EHR)-derived phenotypes in ~28,000 adults of European ancestry. We discovered and replicated associations of Neanderthal alleles with neurological, psychiatric, immunological, and dermatological phenotypes. Neanderthal alleles together explain a significant fraction of the variation in risk for depression and skin lesions resulting from sun exposure (actinic keratosis), and individual Neanderthal alleles are significantly associated with specific human phenotypes, including hypercoagulation and tobacco use. Our results establish that archaic admixture influences disease risk in modern humans, provide hypotheses about the effects of hundreds of Neanderthal haplotypes and demonstrate the utility of EHR data in evolutionary analyses. PMID:26912863

  2. The phenotypic legacy of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonti, Corinne N; Vernot, Benjamin; Bastarache, Lisa; Bottinger, Erwin; Carrell, David S; Chisholm, Rex L; Crosslin, David R; Hebbring, Scott J; Jarvik, Gail P; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Li, Rongling; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Roden, Dan M; Verma, Shefali S; Tromp, Gerard; Prato, Jeffrey D; Bush, William S; Akey, Joshua M; Denny, Joshua C; Capra, John A

    2016-02-12

    Many modern human genomes retain DNA inherited from interbreeding with archaic hominins, such as Neandertals, yet the influence of this admixture on human traits is largely unknown. We analyzed the contribution of common Neandertal variants to over 1000 electronic health record (EHR)-derived phenotypes in ~28,000 adults of European ancestry. We discovered and replicated associations of Neandertal alleles with neurological, psychiatric, immunological, and dermatological phenotypes. Neandertal alleles together explained a significant fraction of the variation in risk for depression and skin lesions resulting from sun exposure (actinic keratosis), and individual Neandertal alleles were significantly associated with specific human phenotypes, including hypercoagulation and tobacco use. Our results establish that archaic admixture influences disease risk in modern humans, provide hypotheses about the effects of hundreds of Neandertal haplotypes, and demonstrate the utility of EHR data in evolutionary analyses. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Extensive Admixture and Selective Pressure Across the Sahel Belt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Triska, P.; Soares, P.; Patin, E.; Fernandes, V.; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 12 (2015), s. 3484-3495 ISSN 1759-6653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : genome-wide diversity * admixture * selection * Sahel Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 4.098, year: 2015 http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/12/3484.full.pdf+html

  4. Hazardous waste pollution prevention using clay with admixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Papita [Biotechnology Department, NIT - Durgapur, West Bengal (India); Datta, Siddhartha; Sanyal, Shyamal Kanti [Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)

    2008-02-15

    Landfill is the most commonly used method for disposal of waste materials since it is one of the least expensive methods. In order to dispose of any hazardous material to a landfill, a liner is used, which protects the underlying land and groundwater since it acts as a barrier to fluid movement. Of the various methods available for providing improved and more effective properties of landfills, methods involving the use of bentonite, cement, lime, gypsum, etc., have been explored in the laboratory. The aim is to overcome the problem and deficiencies of the existing liners. It is observed from the experimental results that the metal concentrations of the input waste solution can be reduced to 80-98% using a soil-cement admixture, 60-95% using a soil-gypsum mixture, 45-95% using a soil-bentonite mixture, 50-90% for soil, 35-80% using a soil-lime mixture, as liner materials. The permeation rate of different metals through the different soil-admixture media depends on various factors. A simple mathematical treatment of the phenomenon related to the permeation of liquid through the admixture of the clay and other components has been developed. The experimental results show satisfactory agreement with the predictions. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Experimental study of admixture on soil's physical and mechanical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zihong; Li, Tangyong; Yu, Dongke; Tang, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Li, Zhaochen; He, Dan

    2017-08-01

    Earth building is a traditional architectural form. With respect to environment protection, low cost, convenient advantages, its practical value is recognizing carefully. Due to poor mechanical properties and durability of earth, the development of earth building has been prevented. This experiment selects two kinds of soil. Sawdust and straw serve as admixture. More than 300 specimens have been performed to verify the effects of various factors on soil's physical and mechanical characteristics. Some useful characteristics are acquired by the experiment, such as soil's optimal moisture content, maximum dry density, optimal length of straw and contraction ratio. Testing the influence of admixture on soil's strength and deformation, this experiment shows that mixing straw and sawdust reduce soil's compressive and tensile strength. However, it may reduce soil's contraction ratio. Considering the influence of admixture on soil's contraction and strength, when soil 1 mixes with 0.1% sawdust, its contraction ratio decreases obviously and strength decreases slightly. It is a good choice according to the experiments.

  7. Complex history of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernot, Benjamin; Akey, Joshua M

    2015-03-05

    Recent analyses have found that a substantial amount of the Neandertal genome persists in the genomes of contemporary non-African individuals. East Asians have, on average, higher levels of Neandertal ancestry than do Europeans, which might be due to differences in the efficiency of purifying selection, an additional pulse of introgression into East Asians, or other unexplored scenarios. To better define the scope of plausible models of archaic admixture between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans, we analyzed patterns of introgressed sequence in whole-genome data of 379 Europeans and 286 East Asians. We found that inferences of demographic history restricted to neutrally evolving genomic regions allowed a simple one-pulse model to be robustly rejected, suggesting that differences in selection cannot explain the differences in Neandertal ancestry. We show that two additional demographic models, involving either a second pulse of Neandertal gene flow into the ancestors of East Asians or a dilution of Neandertal lineages in Europeans by admixture with an unknown ancestral population, are consistent with the data. Thus, the history of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals is most likely more complex than previously thought. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal properties of alkali-activated aluminosilicates with CNT admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmeskal, Oldrich; Trhlikova, Lucie; Fiala, Lukas; Florian, Pavel; Cerny, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Material properties of electrically conductive cement-based materials with increased attention paid on electric and thermal properties were often studied in the last years. Both electric and thermal properties play an important role thanks to their possible utilization in various practical applications (e.g. snow-melting systems or building structures monitoring systems without the need of an external monitoring system). The DC/AC characteristics depend significantly on the electrical resistivity and the electrical capacity of bulk materials. With respect to the DC/AC characteristics of cement-based materials, such materials can be basically classified as electric insulators. In order to enhance them, various conductive admixtures such as those based on different forms of carbon, can be used. Typical representatives of carbon-based admixtures are carbon nanotubes (CNT), carbon fibers (CF), graphite powder (GP) and carbon black (CB). With an adequate amount of such admixtures, electric properties significantly change and new materials with higher added value can be prepared. However, other types of materials can be enhanced in the same way. Alkali-activated aluminosilicates (AAA) based on blast furnace slag are materials with high compressive strength comparable with cement-based materials. Moreover, the price of slag is lower than of Portland cement. Therefore, this paper deals with the study of thermal properties of this promising material with different concentrations of CNT. Within the paper a simple method of basic thermal parameters determination based on the thermal transient response to a heat power step is presented.

  9. Effect of mineral admixtures on kinetic property and compressive strength of self Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagalur Mahalingasharma, Srishaila; Prakash, Parasivamurthy; Vishwanath, K. N.; Jawali, Veena

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents experimental investigations made on the influence of chemical, physical, morphological and mineralogical properties of mineral admixtures such as fly ash, ground granulate blast furnace slag, metakaoline and micro silica used as a replacement of cement in self compacting concrete on workability and compressive strength. Nineteen concrete mixes were cast by replacing with cement by fly ash or ground granulated blast furnace slag as binary blend at 30%, 40%, 50% and with addition of micro silica and metakaoline at 10% as a ternary blend with fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and obtained results were compare with control mix. Water powder ratio 0.3 and super plasticizer dosage 1% of cementitious material was kept constant for all the mixes. The self compacting concrete tested for slump flow, V-funnel, L-Box, J-Ring, T50, and compressive strength on concrete cube were determined at age of 3, 7, 28, 56, 90 days.

  10. Effect of Admixtures on the Yield Stresses of Cement Pastes under High Hydrostatic Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jae Yim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When cement-based materials are transported at a construction site, they undergo high pressures during the pumping process. The rheological properties of the materials under such high pressures are unknown, and estimating the workability of the materials after pumping is a complex problem. Among various influential factors on the rheology of concrete, this study investigated the effect of mineral and chemical admixtures on the high-pressure rheology. A rheometer was fabricated that could measure the rheological properties while maintaining a high pressure to simulate the pumping process. The effects of superplasticizer, silica fume, nanoclay, fly ash, or ground granulated blast furnace slag were investigated when mixed with two control cement pastes. The water-to-cement ratios were 0.35 and 0.50.

  11. The influence of shrinkage reducing admixtures on plastic shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Shrinkage reducing admixtures (SRAs are viable alternatives for reducing plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete. The objective of the present paper is to study early age plastic shrinkage in restrained concrete elements, where three different SRAs have been used. The influence of the admixture is analyzed through the following measurements: capillary pressure, evaporation, temperature evolution, crack evolution and settlement. The tests for studying the cracking and deformation were made on two different configurations (i.e., restrained prisms with reduced cross-section and restrained panel, in a wind tunnel, with controlled wind temperature and velocity. The conclusions obtained indicate the viability of the use of this type of admixture and the usefulness of the test methods.

    Los aditivos reductores de retracción (SRAs se plantean, hoy en día, como una alternativa viable para reducir la fisuración por retracción plástica. El objetivo del presente artículo es conocer mejor y predecir el comportamiento a primeras edades de la retracción plástica en elementos estructurales coaccionados, a los que se les ha añadido diversos aditivos reductores de retracción (tres tipos diferentes. Esta influencia se analiza a través de las siguientes propiedades: presión capilar, evaporación, evolución de temperaturas, evolución de fisuración, y deformaciones verticales de asentamiento. Los ensayos para estudiar la fisuración y las deformaciones se han realizado sobre diferentes configuraciones (prisma restringido con estrangulamiento y panel restringido, en un túnel de viento, con temperaturas y velocidades de viento controladas. Las conclusiones obtenidas señalan la viabilidad del empleo de este tipo de aditivos y la bondad de los métodos experimentales utilizados.

  12. A genomewide admixture mapping panel for Hispanic/Latino populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianyun; Bigham, Abigail W; Mei, Rui; Gutierrez, Gerardo; Weiss, Ken M; Brutsaert, Tom D; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Moore, Lorna G; Vargas, Enrique; McKeigue, Paul M; Shriver, Mark D; Parra, Esteban J

    2007-06-01

    Admixture mapping (AM) is a promising method for the identification of genetic risk factors for complex traits and diseases showing prevalence differences among populations. Efficient application of this method requires the use of a genomewide panel of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) to infer the population of origin of chromosomal regions in admixed individuals. Genomewide AM panels with markers showing high frequency differences between West African and European populations are already available for disease-gene discovery in African Americans. However, no such a map is yet available for Hispanic/Latino populations, which are the result of two-way admixture between Native American and European populations or of three-way admixture of Native American, European, and West African populations. Here, we report a genomewide AM panel with 2,120 AIMs showing high frequency differences between Native American and European populations. The average intermarker genetic distance is ~1.7 cM. The panel was identified by genotyping, with the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 500K array, a population sample with European ancestry, a Mesoamerican sample comprising Maya and Nahua from Mexico, and a South American sample comprising Aymara/Quechua from Bolivia and Quechua from Peru. The main criteria for marker selection were both high information content for Native American/European ancestry (measured as the standardized variance of the allele frequencies, also known as "f value") and small frequency differences between the Mesoamerican and South American samples. This genomewide AM panel will make it possible to apply AM approaches in many admixed populations throughout the Americas.

  13. Performance of alusilica as mineral admixture in cementitious systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Lin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2016-01-01

    air content and lower flowability in comparison with the reference mortar. Mortar with ALS substitution, exhibited a lower compressive strength as compared to the reference mortar. This can be accounted for by the higher air content. By appropriately adjusting the flow of the fresh mortar......-substituted powder was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). Flow of the fresh mortar, air content and mechanical properties of the hardening mortar were measured. The results show that the inclusion of ALS in the mortar as a mineral admixture resulted in a higher...

  14. Autosomal admixture levels are informative about sex bias in admixed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Amy; Verdu, Paul; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2014-11-01

    Sex-biased admixture has been observed in a wide variety of admixed populations. Genetic variation in sex chromosomes and functions of quantities computed from sex chromosomes and autosomes have often been examined to infer patterns of sex-biased admixture, typically using statistical approaches that do not mechanistically model the complexity of a sex-specific history of admixture. Here, expanding on a model of Verdu and Rosenberg (2011) that did not include sex specificity, we develop a model that mechanistically examines sex-specific admixture histories. Under the model, multiple source populations contribute to an admixed population, potentially with their male and female contributions varying over time. In an admixed population descended from two source groups, we derive the moments of the distribution of the autosomal admixture fraction from a specific source population as a function of sex-specific introgression parameters and time. Considering admixture processes that are constant in time, we demonstrate that surprisingly, although the mean autosomal admixture fraction from a specific source population does not reveal a sex bias in the admixture history, the variance of autosomal admixture is informative about sex bias. Specifically, the long-term variance decreases as the sex bias from a contributing source population increases. This result can be viewed as analogous to the reduction in effective population size for populations with an unequal number of breeding males and females. Our approach suggests that it may be possible to use the effect of sex-biased admixture on autosomal DNA to assist with methods for inference of the history of complex sex-biased admixture processes. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. An admixture analysis of age of onset in agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibi, Lee; van Oppen, Patricia; Aderka, Idan M; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; Anholt, Gideon E

    2015-07-15

    Age of onset is an important epidemiological indicator in characterizing disorders׳ subtypes according to demographic, clinical and psychosocial determinants. While investigated in various psychiatric conditions, age of onset and related characteristics in agoraphobia have yet to be examined. In light of the new diagnostic status in the DSM-5 edition of agoraphobia as independent from panic disorder, research on agoraphobia as a stand-alone disorder is needed. Admixture analysis was used to determine the best-fitting model for the observed ages at onset of 507 agoraphobia patients participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (age range 18-65). Associations between agoraphobia age of onset and different demographic, clinical and psychosocial determinants were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Admixture analyses identified two distributions of age of onset, with 27 as the cutoff age (≤27; early onset, >27; late onset). Early onset agoraphobia was only independently associated with family history of anxiety disorders (pagoraphobia was found to be 27. Early onset agoraphobia might constitute of a familial subtype. As opposed to other psychiatric disorders, early onset in agoraphobia does not indicate for increased clinical severity and/or disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance Using Bamboo Fiber Ash Concrete as Admixture Adding Superplasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Gunalaan

    2017-06-01

    The increasing demand on natural resources for housing provisions in developing countries have called for sourcing and use of sustainable local materials for building and housing delivery. Natural materials to be considered sustainable for building construction should be ‘green’ and obtained from local sources, including rapidly renewable plant materials like palm fronds and bamboo, recycled materials and other products that are reusable and renewable. Each year, tens of millions of tons of bamboo are utilized commercially, generating a vast amount of waste. Besides that, bamboo fiber is easy availability, low density, low production cost and satisfactory mechanical properties. One solution is to activate this waste by using it as an additive admixture in concrete to keep it out of landfills and save money on waste disposal. The research investigates the mechanical and physical properties of bamboo fiber powder in a blended Portland cement. The structural value of the bamboo fiber powder in a blended Portland cement was evaluated with consideration for its suitability in concrete. Varied percentage of bamboo fiber powder (BFP) at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% as an admixture in 1:2:4 concrete mixes. The workability of the mix was determined through slump; standard consistency test was carried on the cement. Compressive strength of hardened cured (150 x 150 x 150) mm concrete cubes at 7days, 14days and 28days were tested.

  17. Influence of shrinkage-reducing admixture on drying shrinkage and mechanical properties of high-performance concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quangphu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available High-performance concrete (HPC has specific performance advantages over conventional concrete in strength and durability. HPC mixtures are usually produced with water/binder mass ratios (mW/mB in the range of 0.2–0.4, so volume changes of concrete as a result of drying, chemical reactions, and temperature change cannot be avoided. For these reasons, shrinkage and cracking are frequent phenomena. It is necessary to add some types of admixture for reduction of shrinkage and cracking of HPC. This study used

  18. Neandertal Admixture in Eurasia Confirmed by Maximum-Likelihood Analysis of Three Genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, K.; Frantz, L.A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been much interest in estimating histories of divergence and admixture from genomic data, it has proved difficult to distinguish recent admixture from long-term structure in the ancestral population. Thus, recent genome-wide analyses based on summary statistics have sparked

  19. Strength characteristics of light weight concrete blocks using mineral admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, P.; Priyadharshini, U.; Gurucharan, S.; Mithunram, B.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the characteristics of light weight concrete blocks. Cement was partially replaced with mineral admixtures like Fly ash (FA), limestone powder waste (LPW), Rice husk ash (RHA), sugarcane fiber waste (SCW) and Chrysopogonzizanioides (CZ). The maximum replacement level achieved was 25% by weight of cement and sand. Total of 56 cubes (150 mm x 150 mm x150 mm) and 18 cylinders (100mmφ and 50mm depth) were cast. The specimens being (FA, RHA, SCW, LPW, CZ, (FA-RHA), (FA-LPW), (FA-CZ), (LPW-CZ), (FA-SCW), (RHA-SCW)).Among the different combination, FA,FA-SCW,CZ,FA-CZ showed enhanced strength and durability, apart from achieving less density.

  20. Techniques and methods of characterization of admixtures for the concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios, M.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Admixtures are defined as those products that are incorporated in the moment of the process of mixture of the concrete in a quantity not bigger than 5 by mass of the cement %, with relationship to the cement content in the concrete, with object of modifying the properties of the mixture in .state fresh and/or hardened. The behaviour of the admixtures depends on its chemical and ionic composition, the organic functional groups present, and the structure of the polymer and the distribution of molecular weight of the different polymers. In the present work the techniques and methods of characterization physical-chemistry, chemistry and ionic, structural, as well as of the polymers that constitute this admixtures, are described. A lot of techniques have been employed like: ionic chromatography, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-RMN and 13C-RMN, gel permeation chromatography (GPC. Two commercial admixtures have been selected to carry out this characterization, a superplastificant based on policarboxilates, and a reducer of the shrinkage based on polipropilenglycol.

    RESUMEN Se definen los aditivos como aquellos productos que son incorporados en el momento del amasado del hormigón en una cantidad no mayor del 5% en masa, con relación al contenido de cemento en el hormigón, con objeto de modificar las propiedades de la mezcla en estado fresco y/o endurecido. El comportamiento de los aditivos depende de su composición química e iónica, de los grupos funcionales orgánicos presentes, de la estructura del polímero y de la distribución de pesos moleculares de los diferentes polímeros que lo constituyen. En el presente trabajo se describen diferentes técnicas y métodos de caracterización físico-química, química e iónica, estructural, así como de los polímeros que

  1. Chimpanzee genomic diversity reveals ancient admixture with bonobos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Manuel, Marc; Kuhlwilm, Martin; Frandsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, have a complex demographic history. We analyzed the high-coverage whole genomes of 75 wild-born chimpanzees and bonobos from 10 countries in Africa. We found that chimpanzee population substructure makes genetic information a good predictor...... of geographic origin at country and regional scales. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that gene flow occurred from bonobos into the ancestors of central and eastern chimpanzees between 200,000 and 550,000 years ago, probably with subsequent spread into Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzees. Together with another......, possibly more recent contact (after 200,000 years ago), bonobos contributed less than 1% to the central chimpanzee genomes. Admixture thus appears to have been widespread during hominid evolution....

  2. Heterogeneity in Genetic Admixture across Different Regions of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Sergio; Via, Marc; Ziv, Elad; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Dejean, Cristina; Huntsman, Scott; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Dutil, Julie; Matta, Jaime L.; Beckman, Kenneth; Burchard, Esteban González; Parolin, María Laura; Goicoechea, Alicia; Acreche, Noemí; Boquet, Mariel; Ríos Part, María Del Carmen; Fernández, Vanesa; Rey, Jorge; Stern, Mariana C.; Carnese, Raúl F.; Fejerman, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The population of Argentina is the result of the intermixing between several groups, including Indigenous American, European and African populations. Despite the commonly held idea that the population of Argentina is of mostly European origin, multiple studies have shown that this process of admixture had an impact in the entire Argentine population. In the present study we characterized the distribution of Indigenous American, European and African ancestry among individuals from different regions of Argentina and evaluated the level of discrepancy between self-reported grandparental origin and genetic ancestry estimates. A set of 99 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sample of 441 Argentine individuals to estimate genetic ancestry. We used non-parametric tests to evaluate statistical significance. The average ancestry for the Argentine sample overall was 65% European (95%CI: 63–68%), 31% Indigenous American (28–33%) and 4% African (3–4%). We observed statistically significant differences in European ancestry across Argentine regions [Buenos Aires province (BA) 76%, 95%CI: 73–79%; Northeast (NEA) 54%, 95%CI: 49–58%; Northwest (NWA) 33%, 95%CI: 21–41%; South 54%, 95%CI: 49–59%; p<0.0001] as well as between the capital and immediate suburbs of Buenos Aires city compared to more distant suburbs [80% (95%CI: 75–86%) versus 68% (95%CI: 58–77%), p = 0.01]. European ancestry among individuals that declared all grandparents born in Europe was 91% (95%CI: 88–94%) compared to 54% (95%CI: 51–57%) among those with no European grandparents (p<0.001). Our results demonstrate the range of variation in genetic ancestry among Argentine individuals from different regions in the country, highlighting the importance of taking this variation into account in genetic association and admixture mapping studies in this population. PMID:22506044

  3. Genetic admixture and population substructure in Guanacaste Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The population of Costa Rica (CR represents an admixture of major continental populations. An investigation of the CR population structure would provide an important foundation for mapping genetic variants underlying common diseases and traits. We conducted an analysis of 1,301 women from the Guanacaste region of CR using 27,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped on a custom Illumina InfiniumII iSelect chip. The program STRUCTURE was used to compare the CR Guanacaste sample with four continental reference samples, including HapMap Europeans (CEU, East Asians (JPT+CHB, West African Yoruba (YRI, as well as Native Americans (NA from the Illumina iControl database. Our results show that the CR Guanacaste sample comprises a three-way admixture estimated to be 43% European, 38% Native American and 15% West African. An estimated 4% residual Asian ancestry may be within the error range. Results from principal components analysis reveal a correlation between genetic and geographic distance. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD measured by the number of tagging SNPs required to cover the same region in the genome in the CR Guanacaste sample appeared to be weaker than that observed in CEU, JPT+CHB and NA reference samples but stronger than that of the HapMap YRI sample. Based on the clustering pattern observed in both STRUCTURE and principal components analysis, two subpopulations were identified that differ by approximately 20% in LD block size averaged over all LD blocks identified by Haploview. We also show in a simulated association study conducted within the two subpopulations, that the failure to account for population stratification (PS could lead to a noticeable inflation in the false positive rate. However, we further demonstrate that existing PS adjustment approaches can reduce the inflation to an acceptable level for gene discovery.

  4. Heterogeneity in genetic admixture across different regions of Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Avena

    Full Text Available The population of Argentina is the result of the intermixing between several groups, including Indigenous American, European and African populations. Despite the commonly held idea that the population of Argentina is of mostly European origin, multiple studies have shown that this process of admixture had an impact in the entire Argentine population. In the present study we characterized the distribution of Indigenous American, European and African ancestry among individuals from different regions of Argentina and evaluated the level of discrepancy between self-reported grandparental origin and genetic ancestry estimates. A set of 99 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs was genotyped in a sample of 441 Argentine individuals to estimate genetic ancestry. We used non-parametric tests to evaluate statistical significance. The average ancestry for the Argentine sample overall was 65% European (95%CI: 63-68%, 31% Indigenous American (28-33% and 4% African (3-4%. We observed statistically significant differences in European ancestry across Argentine regions [Buenos Aires province (BA 76%, 95%CI: 73-79%; Northeast (NEA 54%, 95%CI: 49-58%; Northwest (NWA 33%, 95%CI: 21-41%; South 54%, 95%CI: 49-59%; p<0.0001] as well as between the capital and immediate suburbs of Buenos Aires city compared to more distant suburbs [80% (95%CI: 75-86% versus 68% (95%CI: 58-77%, p = 0.01]. European ancestry among individuals that declared all grandparents born in Europe was 91% (95%CI: 88-94% compared to 54% (95%CI: 51-57% among those with no European grandparents (p<0.001. Our results demonstrate the range of variation in genetic ancestry among Argentine individuals from different regions in the country, highlighting the importance of taking this variation into account in genetic association and admixture mapping studies in this population.

  5. Influence of shrinkage-reducing admixture on drying shrinkage and mechanical properties of high-performance concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quangphu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: High-performance concrete (HPC has specific performance advantages over conventional concrete in strength and durability. HPC mixtures are usually produced with water/binder mass ratios (mW/mB in the range of 0.2-0.4, so volume changes of concrete as a result of drying, chemical reactions, and temperature change cannot be avoided. For these reasons, shrinkage and cracking are frequent phenomena. It is necessary to add some types of admixture for reduction of shrinkage and cracking of HPC. This study used a shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA for that purpose. Concrete was prepared with two different mW/mB (0.22 and 0.40 and four different mass fractions of SRA to binder (w(SRA = 0%, 1%, 2%, and 4%. The mineral admixtures used for concrete mixes were: 25% fly ash (FA and 25% slag by mass of binder for the mixture with mW/mB = 0.40, and 15% silica fume (SF and 25% FA for the mixture with mW/mB = 0.22. Tests were conducted on 24 prismatic specimens, and shrinkage strains were measured through 120 days of drying. Compressive strength, splitting strength, and static modulus of elasticity were also determined. The results show that the SRA effectively reduces some mechanical properties of HPC. The reductions in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and elastic modulus of the concrete were 7%-24%, 9%-19%, and 5%-12%, respectively, after 90 days, compared to concrete mixtures without SRA. SRA can also help reduce drying shrinkage of concrete. The shrinkage strains of HPC with SRA were only as high as 41% of the average free shrinkage of concrete without SRA after 120 days of drying.

  6. Fourth CANMET/ACI/JCI International Conference. Chemical admixture (6); CANMET/ACI/JCI dai 4 kai kokusai kaigi yori. Kagaku konwazai (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-10

    Zhor et al. (Canada) reported the results of examination on the evaluation test methods of lignosulfonic acid salt, including Vicar needle test using paste, flow test using mortar, mini-slump test, and mini-flow test. Shiba et al. (Kao Corp.) reported that they investigated on the properties of high-fluidity concrete using a new high-performance water reducing agent of polyester type, and found its effectiveness for quality improvement and noise reduction. Ambroise et al. (France) discussed the utilization of precipitated silica as an admixture material for self-compacting concrete. Kushihashi et al. (Denki Kagaku Co.) reported that they conducted the comparison test of a newly developed O-type expansive admixture material with the conventional K-type, and found better expansion of O-type. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Effect of polycarboxylate admixture structure on cement paste rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda, M. A. G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of the structural differences in four polycarboxylate and polyether admixtures on the rheological properties of cement pastes with different chemical and mineralogical compositions and different active additions (CEM I 42.5 R, CEM I 52.5 R, CEM I 52.5 N/SR, CEM II/AV 42.5R, CEM II/B-L 32.5 R, CEM III/B 32.5R, BL I 52.5R and CAC – European standard EN 197-1:2000. The results of the minislump test concurred with the variations observed in the values of the rheological parameters (shear stress and plastic viscosity. The structural characteristic of the admixtures found to play the most prominent role in their fluidizing effect was the proportion of carboxylate (CG and polyether (EG group components. In cements characteristics such as fineness and the C3A/calcium sulphate and C3S/C3A ratios were also observed to be essential to admixture effectiveness. In this regard, the rheological parameters varied most widely in CEM I 52.5N/SR pastes and least in BL I 52.5R cement pastes. Of the additioned cements, the CEM III/B 32.5R pastes, which contained granulated blast furnace slag, showed the highest rises in flowability. Finally, the fluidizing effect of polycarboxylate superplasticizers was much more intense in calcium aluminate cements, although flowability declined rapidly in this material.El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar el efecto de las diferencias estructurales de cuatro aditivos basados en policarboxilatos y poliéteres sobre las propiedades reológicas de pastas de cemento con diferente composición química, mineralógica y con distintas adiciones activas (CEM I 42,5 R, CEM I 52,5 R, CEM I 52,5 N/SR, CEM II/AV 42,5R, CEM II/ B-L 32,5 R, CEM III/B 32,5R, BL I 52,5R y CAC - Norma EN 197-1:2000. Los resultados obtenidos sobre la fluidez de la pasta en el ensayo del “Minislump” coinciden con la evolución de los valores de los parámetros reológicos (esfuerzo de

  8. A Genome-Wide Search for Greek and Jewish Admixture in the Kashmiri Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Jonathan M; Tashi, Tsewang; Lorenzo, Felipe Ramos; Feusier, Julie Ellen; Mir, Hyder; Prchal, Josef T; Jorde, Lynn B; Koul, Parvaiz A

    2016-01-01

    The Kashmiri population is an ethno-linguistic group that resides in the Kashmir Valley in northern India. A longstanding hypothesis is that this population derives ancestry from Jewish and/or Greek sources. There is historical and archaeological evidence of ancient Greek presence in India and Kashmir. Further, some historical accounts suggest ancient Hebrew ancestry as well. To date, it has not been determined whether signatures of Greek or Jewish admixture can be detected in the Kashmiri population. Using genome-wide genotyping and admixture detection methods, we determined there are no significant or substantial signs of Greek or Jewish admixture in modern-day Kashmiris. The ancestry of Kashmiri Tibetans was also determined, which showed signs of admixture with populations from northern India and west Eurasia. These results contribute to our understanding of the existing population structure in northern India and its surrounding geographical areas.

  9. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia...

  10. Aerosol Characteristics of Admixture of Budesonide Inhalation Suspension with a Beta2-Agonist, Procaterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiko Itazawa

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: There is a possibility that admixture might influence of aerodynamic characteristics of procaterol, but not budesonide. In vivo data will be needed for the clinical implications of our findings.

  11. Adding value to cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm information with domestication history and admixture mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, Maria; Pugh, Tatiana; Cros, Emile; Morales, Sonia; Portillo Páez, Elvis A; Courtois, Brigitte; Glaszmann, Jean Christophe; Engels, Jan M M; Phillips, Wilbert; Astorga, Carlos; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Fouet, Olivier; González, Ventura; Rosenberg, Kai; Vallat, Isabelle; Dagert, Manuel; Lanaud, Claire

    2007-03-01

    A sound understanding of crop history can provide the basis for deriving novel genetic information through admixture mapping. We confirmed this, by using characterization data from an international collection of cocoa, collected 25 years ago, and from a contemporary plantation. We focus on the trees derived from three centuries of admixture between Meso-American Criollo and South American Forastero genomes. In both cacao sets of individuals, linkage disequilibrium extended over long genetic distances along chromosome regions, as expected in populations derived from recent admixture. Based on loose genome scans, genomic regions involved in useful traits were identified. Fifteen genomic regions involved in seed and fruit weight variation were highlighted. They correspond to ten previously identified QTLs and five novel ones. Admixture mapping can help to add value to genetic resources and thus, help to encourage investment in their conservation.

  12. Effect of Waterproofing Admixtures on the Flexural Strength and Corrosion Resistance of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, A.; Perumal, P.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals about the flexural strength and corrosion behaviour of concrete using waterproofing admixtures. The effect of waterproofing admixtures on the corrosion behaviour of RCC specimen has been studied by conducting accelerated corrosion test. To identify the effect of corrosion in pull out strength, corrosion process was induced by means of accelerated corrosion procedure. To accelerate the reinforcement corrosion, direct electric current was impressed on the rebar embedded in the specimen using a DC power supply system that has a facility to adjust voltage. The addition of waterproofing admixtures also shows the improvement in the flexural strength of concrete has been studied by conducting flexural strength tests on the concrete prism specimen of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm with and without admixtures for various dosages and various curing periods of 7 and 28 days. The results showed that the presence of waterproofing admixtures always improves the corrosion resistance and thus increases the strength of concrete due to the hydrophobic action of waterproofing admixtures.

  13. Chemical stability of admixtures combining ziconotide with baclofen during simulated intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David; Montenegro, Rick; Aclan, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    Objective.  To determine the stability of admixtures combining ziconotide with commercially formulated or powdered baclofen during simulated intrathecal infusion under laboratory conditions at 37°. Materials and Methods.  Admixtures of ziconotide (25 µg/mL) with commercially formulated (1.5 mg/mL) or powdered (2.0 mg/mL) baclofen were stored in implantable intrathecal pumps at 37°. Drug concentrations were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography, and the length of time that the concentrations of both drugs remained ≥90% and ≥80% of initial (ie, the 90% and 80% stability, respectively) was estimated based on lower 95% confidence bounds obtained via linear regression. Results.  Baclofen was stable in both admixtures. In the commercially formulated baclofen admixture, the mean ziconotide concentration declined to 82.2% of initial in 30 days; the estimates for 90% and 80% stability were 12 and 29 days, respectively. In the powdered baclofen admixture, the mean ziconotide concentration declined to 87.4% of initial in 30 days; the estimates for 90% and 80% stability were 20 and 41 days, respectively. Conclusion.  Ziconotide-baclofen admixtures were more stable when prepared using powdered baclofen rather than a commercial baclofen formulation.

  14. A Novel Admixture-Based Pharmacogenetic Approach to Refine Warfarin Dosing in Caribbean Hispanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Duconge

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at developing a novel admixture-adjusted pharmacogenomic approach to individually refine warfarin dosing in Caribbean Hispanic patients.A multiple linear regression analysis of effective warfarin doses versus relevant genotypes, admixture, clinical and demographic factors was performed in 255 patients and further validated externally in another cohort of 55 individuals.The admixture-adjusted, genotype-guided warfarin dosing refinement algorithm developed in Caribbean Hispanics showed better predictability (R2 = 0.70, MAE = 0.72mg/day than a clinical algorithm that excluded genotypes and admixture (R2 = 0.60, MAE = 0.99mg/day, and outperformed two prior pharmacogenetic algorithms in predicting effective dose in this population. For patients at the highest risk of adverse events, 45.5% of the dose predictions using the developed pharmacogenetic model resulted in ideal dose as compared with only 29% when using the clinical non-genetic algorithm (p<0.001. The admixture-driven pharmacogenetic algorithm predicted 58% of warfarin dose variance when externally validated in 55 individuals from an independent validation cohort (MAE = 0.89 mg/day, 24% mean bias.Results supported our rationale to incorporate individual's genotypes and unique admixture metrics into pharmacogenetic refinement models in order to increase predictability when expanding them to admixed populations like Caribbean Hispanics.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01318057.

  15. Estimating individual admixture proportions from next generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Inference of population structure and individual ancestry is important both for population genetics and for association studies. With next generation sequencing technologies it is possible to obtain genetic data for all accessible genetic variations in the genome. Existing methods for admixture analysis rely on known genotypes. However, individual genotypes cannot be inferred from low-depth sequencing data without introducing errors. This article presents a new method for inferring an individual's ancestry that takes the uncertainty introduced in next generation sequencing data into account. This is achieved by working directly with genotype likelihoods that contain all relevant information of the unobserved genotypes. Using simulations as well as publicly available sequencing data, we demonstrate that the presented method has great accuracy even for very low-depth data. At the same time, we demonstrate that applying existing methods to genotypes called from the same data can introduce severe biases. The presented method is implemented in the NGSadmix software available at http://www.popgen.dk/software.

  16. Admixture mapping of lung cancer in 1812 African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Bock, Cathryn H; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chen, Wei; Cote, Michele L; Artis, Amanda S; Van Dyke, Alison L; Land, Susan J; Harris, Curtis C; Pine, Sharon R; Spitz, Margaret R; Amos, Christopher I; Levin, Albert M; McKeigue, Paul M

    2011-03-01

    Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The African-American population has been underrepresented in these genetic studies and has patterns of cigarette use and linkage disequilibrium that differ from patterns in other populations. Therefore, studies in African-Americans can provide complementary data to localize lung cancer susceptibility genes and explore smoking dependence-related genes. We used admixture mapping to further characterize genetic risk of lung cancer in a series of 837 African-American lung cancer cases and 975 African-American controls genotyped at 1344 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Both case-only and case-control analyses were conducted using ADMIXMAP adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, family history of lung cancer, history of emphysema and study site. In case-only analyses, excess European ancestry was observed over a wide region on chromosome 1 with the largest excess seen at rs6587361 for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Z-score = -4.33; P = 1.5 × 10⁻⁵) and for women with NSCLC (Z-score = -4.82; P = 1.4 × 10⁻⁶). Excess African ancestry was also observed on chromosome 3q with a peak Z-score of 3.33 (P = 0.0009) at rs181696 among ever smokers with NSCLC. These results add to the findings from the GWAS in Caucasian populations and suggest novel regions of interest.

  17. Implications of the admixture process in skin color molecular assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Caio Cesar Silva de; Hünemeier, Tábita; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Ramallo, Virgínia; Volasko-Krause, Carla Daiana; Barbosa, Ana Angélica Leal; Vargas-Pinilla, Pedro; Dornelles, Rodrigo Ciconet; Longo, Danaê; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; González-José, Rolando; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Callegari-Jacques, Sídia Maria; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Cátira Bortolini, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the complex genotype-phenotype architecture of human pigmentation has clear implications for the evolutionary history of humans, as well as for medical and forensic practices. Although dozens of genes have previously been associated with human skin color, knowledge about this trait remains incomplete. In particular, studies focusing on populations outside the European-North American axis are rare, and, until now, admixed populations have seldom been considered. The present study was designed to help fill this gap. Our objective was to evaluate possible associations of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within nine genes, and one pseudogene with the Melanin Index (MI) in two admixed Brazilian populations (Gaucho, N = 352; Baiano, N = 148) with different histories of geographic and ethnic colonization. Of the total sample, four markers were found to be significantly associated with skin color, but only two (SLC24A5 rs1426654, and SLC45A2 rs16891982) were consistently associated with MI in both samples (Gaucho and Baiano). Therefore, only these 2 SNPs should be preliminarily considered to have forensic significance because they consistently showed the association independently of the admixture level of the populations studied. We do not discard that the other two markers (HERC2 rs1129038 and TYR rs1126809) might be also relevant to admixed samples, but additional studies are necessary to confirm the real importance of these markers for skin pigmentation. Finally, our study shows associations of some SNPs with MI in a modern Brazilian admixed sample, with possible applications in forensic genetics. Some classical genetic markers in Euro-North American populations are not associated with MI in our sample. Our results point out the relevance of considering population differences in selecting an appropriate set of SNPs as phenotype predictors in forensic practice.

  18. Implications of the admixture process in skin color molecular assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar Silva de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available The understanding of the complex genotype-phenotype architecture of human pigmentation has clear implications for the evolutionary history of humans, as well as for medical and forensic practices. Although dozens of genes have previously been associated with human skin color, knowledge about this trait remains incomplete. In particular, studies focusing on populations outside the European-North American axis are rare, and, until now, admixed populations have seldom been considered. The present study was designed to help fill this gap. Our objective was to evaluate possible associations of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, located within nine genes, and one pseudogene with the Melanin Index (MI in two admixed Brazilian populations (Gaucho, N = 352; Baiano, N = 148 with different histories of geographic and ethnic colonization. Of the total sample, four markers were found to be significantly associated with skin color, but only two (SLC24A5 rs1426654, and SLC45A2 rs16891982 were consistently associated with MI in both samples (Gaucho and Baiano. Therefore, only these 2 SNPs should be preliminarily considered to have forensic significance because they consistently showed the association independently of the admixture level of the populations studied. We do not discard that the other two markers (HERC2 rs1129038 and TYR rs1126809 might be also relevant to admixed samples, but additional studies are necessary to confirm the real importance of these markers for skin pigmentation. Finally, our study shows associations of some SNPs with MI in a modern Brazilian admixed sample, with possible applications in forensic genetics. Some classical genetic markers in Euro-North American populations are not associated with MI in our sample. Our results point out the relevance of considering population differences in selecting an appropriate set of SNPs as phenotype predictors in forensic practice.

  19. Inferring separate parental admixture components in unknown DNA samples using autosomal SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Daniel J M; Weale, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    The identification of ancestral admixture proportions for human DNA samples has recently had success in forensic cases. Current methods infer admixture proportions for the target sample, but not for their parents, which provides an additional layer of information that may aid certain forensic investigations. We describe new maximum likelihood methods (LEAPFrOG and LEAPFrOG Expectation Maximisation), for inferring both an individual's admixture proportions and the admixture proportions possessed by the unobserved parents, with respect to two or more source populations, using single-nucleotide polymorphism data typed only in the target individual. This is achieved by examining the increase in heterozygosity in the offspring of parents who are from different populations or who represent different mixtures from a number of source populations. We validated the methods via simulation; combining chromosomes from different Hapmap Phase III population samples to emulate first-generation admixture. Performance was strong for individuals with mixed African/European (YRI/CEU) ancestry, but poor for mixed Japanese/Chinese (JPT/CHB) ancestry, reflecting the difficulty in distinguishing closely related source populations. A total of 11 African-American trios were used to compare the parental admixture inferred from their own genotypes against that inferred purely from their offspring genotypes. We examined the performance of 34 ancestry informative markers from a multiplex kit for ancestry inference. Simulations showed that estimates were unreliable when parents had similar admixture, suggesting more markers are needed. Our results demonstrate that ancestral backgrounds of case samples and their parents are obtainable to aid in forensic investigations, provided that high-throughput methods are adopted by the forensic community.

  20. Retardation effect of different alcohols on the cement coagulation in polycarboxylate- and naphthalene-based cement admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. M.; Zhou, F. L.

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol has great potential to delay the coagulation of cement. The effects of alcohol on paste fluidity and normal consistency coagulation time have been studied for polycarboxylate superplasticizer and naphthene cement admixture. Seven alcohols were combined with polycarboxylate superplasticizer and naphthene at a concentration of 0.01-0.09%, respectively, including n-propanol, methanol, sorbitol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, ethanol, and mannitol. The fluidity and normal consistency coagulation time of each cement admixture were measured. The performance of both polycarboxylate superplasticizer and naphthene cement admixtures were compared to develop cement admixture with delayed coagulation.

  1. The time and place of European admixture in Ashkenazi Jewish history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Xue

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ population is important in genetics due to its high rate of Mendelian disorders. AJ appeared in Europe in the 10th century, and their ancestry is thought to comprise European (EU and Middle-Eastern (ME components. However, both the time and place of admixture are subject to debate. Here, we attempt to characterize the AJ admixture history using a careful application of new and existing methods on a large AJ sample. Our main approach was based on local ancestry inference, in which we first classified each AJ genomic segment as EU or ME, and then compared allele frequencies along the EU segments to those of different EU populations. The contribution of each EU source was also estimated using GLOBETROTTER and haplotype sharing. The time of admixture was inferred based on multiple statistics, including ME segment lengths, the total EU ancestry per chromosome, and the correlation of ancestries along the chromosome. The major source of EU ancestry in AJ was found to be Southern Europe (≈60-80% of EU ancestry, with the rest being likely Eastern European. The inferred admixture time was ≈30 generations ago, but multiple lines of evidence suggest that it represents an average over two or more events, pre- and post-dating the founder event experienced by AJ in late medieval times. The time of the pre-bottleneck admixture event, which was likely Southern European, was estimated to ≈25-50 generations ago.

  2. Assessment of coyote-wolf-dog admixture using ancestry-informative diagnostic SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzón, J; Kays, R; Dykhuizen, D E

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary importance of hybridization as a source of new adaptive genetic variation is rapidly gaining recognition. Hybridization between coyotes and wolves may have introduced adaptive alleles into the coyote gene pool that facilitated an expansion in their geographic range and dietary niche. Furthermore, hybridization between coyotes and domestic dogs may facilitate adaptation to human-dominated environments. We genotyped 63 ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 427 canids to examine the prevalence, spatial distribution and the ecology of admixture in eastern coyotes. Using multivariate methods and Bayesian clustering analyses, we estimated the relative contributions of western coyotes, western and eastern wolves, and domestic dogs to the admixed ancestry of Ohio and eastern coyotes. We found that eastern coyotes form an extensive hybrid swarm, with all our samples having varying levels of admixture. Ohio coyotes, previously thought to be free of admixture, are also highly admixed with wolves and dogs. Coyotes in areas of high deer density are genetically more wolf-like, suggesting that natural selection for wolf-like traits may result in local adaptation at a fine geographic scale. Our results, in light of other previously published studies of admixture in Canis, revealed a pattern of sex-biased hybridization, presumably generated by male wolves and dogs mating with female coyotes. This study is the most comprehensive genetic survey of admixture in eastern coyotes and demonstrates that the frequency and scope of hybridization can be quantified with relatively few ancestry-informative markers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The time and place of European admixture in Ashkenazi Jewish history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, James; Lencz, Todd; Darvasi, Ariel; Pe'er, Itsik; Carmi, Shai

    2017-04-01

    The Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population is important in genetics due to its high rate of Mendelian disorders. AJ appeared in Europe in the 10th century, and their ancestry is thought to comprise European (EU) and Middle-Eastern (ME) components. However, both the time and place of admixture are subject to debate. Here, we attempt to characterize the AJ admixture history using a careful application of new and existing methods on a large AJ sample. Our main approach was based on local ancestry inference, in which we first classified each AJ genomic segment as EU or ME, and then compared allele frequencies along the EU segments to those of different EU populations. The contribution of each EU source was also estimated using GLOBETROTTER and haplotype sharing. The time of admixture was inferred based on multiple statistics, including ME segment lengths, the total EU ancestry per chromosome, and the correlation of ancestries along the chromosome. The major source of EU ancestry in AJ was found to be Southern Europe (≈60-80% of EU ancestry), with the rest being likely Eastern European. The inferred admixture time was ≈30 generations ago, but multiple lines of evidence suggest that it represents an average over two or more events, pre- and post-dating the founder event experienced by AJ in late medieval times. The time of the pre-bottleneck admixture event, which was likely Southern European, was estimated to ≈25-50 generations ago.

  4. Regional admixture mapping and structured association testing: conceptual unification and an extensible general linear model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Redden

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual genetic admixture estimates, determined both across the genome and at specific genomic regions, have been proposed for use in identifying specific genomic regions harboring loci influencing phenotypes in regional admixture mapping (RAM. Estimates of individual ancestry can be used in structured association tests (SAT to reduce confounding induced by various forms of population substructure. Although presented as two distinct approaches, we provide a conceptual framework in which both RAM and SAT are special cases of a more general linear model. We clarify which variables are sufficient to condition upon in order to prevent spurious associations and also provide a simple closed form "semiparametric" method of evaluating the reliability of individual admixture estimates. An estimate of the reliability of individual admixture estimates is required to make an inherent errors-in-variables problem tractable. Casting RAM and SAT methods as a general linear model offers enormous flexibility enabling application to a rich set of phenotypes, populations, covariates, and situations, including interaction terms and multilocus models. This approach should allow far wider use of RAM and SAT, often using standard software, in addressing admixture as either a confounder of association studies or a tool for finding loci influencing complex phenotypes in species as diverse as plants, humans, and nonhuman animals.

  5. Neandertal admixture in Eurasia confirmed by maximum-likelihood analysis of three genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Konrad; Frantz, Laurent A F

    2014-04-01

    Although there has been much interest in estimating histories of divergence and admixture from genomic data, it has proved difficult to distinguish recent admixture from long-term structure in the ancestral population. Thus, recent genome-wide analyses based on summary statistics have sparked controversy about the possibility of interbreeding between Neandertals and modern humans in Eurasia. Here we derive the probability of full mutational configurations in nonrecombining sequence blocks under both admixture and ancestral structure scenarios. Dividing the genome into short blocks gives an efficient way to compute maximum-likelihood estimates of parameters. We apply this likelihood scheme to triplets of human and Neandertal genomes and compare the relative support for a model of admixture from Neandertals into Eurasian populations after their expansion out of Africa against a history of persistent structure in their common ancestral population in Africa. Our analysis allows us to conclusively reject a model of ancestral structure in Africa and instead reveals strong support for Neandertal admixture in Eurasia at a higher rate (3.4-7.3%) than suggested previously. Using analysis and simulations we show that our inference is more powerful than previous summary statistics and robust to realistic levels of recombination.

  6. Genetic admixture and lineage separation in a southern Andean plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Santiago; Sede, Silvana M

    2016-01-01

    varieties of E. alpina: var. alpina is more closely related to E. rubra and other species than to its own counterpart E. alpina var. carmelitana Geometric morphometrics analysis (Elliptic Fourier descriptors) revealed significant differences in leaf shape between varieties. We found that diversity in Escallonia species analyzed here is geographically structured and deep divergence between varieties of E. alpina could be associated to ancient evolutionary events like orogeny. Admixture in southern populations could be the result of hybridization at the margins of the parental species' distribution range. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  7. Interethnic variability and admixture in Latin America - social implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Salzano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Past and present attempts to classify and characterize the human biological variability are examined, considering the race concept, ethnic identification problems, assortative mating based on ethnicity, and historical genetics. In relation to the latter, a review is made of the methods presently available for admixture quantification and of previous studies aimed at the characterization of the parental continental contributions to Latin American populations, with emphasis in global evaluations of the Costa Rican and Brazilian gene pools. Finally, the question of racism and discrimination is considered, including the relation between human rights and affirmative actions. The right to equal opportunity should be strictly respected. Biological inequality has nothing to do with the ethical principle that someone’s position in a given society should be an accurate reflection of her/his individual ability. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 405-415. Epub 2004 Dic 15Son examinados los intentos pasados y presentes de clasificar y caracterizar a la variabilidad biológica humana, considerando el concepto de raza, los problemas de identificación étnica, el matrimonio selectivo basado en la etnicidad, y la historia genética. En relación con la última, se hace una revisión de los métodos disponibles actualmente para la cuantificación de la mezcla y de los estudios previos enfocados en la caracterización de la contribuciones parentales de origen continental a las poblaciones Latinoamericanas, con énfasis en las evaluaciones globales de los acervos genéticos de de Brasil y Costa Rica. Finalmente, se considera el tema del racismo y la discriminación, incluyendo la relación entre los derechos humanos y las acciones afirmativas. El derecho a iguales oportunidades debe ser estrictamente respetado. La inequidad biológica no tiene nada que ver con el principio ético de que la posición de cualquiera en una sociedad dada debe ser un reflejo exacto de sus

  8. Chemical stability of admixtures combining ziconotide with fentanyl or sufentanil during simulated intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David E; Aclan, Jennifer; Szatkowski, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved the combined use of intrathecal medications, practitioners frequently prescribe combination intrathecal therapy for patients who do not experience adequate analgesia with a single intrathecal agent; however, the chemical stability of an analgesic combination may influence the frequency of pump refills necessary to maintain safe and efective pain control. This investigation was performed to evaluate the chemical stability of admixtures containing 25 mcg/mL ziconotide and either 1000 mcg/mL fentanyl citrate or 1000 mcg/mL sufentanil citrate during simulated intrathecal infusion under laboratory conditions at 37 deg C. Admixtures were prepared from commercial ziconotide (25 mcg/mL) and lyophilized powders of the opioid drugs, sparged with nitrogen to remove dissolved oxygen, and stored in implantable intrathecal pumps at 37 deg C. Samples obtained at various intervals over the course of 40 days were assessed for drug concentrations by using high-performance liquid chromatography. The periods of time that the admixtures retained > or = 90% and > or = 80% of the initial concentrations of each drug (i.e., the 90% and 80% stabilities) were determined by using linear regression and 95% confidence intervals. At study end, ziconotide concentrations averaged 87.5% of the initial concentration in the ziconotide/fentanyl admixture and 89.3% of the initial concentration in the ziconotide/sufentanil admixture; opioid concentrations were unchanged. Ziconotide was 90% stable for 26 days and 80% stable for 58 days (extrapolated) when combined with fentanyl; when combined with sufentanil, ziconotide was 90% stable for 33 days and 80% stable for 68 days (extrapolated). The opioids were stable throughout the study. At the concentrations used in this study, ziconotide/fentanyl and ziconotide/sufentanil admixtures were relatively stable.

  9. Y-STR diversity and ethnic admixture in White and Mulatto Brazilian population samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzitano Brandão Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated 50 Mulatto and 120 White Brazilians for the Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR markers (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393 and found 79 different haplotypes in the White and 35 in the Mulatto sample. Admixture estimates based on allele frequencies showed that the admixture of the white sample was 89% European, 6% African and 5% Amerindian while the Mulatto sample was 93% European and 7% African. Results were consistent with historical records of the directional mating between European males and Amerindian or African females.

  10. Coagulated silica - a-SiO2 admixture in cement paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlíková, Milena; Záleská, Martina; Rovnaníková, Pavla; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-07-01

    Amorphous silica (a-SiO2) in fine-grained form possesses a high pozzolanic activity which makes it a valuable component of blended binders in concrete production. The origin of a-SiO2 applied in cement-based composites is very diverse. SiO2 in amorphous form is present in various amounts in quite a few supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) being used as partial replacement of Portland cement. In this work, the applicability of a commercially produced coagulated silica powder as a partial replacement of Portland cement in cement paste mix design is investigated. Portland cement CEM I 42.5R produced according to the EU standard EN 197-1 is used as a reference binder. Coagulated silica is applied in dosages of 5 and 10 % by mass of cement. The water/binder ratio is kept constant in all the studied pastes. For the applied silica, specific surface area, density, loss on ignition, pozzolanic activity, chemical composition, and SiO2 amorphous phase content are determined. For the developed pastes on the basis of cement-silica blended binder, basic physical properties as bulk density, matrix density, and total open porosity are accessed. Pore size distribution is determined using MIP analysis. Initial and final setting times of fresh mixtures are measured by automatic Vicat apparatus. Effect of silica admixture on mechanical resistivity is evaluated using compressive strength, bending strength, and dynamic Young's modulus measurement. The obtained data gives evidence of a decreased workability of paste mixtures with silica, whereas the setting process is accelerated. On the other hand, reaction activity of silica with Portland cement minerals results in a slight decrease of porosity and improvement of mechanical resistivity of cement pastes containing a-SiO2.

  11. Evaluation of physical stability of all in one parenteral admixtures for pediatric home care with high electrolytes concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Dorota; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Łuszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate stability of 48 total parenteral admixtures for pediatric patients who require home parenteral nutrition. Admixtures contain high amounts of electrolytes. In a clinical practice electrolytes-enrichment of the parenteral nutrition admixtures is a usual demand, especially on the neonatal/pediatric wards. The supplementation of parenteral nutrition with high concentration of electrolytes is a living problem due to decreased stability of lipid emulsions in nutrition admixtures caused by bivalent cations. Preliminary admixtures were prepared in two-chamber ethylene vinyl acetate bags: amino acids, glucose and electrolytes were combined in one chamber and 20% (w/w) lipid emulsions (SMOFlipid®, Intralipid ® or ClinOleic®) were placed separately in the second chamber. Organic salts of calcium and phosphates were used. Pre-admixtures were stored at +4ºC for up to 21 days after preparation. Each composition of admixtures was prepared twice, because contents of the two chambers were combined at t=0 or after 21 days of storage at +4ºC. Visual observations, globule size distribution (using optical microscopy, laser diffraction and photon correlation spectroscopy methods), pH analyses, zeta potential and surface tension were performed after combining all components together with vitamins. Among 48 of investigated admixtures only two were problematic and other may be stored for at least 21 days at 4°C and completed admixtures demonstrated stability for at least 24 h at room temperature. It was possible to obtain stable admixtures despite of the high concentration of electrolytes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Admixture mapping of quantitative traits in Populus hybrid zones: power and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtke, D; González-Martínez, S C; Macaya-Sanz, D; Lexer, C

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering the genetic architecture of species differences is of central importance for understanding the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. Admixture mapping can be used to identify the number and effect sizes of genes that contribute to the divergence of ecologically important traits, even in taxa that are not amenable to laboratory crosses because of their long generation time or other limitations. Here, we apply admixture mapping to naturally occurring hybrids between two ecologically divergent Populus species. We map quantitative trait loci for eight leaf morphological traits using 77 mapped microsatellite markers from all 19 chromosomes of Populus. We apply multivariate linear regression analysis allowing the modeling of additive and non-additive gene action and identify several candidate genomic regions associated with leaf morphology using an information-theoretic approach. We perform simulation studies to assess the power and limitations of admixture mapping of quantitative traits in natural hybrid populations for a variety of genetic architectures and modes of gene action. Our results indicate that (1) admixture mapping has considerable power to identify the genetic architecture of species differences if sample sizes and marker densities are sufficiently high, (2) modeling of non-additive gene action can help to elucidate the discrepancy between genotype and phenotype sometimes seen in interspecific hybrids, and (3) the genetic architecture of leaf morphological traits in the studied Populus species involves complementary and overdominant gene action, providing the basis for rapid adaptation of these ecologically important forest trees. PMID:23860234

  13. Genetic admixture studies on four in situ evolved, two migrant and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... Haplogroup frequencies indicate that various ethnic groups entered Tamil. Nadu during different time periods. Genetic affinities and admixture estimates revealed that the ethnic groups possessing advanced knowledge of farming cluster in a branch (C), and could be the late arrived settlers as agriculture, ...

  14. Shrinkage-reducing admixtures and early-age desiccation in cement pastes and mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, D. P.; Geiker, Mette Rica; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental studies of the early-age desiccation of cement-based materials with and without a shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) have been performed. Studies have been conducted under both sealed and drying conditions. Physical measurements include mass loss, surface tension, X-ray absorption...

  15. Influence of Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures on the Development of Plastic Shrinkage Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Pease, Bradley Justin; Mazzotta, Guy

    2007-01-01

    -reducing admixture (SRA). Mortars containing SRA show fewer and narrower plastic shrinkage cracks than plain mortars when exposed to the same environmental conditions. It is proposed that the lower surface tension of the pore fluid in the mortars containing SRA results in less evaporation, reduced settlement...

  16. Population admixture, biological invasions and the balance between local adaptation and inbreeding depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Macel, M.; Wolfe, L.M.; Biere, A.

    2011-01-01

    When previously isolated populations meet and mix, the resulting admixed population can benefit from several genetic advantages, including increased genetic variation, the creation of novel genotypes and the masking of deleterious mutations. These admixture benefits are thought to play an important

  17. Chemical Stability of Admixtures Combining Ziconotide with Morphine or Hydromorphone During Simul ated Intrathecal Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David; Montenegro, Rick; Ragusa, Matthew

    2005-10-01

    Objective.  To determine the stability of admixtures combining ziconotide with morphine or hydromorphone under simulated intrathecal infusions. Materials and Methods.  Admixtures of ziconotide (25 µg/mL) with morphine or hydromorphone (both at 35 mg/mL) were stored in Medtronic SynchroMed® II pumps at 37°C, and in control vials at 37°C and 5°C. Drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results.  The ziconotide pump concentration with morphine declined to 79% of initial in 17 days, and to 88% of initial after 25 days with hydromorphone. Ziconotide concentrations in control vials stored at 37°C displayed similar rates of decay, but vials stored at 5°C exhibited no ziconotide loss. A statistical evaluation of the two combinations shows ziconotide-hydromorphone retaining 80% stability for 40 days (extrapolated), compared to 15 days for ziconotide-morphine. Morphine and hydromorphone were stable in the presence of ziconotide under all conditions. Conclusions.  Ziconotide-hydromorphone admixtures were more stable than ziconotide-morphine admixtures.

  18. Rare earth metals appliance for magnetic admixtures recovery from mineral premixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the material composition metallomagnetic admixtures of mineral premix. It is shown that the dressed metallomagnetic impurity includes low-magnetic particles with low magnetic susceptibility. Removing these particles from the product stream in process of magnetic separation using high-energy rare earth magnets is a challenging task.

  19. Genetic admixture and body composition in Puerto Rican adults from the Boston Puerto Rican osteoporosis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population admixture plays a role in the risk of chronic conditions that are related to body composition; however, our understanding of these associations in Puerto Ricans, a population characterized by multiple ancestries, is limited. This study investigated the relationship between genetic admixtu...

  20. The isospin admixture of the ground state and the properties of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    were investigated with the inclusion of the pairing correlations between nucleons for the medium and heavy mass regions: 80 < A < 90, 102 < A < 124, and 204 < A < 214. It was determined that the influence of the pairing interaction between nucleons on the isospin admixtures in the ground state and the isospin structure of ...

  1. Recycling of tailings from Korea Molybdenum Corporation as admixture for high-fluidity concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Moon Young; Choi, Yun Wang; Jeong, Jae Gwon

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop an eco-friendly and a large recycling technique of flotation Tailings from korea (TK) from metal mines as construction materials such as admixtures for high-fluidity concrete (HFC). TK used in this study was obtained from the Korea Molybdenum Corporation in operation. TK was used as the alternative material to adjust flowability and viscosity of HFC in the form of powder agent which enables adjustment of concrete compressive strength. In this study, we have performed concrete rheological tests and concrete flowability tests to obtain the quality characteristics of TK for using as the admixture in producing HFC. The results indicated that the adequate mix ratio of cement to TK should be 8:2 (vol%). It is more effective to use the TK as admixture to control flowability, viscosity and strength of HFC than the normal concrete. It was found that TK could be recycled construction materials in bulk such as admixture for HFC, in terms of the economic and eco-friendly aspects.

  2. What Causes Birth Order-Intelligence Patterns? The Admixture Hypothesis, Revived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2001-01-01

    Describes why birth order interests both parents and researchers, discussing what really causes apparent birth order effects on intelligence, examining problems with using cross-sectional intelligence data, and noting how to move beyond cross-sectional inferences. Explains the admixture hypothesis, which finds that family size is much more…

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Expedient Low-Temperature Concrete Admixtures for Repairing Blast Holes in Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ambient temperature ranges of −10 to 0°C. 2. use admixtures available through the Army supply system in Afghani- stan (existing supplies in area of...Price: $13.25 Calcium Nitrate Fertilizer Pellets: Atlantis Hydroponics www.atlantishydroponics.com 888.305.4450 Product info: “Calcium

  4. INFLUENCE OF BACKGROUND AIR ON MICROBIAL-CONTAMINATION DURING SIMULATED IV-ADMIXTURE PREPARATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDOORNE, H; BAKKER, JH; MEEVIS, RF; MARSKAMP, A

    The effect of the cleanliness of environmental air on the microbial contamination of a simulated i.v.-admixture during its preparation by aseptic transfer was studied under three conditions: (i) in a laminar air flow (LAF) bench situated in a class 1000 clean room, (ii) in an LAF bench in a

  5. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  6. The influence of admixture and consanguinity on population genetic diversity in Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong; Al-Bustan, Suzanne; Feng, Qidi; Guo, Wei; Ma, Zhiming; Marafie, Makia; Jacob, Sindhu; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-11-01

    The Middle East (ME) is an important crossroad where modern humans migrated 'out of Africa' and spread into Europe and Asia. After the initial peopling and long-term isolation leading to well-differentiated populations, the ME also had a crucial role in subsequent human migrations among Africa, Europe and Asia; thus, recent population admixture has been common in the ME. On the other hand, consanguinity, a well-known practice in the ME, often reduces genetic diversity and works in opposition to admixture. Here, we explored the degree to which admixture and consanguinity jointly affected genetic diversity in ME populations. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data were generated in two representative ME populations (Arabian and Iranian), with comparisons made with populations worldwide. Our results revealed an overall higher genetic diversity in both ME populations relative to other non-African populations. We identified a much larger number of long runs of homozygosity in ME populations than in any other populations, which was most likely attributed to high levels of consanguineous marriages that significantly decreased both individual and population heterozygosity. Additionally, we were able to distinguish African, European and Asian ancestries in ME populations and quantify the impact of admixture and consanguinity with statistical approaches. Interestingly, genomic regions with significantly excessive ancestry from individual source populations are functionally enriched in olfactory pathways, which were suspected to be under natural selection. Our findings suggest that genetic admixture, consanguinity and natural selection have collectively shaped the genetic diversity of ME populations, which has important implications in both evolutionary studies and medical practices.

  7. Genetic analysis of ancestry, admixture and selection in Bolivian and Totonac populations of the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins W

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of the Americas were founded by early migrants from Asia, and some have experienced recent genetic admixture. To better characterize the native and non-native ancestry components in populations from the Americas, we analyzed 815,377 autosomal SNPs, mitochondrial hypervariable segments I and II, and 36 Y-chromosome STRs from 24 Mesoamerican Totonacs and 23 South American Bolivians. Results and Conclusions We analyzed common genomic regions from native Bolivian and Totonac populations to identify 324 highly predictive Native American ancestry informative markers (AIMs. As few as 40–50 of these AIMs perform nearly as well as large panels of random genome-wide SNPs for predicting and estimating Native American ancestry and admixture levels. These AIMs have greater New World vs. Old World specificity than previous AIMs sets. We identify highly-divergent New World SNPs that coincide with high-frequency haplotypes found at similar frequencies in all populations examined, including the HGDP Pima, Maya, Colombian, Karitiana, and Surui American populations. Some of these regions are potential candidates for positive selection. European admixture in the Bolivian sample is approximately 12%, though individual estimates range from 0–48%. We estimate that the admixture occurred ~360–384 years ago. Little evidence of European or African admixture was found in Totonac individuals. Bolivians with pre-Columbian mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups had 5–30% autosomal European ancestry, demonstrating the limitations of Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups and the need for autosomal ancestry informative markers for assessing ancestry in admixed populations.

  8. The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, George B.J.; Hellenthal, Garrett; Montinaro, Francesco; Tofanelli, Sergio; Bulayeva, Kazima; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Toncheva, Draga; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Nesheva, Desislava; Anagnostou, Paolo; Cali, Francesco; Brisighelli, Francesca; Romano, Valentino; Lefranc, Gerard; Buresi, Catherine; Ben Chibani, Jemni; Haj-Khelil, Amel; Denden, Sabri; Ploski, Rafal; Krajewski, Pawel; Hervig, Tor; Moen, Torolf; Herrera, Rene J.; Wilson, James F.; Myers, Simon; Capelli, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over the past few years, studies of DNA isolated from human fossils and archaeological remains have generated considerable novel insight into the history of our species. Several landmark papers have described the genomes of ancient humans across West Eurasia, demonstrating the presence of large-scale, dynamic population movements over the last 10,000 years, such that ancestry across present-day populations is likely to be a mixture of several ancient groups [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. While these efforts are bringing the details of West Eurasian prehistory into increasing focus, studies aimed at understanding the processes behind the generation of the current West Eurasian genetic landscape have been limited by the number of populations sampled or have been either too regional or global in their outlook [8, 9, 10, 11]. Here, using recently described haplotype-based techniques [11], we present the results of a systematic survey of recent admixture history across Western Eurasia and show that admixture is a universal property across almost all groups. Admixture in all regions except North Western Europe involved the influx of genetic material from outside of West Eurasia, which we date to specific time periods. Within Northern, Western, and Central Europe, admixture tended to occur between local groups during the period 300 to 1200 CE. Comparisons of the genetic profiles of West Eurasians before and after admixture show that population movements within the last 1,500 years are likely to have maintained differentiation among groups. Our analysis provides a timeline of the gene flow events that have generated the contemporary genetic landscape of West Eurasia. PMID:26387712

  9. Admixture analysis of a rural population of the state of Guerrero, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Gutiérrez, Gerardo; Parra, Esteban J; Kline, Christopher; Shriver, Mark D

    2005-12-01

    We studied 156 individuals of Native American descent from the city of Tlapa in the state of Guerrero in western Mexico. Most individuals' ethnicity was either Nahua, Mixtec, or Tlapanec, but self-identified Mestizos and individuals of mixed ethnicities were also included in the sample. We typed 24 autosomal, one Y-chromosome, and four mitochondrial ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) to estimate group and individual admixture proportions, and determine whether the admixture process involved directional gene flow between parental groups. When genetically defined (GD) Mestizos were excluded from the analysis, Native American ancestry represented approximately 98% of the population's gene pool, while European and West African ancestry represented approximately 1% each. Maternally inherited markers also showed an exceptionally high Native American contribution (98.5%), as did the paternally inherited marker, DYS199 (90.7%). We did not detect genetic structure in this population using these AIMs, which appears consistent with the homogeneity of the sample in terms of admixture proportions. The addition of GD Mestizos to the sample did not produce a considerable change in admixture estimates, but it had a major effect on population structure. These results show that the population of Tlapa in Guerrero, Mexico, has experienced little admixture with Europeans and/or West Africans. They also show that the impact of a small number of admixed individuals on an otherwise homogeneous population might have profound implications on subsequent ancestry/phenotype analysis and mapping strategies. We suggest that heterogeneity is a major characteristic of Mexican populations and, as a consequence, should not be disregarded when designing epidemiological studies of Mexican and Mexican American populations. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  11. sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    lightweight aggregate exhibit a higher moisture movement than is the case with normal weight concrete (Neville et al, 2004). In many parts of the world, a combination of high temperatures, low relative humidity and hot wind that blows across the environment result in rapid evaporation of water from fresh concrete surface.

  12. Admixture estimates for Churuguara, a Venezuelan town in the State of Falcón.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyo, M Acosta; de Guerra, D Castro; Izaguirre, M H; Rodriguez-Larralde, A

    2004-01-01

    The present Venezuelan population is the admixture product of Amerindians, Europeans and Africans, a process which was not homogeneous over the country. Blood groups, STRs and VNTRs, specifically D1S80, have been used successfully in admixture studies, but few have been made in Venezuela. This study aims to estimate the admixture components of Churuguara, Venezuela, and to evaluate the genetic relationship of this population with other Venezuelan as well as worldwide populations through principal component analysis and the study of dendrograms based on genetic distances. Gene frequencies of blood groups ABO and Rh (only anti D), of STRs VWA, F13A01, FES/FPS and VNTR D1S80 were studied in a sample of 60 individuals born in Churuguara, a Venezuelan town of admixed ancestry in the State of Falc6n. Admixture was estimated with Chakraborty's gene identity method, and Nei's standard genetic distance was used to build two dendrograms with the neighbour-joining approach, one based on the three STRs and the other based only on D1S80. Principal component analyses with the gene frequencies of these markers were also performed. The frequency of allele ABO*O was 0.788, of ABO*A was 0.187 and of RH*D was 0.74. D1S80 showed 16 different alleles with a heterozygosity of 0.880, whilst the three STRs showed only eight different alleles and heterozygosities between 0.733 and 0.797. The estimates of admixture obtained in this analysis were 52.5% for the Spanish parental group, 27.6% for the African and 19.9% for the Amerindian. Comparison of Churuguara with other Latin American populations shows that its African component is not as high as that observed in Colombian Choco, but it is higher than that observed in other samples from Colombia, Chile and Maracaibo (Venezuela). Results of the admixture analysis are consistent with those obtained with two dendrograms and principal component analyses, suggesting that the strong initial Amerindian component of 500 years ago has been diluted by

  13. Development of admixture mapping panels for African Americans from commercial high-density SNP arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunston Georgia M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admixture mapping is a powerful approach for identifying genetic variants involved in human disease that exploits the unique genomic structure in recently admixed populations. To use existing published panels of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs for admixture mapping, markers have to be genotyped de novo for each admixed study sample and samples representing the ancestral parental populations. The increased availability of dense marker data on commercial chips has made it feasible to develop panels wherein the markers need not be predetermined. Results We developed two panels of AIMs (~2,000 markers each based on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 for admixture mapping with African American samples. These two AIM panels had good map power that was higher than that of a denser panel of ~20,000 random markers as well as other published panels of AIMs. As a test case, we applied the panels in an admixture mapping study of hypertension in African Americans in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Conclusions Developing marker panels for admixture mapping from existing genome-wide genotype data offers two major advantages: (1 no de novo genotyping needs to be done, thereby saving costs, and (2 markers can be filtered for various quality measures and replacement markers (to minimize gaps can be selected at no additional cost. Panels of carefully selected AIMs have two major advantages over panels of random markers: (1 the map power from sparser panels of AIMs is higher than that of ~10-fold denser panels of random markers, and (2 clusters can be labeled based on information from the parental populations. With current technology, chip-based genome-wide genotyping is less expensive than genotyping ~20,000 random markers. The major advantage of using random markers is the absence of ascertainment effects resulting from the process of selecting markers. The ability to develop marker panels informative for ancestry from

  14. Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia): e48904

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercedes González-Ruiz; Cristina Santos; Xavier Jordana; Marc Simón; Carles Lalueza-Fox; Elena Gigli; Maria Pilar Aluja; Assumpció Malgosa

    2012-01-01

      A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia...

  15. Techniques for estimating genetic admixture and applications to the problem of the origin of the Icelanders and the Ashkenazi Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, E M

    1984-01-01

    A method is introduced for simultaneously using multiple loci to estimate admixture and test goodness of fit of the model of admixture. Deviation of observed frequencies from expectation caused by sources of error such as sampling and/or drift is allowed for all loci in all populations. This allows investigation of the effects of different assumptions about sources of error on the estimates. Admixture is then investigated for Icelanders and Ashkenazi Jews. Results indicate that the Icelanders have a large Norse contribution, and that the Jews may have a small to moderate contribution from the European gene pool. There are some indications that AB0 and G6PD give abnormal estimates of admixture compared to other loci, and that the Jewish gene pool may be derived from additional populations in addition to the populations considered.

  16. Standard test method for initial screening of corrosion inhibiting admixtures for steel in concrete

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the effects of chemical admixtures on the corrosion of metals in concrete. This test method can be used to evaluate materials intended to inhibit chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete. It can also be used to evaluate the corrosivity of admixtures by themselves or in a chloride environment. This test is not applicable for emulsions. 1.2 &solely-SI-units; 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Historical introgression drives pervasive mitochondrial admixture between two species of pelagic sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Shannon; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Eddy, Corey; Duffy, Clinton; Yang, Lei; Li, Chenhong; Bazinet, Adam L; Mona, Stefano; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2017-05-01

    We use a genomic sampling of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers to examine a pattern of genetic admixture between Carcharhinus galapagensis (Galapagos sharks) and Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky sharks), two well-known and closely related sharks that have been recognized as valid species for more than 100years. We describe widespread mitochondrial-nuclear discordance in which these species are readily distinguishable based on 2152 nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms from 910 independent autosomal regions, but show pervasive mitochondrial admixture. The species are superficially morphologically cryptic as adults but show marked differences in internal anatomy, as well as niche separation. There was no indication of ongoing hybridization between the species. We conclude that the observed mitochondrial-nuclear discordance is likely due to historical mitochondrial introgression following a range expansion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct-to-Consumer Racial Admixture Tests and Beliefs About Essential Racial Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.; Zelner, Sarah; Yang, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Although at first relatively disinterested in race, modern genomic research has increasingly turned attention to racial variations. We examine a prominent example of this focus—direct-to-consumer racial admixture tests—and ask how information about the methods and results of these tests in news media may affect beliefs in racial differences. The reification hypothesis proposes that by emphasizing a genetic basis for race, thereby reifying race as a biological reality, the tests increase beliefs that whites and blacks are essentially different. The challenge hypothesis suggests that by describing differences between racial groups as continua rather than sharp demarcations, the results produced by admixture tests break down racial categories and reduce beliefs in racial differences. A nationally representative survey experiment (N = 526) provided clear support for the reification hypothesis. The results suggest that an unintended consequence of the genomic revolution may be to reinvigorate age-old beliefs in essential racial differences. PMID:25870464

  19. Intraspecific genetic admixture and the morphological diversification of an estuarine fish population complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Julian J; Bourret, Audrey; Barrette, Marie France; Turgeon, Julie; Daigle, Gaétan; Legault, Michel; Lecomte, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The North-east American Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is composed of two glacial races first identified through the spatial distribution of two distinct mtDNA lineages. Contemporary breeding populations of smelt in the St. Lawrence estuary comprise contrasting mixtures of both lineages, suggesting that the two races came into secondary contact in this estuary. The overall objective of this study was to assess the role of intraspecific genetic admixture in the morphological diversification of the estuarine rainbow smelt population complex. The morphology of mixed-ancestry populations varied as a function of the relative contribution of the two races to estuarine populations, supporting the hypothesis of genetic admixture. Populations comprising both ancestral mtDNA races did not exhibit intermediate morphologies relative to pure populations but rather exhibited many traits that exceeded the parental trait values, consistent with the hypothesis of transgressive segregation. Evidence for genetic admixture at the level of the nuclear gene pool, however, provided only partial support for this hypothesis. Variation at nuclear AFLP markers revealed clear evidence of the two corresponding mtDNA glacial races. The admixture of the two races at the nuclear level is only pronounced in mixed-ancestry populations dominated by one of the mtDNA lineages, the same populations showing the greatest degree of morphological diversification and population structure. In contrast, mixed-ancestry populations dominated by the alternate mtDNA lineage showed little evidence of introgression of the nuclear genome, little morphological diversification and little contemporary population genetic structure. These results only partially support the hypothesis of transgressive segregation and may be the result of the differential effects of natural selection acting on admixed genomes from different sources.

  20. Intraspecific genetic admixture and the morphological diversification of an estuarine fish population complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian J Dodson

    Full Text Available The North-east American Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax is composed of two glacial races first identified through the spatial distribution of two distinct mtDNA lineages. Contemporary breeding populations of smelt in the St. Lawrence estuary comprise contrasting mixtures of both lineages, suggesting that the two races came into secondary contact in this estuary. The overall objective of this study was to assess the role of intraspecific genetic admixture in the morphological diversification of the estuarine rainbow smelt population complex. The morphology of mixed-ancestry populations varied as a function of the relative contribution of the two races to estuarine populations, supporting the hypothesis of genetic admixture. Populations comprising both ancestral mtDNA races did not exhibit intermediate morphologies relative to pure populations but rather exhibited many traits that exceeded the parental trait values, consistent with the hypothesis of transgressive segregation. Evidence for genetic admixture at the level of the nuclear gene pool, however, provided only partial support for this hypothesis. Variation at nuclear AFLP markers revealed clear evidence of the two corresponding mtDNA glacial races. The admixture of the two races at the nuclear level is only pronounced in mixed-ancestry populations dominated by one of the mtDNA lineages, the same populations showing the greatest degree of morphological diversification and population structure. In contrast, mixed-ancestry populations dominated by the alternate mtDNA lineage showed little evidence of introgression of the nuclear genome, little morphological diversification and little contemporary population genetic structure. These results only partially support the hypothesis of transgressive segregation and may be the result of the differential effects of natural selection acting on admixed genomes from different sources.

  1. Local and global patterns of admixture and population structure in Iranian native cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Karim; Strucken, Eva M; Moghaddar, Nasir; Ferdosi, Mohammad H; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Gondro, Cedric

    2016-07-15

    Two separate domestication events gave rise to humped zebu cattle in India and humpless taurine cattle in the Fertile Crescent of the Near and Middle East. Iran covers the Eastern side of the Fertile Crescent and exhibits a variety of native cattle breeds, however, only little is known about the admixture patterns of Iranian cattle and their contribution to the formation of modern cattle breeds. Genome-wide data (700 k chip) of eight Iranian cattle breeds (Sarabi N = 19, Kurdi N = 7, Taleshi N = 7, Mazandarani N = 10, Najdi N = 7, Pars N = 7, Kermani N = 9, and Sistani N = 9) were collected from across Iran. For a local assessment, taurine (Holstein and Jersey) and indicine (Brahman) outgroup samples were used. For the global perspective, 134 world-wide cattle breeds were included. Between breed variation amongst Iranian cattle explained 60 % (p populations most accurately explained the admixture of 44 selected representative cattle breeds (standard error 0.4617). Low levels of African ancestry were identified in Iranian cattle breeds (on average 7.5 %); however, the signal did not persist through all analyses. Admixture and migration analyses revealed minimal introgression from Iranian cattle into other taurine cattle (Holstein, Hanwoo, Anatolian breeds). The eight Iranian cattle breeds feature a discrete genetic composition which should be considered in conservation programs aimed at preserving unique species and genetic diversity. Despite a complex admixture pattern among Iranian cattle breeds, there was no strong introgression from other world-wide cattle breeds into Iranian cattle and vice versa. Considering Iran's central location of cattle domestication, Iranian cattle might represent a local domestication event that remained contained and did not contribute to the formation of modern breeds, or genetics of the ancestral population that gave rise to modern cattle is too diluted to be linked directly to any current cattle

  2. Similarity between the in vitro activity and toxicity of two different fungizone™ / lipofundin™ admixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Ivonete Batista; Brito,C. Ramon N.; Urbano,Isabel A.; Dominici,Victor A.; Silva Filho,Miguel A.; Silveira,Walteçá L. L.; Damasceno,Bolívar P. G. L.; Medeiros,Aldo Cunha; Egito,E. Sócrates T.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Amphotericin B (AmB), an antifungal agent that presents a broad spectrum of activity, remains the gold standard in the antifungal therapy. However, sometimes the high level of toxicity forbids its clinical use. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the efficacy and toxicity in vitro of Fungizon™ (AmB-D) and two new different AmB formulations. METHODS: three products were studied: Fungizon™, and two Fungizon™ /Lipofundin™ admixtures, which were dilut...

  3. PREDICTION OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL SIMMENTAL AND RED HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN ADMIXTURE LEVELS IN SWISS FLECKVIEH CATTLE

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    Negar Khayatzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimated levels of local ancestry for individuals of the Swiss Fleckvieh dairy cattle population. It is a composite breed descending from two pure breeds, Simmental (SIM and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF. Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip genotyping data for a total of 500 pure and admixed animals were used for the analysis. The global ancestries estimated by Hidden Markov model were 0.68 and 0.32 for RHF and SIM respectively. Local ancestry levels investigated along chromosomes 2, 3 and 13 indicated that there were some regions across the chromosomes exhibiting substantial fluctuations in admixture. On chromosome 2, in the range of 28 to 31, 41 to 46 and 54 to 56 Mb RHF ancestry is substantially higher than average (0.77-0.78. These regions on chromosome 2 are wide, indicating recent admixture. Along the segments on chromosome 2, many QTLs related to dairy, conformation, reproduction, health and carcass traits were found. We observed sharper excess in favour of SIM on chromosome 3, whereas different regions with excess of RHF and SIM were found out on Chromosome 13. At the first part of chromosome 13, an excess of RHF was observed. Moreover, in regions between 40 and 57 Mb excess of SIM, referred to recent admixture was detected. In respect of RHF chromosome segments in admixed animals, dairy, reproduction and health QTLs were found. In positions where more Simmental segments were detected, QTLs related to meat and carcass traits as well as udder health traits were found. In conclusion, the authors believe that estimation of local admixture levels in crossbred populations can add information to the composite breeds history of selection.

  4. GWAS and admixture mapping identify different asthma-associated loci in Latinos: The GALA II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Joshua M; Gignoux, Christopher R; Torgerson, Dara G; Roth, Lindsey A; Eng, Celeste; Oh, Sam S; Nguyen, Elizabeth A; Drake, Katherine A; Huntsman, Scott; Hu, Donglei; Sen, Saunak; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Avila, Pedro C.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; LeNoir, Michael A.; Meade, Kelley; Serebrisky, Denise; Borrell, Luisa N; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Estrada, Andres Moreno; Mendoza, Karla Sandoval; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Klitz, William; Romieu, Isabelle; London, Stephanie J.; Gilliland, Frank; Martinez, Fernando; Bustamante, Carlos; Williams, L Keoki; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodríguez-Santana, José R.; Burchard, and Esteban G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental causes. Genome-wide association studies of asthma have mostly involved European populations and replication of positive associations has been inconsistent. Objective To identify asthma-associated genes in a large Latino population with genome-wide association analysis and admixture mapping. Methods Latino children with asthma (n = 1,893) and healthy controls (n = 1,881) were recruited from five sites in the United States: Puerto Rico, New York, Chicago, Houston, and the San Francisco Bay Area. Subjects were genotyped on an Affymetrix World Array IV chip. We performed genome-wide association and admixture mapping to identify asthma-associated loci. Results We identified a significant association between ancestry and asthma at 6p21 (lowest p-value: rs2523924, p < 5 × 10−6). This association replicates in a meta-analysis of the EVE Asthma Consortium (p = 0.01). Fine mapping of the region in this study and the EVE Asthma Consortium suggests an association between PSORS1C1 and asthma. We confirmed the strong allelic association between the 17q21 asthma in Latinos (IKZF3, lowest p-value: rs90792, OR: 0.67, 95% CI 0.61 – 0.75, p = 6 × 10−13) and replicated associations in several genes that had previously been associated with asthma in genome-wide association studies. Conclusions Admixture mapping and genome-wide association are complementary techniques that provide evidence for multiple asthma-associated loci in Latinos. Admixture mapping identifies a novel locus on 6p21 that replicates in a meta-analysis of several Latino populations, while genome-wide association confirms the previously identified locus on 17q21. PMID:24406073

  5. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

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    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  6. Quality assessment of total parenteral nutrition admixtures by the use of fractional factorial design

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    Mirković Dušica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Parenteral nutrition as a specific aspect of providing nutritients still remains a permanent topic of both theoretical and experimental research. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN admixtures have complex contents making difficult to maintain their stability. The most critical parameter is the diameter of a lipid droplet, i.e. droplet size distribution. It is recommended that droplet size should not be more than 5

  7. Genomic Admixture Analysis in European Populus spp. Reveals Unexpected Patterns of Reproductive Isolation and Mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexer, Christian; Joseph, Jeffrey A.; van Loo, Marcela; Barbará, Thelma; Heinze, Berthold; Bartha, Denes; Castiglione, Stefano; Fay, Michael F.; Buerkle, C. Alex

    2010-01-01

    Admixture between genetically divergent populations facilitates genomic studies of the mechanisms involved in adaptation, reproductive isolation, and speciation, including mapping of the loci involved in these phenomena. Little is known about how pre- and postzygotic barriers will affect the prospects of “admixture mapping” in wild species. We have studied 93 mapped genetic markers (microsatellites, indels, and sequence polymorphisms, ∼60,000 data points) to address this topic in hybrid zones of Populus alba and P. tremula, two widespread, ecologically important forest trees. Using genotype and linkage information and recently developed analytical tools we show that (1) reproductive isolation between these species is much stronger than previously assumed but this cannot prevent the introgression of neutral or advantageous alleles, (2) unexpected genotypic gaps exist between recombinant hybrids and their parental taxa, (3) these conspicuous genotypic patterns are due to assortative mating and strong postzygotic barriers, rather than recent population history. We discuss possible evolutionary trajectories of hybrid lineages between these species and outline strategies for admixture mapping in hybrid zones between highly divergent populations. Datasets such as this one are still rare in studies of natural hybrid zones but should soon become more common as high throughput genotyping and resequencing become feasible in nonmodel species. PMID:20679517

  8. Evaluating genetic susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in African Americans using admixture mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, D D; Allen, A S; Du, G-J; Ruffin, F; Adams, C; Thaden, J T; Maskarinec, S A; Souli, M; Guo, S; Dykxhoorn, D M; Scott, W K; Fowler, V G

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is significantly higher in African American (AA) than in European-descended populations. We used admixture mapping (AM) to test the hypothesis that genomic variations with different frequencies in European and African ancestral genomes influence susceptibility to SAB in AAs. A total of 565 adult AAs (390 cases with SAB; 175 age-matched controls) were genotyped for AM analysis. A case-only admixture score and a mixed χ2(1df) score (MIX) to jointly evaluate both single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and admixture association (P<5.00e-08) were computed using MIXSCORE. In addition, a permutation scheme was implemented to derive multiplicity adjusted P-values (genome-wide 0.05 significance threshold: P<9.46e-05). After empirical multiplicity adjustment, one region on chromosome 6 (52 SNPs, P=4.56e-05) in the HLA class II region was found to exhibit a genome-wide statistically significant increase in European ancestry. This region encodes genes involved in HLA-mediated immune response and these results provide additional evidence for genetic variation influencing HLA-mediated immunity, modulating susceptibility to SAB.

  9. Chemical stability of an admixture combining ziconotide and bupivacaine during simulated intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David; Montenegro, Rick; Aclan, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    Objective.  To determine the stability of an admixture combining ziconotide with bupivacaine hydrochloride during simulated intrathecal infusion under laboratory conditions at 37°. Materials and Methods.  An admixture containing ziconotide (25 µg/mL) and bupivacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/mL) was stored in SynchroMed® II pumps at 37° and in control vials at either 37° or 5°. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, drug concentrations were determined from samples obtained at varying intervals during the 30-day study. Results.  After 30 days, pump ziconotide and bupivacaine hydrochloride concentrations measured an average of 86.9% and 99.4% of their initial concentrations, respectively. Control vials displayed similar degradation rates for both drugs. Statistical evaluation of the ziconotide 95% confidence interval indicated that the ziconotide concentration would meet or exceed 90% and 80% of initial concentration for 22 days and 45 days, respectively. Conclusions.  An admixture containing 25 µg/mL ziconotide and 5 mg/mL bupivacaine hydrochloride was 90% stable for 22 days and 80% stable for 45 days (extrapolated) in SynchroMed® II infusion pumps.

  10. Study on Strength and Microstructure of Cement-Based Materials Containing Combination Mineral Admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of complex binders containing two or three blended mineral admixtures in terms of glass powder (GP, limestone powder (LP, and steel slag powder (SP was determined by a battery solution type compressive testing machine. The morphology and microstructure characteristics of complex binder hydration products were also studied by microscopic analysis methods, such as XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM. The mechanical properties of the cement-based materials were analyzed to reveal the most appropriate mineral admixture type and content. The early sample strength development with GP was very slow, but it rapidly grew at later stages. The micro aggregate effect and pozzolanic reaction mutually occurred in the mineral admixture. In the early stage, the micro aggregate effect reduced paste porosity and the small particles connected with the cement hydration products to enhance its strength. In the later stage, the pozzolanic reaction of some components in the complex powder occurred and consumed part of the calcium hydroxide to form C-S-H gel, thus improving the hydration environment. Also, the produced C-S-H gel made the structure more compact, which improved the structure’s strength.

  11. Dissecting the genetic structure and admixture of four geographical Malay populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; de Silva, H Janaka; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Kato, Norihiro; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-09-23

    The Malay people are an important ethnic composition in Southeast Asia, but their genetic make-up and population structure remain poorly studied. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of four geographical Malay populations: Peninsular Malaysian Malay (PMM), Singaporean Malay (SGM), Indonesian Malay (IDM) and Sri Lankan Malay (SLM). All the four Malay populations showed substantial admixture with multiple ancestries. We identified four major ancestral components in Malay populations: Austronesian (17%-62%), Proto-Malay (15%-31%), East Asian (4%-16%) and South Asian (3%-34%). Approximately 34% of the genetic makeup of SLM is of South Asian ancestry, resulting in its distinct genetic pattern compared with the other three Malay populations. Besides, substantial differentiation was observed between the Malay populations from the north and the south, and between those from the west and the east. In summary, this study revealed that the genetic identity of the Malays comprises a mixed entity of multiple ancestries represented by Austronesian, Proto-Malay, East Asian and South Asian, with most of the admixture events estimated to have occurred 175 to 1,500 years ago, which in turn suggests that geographical isolation and independent admixture have significantly shaped the genetic architectures and the diversity of the Malay populations.

  12. Influence of Curing Conditions on Long-Term Compressive Strength of Mortars with Accelerating Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizoń, Jan; Łaźniewska-Piekarczyk, Beata

    2017-10-01

    One of disadvantages of accelerating admixtures usage is possibility of significant decline of long-term compressive strength of concrete in comparison to non-modified one. Described tests were intended to define scale of lowered long-term compressive strength of mortars caused by accelerating admixtures in different curing conditions. Portland cement and blended cement with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) addition and four types of non-chloride accelerating agents were used. Compressive strength was tested after 7 up to 360 days. Curing conditions were designed to simulate probable conditions close to reality. Such conditions are simulation of internal concrete elements, external elements cast on start of summer and external elements cast on start of winter. Results had shown that it is invalid to state that every accelerating admixture will cause drop of long-term compressive strength in every conditions and for every cement type. Change of curing conditions even after a long time (in this case half of the year) leads to significant differences in compression strength.

  13. Influence of aggregate type and chemical admixtures on frost resistance of lightweight mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Beata; Widomski, Marcin K.; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta

    2017-07-01

    The aim of studies presented in this paper covered analyses of type of lightweight aggregate as well as aeration and hydrophobic admixtures influence on absorbability and frost resistance of heat-insulating mortars applied in the energy-efficient construction. In the presented research, expanded perlite (EP) and expanded clay aggregate (ceramsite) were used as lightweight aggregates. The measurements of the basic mechanical and physical characteristics of tested mortars were performed, including, inter alia, compressive and flexural tensile strength, density, effective (open) and total porosity, absorbability, thermal conductivity as well as frost resistance after 25 cycles of freezing and thawing. Substitution of some part of sand fraction by the lightweight aggregates, expanded clay aggregate or perlite, resulted in changes in physical properties of the tested mortars. The observed decrease in density (specific weight), coefficient of heat transport and strength parameters were simultaneously accompanied by the increase in absorbability. Researches concerning frost resistance of mortars containing ceramsite and perlite showed the improved frost resistance of mortar utilizing perlite. Most of the tested mortars shoved satisfactory frost resistance, only samples of mortar containing ceramsite and aeration admixture were destroyed. The significant influence of aerating admixture on frost resistance of mortars was determined. Hydrophobic siloxanes addition failed to adequately protect the mortars against frost erosion, regardless the type of applied aggregate.

  14. Chemical stability of ziconotide-clonidine hydrochloride admixtures with and without morphine sulfate during simulated intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David; Montenegro, Rick

    2007-10-01

    Objective.  To determine the stability of ziconotide-clonidine hydrochloride admixtures with and without morphine sulfate during simulated intrathecal infusion under laboratory conditions at 37°. Materials and Methods.  Admixtures of ziconotide (25 µg/mL) and clonidine hydrochloride (2 mg/mL) with and without morphine sulfate (35 mg/mL) were stored in Medtronic SynchroMed® II pumps at 37°. Pumps were sampled immediately after filling and at four additional time points over the course of 28 (ziconotide-clonidine hydrochloride admixture) or 20 (ziconotide-clonidine hydrochloride-morphine sulfate admixture) days. Drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results.  Ziconotide concentration exceeded 97% of initial at all time points when combined with clonidine alone; statistical evaluation indicated that both ziconotide and clonidine concentrations would remain above 90% of initial for more than 60 days. When compounded with both clonidine and morphine, ziconotide and clonidine concentrations declined; statistical evaluation indicated that the ziconotide concentration was 70% of initial after 20 days, and that clonidine would remain 90% stable for 42 days. Morphine was stable in the presence of ziconotide and clonidine. Conclusions.  A ziconotide-clonidine admixture was 90% stable for 60 days (extrapolated), and a ziconotide-clonidine-morphine admixture was 70% stable for 20 days.

  15. Admixture mapping of end stage kidney disease genetic susceptibility using estimated mutual information ancestry informative markers

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    Geiger Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of a genetic contribution to the higher prevalence and incidence of end stage kidney disease (ESKD among African Americans (AA remained unresolved, until recent findings using admixture mapping pointed to the association of a genomic locus on chromosome 22 with this disease phenotype. In the current study we utilize this example to demonstrate the utility of applying a multi-step admixture mapping approach. Methods A multi-step case only admixture mapping study, consisted of the following steps was designed: 1 Assembly of the sample dataset (ESKD AA; 2 Design of the estimated mutual information ancestry informative markers (n = 2016 screening panel 3; Genotyping the sample set whose size was determined by a power analysis (n = 576 appropriate for the initial screening panel; 4 Inference of local ancestry for each individual and identification of regions with increased AA ancestry using two different ancestry inference statistical approaches; 5 Enrichment of the initial screening panel; 6 Power analysis of the enriched panel 7 Genotyping of additional samples. 8 Re-analysis of the genotyping results to identify a genetic risk locus. Results The initial screening phase yielded a significant peak using the ADMIXMAP ancestry inference program applying case only statistics. Subgroup analysis of 299 ESKD patients with no history of diabetes yielded peaks using both the ANCESTRYMAP and ADMIXMAP ancestry inference programs. The significant peak was found on chromosome 22. Genotyping of additional ancestry informative markers on chromosome 22 that took into account linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral populations, and the addition of samples increased the statistical significance of the finding. Conclusions A multi-step admixture mapping analysis of AA ESKD patients replicated the finding of a candidate risk locus on chromosome 22, contributing to the heightened susceptibility of African Americans to develop non

  16. Genomic admixture tracks pulses of economic activity over 2,000 years in the Indian Ocean trading network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Beaujard, Philippe; Sudoyo, Herawati; Cox, Murray P; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2017-06-07

    The Indian Ocean has long been a hub of interacting human populations. Following land- and sea-based routes, trade drove cultural contacts between far-distant ethnic groups in Asia, India, the Middle East and Africa, creating one of the world's first proto-globalized environments. However, the extent to which population mixing was mediated by trade is poorly understood. Reconstructing admixture times from genomic data in 3,006 individuals from 187 regional populations reveals a close association between bouts of human migration and trade volumes during the last 2,000 years across the Indian Ocean trading system. Temporal oscillations in trading activity match phases of contraction and expansion in migration, with high water marks following the expansion of the Silk Roads in the 5(th) century AD, the rise of maritime routes in the 11(th) century and a drastic restructuring of the trade network following the arrival of Europeans in the 16(th) century. The economic fluxes of the Indian Ocean trade network therefore directly shaped exchanges of genes, in addition to goods and concepts.

  17. Influence of Inertia and Low Active Mineral Admixture on Strength and Microstructure of Cement-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement-based materials were investigated by comparing the strength and microstructure of pastes and mortar containing limestone powder or low quality fly ash. The compressive strength of the mortar at 28 and 90 d was examined whose microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA. The results indicated that the strength of mortar decreased with increasing mineral admixtures. The limestone powder mainly acted as inert filler and hardly took part in the chemical reaction. Low quality fly ash may accelerate the formation of hydration products in samples with more chemically bonded water. This further resulted in a higher degree of cement hydration and denser microstructure, while the overall heat of hydration was reduced. At the early stage of hydration, low quality fly ash can be considered as an inert material whereas its reactivity at the later stage became high, especially for ground low quality fly ash.

  18. Influence on the physical-mechanical properties of portland-cement mortar, have admixtures of colophony and tannin

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    Fernández Cánovas, M.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The colophony has been used as an admixture in the Portland cement mortar with the intention to observe its influence on the air content, water absorption, adhesive capacity and mechanical properties. The results obtained have shown that, the colophony acts as air entrainment, reduces the permeability and improves the adhesion between the past and aggregates. Likewise, the addition of tannin and montan wax to the colophony has the efect of reducing the formation of foam and improves the impermeability of the mortar.

    Se ha empleado la colofonia como aditivo en el mortero de cemento portland con el fin de observar su influencia sobre el contenido de aire, absorción de agua, capacidad adhesiva y propiedades mecánicas. Los resultados obtenidos han puesto de manifiesto que la colofonia actúa como aireante, aumenta la impermeabilidad y mejora la adherencia de la pasta al árido. Asimismo, la adición de tanino y cera montana a la colofonia tiene el efecto de reducir la formación de espuma y mejorar también la impermeabilidad del mortero.

  19. Preparation of briquettes on the basis of desintegrated phyto-materials and the admixture of fine-grained coal and coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakabský Štefan

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the preparation of small-diameter briquettes on the basis of desintegrated phyto-materials and the admixture of coal and coke. The phyto-materials are classified as a dry biomass that can be, on the one hand, the wastes from wood-working industry,(sawdust, chips, bark, etc. or dried mass from the plant production and, on the other hand, the mass of quick-growing plants cultivated on special plantations. In present time this renewable energy resource attracts attention by its heating value ranging from 10 to 16 MJ.kg-1 (EkoWATT, 2001, a low ash content of 0.5 – 6.5 % and by a low sulphur content in a water free sample of 0.05 –0.12 %.As a phyto-material the spruce sawdusts having a grain size of –2 mm were used. The admixture of brown coal, hard coal and coke with a grain size of 0.040 mm was added to the sawdust and in such way prepared mixtures were subjected to briquetting with the aim to obtain small-diameter briquettes. The influence of admixtures amount on the density, and the suitable briquetting press have been studied. A saleability of briquettes on the basis of phyto-materials is conditioned by their density that must be higher than 1,000 kg.m-3. Thus, an adding of denser material with a relatively high calorific value would enable to attain the required density as well as to retain and/or to improve the main utility properties, i.e. calorific value and ash content.The adding evinces itself in an enhancement of briquetting press, but also density of obtained briquettes is often much higher that required by the market. It was showed that in the case of clear spruce sawdust the density of 1,059 kg.m-3 under the briquetting press of 250 MPa can be attained. According to other results, an admixture of brown coal is not very favourable because briquetting press exceeds the value of 300 MPa. As to hard coal adding, the presses under 250 MPa were achieved at the content of 25 – 30 %. The density of these

  20. Influence of accelerating admixtures in wood-cement panels: characteristics and properties - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.11261

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Matoski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current research evaluated the use of Pinus sp. wood dust from lumber industries wastes on the composition of wood-cement panels. The experiment comprised the manufacture and characterization of wood-cement panels with granulometry-controled wood dust, without any previous treatment, and four chemical accelerating admixtures (calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, aluminum sulfate and sodium silicate. Results showed that chloride admixtures had excellent behavior and the highest performance. The combination of wood dust and calcium chloride admixture had the best performance for the properties under analysis within the chloride admixtures.  

  1. Effectiveness of shrinkage-reducing admixtures on Portland pozzolan cement concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videla, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying shrinkage causes tensile stress in restrained concrete members. Since all structural elements are subject to some degree of restraint, drying shrinkage is regarded to be one of the main causes of concrete cracking. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SRA in reducing drying shrinkage strain in Portland pozzolan cement concrete. The major variables examined included slump, admixture type and dose, and specimen size. The measured results indicate that any of the admixtures used in the study significantly reduced shrinkage. Concrete manufactured with shrinkage reducing admixtures shrank an average of 43% less than concrete without admixtures. As a rule, the higher the dose of admixture, the higher was its shrinkage reduction performance. The experimental results were compared to the shrinkage strain estimated with the ACI 209, CEB MC 90, B3, GL 2000, Sakata 1993 and Sakata 2001 models. Although none of these models was observed to accurately describe the behaviour of Portland pozzolan cement concrete with shrinkage reducing admixtures, the Sakata 2001 model, with a weighted coefficient of variation of under 30%, may be regarded to be roughly adequate.

    La retracción por secado es un fenómeno intrínseco del hormigón que produce tensiones de tracción en elementos restringidos de hormigón. Puesto que todos los elementos presentan algún grado de retracción, se considera a la retracción por secado como una de las principales causas de agrietamiento en proyectos de construcción en hormigón. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la efectividad de los aditivos reductores de retracción (SRA en hormigones fabricados con cemento Portland puzolánico. Las variables principales estudiadas incluyen el asentamiento de cono de Abrams, marca y dosis de aditivo reductor de retracción, y tamaño de espécimen de hormigón. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que el uso de

  2. Independent introductions and admixtures have contributed to adaptation of European maize and its American counterparts.

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    Jean-Tristan Brandenburg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the local selection of landraces, humans have guided the adaptation of crops to a vast range of climatic and ecological conditions. This is particularly true of maize, which was domesticated in a restricted area of Mexico but now displays one of the broadest cultivated ranges worldwide. Here, we sequenced 67 genomes with an average sequencing depth of 18x to document routes of introduction, admixture and selective history of European maize and its American counterparts. To avoid the confounding effects of recent breeding, we targeted germplasm (lines directly derived from landraces. Among our lines, we discovered 22,294,769 SNPs and between 0.9% to 4.1% residual heterozygosity. Using a segmentation method, we identified 6,978 segments of unexpectedly high rate of heterozygosity. These segments point to genes potentially involved in inbreeding depression, and to a lesser extent to the presence of structural variants. Genetic structuring and inferences of historical splits revealed 5 genetic groups and two independent European introductions, with modest bottleneck signatures. Our results further revealed admixtures between distinct sources that have contributed to the establishment of 3 groups at intermediate latitudes in North America and Europe. We combined differentiation- and diversity-based statistics to identify both genes and gene networks displaying strong signals of selection. These include genes/gene networks involved in flowering time, drought and cold tolerance, plant defense and starch properties. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of European maize and highlight a major role of admixture in environmental adaptation, paralleling recent findings in humans.

  3. Polar and brown bear genomes reveal ancient admixture and demographic footprints of past climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C; Welch, Andreanna J; Ratan, Aakrosh; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C; Zhao, Fangqing; Kim, Hie Lim; Burhans, Richard C; Drautz, Daniela I; Wittekindt, Nicola E; Tomsho, Lynn P; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Peacock, Elizabeth; Farley, Sean; Sage, George K; Rode, Karyn; Obbard, Martyn; Montiel, Rafael; Bachmann, Lutz; Ingólfsson, Olafur; Aars, Jon; Mailund, Thomas; Wiig, Oystein; Talbot, Sandra L; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2012-09-04

    Polar bears (PBs) are superbly adapted to the extreme Arctic environment and have become emblematic of the threat to biodiversity from global climate change. Their divergence from the lower-latitude brown bear provides a textbook example of rapid evolution of distinct phenotypes. However, limited mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence conflicts in the timing of PB origin as well as placement of the species within versus sister to the brown bear lineage. We gathered extensive genomic sequence data from contemporary polar, brown, and American black bear samples, in addition to a 130,000- to 110,000-y old PB, to examine this problem from a genome-wide perspective. Nuclear DNA markers reflect a species tree consistent with expectation, showing polar and brown bears to be sister species. However, for the enigmatic brown bears native to Alaska's Alexander Archipelago, we estimate that not only their mitochondrial genome, but also 5-10% of their nuclear genome, is most closely related to PBs, indicating ancient admixture between the two species. Explicit admixture analyses are consistent with ancient splits among PBs, brown bears and black bears that were later followed by occasional admixture. We also provide paleodemographic estimates that suggest bear evolution has tracked key climate events, and that PB in particular experienced a prolonged and dramatic decline in its effective population size during the last ca. 500,000 years. We demonstrate that brown bears and PBs have had sufficiently independent evolutionary histories over the last 4-5 million years to leave imprints in the PB nuclear genome that likely are associated with ecological adaptation to the Arctic environment.

  4. Variation in genetic admixture and population structure among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study (LALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Marchand Loic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population structure and admixture have strong confounding effects on genetic association studies. Discordant frequencies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD risk alleles and for AMD incidence and prevalence rates are reported across different ethnic groups. We examined the genomic ancestry characterizing 538 Latinos drawn from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study [LALES] as part of an ongoing AMD-association study. To help assess the degree of Native American ancestry inherited by Latino populations we sampled 25 Mayans and 5 Mexican Indians collected through Coriell's Institute. Levels of European, Asian, and African descent in Latinos were inferred through the USC Multiethnic Panel (USC MEP, formed from a sample from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC study, the Yoruba African samples from HapMap II, the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and a prospective cohort from Shanghai, China. A total of 233 ancestry informative markers were genotyped for 538 LALES Latinos, 30 Native Americans, and 355 USC MEP individuals (African Americans, Japanese, Chinese, European Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. Sensitivity of ancestry estimates to relative sample size was considered. Results We detected strong evidence for recent population admixture in LALES Latinos. Gradients of increasing Native American background and of correspondingly decreasing European ancestry were observed as a function of birth origin from North to South. The strongest excess of homozygosity, a reflection of recent population admixture, was observed in non-US born Latinos that recently populated the US. A set of 42 SNPs especially informative for distinguishing between Native Americans and Europeans were identified. Conclusion These findings reflect the historic migration patterns of Native Americans and suggest that while the 'Latino' label is used to categorize the entire population, there exists a strong degree of heterogeneity within that population, and that

  5. Polar and brown bear genomes reveal ancient admixture and demographic footprints of past climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C.; Welch, Andreanna J.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C.; Zhao, Fangqing; Kim, Hie Lim; Burhans, Richard C.; Drautz, Daniela I.; Wittekindt, Nicola E.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Peacock, Elizabeth; Farley, Sean; Sage, George K.; Rode, Karyn; Obbard, Martyn E.; Montiel, Rafael; Bachmann, Lutz; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Aars, Jon; Mailund, Thomas; Wiig, Øystein; Talbot, Sandra L.; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (PBs) are superbly adapted to the extreme Arctic environment and have become emblematic of the threat to biodiversity from global climate change. Their divergence from the lower-latitude brown bear provides a textbook example of rapid evolution of distinct phenotypes. However, limited mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence conflicts in the timing of PB origin as well as placement of the species within versus sister to the brown bear lineage. We gathered extensive genomic sequence data from contemporary polar, brown, and American black bear samples, in addition to a 130,000- to 110,000-y old PB, to examine this problem from a genome-wide perspective. Nuclear DNA markers reflect a species tree consistent with expectation, showing polar and brown bears to be sister species. However, for the enigmatic brown bears native to Alaska's Alexander Archipelago, we estimate that not only their mitochondrial genome, but also 5–10% of their nuclear genome, is most closely related to PBs, indicating ancient admixture between the two species. Explicit admixture analyses are consistent with ancient splits among PBs, brown bears and black bears that were later followed by occasional admixture. We also provide paleodemographic estimates that suggest bear evolution has tracked key climate events, and that PB in particular experienced a prolonged and dramatic decline in its effective population size during the last ca. 500,000 years. We demonstrate that brown bears and PBs have had sufficiently independent evolutionary histories over the last 4–5 million years to leave imprints in the PB nuclear genome that likely are associated with ecological adaptation to the Arctic environment.

  6. Influence of pH and temperature on ziconotide stability in intrathecal analgesic admixtures in implantable pumps and syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Christophe; Poirier, Anne-Lise; Dupoiron, Denis

    2015-06-20

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of pH and temperature on the stability of ziconotide in analgesic admixtures containing morphine and ropivacaine. All admixtures were combined using a wide range of concentrations, in implantable pumps and syringes, using temperatures from 4°C to 37°C. Quantification was made thanks to a specific chromatographic technique. pH has also been measured throughout the study. Admixtures confirm excellent stability for morphine and ropivacaine. Concerning ziconotide, an acid hydrolysis has been observed, reducing the time of use of our admixtures in a significant way, but producing non-toxic degradation products. The degradation was linear in all conditions. Inside the implantable pumps at body temperature turned out to be the best conditions for lower protein breakdown. Finally the degradation process showed a high correlation with the pH and the morphine concentration with a median loss of concentration delay due to degradation of 3.5 days [3; 5] when pH<4.5 and 13 days [13; 24] when pH ≥ 4.5. Our admixtures showed different stability depending on the drug concentrations, pH and temperature. The great majority of mixtures in real life in our institution have stability highly compatible with our practice and with the delay between two pump refilling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide Scan of 29,141 African Americans Finds No Evidence of Directional Selection since Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henderson, Brian E.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L.; John, Esther M.; Kittles, Rick A.; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study’s conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas. PMID:25242497

  8. Genome-wide scan of 29,141 African Americans finds no evidence of directional selection since admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harris, Curtis C; Henderson, Brian E; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; De Jager, Phillip L; John, Esther M; Kittles, Rick A; Larkin, Emma; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Tucker, Margaret A; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Reich, David; Price, Alkes L

    2014-10-02

    The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study's conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic admixture of eight Mexican indigenous populations: based on five polymarker, HLA-DQA1, ABO, and RH loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buentello-Malo, Leonora; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the genetic admixture of eight Mexican indigenous populations (Otomi-Ixmiquilpan, Otomi-Actopan, Tzeltales, Nahua-Milpa-Alta, Nahua-Xochimilco, Nahua-Zitlala, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, and Nahua-Coyolillo) on the basis of five PCR-based polymorphic DNA loci (LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC), HLA_DQA1, and the blood groups ABO and Rh (CcDEe). Among the indigenous populations, the highest gene frequencies for O and D were 0.9703 and 1.000 for Zitlala (State of Guerrero) and 0.9955 and 0.9414 for Tzeltales (State of Chiapas), respectively. Maximum likelihood estimates of admixture components yield a trihybrid model with Amerindian (assuming that Nahua-Zitlala is the most representative indigenous population), Spanish, and African ancestry with the admixture proportions: 93.03, 6.03, and 0.94 for Tzeltales, and 28.99, 44.03, and 26.98 for Coyolillo. A contribution of the ancestral populations of Ixhuatlancillo, Actopan, Ixmiquilpan, Milpa-Alta, and Xochimilco were found with the following average of admixture proportions: 75.84, 22.50, and 1.66. The findings herein demonstrate that the genetic admixture of the Mexican indigenous populations who at present speak the same Amer-Indian language can be differentiated and that the majority of them have less ancestral indigenous contribution than those considered as Mestizo populations.

  10. A Simple Analytical Approximation to an Inhomogeneously-Broadened Dispersion Spectrum. Application to Absorption-Dispersion Admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Barney L

    2017-06-01

    A simple analytical approximation to an inhomogeneously-broadened dispersion signal is proposed and tested with resonance lines broadened by unresolved hyperfine structure. Spectral parameters may be rapidly and accurately extracted using a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm. Combining the new approximation to a dispersion signal with a well-known approximation to the absorption signal allows dispersion-absorption admixtures, a problem of growing importance, to be analyzed quickly and accurately. For pure dispersion signals, the maximum difference between the fit and the signal for unresolved lines is 1.1 % of the maximum intensity. For pure absorption, the difference is 0.33 % of the peak-to-peak intensity, and for admixtures up to 40 % dispersion (maximum intensity/peak-to-peak intensity), the difference is 0.7 %. The accuracy of the recovered spectral parameters depends on the degree of inhomogeneously-broadened and the percentage admixture, but they are generally about 1 % at most. A significant finding of the work is that the parameters pertinent to the dispersion or the absorption are insignificantly different when fitting isolated lines vs. fitting admixtures. Admixtures with added noise or an unsuspected extraneous line are investigated.

  11. Rectification cleaning AsCl3 from the admixture of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznitska O. V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the rectification cleaning of three-chlorous arsenic from the admixtures of products of his hydrolysis in the atmosphere of chlorous hydrogen has been considered in the article. Dependence of coefficient of relative volatility a three-chlorous arsenic from his concentration in muriatic solution is explored. The conduct of coefficient of relative volatility with concentrations of HCl and AsCl3 is compared. Saving of equalization of balance and equalization of working curve of column at such conduct of process of rectification is shown.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA studies show asymmetrical Amerindian admixture in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Clemencia; Gelvez, Nancy; Keyeux, Genoveva

    2003-02-01

    The origin of the African populations that arrived on the Colombian coasts at the time of the Spanish conquest and their subsequent settlement throughout the country and interaction with Amerindian and Spanish populations are features that can be analyzed through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. For this purpose, the present study investigates the admixture between these populations by analyzing the markers defining the main (A, B, C, D) and minor (X) founder haplogroups in Native Americans, the principal African haplogroup (L), and additional generic markers present in Caucasian (I, J, K, H, T, U, V, W) and minor African lineages (L3). As part of an interdisciplinary research program (the Expedición Humana, furthered by the Universidad Javeriana and directed by J.E. Bernal V.), 159 Afro-Colombians from five populations in which they are the majority and 91 urban Mestizos were studied. No Amerindian haplogroups (A-D, X) were detected in 81% of the Afro-Colombians. In those samples with Amerindian lineages (average 18.8%, with a range from 10% to 43%), haplogroup B predominated. When analyzed for the presence of African haplotypes, Afro-Colombians showed an overall frequency of 35.8% for haplogroup L mtDNAs, although with broad differences between populations. A few Afro-Colombian samples (1.9%) had mutations that have not been described before, and might therefore be considered as previously unsampled African variants or as new mutations arising in the American continent. Conversely, in Mestizos less than 22% of their mtDNAs belonged to non-Amerindian lineages, of which most were likely to be West Eurasian in origin. Haplogroup L mtDNAs were found in only one Mestizo (1.1%), indicating that, if present, admixture with African women would bring in other, rarer African lineages. On the other hand, in an accompanying paper (Keyeux et al. 2002) we have shown that Amerindians from Colombia have experienced little or no matrilineal admixture with

  13. Corrosion protection performance of corrosion inhibitors and epoxy-coated reinforcing steel in a simulated concrete pore water solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    We used a simulated concrete pore water solution to evaluate the corrosion protection performance of concrete corrosion-inhibiting admixtures and epoxy-coated reinforcing bars (ECR). We evaluated three commercial corrosion inhibitors, ECR from three ...

  14. Genetic diversity and evidence for population admixture in Batak Negritos from Palawan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Clarissa; Siddle, Katherine; Ducourneau, Axel; Crivellaro, Federica; Järve, Mari; Rootsi, Siiri; Bellatti, Maggie; Tabbada, Kristina; Mormina, Maru; Reidla, Maere; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Lahr, Marta Mirazon; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2011-09-01

    Anthropologists have long been fascinated by the isolated hunter-gatherer populations in Southeast Asia (SEA) collectively known as "Negritos." However, the origins and affinities of these groups remain unresolved. Negritos are characterized by their short stature, dark skin color, and wiry hair, and they inhabit the Philippines, Malay Peninsula, and the Andaman Islands. Among Philippine Negritos, the Batak are of particular interest in understanding population interactions in the region due to their location on Palawan Island, which likely formed a corridor by which human migrations entered the rest of the Philippine archipelago from Island SEA. Here, we extend current understanding of the distribution of genetic diversity in Negritos by presenting the first analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity among the Batak. We show that the Batak are genetically distinct from Negritos of the Andaman Islands and Malay Peninsula and instead bear most resemblance to geographically proximate Philippine Negritos and to non-Negrito populations from the Philippines and Island SEA. An extensive degree of recent admixture between the Batak and their neighbors is indicated by the high frequency of recently coalescing haplogroups in the Batak that are found throughout Island SEA. The comparison of results from these two loci further lends support to the hypothesis that male-biased admixture has, in particular, been a prominent feature of the interactions between the Batak and surrounding non-Negrito populations. 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Combined Use of Shrinkage Reducing Admixture and CaO in Cement Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosuè, Chiara; Monosi, Saveria

    2017-10-01

    The combined addition of a Shrinkage-Reducing Admixture (SRA) with a CaO-based expansive agent (CaO) has been found to have a synergistic effect to improve the dimensional stability of cement based materials. In this work, aimed to further investigate the effect, mortar and self-compacting concrete specimens were prepared either without admixtures, as reference, or with SRA alone and/or CaO. Their performance was compared in terms of compressive strength and free shrinkage measurements. Results showed that the synergistic effect in reducing shrinkage is confirmed in the specimens manufactured with SRA and CaO. In order to clarify this phenomenon, the effect of SRA on the hydration of CaO as well as cement was evaluated through different techniques. The obtained results show that SRA induces a finer microstructure of the CaO hydration products and a retarding effect on the microstructure development of cement based materials. A more deformable mortar or concrete, due to the delay in microstructure development by SRA, coupled with a finer microstructure of CaO hydration products could allow higher early expansion, which might contribute in contrasting better the successive drying shrinkage.

  16. Assessing patterns of genetic admixture between sheep breeds: Case study in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkat, Sahraoui; Laoun, Abbes; Belabdi, Ibrahim; Benali, Rédha; Outayeb, Djouhar; Payet-Duprat, Nathalie; Blanquet, Véronique; Lafri, Mohamed; Da Silva, Anne

    2017-08-01

    In developing countries, cross-breeding between local breeds and indigene or exotic breeds represents one of the main threats to the livestock diversity, leading to genetic dilution and loss of unique allelic combination underlying essential local adaptive traits. In this study, two Algerian sheep breeds, known to be highly admixed, were considered as a case study, to demonstrate how combination of different methodologies coupled with the use of specific softwares can be efficient to assess the spatial structuration of a hybrid zone, even in a case of extreme admixture. A fine sampling covering distribution areas of both breeds was implemented in order to study the admixture area and adjacent zones from a phenotypic (i.e., 19 quantitative traits were considered) and a genetic point of view (i.e., 21 microsatellites markers were used). Both approaches gave concordant patterns, highlighting areas with sheep most differentiated (or less admixed) for each breed. In detail, the region of Biskra appeared as the most preserved for the Ouled-Djellal breed and the northwest of Laghouat was identified as the most preserved area for the Rembi breed. The approach proposed in the study offers a low-cost solution to identify the most representative flocks of a breed, allowing the implementation of efficient conservation plans.

  17. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  18. Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Kircher, Martin; Delfin, Frederick; Nandineni, Madhusudan R; Pugach, Irina; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Ko, Ying-Chin; Jinam, Timothy A; Phipps, Maude E; Saitou, Naruya; Wollstein, Andreas; Kayser, Manfred; Pääbo, Svante; Stoneking, Mark

    2011-10-07

    It has recently been shown that ancestors of New Guineans and Bougainville Islanders have inherited a proportion of their ancestry from Denisovans, an archaic hominin group from Siberia. However, only a sparse sampling of populations from Southeast Asia and Oceania were analyzed. Here, we quantify Denisova admixture in 33 additional populations from Asia and Oceania. Aboriginal Australians, Near Oceanians, Polynesians, Fijians, east Indonesians, and Mamanwa (a "Negrito" group from the Philippines) have all inherited genetic material from Denisovans, but mainland East Asians, western Indonesians, Jehai (a Negrito group from Malaysia), and Onge (a Negrito group from the Andaman Islands) have not. These results indicate that Denisova gene flow occurred into the common ancestors of New Guineans, Australians, and Mamanwa but not into the ancestors of the Jehai and Onge and suggest that relatives of present-day East Asians were not in Southeast Asia when the Denisova gene flow occurred. Our finding that descendants of the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia do not all harbor Denisova admixture is inconsistent with a history in which the Denisova interbreeding occurred in mainland Asia and then spread over Southeast Asia, leading to all its earliest modern human inhabitants. Instead, the data can be most parsimoniously explained if the Denisova gene flow occurred in Southeast Asia itself. Thus, archaic Denisovans must have lived over an extraordinarily broad geographic and ecological range, from Siberia to tropical Asia. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomic Characterization of Interspecific Hybrids and an Admixture Population Derived from Panicum amarum × P. virgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heffelfinger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass ( L. and its relatives are regarded as top bioenergy crop candidates; however, one critical barrier is the introduction of useful genetic diversity and the development of new cultivars and hybrids. Combining genomes from related cultivars and species provides an opportunity to introduce new traits. In switchgrass, a breeding advantage would be achieved by combining the genomes of intervarietal ecotypes or interspecific hybrids. The recovery of wide crosses, however, is often tedious and may involve complicated embryo rescue and numerous backcrosses. Here, we demonstrate a straightforward approach to wide crosses involving the use of a selectable transgene for recovery of interspecific [ cv. Alamo × Ell var or Atlantic Coastal Panicgrass (ACP] F hybrids followed by backcrossing to generate a nontransgenic admixture population. A nontransgenic herbicide-sensitive (HbS admixture population of 83 FBC progeny was analyzed by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS to characterize local ancestry, parental contribution, and patterns of recombination. These results demonstrate a widely applicable breeding strategy that makes use of transgenic selectable resistance to identify and recover true hybrids.

  20. Admixture analysis of the diagnostic subtypes of social anxiety disorder: implications for the DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, Idan M; Nickerson, Angela; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-06-01

    Much controversy exists regarding diagnostic subtypes of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The present study used admixture analysis to examine whether individuals with generalized and nongeneralized SAD belong to the same or different populations of origin. This can inform diagnostic subtyping of SAD in the forthcoming DSM-V. Treatment-seeking individuals with generalized SAD (n = 154) and nongeneralized SAD (n = 48) completed a battery of questionnaires. Based on participants' responses to the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), we estimated log likelihood and chi-square goodness-of-fit for models with 1, 2, 3, or 4 populations of origin, and compared models using forward stepwise estimation and maximum likelihood ratio tests. Admixture analyses suggested that the two diagnostic subtypes of SAD belong to the same underlying population of origin. In addition, observable differences in depression, general anxiety, and comorbidity were no longer significant when controlling for social anxiety severity. Our sample was recruited in the U.S. and was a treatment-seeking sample. Future studies should examine whether our results generalize to different cultures, and community samples. Support for qualitative differences between SAD subtypes was not found. Rather, our findings support the notion that the diagnostic subtypes of SAD differ quantitatively, and that SAD exists on a continuum of severity. This finding informs diagnostic subtyping of SAD in the forthcoming DSM-V. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of CVD diamond layers with amorphous carbon admixture by Raman scattering spectroscopy

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    Dychalska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy is a most often used standard technique for characterization of different carbon materials. In this work we present the Raman spectra of polycrystalline diamond layers of different quality, synthesized by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition method (HF CVD. We show how to use Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of the Raman bands to determine the structure of diamond films as well as the structure of amorphous carbon admixture. Raman spectroscopy has become an important technique for the analysis of CVD diamond films. The first-order diamond Raman peak at ca. 1332 cm−1 is an unambiguous evidence for the presence of diamond phase in the deposited layer. However, the existence of non-diamond carbon components in a CVD diamond layer produces several overlapping peaks in the same wavenumber region as the first order diamond peak. The intensities, wavenumber, full width at half maximum (FWHM of these bands are dependent on quality of diamond layer which is dependent on the deposition conditions. The aim of the present work is to relate the features of diamond Raman spectra to the features of Raman spectra of non-diamond phase admixture and occurrence of other carbon structures in the obtained diamond thin films.

  2. Genetic admixture history of Eastern Indonesia as revealed by Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Stefano; Grunz, Katharina E; Brauer, Silke; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Castrì, Loredana; Sudoyo, Herawati; Marzuki, Sangkot; Barnes, Robert H; Schmidtke, Jörg; Stoneking, Mark; Kayser, Manfred

    2009-08-01

    Eastern Indonesia possesses more linguistic diversity than any other region in Southeast Asia, with both Austronesian (AN) languages that are of East Asian origin, as well as non-Austronesian (NAN) languages of likely Melanesian origin. Here, we investigated the genetic history of human populations from seven eastern Indonesian islands, including AN and NAN speakers, as well as the relationship between languages and genes, by means of nonrecombining Y-chromosomal (NRY) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. We found that the eastern Indonesian gene pool consists of East Asian as well as Melanesian components, as might be expected based on linguistic evidence, but also harbors putative indigenous eastern Indonesian signatures that perhaps reflect the initial occupation of the Wallacea by aboriginal hunter-gatherers already in Palaeolithic times. Furthermore, both NRY and mtDNA data showed a complete lack of correlation between linguistic and genetic relationships, most likely reflecting genetic admixture and/or language shift. In addition, we noted a small fraction of the NRY and mtDNA data shared between eastern Indonesians and Australian Aborigines likely reflecting an ancient link between Asia and Australia. Our data thus provide insights into the complex genetic ancestry history of eastern Indonesian islanders characterized by several admixture episodes and demonstrate a clear example of the lack of the often-assumed correlation between the genes and languages of human populations.

  3. Genetic admixture estimates by Alu elements in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo populations from Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Luis; Alfonso-Sánchez, Miguel A; Pérez-Miranda, Ana M; García-Obregón, Susana; Builes, Juan J; Bravo, Maria L; De Pancorbo, Marian M; Peña, José A

    2010-08-01

    This work was intended to gain insights into the admixture processes occurring in Latin American populations by examining the genetic profiles of two ethnic groups from Antioquia (Colombia). To analyse the genetic variability, eight Alu insertions were typed in 64 Afro-Colombians and a reference group of 34 Hispanics (Mestizos). Admixture proportions were estimated using the Weighted Least Squares and the Gene Identity methods. The usefulness of the Alu elements as Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) was evaluated through differences in weighted allelic frequencies (delta values) and by hierarchical analysis of the molecular variance (AMOVA). The Afro-Colombian gene pool was largely determined by the African component (88.5-88.8%), but the most prominent feature was the null contribution of European genes. Mestizos were characterized by a major European component (60.0-63.8%) and a comparatively low proportion of Amerindian (19.2-20.7%) and African (17.0-19.3%) genes. Five of the Alu loci examined (ACE, APO, FXIIIB, PV92 and TPA25) showed an adequate resolving power to differentiate between continental groups, as indicated by delta values and AMOVA results. The peculiarity of the Afro-Colombian gene pool seems to be associated with intense genetic drift episodes that occurred in isolated communities founded by small groups of runaway slaves. ACE, APO, FXIIIB, PV92 and TPA25 could be efficiently utilized in studies dealing with demographic history and biogeographical ancestry in human populations.

  4. Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I) and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals. Results The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times. PMID:18644108

  5. Analysis of Environmental Impact for Concrete Using LCA by Varying the Recycling Components, the Compressive Strength and the Admixture Material Mixing

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    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a type of construction material in which cement, aggregate, and admixture materials are mixed. When cement is produced, large amounts of substances that impact the environment are emitted during limestone extraction and clinker manufacturing. Additionally, the extraction of natural aggregate causes soil erosion and ecosystem destruction. Furthermore, in the process of transporting raw materials such as cement and aggregate to a concrete production company, and producing concrete in a batch plant, substances with an environmental impact are emitted into the air and water system due to energy use. Considering the fact that the process of producing concrete causes various environmental impacts, an assessment of various environmental impact categories is needed. This study used a life cycle assessment (LCA to evaluate the environmental impacts of concrete in terms of its global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential (GWP, AP, EP, ODP, POCP, ADP. The tendency was that the higher the strength of concrete, the higher the GWP, POCP, and ADP indices became, whereas the AP and EP indices became slightly lower. As the admixture mixing ratio of concrete increased, the GWP, AP, ODP, ADP, and POCP decreased, but EP index showed a tendency to increase slightly. Moreover, as the recycled aggregate mixing ratio of concrete increased, the AP, EP, ODP, and ADP decreased, while GWP and POCP increased. The GWP and POCP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa of high strength concrete were found to be about 13% lower than that for its normal strength concrete counterpart. Furthermore, in the case of AP, EP, ODP, and ADP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa, high-strength concrete was found to be about 10%~25% lower than its normal strength counterpart. Among all the environmental impact categories, ordinary cement was found to have

  6. Water

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    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  7. Secondary Contact and Admixture between Independently Invading Populations of the Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermond, Gérald; Ciosi, Marc; Lombaert, Eric; Blin, Aurélie; Boriani, Marco; Furlan, Lorenzo; Toepfer, Stefan; Guillemaud, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is one of the most destructive pests of corn in North America and is currently invading Europe. The two major invasive outbreaks of rootworm in Europe have occurred, in North-West Italy and in Central and South-Eastern Europe. These two outbreaks originated from independent introductions from North America. Secondary contact probably occurred in North Italy between these two outbreaks, in 2008. We used 13 microsatellite markers to conduct a population genetics study, to demonstrate that this geographic contact resulted in a zone of admixture in the Italian region of Veneto. We show that i) genetic variation is greater in the contact zone than in the parental outbreaks; ii) several signs of admixture were detected in some Venetian samples, in a Bayesian analysis of the population structure and in an approximate Bayesian computation analysis of historical scenarios and, finally, iii) allelic frequency clines were observed at microsatellite loci. The contact between the invasive outbreaks in North-West Italy and Central and South-Eastern Europe resulted in a zone of admixture, with particular characteristics. The evolutionary implications of the existence of a zone of admixture in Northern Italy and their possible impact on the invasion success of the western corn rootworm are discussed. PMID:23189184

  8. Secondary contact and admixture between independently invading populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Bermond

    Full Text Available The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, is one of the most destructive pests of corn in North America and is currently invading Europe. The two major invasive outbreaks of rootworm in Europe have occurred, in North-West Italy and in Central and South-Eastern Europe. These two outbreaks originated from independent introductions from North America. Secondary contact probably occurred in North Italy between these two outbreaks, in 2008. We used 13 microsatellite markers to conduct a population genetics study, to demonstrate that this geographic contact resulted in a zone of admixture in the Italian region of Veneto. We show that i genetic variation is greater in the contact zone than in the parental outbreaks; ii several signs of admixture were detected in some Venetian samples, in a bayesian analysis of the population structure and in an approximate bayesian computation analysis of historical scenarios and, finally, iii allelic frequency clines were observed at microsatellite loci. The contact between the invasive outbreaks in North-West Italy and Central and South-Eastern Europe resulted in a zone of admixture, with particular characteristics. The evolutionary implications of the existence of a zone of admixture in Northern Italy and their possible impact on the invasion success of the western corn rootworm are discussed.

  9. Statistical and Detailed Analysis on Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Admixtures- A State of Art of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athiyamaan, V.; Mohan Ganesh, G.

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete is one of the special concretes that have ability to flow and consolidate on its own weight, completely fill the formwork even in the presence of dense reinforcement; whilst maintaining its homogeneity throughout the formwork without any requirement for vibration. Researchers all over the world are developing high performance concrete by adding various Fibers, admixtures in different proportions. Various different kinds Fibers like glass, steel, carbon, Poly propylene and aramid Fibers provide improvement in concrete properties like tensile strength, fatigue characteristic, durability, shrinkage, impact, erosion resistance and serviceability of concrete[6]. It includes fundamental study on fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete with admixtures; its rheological properties, mechanical properties and overview study on design methodology statistical approaches regarding optimizing the concrete performances. The study has been classified into seven basic chapters: introduction, phenomenal study on material properties review on self-compacting concrete, overview on fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete containing admixtures, review on design and analysis of experiment; a statistical approach, summary of existing works on FRSCC and statistical modeling, literature review and, conclusion. It is so eminent to know the resent studies that had been done on polymer based binder materials (fly ash, metakaolin, GGBS, etc.), fiber reinforced concrete and SCC; to do an effective research on fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete containing admixtures. The key aim of the study is to sort-out the research gap and to gain a complete knowledge on polymer based Self compacting fiber reinforced concrete.

  10. Optimal Cement Mixtures Containing Mineral Admixtures under Multiple and Conflicting Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitza M. García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern construction industry, fabrication of sustainable concrete has turned the decision-making process into a challenging endeavor. One alternative is using fly ash and nanostructured silica as cement replacements. In these modern mixtures, proper concrete bulk density, percentage of voids, and compressive strength normally cannot be optimized individually. Hereby, a decision-making strategy on the replacement of those components is presented while taking into account those three performance measurements. The relationships among those components upon concrete fabrication required a design of experiments of mixtures to characterize those mineral admixtures. This approach integrates different objective functions that are in conflict and obtains the best compromise mixtures for the performance measures being considered. This optimization strategy permitted to recommend the combined use of fly ash and nanosilica to improve the concrete properties at its early age.

  11. Verification of Joule heat evolution model for silicate building materials with electrically conductive admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Lukáš; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Silicate building materials naturally exhibit electrically non-conductive behavior. However, a sufficient amount of electrically conductive admixtures leads to a significant increase of the electrical conductivity. This fact can be utilized in several practical ways, such as for development of self-sensing, electromagnetically-shielding or self-heating materials. In this paper, self-heating ability of chosen silicate material was tested and previously developed heating model was verified by means of comparison of calculated temperature evolution in time data with those experimentally determined by thermocouples placed on lateral sides. Sufficiently electrically conductive mixture with carbon black (CB) in amount of 8.89 % was used for DC experiment. Theoretical data were obtained by subsequent FEM calculations conducted on 3D model of the tested sample.

  12. Global prostate cancer incidence and the migration, settlement, and admixture history of the Northern Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Kristin; Wang, Christopher Y; Wang, Ruoxiang

    2011-08-01

    The most salient feature of prostate cancer is its striking ethnic disparity. High incidences of the disease are documented in two ethnic groups: descendents of the Northern Europeans and African Americans. Other groups, including native Africans, are much less susceptible to the disease. Given that many risk factors may contribute to carcinogenesis, an etiological cause for the ethnic disparity remains to be defined. By analyzing the global prostate cancer incidence data, we found that distribution of prostate cancer incidence coincides with the migration and settlement history of Northern Europeans. The incidences in other ethnic groups correlate to the settlement history and extent of admixture of the Europeans. This study suggests that prostate cancer has been spread by the transmission of a genetic susceptibility that resides in the Northern European genome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Results from a prostate cancer admixture mapping study in African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Cathryn Hufford; Schwartz, Ann G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Levin, Albert M; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Land, Susan J; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Reich, David; McKeigue, Paul; Chen, Wei; Heath, Elisabeth I; Powell, Isaac J; Kittles, Rick A; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2009-11-01

    There are considerable racial disparities in prostate cancer risk, with a 60% higher incidence rate among African-American (AA) men compared with European-American (EA) men, and a 2.4-fold higher mortality rate in AA men than in EA men. Recently, studies have implicated several African-ancestry associated prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosome 8q24. In the current study, we performed admixture mapping in AA men from two independent case-control studies of prostate cancer to confirm the 8q24 ancestry association and also identify other genomic regions that may harbor prostate cancer susceptibility genes. A total of 482 cases and 261 controls were genotyped for 1,509 ancestry informative markers across the genome. The mean estimated individual admixture proportions were 20% European and 80% African. The most significant observed increase in European ancestry occurred at rs2141360 on chromosome 7q31 in both the case-only (P = 0.0000035) and case-control analyses. The most significant observed increase in African ancestry across the genome occurred at a locus on chromosome 5q35 identified by SNPs rs7729084 (case-only analysis P = 0.002), and rs12474977 (case-control analysis P = 0.004), which are separated by 646 kb and were adjacent to one another on the panel. On chromosome 8, rs4367565 was associated with the greatest excess African ancestry in both the case-only and case-control analyses (case-only and case-control P = 0.02), confirming previously reported African-ancestry associations with chromosome 8q24. In conclusion, we confirmed ancestry associations on 8q24, and identified additional ancestry-associated regions potentially harboring prostate cancer susceptibility loci.

  14. Results from a Prostate Cancer Admixture Mapping Study in African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Cathryn H.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Levin, Albert M.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Land, Susan J.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Reich, David; McKeigue, Paul; Chen, Wei; Heath, Elisabeth I.; Powell, Isaac J.; Kittles, Rick A.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    There are considerable racial disparities in prostate cancer risk, with a 60% higher incidence rate among African American (AA) men compared with European American (EA) men, and a 2.4 fold higher mortality rate in AA men than in EA men. Recently, studies have implicated several African-ancestry associated prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosome 8q24. In the current study, we performed admixture mapping in AA men from two independent case-control studies of prostate cancer to confirm the 8q24 ancestry association and also identify other genomic regions that may harbor prostate cancer susceptibility genes. A total of 482 cases and 261 controls were genotyped for 1,509 ancestry informative markers across the genome. The mean estimated individual admixture proportions were 20% European and 80% African. The most significant observed increase in European ancestry occurred at rs2141360 on chromosome 7q31 in both the case-only (p=0.0000035) and case-control analyses. The most significant observed increase in African ancestry across the genome occurred at a locus on chromosome 5q35 identified by SNPs rs7729084 (case-only analysis: p=0.002), and rs12474977 (case-control analysis: p=0.004), which are separated by 646 kb and were adjacent to one another on the panel. On chromosome 8, rs4367565 was associated with the greatest excess African ancestry in both the case-only and case-control analyses (case-only and case-control p=0.02), confirming previously reported African-ancestry associations with chromosome 8q24. In conclusion, we confirmed ancestry associations on 8q24, and identified additional ancestry-associated regions potentially harboring prostate cancer susceptibility loci. PMID:19568772

  15. Intricacies in arrangement of SNP haplotypes suggest "Great Admixture" that created modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rajib; Mainsah, Joseph; Yatskiv, Yuriy; Chakrabortty, Sharmistha; Brennan, Patrick; Khuder, Basil; Qiu, Shuhao; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei

    2017-06-05

    Inferring history from genomic sequences is challenging and problematic because chromosomes are mosaics of thousands of small Identicalby-descent (IBD) fragments, each of them having their own unique story. However, the main events in recent evolution might be deciphered from comparative analysis of numerous loci. A paradox of why humans, whose effective population size is only 10 4 , have nearly three million frequent SNPs is formulated and examined. We studied 5398 loci evenly covering all human autosomes. Common haplotypes built from frequent SNPs that are present in people from various populations have been examined. We demonstrated highly non-random arrangement of alleles in common haplotypes. Abundance of mutually exclusive pairs of common haplotypes that have different alleles at every polymorphic position (so-called Yin/Yang haplotypes) was found in 56% of loci. A novel widely spread category of common haplotypes named Mosaic has been described. Mosaic consists of numerous pieces of Yin/Yang haplotypes and represents an ancestral stage of one of them. Scenarios of possible appearance of large number of frequent human SNPs and their habitual arrangement in Yin/Yang common haplotypes have been evaluated with an advanced genomic simulation algorithm. Computer modeling demonstrated that the observed arrangement of 2.9 million frequent SNPs could not originate from a sole stand-alone population. A "Great Admixture" event has been proposed that can explain peculiarities with frequent SNP distributions. This Great Admixture presumably occurred 100-300 thousand years ago between two ancestral populations that had been separated from each other about a million years ago. Our programs and algorithms can be applied to other species to perform evolutionary and comparative genomics.

  16. Admixture analysis of age at onset in first episode bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; McIntyre, Roger S; MacQueen, Glenda; Kennedy, Sidney H; Kennedy, James L; Ravindran, Arun; Yatham, Lakshmi; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have used the admixture analysis to separate age-at-onset (AAO) subgroups in bipolar disorder, but none of them examined first episode patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of clinical variables on AAO in first episode bipolar patients. The admixture analysis was applied to identify the model best fitting the observed AAO distribution of a sample of 194 patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the finite mixture model was applied to assess the effect of clinical covariates on AAO. Using the BIC method, the model that was best fitting the observed distribution of AAO was a mixture of three normal distributions. We identified three AAO groups: early age-at-onset (EAO) (µ=18.0, σ=2.88), intermediate-age-at-onset (IAO) (µ=28.7, σ=3.5), and late-age-at-onset (LAO) (µ=47.3, σ=7.8), comprising 69%, 22%, and 9% of the sample respectively. Our first episode sample distribution model was significantly different from most of the other studies that applied the mixture analysis. The main limitation is that our sample may have inadequate statistical power to detect the clinical associations with the AAO subgroups. This study confirms that bipolar disorder can be classified into three groups based on AAO distribution. The data reported in our paper provide more insight into the diagnostic heterogeneity of bipolar disorder across the three AAO subgroups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Origin and dynamics of admixture in Brazilians and its effect on the pattern of deleterious mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehdy, Fernanda S G; Gouveia, Mateus H; Machado, Moara; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Horimoto, Andrea R; Horta, Bernardo L; Moreira, Rennan G; Leal, Thiago P; Scliar, Marilia O; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Rodrigues-Soares, Fernanda; Araújo, Gilderlanio S; Zamudio, Roxana; Sant Anna, Hanaisa P; Santos, Hadassa C; Duarte, Nubia E; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L; Figueiredo, Camila A; Silva, Thiago M; Costa, Gustavo N O; Beleza, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E; Cabrera, Lilia; Debortoli, Guilherme; Duarte, Denise; Ghirotto, Silvia; Gilman, Robert H; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Marrero, Andrea R; Muniz, Yara C; Weissensteiner, Hansi; Yeager, Meredith; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L; Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Pereira, Alexandre C; Rodrigues, Maíra R; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2015-07-14

    While South Americans are underrepresented in human genomic diversity studies, Brazil has been a classical model for population genetics studies on admixture. We present the results of the EPIGEN Brazil Initiative, the most comprehensive up-to-date genomic analysis of any Latin-American population. A population-based genome-wide analysis of 6,487 individuals was performed in the context of worldwide genomic diversity to elucidate how ancestry, kinship, and inbreeding interact in three populations with different histories from the Northeast (African ancestry: 50%), Southeast, and South (both with European ancestry >70%) of Brazil. We showed that ancestry-positive assortative mating permeated Brazilian history. We traced European ancestry in the Southeast/South to a wider European/Middle Eastern region with respect to the Northeast, where ancestry seems restricted to Iberia. By developing an approximate Bayesian computation framework, we infer more recent European immigration to the Southeast/South than to the Northeast. Also, the observed low Native-American ancestry (6-8%) was mostly introduced in different regions of Brazil soon after the European Conquest. We broadened our understanding of the African diaspora, the major destination of which was Brazil, by revealing that Brazilians display two within-Africa ancestry components: one associated with non-Bantu/western Africans (more evident in the Northeast and African Americans) and one associated with Bantu/eastern Africans (more present in the Southeast/South). Furthermore, the whole-genome analysis of 30 individuals (42-fold deep coverage) shows that continental admixture rather than local post-Columbian history is the main and complex determinant of the individual amount of deleterious genotypes.

  18. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad L Smith

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius L. revealed significant differentiation among Mediterranean, North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. However, limitations in geographic sampling coverage, and the use of single loci, precluded an accurate placement of boundaries and of estimates of admixture. In this study, we present multilocus analyses of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within 10 nuclear genes to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments support the differentiation of swordfish inhabiting these three basins, but not the current placement of the boundaries that separate them. Specifically, the range of the South Atlantic population extends beyond 5°N management boundary to 20°N-25°N from 45°W. Likewise the Mediterranean population extends beyond the current management boundary at the Strait of Gibraltar to approximately 10°W. Further, admixture zones, characterized by asymmetric contributions of adjacent populations within samples, are confined to the Northeast Atlantic. While South Atlantic and Mediterranean migrants were identified within these Northeast Atlantic admixture zones no North Atlantic migrants were identified respectively in these two neighboring basins. Owing to both, the characterization of larger number of loci and a more ample spatial sampling coverage, it was possible to provide a finer resolution of the boundaries separating Atlantic swordfish populations than previous studies. Finally, the patterns of population structure and admixture are discussed in the light of the reproductive biology, the known patterns of dispersal, and oceanographic features that may act as barriers to gene flow to Atlantic swordfish.

  19. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad L; Lu, Ching-Ping; García-Cortés, Blanca; Viñas, Jordi; Yeh, Shean-Ya; Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R

    2015-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) revealed significant differentiation among Mediterranean, North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. However, limitations in geographic sampling coverage, and the use of single loci, precluded an accurate placement of boundaries and of estimates of admixture. In this study, we present multilocus analyses of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 10 nuclear genes to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments support the differentiation of swordfish inhabiting these three basins, but not the current placement of the boundaries that separate them. Specifically, the range of the South Atlantic population extends beyond 5°N management boundary to 20°N-25°N from 45°W. Likewise the Mediterranean population extends beyond the current management boundary at the Strait of Gibraltar to approximately 10°W. Further, admixture zones, characterized by asymmetric contributions of adjacent populations within samples, are confined to the Northeast Atlantic. While South Atlantic and Mediterranean migrants were identified within these Northeast Atlantic admixture zones no North Atlantic migrants were identified respectively in these two neighboring basins. Owing to both, the characterization of larger number of loci and a more ample spatial sampling coverage, it was possible to provide a finer resolution of the boundaries separating Atlantic swordfish populations than previous studies. Finally, the patterns of population structure and admixture are discussed in the light of the reproductive biology, the known patterns of dispersal, and oceanographic features that may act as barriers to gene flow to Atlantic swordfish.

  20. THE MECHANISM OF PORE REDUCTION DUE TO CARBONATION REACTION OF γ-2CaO.SiO2 AND POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURES WITH LOW-HEAT-PORTLAND-CEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenzo; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Sakata, Noboru; Sakai, Etsuo

    The durability of cementitious material can be effectively improved by reducing permeability and by changing cement hydrates due to car bonation reaction. This paper describes the examination results about the mechanism of pore reductio n during the curing with CO2 gasses of new cementisious materials containing low heat Portland cement, γ-2CaO.SiO2 and pozzolanic admixtures. As a result, it was provided that the pore of the mortar containing the pozzolanic admixtures and γ-2CaO.SiO2 got small, because the pozzolanic admixtures would accelerate the reaction of γ-2CaO.SiO2 and CO2 gasses.

  1. In vitro stability of low-concentration ziconotide alone or in admixtures in intrathecal pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoiron, Denis; Richard, Hélène; Chabert-Desnot, Vincent; Devys, Catherine; Leynia, Pierre; Boisdron-Celle, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    Ziconotide is often administered in combination with other analgesics via an intrathecal pump. Studies have established that ziconotide is stable when delivered alone in high concentrations. No stability data are available, however, for ziconotide given in low concentrations and/or with other analgesics as usually occurs in clinical oncology practice. The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro stability of ziconotide alone and combined with other analgesics in intrathecal pumps at 37 °C, as well as in syringes at 5 °C, to evaluate conditions for storing and transporting preparations. Various ziconotide concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 μg/mL) were combined with an admixture of ropivacaine (7.5 mg/mL), morphine (7.5 mg/mL), and clonidine (15 μg/mL) in 20-mL intrathecal pumps at 37 °C and in syringes at 5 °C. Solutions of ziconotide alone in concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 μg/mL were introduced into pumps at 37 °C and syringes at 5 °C. Assays were performed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography. In admixtures, mean ziconotide concentrations decreased linearly to 53.4% (± 3.33%) of baseline after 35 days. When ziconotide was introduced alone in pumps at 37 °C, the residual concentration on day 31 was 35.54% (± 0.04%) with 0.25 μg/mL, 39.37% (± 0.15%) with 0.5 μg/mL, and 44.49% (± 0.18%) with 1 μg/mL. Ziconotide alone or combined with the other analgesics was stable in syringes stored at 5 °C. The preparations complied with the prescriptions, with a mean error of less than 10%, except with the lowest ziconotide concentration (0.1 μg/mL). At the low ziconotide concentrations studied, the degradation of ziconotide admixed with other drugs was linear and only weakly influenced by the baseline concentration. Linear regression with intrapolation to 30 days showed that the degradation of ziconotide admixed with other drugs was consistent with previously published data. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  2. Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Balding, David; Gonzalez-José, Rolando

    2014-09-01

    The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry.

  3. The properties of the cement screeds with the addition of polypropylene fibres and the shrinkage-reducing admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Rada M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper points out the problems of damage that can occur during the preparation and exploitation of a cement screed. There were described the types and properties and presented test results obtained on the samples of cement composites prepared with the addition of fibre reinforcement and shrinkage-reducing admixture. Testing procedure included the following properties: density, compressive strength, ultrasound, coefficient of construction advantages and shrinking, and above all the impact of compaction procedure on the quality of cement screed. The testing results of experimental research show that the use of polypropylene fibres and shrinkage-reducing admixture contributes to the improvement of mechanical and deformation properties of cement screeds and that installation which includes some method of vibration is crucial for screed quality. The above statements are also recommendations in the execution of cement screed in practice.

  4. Influence of the calcium concentration in the presence of organic phosphorus on the physicochemical compatibility and stability of all-in-one admixtures for neonatal use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Sousa Valeria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm infants need high amounts of calcium and phosphorus for bone mineralization, which is difficult to obtain with parenteral feeding due to the low solubility of these salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical compatibility of high concentrations of calcium associated with organic phosphate and its influence on the stability of AIO admixtures for neonatal use. Methods Three TPN admixture formulas were prepared in multilayered bags. The calcium content of the admixtures was adjusted to 0, 46.5 or 93 mg/100 ml in the presence of a fixed organic phosphate concentration as well as lipids, amino acids, inorganic salts, glucose, vitamins and oligoelements at pH 5.5. Each admixture was stored at 4°C, 25°C or 37°C and evaluated over a period of 7 days. The physicochemical stability parameters evaluated were visual aspect, pH, sterility, osmolality, peroxide formation, precipitation, and the size of lipid globules. Results Color alterations occurred from the first day on, and reversible lipid film formation from the third day of study for the admixtures stored at 25°C and 37°C. According to the parameters evaluated, the admixtures were stable at 4°C; and none of them presented precipitated particles due to calcium/phosphate incompatibility or lipid globules larger than 5 μm, which is the main parameter currently used to evaluate lipid emulsion stability. The admixtures maintained low peroxide levels and osmolarity was appropriate for parenteral administration. Conclusion The total calcium and calcium/phosphorus ratios studied appeared not to influence the physicochemical compatibility and stability of AIO admixtures.

  5. On the use of crystalline admixtures in cement based construction materials: from porosity reducers to promoters of self healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Liberato; Krelani, Visar; Moretti, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    The project detailed in this paper aims at a thorough characterization of the effects of crystalline admixtures, currently employed as porosity reducing admixtures, on the self-healing capacity of the cementitious composites, i.e. their capacity to completely or partially re-seal cracks and, in case, also exhibit recovery of mechanical properties. The problem has been investigated with reference to both a normal strength concrete (NSC) and a high performance fibre reinforced cementitious composite (HPFRCC). In the latter case, the influence of flow-induced fibre alignment has also been considered in the experimental investigation. With reference to either 3-point (for NSC) or 4-point (for HPFRCC) bending tests performed up to controlled crack opening and up to failure, respectively before and after exposure/conditioning recovery of stiffness and stress bearing capacity has been evaluated to assess the self-healing capacity. In a durability-based design framework, self-healing indices to quantify the recovery of mechanical properties will also be defined. In NSC, crystalline admixtures are able to promote up to 60% of crack sealing even under exposure to open air. In the case of HPFRCCs, which would already feature autogenous healing capacity because of their peculiar mix compositions, the synergy between the dispersed fibre reinforcement and the action of the crystalline admixture has resulted in a likely ‘chemical pre-stressing’ of the same reinforcement, from which the recovery of mechanical performance of the material has greatly benefited, up to levels even higher than the performance of the virgin un-cracked material.

  6. Population genetics of Mediterranean and Saharan olives: geographic patterns of differentiation and evidence for early generations of admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, G; El Bakkali, A; Haouane, H; Baali-Cherif, D; Moukhli, A; Khadari, B

    2013-11-01

    The olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was domesticated in the Mediterranean area but its wild relatives are distributed over three continents, from the Mediterranean basin to South Africa and south-western Asia. Recent studies suggested that this crop originated in the Levant while a secondary diversification occurred in most westward areas. A possible contribution of the Saharan subspecies (subsp. laperrinei) has been highlighted, but the data available were too limited to draw definite conclusions. Here, patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean and Saharan olives are analysed to test for recent admixture between these taxa. Nuclear microsatellite and plastid DNA (ptDNA) data were compiled from previous studies and completed for a sample of 470 cultivars, 390 wild Mediterranean trees and 270 Saharan olives. A network was reconstructed for the ptDNA haplotypes, while a Bayesian clustering method was applied to identify the main gene pools in the data set and then simulate and test for early generations of admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Four lineages of ptDNA haplotypes are recognized: three from the Mediterranean basin and one from the Sahara. Only one haplotype, primarily distributed in the Sahara, is shared between laperrinei and europaea. This haplotype is detected once in 'Dhokar', a cultivar from the Maghreb. Nuclear microsatellites show geographic patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean olive that reflect the primary origins of cultivars in the Levant, and indicate a high genetic differentiation between europaea and laperrinei. No first-generation hybrid between europaea and laperrinei is detected, but recent, reciprocal admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan subspecies is found in a few accessions, including 'Dhokar'. This study reports for the first time admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Although its contribution remains limited, Laperrine's olive has been involved in the

  7. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  8. Physicochemical stability of ternary admixtures of butorphanol, ketamine, and droperidol in polyolefin bags for patient-controlled analgesia use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang BX

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Baoxia Fang,1 Linhai Wang,2 Junfeng Gu,3 Fuchao Chen,1 Xiao-ya Shi1 1Department of Pharmacy, Dongfeng Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei, People’s Republic of China Background: Delivery of drug admixtures by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia is a common practice for the management of postoperative pain; however, analytical confirmation of the compatibility and stability of butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol combined in ternary admixtures is not available.Methods: Butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol have been examined for compatibility and stability when combined with 0.9% sodium chloride injection stored at 4°C and 25°C with light protection for a total of 14 days. Concentrations were 0.067 mg/mL, 1.33 mg/mL, and 0.033 mg/mL for butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol, respectively. Drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.Results: All three drugs were very stable (>97% at 4°C and 25°C for 14 days. The ternary admixtures were initially clear and colorless throughout the observation period, and the pH value did not change significantly.Conclusion: The results confirm that the ternary admixture of butorphanol tartrate 0.067 mg/mL, ketamine hydrochloride 1.33 mg/mL, and droperidol 0.033 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light. Keywords: analgesia, patient-controlled analgesia, drug stability, butorphanol, ketamine, droperidol, HPLC

  9. Nuclear Species-Diagnostic SNP Markers Mined from 454 Amplicon Sequencing Reveal Admixture Genomic Structure of Modern Citrus Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  10. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40% and Santiago de Cuba (39%, and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%, Holguín (12% and Las Tunas (12%. We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  11. Cuba: exploring the history of admixture and the genetic basis of pigmentation using autosomal and uniparental markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Angel; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole

    2014-07-01

    We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.

  12. Apparent Variation in Neanderthal Admixture among African Populations is Consistent with Gene Flow from Non-African Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuoguo; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Hey, Jody; Xing, Jinchuan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have found evidence of introgression from Neanderthals into modern humans outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Given the geographic range of Neanderthals, the findings have been interpreted as evidence of gene exchange between Neanderthals and modern humans descended from the Out-of-Africa (OOA) migration. Here, we examine an alternative interpretation in which the introgression occurred earlier within Africa, between ancestors or relatives of Neanderthals and a subset of African modern humans who were the ancestors of those involved in the OOA migration. Under the alternative model, if the population structure among present-day Africans predates the OOA migration, we might find some African populations show a signal of Neanderthal introgression whereas others do not. To test this alternative model, we compiled a whole-genome data set including 38 sub-Saharan Africans from eight populations and 25 non-African individuals from five populations. We assessed differences in the amount of Neanderthal-like single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles among these populations and observed up to 1.5% difference in the number of Neanderthal-like alleles among African populations. Further analyses suggest that these differences are likely due to recent non-African admixture in these populations. After accounting for recent non-African admixture, our results do not support the alternative model of older (e.g., >100 kya) admixture between modern humans and Neanderthal-like hominids within Africa. PMID:24162011

  13. Apparent variation in Neanderthal admixture among African populations is consistent with gene flow from Non-African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuoguo; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Hey, Jody; Xing, Jinchuan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have found evidence of introgression from Neanderthals into modern humans outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Given the geographic range of Neanderthals, the findings have been interpreted as evidence of gene exchange between Neanderthals and modern humans descended from the Out-of-Africa (OOA) migration. Here, we examine an alternative interpretation in which the introgression occurred earlier within Africa, between ancestors or relatives of Neanderthals and a subset of African modern humans who were the ancestors of those involved in the OOA migration. Under the alternative model, if the population structure among present-day Africans predates the OOA migration, we might find some African populations show a signal of Neanderthal introgression whereas others do not. To test this alternative model, we compiled a whole-genome data set including 38 sub-Saharan Africans from eight populations and 25 non-African individuals from five populations. We assessed differences in the amount of Neanderthal-like single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles among these populations and observed up to 1.5% difference in the number of Neanderthal-like alleles among African populations. Further analyses suggest that these differences are likely due to recent non-African admixture in these populations. After accounting for recent non-African admixture, our results do not support the alternative model of older (e.g., >100 kya) admixture between modern humans and Neanderthal-like hominids within Africa.

  14. In vivo efficacy and toxicity evaluation of polycaprolactone nanoparticles and aluminum based admixture formulation as vaccine delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vivek; Kumar, Manoj; Bhardwaj, Arun; Brahmne, H G; Singh, Harpal

    2015-10-13

    Delivery of antigen through admixture formulation containing poly caprolactone (PCL) and aluminum phosphate was studied as a promising strategy to generate antigen specific immune response. The present study demonstrates the synergistic effect of admixture formulation of PCL with reduced aluminum (PCL-Al 0.2 mg-TT and PCL-PEG-Al 0.2 mg-TT) as a potential adjuvant system using tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model antigen. On evaluation of the magnitude of efficacy for the proposed formulation by ELISA as well as challenge method, persistent and strong antibody response was obtained throughout the 180 day study period on storage at 5 ± 3 °C. In comparison to the aluminum phosphate based conventional tetanus vaccine, higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were obtained with PCL-Al 0.2 mg-TT and PCL-PEG-Al 0.2 mg-TT, indicating the presence of cell mediated as well as humoral immune responses. Histopathology and serum biochemistry profile in mice further indicated the suitability of the proposed formulation. Percent adsorption/encapsulation of the antigen also increased to nearly 95% in the admixture formulation compared to 55% adsorption in the conventional tetanus vaccine. The present study established a useful baseline for designing biocompatible and effective delivery system for toxoid vaccines through judicious use of PCL based biodegradable nanoparticles in combination with aluminum phosphate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetics, surnames, grandparents' nationalities, and ethnic admixture in Southern Brazil: Do the patterns of variation coincide?

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    C.L. Dornelles

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2,708 individuals from the European-derived population of Rio Grande do Sul, divided into seven mesoregions, and of 226 individuals of similar origin from Santa Catarina were studied. Seventeen protein genetic systems, as well as grandparents' nationalities, individuals' surnames, and interethnic admixture were investigated. The alleles which presented the highest and lowest differences were GLO1*2 (16% and PGD*A (2%, respectively, but in general no significant genetic differences were found among mesoregions. The values observed were generally those expected for individuals of European descent, with the largest difference being a lower prevalence (34-39% of P*1. Significant heterogeneity among mesoregions was observed for the other variables considered, and was consistent with historical records. The Amerindian contribution to the gene pool of European-derived subjects in Rio Grande do Sul was estimated to be as high as 11%. Based on the four data sets, the most general finding was a tendency for a northeast-southwest separation of the populations studied. Seven significant phenotype associations between systems were observed at the 5% level (three at the 0.1% level. Of the latter, the two most interesting (since they were also observed in other studies were MNSs/Duffy and Rh/ACP.

  16. Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo Stampino, Paola [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , R.U. INSTM, p.zza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: pgallo@chem.polimi.it; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , R.U. INSTM, p.zza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Meloni, Paola [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of Cagliari, p.zza D' Armi 19, 09100 Cagliari (Italy); Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Bergamo, INSTM R.U. - Unibg, viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Italy)

    2009-01-30

    In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1 d), 7 days (7 d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant.

  17. Some Issues of Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures Application in Alkali-Activated Slag Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílek, Vlastimil; Kalina, Lukáš; Novotný, Radoslav; Tkacz, Jakub; Pařízek, Ladislav

    2016-06-10

    Significant drying shrinkage is one of the main limitations for the wider utilization of alkali-activated slag (AAS). Few previous works revealed that it is possible to reduce AAS drying shrinkage by the use of shrinkage-reducing admixtures (SRAs). However, these studies were mainly focused on SRA based on polypropylene glycol, while as it is shown in this paper, the behavior of SRA based on 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol can be significantly different. While 0.25% and 0.50% had only a minor effect on the AAS properties, 1.0% of this SRA reduced the drying shrinkage of waterglass-activated slag mortar by more than 80%, but it greatly reduced early strengths simultaneously. This feature was further studied by isothermal calorimetry, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Calorimetric experiments showed that 1% of SRA modified the second peak of the pre-induction period and delayed the maximum of the main hydration peak by several days, which corresponds well with observed strength development as well as with the MIP and SEM results. These observations proved the certain incompatibility of SRA with the studied AAS system, because the drying shrinkage reduction was induced by the strong retardation of hydration, resulting in a coarsening of the pore structure rather than the proper function of the SRA.

  18. Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Meloni, Paola; Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato

    2009-01-30

    In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1d), 7 days (7d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant.

  19. Almost 20 years of Neanderthal palaeogenetics: adaptation, admixture, diversity, demography and extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Nearly two decades since the first retrieval of Neanderthal DNA, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the generation of high-coverage genomes from two archaic hominins, a Neanderthal and a Denisovan, as well as a complete mitochondrial genome from remains which probably represent early members of the Neanderthal lineage. This genomic information, coupled with diversity exome data from several Neanderthal specimens is shedding new light on evolutionary processes such as the genetic basis of Neanderthal and modern human-specific adaptations—including morphological and behavioural traits—as well as the extent and nature of the admixture events between them. An emerging picture is that Neanderthals had a long-term small population size, lived in small and isolated groups and probably practised inbreeding at times. Deleterious genetic effects associated with these demographic factors could have played a role in their extinction. The analysis of DNA from further remains making use of new large-scale hybridization-capture-based methods as well as of new approaches to discriminate contaminant DNA sequences will provide genetic information in spatial and temporal scales that could help clarify the Neanderthal's—and our very own—evolutionary history. PMID:25487326

  20. Examining determinants of early and late age at onset in panic disorder: an admixture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibi, Lee; van Oppen, Patricia; Aderka, Idan M; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; Anholt, Gideon E

    2013-12-01

    Past research demonstrated that age at onset might account for different clinical and etiological characteristics in panic disorder (PD). However, prior research relied on arbitrary choices of age cut-offs. Using a data-driven validated method, this study aimed to examine differences between early and late onset PD in various determinants. Admixture analysis was used to determine the best fitting model of age at onset distribution in PD. Data was collected from 511 individuals (ages 18-65) with PD diagnoses, who participated in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). DSM-IV comorbidities and various measures of childhood adversities, suicidal behavior, anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed. The best fitting cut-off score between early and late age at onset groups was 27 years (early age at onset ≤ 27 years). Univariate tests showed that participants with early onset PD were younger and more likely to be female. Early onset PD was associated with agoraphobia, higher frequency of childhood trauma and life events, and higher rates of suicide attempts as compared to late onset PD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that only current age, childhood trauma and agoraphobia remained significantly associated with early onset PD. Findings suggest that 27 years marks two onset groups in PD, which are slightly distinct. Early onset PD is independently associated with exposure to childhood trauma and increased avoidance. This highlights the importance of subtyping age of onset in PD. Clinical implications are further discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetics, surnames, grandparents' nationalities, and ethnic admixture in Southern Brazil: Do the patterns of variation coincide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornelles C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2,708 individuals from the European-derived population of Rio Grande do Sul, divided into seven mesoregions, and of 226 individuals of similar origin from Santa Catarina were studied. Seventeen protein genetic systems, as well as grandparents' nationalities, individuals' surnames, and interethnic admixture were investigated. The alleles which presented the highest and lowest differences were GLO1*2 (16% and PGD*A (2%, respectively, but in general no significant genetic differences were found among mesoregions. The values observed were generally those expected for individuals of European descent, with the largest difference being a lower prevalence (34-39% of P*1. Significant heterogeneity among mesoregions was observed for the other variables considered, and was consistent with historical records. The Amerindian contribution to the gene pool of European-derived subjects in Rio Grande do Sul was estimated to be as high as 11%. Based on the four data sets, the most general finding was a tendency for a northeast-southwest separation of the populations studied. Seven significant phenotype associations between systems were observed at the 5% level (three at the 0.1% level. Of the latter, the two most interesting (since they were also observed in other studies were MNSs/Duffy and Rh/ACP.

  2. Strength properties of bamboo and steel reinforced concrete containing manufactured sand and mineral admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In a quest to ensure sustainability of the future generation, various research attempts are focusing on the use of alternative materials for construction. In this study, bamboo strips were used as reinforcement in a concrete that was made with supplementary cementitious materials and partial replacement of river sand with manufactured sand (m-sand. Cement was partially replaced by 25% of combination of admixtures such as fly ash and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS. In alignment with standard requirements, concrete samples such as cubes, cylinders and beams were produced and tested at stipulated periods. Micro scale analysis was performed on the bamboo using SEM and FTIR, and its tensile strength was also determined. The results of the micro scale and tensile strength tests revealed that bamboo is a strong and ductile material. The study showed that a combination of fly ash, GGBS and m-sand used as alternative materials in concrete improves the compressive and split tensile strengths. Under flexural loading, performance of bamboo reinforced concrete (BRC made with alternative materials (fly ash, GGBS, and m-sand was significantly low compared to BRC containing conventional materials. In addition, BRC made with conventional materials developed more flexural strength than the SRC, with a variation representing 6.5% strength gain.

  3. Detecting directional selection in the presence of recent admixture in African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Bustamante, Carlos D; Clark, Andrew G

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the performance of tests of neutrality in admixed populations using plausible demographic models for African-American history as well as resequencing data from African and African-American populations. The analysis of both simulated and human resequencing data suggests that recent admixture does not result in an excess of false-positive results for neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum after accounting for the population growth in the parental African population. Furthermore, when simulating positive selection, Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and haplotype homozygosity have lower power to detect population-specific selection using individuals sampled from the admixed population than from the nonadmixed population. Fay and Wu's H test, however, has more power to detect selection using individuals from the admixed population than from the nonadmixed population, especially when the selective sweep ended long ago. Our results have implications for interpreting recent genome-wide scans for positive selection in human populations. © 2011 by the Genetics Society of America

  4. Almost 20 years of Neanderthal palaeogenetics: adaptation, admixture, diversity, demography and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-19

    Nearly two decades since the first retrieval of Neanderthal DNA, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the generation of high-coverage genomes from two archaic hominins, a Neanderthal and a Denisovan, as well as a complete mitochondrial genome from remains which probably represent early members of the Neanderthal lineage. This genomic information, coupled with diversity exome data from several Neanderthal specimens is shedding new light on evolutionary processes such as the genetic basis of Neanderthal and modern human-specific adaptations-including morphological and behavioural traits-as well as the extent and nature of the admixture events between them. An emerging picture is that Neanderthals had a long-term small population size, lived in small and isolated groups and probably practised inbreeding at times. Deleterious genetic effects associated with these demographic factors could have played a role in their extinction. The analysis of DNA from further remains making use of new large-scale hybridization-capture-based methods as well as of new approaches to discriminate contaminant DNA sequences will provide genetic information in spatial and temporal scales that could help clarify the Neanderthal's-and our very own-evolutionary history. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Search for an admixture of sterile neutrino in the electron spectrum from tritium $\\beta$-decay

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurashitov, D; Likhovid, N; Lokhov, A; Tkachev, I; Yants, V

    2014-01-01

    We propose an experiment intended for search for an admixture of sterile neutrino with mass m$_s$ in the range of 1-8 keV that may be detected as specific distortion of the electron energy spectrum during tritium decay. The distortion is spread over large part of the spectrum so to reveal it one can use a detector with relatively poor (near 10-15%) energy resolution. A classic proportional counter is a simple natural choice for a tritium $\\beta$-decay detector. The method we are proposing is original in two respects. First, the counter is produced as a whole from fully-fused quartz tube allowing to measure current pulse directly from anode while providing high stability for a long time. Second, a modern digital acquisition technique can be used in measurements at ultrahigh count rate - up to 10$^6$ Hz. As a result an energy spectrum of tritium electrons containing up to 10$^{12}$ counts may be collected in a month of live time measurements. Due to high statistics an upper limit down to 10$^{-3}$..10$^{-5}$ ca...

  6. Physical stability of a total nutrient admixture for total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitel, M; Smith, L C; Friedman, K L; Lea, P J; Grant, D J; Giang, H K; Calvieri, B; Go, J; To, T B

    1989-07-01

    The stability of a total nutrient admixture (TNA) has been postulated to be less than 7 days in refrigerated storage. When a TNA destabilizes, lipid particles coalesce and enlarge. Liposomes larger than 6 microns can obstruct pulmonary capillaries. A TNA containing 1500 ml of 7% Vamin, 1000 ml of 50% dextrose and 500 ml of 10% Intralipid, including the usual electrolytes, minerals and vitamins, was studied. Liposome size was measured in the original Intralipid and the TNA at intervals up to 14 days at 4 degrees C followed by 2 days at 22 degrees C. There was a small increase in liposome size up to 16 days. However, the number of particles larger than 6 microns was insignificant (by light microscopy, 3.9 +/- 2.4 [+/- SD] per 20 high-power fields; by Coulter counter, 99.8% smaller than 1.9 microns, with 0% larger than 6 microns; and by electron microscopy, 100% smaller than 2.0 microns). The osmolality and pH of the TNA were 1472 +/- 31 mOsm/kg and 5.5 +/- 0.1 respectively (mean +/- SD), with no significant change during the study times. The authors concluded that this TNA remains physically stable when refrigerated for 14 days and at room temperature for a further 2 days.

  7. Some Issues of Shrinkage-Reducing Admixtures Application in Alkali-Activated Slag Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílek, Vlastimil; Kalina, Lukáš; Novotný, Radoslav; Tkacz, Jakub; Pařízek, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Significant drying shrinkage is one of the main limitations for the wider utilization of alkali-activated slag (AAS). Few previous works revealed that it is possible to reduce AAS drying shrinkage by the use of shrinkage-reducing admixtures (SRAs). However, these studies were mainly focused on SRA based on polypropylene glycol, while as it is shown in this paper, the behavior of SRA based on 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol can be significantly different. While 0.25% and 0.50% had only a minor effect on the AAS properties, 1.0% of this SRA reduced the drying shrinkage of waterglass-activated slag mortar by more than 80%, but it greatly reduced early strengths simultaneously. This feature was further studied by isothermal calorimetry, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Calorimetric experiments showed that 1% of SRA modified the second peak of the pre-induction period and delayed the maximum of the main hydration peak by several days, which corresponds well with observed strength development as well as with the MIP and SEM results. These observations proved the certain incompatibility of SRA with the studied AAS system, because the drying shrinkage reduction was induced by the strong retardation of hydration, resulting in a coarsening of the pore structure rather than the proper function of the SRA. PMID:28773584

  8. Non-invasive estimation of venous admixture: validation of a new formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D A; Jenkins, B J; Willis, N; Maddock, H; Mapleson, W W

    1995-05-01

    We have developed a computer program that estimates venous admixture (intra-pulmonary shunt) from four measurements: haemoglobin concentration, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PE'CO2), fractional inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). The formula was tested on patients in an intensive therapy unit by using it to estimate shunt while it was measured simultaneously by a standard, invasive method. A total of 101 measurements were made in 29 patients. After correcting the systematic errors in the assumed differences between PE'CO2 and arterial PCO2, and between SpO2 and co-oximetrically measured SaO2, and correcting for a trend in the arteriovenous oxygen concentration difference (C(a-v))2) with shunt, the bias of the non-invasive minus invasive shunt differences was negligible, with no significant dependence on shunt. The limits of agreement were then +/- 16% shunt overall (+/- 13% within patients). When SaO2 was used instead of SpO2, the limits were +/- 11% (+/- 8% within patients).

  9. Genetic Adaptation and Neandertal Admixture Shaped the Immune System of Human Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Hélène; Rotival, Maxime; Pothlichet, Julien; Loh, Yong-Hwee Eddie; Dannemann, Michael; Zidane, Nora; Laval, Guillaume; Patin, Etienne; Harmant, Christine; Lopez, Marie; Deschamps, Matthieu; Naffakh, Nadia; Duffy, Darragh; Coen, Anja; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Clément, Frederic; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-François; Kelso, Janet; Albert, Matthew L; Quintana-Murci, Lluis

    2016-10-20

    Humans differ in the outcome that follows exposure to life-threatening pathogens, yet the extent of population differences in immune responses and their genetic and evolutionary determinants remain undefined. Here, we characterized, using RNA sequencing, the transcriptional response of primary monocytes from Africans and Europeans to bacterial and viral stimuli-ligands activating Toll-like receptor pathways (TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8) and influenza virus-and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identify numerous cis-eQTLs that contribute to the marked differences in immune responses detected within and between populations and a strong trans-eQTL hotspot at TLR1 that decreases expression of pro-inflammatory genes in Europeans only. We find that immune-responsive regulatory variants are enriched in population-specific signals of natural selection and show that admixture with Neandertals introduced regulatory variants into European genomes, affecting preferentially responses to viral challenges. Together, our study uncovers evolutionarily important determinants of differences in host immune responsiveness between human populations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  11. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  12. Hybrid speciation in sparrows I: phenotypic intermediacy, genetic admixture and barriers to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Jo S; Saether, Stein A; Elgvin, Tore O; Borge, Thomas; Hjelle, Elin; Saetre, Glenn-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Homoploid hybrid speciation is thought to require unusual circumstances to yield reproductive isolation from the parental species, and few examples are known from nature. Here, we present genetic evidence for this mode of speciation in birds. Using Bayesian assignment analyses of 751 individuals genotyped for 14 unlinked, nuclear microsatellite loci, we show that the phenotypically intermediate Italian sparrow (Passer italiae) does not form a cluster of its own, but instead exhibits clear admixture (over its entire breeding range) between its putative parental species, the house sparrow (P. domesticus) and the Spanish sparrow (P. hispaniolensis). Further, the Italian sparrow possesses mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotypes identical to both putative parental species (although mostly of house sparrow type), indicating a recent hybrid origin. Today, the Italian sparrow has a largely allopatric distribution on the Italian peninsula and some Mediterranean islands separated from its suggested parental species by the Alps and the Mediterranean Sea, but co-occurs with the Spanish sparrow on the Gargano peninsula in southeast Italy. No evidence of interbreeding was found in this sympatric population. However, the Italian sparrow hybridizes with the house sparrow in a sparsely populated contact zone in the Alps. Yet, the contact zone is characterized by steep clines in species-specific male plumage traits, suggesting that partial reproductive isolation may also have developed between these two taxa. Thus, geographic and reproductive barriers restrict gene flow into the nascent hybrid species. We propose that an origin of hybrid species where the hybrid lineage gets geographically isolated from its parental species, as seems to have happened in this system, might be more common in nature than previously assumed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Genetic admixture and risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among Latinas in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Ahva; Wilson, Melissa L; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Goodwin, T Murphy; Stern, Mariana C; Ingles, Sue A

    2013-03-01

    Latinos are a heterogeneous population in terms of demographics, culture, and genetic admixture from three racial groups (white, African, and Native American). This study examines the role of genetic ancestry and environmental risk factors in the risk of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy among Latinas in Los Angeles County. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia, or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome cases (n = 125), plus unaffected controls (n = 161), were recruited from Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Women's and Children's Hospital from 1999 through 2008. Diagnoses were confirmed with extensive chart review. Personal information, demographics, and biospecimens were collected from all participants. Ancestry informative markers were used to estimate genetic ancestry proportions. After adjusting for European ancestry and key risk factors, African ancestry was positively associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy risk for the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of African ancestry (odds ratio = 2.6 [95% confidence interval = 1.1-6.1]). This association was stronger among women born in Mexico with parents born in Mexico (4.3 [1.4-13]). The results from generalized additive models showed a positive association between joint European/African ancestry and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy risk and an inverse association between Native American ancestry and risk. These associations were stronger among women of Mexican origin. Our findings suggest that higher Native American ancestry among Latinas may protect against hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Further studies are needed to determine whether this protective effect is driven by specific alleles present in this population or by other risk factors that correlate with Native American ancestry.

  14. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-01-12

    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  15. Comparison of measures of marker informativeness for ancestry and admixture mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Lili

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admixture mapping is a powerful gene mapping approach for an admixed population formed from ancestral populations with different allele frequencies. The power of this method relies on the ability of ancestry informative markers (AIMs to infer ancestry along the chromosomes of admixed individuals. In this study, more than one million SNPs from HapMap databases and simulated data have been interrogated in admixed populations using various measures of ancestry informativeness: Fisher Information Content (FIC, Shannon Information Content (SIC, F statistics (FST, Informativeness for Assignment Measure (In, and the Absolute Allele Frequency Differences (delta, δ. The objectives are to compare these measures of informativeness to select SNP markers for ancestry inference, and to determine the accuracy of AIM panels selected by each measure in estimating the contributions of the ancestors to the admixed population. Results FST and In had the highest Spearman correlation and the best agreement as measured by Kappa statistics based on deciles. Although the different measures of marker informativeness performed comparably well, analyses based on the top 1 to 10% ranked informative markers of simulated data showed that In was better in estimating ancestry for an admixed population. Conclusions Although millions of SNPs have been identified, only a small subset needs to be genotyped in order to accurately predict ancestry with a minimal error rate in a cost-effective manner. In this article, we compared various methods for selecting ancestry informative SNPs using simulations as well as SNP genotype data from samples of admixed populations and showed that the In measure estimates ancestry proportion (in an admixed population with lower bias and mean square error.

  16. Influência da adição no comportamento reológico da pasta autoadensável de alto desempenho = Influence of admixture on the rheological behavior of high performance self-compacting paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor André Rodrigues Piovezam

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa propõe o estudo da influência da área específica, forma e textura superficial das adições no comportamento reológico da pasta autoadensável de alto desempenho (PAAD. As adições selecionadas são o filer calcário e o filer basalto, por se tratarem de subprodutos industriais a fim de contribuir, desta forma, para o desenvolvimento sustentável. A pasta em estudo é constituída de cimento, sílica ativa, filer calcário ou filer basalto, água e aditivo superplastificante de última geração. São fixadas as relações água/cimento = 0,40 L kg-1, sílica ativa/cimento = 0,10 kg kg-1, e as relações filer/cimento e superplastificante/cimento são determinadas por meio de ensaios de cone de Marsh e de “mini-slump”. Os resultados mostram que, para as mesmas relações de filer/cimento, os teores de superplastificante para pasta com filer calcário são significativamente inferiores ao da pasta com filer basalto. A análise dos resultados permite concluir que a área específica, forma e textura superficial das adições influenciam significativamente o comportamento reológico das PAADs.This research proposes to study the influence of the specific area, mould and surface texture of admixtures on the rheological behavior ofhigh performance self-compacting paste (HPSCP. The selected admixtures are calcareous filler and basalt filler, which are industrial residues, thus contributing to sustainabledevelopment. The paste is made up of cement, silica fume, calcareous filler or basalt filler, water and superplasticizer additive. For this study, the water/cement ratios are fixed = 0.40L kg-1; silica fume/cement = 0.10 kg kg-1; the filler/cement and superplasticizer/cement ratios are determined through Marsh cone and mini-slump tests. The results show that for same filler/cement ratios, the ratios of superplasticizer to paste with calcareous filler are significantly lower than those of paste with basalt filler. The results show

  17. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tap as described). 3. In all situations, drink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can contain much higher levels of lead. Boiling ...

  18. Genomic regions associated with susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma in African Americans: The cross BETRNet admixture study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqing Sun

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC are far more prevalent in European Americans than in African Americans. Hypothesizing that this racial disparity in prevalence might represent a genetic susceptibility, we used an admixture mapping approach to interrogate disease association with genomic differences between European and African ancestry.Formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples were identified from 54 African Americans with BE or EAC through review of surgical pathology databases at participating Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet institutions. DNA was extracted from normal tissue, and genotyped on the Illumina OmniQuad SNP chip. Case-only admixture mapping analysis was performed on the data from both all 54 cases and also on a subset of 28 cases with high genotyping quality. Haplotype phases were inferred with Beagle 3.3.2, and local African and European ancestries were inferred with SABER plus. Disease association was tested by estimating and testing excess European ancestry and contrasting it to excess African ancestry.Both datasets, the 54 cases and the 28 cases, identified two admixture regions. An association of excess European ancestry on chromosome 11p reached a 5% genome-wide significance threshold, corresponding to -log10(P = 4.28. A second peak on chromosome 8q reached -log10(P = 2.73. The converse analysis examining excess African ancestry found no genetic regions with significant excess African ancestry associated with BE and EAC. On average, the regions on chromosomes 8q and 11p showed excess European ancestry of 15% and 20%, respectively.Chromosomal regions on 11p15 and 8q22-24 are associated with excess European ancestry in African Americans with BE and EAC. Because GWAS have not reported any variants in these two regions, low frequency and/or rare disease associated variants that confer susceptibility to developing BE and EAC may be driving the observed European ancestry

  19. Sociocultural Behavior, Sex-Biased Admixture, and Effective Population Sizes in Central African Pygmies and Non-Pygmies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S.A.; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter–gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration, and admixture rates in 23 Central African Pygmy and non-Pygmy populations, genotyped for autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial markers. We found much larger effective population sizes and migration rates among non-Pygmy populations than among Pygmies, in agreement with the recent expansions and migrations of non-Pygmies and, conversely, the isolation and stationary demography of Pygmy groups. We found larger effective sizes and migration rates for males than for females for Pygmies, and vice versa for non-Pygmies. Thus, although most Pygmy populations have patrilocal customs, their sex-specific genetic patterns resemble those of matrilocal populations. In fact, our results are consistent with a lower prevalence of polygyny and patrilocality in Pygmies compared with non-Pygmies and a potential female transmission of reproductive success in Pygmies. Finally, Pygmy populations showed variable admixture levels with the non-Pygmies, with often much larger introgression from male than from female lineages. Social discrimination against Pygmies triggering complex movements of spouses in intermarriages can explain these male-biased admixture patterns in a patrilocal context. We show how gender-related sociocultural phenomena can determine highly variable sex-specific demography among populations, and how population genetic approaches contrasting chromosomal types allow inferring detailed human sex-specific demographic history. PMID:23300254

  20. Genome-wide admixture and association study of subclinical atherosclerosis in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Shendre

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a major comorbidity among HIV-infected individuals. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cCIMT is a valid and reliable subclinical measure of atherosclerosis and is known to predict CVD. We performed genome-wide association (GWA and admixture analysis among 682 HIV-positive and 288 HIV-negative Black, non-Hispanic women from the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS cohort using a combined and stratified analysis approach. We found some suggestive associations but none of the SNPs reached genome-wide statistical significance in our GWAS analysis. The top GWAS SNPs were rs2280828 in the region intergenic to mediator complex subunit 30 and exostosin glycosyltransferase 1 (MED30 | EXT1 among all women, rs2907092 in the catenin delta 2 (CTNND2 gene among HIV-positive women, and rs7529733 in the region intergenic to family with sequence similarity 5, member C and regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (FAM5C | RGS18 genes among HIV-negative women. The most significant local European ancestry associations were in the region intergenic to the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 5D gene and NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex assembly factor 1 (ZSCAN5D | NDUF1 pseudogene on chromosome 19 among all women, in the region intergenic to vomeronasal 1 receptor 6 pseudogene and zinc finger protein 845 (VN1R6P | ZNF845 gene on chromosome 19 among HIV-positive women, and in the region intergenic to the SEC23-interacting protein and phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1A (SEC23IP | PPAPDC1A genes located on chromosome 10 among HIV-negative women. A number of previously identified SNP associations with cCIMT were also observed and included rs2572204 in the ryanodine receptor 3 (RYR3 and an admixture region in the secretion-regulating guanine nucleotide exchange factor (SERGEF gene. We report several SNPs and gene regions in the GWAS and admixture analysis, some of which are common across HIV-positive and

  1. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2009-01-01

    a high number of microsatellite DNA markers (50) and making use of linkage map information, we achieve clear identification of admixed and non-admixed trout. Moreover, despite strong population-level admixture by hatchery strain trout in one of the populations (70.8%), non-admixed individuals...... nevertheless persist (7 out of 53 individuals). These remnants of the indigenous population are characterized by later spawning time than the majority of the admixed individuals. We hypothesize that isolation by time mediated by spawning time differences between wild and hatchery strain trout is a major factor...

  2. Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-12-29

    The most economically important Citrus species originated by natural interspecific hybridization between four ancestral taxa (Citrus reticulata, Citrus maxima, Citrus medica, and Citrus micrantha) and from limited subsequent interspecific recombination as a result of apomixis and vegetative propagation. Such reticulate evolution coupled with vegetative propagation results in mosaic genomes with large chromosome fragments from the basic taxa in frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Modern breeding of these species is hampered by their complex heterozygous genomic structures that determine species phenotype and are broken by sexual hybridisation. Nevertheless, a large amount of diversity is present in the citrus gene pool, and breeding to allow inclusion of desirable traits is of paramount importance. However, the efficient mobilization of citrus biodiversity in innovative breeding schemes requires previous understanding of Citrus origins and genomic structures. Haplotyping of multiple gene fragments along the whole genome is a powerful approach to reveal the admixture genomic structure of current species and to resolve the evolutionary history of the gene pools. In this study, the efficiency of parallel sequencing with 454 methodology to decipher the hybrid structure of modern citrus species was assessed by analysis of 16 gene fragments on chromosome 2. 454 amplicon libraries were established using the Fluidigm array system for 48 genotypes and 16 gene fragments from chromosome 2. Haplotypes were established from the reads of each accession and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the haplotypic data for each gene fragment. The length of 454 reads and the level of differentiation between the ancestral taxa of modern citrus allowed efficient haplotype phylogenetic assignations for 12 of the 16 gene fragments. The analysis of the mixed genomic structure of modern species and cultivars (i) revealed C. maxima introgressions in modern mandarins, (ii) was

  3. Evaluation of group genetic ancestry of populations from Philadelphia and Dakar in the context of sex-biased admixture in the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Stefflova

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Population history can be reflected in group genetic ancestry, where genomic variation captured by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY can separate female- and male-specific admixture processes. Genetic ancestry may influence genetic association studies due to differences in individual admixture within recently admixed populations like African Americans.We evaluated the genetic ancestry of Senegalese as well as European Americans and African Americans from Philadelphia. Senegalese mtDNA consisted of approximately 12% U haplotypes (U6 and U5b1b haplotypes, common in North Africa while the NRY haplotypes belonged solely to haplogroup E. In Philadelphia, we observed varying degrees of admixture. While African Americans have 9-10% mtDNAs and approximately 31% NRYs of European origin, these results are not mirrored in the mtDNA/NRY pools of European Americans: they have less than 7% mtDNAs and less than 2% NRYs from non-European sources. Additionally, there is <2% Native American contribution to Philadelphian African American ancestry and the admixture from combined mtDNA/NRY estimates is consistent with the admixture derived from autosomal genetic data. To further dissect these estimates, we have analyzed our samples in the context of different demographic groups in the Americas.We found that sex-biased admixture in African-derived populations is present throughout the Americas, with continual influence of European males, while Native American females contribute mainly to populations of the Caribbean and South America. The high non-European female contribution to the pool of European-derived populations is consistently characteristic of Iberian colonization. These data suggest that genomic data correlate well with historical records of colonization in the Americas.

  4. Test research on influence of admixture agent on engineering characteristics of red sandstone roadbed filling in Dongchang Expressway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Dong, Tianxiong; Mei, Yingjun; Pan, Jinqiu

    2017-04-01

    By taking the red sandstone along the Jiangxi Dongchang expressway as the research object, this article takes lime and cement as the admixture agent, and conducts a series of laboratory test investigations on plain soil and improved soil, to research on the influence of the addition proportion on the physical and mechanical properties of red sandstone. According to test results: compared with plain soil, the red sandstones with admixture agents of lime and cement have reduced liquid limit and plastic limit, with reduced plastic index. With the increase of the proportion of lime, the optimal moisture content of the lime-improved soil gradually increases, and the maximum dry density gradually decreases. With the increase of the proportion of cement, the maximum dry density of the cement-improved soil increases, and the optimal moisture content decreases. The CBR improvement effect of cement-improved soil is better than that of the lime-improved soil. The optimal addition proportion of CBR of both the lime-improved soil and the cement-improved soil is 7%. Compared with plain red sandstone, the improvement on compaction functions plays a more significant role on the improvement of the CBR of the improved soil.

  5. Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ruiz-Linares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú. These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry.

  6. Influence of admixture components on CYP2C9*2 allele frequency in eight indigenous populations from Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Macías, M; Lazalde-Ramos, B P; Galaviz-Hernández, C; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Salazar-Flores, J; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; Martínez-Fierro, M L; Dorado, P; Wong, M L; Licinio, J; LLerena, A

    2013-12-01

    We previously documented the lowest frequency of CYP2C9*2 in Mexican indigenous Tepehuanos followed by Mestizos and Mexican-Americans populations, suggesting a negative correlation between the CYP2C9*2 frequency and the degree of Asian ancestry in indigenous Americans. We determined the influence of ethnic admixture components on the CYP2C9 allele distribution in 505 Amerindian from eight indigenous populations through genotyping CYP2C9*2, *3 and *6 alleles by real-time PCR and molecular evaluation of ancestry. The frequencies for CYP2C9*2 were 0.026 in Seris and 0.057 in Mayos, being higher than in Asians (PHuicholes (0.033) and Coras (0.037), with East Asians having lower frequencies than the former three groups (P<0.001). CYP2C9*6 was not found. The frequency of CYP2C9*2 was lower in Amerindians than in European populations, and higher than their Asian ancestors. The presence of this allele in ethnic groups in Mexico can be explained by European admixture.

  7. Spatio-temporal characterization of the multiple current pulse regime of diffuse barrier discharges in helium with nitrogen admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaczyk, Marc; Tschiersch, Robert; Nemschokmichal, Sebastian; Meichsner, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    This work reports on the spatio-temporal characterization of the multiple current pulse regime of diffuse barrier discharges driven by sine-wave feeding voltage at a frequency of 2~kHz in helium with small nitrogen admixtures. The discharge gap of 3~mm is bounded by glass plates on both plane electrodes. Priority is given to the lateral discharge inhomogeneities, underlying volume- and surface-memory effects, and the breakdown mechanism. Therefore, relevant processes in the discharge volume and on the dielectric surfaces were investigated by ICCD camera imaging and optical emission spectroscopy in combination with electrical measurements and surface charge diagnostics using the electro-optic Pockels effect of a bismuth silicon oxide crystal. The number of current pulses per half-cycle of the sine-wave voltage rises with increasing nitrogen admixture to helium due to the predominant role of the Penning ionization. Here, the transition from the first glow-like breakdown to the last Townsend-like breakdown is favored by residual species from the former breakdowns which enhance the secondary electron emission during the pre-phase of the later breakdowns. Moreover, the surface charge measurements reveal that the consecutive breakdowns occur alternately at central and peripheral regions on the electrode surface. These spatial inhomogeneities are conserved by the surface charge memory effect as pointed out by the recalculated spatio-temporal development of the gap voltage.

  8. [Stability and sterility of parenteral nutrition admixture for patients home care manufactured by the automated compounding BAXA® EM 2400].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuy, L; Charroin, C; Vételé, F; Durand, T; Quessada, T; Klotz, M-C; Pirot, F; Bréant, V; Aulagner, G

    2013-11-01

    Initially, parenteral nutrition admixtures are produced by sterile filtration with a stability of 14 days This study was conducted to check the stability (physicochemical and microbiological) when automated compounding BAXA(®) EM 2400 is used. Forty pockets corresponding to 10 patients have been manufactured in according to Good Manufacturing Practice. Macroscopic and physicochemical tests (determination of electrolytes by atomic absorption spectroscopy, osmolality and pH measurements) were performed at different times (D0, D7, D14). To complete these checks, the emulsions were analyzed (size, stability, optical microscopy) at D0 and D14. Finally, microbiological research (Bact-Alert(®), filtration membrane sterility tests Steritest(®) and plate count agar) was performed. No lipid cluster was observed with an optical microscope. Comparison of data observed for all controls showed no significant difference in the production of D0 by the Wilcoxon test. Microbiology (Bact-Alert filtration membrane sterility tests Steritest(®) and plate count agar) was negative for all samples. Consequently, all mixtures were considered stable. The automated compounding BAXA(®) EM 2400 ensures quality and safety of production. The results of this study have shown stability and sterility of parenteral nutrition admixtures for 14 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Leaching Behavior of Calcium Ions on Compression and Durability of Cement-Based Materials with Mineral Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, An; Chao, Sao-Jeng; Lin, Wei-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Leaching of calcium ions increases the porosity of cement-based materials, consequently resulting in a negative effect on durability since it provides an entry for aggressive harmful ions, causing reinforcing steel corrosion. This study investigates the effects of leaching behavior of calcium ions on the compression and durability of cement-based materials. Since the parameters influencing the leaching behavior of cement-based materials are unclear and diverse, this paper focuses on the influence of added mineral admixtures (fly ash, slag and silica fume) on the leaching behavior of calcium ions regarding compression and durability of cemented-based materials. Ammonium nitrate solution was used to accelerate the leaching process in this study. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis were employed to analyze and compare the cement-based material compositions prior to and after calcium ion leaching. The experimental results show that the mineral admixtures reduce calcium hydroxide quantity and refine pore structure through pozzolanic reaction, thus enhancing the compressive strength and durability of cement-based materials. PMID:28809247

  10. Numerical study on characteristics of radio-frequency discharge at atmospheric pressure in argon with small admixtures of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Liu, Yue

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a 1D fluid model is developed to study the characteristics of a discharge in argon with small admixtures of oxygen at atmospheric pressure. This model consists of a series of equations, including continuity equations for electrons, positive ions, negative ions and neutral particles, the energy equation, and the Poisson equation for electric potential. Special attention has been paid to the electron energy dissipation and the mechanisms of electron heating, while the admixture of oxygen is in the range of 0.1%-0.6%. It is found that when the oxygen-to-argon ratio grows, the discharge is obviously divided into three stages: electron growth, electron reduction and the electron remaining unchanged. Furthermore, the cycle-averaged electric field, electron temperature, electron Ohmic heating, electron collisionless heating, electron energy dissipation and the net electron production are also studied in detail, and when the oxygen-to-argon ratio is relatively larger (R = 0.6%), double value peaks of electron Ohmic heating appear in the sheath. According to the results of the numerical simulation, various oxygen-to-argon ratios result in different amounts of electron energy dissipation and electron heating.

  11. Range expansion of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Kenya: evidence of genetic admixture and human-mediated dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Aaron W; Liebl, Andrea L; Richards, Christina L; Martin, Lynn B

    2014-01-01

    Introduced species offer an opportunity to study the ecological process of range expansions. Recently, 3 mechanisms have been identified that may resolve the genetic paradox (the seemingly unlikely success of introduced species given the expected reduction in genetic diversity through bottlenecks or founder effects): multiple introductions, high propagule pressure, and epigenetics. These mechanisms are probably also important in range expansions (either natural or anthropogenic), yet this possibility remains untested in vertebrates. We used microsatellite variation (7 loci) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), an introduced species that has been spreading across Kenya for ~60 years, to determine if patterns of variation could explain how this human commensal overcame the genetic paradox and expresses such considerable phenotypic differentiation across this new range. We note that in some cases, polygenic traits and epistasis among genes, for example, may not have negative effects on populations. House sparrows arrived in Kenya by a single introduction event (to Mombasa, ~1950) and have lower genetic diversity than native European and introduced North American populations. We used Bayesian clustering of individuals (n = 233) to detect that at least 2 types of range expansion occurred in Kenya: one with genetic admixture and one with little to no admixture. We also found that genetic diversity increased toward a range edge, and the range expansion was consistent with long-distance dispersal. Based on these data, we expect that the Kenyan range expansion was anthropogenically influenced, as the expansions of other introduced human commensals may also be.

  12. Changes in water absorptivity of slag based cement mortars exposed to sulphur-oxidising A. thiooxidans bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estokova, A.; Smolakova, M.; Luptakova, A.; Strigac, J.

    2017-10-01

    Water absorptivity is heavily influenced by the volume and connectivity of pores in the pore network of cement composites and has been used as an important parameter for quantifying their durability. To improve the durability and permeability of mortars, various mineral admixtures such as furnace slag, silica fume or fly ash are added into the mortar and concrete mixtures. These admixtures provide numerous important advantages such as corrosion control, improvement of mechanical and physical properties and better workability. This study investigated the changes in absorptivity of cement mortars with different amounts of mineral admixture, represented by granulated blast furnace slag, under aggressive bacterial influence. The water absorptivity of mortars specimens exposed to sulphur-oxidising bacteria A. thiooxidans for the period of 3 and 6 months has changed due to bio-corrosion-based degradation process. The differences in water absorptivity in dependence on the mortars composition have been observed.

  13. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available , and of the remaining 2,5 percent, some 70 percent is frozen in the polar caps and around 30 percent is present as soil moisture or in underground aquifers. Less than 1 percent is thus accessible for direct use by humans, animals and plants. Consequently... be serviced with harvested water and/or grey water. Conserve and reuse cooling tower water by using efficient systems and strategies. Avoid ?once-through systems? commonly used for evaporation coolers, ice makers, hydraulic equipment, and air compressors...

  14. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  15. Extraordinary sensitivity of the internal Doppler effect in a superfluid 4-3He admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnyashchy, Y. A.; Gov, N.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.

    1995-09-01

    Recently, a nontrivial T (temperature) behavior was found for the Doppler shift of the fourth and first sounds in superfluid 4He with internal motion: a plateau in the phonon region and a sharp peak in the beginning of the roton region of the Doppler parameters Γ4,1 (T)=(Δu4,1/vs)v=0. The situation is similar to the case of second sound investigated long ago for Γ2(T)=(Δu2/vn)v=0, but the signs and values of plateaus and peaks indicated some kinds of Doppler anomalies: the ``outstripping effect'' (OEF), in addition to the ``back-entrainment effect'' (BEF) described by Khalatnikov (Δui is the Doppler shift of ith sound; vs, vn, v are the velocities of superfluid and normal components and of the liquid as a whole, respectively). The Doppler anomalies mean the breaking of some ``natural'' suppositions: that Δui is intermediate between vn and vs, and that the sign of (Δui-v) is determined by the velocity of the ``dominant'' component (at low T this is the superfluid component for first and fourth sounds, vd=vs, and the normal one for second sound, vd=vn). The direction of (Δui-v) can be opposite to the direction of (vd-v) (BEF) and the center of spreading sound can move faster than the flowing dominant component when the other component is stationary: Δui>vd (OEF). The Doppler anomalies as well as the very existence of the nonkinematic (internal) Doppler shift Δui-v≠0, and its nontrivial T behavior are special manifestations of the superfluidity. Here we investigate the Doppler phenomenon in the 4-3He mixture. We find strong sensitivity of the T behavior of the Doppler shift and of the Doppler anomalies to the 3He admixture. At low T this is associated with a general peculiarity of the 4-3He mixture: the nonanalyticity of its characteristics, i.e., the inequivalence of T-->0, X-->0 to X-->0, T-->0 (X is the concentration of 3He). We find some ``key derivatives:'' ∂ρ/∂w2, ∂σ/∂w2, crucial for the T behavior of Γi whose role changes at X≠0 (ρ and

  16. Admixture mapping in lupus identifies multiple functional variants within IFIH1 associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E Molineros

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an inflammatory autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. African-Americans (AA are at increased risk of SLE, but the genetic basis of this risk is largely unknown. To identify causal variants in SLE loci in AA, we performed admixture mapping followed by fine mapping in AA and European-Americans (EA. Through genome-wide admixture mapping in AA, we identified a strong SLE susceptibility locus at 2q22-24 (LOD=6.28, and the admixture signal is associated with the European ancestry (ancestry risk ratio ~1.5. Large-scale genotypic analysis on 19,726 individuals of African and European ancestry revealed three independently associated variants in the IFIH1 gene: an intronic variant, rs13023380 [P(meta = 5.20×10(-14; odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 0.82 (0.78-0.87], and two missense variants, rs1990760 (Ala946Thr [P(meta = 3.08×10(-7; 0.88 (0.84-0.93] and rs10930046 (Arg460His [P(dom = 1.16×10(-8; 0.70 (0.62-0.79]. Both missense variants produced dramatic phenotypic changes in apoptosis and inflammation-related gene expression. We experimentally validated function of the intronic SNP by DNA electrophoresis, protein identification, and in vitro protein binding assays. DNA carrying the intronic risk allele rs13023380 showed reduced binding efficiency to a cellular protein complex including nucleolin and lupus autoantigen Ku70/80, and showed reduced transcriptional activity in vivo. Thus, in SLE patients, genetic susceptibility could create a biochemical imbalance that dysregulates nucleolin, Ku70/80, or other nucleic acid regulatory proteins. This could promote antibody hypermutation and auto-antibody generation, further destabilizing the cellular network. Together with molecular modeling, our results establish a distinct role for IFIH1 in apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production, and explain the molecular basis of these three risk alleles for SLE pathogenesis.

  17. Genome-wide Association Study and Admixture Mapping Reveal New Loci Associated with Total IgE Levels in Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Yanes, Maria; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Levin, Albert M.; Campbell, Catarina D.; Eng, Celeste; Huntsman, Scott; Nishimura, Katherine K.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Mohajeri, Kiana; O'Roak, Brian J.; Hu, Donglei; Mathias, Rasika A.; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Lurmann, Fred; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro C.; Serebrisky, Denise; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Lenoir, Michael A.; Thyne, Shannon M.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Borrell, Luisa N.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Sen, Saunak; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Ober, Carole; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Mack, Steven J.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Eichler, Evan E.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Williams, L. Keoki; Torgerson, Dara G.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a key mediator of allergic inflammation and is frequently elevated in allergic disorders. Objective To identify genetic variants associated with IgE levels in Latinos. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and admixture mapping of total IgE levels in 3,334 Latinos from the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study. Replication was evaluated in 454 Latinos, 1,564 European Americans, and 3,187 African Americans from independent studies. Results We confirmed associations of six genes identified by previous GWAS and identified a novel genome-wide significant association of a polymorphism in ZNF365 with total IgE (rs200076616, p=2.3x10−8). We next identified four admixture mapping peaks (6p21.32-p22.1, 13p22-31, 14q23.2, and 22q13.1) where local African, European, and/or Native American ancestry was significantly associated with IgE levels. The most significant peak was 6p21.32-p22.1, where Native American ancestry was associated with lower levels of IgE (p=4.95x10−8). All but 22q13.1 were replicated in an independent sample of Latinos, and two of the peaks were replicated in African Americans (6p21.32-p22.1 and 14q23.2). Fine mapping of 6p21.32-p22.1 identified six genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms in Latinos, two of which replicated in European Americans. Another SNP was peak-wide significant within 14q23.2 in African Americans (rs1741099, p=3.7x10−6), and replicated in non-African American samples (p=0.011). Conclusion We confirmed genetic associations at six genes, and identified novel associations within ZNF365, HLA-DQA1, and 14q23.2. Our results highlight the importance of studying diverse, multi-ethnic populations to uncover novel loci associated with total IgE levels. PMID:25488688

  18. Admixture Mapping in Lupus Identifies Multiple Functional Variants within IFIH1 Associated with Apoptosis, Inflammation, and Autoantibody Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looger, Loren L.; Han, Shizhong; Kim-Howard, Xana; Glenn, Stuart; Adler, Adam; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Petri, Michelle; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D.; Vilá, Luis M.; Freedman, Barry I.; Tsao, Betty P.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Moore, Jason H.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Langefeld, Carl L.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Moser, Kathy L.; Scofield, R. Hal; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Williams, Scott M.; Merrill, Joan T.; James, Judith A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Harley, John B.; Nath, Swapan K.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. African-Americans (AA) are at increased risk of SLE, but the genetic basis of this risk is largely unknown. To identify causal variants in SLE loci in AA, we performed admixture mapping followed by fine mapping in AA and European-Americans (EA). Through genome-wide admixture mapping in AA, we identified a strong SLE susceptibility locus at 2q22–24 (LOD = 6.28), and the admixture signal is associated with the European ancestry (ancestry risk ratio ∼1.5). Large-scale genotypic analysis on 19,726 individuals of African and European ancestry revealed three independently associated variants in the IFIH1 gene: an intronic variant, rs13023380 [Pmeta = 5.20×10−14; odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 0.82 (0.78–0.87)], and two missense variants, rs1990760 (Ala946Thr) [Pmeta = 3.08×10−7; 0.88 (0.84–0.93)] and rs10930046 (Arg460His) [Pdom = 1.16×10−8; 0.70 (0.62–0.79)]. Both missense variants produced dramatic phenotypic changes in apoptosis and inflammation-related gene expression. We experimentally validated function of the intronic SNP by DNA electrophoresis, protein identification, and in vitro protein binding assays. DNA carrying the intronic risk allele rs13023380 showed reduced binding efficiency to a cellular protein complex including nucleolin and lupus autoantigen Ku70/80, and showed reduced transcriptional activity in vivo. Thus, in SLE patients, genetic susceptibility could create a biochemical imbalance that dysregulates nucleolin, Ku70/80, or other nucleic acid regulatory proteins. This could promote antibody hypermutation and auto-antibody generation, further destabilizing the cellular network. Together with molecular modeling, our results establish a distinct role for IFIH1 in apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production, and explain the molecular basis of these three risk alleles for SLE pathogenesis. PMID

  19. Alkali-silica reactions of mortars produced by using waste glass as fine aggregate and admixtures such as fly ash and Li2CO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Ilker Bekir; Boğa, Ahmet Raif; Bilir, Turhan

    2008-01-01

    Use of waste glass or glass cullet (GC) as concrete aggregate is becoming more widespread each day because of the increase in resource efficiency. Recycling of wastes is very important for sustainable development. When glass is used as aggregate in concrete or mortar, expansions and internal stresses occur due to an alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Furthermore, rapid loss in durability is generally observed due to extreme crack formation and an increase in permeability. It is necessary to use some kind of chemical or mineral admixture to reduce crack formation. In this study, mortar bars are produced by using three different colors of glass in four different quantities as fine aggregate by weight, and the effects of these glass aggregates on ASR are investigated, corresponding to ASTM C 1260. Additionally, in order to reduce the expansions of mortars, 10% and 20% fly ash (FA) as mineral admixture and 1% and 2% Li(2)CO(3) as chemical admixture are incorporated by weight in the cement and their effects on expansion are examined. It is observed that among white (WG), green (GG) and brown glass (BG) aggregates, WG aggregate causes the greatest expansion. In addition, expansion increases with an increase in amount of glass. According to the test results, it is seen that over 20% FA and 2% Li(2)CO(3) replacements are required to produce mortars which have expansion values below the 0.2% critical value when exposed to ASR. However, usages of these admixtures reduce expansions occurring because of ASR.

  20. Stainless and Galvanized Steel, Hydrophobic Admixture and Flexible Polymer-Cement Coating Compared in Increasing Durability of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosuè, Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    The use of stainless or galvanized steel reinforcements, a hydrophobic admixture or a flexible polymer-cement coating were compared as methods to improve the corrosion resistance of sound or cracked reinforced concrete specimens exposed to chloride rich solutions. The results show that in full immersion condition, negligible corrosion rates were detected in all cracked specimens, except those treated with the flexible polymer-cement mortar as preventive method against corrosion and the hydrophobic concrete specimens. High corrosion rates were measured in all cracked specimens exposed to wet-dry cycles, except for those reinforced with stainless steel, those treated with the flexible polymer-cement coating as restorative method against reinforcement corrosion and for hydrophobic concrete specimens reinforced with galvanized steel reinforcements.

  1. The Effect of Pulp Industrial Waste as Chemical Admixture to Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Based Alkali Activated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmaji Andrie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is a toxic by-product from industrial pulp manufacture. It contains sodium hydroxide that can be used as precursor activator for alkali activated material, which is an aluminosilicate material that can be prepared from thermal activation of solid material containing alumina and silica as precursor and alkali activator solution. In this work, alkali activated mortar was prepared by mixing fly ash as main precursors, aggregate, followed by addition of activator solution containing sodium hydroxide solution and waterglass, and chemical admixture which is lignin or black liquor. The best compressive strength was 34.40 MPa achieved in addition of 10 wt% of black liquor to alkali activated mortar. X-ray diffraction demonstrated the formation of albite in mortars, indicating that geopolymerization have been successfully formed. FTIR spectra showed the presence of siloxo and sialate peaks which commonly found in geopolymerization.

  2. Gene flow and population admixture as the primary post-invasion processes in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) populations in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Young Jin; Fumanal, Boris; Laitung, Beryl; Bretagnolle, François

    2010-03-01

    *An improved inference of the evolutionary history of invasive species may be achieved by analyzing the genetic variation and population differentiation of recently established populations and their ancestral (historical) populations. Employing this approach, we investigated the role of gene flow in the post-invasion evolution of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). *Using eight microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure among nine pairs of historical and recent populations in France. Historical populations were reconstructed from herbarium specimens dated from the late 19th to early 20th century, whereas recent populations were collected within the last 5 yr. *Recent populations showed greater allelic and genetic diversity than did historical populations. Recent populations exhibited a lower level of population differentiation, shorter genetic distances among populations and more weakly structured populations than did historical populations. *Our results suggest that currently invasive populations have arisen from active gene flow and the subsequent admixture of historical populations, incorporating new alleles from multiple introductions.

  3. Population structure and paternal admixture landscape on present-day Mexican-Mestizos revealed by Y-STR haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Flores, J; Dondiego-Aldape, R; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Anaya-Palafox, M; Nuño-Arana, I; Canseco-Avila, L M; Flores-Flores, G; Morales-Vallejo, M E; Barojas-Pérez, N; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Campos-Gutiérrez, R; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2010-01-01

    Mestizos currently represent most of the Mexican population (>90%); they are defined as individuals born in the country having a Spanish-derived last name, with family antecedents of Mexican ancestors back at least to the third generation. Mestizos are result of 500 years of admixture mainly among Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves. Consequently, a complex genetic pattern has been generated throughout the country that has been scarcely studied from the paternal point of view. This fact is important, taking into account that gene flow toward the New World comprised largely males. We analyzed the population structure and paternal admixture of present-day Mexican-Mestizo populations based on Y-STRs. We genotyped at least 12 Y-STRs in DNA samples of 986 males from five states: Aguascalientes (n = 293); Jalisco (n = 185); Guanajuato (n = 168); Chiapas (n = 170); and Yucatán (n = 170). AmpFlSTR Y-filer and Powerplex-Y(R) kits were used. Inclusion of North and Central Y-STR databases in the analyses allowed obtaining a Y-STR variability landscape from Mexico. Results confirmed the population differentiation gradient previously noted in Mestizos with SNPs and autosomal STRs throughout the Mexican territory: European ancestry increments to the Northwest and, correspondingly, Amerindian ancestry increments to the Center and Southeast. In addition, SAMOVA test and Autocorrelation Index for DNA Analysis autocorrelogram plot suggested preferential gene flow of males with neighboring populations in agreement with the isolation-by-distance model. Results are important for disease-risk studies (principally male-related) and for human identification purposes, because Y-STR databases are not available on the majority of Mexican-Mestizo populations.

  4. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) in U.S. Latinas and Chileans: Clinical features, Ancestry Analysis, and Admixture Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Laura N; Hu, Donglei; Shah, Sohela; Temple, Luisa; Silva, Karla; Huntsman, Scott; Melgar, Jennifer; Geiser, Mary T; Sanford, Ukina; Ortiz, Juan A; Lee, Richard H; Kusanovic, Juan P; Ziv, Elad; Vargas, Juan E

    2015-01-01

    In the Americas, women with Indigenous American ancestry are at increased risk of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), relative to women of other ethnicities. We hypothesized that ancestry-related genetic factors contribute to this increased risk. We collected clinical and laboratory data, and performed biochemical assays on samples from U.S. Latinas and Chilean women, with and without ICP. The study sample included 198 women with ICP (90 from California, U.S., and 108 from Chile) and 174 pregnant control women (69 from California, U.S., and 105 from Chile). SNP genotyping was performed using Affymetrix arrays. We compared overall genetic ancestry between cases and controls, and used a genome-wide admixture mapping approach to screen for ICP susceptibility loci. We identified commonalities and differences in features of ICP between the 2 countries and determined that cases had a greater proportion of Indigenous American ancestry than did controls (p = 0.034). We performed admixture mapping, taking country of origin into account, and identified one locus for which Native American ancestry was associated with increased risk of ICP at a genome-wide level of significance (P = 3.1 x 10(-5), Pcorrected = 0.035). This locus has an odds ratio of 4.48 (95% CI: 2.21-9.06) for 2 versus zero Indigenous American chromosomes. This locus lies on chromosome 2, with a 10 Mb 95% confidence interval which does not contain any previously identified hereditary 'cholestasis genes.' Our results indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk of developing ICP in the Americas, and support the utility of clinical and genetic studies of ethnically mixed populations for increasing our understanding of ICP.

  5. Admixture mapping identifies a locus on 6q25 associated with breast cancer risk in US Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejerman, Laura; Chen, Gary K.; Eng, Celeste; Huntsman, Scott; Hu, Donglei; Williams, Amy; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; John, Esther M.; Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher; Ingles, Sue; Monroe, Kristine R.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; González Burchard, Esteban; Henderson, Brian E.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Ziv, Elad

    2012-01-01

    Among US Latinas and Mexican women, those with higher European ancestry have increased risk of breast cancer. We combined an admixture mapping and genome-wide association mapping approach to search for genomic regions that may explain this observation. Latina women with breast cancer (n= 1497) and Latina controls (n= 1272) were genotyped using Affymetrix and Illumina arrays. We inferred locus-specific genetic ancestry and compared the ancestry between cases and controls. We also performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association analyses in regions of interest. Correction for multiple-hypothesis testing was conducted using permutations (Pcorrected). We identified one region where genetic ancestry was significantly associated with breast cancer risk: 6q25 [odds ratio (OR) per Indigenous American chromosome 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65–0.85, P= 1.1 × 10−5, Pcorrected= 0.02]. A second region on 11p15 showed a trend towards association (OR per Indigenous American chromosome 0.77, 95% CI: 0.68–0.87, P= 4.3 × 10−5, Pcorrected= 0.08). In both regions, breast cancer risk decreased with higher Indigenous American ancestry in concordance with observations made on global ancestry. The peak of the 6q25 signal includes the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene and 5′ region, a locus previously implicated in breast cancer. Genome-wide association analysis found that a multi-SNP model explained the admixture signal in both regions. Our results confirm that the association between genetic ancestry and breast cancer risk in US Latinas is partly due to genetic differences between populations of European and Indigenous Americans origin. Fine-mapping within the 6q25 and possibly the 11p15 loci will lead to the discovery of the biologically functional variant/s behind this association. PMID:22228098

  6. The role of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and ground granulated blast furnace slag admixtures on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of self compacting concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Ali, E-mail: alinazari84@aut.ac.ir [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Felestin Sq., Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riahi, Shadi [Department of Technical and Engineering Sciences, Islamic Azad University (Saveh Branch), Felestin Sq., Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Nanoparticles in concrete. {yields} Ground granulated blast furnace slag as concrete's binder. {yields} Mechanical properties of concrete specimens by non-traditional admixtures. - Abstract: In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of self compacting concrete containing ground granulated blast furnace slag and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early ages of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt% at later ages. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} amount at the early ages and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles' content by more than 3.0 wt%, causes the reduced strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH){sub 2} content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. Accelerated peak appearance in conduction calorimetry tests, more weight loss in thermogravimetric analysis and more rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could

  7. Genetic structure, relationships and admixture with wild relatives in native pig breeds from Iberia and its islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Luis T; Martínez, Amparo M; Carolino, Inês; Landi, Vincenzo; Delgado, Juan V; Vicente, Antonio A; Vega-Pla, José L; Cortés, Oscar; Sousa, Conceição O

    2013-06-14

    Native pig breeds in the Iberian Peninsula are broadly classified as belonging to either the Celtic or the Mediterranean breed groups, but there are other local populations that do not fit into any of these groups. Most of the native pig breeds in Iberia are in danger of extinction, and the assessment of their genetic diversity and population structure, relationships and possible admixture between breeds, and the appraisal of conservation alternatives are crucial to adopt appropriate management strategies. A panel of 24 microsatellite markers was used to genotype 844 animals representing the 17 most important native swine breeds and wild populations existing in Portugal and Spain and various statistical tools were applied to analyze the results. Genetic diversity was high in the breeds studied, with an overall mean of 13.6 alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.80. Signs of genetic bottlenecks were observed in breeds with a small census size, and population substructure was present in some of the breeds with larger census sizes. Variability among breeds accounted for about 20% of the total genetic diversity, and was explained mostly by differences among the Celtic, Mediterranean and Basque breed groups, rather than by differences between domestic and wild pigs. Breeds clustered closely according to group, and proximity was detected between wild pigs and the Mediterranean cluster of breeds. Most breeds had their own structure and identity, with very little evidence of admixture, except for the Retinto and Entrepelado varieties of the Mediterranean group, which are very similar. Genetic influence of the identified breed clusters extends beyond the specific geographical areas across borders throughout the Iberian Peninsula, with a very sharp transition from one breed group to another. Analysis of conservation priorities confirms that the ranking of a breed for conservation depends on the emphasis placed on its contribution to the between- and

  8. Standard test method for determining effects of chemical admixtures on corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement in concrete exposed to chloride environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the effects of chemical admixtures on the corrosion of metals in concrete. This test method can be used to evaluate materials intended to inhibit chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete. It can also be used to evaluate the corrosivity of admixtures in a chloride environment. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Northern range expansion of European populations of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi is associated with global warming-correlated genetic admixture and population-specific temperature adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Tautz, Diethard

    2013-04-01

    Poleward range expansions are observed for an increasing number of species, which may be an effect of global warming during the past decades. However, it is still not clear in how far these expansions reflect simple geographical shifts of species ranges, or whether new genetic adaptations play a role as well. Here, we analyse the expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi into Northern Europe during the last century. We have used a range-wide sampling of contemporary populations and historical specimens from museums to trace the phylogeography and genetic changes associated with the range shift. Based on the analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP markers, we observe a higher level of genetic diversity in the expanding populations, apparently due to admixture of formerly isolated lineages. Using reciprocal transplant experiments for testing overwintering tolerance, as well as temperature preference and tolerance tests in the laboratory, we find that the invading spiders have possibly shifted their temperature niche. This may be a key adaptation for survival in Northern latitudes. The museum samples allow a reconstruction of the invasion's genetic history. A first, small-scale range shift started around 1930, in parallel with the onset of global warming. A more massive invasion of Northern Europe associated with genetic admixture and morphological changes occurred in later decades. We suggest that the latter range expansion into far Northern latitudes may be a consequence of the admixture that provided the genetic material for adaptations to new environmental regimes. Hence, global warming could have facilitated the initial admixture of populations and this resulted in genetic lineages with new habitat preferences. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Lack of gene–language correlation due to reciprocal female but directional male admixture in Austronesians and non-Austronesians of East Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sibylle M; van Oven, Mannis; Souto, Luis; Morreira, Helena; Brauer, Silke; Bodner, Martin; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Strobl, Christina; Röck, Alexander W; Côrte-Real, Francisco; Parson, Walther; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Nusa Tenggara, including East Timor, located at the crossroad between Island Southeast Asia, Near Oceania, and Australia, are characterized by a complex cultural structure harbouring speakers from two different major linguistic groups of different geographic origins (Austronesian (AN) and non-Austronesian (NAN)). This provides suitable possibilities to study gene–language relationship; however, previous studies from other parts of Nusa Tenggara reported conflicting evidence about gene–language correlation in this region. Aiming to investigate gene–language relationships including sex-mediated aspects in East Timor, we analysed the paternally inherited non-recombining part of the Y chromosome (NRY) and the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) DNA in a representative collection of AN- and NAN-speaking groups. Y-SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) data were newly generated for 273 samples and combined with previously established Y-STR (short tandem repeat) data of the same samples, and with previously established mtDNA data of 290 different samples with, however, very similar representation of geographic and linguistic coverage of the country. We found NRY and mtDNA haplogroups of previously described putative East/Southeast Asian (E/SEA) and Near Oceanian (NO) origins in both AN and NAN speakers of East Timor, albeit in different proportions, suggesting reciprocal genetic admixture between both linguistic groups for females, but directional admixture for males. Our data underline the dual genetic origin of East Timorese in E/SEA and NO, and highlight that substantial genetic admixture between the two major linguistic groups had occurred, more so via women than men. Our study therefore provides another example where languages and genes do not conform due to sex-biased genetic admixture across major linguistic groups. PMID:27485412

  11. Lack of gene-language correlation due to reciprocal female but directional male admixture in Austronesians and non-Austronesians of East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sibylle M; van Oven, Mannis; Souto, Luis; Morreira, Helena; Brauer, Silke; Bodner, Martin; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Strobl, Christina; Röck, Alexander W; Côrte-Real, Francisco; Parson, Walther; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Nusa Tenggara, including East Timor, located at the crossroad between Island Southeast Asia, Near Oceania, and Australia, are characterized by a complex cultural structure harbouring speakers from two different major linguistic groups of different geographic origins (Austronesian (AN) and non-Austronesian (NAN)). This provides suitable possibilities to study gene-language relationship; however, previous studies from other parts of Nusa Tenggara reported conflicting evidence about gene-language correlation in this region. Aiming to investigate gene-language relationships including sex-mediated aspects in East Timor, we analysed the paternally inherited non-recombining part of the Y chromosome (NRY) and the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) DNA in a representative collection of AN- and NAN-speaking groups. Y-SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) data were newly generated for 273 samples and combined with previously established Y-STR (short tandem repeat) data of the same samples, and with previously established mtDNA data of 290 different samples with, however, very similar representation of geographic and linguistic coverage of the country. We found NRY and mtDNA haplogroups of previously described putative East/Southeast Asian (E/SEA) and Near Oceanian (NO) origins in both AN and NAN speakers of East Timor, albeit in different proportions, suggesting reciprocal genetic admixture between both linguistic groups for females, but directional admixture for males. Our data underline the dual genetic origin of East Timorese in E/SEA and NO, and highlight that substantial genetic admixture between the two major linguistic groups had occurred, more so via women than men. Our study therefore provides another example where languages and genes do not conform due to sex-biased genetic admixture across major linguistic groups.

  12. Variants for HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides identified from admixture mapping and fine-mapping analysis in African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Priya B; Tang, Hua; Feng, Tao; Tayo, Bamidele; Morrison, Alanna C; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hanis, Craig L; Arnett, Donna K; Hunt, Steven C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rao, Dabeeru C; Cooper, Richard S; Risch, Neil; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    Admixture mapping of lipids was followed-up by family-based association analysis to identify variants for cardiovascular disease in African Americans. The present study conducted admixture mapping analysis for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. The analysis was performed in 1905 unrelated African American subjects from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Family Blood Pressure Program (FBPP). Regions showing admixture evidence were followed-up with family-based association analysis in 3556 African American subjects from the FBPP. The admixture mapping and family-based association analyses were adjusted for age, age(2), sex, body mass index, and genome-wide mean ancestry to minimize the confounding caused by population stratification. Regions that were suggestive of local ancestry association evidence were found on chromosomes 7 (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), 8 (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), 14 (triglycerides), and 19 (total cholesterol and triglycerides). In the fine-mapping analysis, 52 939 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested and 11 SNPs (8 independent SNPs) showed nominal significant association with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2 SNPs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (4 SNPs), and triglycerides (5 SNPs). The family data were used in the fine-mapping to identify SNPs that showed novel associations with lipids and regions, including genes with known associations for cardiovascular disease. This study identified regions on chromosomes 7, 8, 14, and 19 and 11 SNPs from the fine-mapping analysis that were associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides for further studies of cardiovascular disease in African Americans. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Variants for HDL-C, LDL-C and Triglycerides Identified from Admixture Mapping and Fine-Mapping Analysis in African-American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Priya B.; Tang, Hua; Feng, Tao; Tayo, Bamidele; Morrison, Alanna C.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Hanis, Craig L.; Arnett, Donna K.; Hunt, Steven C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rao, D.C.; Cooper, R.S.; Risch, Neil; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Admixture mapping of lipids was followed-up by family-based association analysis to identify variants for cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. Methods and Results The present study conducted admixture mapping analysis for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides. The analysis was performed in 1,905 unrelated African-American subjects from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s Family Blood Pressure Program. Regions showing admixture evidence were followed-up with family-based association analysis in 3,556 African-American subjects from the FBPP. The admixture mapping and family-based association analyses were adjusted for age, age2, sex, body-mass-index, and genome-wide mean ancestry to minimize the confounding due to population stratification. Regions that were suggestive of local ancestry association evidence were found on chromosomes 7 (LDL-C), 8 (HDL-C), 14 (triglycerides) and 19 (total cholesterol and triglycerides). In the fine-mapping analysis, 52,939 SNPs were tested and 11 SNPs (8 independent SNPs) showed nominal significant association with HDL-C (2 SNPs), LDL-C (4 SNPs) and triglycerides (5 SNPs). The family data was used in the fine-mapping to identify SNPs that showed novel associations with lipids and regions including genes with known associations for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions This study identified regions on chromosomes 7, 8, 14 and 19 and 11 SNPs from the fine-mapping analysis that were associated with HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides for further studies of cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. PMID:25552592

  14. Mechanical Properties and Self-Healing Effect of Concrete Containing Capillary Hydro Insulation Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mačanovskis Artūrs

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack formation during exploitation considerably decreases durability of concrete structures. Capillary hydro insulation is an integral crystalline waterproofing system ensuing filling of micro cracks, pores and capillaries with an insoluble crystalline formation. In order to evaluate self-healing effect of this system, fiber concrete beams were initially pre-cracked, then treated with capillary insulation and repeatedly tested under bending. Water permeability and frost resistance tests were also realized in order to evaluate long-term performance of the capillary insulation.

  15. Effect of NaNO2 and C6H15NO3 Synergistic Admixtures on Steel-Rebar Corrosion in Concrete Immersed in Aggressive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Olusegun Okeniyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies effect of different combinations of NaNO2 (sodium nitrite and C6H15NO3 (triethanolamine (TEA, as synergistic admixtures in concrete immersed in NaCl and in H2SO4 test environments, on the corrosion of the concrete reinforcing steel (rebar. Although statistically analysed electrochemical test results confirmed NaNO2 effectiveness, synergistic combinations of 4 g NaNO2 + 4 g C6H15NO3 in NaCl medium and of 2 g NaNO2 + 6 g C6H15NO3 in H2SO4 medium were also highly effective at inhibiting rebar corrosion. Synergistic parameter analyses showed that the effective synergistic admixtures that inhibited concrete steel-rebar corrosion in their respective medium were the NaNO2 and C6H15NO3 combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions of cooperative adsorption on steel-rebar. These support the suitability of requisite concentration of triethanolamine as additive admixture with sodium nitrite for steel-rebar corrosion mitigation, which is potent with reduced environmental effects, in concrete immersed in NaCl and in H2SO4 corrosive media.

  16. Investigations regarding the mass budget in the propagation of a passive admixture from a line source; Untersuchungen zur Stoffbilanz bei der Ausbreitung einer passiven Beimengung aus einer Linienquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, A. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Inst. fuer Boden-, Luft- und Gewaesserschutz

    1998-01-01

    Under stationary conditions, passive admixtures are transported by advection and by vertical as well as horizontal turbulent diffusion. The importance of individual contributions for the exchange of passive admixtures emanating from a straight line source with a constant source strength under neutral stratification conditions is discussed. For this purpose, all terms of the mass budget for a control volume around a straight line source are calculated using a stochastic Lagrange model (LS), whose properties are discussed. As a test for the LS model, the vertical and horizontal mass flows in the soil layer are simulated and compared with SANA data. The mass flows calculated for the propagation of a passive admixture from a line source are evaluated regarding their share of the mass budget. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter stationaeren Bedingungen erfolgt der Transport von passiven Beimengungen durch Advektion sowie vertikale und horizontale turbulente Diffusion. Die Bedeutung der einzelnen Beitraege fuer den Austausch von passiven Beimengungen, die von einer geraden Linienquelle mit konstanter Quellstaerke unter neutralen Schichtungsbedingungen ausgehen, wird diskutiert. Dazu werden mit einem Lagrangeschen stochastischen (LS) Modell, dessen Eigenschaften besprochen werden, alle Terme der Stoffbilanz fuer ein Kontrollvolumen um eine gerade Linienquelle berechnet. Als Test fuer das LS-Modell werden die vertikalen und die horizontalen Stofffluesse in der Bodenschicht simuliert und mit SANA-Daten verglichen. Die fuer die Ausbreitung einer passiven Beimengung von einer Linienquelle berechneten Massenfluesse, werden hinsichtlich ihres Anteils an der Stoffbilanz ausgewertet. (orig.)

  17. Combination of mass spectrometry-based targeted lipidomics and supervised machine learning algorithms in detecting adulterated admixtures of white rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Kyu; Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Mo, Changyeun; Dong, Ziyuan; Cui, Lingmei; Kim, Giyoung; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-10-01

    The mixing of extraneous ingredients with original products is a common adulteration practice in food and herbal medicines. In particular, authenticity of white rice and its corresponding blended products has become a key issue in food industry. Accordingly, our current study aimed to develop and evaluate a novel discrimination method by combining targeted lipidomics with powerful supervised learning methods, and eventually introduce a platform to verify the authenticity of white rice. A total of 30 cultivars were collected, and 330 representative samples of white rice from Korea and China as well as seven mixing ratios were examined. Random forests (RF), support vector machines (SVM) with a radial basis function kernel, C5.0, model averaged neural network, and k-nearest neighbor classifiers were used for the classification. We achieved desired results, and the classifiers effectively differentiated white rice from Korea to blended samples with high prediction accuracy for the contamination ratio as low as five percent. In addition, RF and SVM classifiers were generally superior to and more robust than the other techniques. Our approach demonstrated that the relative differences in lysoGPLs can be successfully utilized to detect the adulterated mixing of white rice originating from different countries. In conclusion, the present study introduces a novel and high-throughput platform that can be applied to authenticate adulterated admixtures from original white rice samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Expansive Admixtures on the Shrinkage and Mechanical Properties of High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cement Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Chang Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites (HPFRCCs are characterized by strain-hardening and multiple cracking during the inelastic deformation process, but they also develop high shrinkage strain. This study investigates the effects of replacing Portland cement with calcium sulfoaluminate-based expansive admixtures (CSA EXAs to compensate for the shrinkage and associated mechanical behavior of HPFRCCs. Two types of CSA EXA (CSA-K and CSA-J, each with a different chemical composition, are used in this study. Various replacement ratios (0%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14% by weight of cement of CSA EXA are considered for the design of HPFRCC mixtures reinforced with 1.5% polyethylene (PE fibers by volume. Mechanical properties, such as shrinkage compensation, compressive strength, flexural strength, and direct tensile strength, of the HPFRCC mixtures are examined. Also, crack width and development are investigated to determine the effects of the EXAs on the performance of the HPFRCC mixtures, and a performance index is used to quantify the performance of mixture. The results indicate that replacements of 10% CSA-K (Type 1 and 8% CSA-J (Type 2 considerably enhance the mechanical properties and reduce shrinkage of HPFRCCs.

  19. Properties of Calcium Acetate Manufactured with Etching Waste Solution and Limestone Sludge as a Cementitious High-Early-Strength Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deuck-Mo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials. There are several methods available to improve its performance, with one of them being the use of high-early-strength admixtures (HESAs. Typical HESAs include calcium nitrate, calcium chloride, and calcium formate (CF. Industrial by-products, such as acetic acid and lime stone sludge (LSS, can be used together to produce calcium acetate (CA, which can subsequently be used as a cementitious HESA. In this study, calcium carbonate and LSS were mixed with cement in weight ratios of 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, and 1 : 2, and the properties of the as-produced CA were evaluated. CA and CF were mixed with cement in different weight ratios (0, 1, 2, and 3 wt% to obtain CA- and CF-mortars, respectively. The flow behavior, setting time, pH, and compressive strength of these mortars were evaluated, and their X-ray diffraction patterns were also analyzed. It was found that as the CF content in the CF-mortar increased, the initial strength of the mortar also increased. However, it impaired its long-term strength. On the other hand, when 1% CA was mixed with cement, satisfactory early and long-term strengths were achieved. Thus, CA, which is obtained from industrial by-products, can be an effective HESA.

  20. Extracting CKM phases from angular distributions of $B_{d,s}$ decays into admixtures of CP eigenstates

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The time-dependent angular distributions of certain B/sub d, s/ decays into final states that are admixtures of CP-even and CP-odd configurations provide valuable information about CKM phases and hadronic parameters. We present the general formalism to accomplish this task, taking also into account penguin contributions, and illustrate it by considering a few specific decay modes. We give particular emphasis to the decay B/sub d/ to J/ psi rho /sup 0/, which can be combined with B/sub s/ to J/ psi phi to extract the B /sub d//sup 0/-B/sub d//sup 0/ mixing phase and-if penguin effects in the former mode should be sizeable-also the angle gamma of the unitarity triangle. As an interesting by-product, this strategy allows us to take into account also the penguin effects in the extraction of the B/sub s//sup 0/-B/sub s//sup 0/ mixing phase from B /sub s/ to J/ psi phi . Moreover, a discrete ambiguity in the extraction of the CKM angle beta can be resolved, and valuable insights into SU(3)-breaking effects can be o...

  1. The emergence of the hyperinvasive vine, Mikania micrantha (Asteraceae), via admixture and founder events inferred from population transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; He, Ziwen; Huang, Yelin; Lu, Lu; Yan, Yubin; Hong, Lan; Shen, Hao; Liu, Ying; Guo, Qiang; Jiang, Lu; Zhang, Yanwu; Greenberg, Anthony J; Zhou, Renchao; Ge, Xuejun; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua

    2017-07-01

    Biological invasions that involve well-documented rapid adaptations to new environments provide unequalled opportunities for testing evolutionary hypotheses. Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae), a perennial herbaceous vine native to tropical Central and South America, successfully invaded tropical Asia in the early 20th century. It is regarded as one of the most aggressive weeds in the world. To elucidate the molecular and evolutionary processes underlying this invasion, we extensively sampled this weed throughout its invaded range in South-East and South Asia and surveyed its genetic structure using variants detected from population transcriptomics. Clustering results suggest that more than one source population contributed to this invasion. Computer simulations using genomewide genetic variation support a scenario of admixture and founder events during invasion. The genes differentially expressed between native and invasive populations were found to be involved in oxidative and high light intensity stress responses, pointing to a possible ecological mechanism of adaptation. Our results provide a foundation for further detailed mechanistic and population studies of this ecologically and economically important invasion. This line of research promises to provide new mitigation strategies for invasive species as well as insights into mechanisms of adaptation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Length Distribution of Ancestral Tracks under a General Admixture Model and Its Applications in Population History Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xumin; Yang, Xiong; Guo, Wei; Yuan, Kai; Zhou, Ying; Ma, Zhiming; Xu, Shuhua

    2016-01-28

    The length of ancestral tracks decays with the passing of generations which can be used to infer population admixture histories. Previous studies have shown the power in recovering the histories of admixed populations via the length distributions of ancestral tracks even under simple models. We believe that the deduction of length distributions under a general model will greatly elevate the power. Here we first deduced the length distributions under a general model and proposed general principles in parameter estimation and model selection with the deduced length distributions. Next, we focused on studying the length distributions and its applications under three typical special cases. Extensive simulations showed that the length distributions of ancestral tracks were well predicted by our theoretical framework. We further developed a new method, AdmixInfer, based on the length distributions and good performance was observed when it was applied to infer population histories under the three typical models. Notably, our method was insensitive to demographic history, sample size and threshold to discard short tracks. Finally, good performance was also observed when applied to some real datasets of African Americans, Mexicans and South Asian populations from the HapMap project and the Human Genome Diversity Project.

  3. Sequence analysis of single-copy genes in two wild olive subspecies: nucleotide diversity and potential use for testing admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, G; El Bakkali, A

    2014-03-01

    The wild olive distribution extends from the Mediterranean region to south Asia and Austral Africa. The species is also invasive, particularly in Australia. Here, we investigated the sequence variation at five nuclear single-copy genes in 41 native and invasive accessions of the Mediterranean and African olive subspecies. The nucleotide diversity was assessed and the phylogenetic relationships between alleles were depicted with haplotype networks. A Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) was applied to identify the main gene pools. We found an average of 18.4 alleles per locus. Native Mediterranean and African olives only share one allele, which testifies for ancient admixture on the Red Sea hills. The presence of divergent alleles in the Mediterranean olive, as well as the identification of two main genetic clusters, suggests a complex origin with two highly differentiated gene pools from the eastern and western Mediterranean that recently admixed. In the invasive range, relatively high nucleotide diversity is observed as a consequence of the introduction of alleles from two subspecies. Our data confirm that four invasive individuals are early-generation hybrids. Finally, the utility of single-copy gene sequences in olive population genomic and phylogenetic studies is briefly discussed.

  4. Physical, thermal and mechanical study of MPC formulated with LG-MgO incorporating Phase Change Materials as admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Lacasta, A. M.; Giro-Paloma, J.; Chimenos, J. M.; Formosa, J.

    2017-10-01

    The high environmental impact generated by using of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has lead to the search for alternative materials in the field of civil and building engineering. In addition, there is a tendency to develop cements from industrial by-products, thus reducing pollution and emissions generated by their production. One of the best positioned cements to compete with OPC is Magnesium Phosphate Cement (MPC). The present work studies different dosages of MPC mortars formulated with low-grade MgO by-product (sustainable MPC) incorporating Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials (MPCM) and air entraining additive (AEA) as admixtures (Thermal Sustainable MPC) to improve the thermal behaviour of the material. The aim is developed a new eco-friendly material that leads to reducing energy consumption in buildings. The study is focused on the physical, thermal, and mechanical characterization of TS-MPC mortars to assess their potential use as a thermal prefabricated panel. The results allow to relate the amount of the MPCM and the additive percentage with the thermal and mechanical properties of the TS- MPC. Furthermore, is important to highlight the influence of MPCM not only in the thermal behaviour but also on the increase of the porosity. The experimental results show that the addition of both additives contributes substantially to the improvement of the thermal behaviour of the mortars and converts them on a suitable material to reduce thermal oscillations in buildings.

  5. Characterization and formulation of a new eco-friendly hydraulic binder based on combination of inorganic and organic admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudhair M.H.R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to valorize a mineral and natural resources such as the Limestone Fillers (F-Lime and the Natural Pozzolan (PN by incorporating them into the formulation matrix of cement or concrete. In order to minimize the CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, to reduce the energy and raw materials consumption and as well as, to improve the physical and mechanical properties in fresh cement paste and of mortar or concrete in the hardened state. In this present manuscript, we substituted the clinker by the combination between the F-Lime and NP at 40% by weight of cement with steps of 5% with the admixture of superplasticizers. The influences of the incorporation of these additions on physical and mechanical properties of mortar or concrete in the fresh cement paste and hardened state were evaluated. The obtained results by different formulations elaborated to show that the replacement a part of clinker by the mixing of F-Lime and PN has produced a new hydraulic binder eco-friendly and durable with improved physicochemical, physical and mechanical properties. These results show that we have succeeded to manufacture, characteristic and formulated of new ecofriendly hydraulic binder and sustainable with improved physical, chemical, and mechanical properties while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions on one hand and the reducing the energy raw materials consumption on the other hand.

  6. No evidence of Neandertal admixture in the mitochondrial genomes of early European modern humans and contemporary Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirotto, Silvia; Tassi, Francesca; Benazzo, Andrea; Barbujani, Guido

    2011-10-01

    Neandertals, the archaic human form documented in Eurasia until 29,000 years ago, share no mitochondrial haplotype with modern Europeans. Whether this means that the two groups were reproductively isolated is controversial, and indeed nuclear data have been interpreted as suggesting that they admixed. We explored the range of demographic parameters that may have generated the observed mitochondrial diversity, simulating 3.0 million genealogies under six models differing as for the relationships among contemporary Europeans, Neandertals, and Upper Palaeolithic European early modern humans (EEMH), who coexisted with Neandertals for millennia. We compared by Approximate Bayesian Computations the simulation results with mitochondrial diversity in 7 Neandertals, 3 EEMH, and 150 opportunely chosen modern Europeans. A model of genealogical continuity between EEMH and contemporary Europeans, with no Neandertal contribution, received overwhelming support from the analyses. The maximum degree of Neandertal admixture, under the model of gene flow supported by nuclear data, was estimated at 1.5%, but this model proved 20-32 times less likely than a model without any gene flow. Nuclear and mitochondrial evidence might be reconciled if smaller population sizes led to faster lineage sorting for mitochondrial DNA, and Neandertals shared a longer period of common ancestry with the non-African's than with the African's ancestors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Hydraulic activity of belite cement from class C coal fly ash. Effect of curing and admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero, A.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing method and a water-reducing additive on the hydraulic activity of high lime content (ASTM type C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W is reported. A class C fly ash was subjected to hydrothermal treatment and subsequent calcination to synthesize FABC. Hydraulic activity was evaluated in the cement paste over 180 days from the physically bound water content as determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the degree of hydration, in turn found with X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Mechanical strength, porosity and pore size distribution were also studied in equivalent mortar samples.En este trabajo se discute la influencia del tipo de curado y de un aditivo reductor de la demanda de agua en la actividad hidráulica de un cemento belítico de cenizas volantes de alto contenido en cal denominado (CBCV-2-A. Este cemento ha sido sintetizado por una ruta húmeda hidrotermal con posterior calcinación, empleando ceniza volante de alto contenido en cal (ASTM tipo C como materia prima. La actividad hidráulica se ha estudiado en la pasta de cemento, durante un periodo de 180 días, por medio del contenido de agua combinada, determinada por análisis termogravimétrico, y el grado de hidratación por difracción de rayos X (DRX. La resistencia mecánica y la porosidad total y distribución de tamaño de poro se han estudiado en probetas equivalentes de mortero

  8. Modeling and Optimization of Compressive Strength of Hollow Sandcrete Block with Rice Husk Ash Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the report of an investigation into the model development and optimization of the compressive strength of 55/45 to 70/30 cement/Rice Husk Ash (RHA in hollow sandcrete block. The low cost and local availability potential of RHA, a pozzolanic material gasps for exploitation. The study applies the Scheffe\\'s optimization approach to obtain a mathematical model of the form f(xi1 ,xi2 ,xi3 xi4 , where x are proportions of the concrete components, viz: cement, RHA, sand and water. Scheffe\\'s i experimental design techniques are followed to mould various hollow block samples measuring 450mm x 225mm x 150mm and tested for 28 days strength. The task involved experimentation and design, applying the second order polynomial characterization process of the simplex lattice method. The model adequacy is checked using the control factors. Finally, a software is prepared to handle the design computation process to take the desired property of the mix, and generate the optimal mix ratios. Reversibly, any mix ratios can be desired and the attainable strength obtained.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE PROPERTIES OF CEMENT CONCRETE WITH WATER HYACINTH FIBRES

    OpenAIRE

    K. Akil; Parthasarathy, P.; D. Siva Shankar

    2017-01-01

    Concrete, the most abundantly used material all over the world, suffers several drawbacks such as low tensile strength, permeability to liquids and consequent corrosion of reinforcement, etc. Several admixtures have been used since ancient times to change and improve the properties and performance of the concrete. Water hyacinth is a free floating aquatic plant that infests rivers, dams, lakes and irrigation channels. It affects water flow, blocks sunlight and oxygen and completely destroys t...

  10. Development of a panel of genome-wide ancestry informative markers to study admixture throughout the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mark Galanter

    Full Text Available Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R² > 0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance. Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region.

  11. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population--Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Ana Carolina J; Cassani, Roberta S L; Forti, Adriana C e; Vilela, Brunna S; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR. A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 824 adult women was assessed. The anthropometric parameters included: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio and SAD. IR was determined by a hyperglycemic clamp and the HOMA-IR index. After adjustments for age and total body fat mass, SAD (r = 0.23 and r = -0.70) and BMI (r = 0.20 and r = -0.71) were strongly correlated with the IR measured by the HOMA-IR index and the clamp, respectively (p < 0.001). In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for SAD in women was 21.0 cm. The women with an increased SAD presented 3.2 (CI 95%: 2.1-5.0) more likelihood of having IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index compared with those with normal SAD (p < 0.001); whereas women with elevated BMI and WC were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4-3.3) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7-4.5) more likely to have IR (p < 0.001), respectively. No statistically significant results were found for waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can be a suitable surrogate marker of IR. Understanding and applying routine and simplified methods is essential because IR is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases even in the presence of normal weight, slight overweight, as well as in obesity. Further prospective analysis will need to verify SAD as a determinant of clinical outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events, in the Brazilian population.

  12. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae underscore the importance of human intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee E Zielke

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes. Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany.

  13. Admixture Mapping of Subclinical Atherosclerosis and Subsequent Clinical Events Among African Americans in 2 Large Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendre, Aditi; Wiener, Howard; Irvin, Marguerite R; Zhi, Degui; Limdi, Nita A; Overton, Edgar T; Wassel, Christina L; Divers, Jasmin; Rotter, Jerome I; Post, Wendy S; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2017-04-01

    Local ancestry may contribute to the disproportionate burden of subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease among admixed African Americans compared with other populations, suggesting a rationale for admixture mapping. We estimated local European ancestry (LEA) using Local Ancestry inference in adMixed Populations using Linkage Disequilibrium method (LAMP-LD) and evaluated the association with common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cCIMT) using multivariable linear regression analysis among 1554 African Americans from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). We conducted secondary analysis to examine the significant cCIMT-LEA associations with clinical cardiovascular disease events. We observed genome-wide significance in relation to cCIMT association with the SERGEF gene (secretion-regulating guanine nucleotide exchange factor; β=0.0137; P=2.98×10(-)(4)), also associated with higher odds of stroke (odds ratio=1.71; P=0.02). Several regions, in particular CADPS gene (Ca(2+)-dependent secretion activator 1) region identified in MESA, were also replicated in the ARIC cohort (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). We observed other cCIMT-LEA regions associated with other clinical events, most notably the regions harboring CKMT2 gene (creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2) and RASGRF2 gene (Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2) with all clinical events except stroke, the LRRC3B gene (leucine-rich repeat containing 3B) with myocardial infarction, the PRMT3 gene (protein arginine methyltransferase 3) with stroke, and the LHFPL2 gene (lipoma high mobility group protein I-C fusion partner-like 2) with hard and all coronary heart disease. We identified several novel LEA regions, in addition to previously identified genetic variations, associated with cCIMT and cardiovascular disease events among African Americans. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-10-27

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Admixture mapping of 15,280 African Americans identifies obesity susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5 and X.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Cheng

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity (body mass index (BMI > or =30 kg/m(2 is higher in African Americans than in European Americans, even after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, suggesting that genetic factors may explain some of the difference. To identify genetic loci influencing BMI, we carried out a pooled analysis of genome-wide admixture mapping scans in 15,280 African Americans from 14 epidemiologic studies. Samples were genotyped at a median of 1,411 ancestry-informative markers. After adjusting for age, sex, and study, BMI was analyzed both as a dichotomized (top 20% versus bottom 20% and a continuous trait. We found that a higher percentage of European ancestry was significantly correlated with lower BMI (rho = -0.042, P = 1.6x10(-7. In the dichotomized analysis, we detected two loci on chromosome X as associated with increased African ancestry: the first at Xq25 (locus-specific LOD = 5.94; genome-wide score = 3.22; case-control Z = -3.94; and the second at Xq13.1 (locus-specific LOD = 2.22; case-control Z = -4.62. Quantitative analysis identified a third locus at 5q13.3 where higher BMI was highly significantly associated with greater European ancestry (locus-specific LOD = 6.27; genome-wide score = 3.46. Further mapping studies with dense sets of markers will be necessary to identify the alleles in these regions of chromosomes X and 5 that may be associated with variation in BMI.

  16. Development of a Panel of Genome-Wide Ancestry Informative Markers to Study Admixture Throughout the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Joshua Mark; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Via, Marc; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Figueroa, Laura Uribe; Raska, Paola; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Silva Zolezzi, Irma; Torres, Maria; Ponte, Clara Ruiz; Ruiz, Yarimar; Salas, Antonio; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Eng, Celeste; Borjas, Lisbeth; Zabala, William; Barreto, Guillermo; Rondón González, Fernando; Ibarra, Adriana; Taboada, Patricia; Porras, Liliana; Moreno, Fabián; Bigham, Abigail; Gutierrez, Gerardo; Brutsaert, Tom; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Moore, Lorna G.; Vargas, Enrique; Cruz, Miguel; Escobedo, Jorge; Rodriguez-Santana, José; Rodriguez-Cintrón, William; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Bustamante, Carlos; Seminara, Daniela; Shriver, Mark; Ziv, Elad; Gonzalez Burchard, Esteban; Haile, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R2>0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance). Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region. PMID:22412386

  17. Stability of hybrid modes of a single-component electron plasma containing an admixture of background gas ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliseyev, Yu. N.

    2014-05-01

    The spectrum of eigenmodes of a waveguide completely filled with a cold electron plasma containing a small admixture of ions produced due to electron-impact ionization of background gas atoms is calculated numerically. The calculations were performed within the entire range of allowable values of the radial electric and longitudinal magnetic fields for both magnetized and unmagnetized ions by using the earlier derived nonlocal dispersion relation [Plasma Phys. Rep. 36, 563 (2010)]. The spectrum consists of three families of electron modes with frequencies equal to the Doppler-shifted upper and lower hybrid frequencies and modified ion cyclotron (MIC) modes. When the Doppler shift caused by electron rotation in the crossed electric and magnetic fields compensates for the hybrid frequency, the electron modes become low-frequency modes and interact with the ion modes. For m = 1, only the lower hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones, whereas at m ≥ 2, both lower and upper hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones. The spectrum of modes having the azimuthal number m = 2 is thoroughly analyzed. It is shown that, in this case, the lower hybrid modes behave similar to the m = 1 modes. The dispersion curves of the upper hybrid modes intersect with all harmonics of the MIC frequency (positive, negative, and zero) and are unstable in the vicinities of the intersections. The maximum value of the instability growth rate is several times higher than the ion plasma frequency. The MIC modes are unstable within a wide range of the field strengths, and their growth rates are two orders of magnitude slower. Instabilities are caused by the relative motion of electrons and ions (the transverse current) and the anisotropy of the ion distribution function.

  18. Inference of human continental origin and admixture proportions using a highly discriminative ancestry informative 41-SNP panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievergelt, Caroline M; Maihofer, Adam X; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Libiger, Ondrej; Wang, Xudong; Kidd, Kenneth K; Kidd, Judith R

    2013-07-01

    Accurate determination of genetic ancestry is of high interest for many areas such as biomedical research, personal genomics and forensics. It remains an important topic in genetic association studies, as it has been shown that population stratification, if not appropriately considered, can lead to false-positive and -negative results. While large association studies typically extract ancestry information from available genome-wide SNP genotypes, many important clinical data sets on rare phenotypes and historical collections assembled before the GWAS area are in need of a feasible method (i.e., ease of genotyping, small number of markers) to infer the geographic origin and potential admixture of the study subjects. Here we report on the development, application and limitations of a small, multiplexable ancestry informative marker (AIM) panel of SNPs (or AISNP) developed specifically for this purpose. Based on worldwide populations from the HGDP, a 41-AIM AISNP panel for multiplex application with the ABI SNPlex and a subset with 31 AIMs for the Sequenome iPLEX system were selected and found to be highly informative for inferring ancestry among the seven continental regions Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Central/South Asia, East Asia, the Americas and Oceania. The panel was found to be least informative for Eurasian populations, and additional AIMs for a higher resolution are suggested. A large reference set including over 4,000 subjects collected from 120 global populations was assembled to facilitate accurate ancestry determination. We show practical applications of this AIM panel, discuss its limitations for admixed individuals and suggest ways to incorporate ancestry information into genetic association studies. We demonstrated the utility of a small AISNP panel specifically developed to discern global ancestry. We believe that it will find wide application because of its feasibility and potential for a wide range of applications.

  19. Chemical Stability of Admixtures Containing Ziconotide 25 mcg/mL and Morphine Sulfate 10 mg/mL or 20 mg/mL During Simulated Intrathecal Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David E; Aclan, Jennifer; Szatkowski, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The chemical stability of an intrathecally administered analgesic combination may influence the frequency of pump refills necessary to maintain safe and effective analgesia. Previous work has shown that the stability of ziconotide at body temperature is reduced substantially by the presence of morphine sulfate 35 mg/mL. The current study was performed to evaluate the chemical stability of admixtures combining ziconotide with lower concentrations of morphine sulfate during simulated intrathecal infusion under laboratory conditions at 37 deg C. Admixtures containing ziconotide 25 mcg/mL and morphine sulfate 10 mg/mL or 20 mg/mL were stored in implantable intrathecal pumps at 37 deg C and in control vials at 37 deg C or 5 deg C. Samples were obtained over 60 days (admixture containing morphine sulfate 10 mg/mL) or 28 days (admixture containing morphine sulfate 20 mg/mL) and drug concentrations were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Estimates of the time intervals that each admixture retained > or= 90% and > or = 80% of the initial concentrations of both drugs (i.e., the 90% and 80% stabilites) were based on 95% confidence bounds obtained via linear regression. Morphine sulfate 10 mg/mL, the mean ziconotide concentration declined to 81.4% of the initial concentration in 60 days, and 90% and 80% stabilites were maintained for 34 days and 65 days, respctively. In the admixture containing morphine sulfate 20 mg/mL, the mean ziconotide concentration declined to 85.3% of the initial concentration in 28 days, and 90% and 80% stabilities were maintained for 19 days and 37 days, respectively. Decreasing the concentration of morphine in an admixture containing ziconotide improves the stablity of ziconotide.

  20. Efeito da aplicação do poliestireno sulfonado (PSSNa como aditivo em argamassas e concretos de cimento Portland CPV32 Effect of PSSNa as admixture in mortars and concrete of cement portand CPV32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Royer

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigado o uso do Poliestireno sulfonado (PSSNa, produzido a partir de copos plásticos descartáveis de Poliestireno (PS, como aditivo em argamassas e concretos de cimento Portland CPV32. A avaliação do PSSNa como aditivo foi baseada em ensaios de fluidez e resistência mecânica à compressão de corpos de prova. Foi observado, em argamassas com relação água/cimento (a/c de 0,48, um aumento na fluidez com o aumento das porcentagens de PSSNa (0,25 a 1,00%. A adsorção do PSSNa sobre as partículas de cimento melhora a dispersão dos componentes da argamassa, aumentando a resistência mecânica à compressão dos corpos de prova após a cura. A aplicação do PSSNa em concreto apresentou o mesmo efeito. O abatimento do concreto sem PSSNa foi de 50 mm, atingindo cerca de 200 mm com o uso do polieletrólito. Devido à elevada plasticização observada é possível empregar o PSSNa como aditivo redutor de água. Foi produzido um concreto com o mesmo abatimento da referência sem aditivo reduzindo-se a quantidade de água em 20,8%. O ganho de resistência mecânica à compressão obtido foi de 21,5 e 26,3 %, respectivamente aos 7 e 28 dias de cura. Estes resultados mostraram que soluções de PSSNa podem atuar eficientemente como aditivo superplastificante ou redutor de água em argamassas e concretos.In this work an investigation was made of the effects from adding PSSNa, obtained from disposable polystyrene (PS cups, as admixture agent in mortars and concrete with varying ratios from 0.25 to 1.00%. The evaluation of PSSNa as additive was based on results of fluidity and mechanical strength to compression. In mortars with water/cement ratio of 0.48, an increase in flow was observed when the dosage of PSSNa varied from 0.25 to 1.00%. The dispersion of mortar components was improved due to the adsorption of PSSNa on cement particles, which increased the mechanical strength of mortars. Similar results were obtained with the

  1. Genotyping by sequencing reveals the interspecific C. maxima / C. reticulata admixture along the genomes of modern citrus varieties of mandarins, tangors, tangelos, orangelos and grapefruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Amel; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Luro, François; Vignes, Hélène; Mournet, Pierre; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The mandarin horticultural group is an important component of world citrus production for the fresh fruit market. This group formerly classified as C. reticulata is highly polymorphic and recent molecular studies have suggested that numerous cultivated mandarins were introgressed by C. maxima (the pummelos). C. maxima and C. reticulata are also the ancestors of sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit, and therefore of all the "small citrus" modern varieties (mandarins, tangors, tangelos) derived from sexual hybridization between these horticultural groups. Recently, NGS technologies have greatly modified how plant evolution and genomic structure are analyzed, moving from phylogenetics to phylogenomics. The objective of this work was to develop a workflow for phylogenomic inference from Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS) data and to analyze the interspecific admixture along the nine citrus chromosomes for horticultural groups and recent varieties resulting from the combination of the C. reticulata and C. maxima gene pools. A GBS library was established from 55 citrus varieties, using the ApekI restriction enzyme and selective PCR to improve the read depth. Diagnostic polymorphisms (DPs) of C. reticulata/C. maxima differentiation were identified and used to decipher the phylogenomic structure of the 55 varieties. The GBS approach was powerful and revealed 30,289 SNPs and 8,794 Indels with 12.6% of missing data. 11,133 DPs were selected covering the nine chromosomes with a higher density in genic regions. GBS combined with the detection of DPs was powerful for deciphering the "phylogenomic karyotypes" of cultivars derived from admixture of the two ancestral species after a limited number of interspecific recombinations. All the mandarins, mandarin hybrids, tangelos and tangors analyzed displayed introgression of C. maxima in different parts of the genome. C. reticulata/C. maxima admixture should be a major component of the high phenotypic variability of this germplasm opening

  2. Genotyping by sequencing reveals the interspecific C. maxima / C. reticulata admixture along the genomes of modern citrus varieties of mandarins, tangors, tangelos, orangelos and grapefruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Oueslati

    Full Text Available The mandarin horticultural group is an important component of world citrus production for the fresh fruit market. This group formerly classified as C. reticulata is highly polymorphic and recent molecular studies have suggested that numerous cultivated mandarins were introgressed by C. maxima (the pummelos. C. maxima and C. reticulata are also the ancestors of sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit, and therefore of all the "small citrus" modern varieties (mandarins, tangors, tangelos derived from sexual hybridization between these horticultural groups. Recently, NGS technologies have greatly modified how plant evolution and genomic structure are analyzed, moving from phylogenetics to phylogenomics. The objective of this work was to develop a workflow for phylogenomic inference from Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS data and to analyze the interspecific admixture along the nine citrus chromosomes for horticultural groups and recent varieties resulting from the combination of the C. reticulata and C. maxima gene pools. A GBS library was established from 55 citrus varieties, using the ApekI restriction enzyme and selective PCR to improve the read depth. Diagnostic polymorphisms (DPs of C. reticulata/C. maxima differentiation were identified and used to decipher the phylogenomic structure of the 55 varieties. The GBS approach was powerful and revealed 30,289 SNPs and 8,794 Indels with 12.6% of missing data. 11,133 DPs were selected covering the nine chromosomes with a higher density in genic regions. GBS combined with the detection of DPs was powerful for deciphering the "phylogenomic karyotypes" of cultivars derived from admixture of the two ancestral species after a limited number of interspecific recombinations. All the mandarins, mandarin hybrids, tangelos and tangors analyzed displayed introgression of C. maxima in different parts of the genome. C. reticulata/C. maxima admixture should be a major component of the high phenotypic variability of this

  3. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

    2001-10-11

    Work completed in this reporting period focused on the measurement of the rate of ammonia loss from mortar and concrete, and the measurement of ammonia gas in the air above the materials immediately after placement. The majority of mortar experiments have been completed, and testing has begun on concrete. The mortar experiments indicate that the rate of ammonia loss is greater in mortars prepared using a higher water content and water:cement (W:C) ratio, although the higher rate is primarily observed within the first 2 days, after which the loss rates are nearly the same. The source of low-calcium (Class F) fly ash exerted a negligible influence on the loss rate. However, mortar prepared using a higher-calcium fly ash evolved ammonia at a slightly slower rate than the Class F ash mortars. The data also indicate that an increase in ventilation increases the ammonia loss rate from mortar, and suggest that a well-ventilated space could substantially increase the loss of ammonia from mortar and, by inference, a concrete slab. Analysis of ammonia concentrations in the air above freshly-placed mortars in an enclosed space indicate that the fly ash ammonia concentration should not exceed 100 mg N/kg ash in confined space applications. For most other applications with some ventilation the maximum acceptable concentration would be approximately 200 mg/kg. Early results from experiments on concrete suggest that, under similar conditions, ammonia diffusion from concrete occurs at a higher rate than in mortar. In addition, increasing the slump of concrete through the use of chemical admixtures has only a minor effect on the ammonia loss rate.

  4. Admixture mapping of pelvic organ prolapse in African Americans from the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush Giri

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests European American (EA women have two- to five-fold increased odds of having pelvic organ prolapse (POP when compared with African American (AA women. However, the role of genetic ancestry in relation to POP risk is not clear. Here we evaluate the association between genetic ancestry and POP in AA women from the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy trial. Women with grade 1 or higher classification, and grade 2 or higher classification for uterine prolapse, cystocele or rectocele at baseline or during follow-up were considered to have any POP (N = 805 and moderate/severe POP (N = 156, respectively. Women with at least two pelvic exams with no indication for POP served as controls (N = 344. We performed case-only, and case-control admixture-mapping analyses using multiple logistic regression while adjusting for age, BMI, parity and global ancestry. We evaluated the association between global ancestry and POP using multiple logistic regression. European ancestry at the individual level was not associated with POP risk. Case-only and case-control local ancestry analyses identified two ancestry-specific loci that may be associated with POP. One locus (Chromosome 15q26.2 achieved empirically-estimated statistical significance and was associated with decreased POP odds (considering grade ≥2 POP with each unit increase in European ancestry (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.57; p-value = 1.48x10-5. This region includes RGMA, a potent regulator of the BMP family of genes. The second locus (Chromosome 1q42.1-q42.3 was associated with increased POP odds with each unit increase in European ancestry (Odds ratio [OR]: 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 2.22; p-value = 1.93x10-4. Although this region did not reach statistical significance after considering multiple comparisons, it includes potentially relevant genes including TBCE, and ACTA1. Unique non-overlapping European and African ancestry-specific susceptibility loci may be

  5. Comparison of propofol (1%) with admixture (1:1) of thiopentone (1.25%) and propofol (0.5%) for laryngeal mask airway insertion in children undergoing elective eye surgery: Double-masked randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Renu; Shende, Dilip; Garg, Rakesh

    2010-03-01

    Intravenous propofol 1% has been the preferred agent for Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) insertion. Admixture of thiopentone 1.25% and propofol 0.5% (1:1) has been used by various authors for induction as well as insertion of LMA in adults. There is no previous report where this admixture has been used for insertion of LMA in children. This study has been designed to investigate whether this admixture can be a suitable alternative to propofol, in relation to ease of insertion of the LMA, haemodynamic stability, cost containment, pain on injection and recovery in children. In this randomized, double-masked study, 50 ASA grade 1 and 2 patients of age 3 - 15 years and weighing more than 10 kg were included. The patients were divided into two groups; the P group received propofol 1%, while the Ad group received an admixture of thiopentone 1.25% and propofol 0.5% (1:1). All the children were evaluated for incidence of apnoea, pain on injection, jaw relaxation, ease of LMA insertion, coughing, gagging, laryngospasm, involuntary limb movements, incidence of hypotension and recovery. The demographic data, incidence of apnoea, pain on injection, jaw relaxation, ease of LMA insertion, coughing, gagging and involuntary movements were comparable in both groups. In the P group recovery was faster as compared to the Ad group. The admixture was cost effective as compared to Propofol alone [Indian National Rupees (INR) 24.64 +/- 7.62 vs. INR 48.75 +/- 23.25] (P = 0.001)). Admixture of propofol and thiopentone was a cheap, safe and effective alternative to propofol alone, for LMA insertion in children.

  6. Comparison of propofol (1% with admixture (1:1 of thiopentone (1.25% and propofol (0.5% for laryngeal mask airway insertion in children undergoing elective eye surgery: Double-masked randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous propofol 1% has been the preferred agent for Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA insertion. Admixture of thiopentone 1.25% and propofol 0.5% (1:1 has been used by various authors for induction as well as insertion of LMA in adults. There is no previous report where this admixture has been used for insertion of LMA in children. This study has been designed to investigate whether this admixture can be a suitable alternative to propofol, in relation to ease of insertion of the LMA, haemodynamic stability, cost containment, pain on injection and recovery in children. In this randomized, double-masked study, 50 ASA grade 1 and 2 patients of age 3 - 15 years and weighing more than 10 kg were included. The patients were divided into two groups; the P group received propofol 1%, while the Ad group received an admixture of thiopentone 1.25% and propofol 0.5% (1:1. All the children were evaluated for incidence of apnoea, pain on injection, jaw relaxation, ease of LMA insertion, coughing, gagging, laryngospasm, involuntary limb movements, incidence of hypotension and recovery. The demographic data, incidence of apnoea, pain on injection, jaw relaxation, ease of LMA insertion, coughing, gagging and involuntary movements were comparable in both groups. In the P group recovery was faster as compared to the Ad group. The admixture was cost effective as compared to Propofol alone [Indian National Rupees (INR 24.64 ± 7.62 vs. INR 48.75 ± 23.25] (P = 0.001. Admixture of propofol and thiopentone was a cheap, safe and effective alternative to propofol alone, for LMA insertion in children.

  7. Screening for 16-O-methylcafestol in roasted coffee by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection - Determination of Coffea canephora admixtures to Coffea arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Radovanovic, Jessica

    2017-10-12

    16-O-Methylcafestol (16-OMC), the characteristic diterpene exclusively present in Coffea canephora, is an excellent marker for Coffea canephora admixtures to Coffea arabica. Here we show a straightforward, selective and sensitive screening method for the determination of 16-OMC in roasted coffee by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD). As internal standard, Sudan IV was used, and a direct saponification with 10% ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution was followed by solid supported liquid extraction with petroleum ether. 16-OMC was selectively derivatized with 2-naphthoyl chloride and analyzed by HPTLC-FLD on silica gel plates with cyclohexane/tert-butyl methyl ether/formic acid (86:14:2, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The enhanced fluorescence was scanned at UV 244/>320nm. Limits of detection and quantitation of 5 and 14mg 16-OMC/kg coffee allowed the determination of Coffea canephora admixtures to Coffea arabica below 1%. Recoveries for blends of Coffea arabica with Coffea canephora were close to 100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic admixture, social-behavioural factors and body composition are associated with blood pressure differently by racial-ethnic group among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Y C; Dulin-Keita, A; Casazza, K; Willig, A L; Allison, D B; Fernandez, J R

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a progressively earlier age of onset, and disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs) in the United States. It has been difficult to establish the extent to which group differences are due to physiological, genetic, social or behavioural factors. In this study, we examined the association between blood pressure and these factors among a sample of 294 children, identified as AA, European American or Hispanic American. We use body composition, behavioural (diet and physical activity) and survey-based measures (socio-economic status and perceived racial discrimination), as well as genetic admixture based on 142 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to examine associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We find that associations differ by ethnic/racial group. Notably, among AAs, physical activity and perceived racial discrimination, but not African genetic admixture, are associated with blood pressure, while the association between blood pressure and body fat is nearly absent. We find an association between blood pressure and an AIM near a marker identified by a recent genome-wide association study. Our findings shed light on the differences in risk factors for elevated blood pressure among ethnic/racial groups, and the importance of including social and behavioural measures to grasp the full genetic/environmental aetiology of disparities in blood pressure.

  9. Chemical composition, effective atomic number and electron density study of trommel sieve waste (TSW), Portland cement, lime, pointing and their admixtures with TSW in different proportions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurudirek, Murat [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: mkurudirek@gmail.com; Aygun, Murat; Erzeneoglu, Salih Zeki [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    The trommel sieve waste (TSW) which forms during the boron ore production is considered to be a promising building material with its use as an admixture with Portland cement and is considered to be an alternative radiation shielding material, also. Thus, having knowledge on the chemical composition and radiation interaction properties of TSW as compared to other building materials is of importance. In the present study, chemical compositions of the materials used have been determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Also, TSW, some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) and their admixtures with TSW have been investigated in terms of total mass attenuation coefficients ({mu}/{rho}), photon interaction cross sections ({sigma}{sub t}), effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}) and effective electron densities (N{sub e}) by using X-rays at 22.1, 25 keV and {gamma}-rays at 88 keV photon energies. Possible conclusions were drawn with respect to the variations in photon energy and chemical composition.

  10. Modelling of Cavitation of Wash-Out Water, Ammonia Water, Ammonia Water with Increased Content Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulphide, Tar Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef DOBEŠ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to design and implement a procedure of numerical modelling of cavitation of working mixtures: wash-out water, ammonia water, ammonia water with an increased content of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia, tar condensate. The numeric modelling is designed in the program Ansys Fluent using Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model. The issue of these liquids modelling can be solved by the cavitation simulation of water admixtures. Working fluids contain the following main ingredients: water, ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Subsequently, a comparison of the amount of water vapor (reference liquid and given fluid vapor is executed. The Schnerr-Sauer model is chosen because of good results in previous simulations for water cavitation. As a geometry is selected Laval nozzle. Modelled liquid mixtures are used in the petrochemical industry, as a filling for fluid circuits where cavitation may occur and therefore the research is needed.

  11. Investigation on the growth, spectral, lifetime, mechanical analysis and third-order nonlinear optical studies of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid single crystal: A promising material for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Sangeetha, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear optical bulk single crystal of L-methionine admixtured D-mandelic acid (LMDMA) has been grown by slow solvent evaporation technique using water as solvent at ambient temperature. The crystallized LMDMA single crystal subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirmed monoclinic system with the acentric space group P21. The FTIR analysis gives information about the modes of vibration in the various functional groups present in LMDMA. The UV-visible spectral analysis assessed the optical quality and linear optical properties such as extinction coefficient, reflectance, refractive index and from which optical conductivity and electric susceptibility were also evaluated. The frequency doubling efficiency was observed using Kurtz Perry powder technique. A multiple shot laser was utilized to evaluate the laser damage threshold energy of the crystal. Discrete thermodynamic properties were carried out by TG-DTA studies. The hardness, Meyer's index, yield strength, elastic stiffness constant, Knoop hardness, fracture toughness and brittleness index were analyzed using Vickers microhardness tester. Layer growth pattern and the surface defect were examined by chemical etching studies using optical microscope. Fluorescence emission spectrum was recorded and lifetime was also studied. The electric field response of crystal was investigated from the dielectric studies at various temperatures at different frequencies. The third-order nonlinear optical response in LMDMA has been investigated using Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm and nonlinear parameters such as refractive index (n2), absorption coefficient (β) and susceptibility (χ3) investigated extensively for they are in optical phase conjucation, high-speed optical switches and optical dielectric devices.

  12. The influence of inner hydrophobisation on water transport properties of modified lime plasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Pernicová, Radka; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The effect of hydrophobic agent admixture on water vapour and liquid water transport properties of newly designed lime plasters is analysed in the paper. The major part of physico - chemical building deterioration is related to the penetration of moisture and soluble salts into the building structure. For that reason, the modified lime plasters were in the broad range of basic material properties tested. From the quantitative point of view, the measured results clearly demonstrate the big differences in the behaviour of studied materials depending on applied modifying admixtures. From the practical point of view, plaster made of lime hydrate, metakaolin, zinc stearate and air-entraining agent can be recommended for renovation purposes. The accessed material parameters will be used as input data for computational modelling of moisture transport in this type of porous building materials and will be stored in material database.

  13. Evolution of N2(A3 \\Sigma _{u}^{+} ) in streamer discharges: influence of oxygen admixtures on formation of low vibrational levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, M.; Ambrico, P. F.; Prukner, V.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of N2(A3 Σ u+ ) metastable species, produced by cathode-directed streamer discharge, was investigated using the technique of laser-induced fluorescence. A triggered single streamer filament was periodically produced in pure nitrogen (and in nitrogen with admixtures of oxygen) at total pressure of 50 Torr and metastable species were monitored during the streamer channel decay in the centre of the discharge gap. We revealed the dynamics of individual vibrational (v  =  0–8) levels of N2(A3 Σ u+ ) for various oxygen admixtures (0–20%). In pure nitrogen, the observed evolution of the N2(A3 Σ u+ ) during the decaying streamer channel is evidence of initial vibrational relaxation of high vibrational levels towards the v  =  2 and 3 levels, followed by a delayed increase of terminal (v  =  0, 1) levels. A calibration procedure based on the rate of energy-pooling processes was used to place all detected vibronic levels in pure nitrogen on the absolute scale. Population maxima exceeding 1  ×  1014 cm‑3 were fixed for the v  =  2 and 3 vibrational levels, while the lowest v  =  0 level reaches only 3  ×  1013 cm‑3. Populations of v  =  2–5 vibrational levels were also estimated for N2  +  O2 mixtures after scaling of laser-induced fluorescence signals obtained at various oxygen admixtures. The total N2(A3 Σ u+ ) population in an air-like mixture is formed mainly by v  =  3–4 vibronic levels with the population maximum of ~3  ×  1013 cm‑3 fixed at the shortest analyzed delay. This observation, together with the fact that we were unable to detect v  =  0 and 1 levels (fluorescence signals below detection threshold), gives a strong evidence of the inhibition of Δv  =  2 vibrational relaxation towards terminal v  =  0 and 1 levels, causing much lower populations of the lowest v  =  0–1 levels. By analyzing data obtained in

  14. The effect of low-NOx combustion on residual carbon in fly ash and its adsorption capacity for air entrainment admixtures in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash from pulverized coal combustion contains residual carbon that can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to control the air entrainment in concrete. This is a problem that has increased by the implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. In this work, pulverized fuel has...... been combusted in an entrained flow reactor to test the impact of changes in operating conditions and fuel type on the AEA adsorption of ash and NOx formation. Increased oxidizing conditions, obtained by improved fuel-air mixing or higher excess air, decreased the AEA requirements of the produced ash...... by up to a factor of 25. This was due to a lower carbon content in the ash and a lower specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon. The latter was suggested to be caused by changes in the adsorption properties of the unburned char and a decreased formation of soot, which was found to have a large AEA...

  15. In vitro oxidation of i.v. lipid emulsions in different all-in-one admixture bags assessed by an iodometric assay and gas-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, P J; Mühlebach, S F

    1997-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) of intravenous (IV) lipid emulsions can peroxidize to potentially harmful lipid hydroperoxides. In order to assess in vitro peroxidation of IV fat emulsions in all-in-one (AIO) admixture bags, an iodometric titration to determine lipid hydroperoxide content expressed by the peroxide value (PV) and a gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) assay to determine changes of the FA pattern were established. A long-chain triglyceride (LCT) and medium-chain triglyceride-LCT emulsion were compared for the PV and the pH during storage at room temperature and daylight in AIO bags made of ethylvinylacetate (EVA) and polypropylene:polyamide 7:3 (V90). In contrast to storage in glass bottles, significant peroxidation was detected in both emulsions with 0.5-3.4 mmol peroxides/L after 28 d (150 times the control PV). A pH drop of at least 0.3 (EVA) and 1.2 (V90) units was measured. Initial PVs and peroxidation kinetics of the emulsions were different; V90 material showed better barrier properties against oxygen. PV was increased by higher temperature and light exposure. The FA pattern of an LCT emulsion with a PV > 6 (storage: 40 degrees C in a dark room for 28 d in AIO bags) assayed by GLC remained unchanged. The iodometric peroxide and the GLC assay were reproducible and easy to handle. Only the iodometric method was sensitive enough to detect peroxidation effects (detection limit: 0.02 mmol peroxides/L). IV fat emulsions can be checked for lipid hydroperoxide content with the rapid iodometric assay to guarantee optimal quality of IV lipids used for AIO admixtures. To prevent peroxidation, lipids in AIO bags should be stored light-protected in a refrigerator an oxygen-tight overwrap is mandatory for extended periods.

  16. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jang-Ho Jay; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Sungho

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC) specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers) possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco-friendly Hwangtoh concrete

  17. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO₂ Emission Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jang-Ho Jay; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Sungho

    2014-08-19

    In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC) specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers) possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco-friendly Hwangtoh concrete

  18. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon-Min Koo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco

  19. THE EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF ADMIXTURE ON THE PROPERTIES OF POLYACRYLONITRILE MEMBRANES MODIFIED WITH NANOTUBES, GRAPHENE OXIDE AND GRAPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Fryczkowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the production of composite polyacrylonitrile (PAN membranes with nanotubes (MWCNT, graphene (RG and graphene oxide (GO addition. All of the specified additions differ diametrically in terms of properties, starting from the spatial structure of the particles, up to the chemical properties. Membranes were obtained using phase inversion method from a solution of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. Subsequently, the impact of the nano-addition on the transport and separation properties of the membranes were investigated using Millipore AMICON ultrafiltration kit. Membranes with graphene addition (PAN/RG are characterized by the best transport properties and the highest specific permeate flux values in the range of ~913÷1006 [dm3/m2×h] for working pressure of 2.0 MPa. To test the separation properties, electroplating waste water generated in one of the Silesian galvanizing plants was used. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the waste water was tested by UV-Vis spectrophotometer (HACH and absorption atomic spectrometry (AAS. The ultrafiltration process carried out on composite membranes allows for the complete removal of phosphate ions and ~88÷94% of iron from the waste water. The rejection coefficient of the remaining metals is high: ~ 35 ÷ 85% for copper and ~ 17 ÷ 100% for cadmium.

  20. Spectroscopic studies of conventional and active screen N2-H2 plasma nitriding processes with admixtures of CH4 or CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Hübner, M.; Spies, H.-J.; Röpcke, J.

    2013-10-01

    Low-pressure pulsed dc H2-N2 plasmas with admixtures of CH4 or CO2 used for conventional (CPN) and active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) were studied by infrared absorption and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) techniques. The experiments were performed in two modes: (i) the plasma at an internal model probe, driven by a bias voltage operated only, representing a CPN approach, and (ii) the screen plasma operated only, which corresponds to an ASPN experiment. Combining in situ tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with ex situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy the evolution of the concentrations of the methyl radical and of eight stable molecules, C2H2, CH4, C2H4, CO, CO2, NH3, HCN and H2O was monitored. The degree of dissociation of the carbon-containing precursor molecules varied between 40% and 98%. The methyl radical concentration was found to be in the range 1011-1012 molecules cm-3. By analysing the development of molecular concentrations with changes in gas mixtures and plasma power values, it was found that (i) C2H2, HCN and NH3 were the main products of plasma conversion in the case of methane admixture and (ii) CO, HCN and NH3 in the carbon dioxide case. The fragmentation efficiencies of methane and carbon dioxide (RF (CH4) ≈ (0.5-4) × 1016 molecules J-1, RF (CO2) ≈ (0.5-3.4) × 1016 molecules J-1) and the respective conversion efficiencies to the product molecules (RC (product) ≈ 1013-1015 molecules J-1) were determined for different gas mixtures and plasma power values. With the help of OES the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined, which increased with power from 600 to 850 K. Also with power the ionic component of nitrogen molecules, i.e. the intensity of the N_{2}^{+} -(0-0)-band, increased strongly in relation to the intensity of the neutral component, represented by the N2-(0-2)-band.

  1. The effect of barium titanate admixture on the stability of potassium nitrate ferroelectric phase in (1–xKNO3 + (xBaTiO3 composites

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    Olga A. Alekseeva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of temperature evolution of the KNO3 structure in ferroelectric (1 – xKNO3 + (xBaTiO3 composites at х = 0.25 and 0.50 has been carried out on cooling and on heating using X-ray diffraction. It was shown that on cooling the phase transition temperature (Tc from the high-temperature paraelectric phase into the ferroelectric one did not depend on barium titanate concentration and practically coincided with Tc for the pure KNO3. Simultaneously the admixture of BaTiO3 essentially enlarged the temperature interval of the KNO3 ferroelectric phase stability in these composites. Structure refinement did not confirm the suppression of the ferroelectric phase of potassium nitrate proposed previously for (0.5KNO3 + (0.5BaTiO3 sample on the basis of dielectric spectroscopy data. The transition from the ferroelectric phase into the low-temperature paraelectric α-phase was not observed in this composite on cooling down to 348 K.

  2. Brief communication: Admixture analysis with forensic microsatellites in Minas Gerais, Brazil: the ongoing evolution of the capital and of an African-derived community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scliar, Marília O; Vaintraub, Marco T; Vaintraub, Patrícia M V; Fonseca, Cleusa G

    2009-08-01

    We report the estimated allele frequencies for 13 and 14 microsatellite loci in two populations of Minas Gerais, Brazil as follows: Belo Horizonte (the capital) and Marinhos (an African-derived community). Analysis of the African, Amerindian, and European genetic contributions to both populations, together with historical information, revealed distinct differences between the two populations. Estimates for Belo Horizonte revealed a higher-European (66%) than African (32%) contribution, and a minimal Amerindian contribution. These results are consistent with the peopling of the city mainly by people from the Minas Gerais hinterland, a people highly admixed but with more European ancestry. Estimates for Marinhos confirmed the high-African component of the population. However, a temporal analysis of two datasets-CURRENT (representing the population living in Marinhos today) and ORIGINAL (representing families, who have lived in Marinhos since the onset of the 20th century),-identified a diminishing of the population's African ancestry from 92% in the ORIGINAL group to 67% in the CURRENT group. This change is here interpreted as a consequence of the growing migration into the village of people with more European ancestry and subsequent admixture with the local population.

  3. Marker Genotypes and Population Admixture and Their Association With Body Weight, Height and Relative Body Mass in United States Federal Bison Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, Solomon K.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Redden, David T.; Allison, David B.; Derr, James N.

    2006-01-01

    Elucidating genetic influences on bison growth and body composition is of interest, not only because bison are important for historical, cultural, and agricultural reasons, but also because their unusual population history makes them valuable models for finding influential loci in both domestic cattle and humans. We tested for trait loci associated with body weight, height, and bison mass index (BMI) while controlling for estimated ancestry to reduce potential confounding effects due to population admixture in 1316 bison sampled from four U.S. herds. We used 60 microsatellite markers to model each phenotype as a function of herd, sex, age, marker genotypes, and individual ancestry estimates. Statistical significance for genotype and its interaction with ancestry was evaluated using the adaptive false discovery rate. Of the four herds, two appeared to be admixed and two were nonadmixed. Although none of the main effects of the loci were significant, estimated ancestry and its interaction with marker loci were significantly associated with the phenotypes, illustrating the importance of including ancestry in the models and the dependence of genotype–phenotype associations on background ancestry. Individual loci contributed ∼2.0% of variation in weight, height, and BMI, which confirms the utility and potential importance of adjusting for population stratification. PMID:16888339

  4. Effect of CO{sub 2}-admixture on the catalytic performance of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, A.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Martin, A. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse e.V.; Hari Kumar, A. Sri; Lingaiah, N.; Prasad, P.S. Sai [Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad (India). Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Div.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization and application of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts with different promoters (M = Cr, Mo, W) for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane to ethylene. Ni:Nb:M ratio was kept at 1:0.176:0.1 (atomic ratio). The catalysts were calcined at 450 C/5h/air. Catalytic tests were carried out in a fixed bed quartz reactor in the temperature range from 300 to 450 C, with a fixed W/F (1.02 g/cm{sup 3} . s{sup -1}) but with changing mole ratios of C{sub 2}H{sub 6}:O{sub 2}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} (1:0-1.4:1.4-0:2). The product analysis was made off-line using GC equipped with FID. It is evident that the CO{sub 2}-admixture to the reactant feed caused a slight decrease in the conversion of ethane but considerably improved the selectivity of ethylene. Among the three promoters of the same group applied, Cr exhibited superior performance compared to other two. This means increase in d-character of transition metal (i.e. from 3d to 5d) has shown an adverse effect on the conversion of ethane and selectivity of ethylene. (orig.)

  5. Similarity between the in vitro activity and toxicity of two different fungizone™ / lipofundin™ admixtures Semelhança entre atividade in vitro e toxicidade de duas diferentes misturas de fungizoneä / lipofundinä

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete Batista Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Amphotericin B (AmB, an antifungal agent that presents a broad spectrum of activity, remains the gold standard in the antifungal therapy. However, sometimes the high level of toxicity forbids its clinical use. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the efficacy and toxicity in vitro of Fungizon™ (AmB-D and two new different AmB formulations. METHODS: three products were studied: Fungizon™, and two Fungizon™ /Lipofundin™ admixtures, which were diluted through two methods: in the first one, Fungizon™ was previously diluted with water for injection and then, in Lipofundin™ (AmB-DAL; the second method consisted of a primary dilution of AmB-D as a powder in the referred emulsion (AmB-DL. For the in vitro assay, two cell models were used: Red Blood Cells (RBC from human donors and Candida tropicallis (Ct. The in vitro evaluation (K+ leakage, hemoglobin leakage and cell survival rate-CSR was performed at four AmB concentrations (from 50 to 0.05mg.L-1. RESULTS: The results showed that the action of AmB was not only concentration dependent, but also cellular type and vehicle kind dependent. At AmB concentrations of 50 mg.L-1, although the hemoglobin leakage for AmB-D was almost complete (99.51, for AmB-DAL and AmB-DL this value tended to zero. The p = 0.000 showed that AmB-D was significantly more hemolytic. CONCLUSION: The Fungizon™-Lipofundin™ admixtures seem to be the more valuable AmB carrier systems due to their best therapeutic index presented.OBJETIVO: A anfotericina B é um agente antifúngico de largo espectro bastante empregado na terapia antifúngica. Entretanto, esta molécula apresenta um alto nível de toxicidade que, na maioria das vezes, impede o seu uso contínuo na terapêutica médica. O objetivo deste artigo foi comparar a eficácia e a toxicidade in vitro do Fungizon™ (AmB-D e de dois sistemas carreadores de AmB. MÉTODOS: Três produtos foram avaliados: o Fungizon™ , e dois sistemas oriundos da

  6. Continuity and Admixture in the Last Five Millennia of Levantine History from Ancient Canaanite and Present-Day Lebanese Genome Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Marc; Doumet-Serhal, Claude; Scheib, Christiana; Xue, Yali; Danecek, Petr; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Youhanna, Sonia; Martiniano, Rui; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Szpak, Michał; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Schutkowski, Holger; Mikulski, Richard; Zalloua, Pierre; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2017-08-03

    The Canaanites inhabited the Levant region during the Bronze Age and established a culture that became influential in the Near East and beyond. However, the Canaanites, unlike most other ancient Near Easterners of this period, left few surviving textual records and thus their origin and relationship to ancient and present-day populations remain unclear. In this study, we sequenced five whole genomes from ∼3,700-year-old individuals from the city of Sidon, a major Canaanite city-state on the Eastern Mediterranean coast. We also sequenced the genomes of 99 individuals from present-day Lebanon to catalog modern Levantine genetic diversity. We find that a Bronze Age Canaanite-related ancestry was widespread in the region, shared among urban populations inhabiting the coast (Sidon) and inland populations (Jordan) who likely lived in farming societies or were pastoral nomads. This Canaanite-related ancestry derived from mixture between local Neolithic populations and eastern migrants genetically related to Chalcolithic Iranians. We estimate, using linkage-disequilibrium decay patterns, that admixture occurred 6,600-3,550 years ago, coinciding with recorded massive population movements in Mesopotamia during the mid-Holocene. We show that present-day Lebanese derive most of their ancestry from a Canaanite-related population, which therefore implies substantial genetic continuity in the Levant since at least the Bronze Age. In addition, we find Eurasian ancestry in the Lebanese not present in Bronze Age or earlier Levantines. We estimate that this Eurasian ancestry arrived in the Levant around 3,750-2,170 years ago during a period of successive conquests by distant populations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Helicobacter pylori genotyping from American indigenous groups shows novel Amerindian vacA and cagA alleles and Asian, African and European admixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce

    Full Text Available It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D, Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America.

  8. Helicobacter pylori Genotyping from American Indigenous Groups Shows Novel Amerindian vacA and cagA Alleles and Asian, African and European Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E.; Torres, Javier

    2011-01-01

    It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America. PMID:22073291

  9. Helicobacter pylori genotyping from American indigenous groups shows novel Amerindian vacA and cagA alleles and Asian, African and European admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E; Torres, Javier

    2011-01-01

    It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America.

  10. The effect of the pairing interaction on the energies of isobar analogue resonances in {sup 112-124}Sb and isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babacan, Tahsin [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Salamov, Djavad [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kuecuekbursa, Atalay [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey); Babacan, Halil [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Maras, Ismail [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Aygoer, Hasan A [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Uenal, Arslan [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of the pairing interaction and the isovector correlation between nucleons on the properties of the isobar analogue resonances (IAR) in {sup 112-124}Sb isotopes and the isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes is investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pnQRPA). The form of the interaction strength parameter is related to the shell-model potential by restoring the isotopic invariance of the nuclear part of the total Hamiltonian. In this respect, the isospin admixtures in the {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes are calculated, and the dependence of the differential cross section and the volume integral J{sub F} for the Sn({sup 3}He,t)Sb reactions at E({sup 3}He) =200 MeV occurring by the excitation of IAR on mass number A is examined. Our results show that the calculated value for the isospin mixing in the {sup 100}Sn isotope is in good agreement with Colo et al's estimates (4-5%), and the obtained values for the volume integral change within the error range of the value reported by Fujiwara et al (53 {+-} 5 MeV fm{sup 3}). Moreover, it is concluded that although the differential cross section of the isobar analogue resonance for the ({sup 3}He,t) reactions is not sensitive to pairing correlations between nucleons, a considerable effect on the isospin admixtures in N {approx} Z isotopes can be seen with the presence of these correlations.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Ancestry and Admixture in the Colombian Populations of Chocó and Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Conley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At least 20% of Colombians identify as having African ancestry, yielding the second largest population of Afro-descendants in Latin America. To date, there have been relatively few studies focused on the genetic ancestry of Afro-Latino populations. We report a comparative analysis of the genetic ancestry of Chocó, a state located on Colombia’s Pacific coast with a population that is >80% Afro-Colombian. We compared genome-wide patterns of genetic ancestry and admixture for Chocó to six other admixed American populations, with an emphasis on a Mestizo population from the nearby Colombian city of Medellín. One hundred sample donors from Chocó were genotyped across 610,545 genomic sites and compared with 94 publicly available whole genome sequences from Medellín. At the continental level, Chocó shows mostly African genetic ancestry (76% with a nearly even split between European (13% and Native American (11% fractions, whereas Medellín has primarily European ancestry (75%, followed by Native American (18% and African (7%. Sample donors from Chocó self-identify as having more African ancestry, and conversely less European and Native American ancestry, than can be genetically inferred, as opposed to what we previously found for Medellín, where individuals tend to overestimate levels of European ancestry. We developed a novel approach for subcontinental ancestry assignment, which allowed us to characterize subcontinental source populations for each of the three distinct continental ancestry fractions separately. Despite the clear differences between Chocó and Medellín at the level of continental ancestry, the two populations show overall patterns of subcontinental ancestry that are highly similar. Their African subcontinental ancestries are only slightly different, with Chocó showing more exclusive shared ancestry with the modern Yoruba (Nigerian population, and Medellín having relatively more shared ancestry with West African

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Ancestry and Admixture in the Colombian Populations of Chocó and Medellín.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Andrew B; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Norris, Emily T; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Medina-Rivas, Miguel A; Jordan, I King

    2017-10-05

    At least 20% of Colombians identify as having African ancestry, yielding the second largest population of Afro-descendants in Latin America. To date, there have been relatively few studies focused on the genetic ancestry of Afro-Latino populations. We report a comparative analysis of the genetic ancestry of Chocó, a state located on Colombia's Pacific coast with a population that is >80% Afro-Colombian. We compared genome-wide patterns of genetic ancestry and admixture for Chocó to six other admixed American populations, with an emphasis on a Mestizo population from the nearby Colombian city of Medellín. One hundred sample donors from Chocó were genotyped across 610,545 genomic sites and compared with 94 publicly available whole genome sequences from Medellín. At the continental level, Chocó shows mostly African genetic ancestry (76%) with a nearly even split between European (13%) and Native American (11%) fractions, whereas Medellín has primarily European ancestry (75%), followed by Native American (18%) and African (7%). Sample donors from Chocó self-identify as having more African ancestry, and conversely less European and Native American ancestry, than can be genetically inferred, as opposed to what we previously found for Medellín, where individuals tend to overestimate levels of European ancestry. We developed a novel approach for subcontinental ancestry assignment, which allowed us to characterize subcontinental source populations for each of the three distinct continental ancestry fractions separately. Despite the clear differences between Chocó and Medellín at the level of continental ancestry, the two populations show overall patterns of subcontinental ancestry that are highly similar. Their African subcontinental ancestries are only slightly different, with Chocó showing more exclusive shared ancestry with the modern Yoruba (Nigerian) population, and Medellín having relatively more shared ancestry with West African populations in Sierra

  13. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  14. Detection of water molecules in inert gas based plasma by the ratios of atomic spectral lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatskiy, A. V.; Ochkin, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    A new approach is considered to detect the water leaks in inert plasma-forming gas present in the reactor chamber. It is made up of the intensity ratio of D α and H α spectral lines in combination with O, Ar and Xe lines intensity. The concentrations of H2O, O, H and D particles have been measured with high sensitivity. At the D2 admixture pressure {{p}{{\\text{D}\\text{2}}}}   =  0.025 mbar, we used the acquisition time of 10 s to measure the rate of water molecules injected from the outside, Γ0  =  1.4 · 10-9 mbar · m3 · s-1, and the incoming water molecules to plasma, Γ  =  5 ·10-11 mbar · m3 · s-1. The scaling proves that at small D2 admixtures (10-4 mbar), the leaks with the rates Γ0  ≈  6 · 10-12 mbar · m3 · s-1 and Γ  ≈  2 · 10-13 mbar · m3 · s-1 can be detected and measured. The difference between Γ0 and Γ values is due to the high degree of H2O dissociation, which can be up to 97-98%.

  15. Testing for Archaic Hominin Admixture on the X Chromosome: Model Likelihoods for the Modern Human RRM2P4 Region From Summaries of Genealogical Topology Under the Structured Coalescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Pilkington, Maya Metni; Kingan, Sarah B.; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Strassmann, Beverly I.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    A 2.4-kb stretch within the RRM2P4 region of the X chromosome, previously sequenced in a sample of 41 globally distributed humans, displayed both an ancient time to the most recent common ancestor (e.g., a TMRCA of ∼2 million years) and a basal clade composed entirely of Asian sequences. This pattern was interpreted to reflect a history of introgressive hybridization from archaic hominins (most likely Asian Homo erectus) into the anatomically modern human genome. Here, we address this hypothesis by resequencing the 2.4-kb RRM2P4 region in 131 African and 122 non-African individuals and by extending the length of sequence in a window of 16.5 kb encompassing the RRM2P4 pseudogene in a subset of 90 individuals. We find that both the ancient TMRCA and the skew in non-African representation in one of the basal clades are essentially limited to the central 2.4-kb region. We define a new summary statistic called the minimum clade proportion (pmc), which quantifies the proportion of individuals from a specified geographic region in each of the two basal clades of a binary gene tree, and then employ coalescent simulations to assess the likelihood of the observed central RRM2P4 genealogy under two alternative views of human evolutionary history: recent African replacement (RAR) and archaic admixture (AA). A molecular-clock-based TMRCA estimate of 2.33 million years is a statistical outlier under the RAR model; however, the large variance associated with this estimate makes it difficult to distinguish the predictions of the human origins models tested here. The pmc summary statistic, which has improved power with larger samples of chromosomes, yields values that are significantly unlikely under the RAR model and fit expectations better under a range of archaic admixture scenarios. PMID:18202385

  16. Modelling of bio-optical parameters of open ocean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim N. Pelevin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An original method for estimating the concentration of chlorophyll pigments, absorption of yellow substance and absorption of suspended matter without pigments and yellow substance in detritus using spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance and irradiance reflectance data has been applied to sea waters of different types in the open ocean (case 1. Using the effective numerical single parameter classification with the water type optical index m as a parameter over the whole range of the open ocean waters, the calculations have been carried out and the light absorption spectra of sea waters tabulated. These spectra are used to optimize the absorption models and thus to estimate the concentrations of the main admixtures in sea water. The value of m can be determined from direct measurements of the downward irradiance attenuation coefficient at 500 nm or calculated from remote sensing data using the regressions given in the article. The sea water composition can then be readily estimated from the tables given for any open ocean area if that one parameter m characterizing the basin is known.

  17. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  18. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  19. Self-curing concrete types; water retention and durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda I. Mousa

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to compare among concretes without or with silica fume (SF along with chemical type of shrinkage reducing admixture, polyethylene-glycol (Ch, and leca as self-curing agents for water retention even at elevated temperature (50 °C and their durability. The cement content of 400 kg/m3, silica fume of 15% by weight of cement, polyethylene-glycol of 2% by weight of cement, pre-saturated lightweight aggregate (leca 15% by volume of sand and water with Ch/binder ratio of 0.4 were selected in this study. Some of the physical and mechanical properties were determined periodically up to 28 days in case of exposure to air curing in temperature of (25 °C and (50 °C while up to 6 months of exposure to 5% of carbon dioxide and wet/dry cycles in 8% of sodium chloride for durability study. The concrete mass loss and the volumetric water absorption were measured, to evaluate the water retention of the investigated concretes. Silica fume concrete either without or with Ch gave the best results under all curing regimes; significant water retention and good durability properties.

  20. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Doležel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines were closed it was necessary to separate existed extensive horizontal location of salt water below a clay layer in order not to deteriorate the upper fresh water. The salt water could not be allowed to pollute the upper layer with the fresh water, as many wells in villages in the neighborhood of the former mines would be contaminated. Two horizontal clay layers (an insulator and a semi-insulator separated the two horizons containing salt water and fresh water. Before starting deep mining, vertical shafts had to be constructed with concrete linings to enable the miners to access the depths. The salt water was draining away throughout the existence of the mine. The drainage was designed very carefully to avoid possible infiltration of salt water into the upper horizon. Before the mines were abandoned it was necessary to prevent contact between the two kinds of waters in the shafts. Several options were put forward, the most efficient of which appeared to be one that proposed filling the shafts with spoil soil and creating a joint seal made of disparate material at the interface between the salt water and fresh water to create a reliable stopper. The material for the spoil soil was delivered from deposits located not far from the shafts. This material consisted of a variety of grains of sand, big boulders of slate, slaty clay, sandstone, etc.. Chemical admixtures were considered to improve the flocculation of the filling material. The stopper was positioned at a

  1. Soil tension mediates isotope fractionation during soil water evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaj, Marcel; McDonnell, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    Isotope tracing of the water cycle is increasing in its use and usefulness. Many new studies are extracting soil waters and relating these to streamflow, groundwater recharge and plant transpiration. Nevertheless, unlike isotope fractionation factors from open water bodies, soil water fractionation factors are poorly understood and until now, only empirically derived. In contrast to open water evaporation where temperature, humidity and vapor pressure gradient define fractionation (as codified in the well-known Craig and Gordon model), soil water evaporation includes additionally, fractionation by matrix effects. There is yet no physical explanation of kinetic and equilibrium fraction from soil water within the soil profile. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment with four admixtures of soil grain size (from sand to silt to clay). Oven-dried samples were spiked with water of known isotopic composition at different soil water contents. Soils were then stored in sealed bags and the headspace filled with dry air and allowed to equilibrate for 24hours. Isotopic analysis of the headspace vapor was done with a Los Gatos Inc. water vapor isotope analyzer. Soil water potential of subsamples were measured with a water potential meter. We show for the first time that soil tension controls isotope fractionation in the resident soil water. Below a Pf 3.5 the δ-values of 18O and 2H of the headspace vapor is more positive and increases with increasing soil water potential. Surprisingly, we find that the relationship between soil tension and equilibrium fractionation is independent of soil type. However, δ-values of each soil type plot along a distinct evaporation line. These results indicate that equilibrium fractionation is affected by soil tension in addition to temperature. Therefore, at high soil water tension (under dry conditions) equilibrium fractionation is not consistent with current empirical formulations that ignore these effects. These findings may have

  2. Healthy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recreational water activities like swimming, also helps promote healthy living. Often, water’s vital role is most apparent during an emergency or disaster. We launched the Healthy Water website to provide answers to your water- ...

  3. Theoretical analysis of physicochemical processes occurring during water treatment by ozone and ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchuk, N A; Goncharuk, V V; Vakulenko, V F

    2008-06-22

    The paper presents a kinetic model developed for ozone dissolution in water and taking into account convective and diffusion processes occurring in the vicinity of floating bubbles that contain an ozone-air mixture. It was shown that the gradient of ozone concentration in a convective-diffusion layer and consequently the rate of ozone transfer from bubbles to the solution depended on the rate of ozone decomposition both in its reaction with organic admixtures and in the conditions of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The obtained kinetic curves of destruction of organic compounds and changes of ozone concentration in water and ozone-air mixture are compared with experimental data for humic acids. The paper also analyzes additional factors affecting the kinetics of ozone dissolution and the rate of resultant reactions.

  4. Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Unit cell structure of water-filled monoolein in inverted hexagonal mesophase in the presence of incorporated tricaprylin and entrapped lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, Vesselin; Ivanova, Anela; Madjarova, Galia; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2016-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) was employed by means of a specific simulation protocol to investigate the equilibrium structure at 25 °C of the hexagonal inverted (HII) mesophase composed from water, 1-monoolein (GMO), and tricaprylin, with or without entrapped lysozyme. Based on robust and fast MD simulations, the study provides a comprehensive analysis and visualization of the local structure of HII mesophase containing admixtures. The most important physical insight is the possibility to observe the strong self-recovery capacity of the GMO layer, which allows the HII mesophase tubes to reorganize and host lysozyme molecules with a size bigger than the diameter of the water channel. This is a direct message to the experimenters that the HII mesophase has the potential to host molecules larger than the diameter of the water channel. Collective character of the interlipid interactions is outlined, which is not affected by the presence of the cargo and may be the reason for the efficient GMO reorganization. Another important result is the possible explanation of the role of triacylglycerols on the low-temperature stabilization of the HII mesophase. The analysis shows that despite the low amount of tricaprylin, its molecules prevent the extreme inclination of the lipid tails and thus optimize the alignment capacity of the lipid tails layer. The study also reveals that the packing frustration does not depend on the temperature and the presence of admixtures. Hence, it might be numerically defined as a universal invariant parameter of a stable HII mesophase composed of a certain lipid.

  6. Water citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  7. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety Print A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  8. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  9. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Water Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Water Safety What's in ... remains your best measure of protection. Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  10. Fluoridated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  11. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  12. International water and steam quality standards for thermal power station drum-type and waste heat recovery boilers with the treatment of boiler water with phosphates and NaOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T. I.; Orlov, K. A.; Dooley, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    One of the ways for improving the operational reliability and economy of thermal power station equipment, including combined-cycle equipment, is to decrease the rates of the corrosion of constructional materials and the formation of scales in the water-steam circuit. These processes can be reduced to a minimum via the use of water with a minimum content of admixtures and the correction treatment of a heat-transfer fluid. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), which unites specialists from every country of the world, has developed water and steam quality standards for power station equipment of different types on the basis of theoretical studies and long-term experience in the operation of power plants in 21 countries. Different water chemistry regimes are currently used at conventional and combined-cycle thermal power stations. This paper describes the conditions for the implementation of water chemistry regimes with the use of sodium salts of phosphoric acid and NaOH for the quality correction of boiler water. Water and steam quality standards and some recommendations for their maintenance under different operational conditions are given for each of the considered water chemistry regimes. The standards are designed for the water-steam circuit of conventional and combined-cycle thermal power stations. It is pointed out that the quality control of a heat-transfer fluid must be especially careful at combined-cycle thermal power stations with frequent startups and shutdowns.

  13. The SSR-based molecular profile of 1005 grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) accessions uncovers new synonymy and parentages, and reveals a large admixture amongst varieties of different geographic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Guido; Spadotto, Alessandro; Jurman, Irena; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Crespan, Manna; Meneghetti, Stefano; Frare, Enrica; Vignani, Rita; Cresti, Mauro; Morgante, Michele; Pezzotti, Mario; Pe, Enrico; Policriti, Alberto; Testolin, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    A collection of 1005 grapevine accessions was genotyped at 34 microsatellite loci (SSR) with the aim of analysing genetic diversity and exploring parentages. The comparison of molecular profiles revealed 200 groups of synonymy. The removal of perfect synonyms reduced the database to 745 unique genotypes, on which population genetic parameters were calculated. The analysis of kinship uncovered 74 complete pedigrees, with both parents identified. Many of these parentages were not previously known and are of considerable historical interest, e.g. Chenin blanc (Sauvignon × Traminer rot), Covè (Harslevelu selfed), Incrocio Manzoni 2-14 and 2-15 (Cabernet franc × Prosecco), Lagrein (Schiava gentile × Teroldego), Malvasia nera of Bolzano (Perera × Schiava gentile), Manzoni moscato (Raboso veronese × Moscato d'Amburgo), Moscato violetto (Moscato bianco × Duraguzza), Muscat of Alexandria (Muscat blanc à petit grain × Axina de tres bias) and others. Statistical robustness of unexpected pedigrees was reinforced with the analysis of an additional 7-30 SSRs. Grouping the accessions by profile resulted in a weak correlation with their geographical origin and/or current area of cultivation, revealing a large admixture of local varieties with those most widely cultivated, as a result of ancient commerce and population flow. The SSRs with tri- to penta-nucleotide repeats adopted for the present study showed a great capacity for discriminating amongst accessions, with probabilities of identity by chance as low as 1.45 × 10(-27) and 9.35 × 10(-12) for unrelated and full sib individuals, respectively. A database of allele frequencies and SSR profiles of 32 reference cultivars are provided.

  14. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

    2001-04-11

    Work completed in this reporting period focused on finalization of the Work and Management Plan, sample acquisition and analysis, evaluation of ammonia measurement methods, and measurement of ammonia loss from mortar. All fly ash samples have been acquired and analyzed for chemical composition and particle fineness. Three non-ammoniated fly ash samples were obtained from power plants that do not inject ammonia for NOx or particulate control, while three ammoniated fly ashes originate from plants that inject ammonia into the flue gas. The fly ash sources were selected based on their marketability as concrete admixtures and ammonia content. Coarse and fine aggregates for mortar and concrete testing have also been secured and have been thoroughly characterized using ASTM methods. Methodologies for the measurement of ammonia in the gaseous and aqueous phase have been carefully considered in the context of their suitability for use in this project. These include ammonia detection tubes, carbon impregnated with sulfuric acid (CISA) tubes, titration, and electrochemical methods. It was concluded that each of these methods is potentially useful for different aspects of the project, depending on the phase and concentration of ammonia to be measured. Preparation of fly ash-containing mortars both with and without ammonia indicated that the ammonia has no significant influence on compressive strength. Finally, measurement of ammonia loss from mortar has begun and the results of several of these experiments are included herein. It has been found that, under the laboratory curing conditions devised, ammonia release from mortar occurs at a relatively rapid rate in the first 24 hours, proceeded by a much slower, essentially linear rate. Furthermore, at the end of the three-week experiments, it was calculated that greater than 80% of the initial ammonia concentration remained within the mortar.

  15. Fire water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, K. [Lawrence Webster Forrest Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-01

    The article focuses on the value of water in fighting fires and discusses why refineries should identify water supply and distribution in contingency planning against fire. In the event of a fire, water will be required for (i) extinguishing the fire; (ii) protection of equipment and (iii) confinement of the fire. The thought process for identifying the water demand in the event of a fire is outlined. Tables give data on (a) water rates for cooling storage tanks; (b) water rates for cooling process units (c) guide to water requirements for various sizes of process units and (d) pumping requirements.

  16. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  17. Water tight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use

  18. Branding water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology, engineering and policy. This includes: water resource development; the hydrological cycle; surface hydrology; geohydrology, hydropedology and hydrometeorology; limnology; freshwater and estuarine ecology; salinisation; treatment ...

  20. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  1. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals or other foreign substances that are detrimental to human, plant, or animal health. These pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural ...

  2. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  3. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  4. Perennial water ice identified in the south polar cap of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Poulet, François; Gendrin, Aline; Gondet, Brigitte; Berthé, Michel; Soufflot, Alain; Drossart, Pierre; Combes, Michel; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Moroz, Vassili; Mangold, Nicolas; Schmitt, Bernard

    2004-04-08

    The inventory of water and carbon dioxide reservoirs on Mars are important clues for understanding the geological, climatic and potentially exobiological evolution of the planet. From the early mapping observation of the permanent ice caps on the martian poles, the northern cap was believed to be mainly composed of water ice, whereas the southern cap was thought to be constituted of carbon dioxide ice. However, recent missions (NASA missions Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey) have revealed surface structures, altimetry profiles, underlying buried hydrogen, and temperatures of the south polar regions that are thermodynamically consistent with a mixture of surface water ice and carbon dioxide. Here we present the first direct identification and mapping of both carbon dioxide and water ice in the martian high southern latitudes, at a resolution of 2 km, during the local summer, when the extent of the polar ice is at its minimum. We observe that this south polar cap contains perennial water ice in extended areas: as a small admixture to carbon dioxide in the bright regions; associated with dust, without carbon dioxide, at the edges of this bright cap; and, unexpectedly, in large areas tens of kilometres away from the bright cap.

  5. BOGDAŁÓW SEDIMENT TRAP OF DIRTY WATERS AS AN ECO-HYDROLOGICAL OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Gilewska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sediment traps of dirty waters are, generally speaking, temporary hydrotechnical constructions associated with the purification of mine waters from mineral-organic suspensions. Once coal mining is finished and artificial supplies are cut off, such sediment traps – depending on hydrological and hydrotechnical conditions – undergo drainage or are utilised as water reservoirs. Drained sediment traps most commonly go through a period of self-generated reclamation – renaturalisation and become, similarly to water reservoirs, eco-hydrological objects. Bearing in mind the fact that the role of sediment traps is cleaning dirty waters, it seemed advisable to recognise the properties of sediments accumulated in them and to assess their impact on the arising plant communities. Two years after its closure, the entire area of the sediment trap (16 ha was subjected to soil science and phytosociological investigation. Differentiated moisture content and soil conditions of the sediment tank surface were favourable for the settlement of various species characterised by differing site requirements which conferred a completely new quality to this post-industrial land and its biodiversity. The invasion of herbaceous and woody plants indicates that despite the function of sediment tank played earlier in the brown coalmine infrastructure, the material which was accumulated in it provided a favourable habitat for the development of plant cover. It may be assumed that it can be attributed to a significant admixture of brown coal.

  6. Tests on concrete containing cork powder admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra, I.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of laboratory concrete made with different proportions of cork powder. While the resulting material lacked the mechanical strength characteristic of concrete, its properties may prove to be apt for certain hardscaping and agricultural uses, such as in the manufacture of pavement for playgrounds and parks, or certain kinds of structures used in livestock raising. These findings need to be analyzed and verified.Este trabajo de investigación tiene por objeto conocer algunas propiedades físicas y mecánicas de un hormigón elaborado en laboratorio, adicionándole diversas proporciones de polvo de corcho. Las propiedades del material resultante, si bien carecen de la resistencia mecánica que caracteriza al hormigón, parecen interesantes para su uso en ciertas aplicaciones de la ingeniería agronómica tales como en la fabricación de piezas para solados de parques infantiles y jardines, o en los cubículos de ciertas construcciones ganaderas, extremos que es preciso analizar y comprobar.

  7. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  8. Thin Water and Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Mineral-water and ice interactions play important roles in atmospheric cloud formation. They also affect soil biogeochemistry as well as outer-space processes. In this study, thin water and ice films formed on minerals of varied bulk and surface structure, shape, size and surface roughness were probed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and by Dynamic Vapor Adsorption (DVA). Measurements on several types of iron (oxyhydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, orthosilicates, tectosilicates as well as Arizona Test Dust (ATD) and Icelandic volcanic ash constrained our understanding of the molecular-level nature of mineral surface-water and ice interactions. DVA experiments showed that particle size is the key feature controlling water loadings at 25 ° C. Under this condition, nano-sized particles stabilized the equivalence of no more than ˜6 monolayers of water at the near saturation of water vapor while sub-micron sized particles stabilized several thousand layers. This result can be explained by the greater ability of larger sized particles at driving water condensation reactions. Cryogenic FTIR measurements at -10 and -50 ° C revealed that most minerals acquired the thin ice films with similar hydrogen bonding environments as those formed at room temperature.[1,2] These thin ice films have weaker hydrogen bond environments than hexagonal ice (νOH ≈ 3130 cm-1), a result seen by FTIR through predominant O-H stretching modes at νOH ≈ 3408-3425 cm-1. The water bending region (˜1630 cm-1) also reveals that most thin ice films are rather supercooled forms of water. Only the materials with greatest levels of heterogeneity, namely ATD and volcanic ash, stabilized solid forms of water reminiscent to hexagonal ice. This work thus constrains further our understanding of how interfacial ice is stabilized at mineral surfaces, and opens possibilities for future studies focused on atmospheric gas uptake on mineral- water and ice admixtures. [1] Song, X. and Boily, J

  9. Water Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  10. Water decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Rowell

    2004-01-01

    For 1.5 to 2.5 billion people in the world, lack of clean water is a critical issue. It is estimated that by the year 2025 there will be an additional 2.5 billion people who will live in regions already lacking sufficient clean water. In the United States today, it is estimated that 90% of citizens live within 10 mi of a body of contaminated water. Large numbers of...

  11. Water underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  12. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  13. Source Water Protection Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defines drinking water sources (source water), identifies drinking water sources, and describes source water assessments and protection, roles of government and organizations in drinking water source protection

  14. WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  15. Water conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes water systems used in green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also outlines some calculations that can be used to design water systems in green buildings. Finally, aspects of green building...

  16. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  17. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  18. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  19. Water futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential construction of a water reservoir in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. Proposed by a peasant group, it would have served important productive purposes but have its intake within the perimeter of a national park. Thus, different notions about water and landscape emerge...... in the encounters between place-based practices and state-sponsored conservation efforts. Empirically tracing the efforts to construct the reservoir, the analytical focus of the article is on how different ways of knowing water within a particular landscape conjure and collide in the process. It is argued...... that the movement of water extends itself beyond the physical properties of the reservoir and irrigation channels as these are produced in encounters between different notions of the role of water in the landscape....

  20. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  1. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  2. Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  3. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  4. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC MATTER FROM SURFACE WATER USING COAGULANTS WITH VARIOUS BASICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Dąbrowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are a natural admixture of surface water and determine the level of organic pollution of water and colour intensity. Application of coagulation process in surface water treatment allows for decrease turbidity and colour of water, as well as organic matter content. In Poland most drinking water treatment plants use aluminium sulphate as a coagulant. Research works on pre-hydrolysed coagulants, e.g. polyaluminium chlorides (general formula Aln(OHmCl3n-m are also carried out. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation process using polyaluminium chlorides with different basicity, in reducing the level of pollution of surface water with organic substances. Apart from the typical indicators used to evaluate the content of organic compounds, the potential for trihalomethanes formation THM-FP was also determined. The influence of the type of coagulant (low, medium, highly alkaline on the efficiency of organic compound removal, determined as total organic carbon TOC, oxidisability OXI, absorbance UV254, was stated. Under the conditions of the coagulation (pH 7.2-7.4, temperature of 19-21°C, the best results were obtained using highly alkaline polyaluminium chlorides PAX-XL19F, PAX-XL1905 and PAX-XL1910S, decrease in TOC and OXI by 43-46%, slightly worse - 40-41% using low alkaline PAX18. Using the medium alkaline coagulants PAX-XL61 and PAXX-XL69, 30-35% removal of organic matter was obtained. Despite various effects of dissolved organic carbon removal, depending on the used coagulant, THM-FP in purified water did not differ significantly and ranged from 10.0 to 10.9 mgCHCl3 m-3. It was by 37-42% lower than in surface water.

  5. Extraterrestrial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Life as we know it, i.e., carbon-based organisms that rely on RNA and DNA for information storage and transfer, requires liquid water. Thus, the search for life elsewhere in the universe generally begins with a search for liquid water. In our own Solar System, Earth is the only planet (or moon) that has liquid water at its surface. Mars and Europa both probably have subsurface water. Researchers from NASA and elsewhere are hoping to eventually probe these subsurface reservoirs and determine whether life exists there. A more promising venue for finding extraterrestrial life is on Earth-like planets around other stars. Such planets can in principle be located and analyzed spectroscopically using large space-based telescopes like NASA's proposed Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) Mission (1). The chances of success for this mission depend critically on the abundance of Earth-like planets with liquid water at their surfaces because only there could a biota exist that would be widespread enough to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that would be detectable. Models of planetary accretion suggest that most terrestrial planets should be endowed with substantial amounts of water (2). Climate models suggest that the "habitable zone" around solar-type stars is relatively wide so that water can remain liquid on a planet's surface for long times (3). Thus, the chances of finding water, and maybe life, elsewhere appear to be good. References: (1) Beichman, C. A., Woolf, N. J. and Lindensmith, C. A. The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF): A NASA Origins Program to Search for Habitable Planets (JPL Publication 99-3) (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, 1999). (2) Morbidelli, A., Chambers, J., Lunine, J. I., Petit, J. M., Robert, F., Valsecchi, G. B. and Cyr, K. E. Meteoritics and Planet. Sci. 35, 1309-1320 (2000). (3) Kasting, J. F., Whitmire, D. P. and Reynolds, R. T. Icarus 101, 108-128 (1993).

  6. Unknown object localization and identification in shallow water environment at Lake Balaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Balint; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Vajda, Ferenc; Vajta, Laszlo; Vogel, Miklos

    2004-11-01

    This paper addresses a particular detection problem related to the largest freshwater lake of Central and Western Europe, namely the Lake Balaton. The bed-silt of this shallow water lake (its average depth is 3.3 meters) contains several type of objects: industrial debris, historical vestiges, and in particular, an unknown quantity of unexploded ordnance from the second World War. It is important to localize and classify these objects for precise risk assessment and eventual later removal (not addressed in the paper). The bed-silt of the lake can be characterized as a mud having a light and constantly changing structure. It follows that the shallow water is almost always mixed with the mud. This admixture is constantly maintained by winds and navigating boats, hence the underwater visibility is close to zero during the most part of the year, especially in the depth range close to the bottom. Since the climate makes it possible, the authors propose a special way to explore the bed-silt of the lake, namely the use an autonomous vehicle on the frozen lake. Note that the ice prevents the wind and navigating boats to generate water movement and thus the mud is sedimented. This autonomous vehicle is equipped with a GPS based onboard localization system, with multiple sensor and recording equipment, and with a radio link to its command post. More details about the nature of objects to be detected as well as about the architecture of the detection and localization system are presented in the paper.

  7. Influence du type d’addition minérale sur les propriétés de transfert des Bétons AutoPlaçants Influence of the type of mineral admixtures on the transport properties of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelafi H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La formulation des bétons autoplaçants (BAP présente certaines spécificités dont un volume élevé de pâte et une quantité importante d’ajouts minéraux. Ces deux paramètres influencent sensiblement les propriétés de transfert de ces bétons. Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l’influence de la nature et du pourcentage de plusieurs additions minérales sur certaines propriétés de transfert (la diffusion des ions chlore et la perméabilité au gaz des BAP. Trois différentes additions minérales ont été testées : des fillers calcaires, de la pouzzolane naturelle et des cendres volantes. Ensuite, nous avons cherché une probable relation analytique entre ces propriétés et la résistance à la compression de ces bétons. Au total, douze formulations ont été étudiées, elles couvrent trois différentes classes de résistances (30 MPa, 50 MPa et 70 MPa et quatre types de bétons: un béton ordinaire vibré, un BAP à base de pouzzolanes naturelles, un BAP à base de fillers calcaires et un BAP à base de cendres volantes. Les résultats montrent que la nature de l’addition minérale dans les BAP influe considérablement sur les propriétés de transferts de ces bétons. Après 28, 90 et 360 jours de cure, les BAP contenant de la pouzzolane naturelle représentent des performances très comparables à celles obtenues sur des BAP à base de cendres volantes et bien meilleures que celles obtenues sur des BAP formulés avec du filler calcaire. Indépendamment du type d’addition minérale, les résultats confirment l’existence d’une forte corrélation entre le développement de la résistance à la compression et les propriétés de transferts des BAP. Formulation of self compacting concrete (SCC has some specific characteristics including a high volume of paste and a large amount of mineral admixtures. These two parameters influence significantly the transport properties of SCC. In this work, we studied the influence of

  8. The influence of Kr, CO2, and iso-C4H8 admixtures on the time of the formation of a stable flame front in mixtures of natural gas and isobutylene with oxygen and hydrogen with air under initiation with a spark discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, N. M.; Seplyarskii, B. S.; Chernysh, V. I.; Tsvetkov, G. I.

    2010-05-01

    High-speed color filming was used to study laminar spherical flame propagation at the initial stage in preliminarily mixed stoichiometric mixtures of natural gas and isobutylene with oxygen containing krypton and carbon dioxide and in hydrogen-air mixtures at atmospheric pressure in a bomb with a constant volume. Under experimental conditions ( T 0 = 298 K, p 0 = 100 torr, spark discharge energy E 0 = 0.91 J), the dilution of mixtures with Kr and CO2 increased the time of formation of a stable flame front by more than 10 times. The introduction of a small chemically active admixture (1.2% isobutylene) into a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and air sharply increased the time of formation of a stable flame front, which was evidence of an important role played by the chemical mechanism of the reaction in the formation of the combustion field.

  9. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schubert

    Full Text Available Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water. The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin. The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA, the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.

  10. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%. PMID:26046652

  11. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  12. Ultrahydrophobic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, J.; Kanitz, C.

    2017-05-01

    When a water drop falls on an oscillating soapy water surface it is observed that coalescence of the drop is inhibited because the drops are bouncing on the surface like on a trampoline. In our research we made experimental and theoretical investigations to an undeformable drop on a deformable bath. We described the vertical movement, predicted the critical bouncing threshold and also made experiments to the effects of an increased Weber number and the horizontal movement of the drop caused by a vertical movement.

  13. Water Condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Fojan, Peter; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The condensation of water is a phenomenon occurring in multiple situations in everyday life, e.g., when fog is formed or when dew forms on the grass or on windows. This means that this phenomenon plays an important role within the different fields of science including meteorology, building physics......, and chemistry. In this review we address condensation models and simulations with the main focus on heterogeneous condensation of water. The condensation process is, at first, described from a thermodynamic viewpoint where the nucleation step is described by the classical nucleation theory. Further, we address...

  14. Water Hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important new reference book entitled the “Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species” is being published by the University of California Press. We were invited to provide a chapter on water hyacinth, which is the world’s worst aquatic weed. In this chapter, we provide information on the origi...

  15. Water Spout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  16. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  17. Drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Centre of reference laboratories as a part of Institute of Public Health- Skopje is consisted of following laboratories: - Laboratory of Sanitary Microbiology - Laboratory for Food Quality Control - Laboratory for Water Quality Control - Laboratory for Contaminants and Eco - toxicology - Laboratory for Testing of Metals - Laboratory for Radioecology - Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation - Laboratory for Testing common use items Lab...

  18. Water from (waste)water--the dependable water resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Water reclamation and reuse provides a unique and viable opportunity to augment traditional water supplies. As a multi-disciplined and important element of water resources development and management, water reuse can help to close the loop between water supply and wastewater disposal. Effective water reuse requires integration of water and reclaimed water supply functions. The successful development of this dependable water resource depends upon close examination and synthesis of elements from infrastructure and facilities planning, wastewater treatment plant siting, treatment process reliability, economic and financial analyses, and water utility management. In this paper, fundamental concepts of water reuse are discussed including definitions, historical developments, the role of water recycling in the hydrologic cycle, categories of water reuse, water quality criteria and regulatory requirements, and technological innovations for the safe use of reclaimed water. The paper emphasizes the integration of this alternative water supply into water resources planning, and the emergence of modern water reclamation and reuse practices from wastewater to reclaimed water to repurified water.

  19. Surfactat’s Impact on the Evaporation Intensity and a Vapor Embryos Generation Kinetics within the Water Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. P.; Terekhov, V. I.; Shishkin, N. E.

    2017-09-01

    The research of water-surfactant droplets evaporation was provided. The sodium dodecylsulfate was taken as a surfactant (SAS). The initial SAS mass contain was ~ 0,15%. Water and water-surfactant solution droplets were evaporated under the dry air flow blowing at temperatures T0 ~ (20 ÷ 90)0C and air linear velocity VO ~ 2 ÷ 5 m/s. The droplet initial diameter (d0) was equal to ~ 2 mm, Reynolds number was within the interval of Re = 500 ÷ 2000. The droplet evaporation rate and their surface temperature were measured by an Infrared Microscope. The measurements display that the temperature heterogeneity on the droplet surface is initiated by the vapor fluctuating bursts at the local centers. A surfactant admixture into the base liquid (water) has a considerable impact on the vapor centre generation kinetics as well as on the time behavior of the droplets evaporating surfaces. The environmental conditions have the weak impact on the vapor formation, but the inner conditions, i.e. droplet’s temperature and pressure in it and physical properties of the base liquid have the considerable impact on the vapor generation kinetics. A surfactant adding makes surface tension higher. That depresses a heat-mass transfer and rises an average temperature of droplets.

  20. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water…

  1. Groundwater Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Llamas; Emilio Custodio

    1999-01-01

    The groundwaters released through springs constituted a basic element for the survival and progressive development of human beings. Man came to learn how to take better advantage of these waters by digging wells, irrigation channels, and galleries. Nevertheless, these activities do not require cooperation nor the collective agreement of relatively large groups of people, as in the case of creating the necessary structures to take advantage of the resources of surfacewaters. The construction a...

  2. Dielectric Barrier Discharge based Mercury-free plasma UV-lamp for efficient water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ram; Hossain, Afaque M; Pal, U N; Kumar, N; Khairnar, K; Mohan, M Krishna

    2017-12-12

    A structurally simple dielectric barrier discharge based mercury-free plasma UV-light source has been developed for efficient water disinfection. The source comprises of a dielectric barrier discharge arrangement between two co-axial quartz tubes with an optimized gas gap. The outer electrode is an aluminium baked foil tape arranged in a helical form with optimized pitch, while the inner electrode is a hollow aluminium metallic rod, hermetically sealed. Strong bands peaking at wavelengths 172 nm and 253 nm, along with a weak band peaking at wavelength 265 nm have been simultaneously observed due to plasma radiation from the admixture of xenon and iodine gases. The developed UV source has been used for bacterial deactivation studies using an experimental setup that is an equivalent of the conventional house-hold water purifier system. Deactivation studies for five types of bacteria, i.e., E. coli, Shigella boydii, Vibrio, Coliforms and Fecal coliform have been demonstrated with 4 log reductions in less than ten seconds.

  3. Seasonal Variability of Ground Water Levels in the Puszcza Zielonka Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajewski Sylwester

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of studies on seasonal variability of ground water tables recorded in long-term observations of water levels in the Puszcza Zielonka forest complex. The Puszcza Zielonka Forest is located in the middle part of the Warta basin in the central part of the Wielkopolska region. Its western boundary is located approx. 6 km north-east of Poznań. The area is situated in the western part of the Wielkopolska-Mazovian climatic region. The natural landscape is of young glacial type of Pleistocene and Holocene formation. For this reason parent materials for soils in this area were mainly postglacial drifts, deposits coming from the Poznań stage of the Würm glaciation. In terms of granulometric composition these were mainly low clayey sands deposited on loose sands with an admixture of gravel and eroded sandy clay. Scots pine is the dominant species. Oaks, alders, larches and scarce spruces are also found in this area. Predominant sites include fresh mixed forest, fresh mixed coniferous forest, fresh broadleaved forest and alder swamp forest.

  4. Water markets between Mexican water user associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloezen, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally, introducing water markets is regarded as a strong alternative institutional arrangement for managing irrigation water more effectively. Also in Mexico, the National Water Law of 1992 allows individual farmers as well as water user associations (WUA) to trade water. Although farmer

  5. Some observations on use of siliceous mineral waters in reduction of corrosion in RCC structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venugopal, C.

    The corrosion-resisting characteristics of reinforcement in cement blended with siliceous mineral wastes viz. gold tailing and flyash have been evaluated by using an accelerated corrosion technique. The additions of these mineral admixtures...

  6. Improved water does not mean safe water

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  7. Healing Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátedra Tomás, María

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldwork in four different spas —two in Spain and two in Portugal— this paper shows the mutiple social mediations operating in water therapies in different contexts: from the local use inscribed in popular knowledge, including playful elements inserted in therapeutic practices under the illusion of a return to nature when nature itself has stopped being «natural», to others in which leisure time is an expression of an exclusive life style including a reevaluation of landscape as part of a time-bound aesthetics and as a refuge from urban stress. These different uses of water allow us to understand spas both as nature sanatoriums as well as a form of business where medical power bends to the interests of turistic enterpreneurs transformed into health advisors, linked to different conceptions not only of water but also of society itself.

    Focalizando la reflexión en cuatro balnearios diferentes —dos en España y dos en Portugal—, el artículo muestra las múltiples mediaciones sociales que operan en la terapéutica del agua en diferentes contextos: desde el uso local inserto en saberes populares, incluyendo lo lúdico en lo terapéutico que puede conectarse con la ilusión de un regreso a la naturaleza cuando ésta ya ha dejado de ser “natural”, a otros en los que el ocio es expresión de un estilo de vida exclusivo que incluye un acercamiento al paisaje como parte de la estética de una época y como refugio ante el stress urbano. Se observa así cómo estos usos del agua, que permiten concebir los balnearios bien como sanatorios de la naturaleza bien como negocios en los que el poder médico se pliega al de promotores turísticos convertidos en asesores de salud, se vinculan a concepciones diferentes no sólo del agua, sino de la sociedad misma y sus diferentes grupos.

  8. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Diabetic Retinopathy Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about ...

  9. Landscape Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense created the Water Budget Tool as one option to help builders, landscape professionals, and irrigation professionals certified by a WaterSense labeled program meet the criteria specified in the WaterSense New Home Specification.

  10. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  11. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  12. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  13. Effect of water vapor on plasma morphology, OH and H2O2 production in He and Ar atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanjun; Nayak, Gaurav; Oinuma, Gaku; Peng, Zhimin; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    Although atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have a long history, the effects of water vapor on the discharge morphology and kinetics have not been studied intensively. We report a simultaneous investigation of discharge morphology, OH and H2O2 production in Ar and He DBDs operated at different water vapor concentrations and powers. The combined study allows us to assess the impact of the discharge morphology and power on the concentration dependence of the OH and H2O2 production. The morphology of the discharge is investigated by ICCD images and current-voltage waveforms. These diagnostics are complemented by broadband absorption and a colorimetric method to measure the gas temperature and the OH and H2O2 concentrations. The number of filaments in Ar DBD increases with increasing water concentration and power. The surface discharge part of the micro-discharge also reduces with increasing water concentration most likely due to a change in surface conductivity of the dielectric with changing water concentration. The OH density in the case of Ar is approximately double the OH density in He for similar power and water admixture. In contrast to the root square dependence of the OH density on the water concentration in He similar to diffuse RF discharges, the OH density in Ar increases for small water concentrations followed by a saturation and reduces for higher water concentrations. This dependence of OH density on water concentration is found to correlate with changes in discharge morphology. An analytical balance of the production and destruction mechanism of H2O2 is shown to be able to reproduce the ratio of the measured OH and H2O2 density for realistic values of electron densities.

  14. Chirped Pulse Rotational Spectroscopy of a Single THUJONE+WATER Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Zbigniew; Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Rotational spectroscopy of natural products dates over 35 years when six different species including thujone were investigated. Nevertheless, the technique of low-resolution microwave spectroscopy employed therein allowed determination of only a single conformational parameter. Advances in sensitivity and resolution possible with supersonic expansion techniques of rotational spectroscopy made possible much more detailed studies such that, for example, the structures of first camphor, and then of multiple clusters of camphor with water were determined. We revisited the rotational spectrum of the well known thujone molecule by using the chirped pulse spectrometer in Hamburg. The spectrum of a single thujone sample was recorded with an admixture of 18O enriched water and was successively analysed using an array of techniques, including the AUTOFIT program, the AABS package and the STRFIT program. We have, so far, been able to assign rotational transitions of α-thujone, β-thujone, another thujone isomer, fenchone, and several thujone-water clusters in the spectrum of this single sample. Natural abundance molecular populations were sufficient to determine precise heavy atom backbones of thujone and fenchone, and H_218O enrichment delivered water molecule orientations in the hydrated clusters. An overview of these results will be presented. Z.Kisiel, A.C.Legon, JACS 100, 8166 (1978) Z.Kisiel, O.Desyatnyk, E.Białkowska-Jaworska, L.Pszczółkowski, PCCP 5 820 (2003) C.Pérez, A.Krin, A.L.Steber, J.C.López, Z.Kisiel, M.Schnell, J.Phys.Chem.Lett. 7 154 (2016) N.A.Seifert, I.A.Finneran, C.Perez, et al. J.Mol.Spectrosc. 312, 12 (2015) Z.Kisiel, L.Pszczółkowski, B.J.Drouin, et al. J.Mol.Spectrosc. 280, 134 (2012). Z.Kisiel, J.Mol.Spectrosc. 218, 58 (2003)

  15. Transgenic nematodes as biosensors for metal stress in soil pore water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, Charumathi; Lafayette, Ivan; Antoniou-Kourounioti, Melissa; Haque, Mainul; King, John; Johnsen, Bob; Baillie, David; Gutierrez, Carmen; Martin, Jose A Rodriguez; de Pomerai, David

    2012-03-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans strains carrying stress-reporter green fluorescent protein transgenes were used to explore patterns of response to metals. Multiple stress pathways were induced at high doses by most metals tested, including members of the heat shock, oxidative stress, metallothionein (mtl) and xenobiotic response gene families. A mathematical model (to be published separately) of the gene regulatory circuit controlling mtl production predicted that chemically similar divalent metals (classic inducers) should show additive effects on mtl gene induction, whereas chemically dissimilar metals should show interference. These predictions were verified experimentally; thus cadmium and mercury showed additive effects, whereas ferric iron (a weak inducer) significantly reduced the effect of mercury. We applied a similar battery of tests to diluted samples of soil pore water extracted centrifugally after mixing 20% w/w ultrapure water with air-dried soil from an abandoned lead/zinc mine in the Murcia region of Spain. In addition, metal contents of both soil and soil pore water were determined by ICP-MS, and simplified mixtures of soluble metal salts were tested at equivalent final concentrations. The effects of extracted soil pore water (after tenfold dilution) were closely mimicked by mixtures of its principal component ions, and even by the single most prevalent contaminant (zinc) alone, though other metals modulated its effects both positively and negatively. In general, mixtures containing similar (divalent) metal ions exhibited mainly additive effects, whereas admixture of dissimilar (e.g. trivalent) ions often resulted in interference, reducing overall levels of stress-gene induction. These findings were also consistent with model predictions.

  16. Water users associations and irrigation water pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Srđević, Zorica; Srđević, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    A brief review of contemporary discussion on irrigation water pricing and implementation of related strategies to collect annual fees is presented. Emphasis is on water pricing and its relation to water users associations' interests and real power. An example from Spain is provided to illustrate how contemporary multi-criteria analysis and its tools (AHP and TOPSIS) can be used to identify best irrigation water pricing and collection strategy; two water districts with 1500 farmers served as c...

  17. Non-Thermal Plasma in Contact with Water: The Origin of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbanev, Yury; O'Connell, Deborah; Chechik, Victor

    2016-03-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its potential for biomedical applications. Determining the mechanism of the formation of reactive species in liquid treated with plasma is thus of paramount importance for both fundamental and applied research. In this work, the origin of reactive species in plasma-treated aqueous solutions was investigated by using spin-trapping, hydrogen and oxygen isotopic labelling and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The species originating from molecules in the liquid phase and those introduced with the feed gas were differentiated by EPR and 1 H NMR analysis of liquid samples. The effects of water vapour and oxygen admixtures in the feed gas were investigated. All the reactive species detected in the liquid samples were shown to be formed largely in the plasma gas phase. It is suggested that hydrogen peroxide (determined by UV/Vis analysis) is formed primarily in the plasma tube, whereas the radical species ⋅OOH, ⋅OH and ⋅H are proposed to originate from the region between the plasma nozzle and the liquid sample. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  19. Service water assistance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munchausen, J.H. [EPRI Plant Support Engineering, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Service Water Assistance Program was developed to provide utility service water system engineers with a mechanism to quickly and efficiently address service water issues. Since its inception, its ability to assist utilities has resulted in a reduction in the operations and maintenance costs associated with service water systems and has provided a medium for EPRI awareness of industry service water issues.

  20. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and

  1. Water technology for specific water usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, Fritz H

    2003-01-01

    Water is the basis for life and culture. In addition to the availability of water its quality has become a major issue in industrialized areas and in developing countries as well. Water usage has to be seen as part of the hydrological cycle. As a consequence water management has to be sustainable. The aim of the contribution is to give water usage oriented quality criteria and to focus on the technical means to achieve them. Water is used for many purposes, ranging from drinking and irrigation to a broad variety of technical processes. Most applications need specific hygienic, chemical and/or physical properties. To meet these demands separation and reaction principles are applied. The reuse of water and the application of water treatment with little or no waste and by-product formation is the way to go. Membrane separation and advanced oxidation including catalytic reactions are promising methods that apply natural processes in sustainable technical performance. Thus elimination of specific water constituents (e.g. salts and metals, microorganisms) and waste water cleaning (e.g. pollutants, nutrients and organic water) can be done efficiently. Learning from nature and helping nature with appropriate technology is a convincing strategy for sustainable water management.

  2. Water-polymer interaction during water uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baukh, V.; Huinink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.; Erich, S.J.F.; Ven, L.G.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Water uptake by multilayer films plays an important role in their performance. Individual layers may consist of different polymeric phases. Understanding the water uptake in such systems requires knowledge of the water distribution, its state in the polymer, and influence on the polymeric phases.

  3. Water neutral: reducing and ofsetting water footprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    During the past few years the concept of the ‘water footprint’ has started to receive recognition within governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and media as a useful indicator of water use. The increased interest in the water-footprint concept has prompted the question about what

  4. Alles is water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der A.

    2013-01-01

    Inaugurele rede bij de aanvaarding van buitengewoon hoogleraarschap in Electrochemical Water Treatment. De aandachtsgebieden in zijn professoraat richten zich achtereenvolgens op: a) energiezuinige ontzouting van water, b) selectieve verwijdering van ionen uit water, c) terugwinning van waardevolle

  5. Transboundary water interaction III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, Mark; Cascão, Ana Elisa; Warner, Jeroen; Mirumachi, Naho; Matthews, Nathanial; Menga, Filippo; Farnum, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This paper serves international water conflict resolution efforts by examining the ways that states contest hegemonic transboundary water arrangements. The conceptual framework of dynamic transboundary water interaction that it presents integrates theories about change and counter-hegemony to

  6. Chloramines in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water. Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. Chloramines provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.

  7. Water Quality Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our water quality sampling program is to determine the quality of Moosehorn's lakes and a limited number of streams. Water quality is a measure of the body of water,...

  8. Water safety and drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR . Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

  9. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmission in Pet Shelters Protect Your Pets Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  10. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dollars each year to buy it (Beverage Marketing Corporation, 2004) Some people drink bottled water as ... has been treated to meet the U.S. Pharmacopeia definition of purified water. Purified water is essentially free ...

  11. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  12. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  13. Ecological Exposure Research: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of ecological exposure water research, including invasive species, Functional Process Zones (FPZs), biomarkers, pharmaceuticals in water, headwater streams, DNA barcoding, wetland ecosystem services, and sediment remediation.

  14. Water Innovation and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water technologies are a specific sector that EPA works to address through the water technology cluster, aging infrastructure research, green infrastructure, and major industry meetings such as WEFTEC.

  15. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  16. Hydrography - Water Bodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  17. World Water Day 2014 – Water & Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available World Water Day was established in 1992 at the United Nations conference – Environment and Development. It was approved to be held every year on 22 March under the heading, theme selected for a given year. The purpose of WWD was to draw the attention of societies, politicians and decision-makers to the fact that water is essential for life and for conducting economic and social activity. The first WWD was held in 1994 under the theme: Caring for our Water Resources is Everybody’s Business. For the subsequent 20 years, the WWD has been held under headings closely related to water and use of water resources. In 2014, the WWD subject has been extended by the issue of energy. It results from the fact that energy – just like water – is a factor essential for global economic and social development. Moreover, both these areas (water and energy are strictly related to each other and are interdependent.

  18. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POST-COMBUSTION AMMONIA INJECTION ON FLY ASH QUALITY: CHARACTERIZATION OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM CONCRETE AND MORTARS CONTAINING FLY ASH AS A POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Rathbone; Thomas L. Robl

    2002-10-30

    than 50% of the initial ammonia content remaining in an 11cm thick concrete slab after 1 month. When placing concrete in an enclosed space, with negligible ventilation, it is recommended that the ammonia concentration in the concrete mix water should not exceed 110 mg NH{sub 3}/L, if the NIOSH exposure limit of 25 ppm in the air is not to be exceeded. If even a modicum of ventilation is present, then the ammonia concentration in the concrete water should be less than 170 mg/L. The maximum level of ammonia in the fly ash can then be calculated using these limits if the concrete mix proportions are known. In general, during the mixing and placement of ammonia-laden concrete, no safety concerns were encountered. The only location where the ammonia concentration attained high levels (i.e. > 25 ppm in the air) was within the concrete mixing drum.

  19. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  20. China's water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  1. Estudo comparativo do desempenho mecânico da sílica ativa e do metacaulim como adições químicas minerais em estruturas de concreto Comparative study of mechanical performance of silica fume and metakaolin mineral admixtures in concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. M. do Carmo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram realizados estudos comparativos entre um concreto convencional e concretos contendo sílica ativa e metacaulim de alta reatividade (MCAR. O desempenho dos mesmos foi testado em termos das resistências à compressão e à tração por compressão diametral. Análises de custo foram efetuadas comparativamente, em função da resistência à compressão, do consumo de materiais cimentícios e, também, do preço do produto no mercado brasileiro. Os consumos totais de materiais cimentícios estudados estiveram compreendidos entre 180 kg/m³ e 650 kg/m³. O uso de 8% em peso de MCAR e de sílica ativa em relação à massa de cimento, foi suficiente para inibir as reações álcali-agregado verificadas no concreto convencional. O uso de ambas as adições proporcionou ganhos em termos de resistência e de custo nas primeiras idades (90 dias, sendo, praticamente equivalentes entre si.A comparative study between reference-concrete (RC, silica fume (SF and high reactivity metacaulim (MCAR was done. The performances were tested in terms of the compressive and tensile strength by diametrical compression. Comparative cost analyses were carried out by taking into account the binders consumption at the same strength, and also the Brazilian product prices. The total consumptions of cimentitious materials studied were in the range of 180 kg/m³ to 650 kg/m³. The replacement of 8% (w/w of MCAR and SF over cement weight was enough to inhibit alkali-aggregate reaction, investigated whitout cement admixtures. Both additions provided bennefit in terms of cost and mechanical resistance in the first ages (90 days, been equivalently.

  2. Sustainability and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virender A.

    2009-07-01

    World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate

  3. Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water Footprint Assessment (WFA is a quickly growing research field. This Special Issue contains a selection of papers advancing the field or showing innovative applications. The first seven papers are geographic WFA studies, from an urban to a continental scale; the next five papers have a global scope; the final five papers focus on water sustainability from the business point of view. The collection of papers shows that the historical picture of a town relying on its hinterland for its supply of water and food is no longer true: the water footprint of urban consumers is global. It has become clear that wise water governance is no longer the exclusive domain of government, even though water is and will remain a public resource with government in a primary role. With most water being used for producing our food and other consumer goods, and with product supply chains becoming increasingly complex and global, there is a growing awareness that consumers, companies and investors also have a key role. The interest in sustainable water use grows quickly, in both civil society and business communities, but the poor state of transparency of companies regarding their direct and indirect water use implies that there is still a long way to go before we can expect that companies effectively contribute to making water footprints more sustainable at a relevant scale.

  4. Water footprint of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a

  5. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the

  6. Exploratorium: Exploring Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  7. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  8. Waves and Water Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  9. Water in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You also get water through liquid foods and beverages, such as soup, milk, tea, coffee, soda, drinking water, and juices. Alcohol ... Try to choose water over sweetened drinks. These beverages can cause you to take in too many calories. Alternative Names Diet - water; H 2 O References Bistrian ...

  10. Water footprints of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely

  11. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  12. Water Management in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  13. Water policy sinkhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.

    1983-10-01

    The pollution of both surface and ground waters and the withdrawal of ground water will present the US with a major water-quality and -supply problem unless changes are made in how we use water. If water is priced at market value instead of relying on federal subsidies, price signals could alter consumption patterns. Other changes that could help are removing restrictions on water transfers and allowing private ownership of waterways and appropriable rights to ground water. These steps, it is felt, would encourage responsible consumption and allocations. (DCK)

  14. Water use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the USGS National Water Use Compilation, the California Water Science Center works in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies as well as academic and private organizations to collect and report total water withdrawals for California. The 2010 California water use data are aggregated here, in this website, for the first time. The California Water Science Center released these data ahead of the online USGS National Water Use Compilation circular report, in response to increased interest associated with current drought conditions. The national report is expected to be released late in 2014. The data on this website represents the most current California water use data available in the USGS National Water Use Compilation. It contains a section on water use in California for 2010. Water-use estimates are compiled by withdrawal source type, use category, and county. Withdrawal source types include groundwater, both fresh and saline,

  15. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  16. The power of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodi, Aikaterini

    2017-04-01

    This programme has been designed to help students understand: 1. The connections between the Watershed Protection and the water they use, exploring the watersheds in the area of their residence. Students will be guided to understand a variety of concepts related to water use, efficiency, and students' own impacts on their watershed. 2. The water supply: Where does it come from? Once the students understand their home watershed the next key concept is to understand where the water they use at home comes from, from the faucet to the actual waterbody within their watershed that is the source of their drinking water. Students will understand the ways their local waterbodies are connected and the direction of the water. 3. Water efficiency. Once students understand where their water comes from, the activity moves on to the concepts of using water more efficiently by investigating how we use or waste water, where it comes from and where it goes after it goes down the drain. We will use several activities, for example to ask students to find how much water a faucet that loses 25 drips per minute would waste in one day, by using a drip calculator, or to ask students and members of their family, to complete a water use table. 4. City water company. The students also gain knowledge of how the City manages the water resources and how to manage water on personal basis.

  17. Price of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survilo, Josifs; Boreiko, Dmitrijs

    2009-01-01

    There are watercourses on the globe which as yet do not deliver up their energy to the needs of the people. How much energy their waters bear, is it worth to take away this energy? Those and alike questions must be (and they are) answered before start to build hydro power station. Similar problems must be solved to control hydro power plants in most gainful way which is known as hydrothermal coordination. The notion of price of water can be met lately in technical literature as one of numerical indices of these issues. The gross price of water and net price of water are considered in this paper. Gross price of 1 t water is the price of electric energy obtained by conversion of potential energy of 1 t of water, lifted to a height of power station water head. Net price of water is the difference between gross price and total expenses determined by hydro power station building and its exploitation costs in a year related to 1 m3 of water. If net price of water is positive, it is worth building power station. The greater net price is, the more urgent is the building. Net price of water grows with water head but it continues only to some height of the dam because further increase of head sharply increases capital outlay and other exploitation expenses. To maximize net price of water, optimization of net price function can be done. Net price of water diminishes when some amount of water is diverted for other needs. When amount of diverted water is out of discussion, no controversy can emerge. However when by diverted water some goods with some monetary worth can be obtained, the task must be solved how much water can be diverted so that the water of watercourse be used to the maximum benefit. The environmental issues must be taken into account as well.

  18. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  19. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  20. Municipal water resources management: evaluation of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Car wash can be defined as a facility used to clean the exterior and in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. These facilities are common in Bauchi and other cities in Nigeria. They use water as a major input thereby causing serious challenges to water resources management. Car wash facilities in Bauchi depend on ...

  1. Water users' associations and integrated water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Users' Associations (WU As), are important component of participatory governance arrangement for sustainable management of water resources in Ghana. At present, WUAs' are not organised in their respective sectors to function effectively. However, a number of the groups exist, evidenced by their governance ...

  2. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  3. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  4. Water Entrainment in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    This report gives a survey of different techniques for incorporation of designed, water-filled cavities in concrete: Water entrainment. Also an estimate of the optimum size of the water inclusions is given. Water entrainment can be used to avoid self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage...... during hydration [1,26]. What is needed is some sort of container which retains the shape of the water when mixed into the concrete. The container may function based on several different physical or chemical principles. Cells and gels are examples of containers found in nature. A cell membrane provides...... a boundary to water, whereas a polymer network incorporates water in its intersticious space with its affinity due to interaction energy and polymer entropy. Such containers allow water to be stored as an entity. In relation to concrete the water encapsulation may be accomplished either before or after start...

  5. Sustainable Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems trap storm water but may contaminate groundwater. There is a need to summarize recent trends in sustainable water systems management in a focused document. The aim of this special issue is therefore to disseminate and share scientific findings on novel sustainable water systems addressing recent problems and opportunities. This special issue focuses on the following key topics: climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems; holistic water management; carbon credits; potable water savings; sustainable water technologies; nutrient management; holistic storm water reuse; water and wastewater infrastructure planning; ecological status of watercourses defined by the Water Framework Directive. The combined knowledge output advances the understanding of sustainable water, wastewater and storm water systems in the developed and developing world. The research highlights the need for integrated decision-support frameworks addressing the impact of climate change on local and national water resources management strategies involving all relevant stakeholders at all levels.

  6. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  7. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

  8. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to boil and disinfect water to kill most disease-causing microorganisms during emergency situations where regular water service has been interrupted and local authorities recommend using only bottled water, boiled water, or disinfected water.

  9. Human Beings And Water

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpahan, Putra Andika

    2016-01-01

    The writer of this paper on this writing is talking about the human beings and water. Water is one of the very fundamentally things that human beings need to keep their lives. Human beings sometimes do not realise that the water is very important for them because they actually cannot live their lives without the present of water. Human beings can keep their lives without rice, but cannot without water. For instances the use of water for human beings are domestic use, cooking, washing, bathing...

  10. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  11. Low water FGD technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    Conventional flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems require large supplies of water. Technologies which reduce water usage are becoming more important with the large number of FGD systems being installed in response to ever tightening emission regulations. Reducing water loss is particularly important in arid regions of the world. This report reviews commercial and near commercial low water FGD processes for coal-fired power plants, including dry, semi-dry and multi-pollutant technologies. Wet scrubbers, the most widely deployed FGD technology, account for around 10–15% of the water losses in power plants with water cooling systems. This figure is considerably higher when dry/air cooling systems are employed. The evaporative water losses can be reduced by some 40–50% when the flue gas is cooled before it enters the wet scrubber, a common practice in Europe and Japan. Technologies are under development to capture over 20% of the water in the flue gas exiting the wet scrubber, enabling the power plant to become a water supplier instead of a consumer. The semi-dry spray dry scrubbers and circulating dry scrubbers consume some 60% less water than conventional wet scrubbers. The commercial dry sorbent injection processes have the lowest water consumption, consuming no water, or a minimal amount if the sorbent needs hydrating or the flue gas is humidified to improve performance. Commercial multi-pollutant systems are available that consume no water.

  12. Water-transporting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein. In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity of the transportate to approach isotonicity.

  13. Water SA: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This journal publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology, engineering and policy. This includes: water resource development; the hydrological cycle; surface hydrology; geohydrology, hydropedology and hydrometeorology; limnology; freshwater and estuarine ecology; salinisation; treatment ...

  14. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  15. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  16. ERLN Water Focus Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Laboratory Alliance (WLA), within Environmental Response Laboratory Network, maintains analytical capability and capacity in the event of intentional and unintentional water contamination with chemical, biological and radiochemical contaminants.

  17. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  18. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  19. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  20. Smart Growth and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains resources that communities can use to integrate green infrastructure into streets and neighborhoods to reduce stormwater runoff, use water more efficiently, and protect water from pollution.

  1. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C

    1981-01-01

    This monograph is intended to inform interested and capable pesons, who happen not to be specialists in water resources planning, of the issues and alternative strategies related to metropolitan water supply...

  2. Water Supplies: Microbiological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing high-quality drinking water that is free of harmful microorganisms and maintaining its purity through distribution systems are essential for public health. Drinking water quality standards and guidelines for microbial contaminants vary within and among countries but typ...

  3. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  4. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  5. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2011-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  6. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  7. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  8. India's Underground Water Temples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samir S. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Patel features India's underground water temples--specifically in Gujarat. Accordingly, the stepwells of Gujarat are spiritual monuments to water and stark reminders of the increasing scarcity of this critical resource...

  9. Water on the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your knee joint. Some people call this condition "water on the knee." A swollen knee may be ... Choose low-impact exercise. Certain activities, such as water aerobics and swimming, don't place continuous weight- ...

  10. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  11. Drinking Water Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  12. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  13. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water availability/supply for shale gas development (SGD) in the assessment study area is severely constrained. Surface water availability is generally low, with large areas of non-perennial, episodic and ephemeral streams experiencing very high...

  14. Water Safety (Recreational)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

  15. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  16. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  17. VT Water Classifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Water Quality Standards (VTWQS) are rules intended to achieve the goals of the Vermont Surface Water Strategy, as well as the objective of the federal...

  18. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  19. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  20. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a