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Sample records for wasting syndrome pmws

  1. Induction of porcine post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs from PMWS unaffected herds following mingling with pigs from PMWS-affected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Bækbo, Poul; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from two experimental studies (I and II) investigating whether post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) can be induced in pigs from PMWS unaffected herds by mingling with pigs from PMWS-affected herds and to observe whether transportation and...... compartments in both study I and study II. In addition, in study II, four groups of pigs from unaffected herds were included. Two groups with pigs transported and mingled from unaffected herds and two groups with pigs which were only transported. The PMWS diagnoses on the individual pigs were based on lymphoid...

  2. Examination for a viral co-factor in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette; Hansen, Anne-Sofie Ladekjær

    2008-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that a putative co-factor for the development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs could be of viral origin, we performed extensive virological examinations on organ material from pigs diagnosed with PMWS originating from within a Danish PMWS...... from four PMWS-affected herds, four PMWS-positive pigs plus one unaffected herd. The PCV2 genomes from the two groups showed 95.5% identity. Alignment analyses of the sequences encoding the replicase and capsid protein from group 1 and group 2 PCV2 isolates showed two amino acid differences encoded...... in the replicase protein, while 19 amino acid differences were predicted among the capsid protein sequences. The PCV2 DNA sequence analysis supports recent observations from studies in USA as well as Europe, which suggest that strain variations may influence the clinical outcome of PCV2 infection....

  3. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical symptoms, and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E. Okholm; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind;

    2008-01-01

    A case-control study of 74 herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and 74 matched control herds was carried out. In the case herds the mortality rates of weaner and finisher pigs were 11·2 and 5·2 per cent respectively, compared with 3·1 and 3·2 per cent in the control herds....

  4. Infection, excretion and seroconversion dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pigs from post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected farms in Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Sibila, M.

    2009-01-01

    -like signs and matched healthy cohorts were euthanized during the clinical outbreak. PMWS was diagnosed according to internationally accepted criteria and pigs were classified as: (i) PMWS cases, (ii) wasted non-PMWS cases and (iii) healthy pigs. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) quantitative PCR (q......Longitudinal case-control studies were performed in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) affected farms from Denmark and Spain using similar designs. Fourteen independent batches of 100-154 pigs per batch were monitored from birth to PMWS outbreak occurrence. Pigs displaying PMWS...

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of pig herds diagnosed with Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) during the first two years of its occurrence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Bækbo, P.; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2005-01-01

    The clinical syndrome Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in pigs has emerged globally during the last decade. In October 2001, the first pig herd diagnosed with PMWS was reported in Denmark, and since then the number of herds diagnosed with PMWS has increased markedly. The etiology...... that the results support the hypothesis that PMWS is caused by introduction of a new, unidentified, pathogen into the Danish pig production. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Use of register data to assess the association between use of antimicrobials and outbreak of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Dohoo, Ian R; Stryhn, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the first case of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) was reported in the Danish pig population. During subsequent years, the number of affected farms increased exponentially. The aim of this study was to determine how this increase influenced the use of antimicrobials......, compared to herds not experiencing PMWS. Generalisation of the results to the entire Danish pig population indicated that the increase of PMWS infected herds from almost zero to about 20% during a 4-year period resulted in a national increase of 4-5% in antimicrobials usage in weaners. The effect of PMWS...

  7. Experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs in Sweden and Denmark with a Swedish isolate of porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasslung, F.; Wallgren, P.; Hansen, Anne-Sofie Ladekjær;

    2005-01-01

    An experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). A Swed......An experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS...

  8. Subcellular immunolocalization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in lymph nodes from pigs with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cariño, C; Sánchez-Chardi, A; Segalés, J

    2010-05-01

    Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is one of the most significant porcine diseases worldwide. The causative agent is porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the smallest virus known to infect animals. Data related to the structural and ultrastructural aspects of this infectious disease are sparse and there is little knowledge of the subcellular localization of PCV2 and its replication in the tissues of pigs naturally affected by PMWS. The present study describes the cellular localization of PCV2 in the lymph nodes of pigs affected by PMWS by application of immunolabelling techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PCV2 particles were exclusively detected in histiocytes. Ultrastructural alterations including marked dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and swelling of mitochondria were associated with PCV2-labelled intracytoplasmic inclusions (ICIs) with recognizable virions. Within the ICIs icosahedral virus-like particles were specifically labelled with a PCV2 capsid antibody, whereas particles with a granular appearance were not labelled. Colocalization studies with confocal microscopy and double immunolabelling with TEM indicated a close relationship between virus and the mitochondria, suggesting that these organelles may play an important role in the replication of PCV2. The present findings further support the hypothesis that virus replicates within the histiocytes of lymph nodes.

  9. Infectious risk factors for individual postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) development in pigs from affected farms in Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Stockmarr, Anders; Kristensen, Charlotte S.

    2012-01-01

    collected serum samples to detect antibodies against, PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), swine influenza virus (SIV) and Lawsonia intracellularis (law), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) and Salmonella spp. A Cox proportional...

  10. PMWS Development in Pigs from Affected Farms in Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Stockmarr, Anders; Kristensen, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    , respiratory distress and diarrhoea. The main essential infectious agent for PMWS development is porcinecircovirus type 2 (PCV2), but the exact cause of PMWS is still unclear.PCV2 is present in most pig herds, but the occurrence of PMWS is more sporadic, and it is been difficult to reproduce PMWS......Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a worldwide spread condition that affects pigs in nursery and/or fattening units, and is considered to have a severe economic impact on swine production. The main clinical sign of PMWS is wasting, but can also include pallor of the skin, icterus...

  11. Experimental Airborne Transmission of Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Kristensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to investigate if porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS could be induced in healthy pigs following contact with air from pigs with clinical signs of PMWS. The pigs were housed in different units. Either 31 (study I or 25 (study II pigs with clinical symptoms of PMWS from a PMWS-affected herd and 25 healthy pigs from a PMWS-free, but PCV2-positive, herd were housed in unit A. Fifty pigs from a PMWS-free herd were housed in unit B, which were connected by pipes to unit A. In unit C, 30 pigs from a PMWS-free herd were housed as controls. In study II, the pigs in units A and B from the PMWS-free herd developed clinical signs of PMWS 2-3 weeks after arrival. PMWS was confirmed at necropsy and the diseased pigs had increased PCV2 load and increased antibody titers against PCV2 in serum that coincided with the development of clinical signs typical of PMWS. Sequence analysis revealed that the PCV2 isolate belonged to genotype 2b. In conclusion, the present study showed that PMWS can be induced in pigs from a PMWS-free herd by airborne contact with pigs from a PMWS-affected herd.

  12. Reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in immunostimulated and non-immunostimulated 3-week-old piglets experimentally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekjær-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Nielsen, Jens; Stadejek, T.

    2002-01-01

    with convulsions after a period with wasting. This pig was lethargic from PID 14 onwards with persistent fever from PID 8 and transient dyspnoea. No differences in clinical signs, gross pathologic or histological findings were observed for the remaining non-immunostimulated and immunostimulated PCV2-infected...

  13. A locus on porcine chromosome 13 harboring the MyRIP gene is associated with development of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter

    Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) has spread dramatically among pigs over the last years with devastating consequences for animal welfare and great economic losses for farmers. Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is the necessary causal infectious agent of PMWS, but other factors...... to microsatellite markers KVL3525 and KVL3526 on porcine chromosome 13 is associated with PMWS development. This was subsequently confirmed by an association study in which KVL3525 was found to be associated with development of PMWS. KVL3525 is located in the middle of the MyRIP gene. This gene encodes a protein...... involved in transport of vesicles in the cytosol. It is an interesting candidate gene because a number of studies have shown that impaired transport and accumulation of PCV2 in cells of the innate immune system may be an important factor in PMWS pathogenesis. We sequenced MyRIP in PMWS affected...

  14. Porcine Circovirus Diseases: A review of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekbo, P.; Kristensen, C. S.; Larsen, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    the mortality and reduces the daily weight gain in weaner pig and/or in finishing pigs. Post‐weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome can be transmitted by pig‐to‐pig contact and some studies point at airborne transmission as a possibility. Studies in Europe have shown several risk factors that either increase...... Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta‐analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy...

  15. Farm level risk factors associated with severity of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Pablo; Velasova, Martina; Mastin, Alexander; Nevel, Amanda; Stärk, Katharina D C; Wieland, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    A cross-sectional study involving 147 pig farms across England was conducted in 2008-2009. Farm severity of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) was estimated through the use of an algorithm that combined data on post-weaning mortality, PMWS morbidity and proportion of porcine circovirus type 2 PCR positive pigs. Farms were classified as non/slightly, moderately or highly affected by PMWS. Data on potential PMWS risk factors were collected through interviews, on-farm assessment and serological sampling. Risk factors were identified using multivariable ordinal logistic regression and multivariable linear regression. Factors associated with increased PMWS severity were rearing growers indoors (OR=23.7), requiring a higher number of veterinarian visits per year (OR=9.6), having poorly isolated hospital pens (OR=6.4), buying replacement boars (OR=4.8) and seropositivity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (OR=4.29); factors associated with decreased PMWS severity were low stocking density for growers (OR=0.07), adjusting diets at least three times between weaning and 14 weeks of age (OR=0.12), and requiring visitors to be at least 2 days pig free (OR=0.14). This study provides evidence of the association between environmental and management factors and PMWS severity, and suggests that other pathogens may be important co-factors for the disease. In addition, this study highlights the potential efficacy of biosecurity measures in the reduction/prevention of within-farm PMWS severity.

  16. Transmission of different variants of PCV2 and viral dynamics in a research facility with pigs mingled from PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Kitt; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kristensen, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) has been identified in most swine-producing countries worldwide. The disease has resulted in significant health challenges and economic damage to the swine industry. The aim of this study was to determine horizontal transmission of porcine...... circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and to examine viral dynamics in pigs in a controlled PMWS transmission study. In the study pigs from PMWS-affected herds and non-affected herds were permitted to have close contact (same pen), nose-to-nose contact (to pigs in neighbouring pens) or no physical contact (pen across...

  17. PMWS smitter via luften

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne Kristensen, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Kaj; Bækbo, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med undersøgelsen var at belyse om PMWS kan spredes via luften. Undersøgelsen blev gennemført to gange. Grisene blev indkøbt fra to besætninger med PMWS og fra en besætning uden tegn på PMWS (PMWS fri). Grisene blev i hver undersøgelse fordelt til tre containere indrettet til smågrise. I...... container A blev grise fra PMWS besætningen blandet med grise fra den PMWS fri besætning. I container B og C var der kun grise fra den PMWS fri besætning. Container A og B blev placeret 1 m fra hinanden og forbundet med rør. Via styring af ventilationen blev der overført ca. 70% af luften fra container...... kontakt mellem grise og via luften. I container C udviklede ingen grise PMWS. Stress ved transport og opstaldning i container ser derfor ikke ud til at kunne udløse PMWS....

  18. Postweaning multisystematic wasting syndrome in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical signs and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm Nielsen, Elisabeth; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind;

    2008-01-01

    A case-control study of 74 herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and 74 matched control herds was carried out. In the case herds the mortality rates of weaner and finisher pigs were 11·2 and 5·2 per cent respectively, compared with 3·1 and 3·2 per cent in the control herds....

  19. Viral Metagenomic Analysis Displays the Co-Infection Situation in Healthy and PMWS Affected Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Caroline; Wallgren, Per; Berg, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed the possibility to investigate and characterise the entire microbiome of individuals, providing better insight to the complex interaction between different microorganisms. This will help to understand how the microbiome influence the susceptibility of secondary agents and development of disease. We have applied viral metagenomics to investigate the virome of lymph nodes from Swedish pigs suffering from the multifactorial disease postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) as well as from healthy pigs. The aim is to increase knowledge of potential viruses, apart from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), involved in PMWS development as well as to increase knowledge on the virome of healthy individuals. In healthy individuals, a diverse viral flora was seen with several different viruses present simultaneously. The majority of the identified viruses were small linear and circular DNA viruses, such as different circoviruses, anelloviruses and bocaviruses. In the pigs suffering from PMWS, PCV2 sequences were, as expected, detected to a high extent but other viruses were also identified in the background of PCV2. Apart from DNA viruses also RNA viruses were identified, among them were a porcine pestivirus showing high similarity to a recently (in 2015) discovered atypical porcine pestivirus in the US. Majority of the viruses identified in the background of PCV2 in PMWS pigs could also be identified in the healthy pigs. PCV2 sequences were also identified in the healthy pigs but to a much lower extent than in PMWS affected pigs. Although the method used here is not quantitative the very clear difference in amount of PCV2 sequences in PMWS affected pigs and healthy pigs most likely reflect the very strong replication of PCV2 known to be a hallmark of PMWS. Taken together, these findings illustrate that pigs appear to have a considerable viral flora consisting to a large extent of small single

  20. Pig major acute-phase protein and haptoglobin serum concentrations correlate with PCV2 viremia and the clinical course of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane;

    2009-01-01

    and age-matched healthy controls were euthanized during the clinical outbreak. PMWS was diagnosed according to internationally accepted creteria and pigs were classified as: i)PMWS cases, ii) wasted non-PMWS cases and iii) healthy pigs. At the moment of PMWS occurrence, pig-MAP and HPT concentration...... status than HPT. Moreover, the fact that APR occurred some days before the starting of clinical signs suggests that APPs could provide valuable prognostic information for PMWS development....

  1. Hallazgos patológicos en cerdos afectados con el síndrome del desmedro multisistémico postdestete de la República Argentina Pathological findings in pigs affected by the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in Argentina

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    J. Sarradell

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome del desmedro multisistémico postdestete (PMWS fue descrito por primera vez en Canadá en el año 1991 y desde entonces un número creciente de casos han sido diagnosticados en todo el mundo. En la Argentina, el PMWS fue reportado por primera vez recientemente. Se estudiaron 48 cerdos de 5 a 12 semanas de edad con signos característicos de PMWS procedentes de 19 granjas. Si bien se desconoce la distribución real del virus en nuestro país se observó desde el año 2001 un número creciente de granjas con PMWS y distribuidas en las principales provincias productoras. La histopatología fue una herramienta diagnóstica importante en casos sospechosos de PMWS con la observación de diferentes grados de lesión. En los animales estudiados las infecciones secundarias pudieron ser importantes, ya sea por patógenos oportunistas o por complicaciones bacterianas.Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome was first described in Canada in 1991 and at present an increasing number of cases has been diagnosed worldwide. In Argentina the first cases of PMWS were reported recently. Forty eight 5 to 12 week old pigs with signs characteristic of PMWS from 19 farms were studied. Although the real distribution of the virus in our country is not known it was observed an increasing number of farms with PMWS distributed in the major producing provinces. The histopathology was an important tool in diagnosis of suspicious cases of PMWS with the observation of different degrees of lesion. In the studied animals, the secondary infections, either by opportunistic pathogens or secondary bacteria could be important.

  2. Dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 infection and excretion in pigs from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome affected farms from Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Sibila, M.;

    Serological and non-quantitative DNA detection techniques (PCR) have been widely used to monitor porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection dynamics (1,2). In spite of available epidemiological information, very few data on PCV2 load dynamics of Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) a...

  3. Clinical and laboratory studies on herds affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in Denmark, France, Spain, and Sweden: Disease progression and a proposal for herd case definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Baekbo, P.; Rose, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To propose and evaluate a protocol to establish a diagnosis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) at herd level. Materials and methods: The data used included both laboratory data from previous epidemiological studies carried out in Italy, Denmark, and Spain and original...

  4. Clinical and laboratory studies on herds affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in Denmark, France, Spain, and Sweden: Disease progression and a proposal for herd case definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Baekbo, P.; Rose, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To propose and evaluate a protocol to establish a diagnosis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) at herd level. Materials and methods: The data used included both laboratory data from previous epidemiological studies carried out in Italy, Denmark, and Spain and original...

  5. Dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 infection and excretion in pigs from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome affected farms from Spain and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Sibila, M.

    Serological and non-quantitative DNA detection techniques (PCR) have been widely used to monitor porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection dynamics (1,2). In spite of available epidemiological information, very few data on PCV2 load dynamics of Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) a...

  6. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role.

  7. Economic efficiency analysis of different strategies to control post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome and porcine circovirus type 2 subclinical infection in 3-weekly batch system farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Pablo; Rushton, Jonathan; Nathues, Heiko; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    The study assessed the economic efficiency of different strategies for the control of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine circovirus type 2 subclinical infection (PCV2SI), which have a major economic impact on the pig farming industry worldwide. The control strategies investigated consisted on the combination of up to 5 different control measures. The control measures considered were: (1) PCV2 vaccination of piglets (vac); (2) ensuring age adjusted diet for growers (diets); (3) reduction of stocking density (stock); (4) improvement of biosecurity measures (bios); and (5) total depopulation and repopulation of the farm for the elimination of other major pathogens (DPRP). A model was developed to simulate 5 years production of a pig farm with a 3-weekly batch system and with 100 sows. A PMWS/PCV2SI disease and economic model, based on PMWS severity scores, was linked to the production model in order to assess disease losses. This PMWS severity scores depends on the combination post-weaning mortality, PMWS morbidity in younger pigs and proportion of PCV2 infected pigs observed on farms. The economic analysis investigated eleven different farm scenarios, depending on the number of risk factors present before the intervention. For each strategy, an investment appraisal assessed the extra costs and benefits of reducing a given PMWS severity score to the average score of a slightly affected farm. The net present value obtained for each strategy was then multiplied by the corresponding probability of success to obtain an expected value. A stochastic simulation was performed to account for uncertainty and variability. For moderately affected farms PCV2 vaccination alone was the most cost-efficient strategy, but for highly affected farms it was either PCV2 vaccination alone or in combination with biosecurity measures, with the marginal profitability between 'vac' and 'vac+bios' being small. Other strategies such as 'diets', 'vac+diets' and 'bios

  8. Experimental Airborne Transmission of Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C. S.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Vestergaard, K.

    2013-01-01

    with clinical symptoms of PMWS from a PMWS-affected herd and 25 healthy pigs from a PMWS-free, but PCV2-positive, herd were housed in unit A. Fifty pigs from a PMWS-free herd were housed in unit B, which were connected by pipes to unit A. In unit C, 30 pigs from a PMWS-free herd were housed as controls...

  9. Detección de Mycoplasma suis en casos clínicos de síndrome del desmedro multisistémico posdestete en porcinos Detection of Mycoplasma suis in clinical cases with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Pereyra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma suis es un parásito obligado de los eritrocitos del cerdo. Produce anemia aguda o crónica y afecta a distintas categorías de animales. El síndrome del desmedro multisistémico posdestete (PMWS se considera causado por el circovirus porcino tipo 2 (PCV-2, aunque muchos aspectos de la patogenia del síndrome permanecen sin aclarar. Se manifiesta a través de retraso del crecimiento, anemia e ictericia en cerdos de 5 a 12 semanas de edad, en los que se produce una inmunosupresión que deriva en coinfecciones bacterianas. Se estudiaron tres granjas porcinas con sintomatología asociada a la presencia de estos dos agentes etiológicos. Se observaron formas compatibles con M. suis en extendidos de sangre y en lesiones histopatológicas indicativas de PMWS, en cortes de tejidos. Esta es la primera comunicación acerca de la asociación clínica entre las dos entidades mencionadas.Mycoplasma suis is a swine erythrocyte obligatory parasite. Its presence may result in chronic or acute anaemia in different pig categories. It is considered that the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS is caused by porcine circovirus type 2, but some aspects of the pathogenesis remain unknown. PMWS signs are impaired weight gain, anaemia and jaundice in 5 to 12 week-old pigs that suffer from immunosuppression and bacterial co-infections. The pigs with signs of these diseases on three porcine farms were studied. Compatible M. suis forms in blood smears and typical PMWS lesions in tissue cuts were seen. This is the first communication of the clinical association between these two entities.

  10. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome

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    Harshal Dholke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is on the rise, especially in today′s fast-paced world. TBI requires not only neurosurgical expertise but also neurointensivist involvement for a better outcome. Disturbances of sodium balance are common in patients with brain injury, as the central nervous system plays a major role in sodium regulation. Hyponatraemia, defined as serum sodium <135 meq/L is commonly seen and is especially deleterious as it can contribute to cerebral oedema in these patients. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, is the most well-known cause of hyponatraemia in this subset of patients. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS, leading to renal sodium loss is an important cause of hyponatraemia in patients with TBI. Although incompletely studied, decreased renal sympathetic responses and cerebral natriuretic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of CSWS. Maintaining a positive sodium balance and adequate hydration can help in the treatment. It is important to differentiate between SIADH and CSWS when trying to ascertain a case for patients with acute brain injury, as the treatment of the two are diametrically opposite.

  11. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome

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    Mehmet Salih Sevdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A serum sodium (Na value below 135 mEq/L is evaluated as hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality observed in hospitalized patients in particular. Hypovolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia is the most frequent clinical table. One of the reasons of this is cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS. CSWS is a rare condition progressing with low plasma osmolality, urine osmolality above 100-150 mOsm/kg and urine- Na concentration above 20 mEq/L. In the blood and urine sample analysis performed upon sudden loss of consciousness on the 15th day of the intensive care unit follow-up of 79-year-old female patients due to falling from stairs, blood biochemistry Na value was 120 mEq/L, plasma osmolality was 250 mOsm/kg, urine Na value was 180 mEq/L, urine osmolality was 1200 mOsm/kg, urine diuresis was >3 mL/kg/hour. The central venous pressure was 2 mmHg. The patient, considered to be diagnosed with CSWS, was treated with 9% NaCl and 3% hypertonic saline solution. Her clinical course was improved on the 18th day. She died on the 81st day secondary to septicemia in the subsequent follow-up. In this article, it was aimed to report a patient with CSWS which progresses with low percentage in intensive care unit patients with head trauma, is frequently confused with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome and progresses mortally when not diagnosed distinctively well.

  12. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà-Esteve, M; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Chillaron, J J; Pont-Sunyer, C; Cucurella, G; Fernández, M; Goday, A; Cano-Pérez, J F; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Roquer, J

    2008-06-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically neurological patients. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The pathogenesis of this disorder is still not completely understood. Sympathetic responses as well as some natriuretic factors play a role in this syndrome. Distinction between SIADH and CSW might be difficult. The essential point is the volemic state. It is necessary to rule out other intermediate causes. Treatment requires volume replacement and maintenance of a positive salt balance. Mineral corticoids may be useful in complicated cases.

  13. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  14. A novel porcine circovirus-like agent P1 is associated with wasting syndromes in pigs.

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    Libin Wen

    Full Text Available A novel porcine pathogen tentatively named P1, which was obtained from the sera of the pigs exhibiting clinical signs of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS experimentally caused the classical clinic signs and pathologic lesions of the disease in pigs by direct in vivo injection with P1 DNA plasmids. Twenty colostrum-fed (CF pigs that were free of PCV2 and P1 at 1 month of age were randomly designated equally to two groups. Group 1 pigs were each injected with 400 µg of the cloned P1 plasmid DNA into the superficial inguinal lymph nodes and Group 2 were injected with same amount of the empty pSK vector DNA and served as controls. Viremias were positively detected in 8 of 10 P1 infected pigs from 14-21 days post-inoculation (dpi. The 8 infected animals showed pallor of skin and diarrhea. Gross lesions in the pigs euthanized on 35 dpi were similarly characterized by encephalemia, haemorrhage of the bladder mucosa, haemorrhage of the superficial inguinal lymph nodes, lung atrophy and haemorrhage. Histopathological lesions were arteriectasis and telangiectasia of the cavitas subarachnoidealis, interstitial pneumonia, mild atrophy of the cardiac muscle cells, histiocytic hyperplasia of the follicles in the tonsils, and haemorrhage of the inguinal lymph nodes. P1 DNA and antigens were confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry in the tissues and organs of the infected pigs, including the pancreas, bladders, testicles/ovaries, brains, lungs and liver. There were no obvious clinical signs and pathological lesions in the control pigs. This study demonstrated that P1 infection is one of the important pathologic agents on pig farms.

  15. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, R M

    1999-06-01

    A case of hyponatraemia associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage is presented. The provisional diagnosis of an inappropriate antidiuresis was made and treatment with fluid restriction was instituted. However the patient continued to deteriorate as the diuresis continued and the hyponatraemia worsened, resulting in hypovolaema. The salt wasting syndrome was subsequently diagnosed and saline and fludrocortisone (0.2 mg/day) was initiated, reducing the renal salt loss, increasing the plasma sodium and improving the neurological status of the patient. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is an important and under-recognised cause of hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients, particularly in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is essential to differentiate it from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion to avoid complications of hypovolaemia and reduced cerebral perfusion as illustrated by this case. Brain natriuretic peptide may be responsible for this syndrome although this requires further investigation.

  16. [Cerbral salt wasting syndrome versus SIADH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslarzes, Tristan; Turini, Pierre; Friolet, Raymond; Meier, Pascal

    2009-11-11

    In the context of cerebral diseases the two main mechanisms responsible for non iatrogenic causes of hyponatremia are cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) and inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Distinction between these two syndromes is difficult and is based on the assessment of the patient's volume status. In case of CSW, the volume status is low and the treatment is fluid and sodium replacement. In case of SIADH the volume status is normal or slightly expanded and the treatment is fluid restriction. To avoid centropontine myelinolysis, the speed of correction should not exceed 8 to 10 mmol/L over a 24-hour period. This article will describe practical tools to differentiate CSW from SIADH and therapeutic strategies useful in daily clinical practice.

  17. [Does cerebral salt wasting syndrome exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, P-E; Cheisson, G; Geeraerts, T; Tazarourte, K; Duranteau, J; Vigué, B

    2007-11-01

    Increased natriuresis is a frequent situation after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). It may be responsible for hyponatremia, which can be dangerous in case of severe hypo-osmolarity or hypovolemia. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) have been incriminated for hyponatremia after SAH, but it remains difficult to distinguish between both syndromes. There are many explanations for increased natriuresis after SAH, depending on the level of blood pressure, the volemia, and the presence or not of natriuretic peptides. The cerebral insult and the treatments, which are done to fight against elevated intracranial pressure or vasospasm, can modify any of these parameters. So it appears that the word "cerebral" in CSWS is probably not a good term and it would be better to talk about appropriate or non-appropriate natriuretic response. Corticoïds or urea can be useful for controlling hypernatriuresis.

  18. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, B; Mangala; Prakash, G K; Shetty, K J; Ballal, H S

    2006-05-01

    We report a case of a 65 year male with meningitis who had polyuria, severe hyponatremia, volume depletion and very high urinary sodium excretion. He was diagnosed to have cerebral salt wasting syndrome based on clinical and laboratory parameters.

  19. Transient Oliguria during Anesthesia in Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Park, Jong Taek; Cho, Dong Woo; Song, Seung Woo; Lim, Hyun Kyo

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a hyponatremic and hypovolemic condition caused by intracranial disorders, such as head injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, and brain operations. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl that had cerebral salt wasting syndrome with marked polyuria who showed transient oliguria during general anesthesia. The patient had undergone an operation for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage three months prior and has had marked polyuria and hyponatremia since then...

  20. Transient Oliguria during Anesthesia in Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Park, Jong Taek; Cho, Dong Woo; Song, Seung Woo; Lim, Hyun Kyo

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a hyponatremic and hypovolemic condition caused by intracranial disorders, such as head injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, and brain operations. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl that had cerebral salt wasting syndrome with marked polyuria who showed transient oliguria during general anesthesia. The patient had undergone an operation for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage three months prior and has had marked polyuria and hyponatremia since then. After induction of anesthesia for cranioplasty, the patient had oliguria during surgery and then resumed polyuria in the post-operative period.

  1. Early hyponatraemia after pituitary surgery: cerebral salt-wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, R; Pumar, A; Soto, A; Pomares, M A; Palma, S; Mangas, M A; Leal, A; Villamil, F

    2007-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is a common complication in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It can be caused either by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or by the cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS). CSWS frequently occurs in patients suffering from subarachnoid haemorrhage and brain injury, but it is rare after pituitary tumour surgery. However, this diagnostic possibility should be considered as these disorders require specific treatment and have different prognoses. In this article, we present a case of acute and early hyponatraemia caused by CSWS after pituitary tumour surgery. We also revise the aetiology, mechanisms, differential diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia after pituitary surgery.

  2. Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome Caused by Minor Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Toshiki; Tsurumi, Yuko; Tsurumi, Arihito

    2017-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman was admitted to hospital after sustaining a head injury in a motor vehicle accident (day 1). No signs of neurological deficit, skull fracture, brain contusion, or intracranial bleeding were evident. She was discharged without symptoms on day 4. However, headache and nausea worsened on day 8, at which time serum sodium level was noted to be 121 mEq/L. Treatment with sodium chloride was initiated, but serum sodium decreased to 116 mEq/L on day 9. Body weight decreased in proportion to the decrease in serum sodium. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was diagnosed. This case represents the first illustration of severe hyponatremia related to cerebral salt-wasting syndrome caused by a minor head injury.

  3. Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome Caused by Minor Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Fukuoka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old woman was admitted to hospital after sustaining a head injury in a motor vehicle accident (day 1. No signs of neurological deficit, skull fracture, brain contusion, or intracranial bleeding were evident. She was discharged without symptoms on day 4. However, headache and nausea worsened on day 8, at which time serum sodium level was noted to be 121 mEq/L. Treatment with sodium chloride was initiated, but serum sodium decreased to 116 mEq/L on day 9. Body weight decreased in proportion to the decrease in serum sodium. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was diagnosed. This case represents the first illustration of severe hyponatremia related to cerebral salt-wasting syndrome caused by a minor head injury.

  4. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome due to hemorrhagic brain infarction: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Tomotaka; Uno, Hisakazu; Miyashita, Kotaro; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a condition featuring hyponatremia and dehydration caused by head injury, operation on the brain, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor and so on. However, there are a few reports of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome caused by cerebral infarction. We describe a patient with cerebral infarction who developed cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in the course of hemorrhagic transformation. Case presentation A 79-year-old Japanese woman with hypertension and ...

  5. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome and traumatic vasospasm after head trauma: report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuno, Makoto; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Teramoto, Akira

    2009-08-01

    While patients with cerebral salt wasting syndrome and traumatic cerebral arterial spasms have been reported, the underlying pathogenesis of these events remains unclear. We encountered 2 patients with head trauma and cerebral infarction who presented with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome and cerebral arterial spasms. Our findings suggested hypothalamic dysfunction due to venous congestion around the hypothalamus caused cerebral salt wasting syndrome and traumatic cerebral arterial spasms.

  6. Renal salt-wasting syndrome in children with intracranial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinelli, Alberto; Longoni, Laura; Tammaro, Fabiana; Faré, Pietro B; Garzoni, Luca; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2012-05-01

    Hypotonic hyponatremia, a serious and recognized complication of any intracranial disorder, results from extra-cellular fluid volume depletion, inappropriate anti-diuresis or renal salt-wasting. The putative mechanisms by which intracranial disorders might lead to renal salt-wasting are either a disrupted neural input to the kidney or the elaboration of a circulating natriuretic factor. The key to diagnosis of renal salt-wasting lies in the assessment of extra-cellular volume status: the central venous pressure is currently considered the yardstick for measuring fluid volume status in subjects with intracranial disorders and hyponatremia. Approximately 110 cases have been reported so far in subjects ≤18 years of age (male: 63%; female: 37%): intracranial surgery, meningo-encephalitis (most frequently tuberculous) or head injury were the most common underlying disorders. Volume and sodium repletion are the goals of treatment, and this can be performed using some combination of isotonic saline, hypertonic saline, and mineralocorticoids (fludrocortisone). It is worthy of a mention, however, that some authorities contend that cerebral salt wasting syndrome does not exist, since this diagnosis requires evidence of a reduced arterial blood volume, a concept but not a measurable variable.

  7. Hyponatremia in acute brain disease: the cerebral salt wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betjes, Michiel G.H.

    2002-02-01

    Hyponatremia in acute brain disease is a common occurrence, especially after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Originally, excessive natriuresis, called cerebral salt wasting, and later the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), were considered to be the causes of hyponatremia. In recent years, it has become clear that most of these patients are volume-depleted and have a negative sodium balance, consistent with the original description of cerebral salt wasting. Elevated plasma concentrations of atrial or brain natriuretic peptide have been identified as the putative natriuretic factor. Hyponatremia and volume depletion may aggravate neurological symptoms, and timely treatment with adequate replacement of water and NaCl is essential. The use of fludrocortisone to increase sodium reabsorption by the renal tubules may be an alternative approach.

  8. Cerebral Salt-wasting Syndrome and Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Syndrome after Subarachnoid Hemorrhaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hanako; Okada, Hiroshi; Hirose, Kazuki; Murakami, Toru; Shiotsu, Yayoi; Kadono, Mayuko; Inoue, Mamoru; Hasegawa, Goji

    2017-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a common finding after subarachnoid hemorrhaging (SAH) and can be caused by either cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Distinguishing between these two entities can be difficult because they have similar manifestations, including hyponatremia, serum hypo-osmolality, and high urine osmolality. We herein report the case of a 60-year-old man who suffered from SAH complicated by hyponatremia. During his initial hospitalization, he was diagnosed with CSWS. He was readmitted one week later with hyponatremia and was diagnosed with SIADH. This is the first report of SAH causing CSWS followed by SIADH. These two different sources of hyponatremia require different treatments.

  9. Ear necrosis syndrome in weaning pigs associated with PCV2 infection: A case report

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    Vassilis Papatsiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Porcine necrotic ear syndrome (PNES in pigs has been reported as an increasing health problem in many countries with intensive pig farming. The etiology of this disease is complex and the presumed triggering factors can be divided into infectious and non-infectious agents. The present report describes a case of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, infection associated with lesions of PNES at the weaning stage of a farrow-to-finish pig farm. Approximately 35% of weaners (1-3 weeks after weaning presented clinical symptoms similar to Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS. About 2-3 weeks after weaning the first lesions of PNES occurred in approximately 20% of pigs, resulting in a significant health problem characterized by poor growth or severe wasting and finally mortality up to 15% in some batches. Moreover, approximately 5% of survived weaners, during growing / finishing stage, presented poor growth and secondary co-infections that lead to death. The present study based on the clinical signs, serological and pathological examinations, indicates that weaners suffered by sub-acute PCV2 infection resulting in PMWS associated with PNES. The lesions of PNES were initially observed at the same period (4-8 weeks of age with the higher seroprevalence of PCV2 infection. Metaphylaxis of this case included intramuscular injection of florfenicol for the treatment and control of skin lesions and respiratory signs. Moreover, piglets were vaccinated against PCV2. In conclusion, sub-acute PCV2 infection could be included in triggering factors PNES in weaners. The mass vaccination against PCV2 of infected piglets might be effective in reduction of clinical signs and losses of PNES in cases of PCV2 infection associated with PNES.

  10. Surto de Circovirose (Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica de Suínos Desmamados no estado do Rio de Janeiro Outbreak of Circovirosis (Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ticiana do Nascimento França

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o primeiro surto de Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica de Suínos Desmamados (SDMSD na Região Sudeste do Brasil, no estado do Rio de Janeiro. A enfermidade que afetou principalmente suínos desmamados com idade em torno de 4 meses, levou a morte pelo menos 14 animais. A granja onde o surto ocorreu, tinha péssimas condições sanitárias e de manejo. Clinicamente, a doença caracterizou-se por má condição corporal, pouco desenvolvimento, tosse, taquipnéia, dispnéia, diarréia, ataxia, tremores após estímulo, decúbito e convulsões, com evolução aguda a subaguda. À necropsia, os achados mais importantes foram um aumento de volume de linfonodos e pulmões não-colapsados, com áreas consolidadas, principalmente nos lobos craniais e porção anterior dos lobos médios. O exame histológico revelou, com maior freqüência, infiltração linfo-histiocítica com células sinciciais em linfonodos, baço, placas de Peyer, rim, pulmão e fígado, depleção ou hiperplasia linfóide, bem como pneumonia bronco-intersticial linfo-histiocitária e áreas de broncopneumonia secundária. O diagnóstico firmou-se pela observação dos sintomas e das lesões histológicas típicas e foi confirmado por exame imunohistoquímico e PCR. O estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar os aspectos epidemiológico e clínico-patológico desse surto, já que a mesma tem causado grandes perdas econômicas, diretas ou indiretas, à suinocultura mundial.The first outbreak of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS in swine, which occurred in southeastern Brazil, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, is described. The disease, which affects mainly weaned about 4 month-old pigs, caused the death of at least 14 animals. The property, where the outbreak occurred, had inadequate sanitary and management conditions. Clinically the disease was characterized by wasting, poor development, cough, tachypnoea, dispnoea, diarrhoea, ataxia, tremors after stimulation

  11. Central neurogenic diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Cynthia A; Day, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    Central neurogenic diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome are secondary events that affect patients with traumatic brain injury. All 3 syndromes affect both sodium and water balance; however, they have differences in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Differentiating between hypernatremia (central neurogenic diabetes insipidus) and the 2 hyponatremia syndromes (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome) is critical for preventing worsening neurological outcomes in patients with head injuries.

  12. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following atlantoaxial fracture dislocation in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed El-Amin; Chan, Patrick W-K; Goh, Adrian Yu-Teik; Lum, Lucy Chai-See

    2009-01-01

    We describe cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in a 5-year-old female child with Down syndrome who had acute myelopathy secondary to chronic atlantoaxial subluxation and fracture dislocation of the odontoid process. The patient developed hyponatraemia associated with excessive urine output and elevated urine sodium concentration following her injury. An administered volume-for-volume replacement of urine loss with 0.9% sodium chloride resulted in an excellent outcome. This patient illustrates the importance of ascertaining CSWS in children with spinal cord disorders, in addition to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion and diabetes insipidus (DI) commonly encountered following a central nervous system (CNS) injury, as the specific treatment approaches is clearly associated with an excellent outcome.

  13. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in children with acute central nervous system injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Raquel; Casado-Flores, Juan; Nieto, Monserrat; García-Teresa, María Angeles

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the causes, clinical pattern, and treatment of cerebral salt wasting syndrome in children with acute central nervous system injury. This retrospective study focused on patientscerebral salt wasting syndrome, over a period of 7 years, in the pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Selection criteria included evidence of hyponatremia (serum sodium120 mEq/L), and volume depletion. Fourteen patients were identified with cerebral salt wasting syndrome, 12 after a neurosurgical procedure (8 brain tumor, 4 hydrocephalus) and 2 after severe brain trauma. In 11 patients the cerebral salt wasting syndrome was diagnosed during the first 48 hours of admission. Prevalence of cerebral salt wasting syndrome in neurosurgical children was 11.3/1000 surgical procedures. The minimum sodium was 122+/-7 mEq/L, the maximum urine osmolarity 644+/-59 mOsm/kgH2O. The maximum sodium supply was 1 mEq/kg/h (range, 0.1-2.4). The mean duration of cerebral salt wasting syndrome was 6+/-5 days (range 1-9). In conclusion, cerebral salt wasting syndrome can complicate the postoperative course of children with brain injury; it is frequently present after surgery for brain tumors and hydrocephalus and in patients with severe head trauma. Close monitoring of salt and fluid balance is essential to prevent severe neurologic and hemodynamic complications.

  14. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with viral meningoencephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Tomoko; Harada, Tamaki; Sakai, Kanaki; Takeji, Masanobu; Takahara, Ken; Uzu, Takashi; Yamauchi, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    A 53-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for a high fever. He suffered a change in personality, memory loss and disorientation as well. The findings of cerebrospinal fluid showed monocytosis, but the titers of glucose, C1 and ADA were all normal. Although there was no bacterium in the CSF, the patient's electroencephalography finding was abnormal. We diagnosed his condition as viral meningoencephalitis and started treatment with antiviral agents. Blood chemistry showed serum sodium of 130 mEq/l and plasma osmolarity was reduced to 272 mOsm/kg, while urine osmolarity was high at 353 mOsm/kg. Two potential causes of hyponatremia in this patient were the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). Physical findings revealed a contracted extracellular fluid volume, strongly suggesting the presence of CSWS. The massive urine sodium loss overcoming sodium intake supported this diagnosis. After treatment with vigorous sodium and volume replacement for over 4 weeks, hyponatremia as well as meningoencephalitis were improved without any complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on CSWS in a patient with viral meningoencephalitis.

  15. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome after calvarial remodeling in craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jun-Hee; Yoo, Gyeol

    2005-10-01

    Hyponatremia and increased urine output after calvarial remodeling have been noted in pediatric patients with craniosynostosis. If not treated properly, patients develop hypoosmotic conditions that can lead to cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, and collapsed circulation. Postoperative hyponatremia after central nervous system surgery is considered as the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Recently, however, cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) instead of SIADH has been reported frequently. CSWS is associated with a decreased serum sodium level, increased urinary sodium level, increased urine output, decreased ECF volume, increased atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) level, and increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level. We experienced nine patients with craniosynostosis who underwent calvarial remodeling. By postoperative day 1, the ANP and BNP levels increased by 3-6 folds compared with the preoperative levels. They returned to the normal levels by postoperative day 5. The ADH level was within the normal range even after operation. The urinary sodium level increased in all patients by postoperative day 1 and 3. But the serum sodium level, and serum and urine osmolarity were normal due to appropriate replacement of sodium and fluid. After calvarial remodeling, the potential development of CSWS should be considered and distinguished from SIADH. The patients with CSWS require normal saline resuscitation and should prophylactically receive normal saline.

  16. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with a pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS is often an unrecognized cause of hyponatremia that occurs in the setting of intracranial lesions. It is important to differentiate CSWS from the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, as this would alter the management of hyponatremia. We describe a case of CSWS that occurred in association with a non­functioning pituitary adenoma.

  17. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with a pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Unnikrishnan, A G; Reddy, V S; Sahay, R K; Bhadada, S K; Agrawal, J K

    2003-03-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is often an unrecognized cause of hyponatremia that occurs in the setting of intracranial lesions. It is important to differentiate CSWS from the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, as this would alter the management of hyponatremia. We describe a case of CSWS that occurred in association with a non-functioning pituitary adenoma.

  18. Acute hyponatraemia secondary to cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, L K; Kang, S C; Cheong, K F

    1998-08-01

    A 30-year-old HIV-positive man presented with acute hydrocephalus secondary to tuberculous meningitis, for which an external ventricular drain was inserted. He developed marked natriuresis in the postoperative period, which resulted in acute hyponatraemia (131 to 122 mmol/l) and a contraction of his intravascular volume. A diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting syndrome was made, and he responded to sodium and fluid loading. This case highlights the differentiation of cerebral salt wasting syndrome from the more commonly occurring syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion as the aetiology of the hyponatraemia.

  19. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in brain injury patients: a potential cause of hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafonte, R D; Mann, N R

    1997-05-01

    Hyponatremia is a common neuromedical problem seen in survivors of central nervous system injury. The etiology of this hyponatremia is often diagnosed as syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone (SIADH). Fluid restriction is usually the first line of treatment. However, this can exacerbate vasospasm and produce resultant ischemia. Cerebral salt wasting is a syndrome of renal sodium loss that may occur commonly after central nervous system injury, yet remains unrecognized. Treatment of cerebral salt wasting consists of hydration and salt replacement. This article uses a case report to discuss the importance of recognition of this syndrome, and treatment concerns are reviewed.

  20. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome distinct from the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, T; Tano-oka, A; Takahashi, A; Imaizumi, T; Suetake, K; Hashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Two cases with pituitary tumour developed postoperative hyponatraemia which was not caused by inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. The one case with non-functioning macro-adenoma showed severe hyponatraemia (116 mEq/l) on day 11 after trans-sphenoidal surgery in association with diabetes insipidus (DI). The patients was treated by aqueous pitressin and saline administration to control urinary output and keep positive salt balance at the same time. The other case with GH-producing macro-adenoma showed progressive negative sodium balance with the total loss of 644 mEq resulting in hyponatraemia of 133 mEq/l. This was corrected by additional salt intake. The plasma atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP), antidiuretic hormone (ADH) as well as aldosterone levels were normal in the latter case. These patients were considered to manifest primary salt wasting disorder, which should be clearly differentiated from the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).

  1. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. We need better proof of its existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, M S; Carroll, H J

    1999-06-01

    It is widely believed that the cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) exists as an entity distinct from the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, and that it is characterized by evidence of severe renal salt wasting that results in volume depletion and hyponatremia. Proof of the existence of CSWS as an entity requires documentation of renal salt wasting and volume depletion. The present review has been undertaken to examine the evidence that the CSWS is a separate entity. In this effort, we have discussed various methods of documentation of volume depletion, and then reviewed reported cases of CSWS to determine whether volume depletion and renal salt wasting have been clearly demonstrated. Our review has led us to conclude that not one case of purported CSWS has demonstrated clear evidence of volume depletion and renal salt wasting. If renal salt wasting had been proven in these cases, we would conclude that the likely site of renal salt transport was the proximal tubule. The proximal site of salt transport defect has been suggested by the absence of hyperreninemia and hypokalemia, which would be a distinguishing feature of Bartter's syndrome and Gitelman's syndrome.

  2. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young eOh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia (sodium levels of < 135 mEq/L is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in hospital settings, especially in patients with neurologic diseases. Hyponatremia can cause cerebral edema and brain herniation and therefore, prompt diagnosis and proper treatment of hyponatremia is important in preventing morbidity and mortality. Among various causes of hyponatremia, the diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW is still confusing due to many similarities between the SIADH and CSW. SIADH is caused by excess of renal water reabsorption through inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (ADH secretion, and fluid restriction is the treatment of choice. Otherwise, CSW is caused by natriuresis, followed by volume depletion and negative sodium balance and replacement of water and sodium is the mainstay of treatment. Differentiation of these two diseases is difficult in most situations, because they overlap in many clinical and laboratory aspects. Although distinction between the SIADH and CSW is difficult, improvement of hypouricemia and an increased the fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUrate after the correction of hyponatremia in SIADH, not in CSW may be one of the helpful points in discriminating the two disease. In this review, we compare these two diseases regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis and therapeutic point of view.

  3. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Young; Shin, Jae Il

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia (sodium levels of cerebral edema and brain herniation; therefore, prompt diagnosis and proper treatment is important in preventing morbidity and mortality. Among various causes of hyponatremia, diagnosing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome (C/RSW) is difficult due to many similarities. SIADH is caused by excess of renal water reabsorption through inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and fluid restriction is the treatment of choice. On the other hand, C/RSW is caused by natriuresis, which is followed by volume depletion and negative sodium balance and replacement of water and sodium is the mainstay of treatment. Determinating volume status in hyponatremic patients is the key point in differential between SIADH and C/RSW. However, in most situations, differential diagnosis of these two diseases is difficult because they overlap in many clinical and laboratory aspects, especially to assess differences in volume status of these patients. Although distinction between the SIADH and C/RSW is difficult, improvement of hypouricemia and an increased fractional excretion of uric acid after the correction of hyponatremia in SIADH, not in C/RSW, may be one of the helpful points in discriminating the two diseases. In this review, we compare these two diseases regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapeutic point of view.

  4. Occurrence of Swine Salmonellosis in Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome(PMWS) Affected Pigs Concurrently Infected with Porcine Re production and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)%断奶后多系统衰竭综合征病猪中存在沙门氏菌和猪繁殖与呼吸系统综合征病毒共感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoshi MURAKAMI; Akihiro O GAWA; Tomohide KINOSHITA; Atsuko MAT SUMOTO; Noriko ITO; Takashi NAKANE; 魏晓锋; 李春华

    2007-01-01

    调查了曾经暴发沙门氏菌病的四个猪场的14头病猪,发现在这些猪的肿胀淋巴结中出现带有淋巴细胞排空的肉芽肿性炎症.应用免疫标记和PCR方法在病变部位检测到猪圆环病毒2(PCV2)抗原和PCV2DNA.此外,在这些病猪的肺脏中检测出猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒(PRRSV),分离到猪霍乱沙门氏菌.在9头沙门氏菌感染猪中,有5头为沙门氏菌、PMWS与PRRSV并发感染,其数量(55.6%)远远高于沙门氏菌与PMWS感染猪(22.2%)或沙门氏菌与PRRSV感染猪(22.2%).

  5. Renal salt wasting as part of dysautonomia in Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, T; Grimm, C; Ringleb, P A

    2011-09-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) are the most important causes of non-iatrogenic hyponatraemia that can significantly complicate various brain diseases. Salt wasting without an underlying CNS disease may have been disregarded so far by clinicians and has been described as renal salt-wasting (RSW) in patients as drug side effect (eg, cisplatin), in older people with various common diseases (eg, hip fracture, pulmonary infections) and other sporadic conditions. In Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), however, hyponatraemia has been described mainly as SIAD. However, symptoms of hyponatraemia rarely develop in GBS. Here, we report on a woman with GBS with dominant symptoms of dysautonomia and moderate severe hyponatraemia. We could identify RSW as part of the autonomic dysfunction that significantly contributed to disease worsening.

  6. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following neurosurgical intervention in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagotkar, L; Shanbag, P; Dasarwar, N

    2008-07-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction in the presence of cerebral pathology. Diagnosis can be difficult and therapy is challenging. We report two children with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus who developed cerebral salt wasting following neurosurgical intervention. The first patient was managed with rigorous salt and water replacement whereas the second patient required the addition of fludrocortisone for control of salt-wasting.

  7. Hyponatraemia secondary to cerebral salt wasting syndrome following routine pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, S L; Coady, A M; White, M C; Mathew, B

    1996-08-01

    A female aged 53 years was found to have a suprasellar lesion, which was shown to be a Rathke's cyst after removal by transsphenoidal surgery. She presented 16 days postoperatively, and following two grand mal seizures was found to be profoundly hyponatraemic (sodium 101 nmol/l). She was initially thought to have the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone and was treated accordingly, but central venous pressure measurement revealed the hypovolaemia of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. The patient subsequently developed severe neurological sequelae after the correction of her hyponatraemia, following the development of extrapontine myelinolysis. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a rare cause of hyponatraemia following pituitary transsphenoidal surgery, which may mimic the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. This case emphasizes the poor prognosis that may result from the rapid correction of profound hyponatraemia.

  8. A case of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis in an 8-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Jun; Yokoyama, Yoshiki; Sekine, Takashi; Igarashi, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremic dehydration occur in patients with intracranial diseases. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome often develops in patients with severe neurosurgical disorders, such as hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, and tuberculous meningitis. Here, we report on the case of an 8-year-old boy with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis. He showed mild developmental retardation and had a history of convulsion. Four days after his admission, cerebral salt-wasting syndrome abruptly started: natriuresis and hyponatremia gradually improved over 10 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with clinically benign aseptic meningitis.

  9. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome following Head Injury in a Child Managed Successfully with Fludrocortisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral salt wasting (CSW syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone.

  10. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome following Head Injury in a Child Managed Successfully with Fludrocortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nagendra; Pathak, Santosh; Gupta, Murli Manohar; Agrawal, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone.

  11. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis and cerebral salt wasting syndrome: are they different and does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Michael L

    2012-05-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiudresis (SIAD) and cerebral salt wasting (CSW) are similar conditions with the main difference being the absence or presence of volume depletion. The two conditions may be indistinguishable at presentation, as volume status is difficult to assess, which can lead to under-diagnosis of CSW in patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease. Carefully conducted studies in patients with CNS disease have indicated that CSW may be more common than SIAD. CSW may be differentiated from SIAD based on the persistence of hypouricemia and increased fractional excretion of urate following the correction of hyponatremia. Hyponatremia should be prevented if possible and treated promptly when discovered in patients with CNS disease as even mild hyponatremia could lead to neurological deterioration. Fluid restriction should not be used for the prevention or treatment of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with CNS disease as it could lead to volume depletion especially if CSW is present. 0.9% sodium chloride may not be sufficiently hypertonic for the prevention of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with CNS disease and a more hypertonic fluid may be required. The preferred therapy for the treatment of hyponatremia in patients with CNS disease is 3% sodium chloride.

  12. Tuberculous meningitis complicated with hydrocephalus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a three-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Ming; Chen, Chu-Chin; Chiu, Pao-Chin; Cheng, Ming-Fang; Chiu, Ching-Lan; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2004-09-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a syndrome of hyponatremia and natriuresis described in patients with intracranial diseases. We describe a 3-year-old boy with tuberculous meningitis complicated by hydrocephalus and CSWS and emphasize the different clinical presentation and management of patients with CSWS and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

  13. Myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome with peculiar change in magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Soichi; Yamagami, Keiko; Morikawa, Takashi; Yoshioka, Katsunobu

    2010-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) could occurs in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), because of infiltration of leukemic cells into the neurohypophysis or some other reason and it is closely associated with abnormalities of chromosome 7. We report a case of MDS with abnormalities of chromosome 7, presenting as CDI followed by deterioration of polyuria and hyponatremia with a decreased extracellular fluid volume. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetrically enhanced lesions in the hypothalamus. Fludrocortisone treatment normalized his serum sodium level and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) was suspected.

  14. Cerebral infarction and cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, K L; Ramachandran, R; Abdullah, B J; Chow, S K; Goh, E M L; Yeap, S S

    2003-09-01

    A 38-year old female with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus was admitted with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. After an initial good response to anti-tuberculous treatment, she developed cerebral infarction and profound hyponatremia. This was due to cerebral salt wasting syndrome, which has only previously been described in 2 cases. The difficulties in diagnosis and management of this case are discussed.

  15. Isolation and characterisation of circoviruses from pigs with wasting syndromes in Spain, Denmark and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G.M.; Mc Neilly, F.; Meehan, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    A porcine circovirus (PCV) was isolated from tissues of pigs with wasting syndromes from Spain, Denmark and N. Ireland. The antigenic profiles of these viruses were determined by indirect immunofluorescence assays using polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) prepared against...

  16. [Cerebral salt wasting. Half a century of a largely undefined syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gastón, O D; Jorge, M

    2001-01-01

    Peters made the original description of the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in 1950 in three patients with hyponatremia that he assumed to be secondary to natriuresis of cerebral mechanism. Few years later, Schwartz describe the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in two patients with bronchial carcinoma, with characteristics similar to CSWS. Wijdicks gave clinical entity to CSWS when referring that it is the prevalent cause of hyponatremia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stressed the risk of secondary cerebral infarction if restrictive plans of water and salt were used as a consequence of a miss diagnosis. However, CSWS has been recently questioned because of its atypical characteristics, not shared by other saline wasting syndromes. The volume status of patients with hyponatremia and natriuresis determines whether the cause of this disorder is SIADH or CSWS. Nevertheless the evidence are contradictory, the vasopressin level can be recognized only in relation to the tonicity of body fluids, and the natriuresis is a common final pathway for both syndromes. In this literature review, some issues of CSWS that are associated or opposed with SIADH and other saline wasting syndrome are discussed. We conclude that the reports that sustain CSWS are insufficient in their methodology and interpretation of the results. The absence of strict metabolic studies has been negatively replaced by the original information casually quoted, and the strength of tradition. Thereafter, the paradigm generates unfounded ethical dilemmas which render difficult any further investigations with appropriate controls.

  17. Combined central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2009-02-01

    Central diabetes insipidus, a common consequence of acute central nervous system injury, causes hypernatremia; cerebral salt wasting syndrome can cause hyponatremia. The two conditions occurring simultaneous are rarely described in pediatric patients. Pediatric cases of combined diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting after acute central nervous system injury between January 2000 and December 2007 were retrospectively reviewed, and clinical characteristics were systemically assessed. Sixteen patients, aged 3 months to 18 years, met study criteria: 11 girls and 5 boys. The most common etiologies were severe central nervous system infection (n = 7, 44%) and hypoxic-ischemic event (n = 4, 25%). In 15 patients, diabetes insipidus was diagnosed during the first 3 days after acute central nervous system injury. Onset of cerebral salt wasting syndrome occurred 2-8 days after the onset of diabetes insipidus. In terms of outcome, 13 patients died (81%) and 3 survived under vegetative status (19%). Central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome may occur after acute central nervous system injury. A combination of both may impede accurate diagnosis. Proper differential diagnoses are critical, because the treatment strategy for each entity is different.

  18. [A case of acute limbic encephalitis with cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Motonobu; Nishitani, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with psychiatric symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis and increased protein. The patient was diagnosed with limbic encephalitis on the basis of the clinical course. However, remarkable hyponatremia was noted throughout the clinical course, leading to a diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). The hyponatremia was alleviated by supplementation with sodium and water. The findings seen in this case indicate that differentiation between syndrome of inappropriate of antidiuretic hormone and CSWS is important in cases of hyponatremia accompanied by central nervous system disease.

  19. [Hyponatraemia in patients with neurosurgical disorders: SIADH or cerebral salt wasting syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Felix J

    2009-11-01

    Patients with neurosurgical disorders often present with hyponatraemia. Two mechanisms account for hyponatraemia in these patients: the Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) and Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS). The two entities differ in their volume status. In SIADH, volume is expanded due to ADH-mediated renal water retention, but in CSWS, volume is diminished as a consequence of renal salt wasting, most likely attributable to an increased secretion of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and Artrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP). Since it is clinically difficult to distinguish between these two entities, fluid management has to be performed carefully. Salt and fluid replacement appears to be indicated in CSWS, whereas fluid restriction might be the primary approach in patients with SIADH.

  20. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome secondary to head injury: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawajiri, K; Matsuoka, Y; Kan, M

    1992-09-01

    A case of cerebral salt wasting syndrome secondary to head injury is reported here. A 4-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with head injury. Neurological examination revealed no abnormal findings other than consciousness disturbance. Plain skull X-ray demonstrated a linear fracture of the bilateral parietal bones, and CT scan demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage of the tentorium of the cerebellum. He gradually improved, but on the 6th day deterioration of consciousness developed. At that time CT scan demonstrated no abnormal findings. Biochemical analysis showed hyponatremia (116mEq/L) with increased natriuresis. Although a high dose of NaCl was supplied, serum sodium levels did not normalize. So we suspected that SIADH might be causing the hyponatremia, and water restriction was started. He lost 1 kg in body weight over 3 days, but serum sodium levels remained low (118mEq/L) with increased natriuresis. We found that the hyponatremia was caused by cerebral salt wasting syndrome, so we treated the patient with fludrocortisone acetate. Consciousness disturbance improved two days after the medication with fludrocortisone acetate, and serum sodium levels became normal (137mEq/L) on the 27th day. The administration of fludrocortisone acetate was able to be stopped two months after admission, and then the patient was discharged without any neurological deficits. We discussed in detail the diagnosis and the treatment of cerebral salt wasting syndrome.

  1. Two cases of cerebral salt wasting syndrome developing after cranial vault remodeling in craniosynostosis children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Ju; Huh, Eun-Ju; Byeon, Jun-Hee

    2004-08-01

    Hyponatremia has been recognized as an important postoperative metabolic complication after central nervous system (CNS) operations in children. If not appropriately treated, the postoperative hyponatremia can cause several types of CNS and circulatory disorders such as cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure. The postoperative hyponatremia after CNS surgery has been considered as one of the underlying causes of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). In some cases, however, the cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has been detected. CSW syndrome is far less well-known than SIADH and also different from SIADH in diagnosis and treatment. It causes an increase in urine output and urine sodium after a trauma of CNS and dehydration symptoms. The appropriate treatment of CSW syndrome is opposite the usual treatment of hyponatremia caused by SIADH. The latter is treated with fluid restriction because of the increased level of free water and its dilutional effect causing hyponatremia, whereas the former is treated with fluid and sodium resuscitation because of the unusual loss of high urinary sodium. Early diagnosis and treatment of CSW syndrome after CNS surgery are, therefore, essential. We made a diagnosis of CSW syndrome in two craniosynostosis children manifesting postoperative hyponatremia and supplied them an appropriate amount of water and sodium via intravenous route. The hyponatremia or natricuresis of the children improved and neurologic and circulatory sequelae could be prevented.

  2. Luteolin suppresses TCDD-induced wasting syndrome in a cultured adipocyte model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hitoshi; Harada, Kiyonari; Mishima, Sakiho; Mitani, Takakazu; Yamashita, Yoko; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes various toxic effects, including wasting syndrome, through activation of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Our previous report demonstrated that certain flavonoids inhibit the activation of AhR and suppress its DNA binding activity. In this study, we searched for an active compound among 13 flavonoids that suppressed TCDD-induced loss of lipid accumulation using 3T3-L1 adipocytes as a cell culture model for wasting syndrome. Two flavonoids, luteolin and epigallocatechin gallate, suppressed TCDD-induced loss of lipid accumulation in this model. We further investigated luteolin to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism and confirmed that luteolin inhibited nuclear translocation of AhR caused by TCDD. Luteolin also inhibited the TCDD-driven decrease in protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα). Although TCDD alone did not change protein expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ, luteolin and TCDD up-regulated C/EBPδ expression in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, TCDD significantly decreased DNA binding of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ, and luteolin completely canceled TCDD-decreased DNA binding of them. We conclude that luteolin suppresses the TCDD-induced loss of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by preventing a decrease in protein expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα, the master regulators of adipocyte differentiation and in DNA binding of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ. Moreover, luteolin was rapidly incorporated and accumulated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, luteolin is an attractive compound for the prevention of TCDD-induced wasting syndrome.

  3. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Cisplatin-Induced Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome: A Challenging Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Gerard; Hansford, Jordan R; Duke, Trevor

    2016-05-01

    We describe a 2-year-old female with a suprasellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central diabetes insipidus (DI) who developed polyuria with natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremia 36 hr after cisplatin administration. The marked urinary losses of sodium in combination with a negative sodium balance led to the diagnosis of cisplatin-induced renal salt wasting syndrome (RSWS). The subsequent clinical management is very challenging. Four weeks later she was discharged from ICU without neurological sequela. The combination of cisplatin-induced RSWS with DI can be confusing and needs careful clinical assessment as inaccurate diagnosis and management can result in increased neurological injury.

  4. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient affected of spontaneous frontoparietal subdural haematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá-Esteve, Mariaina; Badia, Mariona; Trujillano, Javier; Vilanova, Cecília; Maravall, Javier; Mauricio, Dídac

    2009-01-01

    Ever since cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) was first described in 1950, there have been debates over its existence and whether it has an important place in the differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia. We report the case of a neurosurgical patient with sustained hyponatraemia and abnormally high sodium loss in the urine, with signs of fluid volume depletion. Hyponatraemia was not corrected after an intravenous infusion of saline solution. Stable concentrations of blood sodium above 130 mmol/l were achieved with the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone daily, with an ensuing reduction in sodium elimination through the urine.

  5. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adolescents: 3 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yeon Jin; Lee, Hyun Young; Jung, In Ah; Cho, Won-Kyoung; Cho, Bin; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a rare disease characterized by a extracellular volume depletion and hyponatremia induced by marked natriuresis. It is mainly reported in patients who experience a central nervous system insult, such as cerebral hemorrhage or encephalitis. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is a main cause of severe hyponatremia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, whereas CSWS is rarely reported. We report 3 patients with childhood acute leukemia who developed CSWS with central nervous system complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The diagnosis of CSW was made on the basis of severe hyponatremia accompanied by increased urine output with clinical signs of dehydration. All patients showed elevated natriuretic peptide and normal antidiuretic hormone. Aggressive water and sodium replacement treatment was instituted in all 3 patients and 2 of them were effectively recovered, the other one was required to add fludrocortisone administration.

  6. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with posttraumatic brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2012-01-01

    In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). Both clinical entities share many similar laboratory and clinical findings, and are characterized by low serum osmolality, inappropriately high urine osmolality, and high urine sodium levels. Despite outward similarities, the pathophysiology and treatment of these two conditions are very different. The former is treated with fluid restriction because of the increased level of free water and its dilutional effect causing hyponatremia, whereas the latter is treated with fluid and sodium resuscitation because of the increased loss of high urinary sodium. We present a 24-year-old man who developed CSWS after traumatic brain injury, showing diagnostic and treatment strategies undertaken in this patient and their impact on the course of CSWS. This case report illustrates the need for clinical awareness of CSWS in patients after head trauma.

  7. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome due to tuberculous meningitis; a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed; Majid, Zain; Mehdi, Mehwish; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old male presented with fever, nausea, and vomiting since 15 days along with irritability and confusion since 5 days. His laboratory reports showed low serum sodium, serum osmolality and uric acid. Computerized tomography (CT) scan of brain revealed age-related changes. While on lumbar puncture (LP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, CSF protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total leukocyte count (predominant lymphocytes) were all increased. On his 14th day of admission, his serum sodium was 116 mEq/l and he had a high urine output. Fluid restriction was tried in order to rule out syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) but the patient did not respond to it. Keeping in view the above findings, a final diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis leading to cerebral salt wasting syndrome was made. The patient was started on 3% hypertonic saline, mineralocorticoids and anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT), to which he responded favorably and was later discharged.

  8. [Prolonged cerebral salt wasting following craniopharyngioma surgery and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtonari, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masanori; Urasaki, Eiichiro; Yokota, Akira; Araki, Shunsuke; Asayama, Koutaro; Shirahata, Akira

    2005-01-01

    A 9-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with daytime urinary incontinence for the past one year. MRI showed craniopharyngioma occupying the third ventricle. The tumor was excised by interhemispheric approach. Because hyponatremia and polyuria with high renal loss of sodium were observed on postoperative day 3, hydrocortisone and DDAVP were replaced. On postoperative day 24, successive general convulsions and hyponatremia recurred, and MRI FLAIR imaging showed marked brain edema in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobes. This finding disappeared late in the course of treatment, and the case was diagnosed as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. The pathophysiology of cerebral salt wasting and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a craniopharyngioma patient are also discussed in the article.

  9. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome associated with Listeria monocytogenes encephalitis. Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jorge; Matamala, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Hyponatremia is common in patients with severe neurological diseases and is often secondary to a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). However, in some patients, hyponatremia is due to cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). SIADH and CSWS treatments are opposite and misdiagnosis can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. We report a 52 years old female with a rhom-boencephalitis caused by Listeria Monocytogenes (LM), ventriculitis and abscesses in cerebellum and brainstem. It was associated with hyponatremia, hypotension, increased natriuresis, hypouricemia, and low creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. Large amounts of sodium were needed and the condition persisted after hospital discharge. Hyponatremia is common in central nervous system involvement by LM, however we are not aware of CSWS reports of this condition.

  10. Intestinal lesions in pigs affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome Lesões entéricas em suínos afetados por síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento dos suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Zlotowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of mesenteric lymph nodes and intestines from 79 unthrifty 3- to 5-month-old postweaning pigs, confirmed as naturally affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, were studied. Pigs originated from 12 farms in southern Brazil and were selected on the basis of clinical signs and/or gross lesions suggestive of enteric disorder. Lymphohistiocytic infiltrates of varying intensity were associated with anti-porcine circovirus type 2 (anti-PCV2 immunostaining (IS in samples of intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes from all pigs. Although most findings were similar to those described in PCV2-associated enteritis, anti-PCV2 IS in association with depletion of the goblet cell mucin stores (24 pigs, diffuse ileal villous atrophy and fusion (18 pigs, and dilatation of the lymphatic vessels (11 pigs combined or not with lymphangitis were also observed. PCV2 antigen was immunohistochemically demonstrated in the cytoplasm and nuclei from intralesional epithelial cells, histiocytes, and endothelial-like cells in intestinal tissues. Together these findings imply an association with PCV2. The presence of co-infections by Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira spp., Mycobacterium spp., Salmonella spp., rotavirus, parvovirus, coronavirus and enteric calicivirus with PCV2 in the intestinal lesions was investigated.Amostras de linfonodos mesentéricos e intestinos de 79 leitões desmamados refugos, entre 3 e 5 meses de idade e confirmados como naturalmente afetados pela síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento foram estudadas. Os suínos eram oriundos de 12 criações no sul do país e foram selecionados em função dos sinais clínicos e/ou lesões macroscópicas sugestivos de doença entérica. Infiltrados linfoistiocíticos de intensidades variáveis foram associados com marcação positiva anti-circovirus suíno tipo 2 (anti-PCV2 em amostras de intestinos e linfonodos mesentéricos de todos os 79 animais. Embora a maioria dos achados

  11. [Clinical case of the month. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabres, V; Canivet, J L; Hennuy, V; Damas, P

    1999-11-01

    A 75 year old woman was found to have a posterior cerebellar lesion which after surgical removal was shown to be a meningioma. Her postoperative course was complicated by a MRSA meningitis and on day 23 after resection, a polyuria up to 11.7 1/24 h became apparent. The diagnosis of cerebral wasting syndrome (CSWS) was made based on biological and clinical features such as an excessive natriuresis (143 mmol/l) resulting in hyponatremia (130 mmol/l) and an osmolarity higher in urine than in blood. A low central venous pressure and a low wedge pressure confirming a volumic depletion indicated the diagnosis of CSWS. This syndrome has marked similarities with the Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone Syndrome (SIADH) in terms of biological finding with regards to clinical context and presentation. Without an adequate assessment, a patient with CSWS may be misdiagnosed as SIADH. However recognition is important, as water restriction which is part of SIADH treatment, is detrimental to patients with CSWS and can possibly be lethal.

  12. Hyponatremia in traumatic brain injury patients: Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) versus Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome(CSWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Parandoush; Abbasi, Zahra; Mohammadi, Najaf Seid; Bagheri, Seyedreza; Fattahian, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Two common dysfunctions among traumatic brain injury (TBI) are hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS).The present study was aimed to define real incidence and most common cause of this problem. Differentiation between these two syndromes is difficult because of overlapping signs, symptoms and specially laboratory data. Distinction between the two syndromes is based on patient's volume state. The present study aims to develop an alternative diagnosis strategy for defining the type of post-TBI hyponatremia. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study conducted on TBI diagnosed patients referred to intensive care unit (ICU) of Taleghani Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran). Hyponatremia condition is diagnosed when sodium level reaches the values of less than 135 meq/lit. Basic criterion for diagnosing the hyponatremia type was only urine volume. Urine volume was compared with previous days and fluid intake. If the volume showed a reduction, then the patient was classified in SIADH group, and the prescribed treatment was only fluid intake restriction. In cases of CSWS that have polyuric state and hyponatremia, treatment is sodium and fluid replacement. CBC, Na, K, FBS, BUN, Cr and urine 24-hour volume were measured daily, while during the treatment, it was performed twice or more. Results: A total of 881 patients were referred to ICU during January 2011 to March 2012, of them, 678 patients had head trauma with and/or without other body injury. Out of all patients, 216 (%32) showed hyponatremia. Based on our diagnosis and treatment strategies, all of patient had lower urine output than previous day and were classified in the SIADH group and treated with only fluid restriction. None of patients were classified in CSWS group. All patients well recovered from hyponatremia with simple fluid restriction. In a clinical examination after a follow up period

  13. An analysis of the association of gastroenteric lesions with chronic wasting syndrome of marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalifoux, L V; Bronson, R T; Escajadillo, A; McKenna, S

    1982-09-01

    Retrospective pathology data from necropsies of 162 marmosets, Saguinus oedipus, were studied to determine the nature of chronic wasting syndrome, a poorly defined entity associated with a high mortality rate in many marmoset colonies. Paraffin sections of the gastroenteric organs of 116 of these marmosets were re-examined in detail; lesions were identified, quantitated, and analyzed with a method of multiple chi-square testing for possible associations between findings. Five distinct disease entities were identified: prosthenorchosis, amebiasis, paramyxovirus disease, sepsis, and chronic colitis. Lesions of several of these often occurred in the same monkey, and all but the first were associated with cachexia. Lesions of chronic colitis were crypt abscesses, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear infiltration of the lamina propria, epithelial cell atypia, karyorrhexis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. The cause of chronic colitis was not identified, nor was any explanation found for weight loss and increased susceptibility to disease.

  14. Hyponatremia hypo-osmolarity in neurosurgical patients. "Appropriate secretion of ADH" and "cerebral salt wasting syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, F; de Tribolet, N

    1988-01-01

    This prospective study is based on 256 patients with severe brain injury. Six patients (2.3%) developed the clinical picture of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH): 3 in the first 3 days following the injury, 3 after more than a week. Their ADH plasmatic level were measured by radio-immunoassay. In the former, many factors, largely iatrogenic, can explain the increased secretion of ADH we found and which is then definitely "appropriate". It should be prevented by fluid restriction. In the latter, we found adequately low ADH levels, when the hypo-osmolarity is taken into account. Here, the aetiology seems to be a renal salt loss, eventually in relation to a natriuric factor (e.g. atrial natriuretic factor), justifying the term: "Cerebral salt wasting syndrome". With the resistance to fluid restriction, the treatment still remains a problem.

  15. Hyponatremia in a child with tuberculous meningitis in PICU: Cerebral salt wasting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Boşnak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW has been reported in cases with subarachnoid haemorrhage, infections, head injury, brain tumours, trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery, and neurosurgery. It is characterized by extracellular fluid depletion and hyponatraemia caused by progressive natriuresis with concomitant diuresis.The relationship between tuberculous menengitis and CSW in children has been desciribed rarely. We describe a case of CSW in an eight years old child with tuberculous meningitis in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU whose main biochemical findings were low serum sodium, excessive urine sodium loss and clinical evidence of a contracted extracellular fluid volume.It is essential that in any child with hyponatremia and meningitis in PICU, an evaluation to be undertaken to differentiate between syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH and CSW. A wrong diagnosis might lead to inappropriate fluid restriction and worsen the hypovolemia in children with CSW. Supplements of sodium chloride and mineralocorticoids may be useful in managing children with CSW. PICU professionals must be aware of the clinical and laboratory features that distinguish CSW from SIADH.

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome With Cryptococcal Meningitis in HIV Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggeun; Collado, Anitsira; Singla, Montish; Carbajal, Roger; Chaudhari, Ashok; Baumstein, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in HIV patients. The differential diagnosis may include hypovolemic hyponatremia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), and adrenal insufficiency. Here, we describe a case of hyponatremia secondary to cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in an HIV patient with cryptococcal meningitis. A 52-year-old man with a history of diabetes and HIV was admitted for headache and found to have cryptococcal meningitis. He was also found to have asymptomatic hyponatremia. He had signs of hypovolemia, such as orthostatic hypotension, dry mucosa, decreased skin turgor, hemoconcentration, contraction alkalosis, and high BUN/Cr ratio. The laboratory findings revealed sodium of 125 mmol/L, potassium of 5.5 mmol/L, urine osmolality of 522 mOsm/kg, urine sodium of 162 mmol/L, and urine chloride of 162 mmol/L. We started normal saline for hypovolemia, each 1 L prior and after amphotericin therapy. However, hypovolemia did not improve significantly despite IV fluid. Cosyntropin stimulation test was negative, and renin level was 0.25 ng·mL·h, with the aldosterone level of Salt tablets, normal saline, or fludrocortisone can be used for treatment.

  17. [Massive natriuresis and polyuria after triple craniocervical subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral salt wasting syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, E; Scherer, R; Schuricht, G; Rol, R; Hengst, K

    1992-11-01

    A thirty-year-old male patient suffered subarachnoidal haemorrhage from an angioma positioned in the cranio-cervical transition. After rebleeding twice the patient developed a hydrocephalus internus malresorptivus and excessive natriuresis and polyuria, accompanied by depressed renin activity and extremely low aldosterone plasma levels. Neither fluid restriction and sodium substitution, nor administration of hydro-chlorothiazide/indomethacin affected natriuresis and polyuria. It was only after treatment with fludrocortisone-acetate/hydrocortisone that hyponatraemia and polyuria were resolved. At the same time a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was applied. Differential diagnosis excluded the syndromes of inadequate antidiuretic hormone secretion, renal and cerebral diabetes insipidus, osmotic receptor hypofunction, chronic renal dysfunction and tubular necrosis. Natriuresis and polyuria developed under dexamethasone therapy. Since patient history, physical examination and laboratory criteria could not explain the electrolyte and fluid imbalance, this might be attributed to the hydrocephalus. Similar disturbances have been reported from other patients with intracranial disorders. Mechanical pressure exercised on the hypothalamus might cause the disturbance of fluid and sodium balance. Assuming a cerebral salt wasting syndrome, a putative natriuretic factor coming from the brain or an imbalance in the cerebral renin-angiotensin-system, as described in rats and dogs, must be discussed.

  18. Serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) as a biochemical marker for wasting marmoset syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Takuro; Niimi, Kimie; Takahashi, Eiki

    2016-06-01

    Use of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate experimental animal has increased in recent years. Although wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS) is one of the biggest problems in captive marmoset colonies, the molecular mechanisms, biochemical markers for accurate diagnosis and a reliable treatment remain unknown. In this study, as a first step to finding biochemical marker(s) for the accurate diagnosis of WMS, we conducted blood cell counts, including hematocrit, hemoglobin and platelets, and examined serum chemistry values, including albumin, calcium and levels of serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), using a colony of marmosets with and without weight loss. MMP9 is thought to be an enzyme responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix components and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammatory conditions, such as human and murine inflammatory bowel disease, which, like WMS, are characterized histologically by inflammatory cell infiltrations in the intestines. The values of hematocrit and hemoglobin and levels of serum albumin and calcium in the WMS group were significantly decreased versus the control group. The platelet values and serum MMP9 concentrations were increased significantly in the WMS group compared with the control group. MMP9 could be a new and useful marker for the diagnosis of WMS in addition to hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum albumin and calcium. Our results also indicate that MMP9 could be a useful molecular candidate for treatment.

  19. Exophytic bulbar pilocytic astrocytoma and post-operative cerebral salt wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, P O; Sajadi, A; Huot, C; Traistaru, M; Mercier, C; Weil, A G; Crevier, L

    2017-05-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a well-described consequence of several neurological disorders. Although the exact etiology of CSWS is still not completely elucidated, it is believed that the hypothalamus plays a pivotal role in the genesis of this disorder. We report for the first time 3 cases of CSWS occurring during the post-operative course following surgical resection of exophytic bulbar pilocytic astrocytomas in children. Since these 3 cases shared in common a medial implication of the medulla, we suggest that specific interconnectivity between the dorso-medial portion of the medulla oblongata and the hypothalamus might thus represent an anatomical pathway of interest in the pathogenesis of CSWS. Our findings suggest that the resection of medially located exophytic bulbar tumors might constitutes a risk factor in the development of CSWS. Particular care should thus be carried towards the prompt detection and treatment of CSWS in the post-operative courses of exophytic bulbar tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Case of cerebral salt wasting syndrome with difficulty in controling excessive urine volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Sakiko; Kooguch, Kunihiko; Fukui, Michihiko; Osawa, Takeshi; Beppu, Satoru; Inoue, Shizuka; Yamada, Tomoki

    2007-03-01

    Symptoms of hyponatremia and diuresis due to cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) are often observed after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Inadequately treated CSWS is known to work as a trigger of symptomatic vasospasm in SAH patients. Therefore, it is indispensable to detect and treat CSWS as early as possible in ICU. A 36-year-old man with SAH was admitted to our ICU. His urine volume increased excessively 3 days after ICU admission, and it reached a peak (39,250 ml x day(-1)) on the 6th day in ICU. Since infusion volume was controlled with regard to daily urinary output, hyponatremia was not noticeable and excessive urine volume stood out conspicuously. Though vasopressin and desmopressin were administered, the symptoms of natriuresis and hyponatremia were aggravated, associated with hyper secretion of natriuretic peptides (ANP 160 pg x dl(-1), BNP 172 pg x dl(-1)). Recent studies revealed that hyponatremia and hypovolemia following SAH might be caused by exaggerated secretion of natriuretic peptides. Experimental studies showed that the administration of vasopressin and desmopressin cause excessive secretion of natriuretic peptides under the circumstance of volume expansion in rats. We infer that the administration of vasopressin and desmopressin to our patient deterionated natriuresis in CSWS as in the previous experimental findings.

  1. [Hyponatremia in neurologic intensive care: cerebral salt wasting syndrome and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, D; Favre, J B; Ravussin, P

    2001-02-01

    Hyponatraemia is a frequent complication in neurologically injured patients; it is a secondary cerebral injury. Hyponatraemia leads to consciousness problems, convulsions, worsening of the neurological status and thus the neurological evaluation. Hyponatraemia is secondary to free water retention (inappropriate ADH secretion) or to renal salt loss. The cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) has been described with head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and after several sorts of brain insults. It is characterised by an increased natriuresis and diuresis. Diagnosis is based on hyponatraemia, hypernatriuresis, increased diuresis and hypovolaemia. However, inappropriate ADH secretion and CSWS share several diagnostic criteria. The atrial natriuretic factor and the C-type natriuretic factors play a role in the development of the CSWS. The diagnostic approach and monitoring are based on the assessment of sodium and water losses. Therapy is based on correction of the circulating volume and natraemia. Speed of correction is a matter of debate: slow correction presents the risk of further neurological injury whereas rapid correction presents the risk of central pontine myelinosis.

  2. Gastric ulcers in pigs affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome Úlceras gástricas em suínos afetados pela síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of gastric lymph nodes and the stomachs from 24 pigs selected from herds affected by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and sudden death associated with gastric ulcers were studied. Pigs were selected on the basis of unthriftiness, decreased feed intake, and wasting. The stomachs were opened, inverted, and classified into 0-3 score according the severity of the gross lesions present in pars oesophagica (non-glandulargastric mucosa. Selected samples were processed for paraffin embedding and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemistry using anti-PCV2 (porcine circovírus type 2 antibody, anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody and a wide-spectrum anti-cytokeratin antibody was performed. Gross changes in pars oesophagea were classified according to the severity of lesions as score 3, 2, and 1 in 8, 6, 5 stomachs respectivelly. Microscopically, hyperplastic lymphoid follicles, lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrates and focci of necrosis in the gastric mucosa were common findings. Large amounts of PCV2 antigen were observed in the cytoplasm and nuclei from intralesional cells and debris from the gastric glandular mucosal zone; however, in the fundus, anti-PCV2 immunostaining was restricted to the surface mucosal cells and foveolar compartment. All gastric lymph nodes were positive for PCV2 antigen. Anti-H. pylori immunostaining was seen in eleven cases, mainly in the antrum, on the mucosal surface and foveolar compartment. The association of the anti-PCV2 immunostaining with the glandular mucus-producing cells suggests a role for PCV2 as an additional factor for the swine ulcer development.Amostras de linfonodos gástricos e os estômagos de 24 leitões selecionados de rebanhos afetados pela síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento suíno e mortes súbitas por úlceras gástricas foram estudados. Os animais foram seleciona dos por baixa performance, baixo consumo de alimento e desnutrição. Os estômagos foram

  3. 脑性盐耗综合症%Cerebral salt wasting syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高寒; 张嘉林; 漆松涛

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 概述 神经外科病人术后常出现低钠血症,尤其是鞍区肿瘤术后更为常见.以往将其统统归因于抗利尿激素分泌不当综合症(syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion , SIADH),但近些年来另一种与SIADH病因完全不同的,也可以引起低钠血症的综合症渐渐受到人们的重视,这就是脑性盐耗综合症(cerebral salt wasting syndrome, CSWS).CSWS的主要临床表现为低钠血症、尿钠增高和低血容量,而SIADH是正常血容量或血容量增加的,这一点是与CSWS的最主要区别.CSWS这个名词由Peters和他的同事于1950年首先提出[1].他们描述了由中枢系统疾病引起的肾性耗盐,猜测脑的功能紊乱使肾无法保存钠,导致钠的丢失及相伴的细胞外液的丢失.当Bennet和Schwantz报道了SIADH 后[2],由于用其可以较简单的解释低钠血症的发生,所以所有的低钠血症都被笼统的归因于SIADH,而CSWS渐渐为人淡忘.但是近年来的很多临床及实验研究都表明,有的低钠血症是由于钠自尿中的流失而引起,且伴有明显的细胞外液的减少.这一现象与SIADH的定义显然是矛盾的,因此CSWS近来又重新受到人们的重视.

  4. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following brain injury in three pediatric patients: suggestions for rapid diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkenbosch, John W; Lentz, Christopher W; Jimenez, David F; Tobias, Joseph D

    2002-02-01

    The association between hyponatremia and intracranial pathology has been well described. When accompanied by natriuresis, hyponatremia has most commonly been attributed to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that many of these patients may actually have cerebral mediated salt losses, a disorder referred to as the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). While this syndrome has been reasonably well described in adults, data regarding CSWS in pediatric-aged patients remains sparse. Since fluid management of these disorders is different, it is important that the clinician be able to rapidly differentiate between them. We report three cases of CSWS in acutely brain-injured children and comment on the role that early quantitation of urine volume and urine sodium concentration had in rapidly establishing the correct diagnosis.

  5. Research advances of cerebral salt wasting syndrome%脑性盐耗综合征研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆荣; 史继新

    2007-01-01

    @@ 一、发展史与发病情况 中枢性低钠血症是神经外科常见的并发症,主要有抗利尿激素分泌不当综合征(syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion,SIADH)和脑性盐耗综合征(Cerebral salt wasting syndrome,CSWS).CSWS在1950年由Peters提出,主要表现为肾脏保钠功能下降,尿钠进行性增多,血容量进行性减少而引起的低血容量和低钠血症.

  6. Differentiation of the cerebral salt wasting syndrome and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion%脑性盐耗综合征与抗利尿激素异常分泌综合征的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莎莎; 李嫔

    2014-01-01

    脑性盐耗综合征和抗利尿激素异常分泌综合征在颅脑疾病相关的低钠血症中均占用一定比例.两种疾病临床表现极为相似,且易混淆,而治疗原则却大不相同.因此,正确鉴别两种疾病,对于临床患者的治疗及预后意义重大.该文从发病机制、诊断及治疗等方面对两种疾病进行鉴别.%The cerebral salt wasting syndrome and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion are frequent in hyponatremia in patients with intracranial disorders.There is a major problem about the incidence,diagnosis,and differentiation of cerebral salt wasting syndrome and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone in patients with acute central nervous system disorders.Clinical presentation of cerebral salt wasting syndrome is similar to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion,but the therapy is different.So differential diagnosis is essential for appropriate management.This paper differentiate two kinds of diseases from the pathogenesis,diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: postoperative complication in tumours of the cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Juretschke, Fernando; Arístegui, Miguel; García-Leal, Roberto; Fernández-Carballal, Carlos; Lowy, Alejandro; Martin-Oviedo, Carlos; Panadero, Teresa

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a rare complication in posterior fossa tumour surgery. We present two patients with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumours who developed cerebral salt wasting postoperatively. Both patients deteriorated in spite of intensive fluid and salt replacement. On CT scan the patients presented mild to moderate ventricular dilation, which was treated with an external ventricular drainage. After the resolution of hydrocephalus, fluid balance rapidly returned to normal in both patients and the clinical status improved. Identification and treatment of secondary obstructive hydrocephalus may contribute to the management of CSW associated to posterior fossa tumour surgery.

  8. More than a decade of conflict between hazardous waste management and public resistance: a case study of NIMBY syndrome in Souselas (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Gerardo, Romeu

    2009-12-30

    Portugal's export amount of hazardous waste is increasing. More than 10 years ago, waste co-incineration in cement kilns was proposed in Portugal for technical and economic reasons amid administrative willingness to manage hazardous waste domestically. However, this waste project has still not been realized owing to local public resistance (the so-called NIMBY syndrome). We focus attention on the long-term resistance, and the following points are established through analysis: (i) public participation was left out of the project at the initial stage, so public confidence in government ability has been declining, (ii) public antipathy results from emotive stimulation and/or mental fears rather than scientific evidence, and (iii) indirect socio-economic factors in the region proposed for a hazardous waste facility are completely excluded from the project scope. The presented case study suggests that public acceptability is quite important in implementing hazardous waste management without delay. Therefore, engineers, researchers and planners in hazardous waste management should be aware that a report addressing only technical performance is less beneficial than a comprehensive report for putting a management tool into industrial practice.

  9. [Successful treatment for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis complicated by cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapenko, V G; Konovalenko, I B; Oksema, E V; Filippova, L N; Dulaeva, E N; Derevyannykh, N A; Krasnoruzhsky, A I; Klimovich, A V; Klimko, N N; Medvedeva, N V

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a common agent of fungal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is one of the rare causes of severe hyponatremia in patients with CNS diseases. The paper describes the first clinical case of a patient, whose onset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was complicated by cryptococcal meningoencephalitis presenting with mental disorders and severe electrolytic imbalance. Antifungal treatment with amphotericin B and fluconazole could alleviate an infectious process and metabolic disturbances.

  10. TCDD-induced anorexia and wasting syndrome in rats: effects of diet-induced obesity and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, J T; Pohjanvirta, R; Unkila, M; Tuomisto, J

    1999-04-01

    Interactions of diet and diet-induced obesity, and the characteristic wasting syndrome caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were studied in TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar and TCDD-sensitive Long-Evans rats. The rats were made obese by feeding them either a high-energy diet (consisting of chocolate, cheese, and chow) or force feeding. TCDD reduced body weight in a parallel manner in lean and obese rats. The high-energy diet diminished the body weight loss and increased the survival time in L-E rats after a lethal dose of TCDD, while energy supplement with high-fat/low-protein food had an opposite effect. In conclusion, diet-induced obesity and TCDD had additive effects on body weight. Dietary manipulations were able to modify the weight loss and survival time after TCDD. Fat seems to have a negative impact, while carbohydrate or protein may have a positive impact in this respect. The results are in agreement with a view that TCDD-exposed rats have a negative fat balance favoring fat loss.

  11. [Increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictor of cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered to correlate with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) induced by cerebral vasospasm; however, its exact mechanism is still not well-known. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between hyponatremia caused by CSWS and the increase of the urinary sodium excretion in early phase following SAH. Fifty-four patients with SAH were divided into 2 groups, normonatremia group and hyponatremia group which suffered hyponatremia after SAH. The hyponatremia group comprise 14 patients (26%) in whom the hyponatremia developed of the SAH. In this group, the serum level of sodium significantly decreased 7 days after SAH and then gradually normalised. Further, excretion of sodium in the urine tended to increase 3 days after SAH and significantly increased 7 days after SAH. In conclusion, the increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of SAH would serve as a predictive factor for CSWS after SAH. We consider that it is important to start sodium and fluid supplementation and inhibit natriuresis by fludrocortisone acetate administration before hyponatremia occurs in order to prevention delayed ischemic neurological deficits in SAH patients.

  12. Protein-energy wasting syndrome in advanced chronic kidney disease: prevalence and specific clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Almudena; González Garcia, M Elena; San José-Valiente, Belén; Bajo Rubio, M Auxiliadora; Celadilla Diez, Olga; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Selgas, Rafael

    2017-07-26

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased mortality and differs depending on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage and the dialysis technique. The prevalence in non-dialysis patients is understudied and ranges from 0 to 40.8%. To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of Spanish advanced CKD patients by PEW criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA). Cross-sectional study of 186 patients (101 men) with a mean age of 66.1±16 years. The nutritional assessment consisted of: SGA, PEW criteria, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric parameters and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis. The prevalence of PEW was 30.1%, with significant differences between men and women (22.8 vs. 33.8%, p < 0.005), while 27.9% of SGA values were within the range of malnutrition. No differences were found between the 2methods. Men had higher proteinuria, percentage of muscle mass and nutrient intake. Women had higher levels of total cholesterol, HDL and a higher body fat percentage. The characteristics of patients with PEW were low albumin levels and a low total lymphocyte count, high proteinuria, low fat and muscle mass and a high Na/K ratio. The multivariate analysis found PEW to be associated with: proteinuria (OR: 1.257; 95% CI: 1.084-1.457, p=0.002), percentage of fat intake (OR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.893-0.983, p=0.008), total lymphocyte count (OR: 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998-0.999, p=0.001) and cell mass index (OR: 0.995; 95% CI: 0.992-0.998). Malnutrition was identified in Spanish advanced CKD patients measured by different tools. We consider it appropriate to adapt new diagnostic elements to PEW criteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of two quantitative PCR techniques for porcine circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) nucleic acid in field samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Sibila, M.

    Porcine circovirus type 2 /PCV2) is considered the essential infectious agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a global swine disease of devastating economic and animal welfare impact. Most pigs become infected with PCV2 during their life, but only a proportion of them develo...

  14. Cytokine and C-reactive protein profiles induced by porcine circovirus type 2 experimental infection in 3-week-old piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, L.S.; McCullough, K.; Vincent, I.;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum profiles of cytokines at a protein level and C-reactive protein (CRP) during the development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in experimentally inoculated pigs. Levels of serum IFN-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and CRP were examined for a...

  15. 脑性盐耗综合征的观察和护理%Clinical observation and nursing of patients with cerebral salt wasting syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜翠红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the methods of observation and nursing strategies for patients with cerebral salt wasting syndrome. Methods Fifteen patients with cerebral salt wasting syndrome were enrolled in the study. Clinical observations included consciousness, vital signs, 24 h total volume of intake and discharge, urine volume per hour, and electrolytes. Water and sodium replenishment was conducted to maintain the balance of fluid and electrolyte. Basic nursing and expectant nursing were strengthened. Results Fourteen patients were discharged with complete recovery and one patient left hospital with partial recovery. Conclusion Close monitoring of disease progression, early identification of the signs of cerebral salt wasting syndrome and effective treatment and nursing are important to the recovery of patients.%目的 探讨脑性盐耗综合征的观察和护理.方法 对15例脑性盐耗综合征患者予密切观察意识状态、生命体征的变化,准确记录24 h出入量及每小时尿量,定时监测电解质,充分补水、补钠,维持水电解质平衡,加强基础护理及对症护理.结果 14例患者经治疗后康复出院,1例患者经治疗好转后出院.结论 加强病情观察,及早发现脑性盐耗综合征征象并给予有效治疗和护理,对促进患者康复至关重要.

  16. Reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Lagan, Paula; McKay, Karen; McClintock, Julie; Casement, Veronica; Charreyre, Catherine; Allan, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24 dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Details of the study, analysis of samples and performance of the candidate vaccines are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prolonged cerebral salt wasting syndrome associated with the intraventricular dissemination of brain tumors. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruckaptan, H H; Ozisik, P; Akalan, N

    2000-07-01

    Hyponatremia is a frequent event in neurosurgery practice and is usually associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, head trauma, infections and neoplasms. The two common clinical manifestations are the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS), which were usually attributed to each other due to identical clinical presentation. In contrast to the better-recognized SIADH, there has not been a uniform consensus over the humoral and neural mechanisms of CSWS and functional aspects of renal response. In this article, we report on 2 cases of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor with prolonged CSWS manifested during the intraventricular dissemination of primary disease and the high catabolic stage.

  18. Down-regulation of common NFκB-iNOS pathway by chronic Thalidomide treatment improves Hepatopulmonary Syndrome and Muscle Wasting in rats with Biliary Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Hao Li; Pei-Chang Lee; Kuei-Chuan Lee; Yun-Cheng Hsieh; Chang-Youh Tsai; Ying-Ying Yang; Shiang-Fen Huang; Tung-Hu Tsai; Shie-Liang Hsieh; Ming-Chih Hou; Han-Chieh Lin; Shou-Dong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Thalidomide can modulate the TNFα-NFκB and iNOS pathway, which involve in the pathogenesis of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and muscle wasting in cirrhosis. In bile duct ligated-cirrhotic rats, the increased circulating CD16+ (inflammatory) monocytes and its intracellular TNFα, NFκB, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) and iNOS levels were associated with increased circulating MCP-1/soluable intercellular cell adehesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), pulmonary TNFα/NOx, up-regulated M1 polarization,...

  19. Hyponatremia in the postoperative craniofacial pediatric patient population: a connection to cerebral salt wasting syndrome and management of the disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J P; Stelnicki, E; Weiner, H L; Bradley, J P; McCarthy, J G

    2001-11-01

    Hyponatremia after cranial vault remodeling has been noted in a pediatric patient population. If left untreated, the patients may develop a clinical hypoosmotic condition that can lead to cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, and eventually, to central nervous system and circulatory compromise. The hyponatremia has traditionally been attributed to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH); however, in our patients the treatment has been resuscitation with normal saline as opposed to fluid restriction (the accepted treatment of SIADH), thus placing the diagnosis of SIADH in question. Patients who developed hyponatremia after intracranial injury or surgery were, until recently, grouped together as having SIADH. However, there are diagnosis and treatment differences between SIADH and another distinct but poorly understood disorder that is designated cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). CSW is associated with increased urine output and increased urine sodium concentration and volume contraction, and it is frequently seen after a central nervous system trauma. We therefore developed a prospective study to evaluate the cause of the sodium imbalance.Ten consecutive pediatric patients who underwent intracranial surgery for various craniosynostotic disorders were postoperatively monitored in the pediatric intensive care unit for hemodynamic, respiratory, and fluid management. The first four patients were evaluated for electrolyte changes and overall fluid balance to determine the consistency with which these changes occurred. The remaining six patients had daily (including preoperative) measurement of serum electrolytes, urine electrolytes, urine osmolarity, serum antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH). All patients received normal saline intravenous replacement fluid in the postoperative period. All of the patients developed a transient hyponatremia postoperatively, despite normal saline

  20. Development of Primer-Probe Energy Transfer real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balint, Adam; Tenk, Miklós; Deim, Zoltán

    2009-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay, based on Primer-Probe Energy Transfer (PriProET), was developed to improve the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PVC2). PCV2 is recognised as the essential infectious agent in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and has been associated...... in different organs. The data obtained in this study correlate with those described earlier; namely, the viral load in 1 ml plasma and in 500 ng tissue DNA exceeds 10(7) copies in the case of PMWS. The results indicate that the new assay provides a specific, sensitive and robust tool for the improved detection...

  1. Observation and nursing care of senile cerebral salt wasting syndrome%老年脑性盐耗综合征患者的护理观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical manifestation, the nursing method of analysis of senile cerebral salt wasting syndrome and effect. Methods The study selected in 2009 September to 2012 August in our hospital during the period 35 cases of senile cerebral salt wasting syndrome patients as the research object, to study the clinical nursing methods and curative effect of syndrome of salt consumption.Results 35 patients:33 patients after treatment and nursing after a series of cured, the other 2 patients with secondary cerebral infarction treatment died, the overall cure rate reached to 94.29%.Conclusion For the elderly cerebral syndrome treated patients should be at the same time, add water and salt, clinical nursing should be closely monitoring changes in condition, ensure the patients get successful treatment.%目的:探讨分析老年脑性盐耗综合征的临床表现、护理方法以及效果。方法研究选取了2009年9月~2012年8月期间我院收治的35例老年脑性盐耗综合征患者作为研究对象,探讨盐耗综合征的临床护理方法及疗效。结果35例患者中33例患者经过一系列的治疗及护理后痊愈出院,另外2例患者因继发脑梗死治疗无效死亡,整体治愈率达到了94.29%。结论对于老年脑性综合征患者的治疗应当做到同时补充水分以及钠盐,临床护理应当做到密切监控病情变化,保证患者得到成功救治。

  2. 颅脑损伤并发脑耗盐综合征的临床特点%Clinical characteristic of cerebral salt wasting syndrome after head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢才兰; 林宽; 卢家璋; 杨灵; 金丹; 潘军; 张嘉林; 漆松涛

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨颅脑损伤后并发脑耗盐综合征(Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome,CSWS)的临床特点和处理.方法回顾分析23例颅脑损伤后并发CSWS的临床资料,治疗方法和效果.结果颅脑损伤并发CSWS的23例患者,22例CSWS治愈,1例需长期高钠饮食以维持血钠正常.结论颅脑损伤并发CSWS的患者,有低血容量的临床表现少,多需补充高渗盐水治疗以纠正低钠血症,大部分患者CSWS并发症可治愈.

  3. Assessment of the reliability and consistency of the "malnutrition inflammation score" (MIS) in Mexican adults with chronic kidney disease for diagnosis of protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortiz, Ailema Janeth; Arce-Santander, Celene Viridiana; Vega-Vega, Olynka; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Angeles

    2014-10-04

    The protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW) is a condition of malnutrition, inflammation, anorexia and wasting of body reserves resulting from inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).One way of assessing PEW, extensively described in the literature, is using the Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS). To assess the reliability and consistency of MIS for diagnosis of PEW in Mexican adults with CKD on hemodialysis (HD). Study of diagnostic tests. A sample of 45 adults with CKD on HD were analyzed during the period June-July 2014.The instrument was applied on 2 occasions; the test-retest reliability was calculated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC); the internal consistency of the questionnaire was analyzed using Cronbach's αcoefficient. A weighted Kappa test was used to estimate the validity of the instrument; the result was subsequently compared with the Bilbrey nutritional index (BNI). The reliability of the questionnaires, evaluated in the patient sample, was ICC=0.829.The agreement between MIS observations was considered adequate, k= 0.585 (p MIS has adequate reliability and validity for diagnosing PEW in the population with chronic kidney disease on HD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. PMWS: Experimental model and co-infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G. M.; McNeilly, F.; Ellis, J;

    2004-01-01

    and pneumonia and typical histological lesions include lymphocytic depletion and multinucleated giant cell formation in lymph nodes, degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, and multifocal lymphohistocytic interstitial pneumonia. This communication will review the results of experimental infections...

  5. Research of antigen and antibodies against Porcine Circovirus Type - 2 in pigs with and without postweaning multsystemic wasting syndrome from commercial farms of Minas Gerais StatePesquisa de antígenos e anticorpos contra Circovírus Suíno II em suínos com e sem sintomatologia da síndrome multisistêmica do definhamento em granjas comerciais mineiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Esteves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV-2 is a non-enveloped circular single stranded DNA virus classified in the Circoviridae family related to post weaning multi systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS in piglets. Immune-Histochemical (IHC techniques are applied to detected PCV-2 antigen in the animal tissue injuries. Although, asymptomatic or sub clinic PCV-2 infected pigs could disseminate the virus in the flock. Serologic survey on apparently health pigs could suggest the virus ingression risk. In this work, antigens and antibodies against PCVS-2 in swine from commercial farms of seven and eight mesorregions of Minas Gerais State (MG were investigated. 32 pigs with ages from five to eleven weeks which presented SMDS clinical signs were submitted to necropsy. PCV-2 antigens were investigated either from sacrificed pigs (Group I and diagnosis demand samples (Group II by IHC. 7,60% and more than 60% of the first and second groups, respectively, were positive for viral antigen. In both of them, intense marking of macrophages and histiocytes, especially in the lymph nodes and lung, evidenced antigens to CVS-2. In parallel, Immunoperoxidase Monolayer Assay (IPMA was applied to antibody against PCV-2 screened in 955 pigs from 35 complete cycle commercial farms from same mesorregions. All pig flocks (100% presented positive animals (confidence level 90% to 100% and the frequency of reacting pigs varied 96.6% (confidence level 94,7% to 98,6%. PCV-2 antibody titers ranged 1:320 (medium to 1:10.240 (high. The results suggest that 2.66% and 9% of pigs from Triângulo Mineiro and Zona da Mata regions respectively, would be able to develop clinical SMDS and that percentage reach 3.35% in the total serum.Circovirus Suíno Tipo-2 (CSV-2 é um vírus não-envelopado, DNA fita única circular, classificado na família de Circoviridae, relacionado à Síndrome Multisistêmica do Definhamento de Suínos (SMDS de leitões. A técnica de Imuno-Histoquímica (IHQ é aplicada na

  6. [A patient with meningeal carcinomatosis accompanied by a small pituitary metastatic lesion from gastric cancer who developed cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Y; Sakaguchi, K; Udaka, F; Tsujimura, T; Kameyama, M

    1999-09-01

    A 68-year-old man with disturbed consciousness had repeatedly developed light-headedness and dizziness since the summer of 1996 and was admitted to a hospital for detailed examinations on October 8, 1996. On admission, he weighed 49 kg and showed subclinical hypothyroidism with low T3 syndrome. The adrenal function and serum electrolytes were normal. Since the stool samples were positive for occult blood, gastroscopy was performed. Examination of the biopsy specimens demonstrated gastric cancer. On October 21, blood examination showed hyponatremia (127 mEq/l). On October 22, marked disturbance of consciousness developed. On October 24, the serum Na level further decreased to 116 mEq/l. On November 8, he was referred to our hospital. On admission, his skin and tongue showed marked dehydration, and severe disturbance of consciousness and neck stiffness were observed. The central venous pressure was 4 cmH2O. In the cerebrospinal fluid, atypical cells were observed, and a diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis was made. Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) was excluded because of marked dehydration, a normal blood ADH level, and because plasma osmotic pressure was greater than urinary osmotic pressure. Considering the possibility of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) or hypoadrenocorticism, Na supplementation and drip infusion of prednisolone (20 mg/day) were performed. The serum Na has normalized (140.1 mEq/l), and his consciousness improved. He died of aggravation of the general condition on December 16. Pathological examination demonstrated a small metastatic lesion in the infundibular part of the pituitary gland and a small metastatic lesion in the parenchyma of the bilateral adrenal glands. However, since neither hypotension nor hypoglycemia was observed before treatment, and the blood cortisol level and the serum K level were normal, hypoadrenocorticism was excluded. Hypoaldosteronism was also excluded because of a normal serum K

  7. Comparative evaluation of a competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR to quantify Porcine circovirus-2 DNA in swine tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezen, Diogenes; Rijsewijk, Franciscus A M; Teixeira, Thais F; Holz, Carine L; Varela, Ana P; Cibulski, Samuel P; Gregianini, Tatiane Shäffer; Batista, Helena B C R; Franco, Ana C; Roehe, Paulo M

    2011-11-01

    Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is considered the major etiological agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. The clinical manifestations of the disease are correlated with moderate to high amounts of PCV-2 DNA in biological samples of affected pigs. A threshold of 10(7) DNA copies/ml is suggested as the trigger factor for symptoms. A comparative study was conducted to determine which quantitative method would be more suitable to estimate the PCV-2 DNA load. Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed: a competitive PCR (cPCR) and a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR. The assays were compared for their capacity to detect PCV-2 in DNA samples extracted from liver, lung, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and kidney of PMWS-affected (n = 23) or non-PMWS-affected pigs (n = 9). Both assays could successfully quantify PCV-2 DNA in all tissue samples and were able to detect significant differences between the numbers of PCV-2 DNA copies found in tissues of PMWS-affected and non-PMWS-affected pigs (≥ 10(2.5)). The highest mean viral loads were detected by the SYBR Green real-time PCR, up to 10(7.0 ± 1.5) copies/100 ng of total DNA sample, while the cPCR detected up to 10(4.8 ± 1.5). A mean difference of 10(1.8) was found between the amounts of PCV-2 DNA detected, using the SYBR Green real-time PCR and the cPCR, suggesting that the viral load threshold for PMWS should be determined for each particular assay.

  8. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  9. Cerebral salt wasting in a postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Dominika; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Dolezal-Oltarzewska, Katarzyna; Kalicka-Kasperczyk, Anna; Poplawska, Karolina; Starzyk, Jerzy B

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW-cerebral salt wasting) was first described in 1950 by Peters. This syndrome can occur in patients who have sustained damage to the central nervous system (e.g. patients with subarachnoid bleeding, bacterial meningitis or after neurosurgery). Patients present with excessive natriuresis and hyponatremic dehydration. Differentiating this syndrome with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH-syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion), which may occur in the same group of patients, is necessary in order to administer the correct treatment which consists of fluid restriction and sodium replacement in SIADH and fluid and sodium replacement as well as occasional mineralocorticoid therapy in CSW.

  10. 重型颅脑损伤后脑性盐耗综合征36例分析%Analysis of 36 cases of cerebral salt wasting syndrome after serious cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵万里; 马文斌; 宋明浩; 李志祥

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology and pathogenesis of cerebral salt wasting syndrome after serious cerebral injury and analyze the effective treatment. Methods The clinical manifestations and laboratory index from 36 cases of patients with cerebral salt wasting syndrome after serious cerebral injury during January 2003 to October 2011 were retrospective analyzed. Results The symptoms of low serum sodium and hypovolemia of 35 cases with cerebral salt wasting syndrome were recovered after fluid-supplement therapy and salt intake except 1 case died of giving up treatment by his family. Conclusion Changes of consciousness, hyponatremia, high urinary sodium and hypovolemic are clinical characteristics of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. Fluid-supplement therapy and salt intake are safe and effective. Symptoms of most patients disappeared in 3 weeks and recovered.%目的 分析重型颅脑损伤病人并发脑性盐耗综合征的病因、发病机制,探讨切实有效的治疗方法.方法 对我院2003年1月-2011年10月间救治的重型颅脑损伤合并脑性盐耗综合征的36例病人的临床表现及实验室指标进行回顾分析.结果 除1例死于家属放弃治疗外,其余35例并发脑性盐耗综合征的病人经补液和补盐治疗,其低血钠、低血容量症状完全恢复.结论 意识状态改变及低血钠、高尿钠、低血容量是脑性盐耗综合征的临床特点,补液和补盐治疗安全有效.大部分患者可在3周内症状消失,得以恢复.

  11. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...

  12. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  13. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  14. ZERO WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyaya, Luv

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop a clear vision on better waste management system. The thesis introduced the sustainable waste management along with innovation. The aim of the research was to find out the types of waste being introduced to environment, their consequence on human beings and surroundings, best policies, principles and practices to minimize the effect of the waste to lowest. The study was based on literature. The thesis includes the introduction of types of waste, clarifi...

  15. Scheie syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hurler syndrome) MPS II (Hunter syndrome) MPS IV (Morquio syndrome) MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome) Causes Scheie syndrome ... Autosomal recessive Cloudy cornea Hearing loss Hurler syndrome Morquio syndrome Review Date 4/20/2015 Updated by: ...

  16. Clinical characteristics,diagnosis and treatment of cerebral salt wasting syndrome after craniocerebral injury%颅脑损伤后脑盐耗综合征的特点和诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨自力; 林材元; 吴恒义; 白涛

    2007-01-01

    目的 分析颅脑损伤后脑盐耗综合征(cerebral salt wasting syndrome, CSWS)的临床特点、诊断和治疗. 方法 回顾分析近10年收治的14例颅脑损伤后CSWS的临床资料. 结果 CSWS患者除了血钠降低、尿钠增高外,还有意识的改变,同时有中心静脉压降低和心率增快.结论 血容量改变是和其他中枢性低钠血症相鉴别的重要指标,早期诊断和治疗可以降低CSWS患者的死亡率.

  17. Clinical analysis of 20 cases with cerebral salt wasting syndrome after brain injury%颅脑损伤后脑盐耗综合征20例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方蓉; 姜启周

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨颅脑损伤后的病人并发脑盐耗综合征(Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome,CSWS)的病因、诊断及治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析20例颅脑损伤后发生脑盐耗综合征的病例.结果 18例低钠血症症状恢复,2例死于急性脑肿胀.结论 颅脑损伤后若发生高尿钠、低血钠、中心静脉压下降的情况应诊断为CSWS.并需与尿崩症及抗利尿激素分泌异常综合症(inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone,SIADH)鉴别.

  18. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  19. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  20. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of cerebral salt wasting syndrome after craniocerebral injury:report of 12 cases%颅脑损伤并发脑性盐耗综合征12例诊治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉河; 尚振德; 陈超; 刘明; 刘启峰; 陆南; 许春华; 李方超

    2010-01-01

    @@ 脑性盐耗损综合征(cerebral salt wasting syndrome, CSWS)是神经外科较常见的一种中枢性水、电解质平衡紊乱,是由于尿钠丢失,导致低钠血症和细胞外液量减少,血浆渗透压降低,中央静脉压降低伴随体重减轻的一种综合征.临床上容易漏诊,应与抗利尿激素分泌异常综合征(syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, SIADH)相区别.如能早期诊断并采取恰当的治疗措施,则预后良好.反之则可能出现病情迁延不愈、意识模糊、精神异常,甚至危及生命.

  2. Occurrence and Tissue Distribution of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Identified by Immunohistochemistry in Danish Finishing Pigs at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    Infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may be subclinical or lead to the development of porcine circovirus disease (PCVD), which includes the entities of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). PCV2 infection and PMWS occur...... in the early post-weaning period and are also recognized in finishing pigs of 12-19 weeks of I e. The aim of the present study was to assess Hie role of PCV2 infection in disease of finishing pigs. Accordingly, the occurrence and tissue distriubution of PCV2 was examined in Danish finishing pigs at the time...... of slaughter. Multiple lymph nodes and thes spleen, lungs and kidneys from 136 pigs with PRDC (case group) and 36 pigs without lung lesions (control group) were examined by immunolabelling for the Presence of PCV2. Additionally, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) were identified immunohistochemically. One...

  3. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Silver syndrome is usually weakness in the muscles of the hands. These muscles waste away (amyotrophy), resulting in abnormal positioning of ... specific motor neurons are involved, resulting in the hand and leg muscles being solely affected. Some people with Silver syndrome ...

  5. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  6. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  7. Pathogenesis of cerebral salt wasting syndrome and anatomic localization of sodium metabolism regulator center%脑性盐耗综合征的发病机制及钠代谢中枢的解剖位置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志纯; 马书伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathogenesis and clinical problems of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. Methods Nine cases of cerebral salt wasting syndrome were treated from July 2007 to July 2012. Linear regression analysis of urine output and salt input was performed on these cases,and they were divided into two groups according to the analysis results. Independent-Samples t test was performed on the means of salt input,urine output and urine output/salt input of each group. Results All of the nine cases were cured, six cases of which has a linear regression relationship of salt input and urine output (P 0. 05). Compared with the non-linear regression group, the linear regression group has more salt input ( P 0. 5 ). Conclusion From the linear regression relationship of salt input and urine output in cerebral salt wasting syndrome,it was proved that urine output depends on salt input. The anatomic localization of sodium metabolism regulator center may be in hypothalamus as the primary, including the frontal lobe and the brain tissue around the lateral fissure.%目的 探讨脑性盐耗综合征的发病机制及临床问题.方法 2007年7月至2012年7月治疗脑性盐耗综合征9例.依照患者补盐量与尿量有无直线回归关系将病例分为2组,对其补盐量、尿量、每日尿量/补盐量的均数做两样本t检验.结果 9例均治愈,其中6例补盐量与尿量有直线回归关系,P <0.05;3例补盐量与尿量无直线回归关系,P>0.05.有直线回归关系组与无直线关系组相比:补盐量前者大于后者(P<0.001);尿量前者大于后者(P<0.001);但2组单位补盐量所对应的尿量(尿量/补盐量)不相等(P>0.05).结论 脑性盐耗综合征患者补盐量与尿量的直线回归关系,补盐后肾脏排钠增加,因此,钠代谢中枢的解剖位置可能是以下丘脑为主,包括额叶、侧裂周围脑组织的广泛区域.

  8. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  9. Effect of uric acid on inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and cerebral salt wasting syndrome%尿酸测定在两种脑性低钠血症中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南向珍; 潘国权; 严纯雪; 叶璟; 韩国强

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨尿酸测定在两种脑性低钠血症:抗利尿激素分泌异常综合征(the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion,SIADH)和脑性耗盐综合征(the cerebral salt wasting syndrome, CSWS)中的作用.方法 把22例颅内疾病并SIADH作为A组,定期监测血清钠浓度,待血钠正常的恢复期患儿设为B组,并把12例颅内疾病并CSWS设为C组,其恢复期作为D组,同时监测其血尿酸、血清抗利尿激素(ADH)、心钠素(ANP)浓度,并监测血渗透压、尿渗透压及尿钠等.结果 A组患儿的血尿酸与B组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),A组的血尿酸水平明显低于B组,C组患儿的血尿酸与D组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),C组的血尿酸水平与D组相似, A组患儿的血尿酸与C组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01), A组的血尿酸水平明显低于C组.结论 颅内疾病并发SIADH患儿的血尿酸水平明显低于恢复期及并发CSWS的患儿,临床上对颅内疾病并发SIADH或并发CSWS的诊断起参考作用.

  10. Dumping Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Digestive Diseases A-Z Dumping Syndrome What is dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, ... the colon and rectum—and anus. What causes dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome is caused by problems with ...

  11. Clinical analysis on 22 cases of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in cerebral injury%颅脑损伤后的脑性盐耗综合征22例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂祝新; 许勇

    2005-01-01

    目的分析22例颅脑损伤后的脑性盐耗综合征(cerebral salt wasting syndrome,CSWS)的临床诊断和治疗体会.方法回顾性分析22例颅脑损伤患者CSWS的临床表现,患者平均年龄为(53.2±17.1)岁,中位发病时间11d,中位病程11d.结果所有病例均符合CSWS诊断金标准,其中8例患者血清钠<120 mmol/L,为重症患者,临床表现为短期内出现意识障碍.轻、中症患者临床表现为消化道症状和渐进性意识下降.经适当补充液体量,应用速尿,白蛋白和积极补钠等综合治疗,4例重症患者死亡,其余治愈.结论 CSWS在颅脑损伤后并不少见,诊断并不困难,但需提高警惕.治疗的重点是预防和控制脑水肿.

  12. Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... exogenous Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and ...

  13. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... two medicines that affect the body's level of serotonin are taken together at the same time. The ...

  14. A meta-analysis on experimental infections with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Anna; Fernandes, Lana T; Valero, Oliver; Segalés, Joaquim

    2008-12-10

    A meta-analysis was performed with the aim to identify factors with a relevant influence on the expression of clinical postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) under experimental conditions. Data from 44 studies were included in the analysis. Several variables were studied: number of pigs in the experiment, intake of colostrum, serological status against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), strain of PCV2 used for inoculation, the route and dose of inoculation, and use of potential triggering factors (such as co-infections, vaccinations, or immunomodulator products). Multiple correspondence analysis and log-linear regression methods were used to establish the relationships between the studied variables and the number of PCV2 infected pigs that developed PMWS. Based on the results of the meta-analysis, the most successful animal experiment aimed to develop PMWS should include: (1) colostrum-deprived pigs, (2) age of inoculation below 3 weeks, (3) high doses of PCV2 inoculum, (4) PCV2 strain from genotype 1, and (5) co-infection with another swine pathogen as a triggering factor.

  15. Gardner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Gardner Syndrome Request Permissions Gardner Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 06/2014 What is Gardner syndrome? Gardner syndrome is a subtype of familial ...

  16. The clinical analysis of 36 cases with traumatic brain injury complicated with cerebral salt wasting syndrome%脑外伤并脑性耗盐综合征36例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘政委; 仪立志; 纠智松; 孔文龙; 许亦群; 曾小丽; 石小峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of brain injury complicated with cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS).Methods 36 cases of cerebral trauma complicated with CSWS from 2008 to 2013 year in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. GCS score at admission :3~5 ,8 cases ;6~8 ,16 cases ;9~12 ,6 cases ;13~15 ,6 cases.If the diagno-sis was CSWS ,first therapy was sodium ,fluid replacement ,and if no improvement ,in turn was pituitrin ,carbamazepine or prednisone ,hydrocortisone was used to protect the sodium.Results After administration of sodium ,23 patients were cured in 5~10d ,while 5 patients were given carbamazepine ,pituitrin in 3~7 days after correction.Other 7 cases were finally combined with Glucocorticoid (hyponatremia 13 ~ 25 days ) , including 2 cases of hyponatremia been corrected after another1 ~ 2 weeks.Another example of hyponatremia in correction process ,were died of intracranial infection. Conclusion Traumatic brain injury complicated with cerebral salt wasting syndrome is the main reason leading to hyponatremia.If CSWS is early diagnosed and given positive treatment ,it can shorten hospitalization days ,reduce the pain and economic burden of patients.%目的:探讨脑外伤并发脑性耗盐综合征(CSWS )的诊断和治疗方法。方法对我院2008-2013年收治的36例脑外伤并发CSWS患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,入院时GCS评分:3~5分8例,6~8分16例,9~12分6例,13~15分6例。诊断为 CSWS后首先予以补钠、补液治疗,如果无好转,依次加用垂体后叶素、卡马西平或强地松、氢化可的松保钠治疗。结果经过补钠,23例患者在5~10 d内纠正,5例合用卡马西平、垂体后叶素3~7 d后纠正,7例最后合用糖皮质激素(低钠13~25 d ),其中2例停用糖皮质激素后,低钠复发,再补钠1~2周后,低钠纠正,另外1例低钠纠正过程中,死于颅内感染。结论脑外伤后并脑性耗盐综合

  17. 颅脑创伤后尿崩症合并脑性盐耗综合征%Combined central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪海; 高亮; 胡锦; 吴惺; 郎黎琴; 金毅; 毛颖; 周良辅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨如何正确认识、早期及时诊断和准确治疗尿崩症合并脑性盐耗综合征,以提高救治成功率.方法 回顾性分析6例尿崩症合并脑性盐耗综合征的临床特点:尿量特别异常增多、高脑利钠肽水平和显著尿钠排泄增加是其最显著特征;尿比重、血钠水平和血浆渗透压可以正常;尿量增多单纯加压素疗效不佳,而加用醋酸可的松治疗有效.结果 6例患者及时正确诊断为尿崩症合并脑性盐耗综合征,但其中1例患者因为血钠上升过快出现脑桥脱髓鞘病变,最终植物状态;1例患者因脑疝、多脏衰而死亡;其余4例患者治愈出院.结论 根据尿崩症合并脑性盐耗综合征的临床特点本文提出其参考诊断标准,及时诊断和正确治疗是成功救治的关键.%Objective To discuss the diagnosis coexistence of central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome promptly and treat properly.Method Six patients who suffered central diabetes insipidus combined cerebral salt wasting syndrome were analyzed retrospectively.Its characteristics was massive polyuria which can not be controlled by vasopressin alone,but can be controlled by both vasopresin and cortisone acetate.Sodium chloride saline were mainly used to make up for the loss of water and salt.Other charactefistcs were including low CVP,high Pro - BNP,high 24 h urine sodium evacuation with normal serum sodium level,higher osmolarity in urine than in serum which was at normal level,and usually normal urine specific gravity.Results One died and one became vegetative state,other four patients discharged with Glasgow Coma Scale 15.Conclusions Monitoring of water and sodium metabolism systemically were critical to diagnose the concurrent DI and CSW.Slow sodium chloride saline supplement,cortisone acetate and desmopressin were the keys to deal with concurrent DI and CSW.With exact diagnosis and treatment promptly,favourable outcome can be achieved.

  18. 鞍区肿瘤术后脑性盐耗综合征的观察和护理%Observation and nursing of postoperative sellar tumors with cerebral salt wasting syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵国美; 陈美琴

    2014-01-01

    The observation and nursing of 14 cases of sellar tumors with cerebral salt wasting syndrome postoperatively was sum-marized .The liquid and sodium were supplemented basing on balance rule ,patients’ mental state and consciousnesswere fo-cused on ,serum and urine sodium ,central venous pressure ,urine volume ,urine specific gravity and vital signswere monitored . Serum and urine sodium ,urine volume returned to normal in 12 cases of patients after 3~4 weeks of treatment .The level of serum sodium of 2 patients was still lower than normal ,but with clear consciousness and in good condition .Serum and urine sodium ,urine volume returned to normal after 6 months .%总结14例鞍区肿瘤术后脑性盐耗综合征的观察和护理。以出入平衡为原则进行补液、补钠,重点观察患者精神状态及意识情况,监测血钠、尿钠、中心静脉压、尿量、尿比重及生命体征等情况。12例患者经过3~4周的治疗,血钠、尿钠、尿量恢复正常;2例患者血钠仍低于正常,但神志清楚,一般情况良好。随访6个月恢复至正常。

  19. Landfills - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  20. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  1. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  2. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  3. Genetic Diversity of Intragenomic Rearrangement of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin WEN; Fengzhi WANG; Bin LI; Yang YU; Zhengyu YU; Aihua MAO; Jianping XIE; Kong-wang HE

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the genome sequences of defective-interfering (DI) parti-cle DNA of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) by sequencing and bioinformatics analyses. DI particles were both generated by serial passage of PCV2 in PK15 cells and obtained from sera of pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syn-drome (PMWS). These subviral isolates ranged from 358 nt to 1 125 nt genomes. Investigating the complexity and diversity of PCV2 DI in vivo and in vitro can help elucidating the evolutionary history of PCV2.

  4. Inter-laboratory and inter-assay comparison on two real-time PCR techniques for quantification of PCV2 nucleic acid extracted from field samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Grau-Roma, L.; Sibila, M.

    2009-01-01

    ) diagnosis has been suggested. However, neither inter-laboratory nor inter-assay comparisons have been published so far. In the present study two different qPCR probe assays Used routinely in two laboratories were compared on DNA extracted From serum, nasal and rectal swabs. Results showed a significant......Several real-time PCR assays for quantification of PCV2 DNA (qPCR) have been described in the literature. and different in-house assays are being used by laboratories around the world. A general threshold of it copies of PCV2 per millilitre serum for postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS...

  5. [Research advances in porcine bocavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2012-03-01

    Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) was considered as a new member of the genus Bocavirus of the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, which was discovered in Swedish swine herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in 2009. At present, as an emerging pathogen, it was paid great attention by researchers at home and abroad. This paper referred to some published literatures and reviewed several aspects of PBoV including its finding, classification, genome structure and replication, epidemiology, associativity with diseases, cultural and diagnostic methods.

  6. 重症颅脑外伤后脑性盐耗综合征的观察与护理%Observation and nursing of cerebral salt wasting syndrome among patients with severe craniocerebral trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王扣英; 倪小英

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the method of observation and nursing of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) among patients with severe craniocerebral trauma. Methods The data of 18 severe craniocerebral injury cases with CSWS were analyzed retrospectively, patient consciousness changes were observed, blood sodium, urinary sodium, urine volume and urine specific gravity were monitored, and nursing countermeasures were taken out. Results After 2 weeks of fluid infusion, the index, such as blood sodium, urinary sodium, urine volume and urine specific gravity, returned to normal, life signs showed stability, the state of consciousness recovered. Conclusions Through strict observation on patient' s state of consciousness, monitoring blood sodium, urinary sodium, urine volume and urine specific gravity, it is helpful for nurses to improve their understanding of CSWS, assist early diagnosis and treatment, decrease nursing complications and strengthen rescue success.%目的 探讨颅脑外伤后脑性盐耗综合征(CSWS)的观察与护理方法.方法 对18例重症颅脑外伤后发生CSWS患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,观察患者意识变化,监测血钠、尿钠、尿量、尿比重等,并采取相应的护理对策.结果 经正确补液、补水2周后,患者血钠、尿钠、尿量、尿比重等逐渐恢复正常,生命体征稳定,意识状态好转.结论 通过严密观察患者意识状态,对血钠、尿钠、尿量、尿比重等指标的监测,能提高护士对CSWS的认识,协助早期诊断和治疗,加强护理,减少并发症,提高抢救成功率.

  7. Investigation of soils affected by burnt hospital wastes in Nigeria using PIXE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Improper management of hospital waste has been reported to be responsible for several acute outbreaks like the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In spite of these challenges, hospital wastes are sometimes not properly handled in Nigeria. To date, there has not been an adequate study on the effect and fate of burnt hospital waste on agricultural soil. The effect of burnt hospital wastes on the agricultural soil was conducted on soils sampled around farm settlement near Obafemi Awolowo ...

  8. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  9. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  10. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  11. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance syndrome, low HDL cholesterol, Metabolic Syndrome, overweight, syndrome x, type 2 diabetes Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Women January 2005 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  13. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, ... fibrillin. A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, ...

  14. Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Beuren syndrome ... Williams syndrome is caused by not having a copy of several genes. Parents may not have any family history of the condition. However, people with Williams syndrome have a 50% chance of passing the ...

  15. Fahr's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Fahr's Syndrome Information Page Fahr's Syndrome Information Page What research is being done? ... and conducts research on neurogenetic disorders such as Fahr's Syndrome. The goals of this research are to ...

  16. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  17. Waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  18. Hazardous Waste Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  19. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.......) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  20. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  1. Deployed Force Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Granath J., Baky A., Thhyselius L., (2004). Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming...Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production , forthcoming article In this paper different waste

  2. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  3. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  4. DOWN SYNDROME WITH MOYAMOYA SYNDROME

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohan Makwana; R. K. Vishnoi; Jai Prakash Soni; Kapil Jetha; Suresh Kumar Verma; Pradeep Singh Rathore; Monika Choudhary

    2017-01-01

    ...,” in which the arterial changes are seen among patients with various syndromes or other disease processes- Down syndrome, sickle cell anaemia, neurofibromatosis type-1, congenital heart disease...

  5. Mutations in ZBTB20 cause Primrose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeddu, Viviana; Redeker, Bert; Stellacci, Emilia; Jongejan, Aldo; Fragale, Alessandra; Bradley, Ted E J; Anselmi, Massimiliano; Ciolfi, Andrea; Cecchetti, Serena; Muto, Valentina; Bernardini, Laura; Azage, Meron; Carvalho, Daniel R; Espay, Alberto J; Male, Alison; Molin, Anna-Maja; Posmyk, Renata; Battisti, Carla; Casertano, Alberto; Melis, Daniela; van Kampen, Antoine; Baas, Frank; Mannens, Marcel M; Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Stella, Lorenzo; Tartaglia, Marco; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2014-08-01

    Primrose syndrome and 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome are clinically related disorders characterized by tall stature, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, disturbed behavior and unusual facial features, with diabetes, deafness, progressive muscle wasting and ectopic calcifications specifically occurring in the former. We report that missense mutations in ZBTB20, residing within the 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome critical region, underlie Primrose syndrome. This finding establishes a genetic link between these disorders and delineates the impact of ZBTB20 dysregulation on development, growth and metabolism.

  6. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  7. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  8. Kindler syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.

  9. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  10. Cerebral salt wasting versus SIADH: what difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterns, Richard H; Silver, Stephen M

    2008-02-01

    The term cerebral salt wasting (CSW) was introduced before the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion was described in 1957. Subsequently, CSW virtually vanished, only to reappear a quarter century later in the neurosurgical literature. A valid diagnosis of CSW requires evidence of inappropriate urinary salt losses and reduced "effective arterial blood volume." With no gold standard, the reported measures of volume depletion do not stand scrutiny. We cannot tell the difference between CSW and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Furthermore, the distinction does not make a difference; regardless of volume status, hyponatremia complicating intracranial disease should be treated with hypertonic saline.

  11. Cerebral salt wasting: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Alan H; Burns, Joseph D; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2010-04-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a syndrome of hypovolemic hyponatremia caused by natriuresis and diuresis. The mechanisms underlying CSW have not been precisely delineated, although existing evidence strongly implicates abnormal elevations in circulating natriuretic peptides. The key in diagnosis of CSW lies in distinguishing it from the more common syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Volume status, but not serum and urine electrolytes and osmolality, is crucial for making this distinction. Volume and sodium repletion are the goals of treatment of patients with CSW, and this can be performed using some combination of isotonic saline, hypertonic saline, and mineralocorticoids.

  12. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...

  13. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-06

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly.

  14. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  15. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  16. Biomedical Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Vankovski, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Medical waste is all waste material generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, dental practices, blood banks, and veterinary hospitals/clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories. Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks polluting the environment. It is essential that all medical waste ma...

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  18. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerul, Mochammad; Tanaka, Masaru; Shekdar, Ashok V

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare services provided by hospitals may generate some infectious wastes. Although a large percentage of hospital waste is classified as general waste, which has similar nature as that of municipal solid waste and, therefore, could be disposed in municipal landfills, a small portion of infectious waste has to be managed in the proper manner in order to minimize risk to public health. Many factors involved in the hospital waste management system often link to one another, which require a comprehensive analysis to determine the role of each factor in the system. In this paper, we present a hospital waste management model based on system dynamics to determine the interaction among factors in the system using a software package, Stella. A case study of the City of Jakarta, Indonesia is selected. The hospital waste generation is affected by various factors including the number of beds in the hospitals and the NIMBY (not in my back yard) syndrome. To minimize the risk to public health, we found that waste segregation, as well as infectious waste treatment prior to disposal, has to be conducted properly by the hospital management, especially when scavenging takes place in landfill sites in developing countries.

  19. Wasted waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water.

  20. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste......Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  1. Syndromic autism: II. Genetic syndromes associated with autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Artigas-Pallarés, J; Gabau-Vila, E; Guitart-Feliubadaló, M

    2005-01-01

    ..., tuberous sclerosis, Duchenne's disease, Timothy syndrome, 10p terminal deletion, Cowden syndrome, 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, Myhre syndrome, Sotos syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Goldenhar syndrome, Joubert...

  2. Edwards' syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Doreen; Dearmun, Annette

    2016-12-08

    Edwards' syndrome is a serious genetic condition that affects fetal cellular functions, tissue development and organogenesis. Most infants with the syndrome are female, but there is no race predominance.

  3. Dravet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Craniosynostosis Information Page Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Information Page Cushing's Syndrome Information Page Dandy-Walker Syndrome Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Dementia Information ...

  4. Paraneoplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dementia, seizures, sensory loss in the limbs, and vertigo or dizziness. Paraneoplastic syndromes include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic ... dementia, seizures, sensory loss in the limbs, and vertigo or dizziness. Paraneoplastic syndromes include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic ...

  5. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  6. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone ... cause your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  7. Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colon cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Cancer screening for people with Lynch syndrome If you ... et al. Milestones of Lynch syndrome: 1895-2015. Nature Reviews Cancer. http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/vaop/ncurrent/ ...

  8. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  9. Meckel syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salonen, R; Paavola, P

    1998-01-01

    Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a lethal syndrome with a central nervous system malformation, usually occipital meningoencephalocele, bilaterally large multicystic kidneys with fibrotic changes of the liver, and polydactyly in most cases...

  10. Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this syndrome often display hyperactivity, small head size, sleep disorders, and movement and balance disorders that can cause ... this syndrome often display hyperactivity, small head size, sleep disorders, and movement and balance disorders that can cause ...

  11. Apert Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saikat; Saha, Sandip; Kar, Arnab; Mondal, Souvonik; Basu, Syamantak

    2014-09-01

    Apert syndrome is one of the craniosynostosis syndromes which, due to its association with other skeletal anomalies, is also known as acrocephalosyndactyly. It is a rare congenital anomaly which stands out from other craniosynostosis due to its characteristic skeletal presentations.

  12. Learning about Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Down Syndrome What is Down syndrome? What are the symptoms ... syndrome Additional Resources for Down Syndrome What is Down syndrome? Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition related to ...

  13. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  14. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  15. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...

  16. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  17. Fraser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Kumari M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fraser syndrome or cryptophthalmos is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by major features such as cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and abnormal genitalia. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be made on clinical examination and perinatal autopsy. We present the autopsy findings of a rare case of Fraser syndrome in a male infant.

  18. Rowell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Y Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rowell syndrome is a rare disease consisting of erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lupus erythematosus. The syndrome occurs mostly in middle-aged women. The authors describe the syndrome in a 15-year-old boy who responded well to systemic steroids and hydroxychloroquine.

  19. Wallenberg's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Wallenberg's Syndrome Information Page Wallenberg's Syndrome Information Page What ... better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure disorders such as Wallenberg’s syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s ...

  20. Cerebral salt wasting treated with fludrocortisone in a 17-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Jeong; Oh, Yoon Su; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Ji Hong; Shin, Jae Il

    2012-07-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction with associated cerebral pathology. It is distinct from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, which is characterized by inappropriate retention of free water. We report a patient with a porencephalic cyst who developed cerebral salt wasting. His initial treatment was supplementation of water and salt, which did not improve natriuresis or volume contraction. Fludrocortisone administration effectively managed the cerebral salt wasting.

  1. Refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández López, M T; López Otero, M J; Alvarez Vázquez, P; Arias Delgado, J; Varela Correa, J J

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a complex syndrome that occurs as a result of reintroducing nutrition (oral, enteral or parenteral) to patients who are starved or malnourished. Patients can develop fluid-balance abnormalities, electrolyte disorders (hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia), abnormal glucose metabolism and certain vitamin deficiencies. Refeeding syndrome encompasses abnormalities affecting multiple organ systems, including neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, neuromuscular and haematological functions. Pathogenic mechanisms involved in the refeeding syndrome and clinical manifestations have been reviewed. We provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of refeeding syndrome. The most important steps are to identify patients at risk, reintroduce nutrition cautiously and correct electrolyte and vitamin deficiencies properly.

  2. [Metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Masanori; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which is consisted of hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance, is one of the most significant lifestyle-related disorders that lead to cardiovascular diseases. Among many upstream factors that are related to metabolic syndrome, obesity, especially visceral obesity, plays an essential role in its pathogenesis. In recent studies, possible mechanisms which connect obesity to metabolic syndrome have been elucidated, such as inflammation, abnormal secretion of adipokines and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on the relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome; and illustrate how visceral obesity contributes to, and how the treatments for obesity act on metabolic syndrome.

  3. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  4. [Autoinflammatory syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Hiroaki; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2009-03-01

    The autoinflammatory syndromes include a group of inherited diseases that are characterized by 1) seemingly unprovoked episodes of systemic inflammations, 2) absence of high titer of autoantibody or auto-reactive T cell, and 3) inborn error of innate immunity. In this article, we will focus on the clinical features, the pathogenesis related the genetic defects, and the therapeutic strategies in the representative disorders including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), hyper-IgD with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), syndrome of pyogenic arthritis with pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA), and Blau syndrome. Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology have proceeded our understanding of the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes.

  5. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome presenting with incomplete renal Fanconi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktenli, Cagatay; Saglam, Mutlu; Zafer, Emre; Gül, Davut

    2002-10-01

    Here we report on a patient with findings of acrocephaly, craniosynostosis, low frontal hairline, ptosis of eyelids, deviated nasal septum, broad great toes, moderate hallux valgus, bilateral symmetrical complete soft tissue syndactyly of toes 2 and 3, and partial soft tissue syndactyly of toes 4 and 5 consistent with the diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Additionally, the patient had some unusual findings as part of generalized dysfunction of the renal tubules including hypophosphatemia with renal phosphate wasting, normocalcemic hypercalciuria, hypomagnesemia with renal magnesium wasting, low-molecular-weight proteinuria, decreased serum PTH levels, osteopenia, and nephrolithiasis. In the light of these findings, the diagnosis of incomplete renal Fanconi syndrome was made. In conclusion, on the basis of the present findings, it is difficult to say whether renal tubular dysfunction are somehow connected to the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome or not. Therefore, we consider that this is probably just a coincident. However, further studies may show the connection between renal tubular dysfunction and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.

  6. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  7. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  8. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  9. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  10. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  11. Look into Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undy, Harry, Ed.

    This booklet is designed to help British teachers introduce concepts of waste to secondary school students. The document focuses on various types of waste and pollution--air, land, water, and industrial--and suggests activities to help students understand and combat waste of natural and human resources. It is presented in 11 chapters. Six chapters…

  12. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  13. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  14. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  15. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  16. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  17. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  18. End-of-waste criteria for waste paper: Technical proposals

    OpenAIRE

    VILLANUEVA KRZYZANIAK Alejandro; Eder, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report presents proposals of end-of-waste (EoW) criteria for waste paper, defining the technical requirements that waste paper has to fulfil in order to cease to be waste in the EU. The report includes the background data and assessments used to support the proposals, including a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of waste paper recycling, and analyses of the potential economic, environmental and legal impacts when waste paper ceases to be waste. This report is a contribution to ...

  19. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  20. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  1. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    and systems can be operated in a way that is environmentally sound, technical feasible, economically efficient and socially acceptable. This applies to all scales of relevance: (1) national surveys of energy use and material flows determining the frame for politically setting goals in waste management, (2......Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  2. Wellens' syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Lai

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of quite rare cause of thoracic pain suspected by emergency physician as Wellens’ syndrome. Wellens’ syndrome is a pattern of electrocardiographic T-wave changes associated with critical, proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD. This syndrome is about 10-15% of all unstable angina in emergency department (ED. The cardiologic consult was obtained in ED and it was not conclusive for a Wellens’ syndrome, so that the diagnostistic planning was wrong. The authors point out the importance of this syndrome in ED and the necessity of an urgent angiographic study as every acute coronary syndrome presented in ED. We remark the importance in ED to recognize these changes associated with critical LAD obstruction and the high risk for anterior wall myocardial infarction.

  3. [Autoinflammatory syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, P; Gross, W L

    2009-06-01

    In its strict sense, the term "autoinflammatory syndromes" comprises the hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPF), which are caused by mutations of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) and perturbations of the cytokine balance. These include the crypyrinopathies, familial Mediterranean fever, TNF-receptor associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), hyper-IgD and periodic syndrome (HIDS), pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, NALP12-HPF, and the Blau syndrome. The diseases are characterized by spontaneous activation of cells of the innate immunity in the absence of ligands. Autoantibodies are usually not found. HPF clinically present with recurrent fever episodes and inflammation, especially of serosal and synovial interfaces and the skin. Intriguingly, PRR-mediated autoinflammtory mechanisms also play a role in a number of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  4. Radioactive Waste Streams: Waste Classification for Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-13

    acidity with caustic soda or sodium nitrate to condition it for storage in the carbon-steel tanks. (The neutralization reaction formed a...waste ranges between from 47 to 147 curies/cubic-meter based on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant inventory. The vitrified high-level waste processed by...Facility St T Assembly MTHM 1. Arkansas Nuclear One AK P 1,517 666.7 46. Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant NC P 3,814 964.5 I 552 241.4 47. Cooper

  5. Urofacial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F Akl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is characterized by functional obstructive uropathy asso-ciated with an inverted smile. The importance of the subject is that it sheds light, not only on the muscles of facial expression, but also on the inheritance of voiding disorders and lower urinary tract malformations. We report a 10-year-old-male patient who had the urofacial syndrome. Early diagnosis of the urofacial syndrome is important to avoid upper urinary tract damage and renal failure.

  6. Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanti Devi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  7. Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  8. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  9. Revesz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revesz syndrome is a rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita and is characterized by bilateral exudative retinopathy, alterations in the anterior ocular segment, intrauterine growth retardation, fine sparse hair, reticulate skin pigmentation, bone marrow failure, cerebral calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and psychomotor retardation. Few patients with this syndrome have been reported, and significant clinical variations exist among patients. This report describes the first Brazilian case of Revesz syndrome and its ocular and clinical features.

  10. New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. E. Archibald

    1999-08-01

    This report addresses the issues of conducting debris treatment in the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF) decontamination area and the methods currently being used to decontaminate material at the NWCF.

  11. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  12. 外伤后脑性盐耗综合症合并难控性尿量增多的临床治疗分析%A clinical analysis of posttraumatic cerebral salt wasting syndrome complicated with uncontrollable polyuria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣宏飞; 董伟峰; 卢明

    2009-01-01

    脑性盐耗综合征(cerebral salt wasting syndrome,CSWS)常并发于重型颅脑损伤后,其中部分患者可同时发生难控性尿量增多,常可引起病情的急剧变化,甚至危及生命。本院自2003年1月以来共收治重型颅脑损伤后并发CSWS患者53例.现报告如下。

  13. Waste management in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Maeda, A.; Sugikawa, S.; Takeshita, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dept. of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In the NUCEF, the researches on criticality safety have been performed at two critical experiment facilities, STACY and TRACY in addition to the researches on fuel cycle such as advanced reprocessing and partitioning in alpha-gamma concrete cells and glove boxes. Many kinds of radioactive wastes have been generated through the research activities. Furthermore, the waste treatment itself may produce some secondary wastes. In addition, the separation and purification of plutonium of several tens-kg from MOX powder are scheduled in order to supply plutonium nitrate solution fuel for critical experiments at STACY. A large amount of wastes containing plutonium and americium will be generated from the plutonium fuel treatment. From the viewpoint of safety, the proper waste management is one of important works in NUCEF. Many efforts, therefore, have been made for the development of advanced waste treatment techniques to improve the waste management in NUCEF. Especially the reduction of alpha-contaminated wastes is a major interest. For example, the separation of americium is planned from the liquid waste evolved alter plutonium purification by application of tannin gel as an adsorbent of actinide elements. The waste management and the relating technological development in NUCEF are briefly described in this paper. (authors)

  14. The treatment of cerebral salt wasting with fludrocortisone in a child with lissencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Halil; Aycan, Zehra; Degerliyurt, Aydan; Metin, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically ill neurological patients. The major differential diagnoses in this situation are the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, marked by inappropriate retention of free water, and cerebral salt wasting, characterized by excessive urinary loss of sodium and resulting in polyuria and extracellular volume contraction. Cerebral salt wasting is a syndrome of hyponatremia due to increased urine output and excessive natriuresis described in patients with central nervous system disease. Although cerebral salt wasting has been well described in neurosurgical patients, data regarding pediatric patients is sparse. We present a 34-month-old boy with lissencephaly who developed cerebral salt wasting after brain biopsy. The patient was treated with hypertonic saline and multiple antiepileptic drugs. Fludrocortisone supplementation effectively treated cerebral salt wasting.

  15. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  16. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Ricard; Piette, Jean-Charles; Font, Josep

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression.......To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression....

  17. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine; Bødtger, Uffe; Heltberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an often un-diagnosed disease seen in previously healthy young subjects, presenting with symptoms of pharyngitis, fever and elevated markers of inflammation. The syndrome is characterised by infectious thrombosis of the jugular vein due to infection with Fusobacteria, causi...

  18. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder K. Gupta, Ritu Gupta, Sunil Dutt Sharma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Turner Syndrome is one of the important chromosomal disorders characterised by loss (total or part ofsex chromosome. The manifestations being peripheral edema, short stature, extra skin fold, webbing ofneck, renal and cardiovascular anomalies, sexual infantilism, learning disability etc. We present here aone month female baby who had classical features of Turner Syndrome. The karyotape analysis wasconsistent with the diagnosis.

  19. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy blood cells. ... anemia, or easy bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndromes often do ...

  20. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Renu

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of proteus syndrome in a 20 year old male is repoted. Hemihypertrophy, asymmetric megalodactyly, linear epidermal naevus, naevus flammeus, angiokeratoma, lymphangioma circumscriptum, thickening of the palms and soles, scoliosis and varicose veins were present. There are only few reports of these cases in adults. The syndrome has not been reported from India.

  1. Franceschetti syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Kasat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Franceschetti syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with variable expressivity. It is commonly known as Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS. It is named after E. Treacher Collins who described the essential components of the condition. It affects both genders equally. This article reports a case of TCS in an 18-year-old female.

  2. LEOPARD syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... L, Strano S, Carbone A, Calvieri C, Giustini S. LEOPARD syndrome. Dermatol Online J . 2008;14(3):7. PMID: 18627709 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18627709 . Sarkozy A, Digilio MC, Dallapiccola B. LEOPARD syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis . 2008;3:13. PMID: ...

  3. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcan AB.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is an important cause of short stature in girls and primer amenorrhea in young women that is usually caused by loss of part or all of an X chromosome. This topic will review the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of Turner syndrome.

  4. Poland syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Madhur Sharma; Shrawan Kumar; Meghwani, Manoj K.; Agrawal, Ravi P.

    2014-01-01

    Poland′s syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  5. Poland syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Madhur Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland′s syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  6. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  7. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  8. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    By‐ product Hydrogen Fuel Flexibility Biogas : generated from organic waste �Wastewater treatment plants can provide multiple MW of renewable... Waste /By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...13 Waste /By product Hydrogen ‐ Biogas

  9. Operational waste volume projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreski, G.M.

    1996-09-20

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June 1996.

  10. Waste not, want not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Sadly, modern society has developed very wasteful habits over the last few decades: consumer products, food and energy are perphaps waste items that are most obvious. Attempting to show how we can counteract wasteful habits, this article (a) makes reference to Helen Czerski in her efforts to stop her cycle from rusting away; and (b) shows how a relatively simple task can give new life to a domestic toaster.

  11. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  12. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  13. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  14. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  15. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  16. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  17. Politics of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  18. E-waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Hieronymi, Klaus; Williams, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of electronic waste, e-waste, management is changing dramatically. Besides a rapidly increasing world population, globalization is driving the demand for products, resulting in rising prices for many materials. Absolute scarcity looms for some special resources such as indium. Used electronic products and recyclable materials are increasingly crisscrossing the globe. This is creating both - opportunities and challenges for e-waste management. This focuses on the current and future trends, technologies and regulations for reusable and recyclable e-waste worldwide.

  19. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  20. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  1. 25 cases of cerebral salt wasting syndrome after severe cerebral injury%重型颅脑损伤后脑性盐耗综合征25例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋财谋; 高斌

    2006-01-01

    在重型颅脑损伤病人中,可发生脑性盐耗综合征(cerebral salt wasting syndrome,CSWS)。其临床表现及实验室检查与抗利尿激素不适当分泌综合征(SIADH)相似,但其发病率较后者高,易引起误诊,影响治疗效果。笔者总结我科自2000年至2005年收治的25例脑外伤病人发生CSWS的诊断与治疗情况,取得了较好的效果.报告如下。

  2. Acute cerebrovascular disease complicated by cerebral salt wasting syndrome: report of 36 cases%急性脑血管病并发脑性盐耗综合征36例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈传民; 郑希涛; 曹义仁

    2006-01-01

    脑性盐耗综合征(cerebral salt wasting syndrome,CSWS)是指颅内疾病导致肾脏钠及水排出量增多,临床表现为低钠血症、尿钠尿量增多及低血容量的一组综合征。以往文献报道CSWS多发生于颅脑损伤、颅内肿瘤及其术后。为探讨CSWS在急性脑血管病中的发生、发展规律及影响因素,本文对近年来我院收治的各种急性脑血管病518例进行顺序跟踪观察,其中36例并发CSWS,报道如下。

  3. Cerebral salt wasting following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Taylor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatraemia is the most commonly encountered electrolyte disturbance in neurological high dependency and intensive care units. Cerebral salt wasting (CSW is the most elusive and challenging of the causes of hyponatraemia, and it is vital to distinguish it from the more familiar syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. Managing CSW requires correction of the intravascular volume depletion and hyponatraemia, as well as mitigation of on-going substantial sodium losses. Herein we describe a challenging case of CSW requiring large doses of hypertonic saline and the subsequent substantial benefit with the addition of fludrocortisone.

  4. CHARGE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  5. Cerebral salt wasting in tuberculous meningitis: Two cases and review of the literature. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Umit; Celik, Tamer; Tolunay, Orkun; Başpınar, Hüseyin; Kömür, Mustafa; Levent, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by severe natriuresis and volume depletion in the presence of cerebral pathology. In literature, there are few reports about tuberculous meningitis and cerebral CSWS. In this article, we report two tuberculous meningitis cases with CSWS and present a review of the literature on this topic. Cerebral salt wasting diagnosis was based on hyponatraemia associated with high urinary sodium excretion and inappropriately high urine output in the presence of dehydration. Treatment was made with sodium-fluid replacement plus fludrocortisone therapy in both cases. In agreement with the literature we argue that cerebral salt wasting syndrome might be more common than the syndromes of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in cerebral disorders. Differentiating the cerebral salt wasting syndrome from the SIADH is very important because unrecognized cerebral salt wasting syndrome can lead to inadequate management and result in unnecessary hyponatremia-related morbidity. The electrolyte and hydration status of patients should be monitored closely in patients with tuberculous meningitis.

  6. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  7. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  8. CLOVES syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Jacob; Upton, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    A cohort of patients with overgrowth syndromes has been identified with congenital lipomatous overgrowth, dysregulated fat deposits, and mixed vascular malformations. The acronym CLOVES was given on a heuristic basis to stand for congenital lipomatous overgrowth (CLO), vascular malformation (V), epidermal nevi (E), and scoliosis and spinal deformities (S). These patients have upper limb anomalies with variable phenotypes. Although hand anomalies alone cannot make the diagnosis, the foot, truncal, cutaneous and spinal anomalies are particularly diagnostic. CLOVES syndrome has emerged as a distinct clinical entity diagnosed by clinical and radiographic examinations. The overgrowth pattern is now easily distinguished from other overgrowth syndromes.

  9. Hubris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David

    2008-08-01

    Hubris syndrome is associated with power, more likely to manifest itself the longer the person exercises power and the greater the power they exercise. A syndrome not to be applied to anyone with existing mental illness or brain damage. Usually symptoms abate when the person no longer exercises power. It is less likely to develop in people who retain a personal modesty, remain open to criticism, have a degree of cynicism or well developed sense of humour. Four heads of government in the last 100 years are singled out as having developed hubris syndrome: David Lloyd George, Margaret Thatcher, George W Bush and Tony Blair.

  10. HYDROLETHALUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradhana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hydrolethalus Syndrome (HLS is a rare lethal genetic syndrome, recognized as a consequence of a study on Meckle syndrome in Finland .1 HLS is characterized by multiple developmental defects of fetus which include fetal hydrocephalus, agenesis of corpus callosum, absent midline structures of brain, Cleft lip and cleft palate, defective lobulation of lungs, micrognathia and very characteristic abnormality of polydactyly. About 80% of patients have polydactyly, in hands it is postaxial and preaxial in feet with duplicated big toe. A highly characteristic hallux duplex is seen in almost no other situation .2 Club feet is also common.

  11. Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Ruth H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroacanthocytosis (NA syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome which have a Huntington´s disease-like phenotype consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. In addition, cardiomyopathy may occur in McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are also found in a proportion of patients with autosomal dominant Huntington's disease-like 2, autosomal recessive pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and several inherited disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, namely abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome and hypobetalipoproteinemia leading to vitamin E malabsorption. The latter disorders are characterized by a peripheral neuropathy and sensory ataxia due to dorsal column degeneration, but movement disorders and cognitive impairment are not present. NA syndromes are caused by disease-specific genetic mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration is not known. The association of the acanthocytic membrane abnormality with selective degeneration of the basal ganglia, however, suggests a common pathogenetic pathway. Laboratory tests include blood smears to detect acanthocytosis and determination of serum creatine kinase. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging may demonstrate striatal atrophy. Kell and Kx blood group antigens are reduced or absent in McLeod syndrome. Western blot for chorein demonstrates absence of this protein in red blood cells of chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Specific genetic testing is possible in all NA syndromes

  12. Jerusalem syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-el, Y; Durst, R; Katz, G; Zislin, J; Strauss, Z; Knobler, H Y

    2000-01-01

    Jerusalem's psychiatrists expect to encounter, as the millennium approaches, an ever-increasing number of tourists who, upon arriving in Jerusalem, may suffer psychotic decompensation. To describe the Jerusalem syndrome as a unique acute psychotic state. This analysis is based on accumulated clinical experience and phenomenological data consisting of cultural and religious perspectives. Three main categories of the syndrome are identified and described, with special focus on the category pertaining to spontaneous manifestations, unconfounded by previous psychotic history or psychopathology. The discrete form of the Jerusalem syndrome is related to religious excitement induced by proximity to the holy places of Jerusalem, and is indicated by seven characteristic sequential stages.

  13. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  14. Waste statistics 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Reports to the ISAG (Information System for Waste and Recycling) for 2001 cover 402 Danish waste treatment plants owned by 295 enterprises. The total waste generation in 2001 amounted to 12,768,000 tonnes, which is 2% less than in 2000. Reductions are primarily due to the fact that sludge for mineralization is included with a dry matter content of 20% compared to 1,5% in previous statistics. This means that sludge amounts have been reduced by 808,886 tonnes. The overall rate of recycling amounted to 63%, which is 1% less than the overall recycling target of 64% for 2004. Since sludge has a high recycling rate, the reduction in sludge amounts of 808,886 tonnes has also caused the total recycling rate to fall. Waste amounts incinerated accounted for 25%, which is 1% more than the overall target of 24% for incineration in 2004. Waste going to landfill amounted to 10%, which is better than the overall landfill target for 2004 of a maximum of 12% for landfilling. Targets for treatment of waste from the different sectors, however, are still not complied with, since too little waste from households and the service sector is recycled, and too much waste from industry is led to landfill. (BA)

  15. The Waste Makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠潮

    2005-01-01

    The throw-away spirit or the spirit of wastefulness has become part of American life and consumption (消费)only keeps rising. Besides, according to the economists, we depend so much on this wasting and buying that people will probably be encouraged to consume even more in the years to come if the US economy is to prosper(兴隆).

  16. Waste to energy

    CERN Document Server

    Syngellakis, S

    2014-01-01

    Waste to Energy deals with the very topical subject of converting the calorific content of waste material into useful forms of energy. Topics included cover: Biochemical Processes; Conversions by Thermochemical Processes; Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling; Combustion; Pyrolysis; Gasification; Biofuels; Management and Policies.

  17. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  18. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  19. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  20. Waste statistics 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The 2003 reporting to the ISAG comprises 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. In 2002, reports covered 407 plants owned by 296 enterprises. Waste generation in 2003 is compared to targets from 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following can be said to summarise waste generation in 2003: 1) In 2003, total reported waste arisings amounted to 12,835,000 tonnes, which is 270,000 tonnes, or 2 per cent, less than in 2002. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2003 were 11,597,000 tonnes, which is a 2 per cent increase from 2002. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2003 amounted to 7,814,000 tonnes, which is 19,000 tonnes, or 1 per cent, less than in 2002. In other words, there has been a fall in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. 4) The overall rate of recycling amounted to 66 per cent, which is one percentage point above the overall recycling target of 65 per cent for 2008. In 2002 the total rate of recycling was 64 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2002. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point below the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. In 2002, 9 per cent was led to landfill. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being led to landfill. (au)

  1. Detection and molecular characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from piglets with exudative epidermitis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-10-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important emerging pathogen associated with distinct syndromes and diseases in swine, collectively known as porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of PCV2 in piglets affected with exudative epidermitis (EE) in Uruguay. In addition we aimed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolated strains. In June 2011 an outbreak of EE detected in a small herd was reported. Piglets presented skin lesions compatible with EE and symptoms associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were also observed. Sera from affected and healthy animals were tested for the presence of viral DNA. Exclusively, diseased piglets were infected with PCV2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PCV2 isolates belonged to PCV2b genotype. We report the detection and molecular characterization of PCV2 strains for the first time in Uruguay.

  2. [Autoinflammatory syndromes/fever syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedel, J; Bach, B; Kümmerle-Deschner, J B; Kötter, I

    2011-05-01

    Hereditary periodic (fever) syndromes, also called autoinflammatory syndromes, are characterized by relapsing fever and additional manifestations such as skin rashes, mucosal manifestations, or joint symptoms. Some of these disorders present with organ involvement and serological signs of inflammation without fever. There is a strong serological inflammatory response with an elevation of serum amyloid A (SAA), resulting in an increased risk of secondary amyloidosis. There are monogenic disorders (familial mediterranean fever (FMF), hyper-IgD-syndrome (HIDS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), "pyogenic arthritis, acne, pyoderma gangrenosum" (PAPA), and "pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) where mutations in genes have been described, which in part by influencing the function of the inflammasome, in part by other means, lead to the induction of the production of IL-1β. In "early-onset of enterocolitis (IBD)", a functional IL-10 receptor is lacking. Therapeutically, above all, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra is used. In case of TRAPS and PGA, TNF-antagonists (etanercept) may also be used; in FMF colchicine is first choice. As additional possible autoinflammatory syndromes, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis), Schnitzler syndrome, Still's disease of adult and pediatric onset, Behçet disease, gout, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and Crohn's disease also are mentioned.

  3. Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least once every year. Alternative Names Aortic aneurysm - ... syndrome. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 702. ...

  4. Reye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Life After Diagnosis Support for Chronic Illness Corporate Partnerships Interview with Kristen Hanks Liver Lowdown July ... poor blood clotting and bleeding caused by liver failure. What are the symptoms of Reye syndrome? Reye ...

  5. [Refeeding syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševela, Stanislav; Novák, František; Kazda, Antonín; Brodská, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Despite being known more than 60 years, refeeding syndrome (RS) still bears many uncertainties. For example, its definition is not clear and definite, and the attitude to it varies from the complete neglect to over-prevention.The term "refeeding syndrome" refers to electrolyte and metabolic changes occurring in malnourished patients after the readministration of nutrition. These changes concern especially to phosphates and ions. Potassium, magnesium, naturism and fluids balance are involved. The changes lead to cell energetic metabolism and electric potential disturbances, with related clinical symptoms.Fully developed refeeding syndrome is quite rare; nevertheless it can be fatal for the patient. However, even its development can lead to many complications increasing the patient's morbidity and the length of stay in the hospital. Yet the refeeding syndrome is more or less predictable and if kept in mind also preventable.The aim of this article is to get the reader to know more about this metabolic phenomenon and possible attitudes towards it.

  6. Premenstrual syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwan, Irene; Onwude, Joseph Loze

    2015-01-01

    A woman has premenstrual syndrome (PMS) if she complains of recurrent psychological and/or physical symptoms occurring during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and often resolving by the end of menstruation...

  7. Zellweger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done? The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and other institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research exploring the molecular and genetic basis of Zellweger syndrome and the other PBDs, ...

  8. Autoinflammatory syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, M; Gasbarrini, G; Ghirardello, A; Grandemange, S; Hoffman, H M; Manna, R; Podswiadek, M; Punzi, L; Sebastiani, G D; Touitou, I; Doria, A

    2006-01-01

    The autoinflammatory disorders are a new and expanding classification of inflammatory diseases characterized by recurrent episodes of systemic inflammation in the absence of pathogens, autoantibodies or antigen specific T cells. These disorders are caused by primary dysfunction of the innate immune system, without evidence of adaptive immune dysregulation. Innate immune abnormalities include aberrant responses to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) like lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, prominent neutrophilia in blood and tissues, and dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) or their receptors. The autoinflammatory diseases comprise both hereditary (Familial Mediterranean Fever, FMF; Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency, MKD; TNF Receptor Associated Periodic Syndrome, TRAPS; Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndrome, CAPS; Blau syndrome; Pyogenic sterile Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum and Acne syndrome, PAPA; Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis, CRMO) and multifactorial (Crohn's and Behçet's diseases) disorders. Mutations responsible for FMF, TRAPS, CAPS, PAPA are in proteins involved in modulation of inflammation and apoptosis.

  9. Piriformis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of sitting for a long period of time, climbing stairs, walking, or running. × Definition Piriformis syndrome is a ... of sitting for a long period of time, climbing stairs, walking, or running. View Full Definition Treatment Generally, ...

  10. Barth Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saric, Ana; Andreau, Karine; Armand, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme tafazzin, TAZ, cause Barth syndrome (BTHS). Individuals with this X-linked multisystem disorder present cardiomyopathy (CM) (often dilated), skeletal muscle weakness, neutropenia, growth retardation, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Biopsies of the heart,...

  11. Bart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad Anil

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An infant presenting with extensive aplasia cutis on lower extremities later developed blisters on skin and mucous membrane. Clinical features and histopathological examination of skin favoured the diagnosis of Bart syndrome.

  12. Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect kids include: neurofibromatosis, types 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2) Sturge-Weber syndrome tuberous sclerosis (TS) ... forms of this disorder are neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and Schwannomatosis. NF1 is ...

  13. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... optic nerve (arrow) looks very pale, the vessels (stars) are very thin and there is characteristic pigment, ... syndrome gene have a child together, with each birth there is a: 1-in-4 chance of ...

  14. Cockayne syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karikkineth, Ajoy C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fivenson, Elayne;

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a disorder characterized by a variety of clinical features including cachectic dwarfism, severe neurological manifestations including microcephaly and cognitive deficits, pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, sensorineural deafness, and ambulatory and feeding difficulties...

  15. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arachnoldactyly (CCA), which refers to the joint contractures (shortening) that are key features of the syndrome. How ... remain contracted for long periods of time, the muscles can become tight and short, restricting movement. When ...

  16. Isaac's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page NINDS Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Information Page NINDS Whiplash Information Page NINDS Infantile Spasms Information Page NINDS ... Support Library Clinical Research Next Steps Pre-Funding: After Review Terms of Award Pre-Award Start-up ...

  17. Noonan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest shape (most often a sunken chest called pectus excavatum) Webbed and short-appearing neck Exams and Tests ... to consider genetic counseling before having children. Images Pectus excavatum References Ali O, Donohoue PA. Noonan syndrome. In: ...

  18. Dressler's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome can cause more-serious complications, including: Cardiac tamponade. Inflammation of the pericardium can cause fluids to ... including: Draining excess fluids. If you develop cardiac tamponade, your doctor will likely recommend a procedure (pericardiocentesis) ...

  19. [Mobius syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladuţiu, Cristina; Duma, Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Mobius syndrom, an anomaly in cranial nerve developement, presents with a remarkable clinical polymorphism. The rare occurence of this pathology and the questions raised by the diagnosis and treatment determined us to make this presentation.

  20. Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnostic tests that can identify Down syndrome include: Amniocentesis. A sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding the ... somewhat higher risk of miscarriage than second trimester amniocentesis. Cordocentesis. In this test, also known as percutaneous ...

  1. Metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obesity ). This body type may be described as "apple-shaped." Insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone produced ... Syndrome Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  2. Structures, Mixed Types - Residual Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Residual Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Residual Waste Program. Residual waste is waste generated at an industrial,...

  3. Eagle's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares,Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira,Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo,Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is diffic...

  4. SAPHO syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli; Sampaio-Barros, Percival D

    2013-05-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a disorder characterized by Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, and Osteitis. As the osteoarticular and skin manifestations often do not occur simultaneously and there are no validated diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical and imaging investigation is necessary to establish the many differential diagnoses of SAPHO syndrome. The etiopathogenesis involves infectious (probably Propionibacterium acnes), immunologic, and genetic factors. Treatment is based on information gathered from case reports and small series, and is related to specific skin or articular symptoms.

  5. Carpenter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidestrand, Pip; Vasconez, Henry; Cottrill, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Carpenter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that belongs to a group of rare craniosynostosis syndromes (Bull Soc Med Paris 1906;23:1310). Carpenter syndrome is the rarest, with only occasional patients seen. There are 3 common features in all of these syndromes: craniosynostosis (skull base abnormalities, with early fusion in different sutures), midface hypoplasia, and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Clinical features of Carpenter syndrome include peculiar facies, asymmetry of the skull, polydactyly, brachymesophalangy, mild soft tissue syndactyly, obesity, hypogenitalism, congenital heart disease, and mental retardation (J Pediatr 1966;69:1; Am J Roentgenol 1969;106). The brachycephaly is caused by early fusion in the coronal, sagittal, and lambdoidal sutures (Proc R Soc Med Sect Study Dis Child 1909). Most of the affected patients have a surgical procedure between 3 to 9 months of age to open the cranial vault to make space for the brain to grow (Plast Reconstr Surg 1978;62:335). We present a patient with Carpenter syndrome who is unusual in that she is an adult who has never had surgical intervention.

  6. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page on hazardous waste transportation . Top of Page Hazardous Waste Recycling, Treatment, Storage and Disposal To the extent possible, EPA ... Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) provide temporary storage and final treatment or disposal for hazardous wastes. Since they manage large volumes of waste and ...

  8. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Metabolic Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Metabolic Syndrome A A A ... this is a condition called metabolic syndrome . About Metabolic Syndrome Not to be confused with metabolic disease (which ...

  9. Down Syndrome (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Down Syndrome KidsHealth > For Kids > Down Syndrome Print A A ... skills. continue Do a Lot of People Have Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is not contagious , so you can' ...

  10. Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Request Permissions Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2015 What is juvenile polyposis syndrome? Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a ...

  11. Cardiac Syndrome X

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kawasaki Disease Long Q-T Syndrome Marfan Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse Myocardial Bridge Myocarditis Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pericarditis Peripheral Vascular Disease Rheumatic Fever Sick Sinus Syndrome Silent Ischemia Stroke Sudden ...

  12. Exogenous Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing syndrome - corticosteroid induced; Corticosteroid-induced Cushing syndrome; Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the ...

  13. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Metabolic Syndrome? Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of ... that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome. Outlook Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common due to a ...

  14. Learning about WAGR Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used are: WAGR Complex Wilms' Tumor-Aniridia-Genitourinary Anomalies-Mental Retardation Syndrome Wilms' Tumor-Aniridia-Gonadoblastoma-Mental Retardation Syndrome Chromosome 11p deletion syndrome 11p deletion syndrome The cause ...

  15. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  16. Escobar syndrome mimicing congenital patellar syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezirmik, Naci; Yildiz, Kadri; Can, Cahit Emre

    2012-01-01

    ...) syndrome is a rare syndrome. Intrauterin growth reterdation, abnormal face, wide-spead pterygiums that resulted in joint contractures, ptosis, chryptoorchidism, patellar dysplasia and foot deformities are seen on this syndrome...

  17. Vermicomposting of food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norzila Othman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of food waste recycling concept can be an interesting option to reduce the use of landfill. This strategy is more environmental friendly, cheap and fast if proper management to treat the food waste is applied. Nowadays, the concept of recycling is not well practice among the community. In this study, vermicomposting is introduced as an alternative of the food waste recycling. Vermicomposting consists of the use of earthworms to break down the food waste. In this vermicomposting treatment, the nightcrawler earthworm are used to treat the food waste. The food will be collected from UTHM cafe. The experiment consist of peat soil as a base, earthworms and the food waste. The pH number and moisture content of each container were controlled at 7.0 to 7.2 and 60 to 80 % to maintain the favorable environment condition for the earthworms. The weight of the sample will be measured in three days time after exposure to the earthworm. The vermicomposting study was taken about two weeks time. After the treatment, the soil sample are tested for nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, and Potassium (K concentration. Based on the result obtained, it shows that vermicomposting will reduce the weight of treatment sample and the concentration of N, P, and K for the soil is greater than the chemical fertilizer. Therefore, vermicomposting is a promising  alternative treatment of food waste as it is more ecofriendly.

  18. Chronic radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akleyev, Alexander V. [Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation). Clinical Dept.

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive analysis of chronic radiation syndrome, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathoanatomy, diagnosis and treatment. Based on observations in a unique sample of exposed residents of the Techa riverside villages in the Urals. Casts new light on the condition. Of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in chronic radiation syndrome. This book covers all aspects of chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) based on observations in a unique sample of residents of the Techa riverside villages in the southern Urals who were exposed to radioactive contamination in the 1950s owing to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from Mayak Production Association, which produced plutonium for weapons. In total, 940 cases of CRS were diagnosed in this population and these patients were subjected to detailed analysis. The opening chapters address the definition and classification of CRS, epidemiology and pathogenesis, covering molecular and cellular mechanisms, radioadaptation, and the role of tissue reactions. The pathoanatomy of CRS during the development and recovery stages is discussed for all organ systems. Clinical manifestations of CRS at the different stages are then described in detail and the dynamics of hematopoietic changes are thoroughly examined. In the following chapters, principles of diagnosis (including assessment of the exposure doses to critical organs) and differential diagnosis from a wide range of other conditions are discussed and current and potential treatment options, described. The medical and social rehabilitation of persons with CRS is also covered. This book, which casts new light on the condition, will be of value for all practitioners and researchers with an interest in CRS.

  19. Comparative waste forms study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings.

  20. ZeroWaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    The ZeroWaste research group at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Byg) was established two years ago and covers the broad range of expertise, required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have, prior to that......, developed methods for removal of heavy metals and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes, providing the basis of to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector. Initial results for upgrading and using different types of ashes are presented...

  1. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  2. Methane generation from waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  3. Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of solid waste is usually a difficult task because of the heterogeneity of the waste and its spatial as well as temporal variations. This makes waste characterization costly if good and reliable data with reasonable uncertainty is to be obtained. Therefore, a waste characterization...

  4. Is it cerebral or renal salt wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesaka, John K; Imbriano, Louis J; Ali, Nicole M; Ilamathi, Ekambaram

    2009-11-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting (CSW), or renal salt-wasting (RSW), has evolved from a misrepresentation of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) to acceptance as a distinct entity. Challenges still confront us as we attempt to differentiate RSW from SIADH, ascertain the prevalence of RSW, and address reports of RSW occurring without cerebral disease. RSW is redefined as 'extracellular volume depletion due to a renal sodium transport abnormality with or without high urinary sodium concentration, presence of hyponatremia or cerebral disease with normal adrenal and thyroid function.' Our inability to differentiate RSW from SIADH lies in the clinical and laboratory similarities between the two syndromes and the difficulty of accurate assessment of extracellular volume. Radioisotopic determinations of extracellular volume in neurosurgical patients reveal renal that RSW is more common than SIADH. We review the persistence of hypouricemia and increased fractional excretion of urate in RSW as compared to correction of both in SIADH, the appropriateness of ADH secretion in RSW, and the importance of differentiating renal RSW from SIADH because of disparate treatment goals: fluid repletion in RSW and fluid restriction in SIADH. Patients with RSW are being incorrectly treated by fluid restriction, with clinical consequences. We conclude that RSW is common and occurs without cerebral disease, and propose changing CSW to RSW.

  5. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  6. Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    related to individual treatment processes and waste products are dealt with in the following chapters: Characteristic data on residential waste (Chapter 2.2), commercial and institutional waste (Chapter 2.3), industrial waste (Chapter 2.4) and construction and demolition waste (Chapter 2...... with limited representation. This chapter describes common approaches and methods in waste characterization including common terms, sampling, characterization methods and data evaluation. The focus is on the characterization of waste as it is generated or collected, while specific issues on characterization...

  7. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  8. Pfeiffer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryns Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pfeiffer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that associates craniosynostosis, broad and deviated thumbs and big toes, and partial syndactyly on hands and feet. Hydrocephaly may be found occasionally, along with severe ocular proptosis, ankylosed elbows, abnormal viscera, and slow development. Based on the severity of the phenotype, Pfeiffer syndrome is divided into three clinical subtypes. Type 1 "classic" Pfeiffer syndrome involves individuals with mild manifestations including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia and finger and toe abnormalities; it is associated with normal intelligence and generally good outcome. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull, extreme proptosis, finger and toe abnormalities, elbow ankylosis or synostosis, developmental delay and neurological complications. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without a cloverleaf skull. Clinical overlap between the three types may occur. Pfeiffer syndrome affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. The disorder can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR-1 or FGFR-2. Pfeiffer syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography showing craniosynostosis, hypertelorism with proptosis, and broad thumb, or molecularly if it concerns a recurrence and the causative mutation was found. Molecular genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes multiple-staged surgery of craniosynostosis. Midfacial surgery is performed to reduce the exophthalmos and the midfacial hypoplasia.

  9. Cerebral salt wasting following tuberculous meningoencephalitis in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Lad, Vijay; Shanbag, Preeti

    2012-04-01

    In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. Clinical manifestations of the two conditions may be similar, but their pathogeneses and management protocols are different. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and hyponatremia occurs in patients with intracranial diseases. We report a 6-month-old girl with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. She was diagnosed as having CSWS on the basis of hypovolemia, polyuria, natriuresis, and the relatively high level of fractional excretion of uric acid. Aggressive replacement of urine salt and water losses using 0.9% or 3% sodium chloride was done. Fludrocortisone was started at 0.1 mg twice daily on the seventh day of admission and was continued for 17 days.

  10. Cerebral salt wasting following tuberculous meningoencephalitis in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. Clinical manifestations of the two conditions may be similar, but their pathogeneses and management protocols are different. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and hyponatremia occurs in patients with intracranial diseases. We report a 6-month-old girl with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. She was diagnosed as having CSWS on the basis of hypovolemia, polyuria, natriuresis, and the relatively high level of fractional excretion of uric acid. Aggressive replacement of urine salt and water losses using 0.9% or 3% sodium chloride was done. Fludrocortisone was started at 0.1 mg twice daily on the seventh day of admission and was continued for 17 days.

  11. Cerebral salt wasting following tuberculous meningoencephalitis in an infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Lad, Vijay; Shanbag, Preeti

    2012-01-01

    In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. Clinical manifestations of the two conditions may be similar, but their pathogeneses and management protocols are different. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and hyponatremia occurs in patients with intracranial diseases. We report a 6-month-old girl with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. She was diagnosed as having CSWS on the basis of hypovolemia, polyuria, natriuresis, and the relatively high level of fractional excretion of uric acid. Aggressive replacement of urine salt and water losses using 0.9% or 3% sodium chloride was done. Fludrocortisone was started at 0.1 mg twice daily on the seventh day of admission and was continued for 17 days. PMID:22566734

  12. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  13. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  14. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  15. Geotechnics of waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husami, Z.I. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    Seven lectures are presented on the geological aspects hazardous and nuclear waste disposal are presented. Each lecture has been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base (EDB).

  16. Climate Change and Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the life cycle of goods, including ways to reduce our carbon footprint. This page also includes statistics on greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy used to produce, process, transport, and dispose of waste.

  17. Developing hazardous waste programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  18. Greening waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available by issues of population growth and urbanisation; increasing quantity and complexity of waste; climate change; carbon economics; resource scarcity; commodity prices; energy security; globalisation; job creation; and tightening regulation (DST, 2014a...

  19. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  20. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  1. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier...... fractions under 'household waste', it has provided an important incentive for separate collection....

  2. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  3. Refeeding syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Swagata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a fifty-year-old male who was admitted with a three month history of increasing weakness, prostration, decreasing appetite and inability to swallow. The patient was a chronic alcoholic, unemployed, and of very poor socioeconomic background. The patient was initially investigated for upper GI malignancy, Addisons disease, bulbar palsy and other endocrinopathies. Concurrent management was started for severe electrolyte abnormalities and enteral nutritional supplementation was begun. By the fourth day of feeding patient developed severe hypophosphatemia and other life-threatening features suggesting refeeding syndrome. The patient was managed for the manifestations of refeeding syndrome. A final diagnosis of chronic alcoholic malnutrition with refeeding syndrome was made. Refeeding of previously starving patients may lead to a variety of complications including sudden death.

  4. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  5. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  6. Microcephaly syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Dianne

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this article is to review microcephaly from a genetics point of view, especially with regard to the process of identification of syndromes in which small head circumference occurs. Microcephaly can be due to either genetic or environmental causes. It can be the only positive finding or may be part of a syndrome of congenital anomalies. The genetic etiology can be caused by autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked genes or various types of chromosome anomalies. Some of the gene mutations have been identified recently. Syndromic microcephaly is associated with a large number of conditions. Some can be diagnosed, or at least suspected, based on their characteristic facial dysmorphism, and others can be searched for using databases of genetic disorders.

  7. Postconcussional Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Postconcussional syndrome is characterized by somatic, cognitive and psychiatric (emotional, behavioral symptoms that occurs after mild traumatic brain injury. It has been known that these symptoms recover fully within 3-6 months almost in 90% of patients. Although its etiology is still controversial, biological, psychological and social factors may account for the development and continuation of the symptoms. Diagnosis is based on the subjective complaints. To find out an objective method for definite diagnosis, trials searching for both neuroimaging and specific serum biomarkers stil continue. The treatment of the syndrome is mainly of palliative nature. Information, education, reassurance and multifaceted rehabilitation programmes can be beneficial. There are promising trials reporting the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of postconcussional syndrome. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 96-109

  8. Fraser syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network...... of birth defect registries. Between January 1990 and December 2008, we identified 26 cases of Fraser syndrome in the monitored population of 12,886,464 births (minimal estimated prevalence of 0.20 per 100,000 or 1:495,633 births). Most cases (18/26; 69%) were registered in the western part of Europe, where...... was particularly high (42%). Most cases of Fraser syndrome (85%) are suspected prenatally, often due to the presence of the association of renal agenesis and cryptophthalmos. In the European population, a high proportion (82%) of pregnancies is terminated, thus reducing the live birth prevalence to a third...

  9. [Serotonin syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lheureux, P; Penaloza, A; De Cottenier, V; Ullmann, U; Gris, M

    2002-10-01

    The serotonin syndrome is a hyperserotoninergic state resulting from an excess of intrasynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine, induced by multiple psychotropic agents, but also non psychiatric drugs. It is a potentially dangerous and sometimes lethal condition. The clinical manifestations usually include cognitive, neuromuscular and autonomic features and are mediated by the action of serotonin on various subtypes of receptors. The main differential diagnosis is the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Treatment is mainly supportive. No pharmacological agent has been definitely demonstrated really effective. However, reports of cases treated with the 5-HT2 blockers, including cyproheptadine or chlorpromazine have suggested that these agents could have some efficacy. Serotonin syndrome is a toxic condition which requires heightened clinical awareness among physicians in order to prevent, recognize, and treat the condition promptly.

  10. [Autoinflammatory syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, José Melo; Gomes, Sónia Melo; Conde, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Autoinflammatory syndromes (AIS) are a heterogeneous group of congenital diseases characterized by the presence of recurrent episodes of fever and local or generalized inflammation, in the absence of infectious agents, detectable auto-antibodies or antigen-specific autoreactive T-cells. These diseases have been much better understood during the past 15 years, mainly due to the marked advances of the Human Genoma Project and its implications in the identification and characterization of genetic mutations. In this paper we make a revision of the classification of AIS and focus our attention specially on the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), in particular the CINCA syndrome that shares many clinical characteristics with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  12. Cerebral Salt Wasting Treated with Fludrocortisone in a 17-Year-Old Boy

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Min Jeong; Oh, Yoon Su; Park, Se Jin; KIM, Ji Hong; Shin, Jae Il

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction with associated cerebral pathology. It is distinct from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, which is characterized by inappropriate retention of free water. We report a patient with a porencephalic cyst who developed cerebral salt wasting. His initial treatment was supplementation of water and salt, which did not improve natriuresis or volume contraction. Fludrocortisone admini...

  13. More on Renal Salt Wasting Without Cerebral Disease: Response to Saline Infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Bitew, Solomon; Imbriano, Louis; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Fishbane, Steven; Maesaka, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The existence and prevalence of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or the preferred term, renal salt wasting (RSW), and its differentiation from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) have been controversial. This controversy stems from overlapping clinical and laboratory findings and an inability to assess the volume status of these patients. The authors report another case of RSW without clinical cerebral disease and contrast it to SIADH.

  14. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  15. Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical.

  16. Processing of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  17. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  18. Storing Waste in Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W L; Sickafus, K

    2004-07-20

    Not all the nuclear waste destined for Yucca Mountain is in the form of spent fuel. Some of it will be radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons. This so-called defense waste exists mainly as corrosive liquids and sludge in underground tanks. An essential task of the U.S. high-level radioactive waste program is to process these defense wastes into a solid material--called a waste form. An ideal waste form would be extremely durable and unreactive with other repository materials. It would be simple to fabricate remotely so that it could be safely transported to a repository for permanent storage. What's more, the material should be able to tolerate exposure to intense radiation without degradation. And to minimize waste volume, the material must be able to contain high concentrations of radionuclides. The material most likely to be used for immobilization of radioactive waste is glass. Glasses are produced by rapid cooling of high-temperature liquids such that the liquid-like non-periodic structure is preserved at lower temperatures. This rapid cooling does not allow enough time for thermodynamically stable crystalline phases (mineral species) to form. In spite of their thermodynamic instability, glasses can persist for millions of years. An alternate to glass is a ceramic waste form--an assemblage of mineral-like crystalline solids that incorporate radionuclides into their structures. The crystalline phases are thermodynamically stable at the temperature of their synthesis; ceramics therefore tend to be more durable than glasses. Ceramic waste forms are fabricated at temperatures below their melting points and so avoid the danger of handling molten radioactive liquid--a danger that exists with incorporation of waste in glasses. The waste form provides a repository's first line of defense against release of radionuclides. It, along with the canister, is the barrier in the repository over which we have the most control. When a waste

  19. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects mostly females. Affected females have characteristic features such as short stature, premature ovarian failure, and several other features. Oral manifestations of this condition are not much discussed in the literature. But reported literature includes teeth, palate, periodontal and salivary changes. So the aim of this review is to illustrate the general manifestations, and especially the oral manifestations of Turner syndrome and evaluate their possible management. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(4.000: 246-252

  20. [PFAPA syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Suzete Costa Anjos; Vales, Fernando; Cardoso, Eduardo; Santos, Margarida

    2009-01-01

    PFAPA syndrome is characterized by periodic fever, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis and aphthous stomatitis. The bouts of fever can last for days or even weeks. Between crises, patients remain asymptomatic for variable periods. It appears before the age of five and has limited duration (4-8 years). Its aetiopathogeny is unknown. Corticoids are the treatment of choice. Tonsillectomy has been proposed as a solution but remains controversial. We present the case of a 4-year-old girl with PFAPA syndrome who underwent tonsillectomy in January, 2008, and we review the literature.

  1. Waardenburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagra Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features of the syndrome, have been depicted in the pedigree.

  2. Eisenmengers syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Schophuus; Iversen, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels G;

    2009-01-01

    Congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunt can induce proliferation, vasoconstriction and thrombosis in the pulmonary vascular bed. Eventually, the patient may develop Eisenmenger syndrome defined as pulmonary arterial hypertension caused by high pulmonary vascular resistance with right......-to-left shunt and cyanosis. Patients with Eisenmenger syndrome suffer a high risk of complications in connection with acute medical conditions, extra-cardiac surgery and pregnancy. This article describes the precautions that should be taken to reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients. Udgivelsesdato...

  3. Lemierre's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, D N

    2012-02-01

    Lemierre\\'s syndrome is a rare disease that results in an oropharyngeal infection, which precipitates an internal jugular vein thrombosis and metastatic infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus and has been identified as the causative agent. We describe the case of a young girl whose presentation and diagnosis were confounded by a history of valvular heart disease. Infection of heart valves can produce many of the signs and symptoms associated with Lemierre\\'s syndrome. We describe the diagnosis, investigation and optimal management of this rare disorder.

  4. Olmsted syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Olmsted syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the combination of periorificial, keratotic plaques and bilateral palmoplantar keratoderma. New associated features are being reported. Olmsted syndrome is particularly rare in a female patient, and we report such a case in a six year-old Indian girl, who presented with keratoderma of her soles since birth and on her palms since the age of two years along with perioral and perinasal hyperkeratosis. She had sparse, light brown, thin hair. Although the psychomotor development of the child was normal until 18 months of age, the keratoderma plaques had restricted the child′s mobility after that stage.

  5. Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Risbaf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome is a dominant autosomal familial disorder. The manifestations begin at an early age and a combination of phenotypic abnormalities such special facial appearance, jaw cysts and skeletal anomalies are seen in this disease. A 22-year-old woman referred to Zahedan Dental School complaining of pain on the left cheek. During the examination, several cutaneous lesions in the neck, pits in palm and sole and multiple jaw cysts were observed. According to the clinical symptoms, lesion biopsy and reports of Gorlin syndrome radiography were presented.

  6. [Wilkie's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognár, Gábor; Ledniczky, György; Palik, Eva; Zubek, László; Sugár, István; Ondrejka, Pál

    2008-10-01

    Loss of retroperitoneal fatty tissue as a result of a variety of debilitating conditions and noxa is believed to be the etiologic factor of superior mesenteric artery syndrome. A case of a 35 years old female patient with severe malnutrition and weight loss is presented, who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Various theories of etiology, clinical course and treatment options of this uncommon disease are discussed. In our case, conservative management was inefficient, while surgical treatment aiming to bypass the obstruction by an anastomosis between the jejunum and the proximal duodenum (duodenojejunostomy) was successful. An interdisciplinary teamwork provides the most beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic result in this often underestimated disease.

  7. Morbihan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, Stefano; Persico, Maria Chiara; Francia, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    We report a case of severe Morbihan syndrome (chronic erythematous edema of the upper portion of the face) in a 60-year-old man. The syndrome was characterized clinically by erythematous edema involving the forehead, glabella, and both eyelids, because of which the patient was not able to open completely his eyes. Furthermore, erythema and telangiectasiae were visible on the nose and cheeks. Laboratory and instrumental examinations were within normal ranges or negative. Histopathological examination showed dermal edema, perivascular and periadnexal lympho-histiocytic infiltrate, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Oral isotretinoin was ineffective despite the relatively long duration of the therapy (26 weeks).

  8. Morbihan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Veraldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of severe Morbihan syndrome (chronic erythematous edema of the upper portion of the face in a 60-year-old man. The syndrome was characterized clinically by erythematous edema involving the forehead, glabella, and both eyelids, because of which the patient was not able to open completely his eyes. Furthermore, erythema and telangiectasiae were visible on the nose and cheeks. Laboratory and instrumental examinations were within normal ranges or negative. Histopathological examination showed dermal edema, perivascular and periadnexal lympho-histiocytic infiltrate, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Oral isotretinoin was ineffective despite the relatively long duration of the therapy (26 weeks.

  9. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  10. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management in a city in a developing country: the case of Nablus, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Eleyan, Derar; Garfield, Joy

    2016-09-01

    Hospitals and health centers provide a variety of healthcare services and normally generate hazardous waste as well as general waste. General waste has a similar nature to that of municipal solid waste and therefore could be disposed of in municipal landfills. However, hazardous waste poses risks to public health, unless it is properly managed. The hospital waste management system encompasses many factors, i.e., number of beds, number of employees, level of service, population, birth rate, fertility rate, and not in my back yard (NIMBY) syndrome. Therefore, this management system requires a comprehensive analysis to determine the role of each factor and its influence on the whole system. In this research, a hospital waste management simulation model is presented based on the system dynamics technique to determine the interaction among these factors in the system using a software package, ithink. This model is used to estimate waste segregation as this is important in the hospital waste management system to minimize risk to public health. Real data has been obtained from a case study of the city of Nablus, Palestine to validate the model. The model exhibits wastes generated from three types of hospitals (private, charitable, and government) by considering the number of both inpatients and outpatients depending on the population of the city under study. The model also offers the facility to compare the total waste generated among these different types of hospitals and anticipate and predict the future generated waste both infectious and non-infectious and the treatment cost incurred.

  11. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  12. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6). WESF is an interim status other storage-miscellaneous storage unit. WESF stores mixed waste consisting of radioactive cesium and strontium salts. WESF is located in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  13. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randklev, E.H.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented.

  15. [Hyponatremia in acute intracranial disorders: cerebral salt wasting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betjes, M G; Koopmans, R P

    2000-03-18

    Hyponatraemia is a frequent finding in the course of an acute intracranial disease, especially after a subarachnoid haemorrhage. The fall in plasma sodium concentration is usually mild and not below 124 mmol/l but may reach dangerously low levels with serious neurological complications. In the early 1950s the cause of the hyponatraemia was believed to be primarily excessive natriuresis and therefore named 'cerebral salt wasting'. After the description of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) this was favoured as the most likely explanation. Only in recent years has it become evident that many hyponatraemic patients with acute brain disease are actually hypovolaemic. This is compatible with the original diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting. The increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides are likely to mediate the increased natriuresis. Cerebral salt wasting can be treated with a simple regimen of water and salt suppletion. If needed a mineralocorticoid like fludrocortisone can be given to increase renal tubular sodium reabsorption.

  16. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.C.; Engelen, K. van; Timmermans, J.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Mulder, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome.

  17. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.C.; Engelen, K. van; Timmermans, J.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Mulder, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome. Althou

  18. Klinefelter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Peynirci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex chromosome disorder in males. Variation in clinical presentation and insufficient awareness of this syndrome among clinicians lead to fifty percent of patients remain undetected. Typical clinical features of Klinefelter syndrome are various degrees of hypogonadal symptoms, atrophic testes and gynaecomastia. However, these typical clinical symptoms may not be present in all patients. Even if serum testosterone levels are not markedly low, elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone is a considerable laboratory finding. Definitive diagnosis is made by karyotype analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. It must be kept in mind that this analysis may be normal in rare conditions. Early recognition of patients during puberty and handling them as soon as possible is important. Testosterone replacement therapy results in increased muscle mass, bone mineral density and libido. The patient’s mood and self-esteem improve significantly. In general, patients with Klinefelter syndrome are accepted as infertile, however, assisted reproductive techniques may provide fertilization. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 63-7

  19. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine M; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    /or swelling in the throat or neck, as well as respiratory symptoms. Laboratory findings show elevated infectious parameters and radiological findings show thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and emboli in the lungs or other organs. The syndrome is often associated with an infection with Fusobacterium...

  20. Dumping Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach move to your small intestine in an uncontrolled, abnormally fast manner. This is most often related to changes in your stomach associated with surgery. Dumping syndrome can occur after any stomach operation or removal of the esophagus (esophagectomy). Gastric bypass surgery for ...

  1. Brugada Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to look at your heart's electrical activity (electrophysiology study), you'll need to fast for eight to 12 hours before your test. Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to Brugada syndrome. Write down key personal information, especially any family ...

  2. Bloom syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Harleen; Chacon, Anna H; Choudhary, Sonal; McLeod, Michael P; Meshkov, Lauren; Nouri, Keyvan; Izakovic, Jan

    2014-07-01

    Bloom Syndrome (BS, MIM #210900) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the BLM gene, which codes for the DNA repair enzyme RecQL3 helicase. Without proper DNA repair mechanisms, abnormal DNA exchange takes place between sister chromatids and results in genetic instability that may lead to cancer, especially lymphoma and acute myelogenous leukemia, lower and upper gastrointestinal tract neoplasias, cutaneous tumors, and neoplasias in the genitalia and urinary tract. BS patients are usually of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and exhibit narrow facial features, elongated limbs, and several dermatologic complications including photosensitivity, poikiloderma, and telangiectatic erythema. The most concerning manifestation of BS is multiple malignancies, which require frequent screenings and strict vigilance by the physician. Therefore, distinguishing between BS and other dermatologic syndromes of similar presentation such as Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome, Erythropoietic Protoporphyria, and Cockayne Syndrome is paramount to disease management and to prolonging life. BS can be diagnosed through a variety of DNA sequencing methods, and genetic testing is available for high-risk populations. This review consolidates several sources on BS sequelae and aims to suggest the importance of differentiating BS from other dermatologic conditions. This paper also elucidates the recently discovered BRAFT and FANCM protein complexes that link BS and Fanconi anemia.

  3. Gitelman syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Levtchenko, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), also referred to as familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia, is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with significant hypomagnesemia and low urinary calcium excretion. The prevalence is estimated at approximately 1:40,000 and accordingly, the prevalence

  4. Chylomicronemia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood. The disorder is passed down through families. Causes Chylomicronemia syndrome can occur due to a rare genetic disorder in which a protein (enzyme) called lipoprotein lipase (LpL) is broken or missing. LpL is normally found in fat and muscle. ...

  5. Gitelman syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Levtchenko, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), also referred to as familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia, is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with significant hypomagnesemia and low urinary calcium excretion. The prevalence is estimated at approximately 1:40,000 and accordingly, the prevalence

  6. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debi Basanti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is a variable and complex disorder characterized by multifocal overgrowths affecting any tissue or structure of the body. We present a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with an epidermal nevus, port-wine stain, macrodactyly with gigantism of the feet, lymphohemagiomas and multiple lipomas.

  7. [Waardenburg's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimñenez, F; Carbonell, R; Pérez, F; Lozano, I

    1994-01-01

    Reporting one case of this condition type-2 with heterochromia iridis and cochlear deafness. The AA. review the syndrome's components and it nomenclature as well. They discuss about the convenience of including this deviation in the chapter of "diseases of the embryonic neural crest". The specific place of the gene responsibly in the chromosome-2 and the possibilities of genetic counselling are considered.

  8. Waardenburg's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudian, D P; Jayaraman, M; Janaki, V R; Yesudian, P

    1995-01-01

    Three children in a family of five presented with heterochromia iridis, lateral displacement of inner canthi and varying degrees of sensorineural deafness. All the 3 showed iris atrophy. The father of the children had only heterochromia iridis. A diagnosis of Waardenburg's syndrome Type I was made in the children with the father probably representing a forme fruste of the condition.

  9. Caplan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CT scan of the chest Joint x-rays Pulmonary function tests Rheumatoid factor test and other blood tests Treatment There is no specific treatment for Caplan syndrome, other than treating any lung and joint disease. ... MD, MHS, Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, ...

  10. Metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Shaeffer

    2004-01-01

    @@ The emergence of cardiac disease as the number one world-wide cause of death justifies efforts to identify individuals at higher risk for preventive therapy. The metabolic syndrome, originally described by Reaven, 1 has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. 2 Type Ⅱ diabetes is also a frequent sequela. 3

  11. Sotos Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 663-4637) Sotos Syndrome Support Association P.O. Box 4626 Wheaton IL Wheaton, IL 60189 info@sotossyndrome.org http://www.sotossyndrome.org/ Tel: 888-246-7772 The Arc of the United States 1825 K Street, NW ...

  12. Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.…

  13. Reifenstein syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androgens are most important during early development in the womb. People with Reifenstein syndrome can have a normal lifespan and be totally healthy, but they may have difficulty conceiving a child. In the most severe cases, boys with outer female genitals ...

  14. Nodding Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Scott Dowell, a CDC director, discusses the rare illness, nodding syndrome, in children in Africa.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/27/2014.

  15. [SAPHO syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, F; Kiltz, U; Baraliakos, X; Braun, J

    2014-10-01

    The SAPHO syndrome, an acronym for synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis, is a rare disease which affects bones, joints and the skin. The main osteoarticular features are hyperostosis and osteitis. Osteoarticular symptoms predominantly occur on the anterior chest wall but the spine and the peripheral skeleton can also be involved. The most important skin affections are palmoplantar pustulosis and severe acne. The etiology of this syndrome remains unclear but infectious, immunological and genetic factors are involved. The diagnostic features of SAPHO syndrome are clinical and radiological. The most important diagnostic procedure is Tc-99 m bone scintigraphy but conventional x-rays as well as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also contribute to the final diagnosis. Bone histology and positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) may help to differentiate SAPHO syndrome from malignancies and infectious osteomyelitis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the cornerstone of treatment. The results obtained using antibiotics and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as sulfasalazine and methotrexate are inconsistent. Bisphosphonates and anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs have shown promising results in small studies but further research is still necessary.

  16. Circoviral infections in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vojin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome (PDNS. Current investigations indicate that there is a causal connection between these two syndromes. These two new diseases, which have recently spread all over the world, cause serious losses, great concern and confusion, especially when they occur simultaneously or in a sequence in the same herd, or in parallel with other pathogenes, primarily with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and the porcine parvovirus (PPV. PMWS was first described in Canada in 1991. It most often affect pigs aged 5-12 weeks. The main clinical expression, depending on the stage of progression is diarrhea, delayed development or depressed growth, stuntedness, dyspnea ictherus, eyelid swelling, and lymphadenopathy. More rarely, there are neurological symptoms. Prominent suppression of the immune system is the main characteristic of PMWS, and a wave of secondary bacterial infection is also observed. PDNS is a new disease of economic importance, which mostly affects older swine, from 5 weeks to 5 months of age. The most prominent clinical symptoms in seriously ill piglets is extensive dermatitis, mostly on the chest, abdomen, haunches and forelegs, with the appearance of purple-red swellings of different shape and size. The swine are depressive febrile, anorectic, all of which leads to stunted growth. They are inactive. Mortality is often about 15%. PDNS is a differentially diagnostically

  17. Compartment syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aly Saber

    2014-01-01

    Body compartments bound by fascia and limited by bony backgrounds are found in the extremities, buttocks, abdomen and thoracic cavity; conditions that cause intracompartmental swelling and hypertension can lead to ischemia and limb loss.Although compartment syndromes are described in all body regions from head to toe, the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are best characterized for three key body regions: the first is extremity, the second is abdominal, and the third is thoracic compartment syndromes.Thoracic compartment syndrome usually occurs as a result of pathological accumulation of air, fluid or blood in the mediastinum and has traditionally been described in trauma.As the intracranial contents are confined within a rigid bony cage, any increase in volume within thiscompartment as a result of brain oedema or an expanding traumatic intracranial haematoma, leads to a reciprocal decrease in the volume of cerebrospinal fluid and intracranial venous blood volume.Limb compartment syndromes may present either in acute or chronic clinical forms.Intra-abdominal pressure can be measured by direct or indirect methods.While the direct methods are quite accurate, theyare impractical and not feasible for routine practice.Indirect measurement is done through inferior vena cava, gastric, rectal and urinary bladder.Indirect measurement through urinary bladder is the simplest and is considered the method of choice for intra-abdominal pressure measurement.The management of patients with intra-abdominal hypertension is based on four important principles: the first is related to the specific procedures aiming at lowering intra-abdominal pressure and the consequences of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome; the second is for general support and medical management of the critically ill patient; while the third is surgical decompression and the fourth is optimization after surgical decompression.

  18. Liquid secondary waste: Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-31

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, including Direct Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) vitrification, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. The powdered salt waste form produced by the ETF will be replaced by a stabilized solidified waste form for disposal in Hanford’s Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the IDF. Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF. In 2015, three Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste simulants were developed based on existing and projected waste streams. Using these waste simulants, fourteen mixes of Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste were prepared and tested varying the waste simulant, the water-to-dry materials ratio, and the dry materials blend composition.1 In FY16, testing was performed using a simulant of the EMF process condensate blended with the caustic scrubber—from the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter—, processed through the ETF. The initial EMF-16 simulant will be based on modeling efforts performed to determine the mass balance of the ETF for the DFLAW.2 The compressive strength of all of the mixes exceeded the target of 3.4 MPa (500 psi) to meet the requirements identified as potential IDF Waste Acceptance Criteria in Table 1 of the Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan.3 The hydraulic properties of the waste forms tested (hydraulic conductivity

  19. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  20. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  1. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  2. Down Syndrome: Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leading human rights organization for all individuals with Down syndrome. National Down Syndrome Society 8 E 41st Street, 8th Floor New ... New York 10017 800-221-4602 [email protected] Down Syndrome What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome Facts Myths & ...

  3. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Read in Chinese What causes Down syndrome? Down syndrome is caused by a duplication of all ... Where can I find more information regarding Down Syndrome? National Down Syndrome Society VISIT SITE » Downs Syndrome Association VISIT ...

  4. Sexuality and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4602 [email protected] Down Syndrome What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome Facts Myths & Truths Preferred Language Guide Q& ... Shop NDSS Home » Resources » Wellness » Sexuality » Sexuality & Down Syndrome Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual's self-esteem, ...

  5. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  6. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  7. Korean Waste Management Law and Waste Disposal Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Soil Treatment Tanks) 69 Article 8. (Interim Measures on Report of Recycler or Reuser of Industrial Waste) 69 Article 9. (Interim Measures on Permit...recycling and reuse (hereinafter referred to as a "recycler and reuser of industrial waste"), pursuant to Article 23.2. of the Law, shall submit a "Filing... reuser of industrial waste, pursuant to Article 45.2., shall submit a "Modification of Recycle or Reuse of Industrial Waste" (Form No. 17), to the

  8. Local waste management constraints and waste administrators in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shan Shan; Lo, Carlos W H

    2008-01-01

    Local level waste authorities and their officials directly interact and serve the people on behalf of higher governments. Given the influential positions they have on the quality of life of the citizens, these local waste authorities deserve more attention from researchers. This study throws light on the factors related to local waste management and administrators that have caused waste management failures in three mainland Chinese cities. Based on a survey conducted in 2002-2003, it was found that waste administrators in these cities are not professionally competent in their jobs and they are also not confident in using economic instruments to address waste management issues in their cities. These local waste authorities are generally under-funded, and funding politics has to some extent eroded the incentives to carry out the instructions of higher waste authorities. The community at large also does not respect local waste management work. The residents frequently litter, are unobservant of waste collection times and are unwilling to pay for waste collection service. All of these are handicapping environmentally sound waste management.

  9. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  10. Tomography finds waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT), a remote sensing method, is being developed for hazardous waste site characterization by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., with the support of the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.More accurate assessment of hazardous sites translates into more efficient and less costly cleanup efforts by defining parameters such as waste site boundaries, geophysical site characteristics, buried container leakage, and hazardous material migration. Remote sensing devices eliminate the potential for environmental damage, safety hazards, or high costs associated with intrusive site characterization techniques.

  11. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar......-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. RESULTS: Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins...

  12. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  13. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  14. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  15. UN Data: Environment Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  16. UN Data- Environmental Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  17. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  18. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-27

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound, cost effective, permanent disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste left from production of nuclear weapons.

  20. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  1. Otodental syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch-Zupan Agnès

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The otodental syndrome also named otodental dysplasia, is characterised by a striking dental phenotype known as globodontia, associated with sensorineural high frequency hearing loss and eye coloboma. Globodontia occurs in both primary and permanent dentition, affecting canine and molar teeth (i.e. enlarged bulbous malformed posterior teeth with almost no discernable cusps or grooves. The condition appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant mode, although sporadic cases have been reported. It is a rare disease, a few families have been described in the literature. In the British family, the locus for oculo-oto-dental syndrome was mapped to 20q13.1 within a 12-cM critical chromosomal region. Dental management is complex, interdisciplinary and will include regular follow up, scheduled teeth extraction and orthodontic treatment. Hearing checks and, if necessary, hearing aids are mandatory, as well as eye examination and ad hoc treatment if necessary.

  2. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine M; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and...... necrophorum. We found a total of 137 cases of LS, of which 47 were infected with F. necrophorum and others with Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Complications of this rare but severe disease included osteomyelitis, meningitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mortality was extremely high in the pre......-antibiotic era but has diminished with the advent of antibiotics. This review showed a mortality rate of only 2% of which none of the cases involved fusobacteria. Duration of treatment varied; a 4-6-week course of carbapenem or piperacillin/tazobactam in combination with metronidazole was optimum. Other...

  3. Dravet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incorpora Gemma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Dravet syndrome" (DS previously named severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI, or epilepsy with polymorphic seizures, is a rare disorder characterized by an early, severe, generalized, epileptic encephalopathy. DS is characterized by febrile and afebrile seizures beginning in the 1st year of life followed by different types of seizures (either focal or generalized, which are typically resistant to antiepileptic drugs. A developmental delay from the 2nd to 3rd year of life becomes evident, together with motor disturbances and personality disorders. Beside the classic syndrome, there are milder cases which have been called severe myoclonic epilepsy borderline (SMEB. DS is caused by a mutation in the neuronal sodium channel gene, SCN1A , that is also mutated in generalized epilepsy with FS+ (GEFS+.

  4. Antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Ricard

    2017-03-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by the development of venous and/or arterial thromboses, often multiple, and pregnancy morbidity (mainly, recurrent fetal losses), in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Some estimates indicate that the incidence of the APS is around 5 new cases per 100,000 persons per year and the prevalence around 40-50 cases per 100,000 persons. The aPL are positive in approximately 13% of patients with stroke, 11% with myocardial infarction, 9.5% of patients with deep vein thrombosis and 6% of patients with pregnancy morbidity. Currently, there is consensus in treating APS patients with thrombosis with long-term oral anticoagulation and to prevent obstetric manifestations with the use of aspirin and heparin. This review summarizes the main knowledge on the clinical and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parinaud's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, D; Ongerboer de Visser, B W; Stefanko, S Z

    1983-02-01

    Five cases of a tumour in the quadrigeminal area have been described, 4 of which could be verified by autopsy. In 2 cases with a metastasis in the tegmentum of the mesencephalon, a Parinaud syndrome was present. In 2 other cases, however, with extensive destruction of the quadrigeminal plate and of the posterior commissure this syndrome was not present. In the 5th case, with a big vascular tumour of the pineal area, disturbances of eye movements and pupils were also lacking. From these observations we may conclude that (1) destruction of the quadrigeminal plate has no influence upon vertical eye movements. (2) destruction of the posterior commissure, in combination with the quadrigeminal plate, is not always followed by disturbances of vertical eye movements. In man it is still not clear which structures are responsible for the performance of vertical eye movements.

  6. Apert syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premalatha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apert syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare developmental malformation characterized by craniosynostosis, mid-face hypoplasia, symmetrical syndactyly of hands and feet. The prodromal characteristics for the typical cranio-facial appearance are early craniosynostosis of the coronal suture, cranial base and agenesis of the sagittal suture. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of Apert syndrome with emphasis on craniofacial and oral features in an eighteen-month-old male child. The patient presented with several craniofacial deformities, including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia, flat face, hypertelorism, ocular proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures. Syndactylies with osseous fusion of the hands and feet were also observed. Intraoral findings included delayed eruption of teeth, high arched palate with pseudo cleft in the posterior one third.

  7. Paraneoplastic syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) comprise a diverse group of disorders that are associated with cancer but unrelated to the size, location, metastases, or physiologic activities of the mature tissue of origin. They are remote effects of tumors that may appear as signs, symptoms, or syndromes which can mimic other disease conditions encountered in veterinary medicine. Recognition of PNS is valuable for several reasons: the observed abnormalities may represent tumor cell markers and facilitate early diagnosis of the tumor; they may allow assessment of premalignant states; they may aid in the search metastases; they may help quantify and monitor response to therapy; and, they may provide insight into the study of malignant transformation and oncogene expression. This review will concentrate on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of some of the common PNS encountered in veterinary medicine.

  8. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of…

  9. Griscelli syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial albinism with immunodeficiency is a rare and fatal immunologic disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution and variable cellular immunodeficiency. It was initially described in 1978. Primary abnormalities included silvery grayish sheen to the hair, large pigment agglomerations in hair shafts and an abundance of mature melanosomes in melanocytes, with reduced pigmentation of adjacent keratinocytes. We describe a child with Griscelli syndrome who presented with hepatitis, pancytopenia and silvery hair. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic skin and hair examination.

  10. Hepatorenal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharon Turban; Paul J Thuluvath; Mohamed G Atta

    2007-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a "functional" and reversible form of renal failure that occurs in patients with advanced chronic liver disease. The distinctive hallmark feature of HRS is the intense renal vasoconstriction caused by interactions between systemic and portal hemodynamics. This results in activation of vasoconstrictors and suppression of vasodilators in the renal circulation. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, as well as current and emerging therapies of HRS are discussed in this review.

  11. Postconcussional Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Necla Keskin; Lut Tamam

    2013-01-01

    Postconcussional syndrome is characterized by somatic, cognitive and psychiatric (emotional, behavioral) symptoms that occurs after mild traumatic brain injury. It has been known that these symptoms recover fully within 3-6 months almost in 90% of patients. Although its etiology is still controversial, biological, psychological and social factors may account for the development and continuation of the symptoms. Diagnosis is based on the subjective complaints. To find out an objective method f...

  12. Fraser syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay A

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Fraser Syndrome is a rare disorder with only a few cases having been described in Indian literature. We report here a case of a patient aged 16 yr present with primary amenorrhea which is a very unusual mode of presentation. Multiple associated anomalies were present including those of eyelids, eyebrow, face, fingers and genitalia. Chromosome analysis revealed a normal female karyotype. Pituitary gonadotropins were within normal range.

  13. [Fibromyalgia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Hernández, A; Rodríguez Lozano, C; Ojeda Bruno, S

    1992-02-01

    The Fibromialgia Syndrome (FS) is a common clinical entity which may produce symtoms and signs related to multiple fields of Medicine. Typical clinical characteristics of FS include extensive pain, presence of sensitive points during exploration, morning stiffness, asthenia and non-refresing sleep. Frequently, associated rheumatologic diseases are observed, as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis and vertebral disorders. In FS, complementary tests are usually normal. The most widely accepted hypothesis suggests that this is a disorder affecting modulation of pain sensitivity.

  14. Gerstmann's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumar, S.; Ferguson, G C

    1996-01-01

    Although Gerstmann's syndrome has been well documented since it was characterised in the latter half of last century, there has not been much literature on it in the last few years. We present a classical case in a patient who was admitted into hospital for an unrelated problem. We conclude that clinical examination still has a valuable role in neurology, despite the availability of excellent imaging techniques.

  15. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  16. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  17. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  18. Industrial wastes for firing Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanXuanye; LuGuansheng; Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the feasibility on utilizing high-calcium industrial wastes in firing brick. In China, industrial wastes with over 10% calcium oxide is not regarded as raw materials for producing brick, so it is limited to use industrial wastes. The paper gives out the ideas that high-calcium industrial wastes can be used to produce fired brick by good raw material preparation process and proper methods.

  19. Radioactive waste management in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer Josef

    2004-01-01

    At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf, there are several facilities in stalled for treatment of waste of low and intermediate radioactivity level (radwaste). A separate company within Centers, Nuclear Engineering Seibersdorf, has been formed recently, acting as a centralized facility for treatment, conditioning and storing of such waste within the country. The relevant treatment technology is applied depending on the waste category. In total about 6900 m3 of solid waste of low and inte...

  20. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is an autoimmune disease with recurrent thromboses and pregnancy complications (90% are female patients that can be primary and secondary (with concomitant autoimmune disease. Antiphospholipid antibodies are prothrombotic but also act directly with brain tissue. One clinical and one laboratory criterion is necessary for the diagnosis of APS. Positive serological tests have to be confirmed after at least 12 weeks. Clinical picture consists of thromboses in many organs and spontaneous miscarriages, sometimes thrombocytopaenia and haemolytic anaemia, but neurological cases are the most frequent: headaches, stroke, encephalopathy, seizures, visual disturbances, Sneddon syndrome, dementia, vertigo, chorea, balism, transitory global amnesia, psychosis, transversal myelopathy and Guillain-Barre syndrome. About 50% of strokes below 50 years of age are caused by APS. The first line of therapy in stroke is anticoagulation: intravenous heparin or low-weight heparins. In chronic treatment, oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy are used, warfarin and aspirin, mostly for life. In resistant cases, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis are necessary. Prognosis is good in most patients but some are treatment-resistant with recurrent thrombotic events and eventually death.

  1. Kartagener syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedaa Skeik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nedaa Skeik1–3, Fadi I Jabr41Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Dartmouth Medical School, Hannover, NH, USA; 3New York Medical College, New York, NY, USA; 4Horizon Medical Center, Hospital Medicine, Dickson, TN, USAAbstract: Kartagener syndrome is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes a defect in the action of the cilia lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tube. Patients usually present with chronic recurrent rhinosinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, and bronchiectasis caused by pseudomonal infection. Situs inversus can be seen in about 50% of cases. Diagnosis can be made by tests to prove impaired cilia function, biopsy, and genetic studies. Treatment is supportive. In severe cases, the prognosis can be fatal if bilateral lung transplantation is delayed. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with chronic recurrent upper respiratory infections, pseudomonal pneumonia, and chronic bronchiectasis who presented with acute respiratory failure. She was diagnosed with Kartagener syndrome based on her clinical presentation and genetic studies. She expired on ventilator with refractory respiratory and multiorgan failure.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, immotile cilia syndrome, situs inversus

  2. Crush syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lovallo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The first detailed cases of crush syndrome were described in 1941 in London after victims trapped beneath bombed buildings presented with swollen limbs, hypovolemic shock, dark urine, renal failure, and ultimately perished. The majority of the data and studies on this topic still draw from large databases of earthquake victims. However, in Africa, a continent with little seismic activity, the majority of crush syndrome cases are instead victims of severe beatings rather than earthquake casualties, and clinical suspicion by emergency personnel must be high in this patient group presenting with oliguria or pigmenturia. Damaged skeletal muscle fibres and cell membranes lead to an inflammatory cascade resulting in fluid sequestration in the injured extremity, hypotension, hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia and their complications, and renal injury from multiple sources. Elevations in the serum creatinine, creatine kinase (CK, and potassium levels are frequent findings in these patients, and can help guide critical steps in management. Fluid resuscitation should begin prior to extrication of trapped victims or as early as possible, as this basic intervention has been shown to in large part prevent progression of renal injury to requiring haemodialysis. Alkalinization of the urine and use of mannitol for forced diuresis are recommended therapies under specific circumstances and are supported by studies done in animal models, but have not been shown to change clinical outcomes in human crush victims. In the past 70 years the crush syndrome and its management have been studied more thoroughly, however clinical practice guidelines continue to evolve.

  3. Asperger Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Asperger Syndrome KidsHealth > For Parents > Asperger Syndrome Print A ... the medical community still use the term. About Asperger Syndrome The disorder is named after Hans Asperger, ...

  4. Genetic obesity syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Beales, Philip L

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous reports of multi-system genetic disorders with obesity. Many have a characteristic presentation and several, an overlapping phenotype indicating the likelihood of a shared common underlying mechanism or pathway. By understanding the genetic causes and functional perturbations of such syndromes we stand to gain tremendous insight into obesogenic pathways. In this review we focus particularly on Bardet-Biedl syndrome, whose molecular genetics and cell biology has been elucidated recently, and Prader-Willi syndrome, the commonest obesity syndrome due to loss of imprinted genes on 15q11-13. We also discuss highlights of other genetic obesity syndromes including Alstrom syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (pseudohypoparathyroidism), Carpenter syndrome, MOMO syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, cases with deletions of 6q16, 1p36, 2q37 and 9q34, maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14, fragile X syndrome and Börjeson-Forssman-Lehman syndrome.

  5. Anesthesia & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Care » Associated Conditions » Anesthesia & Down Syndrome Anesthesia & Down Syndrome Complications of anesthesia (sedation during surgery) occur in ... histories are complicated. Why Would an Individual With Down Syndrome Need A nesthesia? 40-60% of infants born ...

  6. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Conditions » Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental care is important for everybody, but people ... is Different About the Teeth of People With Down Syndrome? Delayed Eruption The teeth of people with Down ...

  7. Heart and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Conditions » The Heart & Down Syndrome The Heart & Down Syndrome Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are common in ... the Most Common Heart Defects in Children With Down Syndrome? The most common defects are Atrioventricular Septal Defect ( ...

  8. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Care » Associated Conditions » ADHD & Down Syndrome ADHD & Down Syndrome Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is a ... age. How Common Is ADD in Children With Down Syndrome? The frequency of ADHD in children with Down ...

  9. What Causes Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Down Syndrome Registry​ . Chromosomal Changes That Can Cause Down Syndrome Research shows that three types of chromosomal changes ...

  10. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs between days ...

  11. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  12. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  15. Biomedical waste in Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S.

    2000-07-01

    In its broadest sense, medical waste applies to solid or liquid waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment of immunization of human beings or animals in research, in the production or testing of biological material. Of all the wastes produced by hospitals, the World Health Organization estimated that 10 per cent of it is infectious and 5 per cent consists of hazardous chemicals such as methylchloride and formaldehyde. Of course, one of the major concerns is the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B or C viruses. If the medical waste is not properly managed, a high degree of pollution and public health risks exists, particularly if the medical waste is mixed with municipal solid waste and dumped in uncontrolled areas. In New Delhi, the daily medical waste generated is 60 metric tons. In 1989, the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi published guidelines for the management of Solid Wastes-Hospitals. Some rules governing the classification of biomedical waste were published in 1997-98 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Recommendations by the author included the segregation of hospital wastes, the set up of common medical waste treatment facilities as well as the training of Municipality workers in the safe handling of medical wastes. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  17. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  18. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    content), 2) low ash and xenobiotic content, 3) high gas yield, 4) volume (produced), 5) dependable distribution and 6) low competition with other end-user technologies. MSW is a complex substrate comprising both degradable and non-degradable material being metal, plastic, glass, building waste etc...... simulating Danish household waste in composition and weight, 2) evaluating the performance of best enzyme candidates on original waste with and without additional additives, 3) measuring the biogas potential of liquefied waste and comparing the results with the biogas potential of untreated waste...

  19. Wasted: understanding the economic and social impact of food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Chrobog, Christian Karim

    2014-01-01

    Over one-third of global food production goes to waste while over 850million people are fighting chronic hunger. The United States is the world’s largest food waster. One third of America’s food with an economic value of US$161 billion is wasted and less than 7% is recycled. American food waste ends up in landfills creating powerful methane gas emissions. South Korea, on the other hand, has implemented the world’s strictest food waste laws, and today diverts 93% of wasted food away from landf...

  20. The value of waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Michel van Dartel; dr. Anne Nigten

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that a first step in finding a sustainable solution for the pressing global issue of ‘waste’, is to consider waste a value attribution rather than a material condition. Doing so means a shift in focus from finding more efficient ways to ‘clean up the mess’ to changing the way in

  1. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  2. Waste free restaurant : reststromen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppink, M.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Timmermans, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Het concept “Waste Free Restaurant”, is geïnspireerd op de ‘natuurlijke cyclus’ en wordt uitgebouwd tot een business concept. Het ontwikkelconcept gaat uit van voorkomen van waardevermindering en verspilling van voedsel en het sluiten van kringlopen. Het verbeeldt waarom het noodzakelijk is onze

  3. Waste free restaurant : reststromen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppink, M.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Timmermans, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Het concept “Waste Free Restaurant”, is geïnspireerd op de ‘natuurlijke cyclus’ en wordt uitgebouwd tot een business concept. Het ontwikkelconcept gaat uit van voorkomen van waardevermindering en verspilling van voedsel en het sluiten van kringlopen. Het verbeeldt waarom het noodzakelijk is onze rel

  4. Fully electric waste collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region!   Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...

  5. Irrigation Without Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1975-01-01

    A new means of irrigation, called the drip or trickle system, has been proven more efficient and less wasteful than the current system of flood irrigation. As a result of this drip system, fertilizer-use efficiency is improved and crop yield, though never decreased, is sometimes increased in some crops. (MA)

  6. Inherited ichthyosis: Syndromic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Kozo

    2016-03-01

    Among diseases that cause ichthyosis as one of the symptoms, there are some diseases that induce abnormalities in organs other than the skin. Of these, diseases with characteristic signs are regarded as syndromes. Although these syndromes are very rare, Netherton syndrome, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome, ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome, and Refsum syndrome have been described in texts as representative ones. It is important to know the molecular genetics and pathomechanisms in order to establish an effective therapy and beneficial genetic counseling including a prenatal diagnosis.

  7. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pharyngitis, Adenitis Syndrome (Juvenile) Polymyalgia Rheumatica Psoriatic Arthritis Raynaud's Phenomenon Reactive Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Sjogren's Syndrome Spinal Stenosis Spondyloarthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Juvenile) Takayasu's ...

  8. Flail arm-like syndrome associated with HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years′ duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ′flail arm-like syndrome.′ The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen.

  9. Materials in Nuclear Waste Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2014-03-01

    Commercial nuclear energy has been used for over 6 decades; however, to date, none of the 30+ countries with nuclear power has opened a repository for high-level waste (HLW). All countries with nuclear waste plan to dispose of it in metallic containers located in underground geologically stable repositories. Some countries also have liquid nuclear waste that needs to be reduced and vitrified before disposition. The five articles included in this topic offer a cross section of the importance of alloy selection to handle nuclear waste at the different stages of waste processing and disposal.

  10. Myocardial stereology in captive Callithrix kuhlii (Callitrichidae, Primates: healthy animals versus animals affected by wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS Estereologia do músculo cardíaco em Callitrhix kuhlii cativos (Primatas, Callithrichidae: animais sadios versus animais afetados pela síndrome do emagrecimento progressivo (SEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita A. Pissinatti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study comprised 12 hearts of Wied´s black-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix kuhlii (Coimbra-Filho 1985, 6 with Wasting Marmoset Syndrome (WMS and 6 non-affected. Biometry was performed after death. After necropsy, the hearts were weighed, dissected, fixed in 10% formalin solution (pH 7.2, and processed for optical microscopy at 5µm sections stained with Haematoxylin-Eosin. Quantitative analysis was performed by stereological techniques. The statistical differences between the biometrical and stereological parameters were assessed by the Mann-Whitney test. The morphometric results showed that WMS causes a significant reduction in body and cardiac weights, and also in the volume density of vessels in those animals. Further studies are necessary to understand some of the results shown here.Neste estudo, foram utilizados corações de 12 Sagui-de-Wied, Callitrhix kuhlii (Coimbra-Filho 1985, sendo 6 animais afetados pela SEP e 6 animais normais. Após a morte foi realizada a biometria seguida de necropsia. Os corações foram fixados em formol tamponado a 10%, pesados e dissecados, sendo processados através de técnicas histológicas de rotina para microscopia óptica em cortes de 5µm corados por Hematoxilina-Eosina. As análises quantitativas foram feitas com o uso de técnicas estereológicas. As diferenças estatísticas entre os parâmetros biométricos e estereológicos foram avaliadas usando o test Mann-Whitney. Os resultados encontrados através da morfometria mostraram que a SEP causa uma redução significante do peso tanto corporal quanto do músculo cardíaco, e também uma redução no volume dos vasos nestes animais. Novos estudos são necessários para entender alguns dos resultados mostrados aqui.

  11. 急性重型颅脑损伤后脑性盐耗综合征49例临床分析%Clinical analysis of cerebral salt wasting syndrome secondary to severe traumatic brain injury (report of 49 cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少兵; 谭一虎; 郝志鹏; 刘红朝; 李俊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) secondary to severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Methods The clinical data of 49 patients with CSWS secondary to STBI were analyzed retrospectively, including clinical manifestations laboratory findings and therapeutic method. Results In all the patients, the serum level of the sodium was less than 130 mmol/L, the urine sodium level in 24 h urine was more than 80 mmol/L, the plasma osmolality was less than 270 mos/L, and the serum level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or BNP precursor increased in 36 patients before the treatment. After the treatment, the serum level of the sodium returned to normal in 46 patients, 1 patient died of hyponatremia due to abandoning treatment, and 2 patients died of the postoperative pulmonary infection. Conclusions The diagnosis of CSWS may be definitely made in the patients with STBI when they have hyponatremia, high level of urine sodium, and low blood volume, and supplying the fluid and sodium showed good curative effect on the patients. Timely monitoring the serum sodium and supplying the sodium and fluid are safe and effective treatment of patients with CSWS secondary to STBI.%目的 探讨急性重型颅脑损伤后脑性盐耗综合征(CSWS)的临床特点、诊断和治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析49例急性重型颅脑损伤后CSWS患者的临床资料.结果 所有患者血清钠均低于130mmol/L,24 h尿钠均大于80 mmol/L,血浆渗透压小于270 mos/L;36例患者血脑钠肽或脑钠肽前体增高.治疗6~22 d后,46例患者血钠恢复正常,1例由于放弃治疗而死于低钠血症,2例死于肺部感染.结论 低血钠、高尿钠、低血容量、对补充血容量和补钠治疗有效是CSWS的临床特点及诊断依据;及时监测血钠水平并予补钠、补液治疗安全有效.

  12. Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjun; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyian; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhang, Mingxin; Zang, Hongbin; Hu, Jiukun

    2013-01-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are resource-rich but hazardous, demanding innovative strategies for post-consumer collection, recycling, and mining for economically precious constituents. A novel technology for disassembling electronic components from WPCBs is proposed, using hot air to melt solders and to separate the components and base boards. An automatic heated-air disassembling equipment was designed to operate at a heating source temperature at a maximum of 260 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa. A total of 13 individual WPCBs were subjected to disassembling tests at different preheat temperatures in increments of 20 °C between 80 and 160 °C, heating source temperatures ranging from 220 to 300 °C in increments of 20 °C, and incubation periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. For each experimental treatment, the disassembly efficiency was calculated as the ratio of electronic components released from the board to the total number of its original components. The optimal preheat temperature, heating source temperature, and incubation period to disassemble intact components were 120 °C, 260 °C, and 2 min, respectively. The disassembly rate of small surface mount components (side length ≤ 3 mm) was 40-50% lower than that of other surface mount components and pin through hole components. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to electronic-waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, promising, and green method for both electronic component recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization.

  13. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea of co-processing them in integration is expected to gain more benefit. The economies of scale and the synergy of co-processing these wastes results in higher quality and higher yield of the end products. In this study, we use cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the integrated management scenario of collecting the three wastes and converting them to energy. We report the total heat of combustion of pyrolytic oil at the maximum and minimum conversion rates, and conduct a sensitivity analysis in which the parameters of an increase of the electricity cost for operating the process and increase of the feedstock transportation cost are tested. We evaluate the effects of economy of scale in the case of integrated waste management. We compare four cases of waste-to-energy conversion with the business as usual (BAU) scenario, and our results show that the integrated co-processing of waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics is the most profitable from the viewpoints of energy yield and economics. (author)

  14. Raynaud's syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, D G; Dathan, J R

    1985-01-01

    We report three cases of Raynaud's syndrome with digital ischaemic ulceration, in association with carpal tunnel syndrome. In all cases, the aetiology of the Raynaud's syndrome was probably unrelated to the nerve compression. However, symptoms were worse on the side of the median nerve lesion in two patients and worse on the side with the most severe nerve dysfunction in the third; symptoms were relieved by carpal tunnel decompression in two patients. We suggest that carpal tunnel syndrome ma...

  15. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  16. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  17. Hepatorenal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Lata

    2012-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as a functional renal failure in patients with liver disease with portal hypertension and it constitutes the climax of systemic circulatory changes associated with portal hypertension.This term refers to a precisely specified syndrome featuring in particular morphologically intact kidneys,where regulatory mechanisms have minimised glomerular filtration and maximised tubular resorption and urine concentration,which ultimately results in uraemia.The syndrome occurs almost exclusively in patients with ascites.Type 1 HRS develops as a consequence of a severe reduction of effective circulating volume due to both an extreme splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and a reduction of cardiac output.Type 2 HRS is characterised by a stable or slowly progressive renal failure so that its main clinical consequence is not acute renal failure,but refractory ascites,and its impact on prognosis is less negative.Liver transplantation is the most appropriate therapeutic method,nevertheless,only a few patients can receive it.The most suitable "bridge treatments" or treatment for patients ineligible for a liver transplant include terlipressin plus albumin.Terlipressin is at an initial dose of 0.5-1 mg every 4 h by intravenous bolus to 3 mg every 4 h in cases when there is no response.Renal function recovery can be achieved in less than 50% of patients and a considerable decrease in renal function may reoccur even in patients who have been responding to therapy over the short term.Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt plays only a marginal role in the treatment of HRS.

  18. Morvan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskery, Mark; Chhetri, Suresh K.; Dayanandan, Rejith; Gall, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old gentleman was admitted to the regional neurosciences center with encephalopathy, myokymia, and dysautonomia. Chest imaging had previously identified an incidental mass in the anterior mediastinum, consistent with a primary thymic tumor. Antivoltage-gated potassium channel (anti-VGKC) antibodies were positive (titer 1273 pmol/L) and he was hypokalemic. Electromyogram and nerve conduction studies were in keeping with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome, and an electroencephalogram was consistent with encephalopathy. A diagnosis of Morvan syndrome was made, for which he was initially treated with high-dose steroids, followed by a 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He also underwent thymectomy, followed by a postexcision flare of his symptoms requiring intensive care management. Further steroids, plasmapheresis, and IVIG achieved stabilization of his clinical condition, enabling transfer for inpatient neurorehabilitation. He was commenced on azathioprine and a prolonged oral steroid taper. A subsequent presumed incipient relapse responded well to further IVIG treatment. This case report documents a thymoma-associated presentation of anti-VGKC-positive Morvan syndrome supplemented by patient and carer narrative and video, both of which provide valuable further insights into this rare disorder. There are a limited number of publications surrounding this rare condition available in the English literature. This, combined with the heterogenous presentation, association with underlying malignancy, response to treatment, and prognosis, provides a diagnostic challenge. However, the association with anti-VGKC antibody-associated complexes and 2 recent case series have provided some scope for both accurate diagnosis and management. PMID:26740856

  19. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzovic, S.; Fiebach, B.J.O.; Magnus, L.; Sauerbrei, H.U.

    1982-11-01

    This article reports on 14 cases of a trichorhinophalangeal syndrome in five successive generations. Besides the well-known characteristics of the TRPS the following symptoms observed in this family are new: Teething was considerably delayed, intelligence was reduced, and there were skin manifestations resembling eczema. Besides, struma colli and colitis ulcerosa were also observed. Subsequent observations have to clarify whether these symptoms are a facultative part of the TRPS pattern. The constant appearance of carriers of these characteristics during five generation points to dominant heredity.

  20. Eagle Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beytholahi JM

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is characterized by an elongated styloid process and (or calcification of"nstylohyoid ligament besides clinical symptoms. The symptoms are those related to pain when"nswallowing or rotating the neck, headacke, earache, dizziness, intermittent glossitis, sensation of"nforeign body in pharynx and transient syncope. The case which is presented can be considered a very"nrare form of the disease in which complete calcification of the ligament and it's thickening has"noccured. Also there is little relationship between the severity of calcification and severity of symptoms."nA careful and thorough evaluation of each panoramic radiography is emphasized.